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Sample records for thermophotovoltaic tpv applications

  1. Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) technology development. Final report, May 15, 1995--December 1, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This program information release (PIR) summarizes work performed under Task Order Contract SF17787, Task Order 18: Thermophotovoltaic Technology Development, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The period of performance was 15 May 1995 to 1 December 1995. Under this task order, a system model for a thermophotovoltaic (MV) converter was implemented and used to compare a conceptual design for an advanced quaternary III-V cell with integral filter with results previously published for a binary GaSb cell with a freestanding filter. Model results were used to assess the merits of TPV conversion for meeting various levels of space power requirements, including low to medium power isotope applications and high-power reactor applications. A TPV cell development program was initiated to determine the feasibility of fabricating quaternary III-V cells by molecular beam epitaxy. Lastly, a conceptual design was completed for a low-cost demonstration system to test the performance of TPV converters at a multi-cell, sub-system level. The results of these efforts are reported briefly in an executive summary, then in somewhat more detail as a final briefing section in which charts have been reproduced. Additional technical detail is provided in the appendices

  2. A three-dimensional computational model of H2–air premixed combustion in non-circular micro-channels for a thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, Saad; Kurnia, Jundika C.; Shamim, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow and flame behavior in a micro-combustor are studied. • Predictive capabilities of turbulence and chemistry sub-models are evaluated. • Thermal & hydraulic performance is tested for different combustor geometries. • Excellent outer wall prediction by RSM turbulence and EDC chemistry sub-model. • Enhanced heat transfer for triangular and trapezoid combustor geometries. - Abstract: Wall temperature uniformity and enhancement in a micro combustor for thermo photovoltaic (TPV) applications have attracted considerable attention from researchers in recent years because of their direct impact on efficiency and feasibility of desired energy conversion. In this regard, numerous experimental and numerical studies in micro-combustion application have been conducted and reported. However, most previous studies have been focused on geometrical configurations limited to planar and circular channels. It is therefore of interest to investigate the impact of different channel geometries on wall temperature distribution and energy conversion efficiency. This study addresses flow and flame behavior in a micro-combustor. By utilizing the well-established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach, the effect of geometrical parameters on the flow behavior and wall temperature is examined and evaluated. In order to improve the productive capability of the computational model, several steady state Reynolds Average Numerical Simulation (RANS) turbulence models alongside with different reaction rate formulations are evaluated. The results indicate that Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) with Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) provide the best quantitative prediction. The developed model is employed to investigate the effect of inlet velocity on flame structure and outer wall temperature. Furthermore, the effect of reactor cross sections, including circular, square, rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal, on the wall temperature is also evaluated. The results show that

  3. Thermophotovoltaic systems for civilian and industrial applications in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugami, Hiroo; Sasa, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2003-01-01

    The potential market for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications has been studied for civilian and industrial sectors in Japan. Comparing the performance of gas engines or turbines, as well as the underdeveloped power generation technologies such as fuel cells or chemical batteries, we have discussed the feasible application field of TPV systems to compete with those power generators. From the point of view of applicability for TPV systems in Japan, portable generators, co-generation systems and solar power plants are selected for our system analysis. The cost and performance targets of TPV systems for co-generation are also discussed by assuming a typical daily profile of electricity and hot water demands in Japanese homes. A progress report on the recent TPV research activities is given as well as a feasibility study concerning such TPV systems in Japan. (Author)

  4. Feasibility study of a Thermo-Photo-Voltaic system for CHP application in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Michele; Ferrari, Claudio; Melino, Francesco; Peretto, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The profitability of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generator systems for a single-family dwelling is analyzed. ► Heat and electricity load profiles depending on hour of the day are considered for an entire year. ► The effect of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generator size is evaluated for different household utilities. ► Results allow to identify the conditions for the energetic and economic convenience of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic system. -- Abstract: The growing demand of energy coupled with an increasing attention to the environmental impact have forced, in the last decades, toward the study and the development of new strategies in order to reduce primary energy consumptions. The cogeneration (CHP) and the on-site generation (also known as distributed generation) could be the key strategy to achieve this goal; CHP systems allow to reduce the fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (in particular the greenhouse gases) compared to separate generation; moreover on-site-generation contributes to the reduction of the energy which is lost in electricity transmission, and increases the security in the energy supply. In this scenario the Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generation (TPV) is obtaining an increasing attention; TPV is a system to convert into electrical energy the radiation emitted from an artificial heat source (i.e. the combustion of fuel) by the use of photovoltaic cells. A domestic gas furnace based on this technology can provide the entire thermal need of an apartment and can also contributes to satisfy the electrical demand. The aim of this study is the understanding of the behavior of a TPV in CHP application in case of residential buildings, under both the energetic and economical point of view; in particular a parametrical analysis is developed and discussed varying the TPV electrical efficiency, the thermal request and the apartment typology.

  5. Photocell modelling for thermophotovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J -C; Durisch, W; Grob, B; Panitz, J -C [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Goal of the modelling described here is the extrapolation of the performance characteristics of solar photocells to TPV working conditions. The model accounts for higher flux of radiation and for the higher temperatures reached in TPV converters. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  6. Recombination Processes on Low Bandgap Antimonides for Thermophotovoltaic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saroop, Sudesh [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Recombination processes in antimonide-based (TPV) devices have been investigated using a technique, in which a Nd-YAG pulsed laser is materials for thermophotovoltaic radio-frequency (RF) photoreflectance used to excite excess carriers and the short-pulse response and photoconductivity decay are monitored with an inductively-coupled non-contacting RF probe. The system has been used to characterize surface and bulk recombination mechanisms in Sb-based materials.

  7. The Potential of Thermophotovoltaic Heat Recovery for the Glass Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, T.; Forbes, I.; Penlington, R.; Pearsall, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of heat recovery by thermophotovoltaics (TPV) from industrial high-temperature processes and uses the glass industry in the UK as an example. The work is part of a study of potential industrial applications of TPV in the UK being carried out by the Northumbria Photovoltaics Applications Centre. The paper reviews the relevant facts about TPV technology and the glass industry and identifies locations of use for TPV. These are assessed in terms of glass sector, furnace type, process temperature, impact on the existing process, power scale and development effort of TPV. Knowledge of these factors should contribute to the design of an optimum TPV system. The paper estimates possible energy savings and reductions of CO2 emissions using TPV in the glass industry.

  8. Development of a novel cascading TPV and TE power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, K.; Hayden, A.C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel cascading thermophotovoltaic (TPV) and thermoelectric (TE) power generation system is proposed and developed. ► The used heat stream is taken from the TPV and applied to the input of a TE converter in the system. ► A prototype was built and tested where GaSb TPV cells and PbSnTe-based TE converter were used. ► The TPV cells generate 123.5 We whereas the TE converter generates 306.2 We in the prototype. ► It is shown the cascading power generation is feasible in fuel-fired furnaces and can be applied to micro-CHP. -- Abstract: Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells can convert infrared radiation into electricity. They open up possibilities for silent and stand-alone power production in fuel-fired heating equipment. Similarly, thermoelectric (TE) devices convert thermal energy directly into electricity with no moving parts. However, TE devices have relatively low efficiency for electric power generation. In this study, the concept of cascading TPV and TE power generation was developed where the used heat stream is taken from the TPV and applied to the input of a TE converter. A prototype cascading TPV and TE generation system was built and tested. GaSb TPV cells and an integrated semiconductor TE converter were used in the cascading power system. The electric output characteristics of the TPV cells and the TE converter have been investigated in the power generation system at various operating conditions. Experimental results show that the cascading power generation is feasible and has the potential for certain applications.

  9. A review of recent advances in thermophotovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, T.J.; Wanlass, M.W.; Ward, J.S.; Johnson, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generation of electricity is attracting attention because of advances in materials and devices and because of a widening appreciation of the large number of applications that may be addressed using TPV-based generators. The attractions include the wide range of fuel sources and the potentially high power density outputs. The two main approaches to TPV generators are (1) broadband radiators, coupled with converters with bandgaps in the range 0.4-0.7 eV, and (2) narrow-band emitters coupled with lower-cost silicon converters. The key issues in realizing a viable TPV system are the durability, efficiency, and properties of the radiant emitter; the recuperation of sub-bandgap photons; the optimization of the converter performance; and the recuperation of waste heat.

  10. Design and Optimization of Thermophotovoltaic System Cavity with Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermophotovoltaic (TPV systems can convert radiant energy into electrical power. Here we explore the design of the TPV system cavity, which houses the emitter and the photovoltaic (PV cells. Mirrors are utilized in the cavity to modify the spatial and spectral distribution within. After discussing the basic concentric tubular design, two novel cavity configurations are put forward and parametrically studied. The investigated variables include the shape, number, and placement of the mirrors. The optimization objectives are the optimized efficiency and the extended range of application of the TPV system. Through numerical simulations, the relationship between the design parameters and the objectives are revealed. The results show that careful design of the cavity configuration can markedly enhance the performance of the TPV system.

  11. Selective emission multilayer coatings for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockeram, Brian Vern

    2004-01-27

    Multilayer coating designs have been developed to provide selective emission for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic (TPV) radiator surface. These coatings increase the surface emissivity of a molybdenum TPV radiator substrate in the wavelength range that matches the bandgap of the TPV cells to increase the power density of the TPV system. Radiator emission at wavelengths greater than the bandgap energy of the TPV cells is greatly reduced through the use of these coatings, which significantly increases the efficiency of the TPV system. The use of this coating greatly improves the performance of a TPV system, and the coating can be tailored to match the bandgap of any practical TPV system.

  12. Solid State Microchp Based On Thermophotovoltaic And Thermoelectric Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Worek, William M.; Brown, Christopher; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Butcher, Thomas; Horne, Edward

    2012-01-01

    MicroCHP involves the coproduction of both heat and electric power in (typically) residential heating systems. A range of different energy conversion technologies are currently receiving attention for this application including Stirling engines, internal combustion engines, fuel cells, and Rankine cycles with steam or organic compounds as working fluids. In this work the use of ThermoPhotoVoltaic (TPV) and ThermoElectric (TE) conversion devices either alone or in combination for power product...

  13. Fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Chubb, Donald L

    2007-01-01

    This is a text book presenting the fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic(TPV) energy conversion suitable for an upper undergraduate or first year graduate course. In addition it can serve as a reference or design aid for engineers developing TPV systems. Mathematica design programs for interference filters and a planar TPV system are included on a CD-Rom disk. Each chapter includes a summary and concludes with a set of problems. The first chapter presents the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory necessary to calculate the optical properties of the components in a TPV optical cavity. Using a simplified model, Chapter 2 develops expressions for the maximum efficiency and power density for an ideal TPV system. The next three chapters consider the three major components in a TPV system; the emitter, filter and photovoltaic(PV) array. Chapter 3 applies the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory presented in Chapter 1 in the calculation of spectral emittance. From the spectral emittance t...

  14. Efficient Thermally Stable Spectral Control Filters for Thermophotovoltaics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The feasibility of radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) power systems has been shown. The best efficiencies reported to date for a TPV module test include front...

  15. Hybrid Back Surface Reflector GaInAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RK Huang; CA Wang; MK Connors; GW Turner; M Dashiell

    2004-01-01

    Back surface reflectors have the potential to improve thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device performance though the recirculation of infrared photons. The ''hybrid'' back-surface reflector (BSR) TPV cell approach allows one to construct BSRs for TPV devices using conventional, high efficiency, GaInAsSb-based TPV material. The design, fabrication, and measurements of hybrid BSR-TPV cells are described. The BSR was shown to provide a 4 mV improvement in open-circuit voltage under a constant shortcircuit current, which is comparable to the 5 mV improvement theoretically predicted. Larger improvements in open-circuit voltage are expected in the future with materials improvements

  16. InGaAs/InP Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIM) for Thermophotovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, David M.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Weizer, Victor G.; Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Scheiman, David A.; Murray, Christopher S.; Riley, David R.

    2004-01-01

    There has been a traditional trade-off in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion development between systems efficiency and power density. This trade-off originates from the use of front surface spectral controls such as selective emitters and various types of filters. A monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structure has been developed which allows for both high power densities and high system efficiencies. The MIM device consists of many individual indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) devices series -connected on a single semi-insulating indium phosphide (InP) substrate. The MIMs are exposed to the entire emitter output, thereby maximizing output power density. An infrared (IR) reflector placed on the rear surface of the substrate returns the unused portion of the emitter output spectrum back to the emitter for recycling, thereby providing for high system efficiencies. Initial MIM development has focused on a 1 sq cm device consisting of eight series interconnected cells. MIM devices, produced from 0,74 eV InGAAs, have demonstrated V(sub infinity) = 3.23 volts, J(sub sc) = 70 mA/sq cm and a fill factor of 66% under flashlamp testing. Infrared (IR) reflectance measurement (less than 2 microns) of these devices indicate a reflectivity of less than 82%. MIM devices produced from 0.55 eV InGaAs have also been den=monstrated. In addition, conventional p/n InGaAs devices with record efficiencies (11.7% AM1) have been demonstrated.

  17. Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHenry, R.S. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Naval Architecture, Ocean and Marine Engineering

    1995-07-01

    The US Naval Academy (USNA) has recently completed an engineering design project for a high temperature thermophotovoltaic (TPV) photon emitter. The final apparatus was to be portable, completely self contained, and was to incorporate cycle efficiency optimization such as exhaust stream recuperation. Through computer modeling and prototype experimentation, a methane fueled emitter system was designed from structural ceramic materials to fulfill the high temperature requirements necessary for high system efficiency. This paper outlines the engineering design process, discusses obstacles and solutions encountered, and presents the final design.

  18. Development and characterization of a rare earth emitter for a thermophotovoltaic power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durisch, W; Panitz, J C [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Energy conversion based on thermophotovoltaic (TPV) methods has recently attracted renewed interest. Efforts at PSI are directed towards the development of a modular TPV system based on existing technology to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Here, we report first results obtained with a prototype TPV generator based upon a modified rare earth emitter, a heat reflecting filter and commercial silicon solar cells. The preparation of the modified emitter is described, and first results of spectroscopic and electrical characterization of the TPV system are presented. The introduction of the modified emitter leads to an efficiency gain of 30-40%. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  19. Radiation Entropy and Near-Field Thermophotovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin M.

    2008-08-01

    Radiation entropy was key to the original derivation of Planck's law of blackbody radiation, in 1900. This discovery opened the door to quantum mechanical theory and Planck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Thermal radiation plays an important role in incandescent lamps, solar energy utilization, temperature measurements, materials processing, remote sensing for astronomy and space exploration, combustion and furnace design, food processing, cryogenic engineering, as well as numerous agricultural, health, and military applications. While Planck's law has been fruitfully applied to a large number of engineering problems for over 100 years, questions have been raised about its limitation in micro/nano systems, especially at subwavelength distances or in the near field. When two objects are located closer than the characteristic wavelength, wave interference and photon tunneling occurs that can result in significant enhancement of the radiative transfer. Recent studies have shown that the near-field effects can realize emerging technologies, such as superlens, sub-wavelength light source, polariton-assisted nanolithography, thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems, scanning tunneling thermal microscopy, etc. The concept of entropy has also been applied to explain laser cooling of solids as well as the second law efficiency of devices that utilize thermal radiation to produce electricity. However, little is known as regards the nature of entropy in near-field radiation. Some history and recent advances are reviewed in this presentation with a call for research of radiation entropy in the near field, due to the important applications in the optimization of thermophotovoltaic converters and in the design of practical systems that can harvest photon energies efficiently.

  20. Design of broadband absorber using 2-D materials for thermo-photovoltaic cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sajal; Prajapati, Y. K.

    2018-04-01

    Present study is done to analyze a nano absorber for thermo-photovoltaic cell application. Optical absorbance of two-dimensional materials is exploited to achieve high absorbance. It is found that few alternating layers of graphene/transition metal dichalcogenide provide high absorbance of electromagnetic wave in visible as well as near infrared region. Four transition metal dichalcogenides are considered and found that most of these provide perfect absorbance for almost full considered wavelength range i.e. 200-1000 nm. Demonstrated results confirm the extended operating region and improved absorbance of the proposed absorber in comparison to the existing absorbers made of different materials. Further, absorber performance is improved by using thin layers of gold and chromium. Simple geometry of the proposed absorber also ensures easy fabrication.

  1. Solar-Powered, Micron-Gap Thermophotovoltaics for MEO Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an InGaAs-based, radiation-tolerant, micron-gap thermophotovoltaic (MTPV) technology. The use of a micron wide gap between the radiation...

  2. Thermophotovoltaics, wood powder and fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, J [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Operational Efficiency; Broman, L; Jarefors, K [Solar Energy Research Center, Borlaenge (Sweden)

    1998-06-01

    PV cells can be used for electricity production based on other heat sources than the sun. If the temperature of the source is around 1500 K it is possible to get reasonably high conversion efficiency from heat radiation to electricity. This is due to recent advances in low-bandgap PV cells and selectively emitting fibrous emissive burners. There are some different biomass fuels capable of producing this temperature in the flame, especially gas and liquid fuels of different kinds. Wood powder is the only solid wood fuel with a sufficiently stable quality and properties for this high temperature combustion. A joint project between SERC, SLU and National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL in Golden, Colorado, USA aims at building a wood powder fuelled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator for cogeneration of heat and electricity. A stable flame temperature of 1500 K has been achieved in a prototype pilot-scale burner that includes feeder and combustion chamber. Furthermore, a setup for measuring TPV cell efficiency for a wide region of black body emitter temperatures and cell irradiation has been constructed and several 0.6 eV GaInAs TPV cells have been investigated. A setup for testing the chain IR emitter - selectively reflecting filter - TPV cell has been designed. In order to limit the region of filter incident angles, which will make the filter act more efficiently, a special geometry of the internally reflecting tube that transmits the radiation is considered 23 refs, 4 figs

  3. Quaternary InGaAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Diode Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Dashiell; J Beausang; H Ehsani; G Nichols; D DePoy; L Danielson; P Talamo; K Rahner; E Brown; S Burger; P Fourspring; W Topper; P Baldasaro; C Wang; R Huang; M Connors; G Turner; Z Shellenbarger; G Taylor; Jizhong Li; R Martinelli; D Donetski; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryl

    2005-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes fabricated from InGaAsSb alloys lattice-matched to GaSb substrates are grown by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE). 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV diodes utilizing front-surface spectral control filters have been tested in a vacuum cavity and a TPV thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency (η TPV ) and a power density (PD) of η TPV = 19% and PD=0.58 W/cm 2 were measured for T radiator = 950 C and T diode = 27 C. Recombination coefficients deduced from minority carrier measurements and the theory reviewed in this article predict a practical limit to the maximum achievable conversion efficiency and power density for 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV. The limits for the above operating temperatures are projected to be η TPV = 26% and PD = 0.75 W/cm 2 . These limits are extended to η TPV = 30% and PD = 0.85W/cm 2 if the diode active region is bounded by a reflective back surface to enable photon recycling and a two-pass optical path length. The internal quantum efficiency of the InGaAsSb TPV diode is close to the theoretically predicted limits, with the exception of short wavelength absorption in GaSb contact layers. Experiments show that the open circuit voltage of the 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV diodes is not strongly dependent on the device architectures studied in this work where both N/P and P/N double heterostructure diodes have been grown with various acceptor and donor doping levels, having GaSb and AlGaAsSb confinement, and also partial back surface reflectors. Lattice matched InGaAsSb TPV diodes were fabricated with bandgaps ranging from 0.6 to 0.5eV without significant degradation of the open circuit voltage factor, quantum efficiency, or fill factor as the composition approached the miscibility gap. The key diode performance parameter which is limiting efficiency and power density below the theoretical limits in InGaAsSb TPV devices is the open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltages of state-of-the-art 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV diode are ∼10

  4. Quaternary InGaAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MW Dashiell; JF Beausang; H Ehsani; GJ Nichols; DM Depoy; LR Danielson; P Talamo; KD Rahner; EJ Brown; SR Burger; PM Foruspring; WF Topper; PF Baldasaro; CA Wang; R Huang; M Connors; G Turner; Z Shellenbarger; G Taylor; J Li; R Martinelli; D Donetski; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryi

    2006-01-01

    In x Ga 1-x As y Sb 1-y thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes were grown lattice-matched to GaSb substrates by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) in the bandgap range of E G = 0.5 to 0.6eV. InGaAsSb TPV diodes, utilizing front-surface spectral control filters, are measured with thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency and power density of η TPV = 19.7% and PD =0.58 W/cm 2 respectively for a radiator temperature of T radiator = 950 C, diode temperature of T diode = 27 C, and diode bandgap of E G = 0.53eV. Practical limits to TPV energy conversion efficiency are established using measured recombination coefficients and optical properties of front surface spectral control filters, which for 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV energy conversion is η TPV = 28% and PD = 0.85W/cm 2 at the above operating temperatures. The most severe performance limits are imposed by (1) diode open-circuit voltage (VOC) limits due to intrinsic Auger recombination and (2) parasitic photon absorption in the inactive regions of the module. Experimentally, the diode V OC is 15% below the practical limit imposed by intrinsic Auger recombination processes. Analysis of InGaAsSb diode electrical performance vs. diode architecture indicate that the V OC and thus efficiency is limited by extrinsic recombination processes such as through bulk defects

  5. 500 Watt Diesel Fueled TPV Portable Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, M. D.; Sundaram, V. S.; Butcher, T.

    2003-01-01

    A test-bed 500 watt diesel fueled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) portable power supply is described. The goal of the design is a compact, rugged field portable unit weighing less than 15 pounds without fuel. The conversion efficiency goal is set at 15% fuel energy to electric energy delivered to an external load at 24 volts. A burner/recuperator system has been developed to meet the objectives of high combustion air preheat temperatures with a compact heat exchanger, low excess air operation, and high convective heat transfer rates to the silicon carbide emitter surface. The burner incorporates a air blast atomizer with 100% of the combustion air passing through the nozzle. Designed firing rate of 2900 watts at 0.07 gallons of oil per hour. This incorporates a single air supply dc motor/fan set and avoids the need for a system air compressor. The recuperator consists of three annular, concentric laminar flow passages. Heat from the combustion of the diesel fuel is both radiantly and convectively coupled to the inside wall of a cylindrical silicon carbide emitter. The outer wall of the emitter then radiates blackbody energy at the design temperature of 1400°C. The cylindrical emitter is enclosed in a quartz envelope that separates it from the photovoltaic (PV) cells. Spectral control is accomplished by a resonant mesh IR band-pass filter placed between the emitter and the PV array. The narrow band of energy transmitted by the filter is intercepted and converted to electricity by an array of GaSb PV cells. The array consists of 216 1-cm × 1-cm GaSb cells arranged into series and parallel arrays. An array of heat pipes couple the PV cell arrays to a heat exchanger which is cooled by forced air convection. A brief status of the key TPV technologies is presented followed by data characterizing the performance of the 500 watt TPV system.

  6. Optimization of a near-field thermophotovoltaic system operating at low temperature and large vacuum gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mikyung; Song, Jaeman; Kim, Jihoon; Lee, Seung S.; Lee, Ikjin; Lee, Bong Jae

    2018-05-01

    The present work successfully achieves a strong enhancement in performance of a near-field thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system operating at low temperature and large-vacuum-gap width by introducing a hyperbolic-metamaterial (HMM) emitter, multilayered graphene, and an Au-backside reflector. Design variables for the HMM emitter and the multilayered-graphene-covered TPV cell are optimized for maximizing the power output of the near-field TPV system with the genetic algorithm. The near-field TPV system with the optimized configuration results in 24.2 times of enhancement in power output compared with that of the system with a bulk emitter and a bare TPV cell. Through the analysis of the radiative heat transfer together with surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) dispersion curves, it is found that coupling of SPPs generated from both the HMM emitter and the multilayered-graphene-covered TPV cell plays a key role in a substantial increase in the heat transfer even at a 200-nm vacuum gap. Further, the backside reflector at the bottom of the TPV cell significantly increases not only the conversion efficiency, but also the power output by generating additional polariton modes which can be readily coupled with the existing SPPs of the HMM emitter and the multilayered-graphene-covered TPV cell.

  7. Near-Field Thermal Radiation for Solar Thermophotovoltaics and High Temperature Thermal Logic and Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzouka, Mahmoud

    This dissertation investigates Near-Field Thermal Radiation (NFTR) applied to MEMS-based concentrated solar thermophotovoltaics (STPV) energy conversion and thermal memory and logics. NFTR is the exchange of thermal radiation energy at nano/microscale; when separation between the hot and cold objects is less than dominant radiation wavelength (˜1 mum). NFTR is particularly of interest to the above applications due to its high rate of energy transfer, exceeding the blackbody limit by orders of magnitude, and its strong dependence on separation gap size, surface nano/microstructure and material properties. Concentrated STPV system converts solar radiation to electricity using heat as an intermediary through a thermally coupled absorber/emitter, which causes STPV to have one of the highest solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency limits (85.4%). Modeling of a near-field concentrated STPV microsystem is carried out to investigate the use of STPV based solid-state energy conversion as high power density MEMS power generator. Numerical results for In 0.18Ga0.82Sb PV cell illuminated with tungsten emitter showed significant enhancement in energy transfer, resulting in output power densities as high as 60 W/cm2; 30 times higher than the equivalent far-field power density. On thermal computing, this dissertation demonstrates near-field heat transfer enabled high temperature NanoThermoMechanical memory and logics. Unlike electronics, NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices use heat instead of electricity to record and process data; hence they can operate in harsh environments where electronics typically fail. NanoThermoMechanical devices achieve memory and thermal rectification functions through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion in microstructures, resulting in nonlinear heat transfer between two temperature terminals. Numerical modeling of a conceptual NanoThermoMechanical is carried out; results include the dynamic response under

  8. Performance analysis of near-field thermophotovoltaic devices considering absorption distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K.; Basu, S.; King, W.P.; Zhang, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper elucidates the energy transfer and conversion processes in near-field thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems, considering local radiation absorption and photocurrent generation in the TPV cell. Radiation heat transfer in a multilayered structure is modeled using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, and the electric current generation is evaluated based on the photogeneration and recombination of electron-hole pairs in different regions of the TPV cell. The effects of near-field radiation on the photon penetration depth, photocurrent generation, and quantum efficiency are examined in the spectral region of interest. The detailed analysis performed in the present work demonstrates that, while the near-field operation can enhance the power throughput, the conversion efficiency is not much improved and may even be reduced. Subsequently, a modified design of near-field TPV systems is proposed to improve the efficiency

  9. Toward high performance radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems using spectral control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiawa, E-mail: xiawaw@mit.edu [Electrical Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States); Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States); Chan, Walker [Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States); Stelmakh, Veronika [Electrical Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States); Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States); Celanovic, Ivan [Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States); Fisher, Peter [Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States); Physics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This work describes RTPV-PhC-1, an initial prototype for a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) system using a two-dimensional photonic crystal emitter and low bandgap thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell to realize spectral control. We validated a system simulation using the measurements of RTPV-PhC-1 and its comparison setup RTPV-FlatTa-1 with the same configuration except a polished tantalum emitter. The emitter of RTPV-PhC-1 powered by an electric heater providing energy equivalent to one plutonia fuel pellet reached 950 °C with 52 W of thermal input power and produced 208 mW output power from 1 cm{sup 2} TPV cell. We compared the system performance using a photonic crystal emitter to a polished flat tantalum emitter and found that spectral control with the photonic crystal was four times more efficient. Based on the simulation, with more cell areas, better TPV cells, and improved insulation design, the system powered by a fuel pellet equivalent heat source is expected to reach an efficiency of 7.8%.

  10. Development of a portable thermophotovoltaic power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Frederick E.; Doyle, Edward F.; Shukla, Kailash

    1997-03-01

    A 150 Watt thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power generator is being developed. The technical approach taken in the design focused on optimizing the integrated performance of the primary subsystems in order to yield high energy conversion efficiency and cost effectiveness. An important aspect of the approach is the use of a selective emitter radiating to a bandgap matched photovoltaic array to minimize thermal and optical recuperation requirements, as well as the non-recoverable heat losses. For the initial prototype system, fibrous ytterbia emitters radiating in a band centered at 980 nm are matched with high efficiency silicon photoconverters. The integrated system includes a dielectric stack filter for optical energy recovery and a ceramic recuperator for thermal energy recovery. The system has been operated with air preheat temperatures up to 1350K. The design of the system and development status are presented.

  11. Selection of emitter material for application on a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, D.P.; Frohlich, N.D.; Koehler, F.A.; Ruhkamp, J.D.; Miller, R.G.; McDougal, J.R.; Pugh, B.K.; Barklay, C.D.; Howell, E.I. [EGG Mound Applied Technologies Building 88, P.O. Box 3000 Miamisburg, Ohio45343 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) power systems are being considered for long duration space missions due to their predicted high thermal to electrical conversion efficiencies. One critical aspect of these power systems is the selection of an appropriate emitter material which will efficiently radiate the thermal energy generated by the heat source to the photovoltaics. The photovoltaics are {open_quotes}tuned{close_quotes} to convert the infrared wavelengths radiated by the emitter into electrical energy. The emphasis of this paper is on the selection and optimization of an appropriate emitter material which would meet all of the mission requirements. A Kepner Tregoe analysis was performed in order to rank the various candidate refractory materials in relationship to their physical and chemical properties. The results of the analysis and material recommendations are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Advanced Thermophotovoltaic Devices for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernsman, Bernard; Mahorter, Robert G.; Siergiej, Richard; Link, Samuel D.; Wehrer, Rebecca J.; Belanger, Sean J.; Fourspring, Patrick; Murray, Susan; Newman, Fred; Taylor, Dan; Rahmlow, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) modules capable of producing > 0.3 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 22% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1228 K and 325 K, respectively, have been made. These advanced TPV modules are projected to produce > 0.9 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 24% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1373 K and 325 K, respectively. Radioisotope and nuclear (fission) powered space systems utilizing these advanced TPV modules have been evaluated. For a 100 We radioisotope TPV system, systems utilizing as low as 2 general purpose heat source (GPHS) units are feasible, where the specific power for the 2 and 3 GPHS unit systems operating in a 200 K environment is as large as ∼ 16 We/kg and ∼ 14 We/kg, respectively. For a 100 kWe nuclear powered (as was entertained for the thermoelectric SP-100 program) TPV system, the minimum system radiator area and mass is ∼ 640 m2 and ∼ 1150 kg, respectively, for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 435 K and 200 K, respectively. Also, for a converter radiator temperature of 1373 K, the converter volume and mass remains less than 0.36 m3 and 640 kg, respectively. Thus, the minimum system radiator + converter (reactor and shield not included) specific mass is ∼ 16 kg/kWe for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 425 K and 200 K, respectively. Under this operating condition, the reactor thermal rating is ∼ 1110 kWt. Due to the large radiator area, the added complexity and mission risk needs to be weighed against reducing the reactor thermal rating to determine the feasibility of using TPV for space nuclear (fission) power systems

  13. An integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal emitter for thermophotovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Walker R.; Stelmakh, Veronika; Allmon, William R.; Waits, Christopher M.; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Celanovic, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion is appealing for portable millimeter- scale generators because of its simplicity, but it relies on a high temperatures. The performance and reliability of the high-temperature components, a microcombustor and a photonic crystal emitter, has proven challenging because they are subjected to 1000-1200°C and stresses arising from thermal expansion mismatches. In this paper, we adopt the industrial process of diffusion brazing to fabricate an integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal by bonding stacked metal layers. Diffusion brazing is simpler and faster than previous approaches of silicon MEMS and welded metal, and the end result is more robust.

  14. An integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal emitter for thermophotovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Walker R.; Stelmakh, Veronika; Joannopoulos, John D.; Celanovic, Ivan; Allmon, William R.; Waits, Christopher M.; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion is appealing for portable millimeter- scale generators because of its simplicity, but it relies on a high temperatures. The performance and reliability of the high-temperature components, a microcombustor and a photonic crystal emitter, has proven challenging because they are subjected to 1000-1200°C and stresses arising from thermal expansion mismatches. In this paper, we adopt the industrial process of diffusion brazing to fabricate an integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal by bonding stacked metal layers. Diffusion brazing is simpler and faster than previous approaches of silicon MEMS and welded metal, and the end result is more robust. (paper)

  15. Heat transfer modelling in thermophotovoltaic cavities using glass media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, T.; Forbes, I.; Penlington, R.; Pearsall, N. [Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Technology

    2005-08-15

    Optimisation of heat transfer, and in particular radiative heat transfer in terms of the spectral, angular and spatial radiation distributions, is required to achieve high efficiencies and high electrical power densities for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion. This work examines heat transfer from the radiator to the PV cell in an infinite plate arrangement using three different arrangements of participating dielectric media. The modelling applies the Discrete Ordinates method and assumes fused silica (quartz glass) as the dielectric medium. The arrangement radiator-glass-PV cell (also termed dielectric photon concentration) was found to be superior in terms of efficiency and power density. (author)

  16. Thermophotovoltaic Arrays for Electrical Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarnoff Corporation

    2003-01-01

    Sarnoff has designed an integrated array of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells based on the In(Al)GaAsSb/GaSb materials system. These arrays will be used in a system to generate electrical power from a radioisotope heat source that radiates at temperatures from 700 to 1000 C. Two arrays sandwich the slab heat source and will be connected in series to build voltage. Between the arrays and the heat source is a spectral control filter that transmits above-bandgap radiation and reflects below-bandgap radiation. The goal is to generate 5 mW of electrical power at 3 V from a 700 C radiant source. Sarnoff is a leader in antimonide-based TPV cell development. InGaAsSb cells with a bandgap of 0.53 eV have operated at system conversion efficiencies greater than 17%. The system included a front-surface filter, and a 905 C radiation source. The cells were grown via organo-metallic vapor-phase epitaxy. Sarnoff will bring this experience to bear on the proposed project. The authors first describe array and cell architecture. They then present calculated results showing that about 80 mW of power can be obtained from a 700 C radiator. Using a conservative array design, a 5-V output is possible

  17. Cost estimate of electricity produced by TPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfinger, Günther; Bitnar, Bernd; Durisch, Wilhelm; Mayor, Jean-Claude; Grützmacher, Detlev; Gobrecht, Jens

    2003-05-01

    A crucial parameter for the market penetration of TPV is its electricity production cost. In this work a detailed cost estimate is performed for a Si photocell based TPV system, which was developed for electrically self-powered operation of a domestic heating system. The results are compared to a rough estimate of cost of electricity for a projected GaSb based system. For the calculation of the price of electricity, a lifetime of 20 years, an interest rate of 4.25% per year and maintenance costs of 1% of the investment are presumed. To determine the production cost of TPV systems with a power of 12-20 kW, the costs of the TPV components and 100 EUR kW-1el,peak for assembly and miscellaneous were estimated. Alternatively, the system cost for the GaSb system was derived from the cost of the photocells and from the assumption that they account for 35% of the total system cost. The calculation was done for four different TPV scenarios which include a Si based prototype system with existing technology (etasys = 1.0%), leading to 3000 EUR kW-1el,peak, an optimized Si based system using conventional, available technology (etasys = 1.5%), leading to 900 EUR kW-1el,peak, a further improved system with future technology (etasys = 5%), leading to 340 EUR kW-1el,peak and a GaSb based system (etasys = 12.3% with recuperator), leading to 1900 EUR kW-1el,peak. Thus, prices of electricity from 6 to 25 EURcents kWh-1el (including gas of about 3.5 EURcents kWh-1) were calculated and compared with those of fuel cells (31 EURcents kWh-1) and gas engines (23 EURcents kWh-1).

  18. The design and numerical analysis of tandem thermophotovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hao-Yu; Liu Ren-Jun; Wang Lian-Kai; Lü You; Li Tian-Tian; Li Guo-Xing; Zhang Yuan-Tao; Zhang Bao-Lin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, numerical analysis of GaSb =(E g = 0.72 eV)/Ga 0.84 In 0.16 As 0.14 Sb 0.86 (E g = 0.53 eV) tandem thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells is carried out by using Silvaco/Atlas software. In the tandem cells, a GaSb p-n homojunction is used for the top cell and a GaInAsSb p-n homojunction for the bottom cell. A heavily doped GaSb tunnel junction connects the two sub-cells together. The simulations are carried out at a radiator temperature of 2000 K and a cell temperature of 300 K. The radiation photons are injected from the top of the tandem cells. Key properties of the single- and dual-junction TPV cells, including I–V characteristic, maximum output power (P max ), open-circuit voltage (V oc ), short-circuit current (I sc ), etc. are presented. The effects of the sub-cell thickness and carrier concentration on the key properties of tandem cells are investigated. A comparison of the dual-TPV cells with GaSb and GaInAsSb single junction cells shows that the P max of tandem cells is almost twice as great as that of the single-junction cells. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  19. Parametric investigation of nano-gap thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Japheth Z.-J.; Bong, Victor N.-S.; Wong, Basil T.

    2016-03-01

    Nano-gap thermophotovoltaic energy converters have the potential to be excellent generators of electrical power due to the near-field radiative effect which enhances the transfer of energy from one medium to another. However, there is still much to learn about this new form of energy converter. This paper seeks to investigate three parameters that affect the performance of nano-gap thermophotovoltaic devices: the emitter material, the thermophotovoltaic cell material, and the cell thickness. Furthermore, the temperature profiles in insulated thin films (cells exposed to below-band gap near-field radiation) are analysed. It was discovered that an effective emitter material is one that has a high generalised emissivity value and is also able to couple with the TPV cell material through surface polaritons while a cell material's electrical properties and its thickness has heavy bearing on its internal quantum efficiency. In regards to the temperature profile, the heat-flux absorbed causes a rise in temperature across the thin film, but is insufficient to generate a temperature gradient across the film.

  20. Measurements of Conversion Efficiency for a Flat Plate Thermophotovoltaic System Using a Photonic Cavity Test System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E.J.; Ballinger, C.T.; Burger, S.R.; Charache, G.W.; Danielson, L.R.; DePoy, D.M.; Donovan, T.J.; LoCascio, M.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a 1 cm 2 thermophotovoltaic (TPV) module was recently measured in a photonic cavity test system. A conversion efficiency of 11.7% was measured at a radiator temperature of 1076 C and a module temperature of 29.9 C. This experiment achieved the highest direct measurement of efficiency for an integrated TPV system. Efficiency was calculated from the ratio of the peak (load matched) electrical power output and the heat absorption rate. Measurements of these two parameters were made simultaneously to assure the validity of the measured efficiency value. This test was conducted in a photonic cavity which mimicked a typical flat-plate TPV system. The radiator was a large, flat graphite surface. The module was affixed to the top of a copper pedestal for heat absorption measurements. The heat absorption rate was proportional to the axial temperature gradient in the pedestal under steady-state conditions. The test was run in a vacuum to eliminate conductive and convective heat transfer mechanisms. The photonic cavity provides the optimal test environment for TPV efficiency measurements because it incorporates all important physical phenomena found in an integrated TPV system: high radiator emissivity and blackbody spectral shape, photon recycling, Lambertian distribution of incident radiation and complex geometric effects. Furthermore, the large aspect ratio between radiating surface area and radiator/module spacing produces a view factor approaching unity with minimal photon leakage

  1. Performance of ultra high efficiency thin germanium p-n junction solar cells intended for solar thermophotovoltaic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, E S; Loferski, J J; Spitzer, M; Schewchun, J

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical upper limit conversion efficiency as a function of cell thickness and junction position is calculated for a germanium p-n junction solar cell intended for solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion which incorporates minority carrier mirrors and optical mirrors on both the front and back boundaries of the active part of the device. The optical mirrors provide light confinement reducing the thickness required for optimum performance while minority carrier mirrors diminish surface recombination of carriers which seriously reduce short circuit current and limit open circuit voltage. The role of non-ideal optical and minority carrier mirrors and the effect of resistivity variations are studied. The calculations are conducted under conditions of high incident power (2-25 W/cm/sup 2/) which are encountered in solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems. 14 refs.

  2. Integration between a thermophotovoltaic generator and an Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pascale, Andrea; Ferrari, Claudio; Melino, Francesco; Morini, Mirko; Pinelli, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new energy system comprising a Thermo-Photo-Voltaic and Organic Rankine Cycle. ► An analytical model to calculate the performance of the system is introduced. ► The system shows promising results in terms of CHP performance. -- Abstract: The constant increase in energy need and the growing attention to the related environmental impact have given a boost to the development of new strategies in order to reduce the primary energy consumption and to improve its utilization. One of the possible strategies for achieving this aim is Combined Heat and Power (CHP) specially if coupled with the concept of on-site generation (also known as distributed generation). These approaches allow the reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions and the increase of security in energy supply. This paper introduces the Thermophotovoltaic Organic Rankine Cycle Integrated System (TORCIS), an energy system integrating a ThermoPhotoVoltaic generator (TPV) and an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). This study represents the start-up of a research program which involves three research teams from IMEM – National Research Council, ENDIF – University of Ferrara and DIEM – University of Bologna. The aim of this research is the complete definition and the pre-prototyping characterization of this system covering all the unresolved issues in this field. More specifically, TPV is a system to convert the radiation emitted from an artificial heat source (i.e. the combustion of fuel) into electrical energy by the use of photovoltaic cells. In this system, the produced electrical power is strictly connected to the thermal one as their ratio is almost constant and cannot be changed without severe loss in performance. The coupling between TPV and ORC allows this limitation to be overcome by the realization of a CHP system which can be regulated with a large degree of freedom changing the ratio between the produced electrical and thermal power. In this study a thermodynamic

  3. Operating experience of a portable thermophotovoltaic power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Frederick E.; Doyle, Edward F.; Shukla, Kailash

    1999-03-01

    Two configurations of man-portable thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supplies based on Thermo Power's supported continuous fiber emitter have been designed, built, and are being tested. The systems use narrow-band, fibrous, ytterbia emitters radiating to bandgap matched silicon photovoltaic arrays with dielectric stack filters for optical energy recovery and recuperators for thermal energy recovery. The systems have been designed for operation with propane and with combustion air preheat temperatures of up to 1250 K. To operate at air preheat temperatures above the auto-ignition temperature of the fuel, a unique fuel delivery system was devised which results in the micromixing and rapid combustion of the fuel and air right in the emitter fibers. This allows the ytterbia emitter fibers to run much hotter (˜2000 K) than any of the surrounding structure.

  4. Minority-carrier transport in InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charache, G.; Martinelli, R.U.; Garbuzov, D.Z.; Lee, H.; Morris, N.; Odubanjo, T.; Connolly, J.C.

    1997-05-01

    Uncoated InGaAsSb/GaSb thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes with 0.56 eV (2.2 microm) bandgaps exhibit external quantum efficiencies of 59% at 2 microm. The devices have electron diffusion lengths as long as 29 microm in 8-microm-wide p-InGaAsSb layers and hole diffusion lengths of 3 microm in 6-microm-wide n-InGaAsSb layers. The electron and hole diffusion lengths appear to increase with increasing p- and n-layer widths. At 632.8 nm the internal quantum efficiencies of diodes with 1- to 8-microm-wide p-layers are above 89% and are independent of the p-layer width, indicating long electron diffusion lengths. InGaAsSb has, therefore, excellent minority carrier transport properties that are well suited to efficient TPV diode operation. The structures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

  5. Ultra high temperature latent heat energy storage and thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Datas Medina, Alejandro; Ramos Cabal, Alba; Martí Vega, Antonio; Cañizo Nadal, Carlos del; Luque López, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    A conceptual energy storage system design that utilizes ultra high temperature phase change materials is presented. In this system, the energy is stored in the form of latent heat and converted to electricity upon demand by TPV (thermophotovoltaic) cells. Silicon is considered in this study as PCM (phase change material) due to its extremely high latent heat (1800 J/g or 500 Wh/kg), melting point (1410 C), thermal conductivity (~25 W/mK), low cost (less than $2/kg or $4/kWh) and a...

  6. Front Surface Tandem Filters using Sapphire (Al2O3) Substrates for Spectral Control in thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T Rahmlow, Jr.; J Lazo-Wasem; E Gratrix; P Fourspring; D DePoy

    2005-01-01

    Front surface filters provide an effective means of improving thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system efficiency through spectral control of incident radiant energy. A front surface filter reflects the below band gap photons that can not be converted by the TPV cell back towards the high temperature radiator and allows convertible above band gap photons to pass through the filter into the TPV cell for conversion to electricity. The best spectral control efficiency to date has been demonstrated by front surface, tandem filters that combine an interference filter and an InPAs layer (plasma filter) in series. The InPAs material is a highly doped, epitaxially grown layer on an InP substrate. These tandem filter designs have been fabricated with energy and angle weighted spectral efficiencies of 76% for TPV cells with a 2.08(micro)m (0.6eV) band gap [1]. An alternative to the InPAs layer on an InP substrate is an Al 2 O 3 (sapphire) substrate. The use of Al 2 O 3 may increase transmission of above band gap photons, increase the mechanical strength of the tandem filter, and lower the cost of the tandem filter, all at the expense of lower spectral efficiency. This study presents design and fabrication results for front surface tandem filters that use an Al 2 O 3 substrate for 2.08(micro)m band gap TPV cells

  7. Quantum-Well Thermophotovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudlich, Alex; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic cells containing multiple quantum wells have been invented as improved means of conversion of thermal to electrical energy. The semiconductor bandgaps of the quantum wells can be tailored to be narrower than those of prior thermophotovoltaic cells, thereby enabling the cells to convert energy from longer-wavelength photons that dominate the infrared-rich spectra of typical thermal sources with which these cells would be used. Moreover, in comparison with a conventional single-junction thermophotovoltaic cell, a cell containing multiple narrow-bandgap quantum wells according to the invention can convert energy from a wider range of wavelengths. Hence, the invention increases the achievable thermal-to-electrical energy-conversion efficiency. These thermophotovoltaic cells are expected to be especially useful for extracting electrical energy from combustion, waste-heat, and nuclear sources having temperatures in the approximate range from 1,000 to 1,500 C.

  8. Bridgman growth and characterization of bulk single crystals of Ga1-xInxSb for thermophotovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, J.R.; Haines, W.T.

    1997-12-01

    Thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity is attracting renewed attention due to recent advances in low bandgap (0.5--0.7 eV) III-V semiconductors. The use of mixed pseudo-binary compounds allows for the tailoring of the lattice parameter and the bandgap of the material. Conventional deposition techniques (i.e., epitaxy) for producing such ternary or quaternary materials are typically slow and expensive. Production of bulk single crystals of ternary materials, for example Ga 1-x In x Sb, is expected to dramatically reduce such material costs. Bulk single crystals of Ga 1-x In x Sb have been prepared using a Bridgman technique in a two-zone furnace. These crystals are 19 mm in diameter by approximately 50 mm long and were produced using seeds of the same diameter. The effects of growth rate and starting materials on the composition and quality of these crystals will be discussed and compared with other attempts to produce single crystals of this material

  9. Power and hydrogen production from ammonia in a micro-thermophotovoltaic device integrated with a micro-reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, Dong Hyun; Kim, Tae Young; Kwon, Oh Chae

    2014-01-01

    Power and hydrogen (H 2 ) production by burning and reforming ammonia (NH 3 ) in a micro-TPV (microscale-thermophotovoltaic) device integrated with a micro-reformer is studied experimentally. A heat-recirculating micro-emitter with the cyclone and helical adapters that enhance the residence time of fed fuel-air mixtures and uniform burning burns H 2 -added NH 3 -air mixtures. A micro-reformer that converts NH 3 to H 2 using ruthenium as a catalyst surrounds the micro-emitter as a heat source. The micro-reformer is surrounded by a chamber, the inner and outer walls of which have installations of gallium antimonide photovoltaic cells and cooling fins. For the micro-reformer-integrated micro-TPV device the maximum overall efficiency of 8.1% with electrical power of 4.5 W and the maximum NH 3 conversion rate of 96.0% with the H 2 production rate of 22.6 W (based on lower heating value) are obtained, indicating that the overall efficiency is remarkably enhanced compared with 2.0% when the micro-TPV device operates alone. This supports the potential of improving the overall efficiency of a micro-TPV device through integrating it with a micro-reformer. Also, the feasibility of using NH 3 as a carbon-free fuel for both burning and reforming in practical micro power and H 2 generation devices has been demonstrated. - Highlights: • Performance of micro-TPV device integrated with micro-reformer is evaluated. • Feasibility of using NH 3 –H 2 blends in integrated system has been demonstrated. • Integration with micro-reformer improves performance of micro-TPV device. • Maximum overall efficiency of 8.1% is found compared with 2.0% without integration

  10. Experimental and theoretical analysis of cell module output performance for a thermophotovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaojie; Ye, Hong; Xu, Yexin; Shen, Mingrong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wu, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An accurate theoretical model for thermophotovoltaic system is constructed. • Parallel connected module is superior if radiator temperature is uneven. • Series connected module is superior if cell temperature is uneven. • Short circuit current of series module rises when the shunt resistance decreases. • Fill factor is not always accurate to evaluate the module performance. - Abstract: An experimental thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with a cylindrical-geometry radiator was established to test the output performances of modules under different conditions. The results demonstrate that the output performance of a cell module decreases when the combustion power increases because of the uneven temperature of the radiator or cells. On this basis, a theoretical model for a TPV system was constructed to compare the performance under different conditions of the series-connected (SC) module and the parallel-connected (PC) module, and was verified by the experimental results. The influences of the temperature gradient of the radiator or the cell module, and the series and shunt resistance of the TPV cell on the module performance were analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that the PC module can effectively reduce the mismatch loss of output power caused by the uneven radiator temperature. The PC module, for instance, has a maximum output power of 2.54 times higher than that of the SC module when the radiator temperature difference is 500 K. However, the output performance of the module connected in series is superior to the PC module while the cell temperature is non-uniform. The output power of the SC module is 9.93% higher than that of the PC module at the cell temperature difference of 125 K. The short circuit current of the SC module is sensitive to the series and shunt resistance if the radiator temperature distribution is non-uniform. As the shunt resistance falls from ∞ to 0.5 Ω, the current varies from 1.757 A to 4.488 A when the

  11. Impacts of propagating, frustrated and surface modes on radiative, electrical and thermal losses in nanoscale-gap thermophotovoltaic power generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Michael P.; Dupré, Olivier; Blandre, Etienne; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Vaillon, Rodolphe; Francoeur, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of radiative, electrical and thermal losses on the performances of nanoscale-gap thermophotovoltaic (nano-TPV) power generators consisting of a gallium antimonide cell paired with a broadband tungsten and a radiatively-optimized Drude radiator are analyzed. Results reveal that surface mode mediated nano-TPV power generation with the Drude radiator outperforms the tungsten radiator, dominated by frustrated modes, only for a vacuum gap thickness of 10 nm and if both electrical and thermal losses are neglected. The key limiting factors for the Drude- and tungsten-based devices are respectively the recombination of electron-hole pairs at the cell surface and thermalization of radiation with energy larger than the cell absorption bandgap. A design guideline is also proposed where a high energy cutoff above which radiation has a net negative effect on nano-TPV power output due to thermal losses is determined. It is shown that the power output of a tungsten-based device increases by 6.5% while the cell temperature decreases by 30 K when applying a high energy cutoff at 1.45 eV. This work demonstrates that design and optimization of nano-TPV devices must account for radiative, electrical and thermal losses. PMID:26112658

  12. Triple and Quadruple Junctions Thermophotovoltaic Devices Lattice Matched to InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusal, L.; Freundlich, A.

    2007-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion of IR radiation emanating from a radioisotope heat source is under consideration for deep space exploration. Ideally, for radiator temperatures of interest, the TPV cell must convert efficiently photons in the 0.4-0.7 eV spectral range. Best experimental data for single junction cells are obtained for lattice-mismatched 0.55 eV InGaAs based devices. It was suggested, that a tandem InGaAs based TPV cell made by monolithically combining two or more lattice mismatched InGaAs subcells on InP would result in a sizeable efficiency improvement. However, from a practical standpoint the implementation of more than two subcells with lattice mismatch systems will require extremely thick graded layers (defect filtering systems) to accommodate the lattice mismatch between the sub-cells and could detrimentally affect the recycling of the unused IR energy to the emitter. A buffer structure, consisting of various InPAs layers, is incorporated to accommodate the lattice mismatch between the high and low bandgap subcells. There are evidences that the presence of the buffer structure may generate defects, which could extend down to the underlying InGaAs layer. The unusual large band gap lowering observed in GaAs(1-x)N(x) with low nitrogen fraction [1] has sparked a new interest in the development of dilute nitrogen containing III-V semiconductors for long-wavelength optoelectronic devices (e.g. IR lasers, detector, solar cells) [2-7]. Lattice matched Ga1-yInyNxAs1-x on InP has recently been investigated for the potential use in the mid-infrared device applications [8], and it could be a strong candidate for the applications in TPV devices. This novel quaternary alloy allows the tuning of the band gap from 1.42 eV to below 1 eV on GaAs and band gap as low as 0.6eV when strained to InP, but it has its own limitations. To achieve such a low band gap using the quaternary Ga1-yInyNxAs1-x, either it needs to be strained on InP, which creates further

  13. A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenert, Andrej; Bierman, David M; Nam, Youngsuk; Chan, Walker R; Celanović, Ivan; Soljačić, Marin; Wang, Evelyn N

    2014-02-01

    The most common approaches to generating power from sunlight are either photovoltaic, in which sunlight directly excites electron-hole pairs in a semiconductor, or solar-thermal, in which sunlight drives a mechanical heat engine. Photovoltaic power generation is intermittent and typically only exploits a portion of the solar spectrum efficiently, whereas the intrinsic irreversibilities of small heat engines make the solar-thermal approach best suited for utility-scale power plants. There is, therefore, an increasing need for hybrid technologies for solar power generation. By converting sunlight into thermal emission tuned to energies directly above the photovoltaic bandgap using a hot absorber-emitter, solar thermophotovoltaics promise to leverage the benefits of both approaches: high efficiency, by harnessing the entire solar spectrum; scalability and compactness, because of their solid-state nature; and dispatchablility, owing to the ability to store energy using thermal or chemical means. However, efficient collection of sunlight in the absorber and spectral control in the emitter are particularly challenging at high operating temperatures. This drawback has limited previous experimental demonstrations of this approach to conversion efficiencies around or below 1% (refs 9, 10, 11). Here, we report on a full solar thermophotovoltaic device, which, thanks to the nanophotonic properties of the absorber-emitter surface, reaches experimental efficiencies of 3.2%. The device integrates a multiwalled carbon nanotube absorber and a one-dimensional Si/SiO2 photonic-crystal emitter on the same substrate, with the absorber-emitter areas optimized to tune the energy balance of the device. Our device is planar and compact and could become a viable option for high-performance solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion.

  14. Micro combustion in sub-millimeter channels for novel modular thermophotovoltaic power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, J F; Tang, A K; Duan, L; Li, X C; Yang, W M; Chou, S K; Xue, H

    2010-01-01

    The performance of micro combustion-driven power systems is strongly influenced by the combustor structure. A novel modular thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power generator is presented, which is based on the sub-millimeter parallel plate combustor. It has the potential to achieve a high power density because of the high radiation energy per unit volume due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of the micro-combustor. The work experimentally investigated the ignition limitation for two micro-combustors. It also studied the effects of three major parameters on a sub-millimeter combustor, namely hydrogen to oxygen mixing ratio, hydrogen volumetric flow rate and nozzle geometry. The results show that the combustion efficiency decreases with the increase of the hydrogen flow rate, which is caused by reduced residence time. The average wall temperature with the rectangular nozzle is 25 K higher than that with the circle nozzle. The output electrical power and power density of the modular TPV power generator are projected to be 0.175 W and 0.0722 W cm −3 respectively. We experimentally achieve 0.166 W of electrical power, which is in good agreement with the model prediction

  15. Analysis of a Concentrated Solar Thermophotovoltaic System with Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyf, Hamid Reza; Henry, Asegun

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed a high temperature concentrated solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with thermal energy storage (TES), which is enabled by the potential usage of liquid metal as a high temperature heat transfer fluid. The system concept combines the great advantages of TES with the potential for low cost and high performance derived from photovoltaic cells fabricated on reusable substrates, with a high reflectivity back reflector for photon recycling. The TES makes the electricity produced dispatchable, and thus the system studied should be compared to technologies such as concentrated solar power (CSP) with TES (e.g., using a turbine) or PV with electrochemical batteries, instead of direct and intermittent electricity generation from flat plate PV alone. Thus, the addition of TES places the system in a different class than has previously been considered and based on the model results, appears worthy of increased attention. The system level analysis presented identifies important cell level parameters that have the greatest impact on the overall system performance, and as a result can help to set the priorities for future TPV cell development.

  16. Photonic Crystal Emitters for Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelmakh, Veronika; Chan, Walker R; Joannopoulos, John D; Celanovic, Ivan; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of 2D photonic crystal (PhC) thermal emitters for a millimeter-scale hydrocarbon TPV microgenerator as a possible replacement for batteries in portable microelectronics, robotics, etc. In our TPV system, combustion heats a PhC emitter to incandescence and the resulting radiation is converted by a low-bandgap TPV cell. The PhC tailors the photonic density of states to produce spectrally confined thermal emission that matches the bandgap of the TPV cell, enabling high heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency. The work builds on a previously developed fabrication process to produce a square array of cylindrical cavities in a metal substrate. We will present ongoing incremental improvements in the optical and thermo-mechanical properties, the fabrication process, and the system integration, as recently combined with fabrication using novel materials, such as sputtered coatings, to enable a monolithic system. (paper)

  17. Heat Transfer Modelling of Glass Media within TPV Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas; Forbes, Ian; Penlington, Roger; Pearsall, Nicola

    2004-11-01

    Understanding and optimisation of heat transfer, and in particular radiative heat transfer in terms of spectral, angular and spatial radiation distributions is important to achieve high system efficiencies and high electrical power densities for thermophtovoltaics (TPV). This work reviews heat transfer models and uses the Discrete Ordinates method. Firstly one-dimensional heat transfer in fused silica (quartz glass) shields was examined for the common arrangement, radiator-air-glass-air-PV cell. It has been concluded that an alternative arrangement radiator-glass-air-PV cell with increased thickness of fused silica should have advantages in terms of improved transmission of convertible radiation and enhanced suppression of non-convertible radiation.

  18. Super-Planckian Thermophotovoltaics Without Vacuum Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmoosa, M. S.; Biehs, S.-A.; Simovski, C. R.

    2017-11-01

    We introduce the concept of a thermophotovoltaic system whose emitter is separated from the photovoltaic cell by an intermediate thick slab of gallium arsenide. Owing to the engineered structure of the emitter (a multilayer structure of negative- and positive-ɛ layers) together with a high refractiveindex and transparency of the intermediate slab, we achieve a super-Planckian and frequency-selective spectrum of radiative heat transfer which is desirable for the efficient performance of thermophotovoltaic systems.

  19. Solar thermophotovoltaic system using nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungaro, Craig; Gray, Stephen K; Gupta, Mool C

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents results on a highly efficient experimental solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) system using simulated solar energy. An overall power conversion efficiency of 6.2% was recorded under solar simulation. This was matched with a thermodynamic model, and the losses within the system, as well as a path forward to mitigate these losses, have been investigated. The system consists of a planar, tungsten absorbing/emitting structure with an anti-reflection layer coated laser-microtextured absorbing surface and single-layer dielectric coated emitting surface. A GaSb PV cell was used to capture the emitted radiation and convert it into electrical energy. This simple structure is both easy to fabricate and temperature stable, and contains no moving parts or heat exchange fluids.

  20. Appropriate materials and preparation techniques for polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    1997-03-01

    Polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells have excellent potential for reducing the cost of TPV generators so as to address the hitherto inaccessible and highly competitive markets such as self-powered gas-fired residential warm air furnaces and energy-efficient electric cars, etc. Recent progress in polycrystalline-thin-film solar cells have made it possible to satisfy the diffusion length and intrinsic junction rectification criteria for TPV cells operating at high fluences. Continuous ranges of direct bandgaps of the ternary and pseudoternary compounds such as Hg1-xCdxTe, Pb1-xCdxTe, Hg1-xZnxTe, and Pb1-xZnxS cover the region of interest of 0.50-0.75 eV for efficient TPV conversion. Other ternary and pseudoternary compounds which show direct bandgaps in most of or all of the 0.50-0.75 eV range are Pb1-xZnxTe, Sn1-xCd2xTe2, Pb1-xCdxSe, Pb1-xZnxSe, and Pb1-xCdxS. Hg1-xCdxTe (with x~0.21) has been studied extensively for infrared detectors. PbTe and Pb1-xSnxTe have also been studied for infrared detectors. Not much work has been carried out on Hg1-xZnxTe thin films. Hg1-xCdxTe and Pb1-xCdxTe alloys cover a wide range of cut-off wavelengths from the far infrared to the near visible. Acceptors and donors are introduced in these materials by excess non-metal (Te) and excess metal (Hg and Pb) respectively. Extrinsic acceptor impurities are Cu, Au, and As while and In and Al are donor impurities. Hg1-xCdxTe thin films have been deposited by isothermal vapor-phase epitaxy (VPE), liquid phase epitaxy (LPE), hot-wall metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), electrodeposition, sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), laser-assisted evaporation, and vacuum evaporation with or without hot-wall enclosure. The challenge in the preparation of Hg1-xCdxTe is to provide excess mercury incidence rate, to optimize the deposition parameters for enhanced mercury incorporation, and to achieve the requisite stoichiometry, grain size, and doping. MBE and MOCVD

  1. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology (Survey of peripheral element technologies - Survey of novel voltaic cell structure solar cell development); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - shinhatsuden soshi kozo taiyo denchi kaitaku no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The present state and trend are surveyed of organic ferroelectric thin films, new carbon materials, fullerene compounds, and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power. In the study of organic ferroelectric thin-film solar cells, the effort still remains at the basic stage, with the conversion rate as low as 3% in Europe and 2% in Japan. The progress of basic studies, however, is worth attention. It is deemed that 15% is the photoconversion rate to be currently expected from new carbon material solar cells. Fullerene compounds include some semiconductors whose bandgap values may be controlled across a 0.75-1.95eV range, and they may find their place in thin-film solar cells. However, their physical properties are not fully known, and their development into devices such as solar cells is scarcely reported. The research and development of TPV in the U.S. is led by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), with their efforts concentrated on the development of portable power sources utilizing combustion heat. In Europe, TPV application to small-scale residential cogeneration systems is under study. (NEDO)

  2. The Status of Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Technology at Lockheed Martin Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EJ Brown; PF Baldasaro; SR Burger; LR Danielson; DM DePoy; JM Dolatowski; PM Fourspring; GJ Nichols; WF Topper; TD Rahmlow

    2004-07-29

    In a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system, a heated surface radiates in the mid-infrared range onto photocells which are sensitive at these energies. Part of the absorbed energy is converted into electric output. Conversion efficiency is maximized by reducing the absorption of non-convertible energy with some form of spectral control. In a TPV system, many technology options exist. Our development efforts have concentrated on flat-plate geometries with greybody radiators, front surface tandem filters and a multi-chip module (MCM) approach that allows selective fabrication processes to match cell performance. Recently, we discontinued development of GaInAsSb quaternary cell semiconductor material in favor of ternary GaInAs material. In our last publication (Ref. 1), the authors reported conversion efficiencies of about 20% (radiator 950 C, cells 22 C) for small modules (1-4 cm{sup 2}) tested in a prototypic cavity test environment. Recently, we have achieved measured conversion efficiencies of about 12.5% in larger ({approx}100 cm{sup 2}) test arrays. The efficiency reduction in the larger arrays was probably due to quality and variation of the cells as well as non-uniform illumination from the hot radiator to the cold plate. Modules in these tests used GaInAsSb cells with 0.52 eV bandgap and front surface filters for spectral control. This paper provides details of the individual system components and the rationale for our technical decisions. It also describes the measurement techniques used to record these efficiencies.

  3. 0.52eV Quaternary InGaAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Diode Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MW Dashiell; JF Beausang; G Nichols; DM Depoy; LR Danielson; H Ehsani; KD Rahner; J Azarkevich; P Talamo; E Brown; S Burger; P Fourspring; W Topper; PF Baldasaro; CA Wang; R Huang; M Connors; G Turner; Z Shellenbarger; G Taylor; Jizhong Li; R Marinelli; D Donetski; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryi; DR Taylor; J Hazel

    2004-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes fabricated from 0.52eV lattice-matched InGaAsSb alloys are grown by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) on GaSb substrates. 4cm 2 multi-chip diode modules with front-surface spectral filters were tested in a vacuum cavity and attained measured efficiency and power density of 19% and 0.58 W/cm 2 respectively at operating at temperatures of T radiator = 950 C and T diode = 27 C. Device modeling and minority carrier lifetime measurements of double heterostructure lifetime specimens indicate that diode conversion efficiency is limited predominantly by interface recombination and photon energy loss to the GaSb substrate and back ohmic contact. Recent improvements to the diode include lattice-matched p-type AlGaAsSb passivating layers with interface recombination velocities less than 100 cm/s and new processing techniques enabling thinned substrates and back surface reflectors. Modeling predictions of these improvements to the diode architecture indicate that conversion efficiencies from 27-30% and ∼0.85 W/cm 2 could be attained under the above operating temperatures

  4. Design and fabrication of spectrally selective emitter for thermophotovoltaic system by using nano-imprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Moo; Park, Keum-Hwan; Kim, Da-Som; Hwang, Bo-yeon; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Chae, Hee-Man; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Young-Seok

    2018-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems have attracted attention as promising power generation systems that can directly convert the radiant energy produced by the combustion of fuel into electrical energy. However, there is a fundamental limit of their conversion efficiency due to the broadband distribution of the radiant spectrum. To overcome this problem, several spectrally selective thermal emitter technologies have been investigated, including the fabrication of photonic crystal (PhC) structures. In this paper, we present some design rules based on finite-a difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results for tungsten (W) PhC emitter. The W 2D PhC was fabricated by a simple nano-imprint lithography (NIL) process, and inductive coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) with an isotropic etching process, the benefits and parameters of which are presented. The fabricated W PhC emitter showed spectrally selective emission near the infrared wavelength range, and the optical properties varied depending on the size of the nano-patterns. The measured results of the fabricated prototype structure correspond well to the simulated values. Finally, compared with the performance of a flat W emitter, the total thermal emitter efficiency was almost 3.25 times better with the 2D W PhC structure.

  5. Analysis of solar thermophotovoltaic test data from experiments performed at McDonnell Douglas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, K.W.; Kusek, S.M.; Drubka, R.E. [McDonnell Douglas, 5301 Bolsa Avenue, Huntington Beach, California 92647 (United States); Fay, T.D. [21911 Bacalar, Mission Viejo, California 92692 (United States)

    1995-01-05

    Solar thermophotovoltaic power systems offer potentially high system efficiency for solar energy to electrical energy conversion and attractive system advantages. McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) has been investigating this technology for both space and terrestrial applications for several years. A testbed prototype was designed, built, and tested on a 90 kW{sub t} dish concentrator at the MDA solar test facility. Twelve experiments were conducted with absorber temperatures in excess of 1300 {degree}C being achieved using only a fraction of the reflected power from the 90 kW{sub t} dish concentrator. This paper discusses the solar thermophotovoltaic testbed prototype unit, test data, and presents an analysis of the unit`s performance. A combination of analytical analysis and test data is used to obtain an understanding of the system and subsystem performance. The preliminary results of these tests and analysis indicate a solar thermophotovoltaic power system can achieve high system performance. Furthermore, system demonstrations are possible utilizing a combination of current off-the-shelf hardware components and components currently being tested in laboratories. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  6. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion in Space Nuclear Reactor Power Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Presby, Andrew L

    2004-01-01

    .... This has potential benefits for space nuclear reactor power systems currently in development. The primary obstacle to space operation of thermophotovoltaic devices appears to be the low heat rejection temperatures which necessitate large radiator areas...

  7. A Germanium Back Contact Type Thermophotovoltaic Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Tomonori; Okumura, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2007-01-01

    A Ge back contact type photovoltaic cell has been proposed to reduce resistance loss for high current densities in thermophotovoltaic systems. The back contact structure requires less surface recombination velocities than conventional structures with front grid contacts. A SiO2/SiNx double anti-reflection coating including a high refractive index SiNx layer was studied. The SiNx layer has an enough passivation effect to obtain high efficiency. The quantum efficiency of the Ge cell was around 0.8 in the 800-1600 nm wavelength range. The conversion efficiency for infrared lights was estimated at 18% for a blackbody surface and 25% for a selective emitter by using the quantum efficiency and a simulation analysis

  8. Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of molten thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV) through large amplitude harmonic experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, Jean L. [University P. and M. Curie-Paris 6, Polymer Rheology and Processing, Vitry-sur-Seine (France)

    2007-10-15

    The so-called thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV) are essentially blends of a crystalline thermoplastic polymer (e.g., polypropylene) and a vulcanizable rubber composition, prepared through a special process called dynamic vulcanization, which yields a fine dispersion of micron-size crosslinked rubber particles in a thermoplastic matrix. Such materials are by nature complex polymer systems, i.e., multiphase, heterogeneous, typically disordered materials for which structure is as important as composition. Correctly assessing their rheological properties is a challenging task for several reasons: first, even if the uniformity of their composition is taken for granted, TPV are indeed very complicated materials, not only heterogeneous but also with a morphology related to their composition; second, their morphology can be affected by the flow field used; third, the migration of small labile ingredients (e.g., oil, curative residue, etc.) can in the meantime significantly change the boundary flow conditions, for instance through self-lubrication due to phase separation of the oil, or wall slip, or both. The aims of the work reported were to investigate a series of commercial TPV through the so-called Fourier transform rheometry, a testing technique especially developed to accurately investigate the nonlinear viscoelastic domain. Results are tentatively interpreted in terms of material composition and structure. (orig.)

  9. Effect of addition of organo clay on mechanical properties and dynamic-mechanical based TPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honorato, Luciana R.; Silva, Adriana A.; Soares, Bluma G.; Soares, Ketly P.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of organophilic clay on the mechanical and dynamical-mechanical properties of thermoplastic elastomers based on polypropylene (PP) and nitrile rubber (NBR) was investigated. The addition of clay was performed from a master batch prepared by a solution intercalation of NBR inside the clay galleries. Since the PP/NBR blend is highly incompatible, PP functionalized with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) and carboxylated NBR (XNBR) were employed as compatibilizing system together with triethylene-tetramine (TETA) used as coupling agent. The addition of Clay inside the elastomeric phase of the TPV resulted in a significant decrease of the elongation at break without changes on the tensile strength. The presence of clay also promoted a slight increase of the storage modulus and the glass transition temperature. The small angle X ray scattering confirmed the high dispersion of clay inside the TPV. Analysis of light scattering small angle (SAXS) confirmed the high dispersion of clay in the matrix of the TPV. (author)

  10. Performance evaluation of thermophotovoltaic GaSb cell technology in high temperature waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utlu, Z.; Önal, B. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, waste heat was evaluated and examined by means of thermophotovoltaic systems with the application of energy production potential GaSb cells. The aim of our study is to examine GaSb cell technology at high temperature waste heat. The evaluation of the waste heat to be used in the system is designed to be used in the electricity, industry and iron and steel industry. Our work is research. Graphic analysis is done with Matlab program. The high temperature waste heat graphs applied on the GaSb cell are in the results section. Our study aims to provide a source for future studies.

  11. Examination of thermophotovoltaic GaSb cell technology in low and medium temperatures waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utlu, Z.; Önal, B. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, waste heat was evaluated and examined by means of thermophotovoltaic systems with the application of energy production potential GaSb cells. The aim of our study is to examine GaSb cell technology at low and medium temperature waste heat. The evaluation of the waste heat to be used in the system is designed to be used in the electricity, industry and iron and steel industry. Our work is research. Graphic analysis is done with Matlab program. The low and medium temperature waste heat graphs applied on the GaSb cell are in the results section. Our study aims to provide a source for future studies.

  12. Triple-axis X-ray reciprocal space mapping of In{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}As thermophotovoltaic diodes grown on (1 0 0) InP substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashiell, M.W.; Ehsani, H.; Sander, P.C. [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Schenectady, NY 12301-1072 (United States); Newman, F.D. [Emcore Corporation, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States); Wang, C.A. [MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02420 (United States); Shellenbarger, Z.A. [Sarnoff Corporation, Princeton NJ, 08543-5300 (United States); Donetski, D.; Gu, N.; Anikeev, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2350 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Analysis of the composition, strain-relaxation, layer-tilt, and the crystalline quality of In{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}As/InP{sub 1-x}As{sub x} thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is demonstrated using triple-axis X-ray reciprocal space mapping techniques. In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (E{sub gap}=0.74 eV) n/p junction diodes are grown lattice matched (LM) to InP substrates and lattice-mismatched (LMM) In{sub 0.67}Ga{sub 0.33}As (E{sub gap}=0.6 eV) TPV diodes are grown on three-step InP{sub 1-x}As{sub x} (0TPV active layer and underlying InP{sub 1-x}As{sub x} buffers. Triple-axis X-ray rocking curves about the LMM In{sub 0.67}Ga{sub 0.33}As RELP show an order of magnitude increase of its full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) compared to that from the LM In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (250 vs. 30 arcsec). Despite the significant RELP broadening, the photovoltaic figure of merits show that the electronic quality of the LMM In{sub 0.67}Ga{sub 0.33}As approaches that of the LM diode material. This indicates that misfit-related crystalline imperfections are not dominating the photovoltaic response of the optimized LMM In{sub 0.67}Ga{sub 0.33}As material compared with the intrinsic recombination processes and/or recombination through native point defects, which would be present in both LMM and LM diode material. However, additional RELP broadening in non-optimized LMM In{sub 0.67}Ga{sub 0.33}As n/p junction diodes does correspond to significant degradation of TPV diode open-circuit voltage and minority carrier lifetime demonstrating that there is correlation between X-ray FWHM and the electronic performance of the LMM TPV diodes. (author)

  13. Graphene-on-Silicon Near-Field Thermophotovoltaic Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svetovoy, V. B.; Palasantzas, G.

    2014-01-01

    A graphene layer on top of a dielectric can dramatically influence the ability of the material for radiative heat transfer. This property of graphene is used to improve the performance and reduce costs of near-field thermophotovoltaic cells. Instead of low-band-gap semiconductors it is proposed to

  14. Modeling of InGaSb thermophotovoltaic cells and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zierak, M.; Borrego, J.M.; Bhat, I.; Gutmann, R.J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Charache, G. [Lockheed Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1997-05-01

    A closed form computer program has been developed for the simulation and optimization of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}Sb thermophotovoltaic cells operating at room temperature. The program includes material parameter models of the energy bandgap, optical absorption constant, electron and hole mobility, intrinsic carrier concentration and index of refraction for any composition of GaInSb alloys.

  15. Sunlight absorption engineering for thermophotovoltaics: contributions from the optical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez, Hernán

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, solar thermophotovoltaic systems constitute a platform in which sophisticated optical material designs are put into practice with the aim of achieving the long sought after dream of developing an efficient energy conversion device based on this concept. Recent advances demonstrate that higher efficiencies are at reach using photonic nanostructures amenable to mass production and scale-up. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of addition of organo clay on mechanical properties and dynamic-mechanical based TPV; Preparacao de termoplasticos vulcanizados dinamicamente (TPV) de NBR/PP com nanocargas de argila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honorato, Luciana R.; Silva, Adriana A.; Soares, Bluma G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Soares, Ketly P. [Centro Universitario do Leste de Minas Gerais (UNILESTEMG) - Coronel Fabriciano, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The effect of organophilic clay on the mechanical and dynamical-mechanical properties of thermoplastic elastomers based on polypropylene (PP) and nitrile rubber (NBR) was investigated. The addition of clay was performed from a master batch prepared by a solution intercalation of NBR inside the clay galleries. Since the PP/NBR blend is highly incompatible, PP functionalized with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) and carboxylated NBR (XNBR) were employed as compatibilizing system together with triethylene-tetramine (TETA) used as coupling agent. The addition of Clay inside the elastomeric phase of the TPV resulted in a significant decrease of the elongation at break without changes on the tensile strength. The presence of clay also promoted a slight increase of the storage modulus and the glass transition temperature. The small angle X ray scattering confirmed the high dispersion of clay inside the TPV. Analysis of light scattering small angle (SAXS) confirmed the high dispersion of clay in the matrix of the TPV. (author)

  17. High-Performance, 0.6-eV, GA0.32In0.68As/In0.32P0.68 Thermophotovoltaic Converters and Monolithically Interconnected Modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, A.; Murray, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of high-performance, 0.6-eV Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters and monolithically interconnected modules (MIMs) is described. The converter structure design is based on using a lattice-matched InAs0.32P0.68/Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 double-heterostructure (DH) device, which is grown lattice-mismatched on an InP substrate, with an intervening compositionally step-graded region of InAsyP1-y. The Ga0.32In0.68As alloy has a room-temperature band gap of 0.6 eV and contains a p/n junction. The InAs0.32P0.68 layers have a room-temperature band gap of 0.96 eV and serve as passivation/confinement layers for the Ga0.32In0.68As p/n junction. InAsyP1-y step grades have yielded DH converters with superior electronic quality and performance characteristics. Details of the microstructure of the converters are presented. Converters prepared for this work were grown by atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (APMOVPE) and were processed using a combination of photolithography, wet-chemical etching, and conventional metal and insulator deposition techniques. Excellent performance characteristics have been demonstrated for the 0.6-eV TPV converters. Additionally, the implementation of MIM technology in these converters has been highly successful

  18. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology (Survey and research on practical application - Volume 1); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsauden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A 'Sub-committee for investigation of crystalline compound semiconductor solar cells' was established with the participation of experts from the industrial, bureaucratic, and academic circles to support the manufacture of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cells, and a survey was conducted about technical trends relating to III-V group compound solar cells. In the study of the trends and tasks of the state of the art technology, it is stated that the III-V group compound semiconductor multi-junction solar cell was steadily improving in efficiency, that the InGaP/GaAs 2-junction cell on a Ge substrate and InGaP/GaAs/Ge 3-junction cell in particular were moving toward mass production, and that the target for the 4-junction cell to achieve was 40% or higher in efficiency. For cost reduction, investigations were made into the heteroepitaxial technology, dimensional enlargement, mass production, raw material cost reduction, feasibility of the polycrystalline thin-film technology, light concentration, etc. For efficiency improvement, boundary layer control, structure designs, etc., were studied. Investigations were also conducted into nitride semiconductors, superlattice construction, etc., which related to new materials for thin films. TPV (thermophotovoltaic) power, etc., were reviewed for their practical application. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology (Survey of peripheral element technologies - Survey of environmental adaptation of next-generation solar cell development); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - jisedai taiyo denchi kaihatsu kankyo tekioka chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Surveys are conducted of photovoltaic power system development projects and their utilization in Japan and overseas, and a discussion is made on the progress, technical challenges, effects, and implementation systems relating to the solar cell application technology development project under the New Sunshine Program. Compiled in the report are the results of surveys of the research and development of photovoltaic power systems and their diffusion in the U.S. and European nations, and the research and development strategies for and the trends of the development of various types of solar cells in these countries. The trends of research and development of non-conventional type solar cells are also collected, which include 3 cases of TPV (thermophotovoltaic) devices, 5 cases of new inorganic materials, 1 case of new organic materials, and 4 cases of dye-sensitized solar cells. In relation to the status of resources of crystalline compound-based solar cell materials, raw materials for solar cells other than silicon are taken up, and their reserves, manufacturing methods, quantities yielded and consumed, costs, etc., are surveyed. These are all taken into consideration in discussing the basic approach to the study of future research and development as it ought to be. (NEDO)

  20. Lapped substrate for enhanced backsurface reflectivity in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasaro, Paul F; Brown, Edward J; Charache, Greg W; DePoy, David M

    2000-01-01

    A method for fabricating a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell including a thin semiconductor wafer substrate (10) having a thickness (.beta.) calculated to decrease the free carrier absorption on a heavily doped substrate; wherein the top surface of the semiconductor wafer substrate is provided with a thermophotovoltaic device (11), a metallized grid (12) and optionally an antireflective (AR) overcoating; and, the bottom surface (10') of the semiconductor wafer substrate (10) is provided with a highly reflecting coating which may comprise a metal coating (14) or a combined dielectric/metal coating (17).

  1. Bulk single crystal ternary substrates for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charache, Greg W.; Baldasaro, Paul F.; Nichols, Greg J.

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device and a method for making the device. The device includes a substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material having a bandgap (E.sub.g) of 0.4 eVternary or quaternary III-V semiconductor active layers.

  2. Performance characteristics and parametric choices of a solar thermophotovoltaic cell at the maximum efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Qingchun; Liao, Tianjun; Yang, Zhimin; Chen, Xiaohang; Chen, Jincan

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The overall model of the solar thermophotovoltaic cell (STPVC) composed of an optical lens, an absorber, an emitter, and a photovoltaic (PV) cell with an integrated back-side reflector is updated to include various irreversible losses. - Highlights: • A new model of the irreversible solar thermophotovoltaic system is proposed. • The material and structure parameters of the system are considered. • The performance characteristics at the maximum efficiency are revealed. • The optimal values of key parameters are determined. • The system can obtain a large efficiency under a relative low concentration ratio. - Abstract: The overall model of the solar thermophotovoltaic cell (STPVC) composed of an optical lens, an absorber, an emitter, and a photovoltaic (PV) cell with an integrated back-side reflector is updated to include various irreversible losses. The power output and efficiency of the cell are analytically derived. The performance characteristics of the STPVC at the maximum efficiency are revealed. The optimum values of several important parameters, such as the voltage output of the PV cell, the area ratio of the absorber to the emitter, and the band-gap of the semiconductor material, are determined. It is found that under the condition of a relative low concentration ratio, the optimally designed STPVC can obtain a relative large efficiency.

  3. Comportamento sob fluência em elastômeros termoplásticos vulcanizados baseados em poliamida 6 e borracha nitrílica Creep behavior of polyamide 6/nitrylic rubber TPV's blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. O. Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os materiais testados neste trabalho são o resultado de um estudo do uso de aditivos e compatibilizantes na mistura de poliamida 6 (PA6 e borracha nitrílica (NBR, realizado com o objetivo de melhorar suas propriedades mecânicas e facilitar o processamento da mistura. Fluência ("creep" é um teste mecânico importante ao simular a aplicação final do material de engenharia, possibilitando a previsão do desempenho de modo comparativo. Entretanto, é um teste pouco explorado na caracterização de TPV's. A melhora nas propriedades com a adição de aditivos e a eficiência do processo de compatibilização pode ser observada através da variação na compliância das amostras analisadas. Os resultados são correlacionados usando testes de densidade, teor de gel, resistência à tração e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O presente trabalho mostra que é possível avaliar um material em condições semelhantes à aplicação final em um teste rápido e com gasto mínimo de material.The materials tested in this work are the result of a study involving the use of additives and compatibilization in blends of PA6 and NBR, which was aimed at enhancing the mechanical properties and processability of the blend. Creep is an important mechanical test since it simulates the final application of the material, allowing a prediction of material performance, in a comparative way. However, this is a test seldom explored in the characterization of TPV's. The enhancement of the properties induced by additives and the efficiency of compatibilization process can be observed through the analysis of changes in the compliance of the samples. The results are correlated using measurements of density, gel content, tension strength and scanning electron microscopy. The present work shows it to be possible to evaluate a material under conditions similar to those in the final applications, in a fast test and with minimal material waste.

  4. Solid State Energy Conversion for Deep Space Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices employed in static radioisotope generators show great promise for highly efficient, reliable, and resilient power generation for...

  5. Thermal Fluid Analysis of the Heat Sink and Chip Carrier Assembly for a US Army Research Laboratory Liquid-Fueled Thermophotovoltaic Power Source Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    temperatures above 500 °C.1 Figure 1 describes the primary components of a TPV system : a heat source, an emitter, and a photovoltaic converter. The heat...carrier surface not covered by the photovoltaic cell. 4. Mesh The mesh was set to level 3 with the minimum gap size manually set to 0.01 inch. A...heat sink to control the temperature of the photovoltaic cell while exposed to radiation from the emitter. 15. SUBJECT TERMS TPV

  6. Development of a small air-cooled ``midnight sun'' thermophotovoltaic electric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Lewis M.; Xiang, Huang Han; Hui, She; Ferguson, Luke; Samaras, John; Ballantyne, Russ; Seal, Michael; West, Ed

    1996-02-01

    A natural gas fired thermophotovoltaic generator using infrared-sensitive GaSb cells and a silicon carbide emitter is described. The emitter is designed to operate at 1400 °C. Twelve GaSb receivers surround the emitter. Each receiver contains a string of series connected cells. Special infrared filters are bonded to each cell. These filters transmit short wavelength useful IR to the cells while reflecting longer wavelength IR back to the emitter. Combustion air is supplied to the burner through a counterflow heat exchanger where the air is preheated by the exhaust from the burner. The unit is air cooled and designed to produce approximately 100 Watts of electric power.

  7. Parametric characteristics of a solar thermophotovoltaic system at the maximum efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Tianjun; Chen, Xiaohang; Yang, Zhimin; Lin, Bihong; Chen, Jincan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A model of the far-field TPVC driven by solar energy, which consists of an optical concentrator, an absorber, an emitter, and a PV cell and is simply referred as to the far-field STPVS. - Highlights: • A model of the far-field solar thermophotovoltaic system (STPVS) is established. • External and internal irreversible losses are considered. • The maximum efficiency of the STPVS is calculated. • Optimal values of key parameters at the maximum efficiency are determined. • Effects of the concentrator factor on the performance of the system are discussed. - Abstract: A model of the solar thermophotovoltaic system (STPVS) consisting of an optical concentrator, a thermal absorber, an emitter, and a photovoltaic (PV) cell is proposed, where the far-field thermal emission between the emitter and the PV cell, the radiation losses from the absorber and emitter to the environment, the reflected loss from the absorber, and the finite-rate heat exchange between the PV cell and the environment are taken into account. Analytical expressions for the power output of and overall efficiency of the STPVS are derived. By solving thermal equilibrium equations, the operating temperatures of the emitter and PV cell are determined and the maximum efficiency of the system is calculated numerically for given values of the output voltage of the PV cell and the ratio of the front surface area of the absorber to that of the emitter. For different bandgaps, the maximum efficiencies of the system are calculated and the corresponding optimum values of several operating parameters are obtained. The effects of the concentrator factor on the optimum performance of the system are also discussed.

  8. Metamaterial-based integrated plasmonic absorber/emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chihhui; Neuner III, Burton; Shvets, Gennady; John, Jeremy; Milder, Andrew; Zollars, Byron; Savoy, Steve

    2012-01-01

    We present the concept of a solar thermo-photovoltaic (STPV) collection system based on a large-area, nanoimprint-patterned film of plasmonic structures acting as an integrated solar absorber/narrow-band thermal emitter (SANTE). The SANTE film concept is based on integrating broad-band solar radiation absorption with selective narrow-band thermal IR radiation which can be efficiently coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) cell for power generation. By employing a low reflectivity refractory metal (e.g., tungsten) as a plasmonic material, we demonstrate that the absorption spectrum of the SANTE film can be designed to be broad-band in the visible range and narrow-band in the infrared range. A detailed balance calculation demonstrates that the total STPV system efficiency exceeds the Shockley–Queisser limit for emitter temperatures above T e = 1200 K, and achieves an efficiency as high as 41% for T e = 2300 K. Emitter temperatures in this range are shown to be achievable under modest sun concentrations (less than 1000 suns) due to the thermal insulation provided by the SANTE film. An experimental demonstration of the wide-angle, frequency-selective absorptivity is presented

  9. Radiative heat transfer enhancement using geometric and spectral control for achieving high-efficiency solar-thermophotovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohiyama, Asaka; Shimizu, Makoto; Yugami, Hiroo

    2018-04-01

    We numerically investigate radiative heat transfer enhancement using spectral and geometric control of the absorber/emitter. A high extraction of the radiative heat transfer from the emitter as well as minimization of the optical losses from the absorber leads to high extraction and solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) system efficiency. The important points for high-efficiency STPV design are discussed for the low and high area ratio of the absorber/emitter. The obtained general guideline will support the design of various types of STPV systems.

  10. Effect of updated data base and improved analysis on performance of radioisotope thermophotovoltaic converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.T.

    1996-01-01

    Previous analyses of RTPV space power systems published by the authors were based on a number of approximations employed to permit early dissemination of preliminary results pending availability of fuller experimental data need3d to conduct more rigorous analyses. Among those approximations were: (1) the use of limited test data and optimistic projections of the spectral transmissivity of the RTPV's selective IR filters and of the spectral quantum efficiency of the GaSb PV cells; (2) the use of theoretical formulas instead of experimental measurements of the PV cell's open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and optimum voltage instead of its measured current-voltage characteristics; (3) rough estimates of the TPV converter's active-area fraction instead of computed values based on detailed designs; (4) inadequate accounting for the effect of radiation reflected by the IR filter and absorbed by the emitter in reducing the generator's required heat input; and (5) omission of the shadowing effect and ohmic losses caused by the PV cell's grid lines. The above-listed shortcomings of the previously published analyses are addressed in the present paper, which describes revised analyses based on recently obtained experimental data of IR filter reflectivities and PV cell quantum efficiencies and current-voltage characteristic, measured by EDTEK under an OSC-initiated subcontract to its ongoing DOE contract. Their test results show that EDTEK has been eminently successful in improving the reflectivities of the IR filters and in reproducing the quantum efficiencies of Boeing's best PV cells, but their initial (Dec-95) PV cell fell far short of matching the open-circuit voltages and fill factors predicted by theory

  11. Performance evaluation and parametric optimum design of a molten carbonate fuel cell-thermophotovoltaic cell hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhimin; Liao, Tianjun; Zhou, Yinghui; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A molten carbonate fuel cell-thermophotovoltaic cell hybrid system is established. • The performance characteristics of the hybrid system are systematically evaluated. • The optimal regions of the power output density and efficiency are determined. • The values of key parameters at the maximum power output density are calculated. • The proposed system is proved to have advantages over other hybrid systems. - Abstract: A new model of the hybrid system composed of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a thermophotovoltaic cell (TPVC) is proposed to recovery the waste heat produced by the MCFC. Expressions for the power output and the efficiency of the hybrid system are analytically derived. The performance characteristics of the hybrid system are evaluated. It is found that when the current density of the MCFC, voltage output of the TPVC, electrode area ratio of the MCFC to the TPVC, and energy gap of the material in the photovoltaic cell are optimally chosen, the maximum power output density of the hybrid system is obviously larger than that of the single MCFC. Moreover, the improved percentages of the maximum power output density of the proposed model relative to that of the single MCFC are calculated for differently operating temperatures of the MCFC and are compared with those of some MCFC-based hybrid systems reported in the literature, and consequently, the advantages of the MCFC-TPVC hybrid system are revealed.

  12. Thermophotovoltaic cells based on In0.53Ga0.47As/InP heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, L. B.; Vlasov, A. S.; Kulagina, M. M.; Timoshina, N. Kh.

    2006-01-01

    Reflection of infrared radiation from n-InP substrates with a rear MgF 2 /Au mirror is investigated in the wavelength range 1000-2200 nm. It is found that the reflectance weakly depends on substrate thickness and free-carrier concentration in the (0.1-6) x 10 18 cm -3 range. Thermophotovoltaic cells based on the InP/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As lattice-matched heterostructure of p-n and n-p are fabricated by liquid-phase epitaxy and Zn and P diffusion from a gas phase. The characteristics of p-n and n-p thermophotovoltaic cells with an identical configuration of the contacts of 1 cm 2 area are determined. These characteristics are the open-circuit voltage U oc = 0.465 V, the filling factor FF = 64% at the current density of 1 A/cm 2 , and the reflectance R = 76-80% for wavelengths longer than 1.86 μm

  13. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Research and survey of peripheral element technologies (Research and survey for development of solar cell of new power generation device structure); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (shinhatsuden soshi kozo taiyo denchi kaitaku no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Attention is paid to behavior at the molecular level with reference taken to the photosynthetic mechanism, and a behavioral mechanism is proposed, which incorporates, in place of the conventional band model, a concept of a molecular structure based on electron transfer, excitation energy transfer, and reactions of oxidation and reduction. Discussion is then made on elements of technology development for the embodiment of high-efficiency organic ferroelectric thin-film solar cells. The elements taken up include the feasibility of organic ferroelectric thin-film cells, photoelctric conversion systems of plants and photosynthetic bacteria, solar cells using donor-acceptor type dyes, organic thin-film solar cells using conductive polymers, and efficient photoexcitation of organic dyes. Fullerene compounds are semiconductive and their band gaps may be controlled to stay within the range of 0.75-1.9eV, and this justifies a hope that they will serve as solar cells. As for TPV (thermophotovoltaic) conversion, it is under development mainly at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) as a transportable power source based on heat of combustion. Efforts are also being exerted since 1990 in five European countries to develop TPV systems for small-scale cogeneration. (NEDO)

  14. Hybrid thermionic-photovoltaic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datas, A. [Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-04

    A conceptual device for the direct conversion of heat into electricity is presented. This concept hybridizes thermionic (TI) and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion in a single thermionic-photovoltaic (TIPV) solid-state device. This device transforms into electricity both the electron and photon fluxes emitted by an incandescent surface. This letter presents an idealized analysis of this device in order to determine its theoretical potential. According to this analysis, the key advantage of this converter, with respect to either TPV or TI, is the higher power density in an extended temperature range. For low temperatures, TIPV performs like TPV due to the negligible electron flux. On the contrary, for high temperatures, TIPV performs like TI due to the great enhancement of the electron flux, which overshadows the photon flux contribution. At the intermediate temperatures, ∼1650 K in the case of this particular study, I show that the power density potential of TIPV converter is twice as great as that of TPV and TI. The greatest impact concerns applications in which the temperature varies in a relatively wide range, for which averaged power density enhancement above 500% is attainable.

  15. High efficiency thermal to electric energy conversion using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Flood, Dennis J.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1992-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1500 K. Depending on the nature of parasitic losses, overall thermal-to-electric conversion efficiencies greater than 20 percent are feasible.

  16. Vpliv kaizna na proizvodno linijo podjetja TPV d.d.

    OpenAIRE

    Gramc, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Domnevamo lahko, da je filozofija Kaizen eden od vzrokov in hkrati motivator za dolgoročno konkurenčno prednost podjetja. Koncept je definiran kot obsežen organizacijski proces, osredotočen na kontinuiteto izboljšav in načrtno vključevanje vsakega posameznika v organizaciji v iskanje izboljšav. Zato je lahko prav Kaizen eden ključnih pokazateljev, ki loči med uspehom enih in odpovedjo oziroma propadom drugih podjetij. Razmere, ki jih dandanes srečujemo v podjetju (razne napake, strojelomi...

  17. High efficiency direct thermal to electric energy conversion from radioisotope decay using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Flood, Dennis J.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1993-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1200K. Both selective emitter and filter system TPV systems are feasible. However, requirements on the filter system are severe in order to attain high efficiency. A thin-film of a rare-earth oxide is one method for producing an efficient, rugged selective emitter. An efficiency of 0.14 and power density of 9.2 W/KG at 1200K is calculated for a hypothetical thin-film neodymia (Nd2O3) selective emitter TPV system that uses radioisotope decay as the thermal energy source.

  18. High efficiency direct thermal to electric energy conversion from radioisotope decay using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, D.L.; Flood, D.J.; Lowe, R.A.

    1993-08-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1200K. Both selective emitter and filter system TPV systems are feasible. However, requirements on the filter system are severe in order to attain high efficiency. A thin-film of a rare-earth oxide is one method for producing an efficient, rugged selective emitter. An efficiency of 0.14 and power density of 9.2 W/KG at 1200K is calculated for a hypothetical thin-film neodymia (Nd2O3) selective emitter TPV system that uses radioisotope decay as the thermal energy source

  19. Radiative sky cooling: fundamental physics, materials, structures, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingshu; Sun, Yubo; Zhou, Zhiguang; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Bermel, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Radiative sky cooling reduces the temperature of a system by promoting heat exchange with the sky; its key advantage is that no input energy is required. We will review the origins of radiative sky cooling from ancient times to the modern day, and illustrate how the fundamental physics of radiative cooling calls for a combination of properties that may not occur in bulk materials. A detailed comparison with recent modeling and experiments on nanophotonic structures will then illustrate the advantages of this recently emerging approach. Potential applications of these radiative cooling materials to a variety of temperature-sensitive optoelectronic devices, such as photovoltaics, thermophotovoltaics, rectennas, and infrared detectors, will then be discussed. This review will conclude by forecasting the prospects for the field as a whole in both terrestrial and space-based systems.

  20. Radiative sky cooling: fundamental physics, materials, structures, and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xingshu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiative sky cooling reduces the temperature of a system by promoting heat exchange with the sky; its key advantage is that no input energy is required. We will review the origins of radiative sky cooling from ancient times to the modern day, and illustrate how the fundamental physics of radiative cooling calls for a combination of properties that may not occur in bulk materials. A detailed comparison with recent modeling and experiments on nanophotonic structures will then illustrate the advantages of this recently emerging approach. Potential applications of these radiative cooling materials to a variety of temperature-sensitive optoelectronic devices, such as photovoltaics, thermophotovoltaics, rectennas, and infrared detectors, will then be discussed. This review will conclude by forecasting the prospects for the field as a whole in both terrestrial and space-based systems.

  1. A Monolithic Interconnected module with a tunnel Junction for Enhanced Electrical and Optical Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Christopher Sean; Wilt, David Morgan

    1999-06-30

    An improved thermophotovoltaic (TPV) n/p/n device is provided. Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMs), semiconductor devices converting infrared radiation to electricity, have been developed with improved electrical and optical performance. The structure is an n-type emitter on a p-type base with an n-type lateral conduction layer. The incorporation of a tunnel junction and the reduction in the amount of p-type material used results in negligible parasitic absorption, decreased series resistance, increased voltage and increased active area. The novel use of a tunnel junction results in the potential for a TPV device with efficiency greater than 24%.

  2. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    OpenAIRE

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drevillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the r...

  3. Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1998-04-01

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

  4. Thick sputtered tantalum coatings for high-temperature energy conversion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelmakh, Veronika, E-mail: stelmakh@mit.edu; Peykov, Daniel; Chan, Walker R.; Senkevich, Jay J.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Celanovic, Ivan [Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Castillo, Robert; Coulter, Kent; Wei, Ronghua [Materials Engineering Department, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Thick sputtered tantalum (Ta) coatings on polished Inconel were investigated as a potential replacement for bulk refractory metal substrates used for high-temperature emitters and absorbers in thermophotovoltaic energy conversion applications. In these applications, high-temperature stability and high reflectance of the surface in the infrared wavelength range are critical in order to sustain operational temperatures and reduce losses due to waste heat. The reflectance of the coatings (8 and 30 μm) was characterized with a conformal protective hafnia layer as-deposited and after one hour anneals at 700, 900, and 1100 °C. To further understand the high-temperature performance of the coatings, the microstructural evolution was investigated as a function of annealing temperature. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the texture and residual stress in the coatings at four reflections (220, 310, 222, and 321), as-deposited and after anneal. No significant changes in roughness, reflectance, or stress were observed. No delamination or cracking occurred, even after annealing the coatings at 1100 °C. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the thick Ta coatings are a promising alternative to bulk substrates and pave the way for a relatively low-cost and easily integrated platform for nanostructured devices in high-temperature energy conversion applications.

  5. Development of solar thermophotovoltaic systems = Desarrollo de sistemas termofotovoltaicos solares

    OpenAIRE

    Datas Medina, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Esta tesis aborda el análisis, tanto teórico como experimental, de los sitemas termofotovoltaicos solares. En estos sistemas, un material (emisor) se calienta hasta la incandescencia mediante radiaci ón solar. La radiación térmica emitida por dicho material se dirige hacia una célula fotovoltaica, que convierte dicha radiación en electricidad. En esta configuración, se pueden emplear elementos de control espectral para lograr que los fotones no útiles para el proceso de conversión fotovoltáic...

  6. Advanced Radiative Emitters for Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are critical for future flagship exploration missions in space and on planetary surfaces. Small improvements in the RPS performance,...

  7. Preparation and Properties of Novel Thermoplastic Vulcanizate Based on Bio-Based Polyester/Polylactic Acid, and Its Application in 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV combines the high elasticity of elastomers and excellent processability of thermoplastics. Novel bio-based TPV based on poly (lactide (PLA and poly (1,4-butanediol/2,3-butanediol/succinate/itaconic acid (PBBSI were prepared in this research. PBBSI copolyesters were synthesized by melting polycondensation, and the molecular weights, chemical structures and compositions of the copolyesters were characterized by GPC, NMR and FTIR. Bio-based 2,3-butanediol was successfully incorporated to depress the crystallization behavior of the PBBSI copolyester. With an increase of 2,3-butanediol content, the PBBSI copolyester transformed from a rigid plastic to a soft elastomer. Furthermore, the obtained TPV has good elasticity and rheological properties, which means it can be applied as a 3D-printing material.

  8. Modeling of Photonic Band Gap Crystals and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kady, Ihab Fathy [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    research that involves the interplay of metallic-PBG rejection and photonic band edge absorption. They propose that an absolute metallic-PBG may be used to suppress the infrared part of the blackbody emission and, emit its energy only through a sharp absorption band. Potential applications of this new PBG mechanism include highly efficient incandescent lamps and enhanced thermophotovoltaic energy conversion. The suggested lamp would be able to recycle the energy that would otherwise go into the unwanted heat associated with usual lamps, into light emitted in the visible spectrum. It is estimated this would increase the efficiency over conventional lamps by about 40%.

  9. Finite element analysis of ARPS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhkamp, J.D.; McDougal, J.R.; Kramer, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    Algor finite element software was used to determine the stresses and deflections in the metallic walls of Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS) designs. The preliminary design review of these systems often neglects the structural integrity of the design which can effect fabrication and the end use of the design. Before finite element analysis (FEA) was run on the canister walls of the thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator, hand calculations were used to approximate the stresses and deflections in a flat plate. These results compared favorably to the FEA results of a similar size flat plate. The AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Conversion) cells were analyzed by FEA and the results compared to two cells that were mechanically tested. The mechanically tested cells buckled in the thin sections, one at the top and one in the lower section. The FEA predicted similar stress and shape results but the critical buckling load was found to be very shape dependent

  10. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drévillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the radiative heat flux are reported and compared to real materials usually considered in similar studies, silicon carbide and heavily doped silicon in this case. Results are obtained by exact and approximate (in the extreme near-field regime and the electrostatic limit hypothesis) calculations. The two methods are compared in terms of accuracy and CPU resources consumption. Their differences are explained according to a mesoscopic description of nearfield radiative heat transfer. Finally, the frequently assumed hypothesis which states a maximal radiative heat transfer when the two semi-infinite planes are of identical materials is numerically confirmed. Its subsequent practical constraints are then discussed. Presented results enlighten relevant paths to follow in order to choose or design materials maximizing nano-TPV devices performances.

  11. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors

  12. Spin Caloritronic Transport of 1,3,5-Triphenylverdazyl Radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiu-Hua; Zhao Peng; Liu De-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin caloritronic transport properties of a stable 1,3,5-triphenylverdazyl (TPV) radical sandwiched between Au electrodes through different connection fashions. Obvious spin Seebeck effect can be observed in the para-connection fashion. Furthermore, a pure spin current and a completely spin-polarized current can be realized by tuning the gate voltage. Furthermore, a 100% spin polarization without the need of gate voltage can be obtained in the meta-connection fashion. These results demonstrate that TPV radical is a promising material for spin caloritronic and spintronic applications. (paper)

  13. Heat Recuperator Engineering for an ARL Liquid-Fueled Thermophotovoltaic Power Source Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    fabrication, such as direct metal laser sintering ( DMLS ), were considered. DMLS does not provide the tolerance control required, making post-machining...necessary prior to welding. In addition, parts designed for DMLS require material to be added in certain places to support the part during fabrication

  14. Conjunction of Photovoltaic and Thermophotovoltaic Power Production in Spacecraft Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    solar energy, having been converted by plants through photosynthesis to carbohydrates and cellulose, sometimes by animals into more carbohydrates and...the properties of materials specified in the device model that are either drawn from databases built into the software, databases that are closely...linked to the software—such as optical parameters drawn from the Sopra database —or that are specified by the user within the model itself [23]. When

  15. High Efficiency Quantum Dot III-V Thermophotovoltaic Cell for Space Power, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quantum dots are nanoscale materials that have already improved the performance of optical sensors, lasers, light emitting diodes and solar cells. The unique...

  16. Large-Area Ultrabroadband Absorber for Solar Thermophotovoltaics Based on 3D Titanium Nitride Nanopillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirumamilla, Manohar; Chirumamilla, Anisha; Yang, Yuanqing

    2017-01-01

    absorptivities of 0.94, over a wide range of oblique angles between 0° and 75°. The effect of geometrical parameters of the TiN nanopillars on broadband absorption is investigated. By combining the flexibility of nanopillar design and lossy TiN films, ultrabroadband absorption in the visible and nearinfrared...

  17. Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Biscari, C.; Falbo, L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on ...

  18. LCA Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    The chapter gives examples of applications of LCA by the central societal actors in government, industry and citizens, and discusses major motivations and challenges for the use of LCA to support science-based decision-making from their respective perspectives. We highlight applications of LCA...... environmental impacts of products and systems and support decisions around production and consumption and highlights factors that prevent its even more widespread application....

  19. PSA applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubreuil Chambardel, A

    1997-12-31

    The IAEA now defines three types of PSA applications: Validation of design and of operation procedures; optimization of plant operation; and regulatory applications. The applications of PSA are manifold: only a few are dealt with here (precursor analysis is dealt with in session 3, topic 4). For each of them, we will do the utmost to demonstrate the main difficulties encountered, EDF`s viewpoint on the matter, and the points remaining to be solved. In what follows, unless explicitly stated otherwise, we have made every effort to represent the different applications as they are practiced by all concerned in the international community, and to describe the inherent difficulties the international community has encountered with these applications with all objectivity. It goes without saying that the comments below are simply those of the ESF department, and are submitted here for discussion by the experts. 13 refs.

  20. PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubreuil Chambardel, A.

    1996-01-01

    The IAEA now defines three types of PSA applications: Validation of design and of operation procedures; optimization of plant operation; and regulatory applications. The applications of PSA are manifold: only a few are dealt with here (precursor analysis is dealt with in session 3, topic 4). For each of them, we will do the utmost to demonstrate the main difficulties encountered, EDF's viewpoint on the matter, and the points remaining to be solved. In what follows, unless explicitly stated otherwise, we have made every effort to represent the different applications as they are practiced by all concerned in the international community, and to describe the inherent difficulties the international community has encountered with these applications with all objectivity. It goes without saying that the comments below are simply those of the ESF department, and are submitted here for discussion by the experts. 13 refs

  1. Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biscari, C.

    2014-12-19

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on CNAO, and the report closes with a brief outlook on the future of this field.

  2. Medical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscari, C; Falbo, L

    2014-01-01

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on CNAO, and the report closes with a brief outlook on the future of this field

  3. Superconductivity - applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the following subjects: 1) Electronics and high-frequency technology, 2) Superconductors for energy technology, 3) Superconducting magnets and their applications, 4) Electric machinery, 5) Superconducting cables. (WBU) [de

  4. Photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidrach, M.

    1992-01-01

    The most common terrestrial applications of photovoltaic plants are reviewed. Classification of applications can be done considering end-use sectors and load profiles (consumption demand). For those systems with direct coupling the working point is determined by the intersection of the load line with the I-V curve Design guidelines are provided for photovoltaic systems. This lecture focusses on the distribution system and safeguards

  5. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLOR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byard D. Wood

    2004-04-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports solar light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of solar lighting and electric lighting. A benchmark prototype system has been developed to evaluate the HSL system. Sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. A secondary mirror consisting of eight planar-segmented mirrors directs the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) array to produce electricity. During this reporting period, the project team made advancements in the design of the second generation (Alpha) system. For the Alpha system, the eight individual 12 mm fibers have been replaced with a centralized bundle of 3 mm fibers. The TRNSYS Full-Spectrum Solar Energy System model has been updated and new components have been added. The TPV array and nonimaging device have been tested and progress has been made in the fiber transmission models. A test plan was developed for both the high-lumen tests and the study to determine the non-energy benefits of daylighting. The photobioreactor team also made major advancements in the testing of model scale and bench top lab-scale systems.

  6. PRIBIC Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual Alonso, J.L.; Barcala Riveira, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    PRIBIC plant (Pollutants Reduction In small Biomass Combustion systems) at CEDER is a facility specifically designed to do biomass combustion tests. In these tests is necessary to know the values of different sensors in real time. With this information the PRIBIC plant is regulated to its optimum point of work and its possible to follow the operation criteria and get test objectives. Different electronic instruments record information about the plant operation. A software application was developed to let a centralised motorization of that information. The application communicates with the instrumentation, recovers data, lets operators see data in real time and saves the information in files. An important part of this document describes that application, and some considerations to generalise this kind of developments to other Experimental Plants, including cost estimations. Descriptions of plant, analysis of the problem, result evaluations, and conclusions can also be found in the document. (Author) 13 refs

  7. Other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligou, J.; Benoist, P.; Boffi, V.; Stenic, B.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter reports about the work done by four groups in Italy, France, Switzerland and Yugoslavia on the new applications of transport theory. Among them problems dealing with controlled thermonuclear reactions and/or fusion devices, nonlinear electric conductivity, atomic and crystal models were discussed

  8. Application note :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Thomas V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of the XyceTM Parallel Electronic Simulator has focused entirely on the creation of a fast, scalable simulation tool, and has not included any schematic capture or data visualization tools. This application note will describe how to use the open source schematic capture tool gschem and its associated netlist creation tool gnetlist to create basic circuit designs for Xyce, and how to access advanced features of Xyce that are not directly supported by either gschem or gnetlist.

  9. Photography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Susan A.; Goodman, James A.; Purkis, Samuel J.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2013-01-01

    Photographic imaging is the oldest form of remote sensing used in coral reef studies. This chapter briefly explores the history of photography from the 1850s to the present, and delves into its application for coral reef research. The investigation focuses on both photographs collected from low-altitude fixed-wing and rotary aircraft, and those collected from space by astronauts. Different types of classification and analysis techniques are discussed, and several case studies are presented as examples of the broad use of photographs as a tool in coral reef research.

  10. Detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.

    1977-10-01

    Semiconductor detectors are now applied to a very wide range of problems. The combination of relatively low cost, excellent energy resolution, and simultaneous broad energy-spectrum analysis is uniquely suited to many applications in both basic and applied physics. Alternative techniques, such as magnetic spectrometers for charged-particle spectroscopy, while offering better energy resolution, are bulky, expensive, and usually far more difficult to use. Furthermore, they do not directly provide the broad energy-spectrum measurements easily accomplished using semiconductor detectors. Scintillation detectors, which are approximately equivalent to semiconductor detectors in convenience and cost, exhibit 10 to 100 times worse energy resolution. However, their high efficiency and large potential size recommend their use in some measurements

  11. Synthesis of Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres with enhanced photovoltaic performance and application for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yu [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Wang Lingling [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu Bingkun; Zhai Jiali; Fan Haimei; Wang Dejun; Lin Yanhong [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Xie Tengfeng, E-mail: xietf@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Near-monodisperse Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres have been synthesized. > The photovoltaic properties of the samples were examined by SPS, FISPS and TPV measurements. > Surface photovoltage results revealed Zn doping can promote charge transfer in TiO{sub 2} film electrode. - Abstract: Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres have been synthesized by introducing a trace amount of zinc nitrate hexahydrate to the reaction system. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been utilized to characterize the samples. Both surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) technique based on lock-in amplifier and transient photovoltage (TPV) measurement reveal that the slight doping of Zn can promote the separation of photo-generated charges as well as restrain the recombination due to the strong interface built-in electric field and the decreasing of surface trap states. The photovoltaic parameters of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} are significantly better, compared to that of a cell based on undoped TiO{sub 2}. The relation between the performance of DSSCs and their photovoltaic properties is also discussed.

  12. Advanced conversion technology review panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) established a DOE lead management team and an Advanced Conversion Technology Review Panel. The panel was tasked with providing the management team with an assessment and ranking of the three advanced conversion technologies. The three advanced conversion technologies were alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC), Stirling engine converter (SEC), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV). To rate and rank these three technologies, five criteria were developed: (1) Performance, (2) Development and Cost/Production and Cost/Schedule Risk, (3) Spacecraft Interface and Operations, (4) Ability to Scale Conversion, and (5) Safety. Discussed are the relative importance of each of these criteria and the rankings of the three advanced conversion technologies. It was the conclusion of the panel that the technology decision should be based on the risk that DOE and NASA are willing to accept. SEC is the most mature technology and would provide the lowest risk option. However, if more risk is acceptable, AMTEC not only provides benefits in the spacecraft interface but is also predicted to outperform the SEC. It was proposed that if AMTEC were selected, funding should be provided at a reasonable level to support back-up technology to be developed in a parallel fashion until AMTEC has proven its capability. The panel report and conclusion were provided to DOE in February 1997

  13. Connected vehicle applications : environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation has developed a number of connected vehicle environmental applications, including the Applications for the Environment Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) research program applications and road weather applic...

  14. Radioisotope thermal photovoltaic application of the GaSb solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M. D.; Horne, W. E.; Day, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    An examination of a RTVP (radioisotopic thermophotovoltaic) conceptual design has shown a high potential for power densities well above those achievable with radioisotopic thermoelectric generator (RTG) systems. An efficiency of 14.4 percent and system specific power of 9.25 watts/kg were predicted for a system with sixteen GPHS (general purpose heat source) sources operating at 1100 C. The models also showed a 500 watt system power by the strontium-90 isotope at 1200 C at an efficiency of 17.0 percent and a system specific power of 11.8 watts/kg. The key to this level of performance is a high-quality photovoltaic cell with narrow bandgap and a reflective rear contact. Recent work at Boeing on GaSb cells and transparent back GaAs cells indicate that such a cell is well within reach.

  15. Teleneurology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Lawrence R.; Tsao, Jack W.; Levine, Steven R.; Swain-Eng, Rebecca J.; Adams, Robert J.; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Hess, David C.; Moro, Elena; Schwamm, Lee H.; Steffensen, Steve; Stern, Barney J.; Zuckerman, Steven J.; Bhattacharya, Pratik; Davis, Larry E.; Yurkiewicz, Ilana R.; Alphonso, Aimee L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review current literature on neurology telemedicine and to discuss its application to patient care, neurology practice, military medicine, and current federal policy. Methods: Review of practice models and published literature on primary studies of the efficacy of neurology telemedicine. Results: Teleneurology is of greatest benefit to populations with restricted access to general and subspecialty neurologic care in rural areas, those with limited mobility, and those deployed by the military. Through the use of real-time audio-visual interaction, imaging, and store-and-forward systems, a greater proportion of neurologists are able to meet the demand for specialty care in underserved communities, decrease the response time for acute stroke assessment, and expand the collaboration between primary care physicians, neurologists, and other disciplines. The American Stroke Association has developed a defined policy on teleneurology, and the American Academy of Neurology and federal health care policy are beginning to follow suit. Conclusions: Teleneurology is an effective tool for the rapid evaluation of patients in remote locations requiring neurologic care. These underserved locations include geographically isolated rural areas as well as urban cores with insufficient available neurology specialists. With this technology, neurologists will be better able to meet the burgeoning demand for access to neurologic care in an era of declining availability. An increase in physician awareness and support at the federal and state level is necessary to facilitate expansion of telemedicine into further areas of neurology. PMID:23400317

  16. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional

  17. Metallic layer-by-layer photonic crystals for linearly-polarized thermal emission and thermophotovoltaic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P.

    2016-07-26

    Metallic thermal emitters consisting of two layers of differently structured nickel gratings on a homogeneous nickel layer are fabricated by soft lithography and studied for polarized thermal radiation. A thermal emitter in combination with a sub-wavelength grating shows a high extinction ratio, with a maximum value close to 5, in a wide mid-infrared range from 3.2 to 7.8 .mu.m, as well as high emissivity up to 0.65 at a wavelength of 3.7 .mu.m. All measurements show good agreement with theoretical predictions. Numerical simulations reveal that a high electric field exists within the localized air space surrounded by the gratings and the intensified electric-field is only observed for the polarizations perpendicular to the top sub-wavelength grating. This result suggests how the emissivity of a metal can be selectively enhanced at a certain range of wavelengths for a given polarization.

  18. Learning Android application testing

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer looking to test your applications or optimize your application development process, then this book is for you. No previous experience in application testing is required.

  19. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  20. Credential Application Awaiting Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — When a Credential application or required documentation is incomplete, an Awaiting Information letter is issued. The application process cannot continue until all...

  1. Cutaneous C-polymodal fibers lacking TRPV1 are sensitized to heat following inflammation, but fail to drive heat hyperalgesia in the absence of TPV1 containing C-heat fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koerber H Richard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that the TRPV1 ion channel plays a critical role in the development of heat hyperalgesia after inflammation, as inflamed TRPV1-/- mice develop mechanical allodynia but fail to develop thermal hyperalgesia. In order to further investigate the role of TRPV1, we have used an ex vivo skin/nerve/DRG preparation to examine the effects of CFA-induced-inflammation on the response properties of TRPV1-positive and TRPV1-negative cutaneous nociceptors. Results In wildtype mice we found that polymodal C-fibers (CPMs lacking TRPV1 were sensitized to heat within a day after CFA injection. This sensitization included both a drop in average heat threshold and an increase in firing rate to a heat ramp applied to the skin. No changes were observed in the mechanical response properties of these cells. Conversely, TRPV1-positive mechanically insensitive, heat sensitive fibers (CHs were not sensitized following inflammation. However, results suggested that some of these fibers may have gained mechanical sensitivity and that some previous silent fibers gained heat sensitivity. In mice lacking TRPV1, inflammation only decreased heat threshold of CPMs but did not sensitize their responses to the heat ramp. No CH-fibers could be identified in naïve nor inflamed TRPV1-/- mice. Conclusions Results obtained here suggest that increased heat sensitivity in TRPV1-negative CPM fibers alone following inflammation is insufficient for the induction of heat hyperalgesia. On the other hand, TRPV1-positive CH fibers appear to play an essential role in this process that may include both afferent and efferent functions.

  2. Sight Application Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-17

    The scale and complexity of scientific applications makes it very difficult to optimize, debug and extend them to support new capabilities. We have developed a tool that supports developers’ efforts to understand the logical flow of their applications and interactions between application components and hardware in a way that scales with application complexity and parallelism.

  3. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110} oriented substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110} textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  4. [100] or [110] aligned, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2015-03-24

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, [100] or [110] textured, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  5. {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100}, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100} oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  6. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  7. Heat meets light on the nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriskina Svetlana V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the state-of-the-art and remaining challenges in the fundamental understanding and technology development for controlling light-matter interactions in nanophotonic environments in and away from thermal equilibrium. The topics covered range from the basics of the thermodynamics of light emission and absorption to applications in solar thermal energy generation, thermophotovoltaics, optical refrigeration, personalized cooling technologies, development of coherent incandescent light sources, and spinoptics.

  8. Microwave power engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 2: Applications introduces the electronics technology of microwave power and its applications. This technology emphasizes microwave electronics for direct power utilization and transmission purposes. This volume presents the accomplishments with respect to components, systems, and applications and their prevailing limitations in the light of knowledge of the microwave power technology. The applications discussed include the microwave heating and other processes of materials, which utilize the magnetron predominantly. Other applications include microwave ioni

  9. Wapice News Mobile Application

    OpenAIRE

    Söylemez, Ilke

    2017-01-01

    Since the mobile phones started to have an increasingly significant role in daily life, the mobile application development also started to be an important area in the software industry. The problem for mobile application developers is to develop a mobile application which supports all the devices and platforms on the market. This issue created a need for cross platform mobile applications. The cross platform mobile development refers to the development of mobile applications that could be use...

  10. Connected vehicle applications : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  11. Applicant Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers developed 3 surveys that asks applicants to assess their satisfaction with the application process on a 1-10 point scale, with 10...

  12. Web Application Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Bhanu

    2014-01-01

    Web application security has been a major issue in information technology since the evolvement of dynamic web application. The main objective of this project was to carry out a detailed study on the top three web application vulnerabilities such as injection, cross site scripting, broken authentication and session management, present the situation where an application can be vulnerable to these web threats and finally provide preventative measures against them. ...

  13. Mobile food ordering application

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to build a food ordering client server application for Tom Yum Thai Oy, which is a Thai restaurant in Vaasa. For the customer, this application provides a view of current food information (category, name, image,price, description etc.) on the website and Android application. The customer can order food from these two platforms. For the administrator in restaurant, this application offers a series of operations to add, update, delete and query the information of ...

  14. SIMS applications workshop. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The first ANSTO/AINSE SIMS Workshop drew together a mixture of Surface Analysis experts and Surface Analysis users with the concept that SIMS analysis has to be enfolded within the spectrum of surface analysis techniques and that the user should select the technique most applicable to the problem. With this concept in mind the program was structured as sessions on SIMS Facilities; Applications to Mineral Surfaces; Applications to Biological Systems, Applications to Surfaces as Semi- conductors, Catalysts and Surface Coatings; and Applications to Ceramics

  15. Application Portable Parallel Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gary L.; Blech, Richard A.; Quealy, Angela; Townsend, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL) computer program is subroutine-based message-passing software library intended to provide consistent interface to variety of multiprocessor computers on market today. Minimizes effort needed to move application program from one computer to another. User develops application program once and then easily moves application program from parallel computer on which created to another parallel computer. ("Parallel computer" also include heterogeneous collection of networked computers). Written in C language with one FORTRAN 77 subroutine for UNIX-based computers and callable from application programs written in C language or FORTRAN 77.

  16. Criteria for Social Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzenbeck, Claus; Tzagarakis, Manolis

    2007-01-01

    Social networks are becoming increasingly important for a wide number of applications. This is in particular true in the context of the Web 2.0 movement where a number of Web-based applications emerged - termed social networking applications or services - that allow the articulation of social...... relationships between individuals thus creating social networks. Although Web 2.0 applications are a popular and characteristic class of such applications they are not the only representatives that permit such functionality. Applications in the Personal Information Management domain exhibit similar...... characteristics but have never been mentioned in the context of social networking. The increasing number and diversity of such applications makes their study, analysis and evaluation from a systems point of view critical and important as their study may help identify relationships that are useful when attempting...

  17. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  18. Technical applications of aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrubesh, L.W.

    1997-01-01

    Aerogel materials posses such a wide variety of exceptional properties that a striking number of applications have developed for them. Many of the commercial applications of aerogels such as catalysts, thermal insulation, windows, and particle detectors are still under development and new application as have been publicized since the ISA4 Conference in 1994: e.g.; supercapacitors, insulation for heat storage in automobiles, electrodes for capacitive deionization, etc. More applications are evolving as the scientific and engineering community becomes familiar with the unusual and exceptional physical properties of aerogels, there are also scientific and technical application, as well. This paper discusses a variety of applications under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for which several types of aerogels are formed in custom sizes and shapes. Particular discussions will focus on the uses of aerogels for physics experiments which rely on the exceptional, sometimes unique, properties of aerogels

  19. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Univer...

  20. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Uni...

  1. Applications of Photocatalytic Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Gamage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the superior ability of photocatalysis to inactivate a wide range of harmful microorganisms, it is being examined as a viable alternative to traditional disinfection methods such as chlorination, which can produce harmful byproducts. Photocatalysis is a versatile and effective process that can be adapted for use in many applications for disinfection in both air and water matrices. Additionally, photocatalytic surfaces are being developed and tested for use in the context of “self-disinfecting” materials. Studies on the photocatalytic technique for disinfection demonstrate this process to have potential for widespread applications in indoor air and environmental health, biological, and medical applications, laboratory and hospital applications, pharmaceutical and food industry, plant protection applications, wastewater and effluents treatment, and drinking water disinfection. Studies on photocatalytic disinfection using a variety of techniques and test organisms are reviewed, with an emphasis on the end-use application of developed technologies and methods.

  2. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  3. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  4. Applications of combinatorial optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Paschos, Vangelis Th

    2013-01-01

    Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management. The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aims to cover a wide range of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization. "Applications of Combinatorial Optimization" is presenting a certain number among the most common and well-known applications of Combinatorial Optimization.

  5. Android Applications Security

    OpenAIRE

    Paul POCATILU

    2011-01-01

    The use of smartphones worldwide is growing very fast and also the malicious attacks have increased. The mobile security applications development keeps the pace with this trend. The paper presents the vulnerabilities of mobile applications. The Android applications and devices are analyzed through the security perspective. The usage of restricted API is also presented. The paper also focuses on how users can prevent these malicious attacks and propose some prevention measures, including the a...

  6. Galileo Timing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    public bodies like university and research institutes. The user community analysis also includes a market analysis performed by a specialized company to... companies and public institutions (e.g., universities, research laboratories) that work in several different application domains in order to virtually...Summary of application domains for the use of time in cryptography. B2G B2B B2C Applications Military waypoints, judicial reports, construction

  7. Refrigeration systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Refrigeration Systems and Applications, 2nd edition offers a comprehensive treatise that addresses real-life technical and operational problems, enabling the reader to gain an understanding of the fundamental principles and the practical applications of refrigeration technology. New and unique analysis techniques (including exergy as a potential tool), models, correlations, procedures and applications are covered, and recent developments in the field are included - many of which are taken from the author's own research activities in this area. The book also includes so

  8. Exploiting chaos for applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditto, William L., E-mail: wditto@hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Sinha, Sudeshna, E-mail: sudeshna@iisermohali.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Mohali, Knowledge City, Sector 81, SAS Nagar, PO Manauli 140306, Punjab (India)

    2015-09-15

    We discuss how understanding the nature of chaotic dynamics allows us to control these systems. A controlled chaotic system can then serve as a versatile pattern generator that can be used for a range of application. Specifically, we will discuss the application of controlled chaos to the design of novel computational paradigms. Thus, we present an illustrative research arc, starting with ideas of control, based on the general understanding of chaos, moving over to applications that influence the course of building better devices.

  9. Microcomputer interfacing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, M A

    1990-01-01

    This is the applications guide to interfacing microcomputers. It offers practical non-mathematical solutions to interfacing problems in many applications including data acquisition and control. Emphasis is given to the definition of the objectives of the interface, then comparing possible solutions and producing the best interface for every situation. Dr Mustafa A Mustafa is a senior designer of control equipment and has written many technical articles and papers on the subject of computers and their application to control engineering.

  10. Exploiting chaos for applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, William L; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2015-09-01

    We discuss how understanding the nature of chaotic dynamics allows us to control these systems. A controlled chaotic system can then serve as a versatile pattern generator that can be used for a range of application. Specifically, we will discuss the application of controlled chaos to the design of novel computational paradigms. Thus, we present an illustrative research arc, starting with ideas of control, based on the general understanding of chaos, moving over to applications that influence the course of building better devices.

  11. Application Layer Multicast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allani, Mouna; Garbinato, Benoît; Pedone, Fernando

    An increasing number of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Internet applications rely today on data dissemination as their cornerstone, e.g., audio or video streaming, multi-party games. These applications typically depend on some support for multicast communication, where peers interested in a given data stream can join a corresponding multicast group. As a consequence, the efficiency, scalability, and reliability guarantees of these applications are tightly coupled with that of the underlying multicast mechanism.

  12. REST based mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambow, Mark; Preuss, Thomas; Berdux, Jörg; Conrad, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example for REST based mobile applications and emphasize on pros and cons for the use of REST in mobile application scenarios.

  13. Irregular Applications: Architectures & Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feo, John T.; Villa, Oreste; Tumeo, Antonino; Secchi, Simone

    2012-02-06

    Irregular applications are characterized by irregular data structures, control and communication patterns. Novel irregular high performance applications which deal with large data sets and require have recently appeared. Unfortunately, current high performance systems and software infrastructures executes irregular algorithms poorly. Only coordinated efforts by end user, area specialists and computer scientists that consider both the architecture and the software stack may be able to provide solutions to the challenges of modern irregular applications.

  14. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  15. Application Technology Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To conduct fundamental and developmental research on new and improved application technologies to protect floricultural, nursery, landscape, turf, horticultural, and...

  16. Mongoose for application development

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This book is a mini tutorial full of code examples and strategies to give you plenty of options when building your own applications with MongoDB.This book is ideal for people who want to develop applications on the Node.js stack quickly and efficiently. Prior knowledge of the stack is not essential as the book briefly covers the installation of the core components and builds all aspects of the example application. The focus of the book is on what Mongoose adds to you applications, so experienced Node.js developers will also benefit.

  17. Hardening Azure applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gaurav, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    Learn what it takes to build large scale, mission critical applications -hardened applications- on the Azure cloud platform. This 208 page book covers the techniques and engineering principles that every architect and developer needs to know to harden their Azure/.NET applications to ensure maximum reliability and high availability when deployed at scale. While the techniques are implemented in .NET and optimized for Azure, the principles here will also be valuable for users of other cloud-based development platforms. Applications come in a variety of forms, from simple apps that can be bui

  18. Electrical applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, David W

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Applications 2 covers the BTEC NII level objectives in Electrical Applications U86/330. To understand the applications, a knowledge of the underlying principles is needed and these are covered briefly in the text. Key topics discussed are: the transmission and distribution of electrical energy; safety and regulations; tariffs and power factor correction; materials and their applications in the electrical industry; transformers; DC machines; illumination; and fuse protection. Included in each chapter are worked examples which should be carefully worked through before progressing to t

  19. Nanotechnology in Aerospace Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyyappan, M

    2007-01-01

    The aerospace applications for nanotechnology include high strength, low weight composites, improved electronics and displays with low power consumption, variety of physical sensors, multifunctional...

  20. Advertising on mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolevsky, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the new method of mobile advertising. Advertising in mobile applications - a subspecies of mobile marketing, where advertising is distributed using mobile phones and smartphones. Ad placement is going on inside of applications and games for smartphones. It has a high potential due to the large number of mobile phone users (over 6.5 billion in 2013).

  1. Dilemmas in SEA application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    Dilemmas in SEA Application: The DK Energy SectorIvar Lyhne - lyhne@plan.aau.dk. Based on three years of collaborative research, this paper outlines dilemmas in the application of SEA in the strategic development of the Danish energy sector. The dilemmas are based on concrete examples from practice...

  2. Medical application of EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhoff, Uwe; Hoefer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Selected applications of continuous-wave EPR in medicine are reviewed. This includes detection of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, pH measurements and oxymetry. Applications of EPR imaging are demonstrated on selected examples and future developments to faster imaging methods are discussed

  3. Connected vehicle application : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) data transmissions. Applications...

  4. Industrial applications and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres M, N.; Melendrez C, G.; Morales, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    From 1961 the use of nuclear energy in the industrial field in Colombia has a big advance. Today nuclear isotopes are used by private companies in this kind of application the Area of Industrial Applications and Metallurgy was the institution section that has trained and has transferred the technology needed for this purpose

  5. Energy applications of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.R.; Dale, S.J.; Wolf, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Recent progress in developing high-temperature superconductors has enhanced the economic viability of energy applications such as power systems, motors, material processing and handling, refrigeration, transportation, and power electronics. This paper discusses the technical and economic issues associated with these applications

  6. Applications of Evolutionary Computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora, Antonio M.; Squillero, Giovanni; Di Chio, C; Agapitos, Alexandros; Cagnoni, Stefano; Cotta, Carlos; Fernández De Vega, F; Di Caro, G A; Drechsler, R.; Ekárt, A; Esparcia-Alcázar, Anna I.; Farooq, M; Langdon, W B; Merelo-Guervós, J.J.; Preuss, M; Richter, O.-M.H.; Silva, Sara; Sim$\\$~oes, A; Squillero, Giovanni; Tarantino, Ernesto; Tettamanzi, Andrea G B; Togelius, J; Urquhart, Neil; Uyar, A S; Yannakakis, G N; Smith, Stephen L; Caserta, Marco; Ramirez, Adriana; Voß, Stefan; Squillero, Giovanni; Burelli, Paolo; Mora, Antonio M.; Squillero, Giovanni; Jan, Mathieu; Matthias, M; Di Chio, C; Agapitos, Alexandros; Cagnoni, Stefano; Cotta, Carlos; Fernández De Vega, F; Di Caro, G A; Drechsler, R.; Ekárt, A; Esparcia-Alcázar, Anna I.; Farooq, M; Langdon, W B; Merelo-Guervós, J.J.; Preuss, M; Richter, O.-M.H.; Silva, Sara; Sim$\\$~oes, A; Squillero, Giovanni; Tarantino, Ernesto; Tettamanzi, Andrea G B; Togelius, J; Urquhart, Neil; Uyar, A S; Yannakakis, G N; Caserta, Marco; Ramirez, Adriana; Voß, Stefan; Squillero, Giovanni; Burelli, Paolo; Esparcia-Alcazar, Anna I; Silva, Sara; Agapitos, Alexandros; Cotta, Carlos; De Falco, Ivanoe; Cioppa, Antonio Della; Diwold, Konrad; Ekart, Aniko; Tarantino, Ernesto; Vega, Francisco Fernandez De; Burelli, Paolo; Sim, Kevin; Cagnoni, Stefano; Simoes, Anabela; Merelo, J.J.; Urquhart, Neil; Haasdijk, Evert; Zhang, Mengjie; Squillero, Giovanni; Eiben, A E; Tettamanzi, Andrea G B; Glette, Kyrre; Rohlfshagen, Philipp; Schaefer, Robert; Caserta, Marco; Ramirez, Adriana; Voß, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The application of genetic and evolutionary computation to problems in medicine has increased rapidly over the past five years, but there are specific issues and challenges that distinguish it from other real-world applications. Obtaining reliable and coherent patient data, establishing the clinical

  7. Application Security Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaika, Majid A.

    2011-01-01

    With today's high demand for online applications and services running on the Internet, software has become a vital component in our lives. With every revolutionary technology comes challenges unique to its characteristics; for online applications, security is one huge concern and challenge. Currently, there are several schemes that address…

  8. Engineering Adaptive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    for a domain.In this book, we propose a new domain engineering framework which extends a development process of Web applications with techniques required when designing such adaptive customizable Web applications. The framework is provided with design abstractions which deal separately with information served...

  9. Modelling Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Modelling Foundations and Applications, held in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark, in July 2012. The 20 revised full foundations track papers and 10 revised full applications track papers presented were carefully reviewed...

  10. Computer algebra applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, J.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of applications based either on fundamental algorithms in computer algebra or on the use of a computer algebra system is presented. Recent work in biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics and computer science is discussed. In particular, applications in high energy physics (quantum electrodynamics), celestial mechanics and general relativity are reviewed. (Auth.)

  11. Nanomaterials in biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela; Vuluga, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in nano materials have lead to applications in many areas from automotive to electronics and medicine. Nano composites are a popular group of nano materials. Nanocomposites in medical applications provide novel solutions to common problems. Materials for implants, biosensors and drug del...

  12. Progressive Web applications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Progressive Web Applications are native-like applications running inside of a browser context. In my presentation I would like describe their characteristics, benchmarks and building process using a quick and simple case study example with focus on Service Workers api.

  13. Rayleigh reciprocity relations: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ju; Li Xiao-Lei; Wang Ning

    2016-01-01

    Classical reciprocity relations have wide applications in acoustics, from field representation to generalized optical theorem. In this paper we introduce our recent results on the applications and generalization of classical Rayleigh reciprocity relation: higher derivative reciprocity relations as a generalization of the classical one and a theoretical proof on the Green’s function retrieval from volume noises. (special topic)

  14. Database Application Schema Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Quintus Beyers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application schema layer of a Database Management System (DBMS can be modified to deliver results that may warrant a forensic investigation. Table structures can be corrupted by changing the metadata of a database or operators of the database can be altered to deliver incorrect results when used in queries. This paper will discuss categories of possibilities that exist to alter the application schema with some practical examples. Two forensic environments are introduced where a forensic investigation can take place in. Arguments are provided why these environments are important. Methods are presented how these environments can be achieved for the application schema layer of a DBMS. A process is proposed on how forensic evidence should be extracted from the application schema layer of a DBMS. The application schema forensic evidence identification process can be applied to a wide range of forensic settings.

  15. Geometry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Walter J

    2006-01-01

    Meyer''s Geometry and Its Applications, Second Edition, combines traditional geometry with current ideas to present a modern approach that is grounded in real-world applications. It balances the deductive approach with discovery learning, and introduces axiomatic, Euclidean geometry, non-Euclidean geometry, and transformational geometry. The text integrates applications and examples throughout and includes historical notes in many chapters. The Second Edition of Geometry and Its Applications is a significant text for any college or university that focuses on geometry''s usefulness in other disciplines. It is especially appropriate for engineering and science majors, as well as future mathematics teachers.* Realistic applications integrated throughout the text, including (but not limited to): - Symmetries of artistic patterns- Physics- Robotics- Computer vision- Computer graphics- Stability of architectural structures- Molecular biology- Medicine- Pattern recognition* Historical notes included in many chapters...

  16. Applications of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Developments in standard applications and brand new nuclear technologies, with high impact on the future of the agriculture, medicine, industry and the environmental preservation. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR) mission is to apply the radiation and radioisotope technologies in Industry, Health, Agriculture, and Environmental Protection, expanding the scientific knowledge, improving human power resources, transferring technology, generating products and offering services for the Brazilian society. The CTR main R and D activities are in consonance with the IPEN Director Plan (2011-2013) and the Applications of Ionizing Radiation Program, with four subprograms: Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Products; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for the Applications of Nuclear Techniques

  17. GPU computing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    See, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a collection of state of the art research on GPU Computing and Application. The major part of this book is selected from the work presented at the 2013 Symposium on GPU Computing and Applications held in Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Oct 9, 2013). Three major domains of GPU application are covered in the book including (1) Engineering design and simulation; (2) Biomedical Sciences; and (3) Interactive & Digital Media. The book also addresses the fundamental issues in GPU computing with a focus on big data processing. Researchers and developers in GPU Computing and Applications will benefit from this book. Training professionals and educators can also benefit from this book to learn the possible application of GPU technology in various areas.

  18. Applications of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    Developments in standard applications and brand new nuclear technologies, with high impact on the future of the agriculture, medicine, industry and the environmental preservation. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR) mission is to apply the radiation and radioisotope technologies in Industry, Health, Agriculture, and Environmental Protection, expanding the scientific knowledge, improving human power resources, transferring technology, generating products and offering services for the Brazilian society. The CTR main R and D activities are in consonance with the IPEN Director Plan (2011-2013) and the Applications of Ionizing Radiation Program, with four subprograms: Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Products; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for the Applications of Nuclear Techniques.

  19. Stirling engine application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.

    1983-01-01

    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  20. OCT for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guiju; Harding, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), as an interferometric method, has been studied as a distance ranger. As a technology capable of producing high-resolution, depth-resolved images of biological tissue, OCT had been widely used for the application of ophthalmology and has been commercialized in the market today. Enlightened by the emerging research interest in biomedical domain, the applications of OCT in industrial inspection were rejuvenated by a few groups to explore its potential for characterizing new materials, imaging or inspecting industrial parts as a service solution[3]. Benefiting from novel photonics components and devices, the industrial application of the older concepts in OCT can be re-visited with respect to the unique performance and availability. Commercial OCT developers such as Michelson Diagnostics (MDL; Orpington, U.K.) and Thorlabs (Newton, NJ) are actively exploring the application of OCT to industrial applications and they have outlined meaningful path toward the metrology application in emerging industry[3]. In this chapter, we will introduce the fundamental concepts of OCT and discuss its current and potential industrial applications.

  1. The application of RFQs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Radio Frequency Quadrupole Accelerator (RFQ) has found wide application, not only as the preinjector linac for new high energy light ion accelerators but also in a variety of other projects. Progress in development has made ion linacs practical for medical and industrial applications including radiation therapy, isotope and neutron production, material modification and ion beam diagnostic. The paper discusses various projects together with applications in science where RFQs serve as stand-alone tools, for example for the calibration of detectors, as decelerators or as small compact beam sources for atomic physics and materials research. (Author) 7 figs., 40 refs

  2. Lift application development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Gilberto T

    2013-01-01

    Lift Application Development Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create secure web applications using this amazing framework.The book first teaches you basic topics such as starting a new application and gradually moves on to teach you advanced topics to achieve a certain task. Then, it explains every step in detail so that you can build your knowledge about how things work.This book is for developers who have at least some basic knowledge about Scala and who are looking for a functional, secure, and modern web framework. Prior experience with HTML and JavaScript

  3. Biomedical applications of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gebelein, C G

    1991-01-01

    The biomedical applications of polymers span an extremely wide spectrum of uses, including artificial organs, skin and soft tissue replacements, orthopaedic applications, dental applications, and controlled release of medications. No single, short review can possibly cover all these items in detail, and dozens of books andhundreds of reviews exist on biomedical polymers. Only a few relatively recent examples will be cited here;additional reviews are listed under most of the major topics in this book. We will consider each of the majorclassifications of biomedical polymers to some extent, inclu

  4. Underground engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M D [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Developments of any underground engineering application utilizing nuclear explosives involve answering the same questions one encounters in any new area of technology: What are the characteristics of the new tool? How is it applicable to the job to be done? Is it safe to use? and, most importantly, is its use economically acceptable? The many facets of the answers to these questions will be explored. The general types of application presently under consideration will also be reviewed, with particular emphasis on those specific projects actively being worked on by commercial interests and by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  5. Excimer laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, R.

    1988-01-01

    This lecture deals with laser induced material photoprocessing, especially concerning those processes which are initiated by u.v. lasers (mostly excimer laser). Advantages of using the u.v. radiation emitted by excimer lasers, both in photophysical and photochemical processes of different materials, are discussed in detail. Applications concerning microelectronics are stressed with respect to other applications in different fields (organic chemistry, medicine). As further applications of excimer lasers, main spectroscopic techniques for ''on line'' diagnostics which employ excimer pumped dye lasers, emitting tunable radiation in the visible and near u.v. are reviewed

  6. Android Applications Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of smartphones worldwide is growing very fast and also the malicious attacks have increased. The mobile security applications development keeps the pace with this trend. The paper presents the vulnerabilities of mobile applications. The Android applications and devices are analyzed through the security perspective. The usage of restricted API is also presented. The paper also focuses on how users can prevent these malicious attacks and propose some prevention measures, including the architecture of a mobile security system for Android devices.

  7. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  8. Professional Tizen application development

    CERN Document Server

    Jaygarl, HoJun; Kim, YoonSoo; Choi, Eunyoung; Bradwick, Kevin; Lansdell

    2014-01-01

    Create powerful, marketable applications with Tizen for the smartphone and beyond  Tizen is the only platform designed for multiple device categories that is HTML5-centric and entirely open source. Written by experts in the field, this comprehensive guide includes chapters on both web and native application development, covering subjects such as location and social features, advanced UIs, animations, sensors and multimedia. This book is a comprehensive resource for learning how to develop Tizen web and native applications that are polished, bug-free and ready to sell on a range of smart dev

  9. Underground engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1969-01-01

    Developments of any underground engineering application utilizing nuclear explosives involve answering the same questions one encounters in any new area of technology: What are the characteristics of the new tool? How is it applicable to the job to be done? Is it safe to use? and, most importantly, is its use economically acceptable? The many facets of the answers to these questions will be explored. The general types of application presently under consideration will also be reviewed, with particular emphasis on those specific projects actively being worked on by commercial interests and by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  10. Mobile Application Recommender System

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsson, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    With the amount of mobile applications available increasing rapidly, users have to put a lot of effort into finding applications of interest. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how to aid users in the process of discovering new mobile applications by providing them with recommendations. A prototype system is then built as a proof-of-concept. The work of the thesis is divided into three phases where the aim of the first phase is to study related work and related systems to identify p...

  11. Professional Cocoa Application Security

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Graham J

    2010-01-01

    The first comprehensive security resource for Mac and iPhone developers. The Mac platform is legendary for security, but consequently, Apple developers have little appropriate security information available to help them assure that their applications are equally secure. This Wrox guide provides the first comprehensive go-to resource for Apple developers on the available frameworks and features that support secure application development.: While Macs are noted for security, developers still need to design applications for the Mac and the iPhone with security in mind; this guide offers the first

  12. Developing Large Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loudon, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    How do you create a mission-critical site that provides exceptional performance while remaining flexible, adaptable, and reliable 24/7? Written by the manager of a UI group at Yahoo!, Developing Large Web Applications offers practical steps for building rock-solid applications that remain effective even as you add features, functions, and users. You'll learn how to develop large web applications with the extreme precision required for other types of software. Avoid common coding and maintenance headaches as small websites add more pages, more code, and more programmersGet comprehensive soluti

  13. Superconductivity and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadoni, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper, after a short introduction to superconductivity and to multifilamentary superconducting composites is aiming to review the state of the art and the future perspective of some of the applications of the superconducting materials. The main interest is focussed to large scale applications like, for istance, magnets for accelerators or fusion reactors, superconducting system for NMR thomography, etc. A short paragraph is dedicated to applications for high sensitivity instrumentation. The paper is then concluded by some considerations about the potentialities of the newly discovered high critical temperature materials

  14. Express web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Yaapa, Hage

    2013-01-01

    Express Web Application Development is a practical introduction to learning about Express. Each chapter introduces you to a different area of Express, using screenshots and examples to get you up and running as quickly as possible.If you are looking to use Express to build your next web application, ""Express Web Application Development"" will help you get started and take you right through to Express' advanced features. You will need to have an intermediate knowledge of JavaScript to get the most out of this book.

  15. Application of expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basden, A

    1983-11-01

    This article seeks to bring together a number of issues relevant to the application of expert systems by discussing their advantages and limitations, their roles and benefits, and the influence that real-life applications might have on the design of expert systems software. Part of the expert systems strategy of one major chemical company is outlined. Because it was in constructing one particular expert system that many of these issues became important this system is described briefly at the start of the paper and used to illustrate much of the later discussion. It is of the plausible-inference type and has application in the field of materials engineering. 22 references.

  16. Biomaterials and therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    A number of organic and inorganic, synthetic or natural derived materials have been classified as not harmful for the human body and are appropriate for medical applications. These materials are usually named biomaterials since they are suitable for introduction into living human tissues of prosthesis, as well as for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapies, tissue regeneration and many other clinical applications. Recently, nanomaterials and bioabsorbable polymers have greatly enlarged the fields of application of biomaterials attracting much more the attention of the biomedical community. In this review paper I am going to discuss the most recent advances in the use of magnetic nanoparticles and biodegradable materials as new biomedical tools.

  17. Building Social Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Building a web application that attracts and retains regular visitors is tricky enough, but creating a social application that encourages visitors to interact with one another requires careful planning. This book provides practical solutions to the tough questions you'll face when building an effective community site -- one that makes visitors feel like they've found a new home on the Web. If your company is ready to take part in the social web, this book will help you get started. Whether you're creating a new site from scratch or reworking an existing site, Building Social Web Applications

  18. Professional mobile application development

    CERN Document Server

    McWherter, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Create applications for all major smartphone platforms Creating applications for the myriad versions and varieties of mobile phone platforms on the market can be daunting to even the most seasoned developer. This authoritative guide is written in such as way that it takes your existing skills and experience and uses that background as a solid foundation for developing applications that cross over between platforms, thereby freeing you from having to learn a new platform from scratch each time. Concise explanations walk you through the tools and patterns for developing for all the mobile platfo

  19. 75 FR 81310 - In the Matter of Certain Digital Television Products and Certain Products Containing Same and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Victory Electronics (Taiwan) Co., Ltd. (``Top Victory Electronics''); and Envision Peripherals, Inc. (``Envision''). Cease-and-desist orders were issued against Vizio, TPV USA, Envision, and SBC. Respondents Vizio, AmTran, TPV Technology, TPV USA, Top Victory Electronics, and Envision appealed to the United...

  20. User Types in Online Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Online applications are presented in the context of information society. Online applications characteristics are analyzed. Quality characteristics are presented in relation to online applications users. Types of users for AVIO application are presented. Use cases for AVIO application are identified. The limitations of AVIO application are defined. Types of users in online applications are identified. The threedimensional matrix of access to the online application resources is built. The user type-oriented database is structured. Access management of the fields related to the database tables is analyzed. The classification of online applications users is done.

  1. Designing Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Learning system to study a discipline. In business to business interaction, different requirements and parameters of exchanged business requests might be served by different services from third parties. Such applications require certain intelligence and a slightly different approach to design. Adpative web......The unique characteristic of web applications is that they are supposed to be used by much bigger and diverse set of users and stakeholders. An example application area is e-Learning or business to business interaction. In eLearning environment, various users with different background use the e......-based applications aim to leave some of their features at the design stage in the form of variables which are dependent on several criteria. The resolution of the variables is called adaptation and can be seen from two perspectives: adaptation by humans to the changed requirements of stakeholders and dynamic system...

  2. Nanobiomaterials development and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Papaefthymiou-Davis, Georgia C

    2013-01-01

    Nanomaterials in Nanobiotechnologies: Preparation, Characterization, and ApplicationsBio-Inspired Magnetic NanoparticlesGeorgia C. Papaefthymiou and Eamonn DevlinNanoparticles for BioimagingHye Sun Park and Yong Taik LimBiomedical Applications of Dendrimer Porphyrin or PhthalocyanineWoo-Dong Jang and Won-Gun KohPolymeric Nanoparticles in Cancer TherapyHeebeom Koo, Ji Young Yhee, Ick Chan Kwon, Kwangmeyung Kim, and Ramesh SubbiahCarbon Nanotube BioconjugatesMonica Samal, Dong Kee Yi, and Shashadhar SamalBiocatalytic NanosystemsJaehong Lim and Su Seong LeeMagnetically Induced Hyperthermia for Biomedical ApplicationsMichael Fardis, Ioannis Rabias, Georgios Diamantopoulos, Eleni Karakosta, Danai Tsitrouli, Vassilios Tzitzios, and Georgios PapavassiliouSoft Block Nanobuilding: New Preparation Routes of Soft Nanomaterials Using BiomoleculesEngineered Biomolecules as NanomaterialsYun Jung Lee and Ki Tae NamNanomaterials and Bio-MEMS: Nano- and Microscale Hybridization of Materials and ApplicationsMicrofluidic-Based ...

  3. Pedal Application Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This project examined the prevalence of pedal application errors and the driver, vehicle, roadway and/or environmental characteristics associated with pedal misapplication crashes based on a literature review, analysis of news media reports, a panel ...

  4. Microtron for radiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, H.C.; Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The electron accelerator called microtron is a powerful tool for research, medical and industrial applications which need electron beam in energy range of few tens of MeV. Either electron beam from microtron is directly used for radiation applications or electron beam is utilized to produce x-rays or neutrons which are eventually used for radiation applications. After considering the vast potential, lower cost, simpler construction and excellent quality of electron beam from microtron, it was decided to develop this machine at Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT). The microtrons in two standard models have been developed which will cover all the above mentioned applications except free electron lasers. The microtron of model 1 provides electron beam of 20 MeV, 15/30 mA and that of model 2 provides electron beam of 8/12 MeV, 50/30 mA. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Applications of quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Perturbative application of the theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCQ) are examined and compared with experimental data. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding the similarities and differences between the QCD results and the expectations of the naive parton model

  6. Thermoluminescence and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of thermoluminescent emission, the characteristics of main thermoluminescent phosphorus, and some applications are presented. The main thermoluminescent dosemeters used in dosimetry are related. (M.C.K.)

  7. Thermoluminescence and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The theory involved in the phenomenon of thermoluminescence emission, the characteristics of the main thermoluminescent phosphorus and some of their applications are presented. Some of the main thermoluminescent dosemeters used in dosimetry are described. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review, with 19 references, is given on challenges and possible opportunities for the development of biosensors for environmental monitoring applications. The high cost and slow turnaround times typically associated with the measurement of regulated pollutants clearly indicates...

  9. Nuclear Technology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibils Machado, W. E- mail: wrcibils@adinet.com.uy

    2002-01-01

    The present work tries on the applications of the nuclear technology in the life daily, such as agriculture and feeding, human health, industry, non destructive essays, isotopic hydrology, and the nuclear power stations for electricity production and radioisotopes production

  10. Evolution of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongtraychack Anachack

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, we can see the rapid evolution of mobile technology, which involves mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. Features of mobile phones largely depend on software. In contemporary information and communication age [1–4], mobile application is one of the most concerned and rapidly developing areas. At the same time, the development of mobile application undergoes great changes with the introduction of new software, service platforms and software development kits (SDK. These changes lead to appearance of many new service platforms such as Google with Android and Apple with iOS. This article presents the information about the evolution of mobile application, gives some statistical data on the past and present situation, demonstrates how individual users of mobile devices can benefit, and shows how mobile applications affect society from the ethical perspective.

  11. Thermal Cameras and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal cameras are passive sensors that capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero. This type of camera was originally developed as a surveillance and night vision tool for the military, but recently the price has dropped, significantly opening up...... a broader field of applications. Deploying this type of sensor in vision systems eliminates the illumination problems of normal greyscale and RGB cameras. This survey provides an overview of the current applications of thermal cameras. Applications include animals, agriculture, buildings, gas detection......, industrial, and military applications, as well as detection, tracking, and recognition of humans. Moreover, this survey describes the nature of thermal radiation and the technology of thermal cameras....

  12. Thermodynamics foundations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gyftopoulos, Elias P

    2005-01-01

    Designed by two MIT professors, this authoritative text discusses basic concepts and applications in detail, emphasizing generality, definitions, and logical consistency. More than 300 solved problems cover realistic energy systems and processes.

  13. Wordpress web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Ratnayake, Rakhitha Nimesh

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for WordPress developers and designers who want to develop quality web applications within a limited time frame and for maximum profit. Prior knowledge of basic web development and design is assumed.

  14. Applications of decelerated ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.

    1985-03-01

    Many facilities whose sole purpose had been to accelerate ion beams are now becoming decelerators as well. The development and current status of accel-decel operations is reviewed here. Applications of decelerated ions in atomic physics experiments are discussed

  15. Applications of Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Applications of Piezoelectric Ceramics. Piezoelectric Actuators. Nano and Micropositioners. Vibration Control Systems. Computer Printers. Piezoelectric Transformers,Voltage Generators, Spark Plugs, Ultrasonic Motors,. Ultrasonic Generators and Sensors. Sonars, Medical Diagnostic. Computer Memories. NVFRAM ...

  16. Engineering Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    suit the user profile the most. This paper summarizes the domain engineering framework for such adaptive web applications. The framework provides guidelines to develop adaptive web applications as members of a family. It suggests how to utilize the design artifacts as knowledge which can be used......Information and services on the web are accessible for everyone. Users of the web differ in their background, culture, political and social environment, interests and so on. Ambient intelligence was envisioned as a concept for systems which are able to adapt to user actions and needs....... With the growing amount of information and services, the web applications become natural candidates to adopt the concepts of ambient intelligence. Such applications can deal with divers user intentions and actions based on the user profile and can suggest the combination of information content and services which...

  17. Special functions & their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, N N

    1972-01-01

    Famous Russian work discusses the application of cylinder functions and spherical harmonics; gamma function; probability integral and related functions; Airy functions; hyper-geometric functions; more. Translated by Richard Silverman.

  18. Capital Projects Application (CPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Capital Projects application (CPA) provides users with the ability to maintain project related financial data for Budget Activity (BA) 51, 55, 64, 01, 02, 03, 04....

  19. Electronic applications presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grants.gov requirement effective February 17, 2015. All initial applications submitted for competitiveawards based on solicitations issued on or after February 17, 2015 must be submitted to EPAelectronically through Grants.gov.

  20. Neutron sources and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  1. Applications of Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Applications of Clustering. Biology – medical imaging, bioinformatics, ecology, phylogenies problems etc. Market research. Data Mining. Social Networks. Any problem measuring similarity/correlation. (dimensions represent different parameters)

  2. Food Applications and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

    This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  3. Neutron sources and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Rush, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications

  4. Magnesium motorcycle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianyong Cao; Zonghe Zhang; Dongxia Xiang; Jun Wang

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium, the lightest engineering structural metal, has been comprehensively used in castings of aviation and aerospace, communication and transportation, and IT components. This paper introduced the history, advantages and difficulties of magnesium castings for motorcycle application as well as its application state in China. It also indicated the production situation of magnesium motorcycle components in CQMST and difficulties need to overcome for further development. (orig.)

  5. Applications of Genetic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Toma, Laura

    1996-01-01

    In this report a study of genetic programming (GP) has been performed with respect to a number of applications such as Symbolic function regression, Solving Symbolic Differential Equations, Image encoding, the ant problem etc.......In this report a study of genetic programming (GP) has been performed with respect to a number of applications such as Symbolic function regression, Solving Symbolic Differential Equations, Image encoding, the ant problem etc....

  6. Applications for alliform carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury; Mochalin, Vadym; McDonough, IV, John Kenneth; Simon, Patrice; Taberna, Pierre Louis

    2017-02-21

    This invention relates to novel applications for alliform carbon, useful in conductors and energy storage devices, including electrical double layer capacitor devices and articles incorporating such conductors and devices. Said alliform carbon particles are in the range of 2 to about 20 percent by weight, relative to the weight of the entire electrode. Said novel applications include supercapacitors and associated electrode devices, batteries, bandages and wound healing, and thin-film devices, including display devices.

  7. Applications of neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yasuo

    1999-01-01

    The present state of art of applications of neutron irradiation is overviewed taking neutron activation analysis, prompt gamma-ray analysis, fission/alpha track methods, boron neutron capture therapy as examples. What is common among them is that the technologies are nearly matured for wide use by non- nuclear scientists. But the environment around research reactors is not prospective. These applications should be encouraged by incorporating in the neutron science society. (author)

  8. Superconductivity and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Roque, António; Sousa, Duarte M.; Fernão Pires, Vítor; Margato, Elmano

    2017-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado em International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’17), 4 a 6 de Abril de 2017, Málaga, Espanha The research in the field of superconductivity has led to the synthesis of superconducting materials with features that allow you to expand the applicability of this kind of materials. Among the superconducting materials characteristics, the critical temperature of the superconductor is framing the range and type of industrial applications that can b...

  9. Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prochazka, David; Stencl, Michael; Popelka, Ondrej; Stastny, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality have undergone considerable improvement in past years. Many special techniques and hardware devices were developed, but the crucial breakthrough came with the spread of intelligent mobile phones. This enabled mass spread of augmented reality applications. However mobile devices have limited hardware capabilities, which narrows down the methods usable for scene analysis. In this article we propose an augmented reality application which is using cloud computing to enable using...

  10. Modular Mobile Application Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Hahn; Nathaniel Ryckman

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Minrva library app for Android phones. The decisions to build a native application with Java and use a modular design are discussed. The application includes five modules: catalog search, in-building navigation, a barcode scanning feature, and up to date notifications of circulating technology availability. A sixth module, Amazon recommendations, that is not included in the version of the app that was released is also discussed. The article also r...

  11. Accounting Applications---Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Ronen

    1980-01-01

    Introduction to special issue on accounting applications. By publishing these papers together in one issue of Management Science we wish to accomplish the dual purpose of exposing management scientists to the application of their discipline to important accounting problems and of allowing management scientists and accountants to interact in areas of research and problem-solving, thus stimulating the interest of readers who are concerned with the problems of accounting.

  12. Technological laser application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shia, D.O.; Kollen, R.; Rods, U.

    1980-01-01

    Problems of the technological applications of lasers are stated in the popular form. Main requirements to a technological laser as well as problems arising in designing any system using lasers have been considered. Areas of the laser applications are described generally: laser treatment of materials, thermal treatment, welding, broach and drilling of holes, scribing, microtreatment and adjustment of resistors, material cutting, investigations into controlled thermonuclear fussion

  13. Applications of Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that und...

  14. Particles beams and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzureau, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the ''Chocs'' journal is devoted to particles beams used by the D.A.M. (Direction of Military Applications) and to their applications. The concerned beams are limited to those in an energy range from hundred of Kev to several Gev. Light ions (protons, deuterons, alpha) where it is easy to produce neutrons sources and heavy ions (from carbon to gold). (N.C.). 8 refs., 2 figs

  15. Technology Applications Team: Applications of aerospace technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Highlights of the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Applications Team activities over the past quarter are presented in Section 1.0. The Team's progress in fulfilling the requirements of the contract is summarized in Section 2.0. In addition to our market-driven approach to applications project development, RTI has placed increased effort on activities to commercialize technologies developed at NASA Centers. These Technology Commercialization efforts are summarized in Section 3.0. New problem statements prepared by the Team in the reporting period are presented in Section 4.0. The Team's transfer activities for ongoing projects with the NASA Centers are presented in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 summarizes the status of four add-on tasks. Travel for the reporting period is described in Section 7.0. The RTI Team staff and consultants and their project responsibilities are listed in Appendix A. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of many individuals to the RTI Technology Applications Team program. The time and effort contributed by managers, engineers, and scientists throughout NASA were essential to program success. Most important to the program has been a productive working relationship with the NASA Field Center Technology Utilization (TU) Offices. The RTI Team continues to strive for improved effectiveness as a resource to these offices. Industry managers, technical staff, medical researchers, and clinicians have been cooperative and open in their participation. The RTI Team looks forward to continuing expansion of its interaction with U.S. industry to facilitate the transfer of aerospace technology to the private sector.

  16. Combustion and direct energy conversion inside a micro-combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Yafeng; Chen, Wei; Lei, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The flammability range of micro-combustor was broadened with heat recirculation. • The quenching diameter decreased with heat recirculation compared to without recirculation. • The surface areas to volume ratio was the most important parameter affecting the energy conversion efficiency. • The maximum conversion efficiency (3.15%) was achieved with 1 mm inner diameter. - Abstract: Electrical energy can be generated by employing a micro-thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell which absorbs thermal radiation from combustion taking place in a micro-combustor. The stability of combustion in a micro-combustor is essential for operating a micro-power system using hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels as energy source. To understand the mechanism of sustaining combustion within the quenching distance of fuel, this study proposed an annular micro combustion tube with recirculation of exhaust heat. To explore the feasibility of combustion in the micro annular tube, the parameters influencing the combustion namely, quenching diameter, and flammability were studied through numerical simulation. The results indicated that combustion could be realized in micro- combustor using heat recirculation. Following results were obtained from simulation. The quenching diameter reduced from 1.3 mm to 0.9 mm for heat recirculation at equivalence ratio of 1; the lean flammability was 2.5%–5% lower than that of without heat recirculation for quenching diameters between 2 mm and 5 mm. The overall energy conversion efficiency varied at different inner diameters. A maximum efficiency of 3.15% was achieved at an inner diameter of 1 mm. The studies indicated that heat recirculation is an effective strategy to maintain combustion and to improve combustion limits in micro-scale system.

  17. LCS Content Document Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  18. Radioisotopes production and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Application of radioisotopes for both medical and industrial applications constitutes one of the most important peaceful uses of atomic energy. The striking diffusion and the exciting perspective of radioisotope for a plethora of medical and industrial applications are mainly attributable to the penetrating and ionization properties of radiation emanating from radioisotopes. The revolutionary medical applications of radioisotopes for the diagnosis and treatment of a multitude of diseases are causing a rapid expansion of the nuclear medicine field. While the industrial uses of radioisotopes are not expanding as quickly, also require large amounts of radioisotopes. Production of radioisotopes is not only the first step, but also the most crucial for the success as well as sustainable growth of radioisotope applications. With the rapid growth and expanding areas of applications, the demands for isotopes have increased several folds. A number of radioisotopes of different physical half-life, energy of the particle or gamma emission, specific activity and chemistry are now regularly produced both at commercial centers as well as at selected nuclear science research institutes utilizing reactors and cyclotrons to meet the ever growing need

  19. Limits to solar power conversion efficiency with applications to quantum and thermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical framework is presented that permits examination of the limit to the efficiency of various solar power conversion devices. Thermodynamic limits to solar power efficiency are determined for both quantum and thermal systems, and the results are applied to a variety of devices currently considered for use in space systems. The power conversion efficiency for single-threshold energy quantum systems receiving unconcentrated air mass zero solar radiation is limited to 31 percent. This limit applies to photovoltaic cells directly converting solar radiation, or indirectly, as in the case of a thermophotovoltaic system. Photoelectrochemical cells rely on an additional chemical reaction at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which introduces additional second-law demands and a reduction of the solar conversion efficiency. Photochemical systems exhibit even lower possible efficiencies because of their relatively narrow absorption bands. Solar-powered thermal engines in contact with an ambient reservoir at 300 K and operating at maximum power have a peak conversion efficiency of 64 percent, and this occurs for a thermal reservoir at a temperature of 2900 K. The power conversion efficiency of a solar-powered liquid metal magnetohydrodydnamic generator, a solar-powered steam turbine electric generator, and an alkali metal thermoelectric converter is discussed.

  20. Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffman, Larry D.; Lee, Patricia L.; Cook, James R.; Wilhite, Elmer L.

    2008-01-01

    The Environmental Analysis and Performance Modeling group of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducts performance assessments of the Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level waste facilities to meet the requirements of DOE Order 435.1. These performance assessments, which result in limits on the amounts of radiological substances that can be placed in the waste disposal facilities, consider numerous potential exposure pathways that could occur in the future. One set of exposure scenarios, known as inadvertent intruder analysis, considers the impact on hypothetical individuals who are assumed to inadvertently intrude onto the waste disposal site. Inadvertent intruder analysis considers three distinct scenarios for exposure referred to as the agriculture scenario, the resident scenario, and the post-drilling scenario. Each of these scenarios has specific exposure pathways that contribute to the overall dose for the scenario. For the inadvertent intruder analysis, the calculation of dose for the exposure pathways is a relatively straightforward algebraic calculation that utilizes dose conversion factors. Prior to 2004, these calculations were performed using an Excel spreadsheet. However, design checks of the spreadsheet calculations revealed that errors could be introduced inadvertently when copying spreadsheet formulas cell by cell and finding these errors was tedious and time consuming. This weakness led to the specification of functional requirements to create a software application that would automate the calculations for inadvertent intruder analysis using a controlled source of input parameters. This software application, named the Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application, has undergone rigorous testing of the internal calculations and meets software QA requirements. The Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application was intended to replace the previous spreadsheet analyses with an automated application that was verified to produce the same calculations and

  1. Computer Applications in Educational Audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Lisa Lucks; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how computer technologies can be used by educational audiologists. Computer technologies are classified into three categories: (1) information systems applications; (2) screening and diagnostic applications; and (3) intervention applications. (Author/DB)

  2. Quality attributes for mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, João M.; Ferreira, André Leite

    2016-01-01

    A mobile application is a type of software application developed to run on a mobile device. The chapter discusses the main characteristics of mobile devices, since they have a great impact on mobile applications. It also presents the classification of mobile applications according to two main types: native and web-based applications. Finally, this chapter identifies the most relevant types of quality attributes for mobile applications. It shows that the relevant quality attributes for mobile ...

  3. Retirement Applicant Satisfaction Survey Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset contains information about the Retirement Applicant Survey (RAS). The survey measured satisfaction results with the retirement application process. The...

  4. Applications of Cell Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Emmanuel C

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of the different purposes for which the cell microencapsulation technology can be used. These include immunoisolation of non-autologous cells used for cell therapy; immobilization of cells for localized (targeted) delivery of therapeutic products to ablate, repair, or regenerate tissue; simultaneous delivery of multiple therapeutic agents in cell therapy; spatial compartmentalization of cells in complex tissue engineering; expansion of cells in culture; and production of different probiotics and metabolites for industrial applications. For each of these applications, specific examples are provided to illustrate how the microencapsulation technology can be utilized to achieve the purpose. However, successful use of the cell microencapsulation technology for whatever purpose will ultimately depend upon careful consideration for the choice of the encapsulating polymers, the method of fabrication (cross-linking) of the microbeads, which affects the permselectivity, the biocompatibility and the mechanical strength of the microbeads as well as environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, osmotic pressure, and storage solutions.The various applications discussed in this chapter are illustrated in the different chapters of this book and where appropriate relevant images of the microencapsulation products are provided. It is hoped that this outline of the different applications of cell microencapsulation would provide a good platform for tissue engineers, scientists, and clinicians to design novel tissue constructs and products for therapeutic and industrial applications.

  5. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  6. Practical applications of phosphors

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Drawn from the second edition of the best-selling Phosphor Handbook, Practical Applications of Phosphors outlines methods for the production of various phosphors and discusses a broad spectrum of applications. Beginning with methods for synthesis and related technologies, the book sets the stage by classifying and then explaining practical phosphors according to usage. It describes the operating principle and structure of phosphor devices and the phosphor characteristics required for a given device, then covers the manufacturing processes and characteristics of phosphors. The book discusses research and development currently under way on phosphors with potential for practical usage and touches briefly on phosphors that have played a historical role, but are no longer of practical use. It provides a comprehensive treatment of applications including lamps and cathode-ray tubes, x-ray and ionizing radiation, and for vacuum fluorescent and field emission displays and covers inorganic and organic electroluminescen...

  7. Radioisotope applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frevert, E.

    1983-03-01

    The practical applications of the isotope technique are reported and illustrated by examples of works of the Department of Isotope Application of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. First the field of process controlling device and controll is described, including thickness, density and moisture gauging, the estimation of coatings and material compounds, the location of material defects and the level control. After this a detailed description of all kinds of tracer investigations is given like measurements of flow rate, intermixture, distribution and volume, investigations of corrosion, wear and lubrication and locations of all kind. A short description of gas ionisation, sources of light and isotope batteries is mentioned. Finally a general view of the applications in the fields of chemistry, biology, agriculture and medicine and the most important of the Austrian law of protective screen and its enactment are given. (Author) [de

  8. Lie algebras and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iachello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This course-based primer provides an introduction to Lie algebras and some of their applications to the spectroscopy of molecules, atoms, nuclei and hadrons. In the first part, it concisely presents the basic concepts of Lie algebras, their representations and their invariants. The second part includes a description of how Lie algebras are used in practice in the treatment of bosonic and fermionic systems. Physical applications considered include rotations and vibrations of molecules (vibron model), collective modes in nuclei (interacting boson model), the atomic shell model, the nuclear shell model, and the quark model of hadrons. One of the key concepts in the application of Lie algebraic methods in physics, that of spectrum generating algebras and their associated dynamic symmetries, is also discussed. The book highlights a number of examples that help to illustrate the abstract algebraic definitions and includes a summary of many formulas of practical interest, such as the eigenvalues of Casimir operators...

  9. Discrete mathematics with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koshy, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This approachable text studies discrete objects and the relationsips that bind them. It helps students understand and apply the power of discrete math to digital computer systems and other modern applications. It provides excellent preparation for courses in linear algebra, number theory, and modern/abstract algebra and for computer science courses in data structures, algorithms, programming languages, compilers, databases, and computation.* Covers all recommended topics in a self-contained, comprehensive, and understandable format for students and new professionals * Emphasizes problem-solving techniques, pattern recognition, conjecturing, induction, applications of varying nature, proof techniques, algorithm development and correctness, and numeric computations* Weaves numerous applications into the text* Helps students learn by doing with a wealth of examples and exercises: - 560 examples worked out in detail - More than 3,700 exercises - More than 150 computer assignments - More than 600 writing projects*...

  10. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical applications include the galactose breath test which consists of oral administration of 13 C-labeled galactose and measurement of the 13 C content of respired CO 2 as a function of time in patients with cirrhotic livers for diagnosis of liver dysfunction. Another application was the breath test to study glucose metabolism in children. Respired 13 CO 2 from ingested glucose- 13 C was measured for normal and diabetic children. Studies on mice in which 60 percent of the body carbon was replaced with 13 C failed to show significant effects of the isotope. Studies on biochemical applications include nuclear magnetic resonance studies of 13 C-labeled amino acids from Chlorella pyrenoidosa; studies on 15 N nmr spectra of arginine-guanidino- 13 C-2,3-- 15 N 2 as a function of pH; and isolation of fatty acids from algae

  11. Elasticity theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saada, Adel S; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    2013-01-01

    Elasticity: Theory and Applications reviews the theory and applications of elasticity. The book is divided into three parts. The first part is concerned with the kinematics of continuous media; the second part focuses on the analysis of stress; and the third part considers the theory of elasticity and its applications to engineering problems. This book consists of 18 chapters; the first of which deals with the kinematics of continuous media. The basic definitions and the operations of matrix algebra are presented in the next chapter, followed by a discussion on the linear transformation of points. The study of finite and linear strains gradually introduces the reader to the tensor concept. Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are examined in detail, along with the similarities between stress and strain. The chapters that follow cover torsion; the three-dimensional theory of linear elasticity and the requirements for the solution of elasticity problems; the method of potentials; and topics related to cylinders, ...

  12. Functional analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Siddiqi, Abul Hasan

    2018-01-01

    This self-contained textbook discusses all major topics in functional analysis. Combining classical materials with new methods, it supplies numerous relevant solved examples and problems and discusses the applications of functional analysis in diverse fields. The book is unique in its scope, and a variety of applications of functional analysis and operator-theoretic methods are devoted to each area of application. Each chapter includes a set of problems, some of which are routine and elementary, and some of which are more advanced. The book is primarily intended as a textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in applied mathematics and engineering. It offers several attractive features making it ideally suited for courses on functional analysis intended to provide a basic introduction to the subject and the impact of functional analysis on applied and computational mathematics, nonlinear functional analysis and optimization. It introduces emerging topics like wavelets, Gabor system, inverse pro...

  13. Superconductivity: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Kircher, F.; Leveque, J.; Tixador, P.

    2008-01-01

    This digest paper presents the different types of superconducting materials: 1 - the low-TC superconductors: the multi-filament composite as elementary constituent, the world production of NbTi, the superconducting cables of the LHC collider and of the ITER tokamak; 2 - the high-TC superconductors: BiSrCaCuO (PIT 1G) ribbons and wires, deposited coatings; 3 - application to particle physics: the the LHC collider of the CERN, the LHC detectors; 4 - applications to thermonuclear fusion: Tore Supra and ITER tokamaks; 5 - NMR imaging: properties of superconducting magnets; 6 - applications in electrotechnics: cables, motors and alternators, current limiters, transformers, superconducting energy storage systems (SMES). (J.S.)

  14. Applications of interval computations

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1996-01-01

    Primary Audience for the Book • Specialists in numerical computations who are interested in algorithms with automatic result verification. • Engineers, scientists, and practitioners who desire results with automatic verification and who would therefore benefit from the experience of suc­ cessful applications. • Students in applied mathematics and computer science who want to learn these methods. Goal Of the Book This book contains surveys of applications of interval computations, i. e. , appli­ cations of numerical methods with automatic result verification, that were pre­ sented at an international workshop on the subject in EI Paso, Texas, February 23-25, 1995. The purpose of this book is to disseminate detailed and surveyed information about existing and potential applications of this new growing field. Brief Description of the Papers At the most fundamental level, interval arithmetic operations work with sets: The result of a single arithmetic operation is the set of all possible results as the o...

  15. Applications of photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearsall, N.

    1999-01-01

    The author points out that although photovoltaics can be used for generating electricity for the same applications as many other means of generation, they really come into their own where disadvantages associated with an intermittent unpredictable supply are not severe. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages to be taken into account when considering a photovoltaic power system. Five main applications, based on the system features, are listed and explained. They are: consumer, professional, rural electrification, building-integrated, centralised grid connected and space power. A brief history of the applications of photovoltaics is presented with statistical data on the growth of installed capacity since 1992. The developing market for photovoltaics is discussed together with how environmental issues have become a driver for development of building-integrated photovoltaics

  16. Optimized packings with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of case studies that address a substantial range of optimized object packings (OOP) and their applications. The contributing authors are well-recognized researchers and practitioners. The mathematical modelling and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in sufficient detail. A broad range of OOP problems are discussed: these include various specific and non-standard container loading and object packing problems, as well as the stowing of hazardous and other materials on container ships, data centre resource management, automotive engineering design, space station logistic support, cutting and packing problems with placement constraints, the optimal design of LED street lighting, robust sensor deployment strategies, spatial scheduling problems, and graph coloring models and metaheuristics for packing applications. Novel points of view related to model development and to computational nonlinear, global, mixed integer optimization and heuristic st...

  17. Engineering Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casteleyn, Sven; Daniel, Florian; Dolog, Peter

    Nowadays, Web applications are almost omnipresent. The Web has become a platform not only for information delivery, but also for eCommerce systems, social networks, mobile services, and distributed learning environments. Engineering Web applications involves many intrinsic challenges due...... to their distributed nature, content orientation, and the requirement to make them available to a wide spectrum of users who are unknown in advance. The authors discuss these challenges in the context of well-established engineering processes, covering the whole product lifecycle from requirements engineering through...... design and implementation to deployment and maintenance. They stress the importance of models in Web application development, and they compare well-known Web-specific development processes like WebML, WSDM and OOHDM to traditional software development approaches like the waterfall model and the spiral...

  18. Plasmonics theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shahbazyan, Tigran V

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume summarizes recent theoretical developments in plasmonics and its applications in physics, chemistry, materials science, engineering, and medicine. It focuses on recent advances in several major areas of plasmonics including plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies, light scattering, many-body effects, nonlinear optics, and ultrafast dynamics. The theoretical and computational methods used in these investigations include electromagnetic calculations, density functional theory calculations, and nonequilibrium electron dynamics calculations. The book presents a comprehensive overview of these methods as well as their applications to various current problems of interest.

  19. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  20. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  1. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  2. Superconductors and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlenbrach, H

    1976-05-01

    A brief introduction is given to the physics and technology of superconductivity, covering the proposed application of V/sub 3/Ga and Nb/sub 3/Sn which have a Tc at 20K and of Nb/sub 3/Ge (in thin layers) with a Tc of up to 23K. A table is given of the latest materials with Tc values around 11K, and high Hc values (up to 440 kA/cm), all based on molybdenum compounds. A brief discussion of practical applications includes a Hover vehicle with linear motor propulsion and low current usage in measuring and computing devices based on the Josephson effect.

  3. Medical applications of accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Sandro

    1998-01-01

    At Present, about five thousands accelerators are devoted to biomedical applications. They are mainly used in radiotherapy, research and medical radioisotopes production. In this framework oncological hadron-therapy deserves particular attention since it represents a field in rapid evolution thanks to the joint efforts of laboratories with long experiences in particle physics. It is the case of CERN where the design of an optimised synchrotron for medical applications has been pursued. These lectures present these activities with particular attention to the new developments which are scientifically interesting and/or economically promising.

  4. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  5. Medical applications of cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.; Fauchet, M.

    1978-01-01

    Isochronous cyclotrons used to accelerate different charged particles (protons, deuterons, alphas...) at variable energies, have important medical applications, for neutron teletherapy, in vivo or in vitro activation analysis or production of short-lived radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. The characteristics of the cyclotron presently available are described for these three applications (low energy 'compact' cyclotrons, cyclotrons of intermediate and high energies), and their advantages are discussed from the points of view of the medical requirements, the financial investments and the results obtained. (orig.) [de

  6. Modular Mobile Application Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Hahn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of the Minrva library app for Android phones. The decisions to build a native application with Java and use a modular design are discussed. The application includes five modules: catalog search, in-building navigation, a barcode scanning feature, and up to date notifications of circulating technology availability. A sixth module, Amazon recommendations, that is not included in the version of the app that was released is also discussed. The article also reports on the findings of two rounds of usability testing and the plans for future development of the app.

  7. Location Based Application Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem Akram, Raja; Markantonakis, Konstantinos; Mayes, Keith

    Smart cards are being integrated into a diverse range of industries: ranging from banking, telecom, transport, home/office access control to health and E-passport. Traditionally, cardholders are required to carry a smart card for each application. However, recent developments in the Near Field Communication (NFC) have renewed the interest in multiple applications for different services on a single device. This paper builds onto the NFC initiative and avoids the smart card ownership issues that hinder the adoption of such devices. The proposal integrates the Global Positioning System with the NFC in mobile phones to provide a ubiquitously and flexible service access model.

  8. Developing Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    Building applications for the Internet is a complex and fast-moving field which utilizes a variety of continually evolving technologies. Whether your perspective is from the client or server side, there are many languages to master - X(HTML), JavaScript, PHP, XML and CSS to name but a few. These languages have to work together cleanly, logically and in harmony with the systems they run on, and be compatible with any browsers with which they interact. Developing Web Applications presents script writing and good programming practice but also allows students to see how the individual technologi

  9. Optimization : insights and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkhuis, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This self-contained textbook is an informal introduction to optimization through the use of numerous illustrations and applications. The focus is on analytically solving optimization problems with a finite number of continuous variables. In addition, the authors provide introductions to classical and modern numerical methods of optimization and to dynamic optimization. The book's overarching point is that most problems may be solved by the direct application of the theorems of Fermat, Lagrange, and Weierstrass. The authors show how the intuition for each of the theoretical results can be s

  10. Laravel application development blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Kiliçdagi, Arda

    2013-01-01

    Follow along as we work together to build 10 different applications using Laravel 4. Since each chapter is devoted to the design of a different application, there is no need to read the book in any particular order. Instead, you can pick and choose the blueprints that are of most interest to you and dive right in.This book is for intermediate to advanced level PHP programmers who want to master Laravel. It's assumed that you will have some experience with PHP already. This book is also for those who are already using a different PHP framework and are looking for better solutions.

  11. Nanoelectronic device applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, James E

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook gives a comprehensive snapshot of the state of the art in nanodevices for nanoelectronics applications. Combining breadth and depth, the book includes 68 chapters on topics that range from nano-scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices through recent developments in nano capacitors and AlGaAs/GaAs devices. The contributors are world-renowned experts from academia and industry from around the globe. The handbook explores current research into potentially disruptive technologies for a post-CMOS world.These include: Nanoscale advance

  12. Tunable laser applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ

    2008-01-01

    Introduction F. J. Duarte Spectroscopic Applications of Tunable Optical Parametric Oscillators B. J. Orr, R. T. White, and Y. He Solid-State Dye Lasers Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre Tunable Lasers Based on Dye-Doped Polymer Gain Media Incorporating Homogeneous Distributions of Functional Nanoparticles F. J. Duarte and R. O. James Broadly Tunable External-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers F. J. Duarte Tunable Fiber Lasers T. M. Shay and F. J. Duarte Fiber Laser Overview and Medical Applications

  13. Cluster analysis for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anderberg, Michael R

    1973-01-01

    Cluster Analysis for Applications deals with methods and various applications of cluster analysis. Topics covered range from variables and scales to measures of association among variables and among data units. Conceptual problems in cluster analysis are discussed, along with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods. The necessary elements of data analysis, statistics, cluster analysis, and computer implementation are integrated vertically to cover the complete path from raw data to a finished analysis.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the subject o

  14. Mixtures Estimation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mengersen, Kerrie; Titterington, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This book uses the EM (expectation maximization) algorithm to simultaneously estimate the missing data and unknown parameter(s) associated with a data set. The parameters describe the component distributions of the mixture; the distributions may be continuous or discrete. The editors provide a complete account of the applications, mathematical structure and statistical analysis of finite mixture distributions along with MCMC computational methods, together with a range of detailed discussions covering the applications of the methods and features chapters from the leading experts on the subject

  15. Language Modelling for Collaborative Filtering: Application to Job Applicant Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt , Thomas; Gonard , François; Caillou , Philippe; Sebag , Michèle

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper addresses a collaborative retrieval problem , the recommendation of job ads to applicants. Specifically, two proprietary databases are considered. The first one focuses on the context of unskilled low-paid jobs/applicants; the second one focuses on highly qualified jobs/applicants. Each database includes the job ads and applicant resumes together with the collaborative filtering data recording the applicant clicks on job ads. The proposed approach, called LA...

  16. Distributed Parameter Modelling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    and the development of a short-path evaporator. The oil shale processing problem illustrates the interplay amongst particle flows in rotating drums, heat and mass transfer between solid and gas phases. The industrial application considers the dynamics of an Alberta-Taciuk processor, commonly used in shale oil and oil...... the steady state, distributed behaviour of a short-path evaporator....

  17. Forensic Applications of LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  18. Beaming teaching application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2012-01-01

    BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophon...

  19. Medical applications of colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Matijevic, Egon

    2008-01-01

    The first book of its type on the medical and biomedical applications of colloids, although there are some related titles on different topicsDiscusses the effects of uniform particles in drug formulations and releaseEvaluates particle transport and deposition in the human body.

  20. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  1. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  2. Microfluidics for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.; Segerink, L.I.; Segerink, Loes Irene; Unknown, [Unknown

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices for point of care diagnostics have been present in clinics for several years now. Alongside their continual development, research is underway to bring the organs and tissue on-a-chip to the patient, amongst other medical applications of microfluidics. This book provides the

  3. Intertwiners and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenecker, M.; Gruemm, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of 'intertwiner' - less familiar to physicists - appears to be quite useful for the applications of group theory. We present as examples the change of ground field as well as a basis-free version of the Wigner-Eckart theorem. (Author)

  4. Applications of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.

    1983-01-01

    The author describes the application of quantum chromodynamics to deep inelastic lepton scattering, the Drell-Yan process, e + e - -annihilation, #betta##betta#-physics, large psub(T) processes, and wide angle quark-quark scattering. Furthermore higher order terms are considered. (HSI)

  5. Thermoelectricity: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberg, S.; Mathonnet, P.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief recall of the basic principles of thermoelectricity, the essential characteristics intervening in the different thermoelectric devices operating modes are defined. Properties of the materials the most used nowadays and performances of the apparatus that they allow to realize are indicated. Advantages and drawbacks of the principal applications in the form of electrical generators, refrigerators and heat pumps are pointed out [fr

  6. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  7. Application of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markhol, M.

    1985-01-01

    Existing methods of multi-element separation for radiochemical analysis are considered. The majority of existing methods is noted to be based on application of organic and inorganic ion exchangers. Distillation, coprecipitation, extraction as well as combination of the above methods are also used. Concrete flowsheets of multi-element separation are presented

  8. Business Applications of WAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenderen, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Explains the development of WAP (wireless application protocol), how it works, and what the major advantages and disadvantages are, especially when applied to the use of information. Topics include standardization; mobile communications; the effect of WAP on business tools, electronic commerce, and information services; consumers; corporate users;…

  9. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils

  10. Knotoids, Braidoids and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Gügümcü

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an introduction to the theory of braidoids. Braidoids are geometric objects analogous to classical braids, forming a counterpart theory to the theory of knotoids. We introduce these objects and their topological equivalences, and we conclude with a potential application to the study of proteins.

  11. Learning analytics dashboard applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Duval, E.; Klerkx, J.; Govaerts, S.; Santos, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces learning analytics dashboards that visualize learning traces for learners and teachers. We present a conceptual framework that helps to analyze learning analytics applications for these kinds of users. We then present our own work in this area and compare with 15 related

  12. Zirconia in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Wei; Moussi, Joelle; Drury, Jeanie L; Wataha, John C

    2016-10-01

    The use of zirconia in medicine and dentistry has rapidly expanded over the past decade, driven by its advantageous physical, biological, esthetic, and corrosion properties. Zirconia orthopedic hip replacements have shown superior wear-resistance over other systems; however, risk of catastrophic fracture remains a concern. In dentistry, zirconia has been widely adopted for endosseous implants, implant abutments, and all-ceramic crowns. Because of an increasing demand for esthetically pleasing dental restorations, zirconia-based ceramic restorations have become one of the dominant restorative choices. Areas covered: This review provides an updated overview of the applications of zirconia in medicine and dentistry with a focus on dental applications. The MEDLINE electronic database (via PubMed) was searched, and relevant original and review articles from 2010 to 2016 were included. Expert commentary: Recent data suggest that zirconia performs favorably in both orthopedic and dental applications, but quality long-term clinical data remain scarce. Concerns about the effects of wear, crystalline degradation, crack propagation, and catastrophic fracture are still debated. The future of zirconia in biomedical applications will depend on the generation of these data to resolve concerns.

  13. Electron beam simulation applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A system for simulating electron beam treatment portals using low-temperature melting point alloy is described. Special frames having the same physical dimensions as the electron beam applicators used on the Varian Clinac 20 linear accelerator were designed and constructed

  14. Microcontroller for automation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The description of a microcontroller currently being developed for automation application was given. It is basically an 8-bit microcomputer with a 40K byte random access memory/read only memory, and can control a maximum of 12 devices through standard 15-line interface ports.

  15. Star Products and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, Mari; Yoshioka, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Star products parametrized by complex matrices are defined. Especially commutative associative star products are treated, and star exponentials with respect to these star products are considered. Jacobi's theta functions are given as infinite sums of star exponentials. As application, several concrete identities are obtained by properties of the star exponentials.

  16. Technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdany, J.; Vesztergombi, G.

    1994-07-01

    The workshop on Parallel Processing, Technology and Applications, held February 10-11, Budapest, Hungary, covered a variety of topics on computer data processing and parallel computing. One of the 17 presentations discussed the need for massively parallel processing in support of future high energy experiments

  17. Assessment Applications of Ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Niemi, David; Bewley, William L.

    This paper discusses the use of ontologies and their applications to assessment. An ontology provides a shared and common understanding of a domain that can be communicated among people and computational systems. The ontology captures one or more experts' conceptual representation of a domain expressed in terms of concepts and the relationships…

  18. AUTOMATED INADVERTENT INTRUDER APPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffman, L; Patricia Lee, P; Jim Cook, J; Elmer Wilhite, E

    2007-01-01

    The Environmental Analysis and Performance Modeling group of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducts performance assessments of the Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level waste facilities to meet the requirements of DOE Order 435.1. These performance assessments, which result in limits on the amounts of radiological substances that can be placed in the waste disposal facilities, consider numerous potential exposure pathways that could occur in the future. One set of exposure scenarios, known as inadvertent intruder analysis, considers the impact on hypothetical individuals who are assumed to inadvertently intrude onto the waste disposal site. Inadvertent intruder analysis considers three distinct scenarios for exposure referred to as the agriculture scenario, the resident scenario, and the post-drilling scenario. Each of these scenarios has specific exposure pathways that contribute to the overall dose for the scenario. For the inadvertent intruder analysis, the calculation of dose for the exposure pathways is a relatively straightforward algebraic calculation that utilizes dose conversion factors. Prior to 2004, these calculations were performed using an Excel spreadsheet. However, design checks of the spreadsheet calculations revealed that errors could be introduced inadvertently when copying spreadsheet formulas cell by cell and finding these errors was tedious and time consuming. This weakness led to the specification of functional requirements to create a software application that would automate the calculations for inadvertent intruder analysis using a controlled source of input parameters. This software application, named the Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application, has undergone rigorous testing of the internal calculations and meets software QA requirements. The Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application was intended to replace the previous spreadsheet analyses with an automated application that was verified to produce the same calculations and

  19. The fusion applications study - FAME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Engholm, B.A.; Bourque, R.F.; Cheng, E.T.; Schaffer, M.J.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Fusion Applications and Market Evaluation (''FAME'') study, being conducted by GA Technologies for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, (US DOE) is described. This two-year program has a FY86 objective of Evaluating Alternative Applications of Fusion, and a FY87 goal of Exploring Innovative Applications. Applications are being reviewed and categorized into Baseline, Nuclear, Chemical, Electromagnetic, and Thermal application categories. The ''traditional'' applications of electricity generation, fissile fuel and tritium production, and hydrogen production continue to look attractive. Particularly promising new applications to date, with potential for near-term markets, are isotope production and radiation processing, especially when allied with the traditional application of electricity production. The economics of separate applications as well as coproduction are discussed. The combination of electricity and /sup 60/Co production appears to be one of the most attractive

  20. Laravel application development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Matula, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.A short and precise guide to get you started with EaselJS , helping you to create some cool applications and games.EaselJS greatly simplifies application development in HTML5 Canvas using a syntax and an architecture very similar to the ActionScript 3.0 language. As a result, Flash / Flex developers will immediately feel at home but it's very easy to learn even if you've never opened Flash in your life. The book targets Web designers, animators,

  1. Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corves, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    The first Workshop on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications -- MeTrApp-2011 was organized by the Mechatronics Department at the Mechanical Engineering Faculty, “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania, under the patronage of the IFToMM Technical Committees Linkages and Mechanical Controls and Micromachines. The workshop brought together researchers and students who work in disciplines associated with mechanisms science and offered a great opportunity for scientists from all over the world to present their achievements, exchange innovative ideas and create solid international links, setting the trend for future developments in this important and creative field. The topics treated in this volume are mechanisms and machine design, mechanical transmissions, mechatronic and biomechanic applications, computational and experimental methods, history of mechanism and machine science and teaching methods.

  2. Quality Control Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chorafas, Dimitris N

    2013-01-01

    Quality control is a constant priority in electrical, mechanical, aeronautical, and nuclear engineering – as well as in the vast domain of electronics, from home appliances to computers and telecommunications. Quality Control Applications provides guidance and valuable insight into quality control policies; their methods, their implementation, constant observation and associated technical audits. What has previously been a mostly mathematical topic is translated here for engineers concerned with the practical implementation of quality control. Once the fundamentals of quality control are established, Quality Control Applications goes on to develop this knowledge and explain how to apply it in the most effective way. Techniques are described and supported using relevant, real-life, case studies to provide detail and clarity for those without a mathematical background. Among the many practical examples, two case studies dramatize the importance of quality assurance: A shot-by-shot analysis of the errors made ...

  3. Ceramics for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 , BeO, Si 3 N 4 and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying responses to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today that will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications. (author)

  4. Applications of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-05-01

    A review is given of reliable quantum chromodynamics predictions which either have or soon can be verified by experiment. Included are a discussion of the classic application of quantum chromodynamics perturbation theory and asymptotic freedom to predict scaling violations in deep inelastic leptoproduction experiments, with emphasis on the first direct experimental confirmation of the numerical values of the anomalous dimensions; a review of recent advances in developing and justifying quantum chromodynamics perturbation theory predictions for a number of physical applications not underwritten by the operator product expansion and renormalization group arguments; and mention of attempts to consider the reliability of quantum chromodynamics perturbation theory predictions, given the fact that nonperturbative effects are presumably crucial in quantum chromodynamics. 100 references

  5. Optical Polarizationin Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tuchin, Valery V; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A

    2006-01-01

    Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications introduces key developments in optical polarization methods for quantitative studies of tissues, while presenting the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium as a basis for the quantitative description of polarized light interaction with tissues. This theory uses the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters and predicts the polarization structure of multiple scattered optical fields. The backscattering polarization matrices (Jones matrix and Mueller matrix) important for noninvasive medical diagnostic are introduced. The text also describes a number of diagnostic techniques such as CW polarization imaging and spectroscopy, polarization microscopy and cytometry. As a new tool for medical diagnosis, optical coherent polarization tomography is analyzed. The monograph also covers a range of biomedical applications, among them cataract and glaucoma diagnostics, glucose sensing, and the detection of bacteria.

  6. Information Engineering and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yan; International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2011

    2012-01-01

    The International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2011 will be held on October 21-24, 2011, in Chongqing, China. It is organized by Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Nanyang Technological University, the University of Michigan, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, and sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The objective of IEA 2011 is to facilitate an exchange of information on best practices for the latest research advances in the area of information engineering and intelligence applications, which mainly includes computer science and engineering, informatics, communications and control, electrical engineering, information computing, business intelligence and management. IEA 2011 will provide a forum for engineers and scientists in academia, industry, and government to address the most innovative research and development including technical challenges, social and economic issues, and to present and disc...

  7. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  8. Nuclear applications for health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuaron, A.

    1995-01-01

    Just before the turn of the 20th century, the discoveries of X-rays, in 1895, and of radioactivity, in 1896, opened up whole new worlds of science. For the medical community, the world has been changing ever since, in some countries far more rapidly than in others. Over the past 100 years, the X-ray has become as familiar to most people as the dentist's chair. As we move into the next century, greater attention is being placed upon less known but more far-reaching radiation technologies and nuclear applications that today's physicians are able to use for earlier diagnosis and treatment of serious illness. This article, in question-and-answer format, explains the differences between the various types of nuclear applications for human health and looks at the evolution of the IAEA's related activities. (author)

  9. Application of ecological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherk, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service has initiated the production of a comprehensive ecological inventory map series for use as a major new planning tool. Important species data along with special land use designations are displayed on 1:250,000 scale topographic base maps. Sets of maps have been published for the Atlantic and Pacific coastal areas of the United States. Preparation of a map set for the Gulf of Mexico is underway at the present time. Potential application of ecological inventory map series information to a typical land disposal facility could occur during the narrowing of the number of possible disposal sites, the design of potential disposal site studies of ecological resources, the preparation of the environmental report, and the regulatory review of license applications. 3 figures, 3 tables

  10. Technology applications bulletins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W. Jr.

    1989-02-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), operates five facilities for the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is a large, multidisciplinary research and development (R and D) center whose primary mission is energy research; the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, which engages in defense research, development, and production; and the uranium-enrichment plants at Oak Ridge; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Much of the research carried out at these facilities is of interest to industry and to state or local governments. To make information about this research available, the Energy Systems Office of Technology Applications publishes brief descriptions of selected technologies and reports. These technology applications bulletins describe the new technology and inform the reader about how to obtain further information, gain access to technical resources, and initiate direct contact with Energy Systems researchers

  11. Ceramics for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 , BeO, Si 3 N 4 and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications

  12. Prospects for HTS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, B.B.; Snitchler, G.L.; Schwall, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) wire is rapidly maturing into a working material being produced in ever larger quantities and being used in more significant demonstrations and prototypes. Conductor is now produced routinely in several hundred meter lengths with reproducible results. Current density has progressed to a level suitable for demonstration of many applications. Wire strength has improved and large prototypes fabricated or under consideration using HTS include Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), rotating electrical machines including synchronous ac and dc homopolar motors and drives, generators and condensers, underground transmission cables, utility distribution equipment such as transformers and current limiters, commercial processing applications such as magnetic separation, and specialty magnets such as high field inserts. In this paper the requirements, progress toward these requirements, and the prospects for the future are reviewed

  13. Multifractals theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Harte, David

    2001-01-01

    Although multifractals are rooted in probability, much of the related literature comes from the physics and mathematics arena. Multifractals: Theory and Applications pulls together ideas from both these areas using a language that makes them accessible and useful to statistical scientists. It provides a framework, in particular, for the evaluation of statistical properties of estimates of the Renyi fractal dimensions.The first section provides introductory material and different definitions of a multifractal measure. The author then examines some of the various constructions for describing multifractal measures. Building from the theory of large deviations, he focuses on constructions based on lattice coverings, covering by point-centered spheres, and cascades processes. The final section presents estimators of Renyi dimensions of integer order two and greater and discusses their properties. It also explores various applications of dimension estimation and provides a detailed case study of spatial point patte...

  14. Applications of optical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberger, E.

    2005-01-01

    Optical imaging in the form of near infrared fluorescence and bioluminescence has proven useful for a wide range of applications in the field of molecular imaging. Both techniques provide a high sensitivity (in the nanomolar range), which is of particular importance for molecular imaging. Imaging with near infrared fluorescence is especially cost-effective and can be performed, in contrast to radioactivity-based methods, with fluorescence dyes that remain stable for months. The most important advantage of bioluminescence, in turn, is the lack of background signal. Although molecular imaging with these techniques is still in the experimental phase, an application of near infrared fluorescence is already foreseeable for the imaging of superficial structures. (orig.)

  15. Diverse applications of radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalow, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    The author discussed the issues concerning insulins of the different species (pig, dog and sperm whale) and the applications of species specific antisera in experimental and clinical settings. The possible role of a new form of ACTH as a hormonal marker was also discussed. Three species of insulin (pig, dog, and sperm whale) were separated by human antisera. Immune reaction was utilized to distinguish between endogenous human insulin and exogenously administered animal insulin. The longer acting insulins was found to be more immunogenic than regular crystalline insulins. Insulin concentrations in acid/ethanol extracts of the whole rat brain was about 25 times higher than plasma insulin. Plasma concentration of ACTH could be applicable to effect the distinction between tumor primary in or metastatic to the lung. (Nakanishi, T.)

  16. Calculus with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lax, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    This new edition of Lax, Burstein, and Lax's Calculus with Applications and Computing offers meaningful explanations of the important theorems of single variable calculus. Written with students in mathematics, the physical sciences, and engineering in mind, and revised with their help, it shows that the themes of calculation, approximation, and modeling are central to mathematics and the main ideas of single variable calculus. This edition brings the innovation of the first edition to a new generation of students. New sections in this book use simple, elementary examples to show that when applying calculus concepts to approximations of  functions, uniform convergence is more natural and easier to use than point-wise convergence. As in the original, this edition includes material that is essential for students in science and engineering, including an elementary introduction to complex numbers and complex-valued functions, applications of calculus to modeling vibrations and population dynamics, and an introduc...

  17. Applications of mesoscopic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Shechao.

    1993-01-01

    Research activities in the area ''applications of mesoscopic physics to novel correlations and fluctuations of speckle patterns: imaging and tomography with multiply scattered classical waves'' are briefly summarized. The main thrust in fundamental research is in the general areas of mesoscopic effects in disordered semiconductors and metals and the related field of applications of mesoscopic physics to the subject matter of classical wave propagation through disordered scattering media. Specific topics are Fabry-Perot interferometer with disorder: correlations and light localization; electron-phonon inelastic scattering rate and the temperature scaling exponent in integer quantum Hall effect; and transmission and reflection correlations of second harmonic waves in nonlinear random media. Research in applied physics centered on far infrared photon-assisted transport through quantum point contact devices and photon migration distributions in multiple scattering media. 7 refs

  18. Biophotonics concepts to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Keiser, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce senior-level and postgraduate students to the principles and applications of biophotonics. It also will serve well as a working reference to practicing physicians, clinicians, biomedical researchers, and biomedical engineers dealing with photonics-based tools and instruments. The book topics include the fundamentals of optics and photonics, the optical properties of biological tissues, various types of light-tissue interactions, microscopy for visualizing tissue components, spectroscopy for optically analyzing the properties of healthy and diseased tissue, and optical biomedical imaging. The tools and techniques described in the book include laser and LED optical sources, photodetectors, optical fibers, bioluminescent probes for labeling cells, optical-based biosensors, nanophotonics, surface plasmon resonance, and lab-on-a-chip technologies. Among the applications are optical coherence tomography (OCT), flow cytometery, photodynamic therapy (PDT), low-level light therapy (L...

  19. Justification: theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of justification implies that a specific decision as to the relative merits of benefits and costs and detriment be made whenever: (1) a new practice is introduced that involves an indirect or direct increase in radiation exposure; or (2) an existing practice affecting radiation exposure is modified; or (3) an increase in radiation protection of an existing practice is to be considered. Such decisions are imprecise and involve intangible values. ICRP has, however, developed a mathematical model to express the structure of such decisions. The utility of this model for making the key paramters of justification decisions visible is explored in this paper in two ways. First, the structure of the model and its implications are explored in the abstract. Secondly, several specific applications are studied to determine if the model has utility in structuring application decisions, and the extent to which conclusions can be evolved in a meaningful, visible manner. (author)

  20. Numerical semigroups and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Assi, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    This work presents applications of numerical semigroups in Algebraic Geometry, Number Theory, and Coding Theory. Background on numerical semigroups is presented in the first two chapters, which introduce basic notation and fundamental concepts and irreducible numerical semigroups. The focus is in particular on free semigroups, which are irreducible; semigroups associated with planar curves are of this kind. The authors also introduce semigroups associated with irreducible meromorphic series, and show how these are used in order to present the properties of planar curves. Invariants of non-unique factorizations for numerical semigroups are also studied. These invariants are computationally accessible in this setting, and thus this monograph can be used as an introduction to Factorization Theory. Since factorizations and divisibility are strongly connected, the authors show some applications to AG Codes in the final section. The book will be of value for undergraduate students (especially those at a higher leve...

  1. Metagraphs and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Amit

    2007-01-01

    The graph is a critical and useful concept in designing many information processing systems. Systems such as transaction processing systems, decision support systems, and workflow systems are all helped immensely by a graphical structure. Simple graphs and digraphs allow for the construction of a variety of system design tools that provide a convenient and appealing format for illustrating information infrastructures, while allowing any subsequent analyses to be performed by the user. However, the metagraph, a new graphical structure that is developed in this book, goes beyond the representational and provides Information Systems with a robust, analytical modeling graphic tool. METAGRAPHS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS is a presentation of metagraph theory and its applications that begins by defining a metagraph and its uses. They are more complex than a simple graph structure, but they allow for representation and analysis of more complex systems. The material contained in this book is presented in two parts. The fi...

  2. Finite fields and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Gary L

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a brief and accessible introduction to the theory of finite fields and to some of their many fascinating and practical applications. The first chapter is devoted to the theory of finite fields. After covering their construction and elementary properties, the authors discuss the trace and norm functions, bases for finite fields, and properties of polynomials over finite fields. Each of the remaining chapters details applications. Chapter 2 deals with combinatorial topics such as the construction of sets of orthogonal latin squares, affine and projective planes, block designs, and Hadamard matrices. Chapters 3 and 4 provide a number of constructions and basic properties of error-correcting codes and cryptographic systems using finite fields. Each chapter includes a set of exercises of varying levels of difficulty which help to further explain and motivate the material. Appendix A provides a brief review of the basic number theory and abstract algebra used in the text, as well as exercises rel...

  3. Biomedical applications of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ana P; Cruz, Marcos A E; Tovani, Camila B; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    The ability to investigate substances at the molecular level has boosted the search for materials with outstanding properties for use in medicine. The application of these novel materials has generated the new research field of nanobiotechnology, which plays a central role in disease diagnosis, drug design and delivery, and implants. In this review, we provide an overview of the use of metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-nanotubes, liposomes, and nanopatterned flat surfaces for specific biomedical applications. The chemical and physical properties of the surface of these materials allow their use in diagnosis, biosensing and bioimaging devices, drug delivery systems, and bone substitute implants. The toxicology of these particles is also discussed in the light of a new field referred to as nanotoxicology that studies the surface effects emerging from nanostructured materials.

  4. Nattokinase: production and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Fatemeh; Negahdaripour, Manica; Berenjian, Aydin; Behfar, Abdolazim; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Zamani, Mozhdeh; Irajie, Cambyz; Ghasemi, Younes

    2014-11-01

    Nattokinase (NK, also known as subtilisin NAT) (EC 3.4.21.62) is one of the most considerable extracellular enzymes produced by Bacillus subtilis natto. The main interest about this enzyme is due to its direct fibrinolytic activity. Being stable enough in the gastrointestinal tract makes this enzyme a useful agent for the oral thrombolytic therapy. Thus, NK is regarded as a valuable dietary supplement or nutraceutical. Proven safety and ease of mass production are other advantages of this enzyme. In addition to these valuable advantages, there are other applications attributed to NK including treatment of hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and vitreoretinal disorders. This review tends to bring a brief description about this valuable enzyme and summarizes the various biotechnological approaches used in its production, recovery, and purification. Some of the most important applications of NK, as well as its future prospects, are also discussed.

  5. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  6. Nonlocal diffusion and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bucur, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Working in the fractional Laplace framework, this book provides models and theorems related to nonlocal diffusion phenomena. In addition to a simple probabilistic interpretation, some applications to water waves, crystal dislocations, nonlocal phase transitions, nonlocal minimal surfaces and Schrödinger equations are given. Furthermore, an example of an s-harmonic function, its harmonic extension and some insight into a fractional version of a classical conjecture due to De Giorgi are presented. Although the aim is primarily to gather some introductory material concerning applications of the fractional Laplacian, some of the proofs and results are new. The work is entirely self-contained, and readers who wish to pursue related subjects of interest are invited to consult the rich bibliography for guidance.

  7. Applications of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby-Smith, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Current and potential applications of stable isotopes as tracers in a number of biomedical and environmental areas are discussed. It is pointed out that a wide variety of problems exist in these fields whose solutions in principle are amenable to the isotopic approach. The number and diversity of these problems as well as the unique role stable isotopes can play in their solution illustrate the importance of achieving and maintaining a broad inventory of isotopic species. Experience has demonstrated unequivocally an additional overriding requirement for widespread exploration of stable isotopes by the scientific and technical community, i.e., the need for low cost availability of the materials in quantity. Some representative applications of 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, and 18 O are discussed

  8. Magnetism basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanita, Carmen-Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    This textbook is aimed at engineering students who are likely to come across magnetics applications in their professional practice. Whether designing lithography equipment containing ferromagnetic brushes, or detecting defects in aeronautics, some basic knowledge of 21st century magnetism is needed. From the magnetic tape on the pocket credit card to the read head in a personal computer, people run into magnetism in many products. Furthermore, in a variety of disciplines tools of the trade exploit magnetic principles, and many interdisciplinary laboratory research areas cross paths with magnetic phenomena that may seem mysterious to the untrained mind. Therefore, this course offers a broad coverage of magnetism topics encountered more often in this millenium, revealing key concepts on which many practical applications rest. Some traditional subjects in magnetism are discussed in the first half of the book, followed by areas likely to spark the curiosity of those more interested in today’s technological achi...

  9. Industrial applications at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delagrange, H.

    1993-01-01

    After a first round of industrial applications using heavy ion beams, GANIL has refocused these activities along the lines defined by a strategy and market study. Heavy ion industrial applications take their roots in the physical effects of the interactions occurring between heavy ion projectiles and matter. Specific equipments operated by GANIL or CIRIL allow users to take benefit from these effects. By heavy ion irradiation, industrial companies qualify radiation hardened electronic components and sensitize plastic films to produce 'nuclear track' membranes. Research and development programs with laboratories of the public sector, focus on heavy ion lithography dedicated to large area luminescent flat screens with field emitter microtips and on tribology with radioactive implanted ions. Even sometimes facing difficulties to fill the gap between industry and research, GANIL is eager to promote heavy ion beam technologies. (author) 36 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Applications of supramolecular chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg

    2012-01-01

    ""The time is ripe for the present volume, which gathers thorough presentations of the numerous actually realized or potentially accessible applications of supramolecular chemistry by a number of the leading figures in the field. The variety of topics covered is witness to the diversity of the approaches and the areas of implementation…a broad and timely panorama of the field assembling an eminent roster of contributors.""-Jean-Marie Lehn, 1987 Noble Prize Winner in Chemistry

  11. Advanced Welding Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  12. Personal network (PN) applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, R.; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2005-01-01

    The applications of PN will be realised under many scenarios where users can have access to their personal network all the time. This network will enable the user to share critical information, play games, control their home remotely, etc. All this will be achieved with seamless interworking...... and handover between networks and user devices. This paper presents an array of use case scenarios that validates the ubiquitous usage of PN....

  13. Iontophoresis: principles and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Krueger

    Full Text Available Introduction Iontophoresis is a noninvasive technique used to increase transdermal penetration of substances through the skin layer (epidermis, dermis and hypodermis in a controlled manner. Technological advance in recent decades have provided reduced cost of equipment needed for implementation, which allowed for the expansion of this technique. Objective The aim of this paper is to present the state of the art on iontophoresis, ranging from the atomic characteristics of the ion formation to the current applications of the technique. Methods Were researched papers from databases: IOP publishing, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, Springer, IEEE Xplore, Google Scholar and books with keywords iontophoresis, ions, topical applications between 1967 and 2010. Results Were selected (number of papers and database 1 IOP Publishing, 1 from ScienceDirect, Central, 1 from Springer, 2 from PubMed, 11 from IEEE Xplore, 35 from Google Scholar, and 15 books, totaling 66 references and websites with nationally marketed electrotherapy products. Conclusion Iontophoresis is suitable for applications such as acetic acid (calcific tendinitis and myositis ossificans, calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate (control of musculoskeletal spasms, dexamethasone (inflammation, lidocaine (inflammation of soft tissues, zinc oxide (rheumatoid arthritis. It is also used in cosmetic applications with devices attached to the skin and for eye treatment aimed at specific tissues of the eye, providing a treatment option for various eye diseases, reducing the complications secondary to traditional methods of treatment. The advantages are the significant increase in the release and control of therapeutic agents, including drugs with high molecular weight. The disadvantages of iontophoresis are the complexity of the drug release system and prolonged exposure of the skin to an electrical current.

  14. Flywheels: Mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenhorst, D. W.

    1981-06-01

    The characteristics of modern flywheel energy storage systems uniquely qualify the flywheel for use in a variety of road vehicles, off road vehicles and rail vehicles. About sixty studies and vehicle demonstration programs in a dozen countries indicate that future such flywheel powered vehicles will have improved performance, reduced energy and fuel consumption and reduced life cycle cost. Flywheel capabilities and mobile applications were reviewed.

  15. Biotechnological applications of microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Loy Chu

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae are important biologicalresources that have a wide range of biotechnologicalapplications. Due to their high nutritional value,microalgae such as Spirulina and Chlorella are beingmass cultured for health food. A variety of high-valueproducts including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA),pigments such as carotenoids and phycobiliproteins, andbioactive compounds are useful as nutraceuticals andpharmaceuticals, as well as for industrial applications. Interms of environmental biotechnolo...

  16. Hardware characteristic and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Dong Hyeon

    1990-03-01

    The contents of this book are system board on memory, performance, system timer system click and specification, coprocessor such as programing interface and hardware interface, power supply on input and output, protection for DC output, Power Good signal, explanation on 84 keyboard and 101/102 keyboard,BIOS system, 80286 instruction set and 80287 coprocessor, characters, keystrokes and colors, communication and compatibility of IBM personal computer on application direction, multitasking and code for distinction of system.

  17. Application of Auto CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Un; Kim, Geun Ho

    1989-05-01

    This book has introduction to use this book and explanation of application on Auto CAD, which includes, sub directories, batch files, robot wrist, design of standard paper, title block, robort weld room, robert wrist joint, PC board, plant sym, electro, PID, machines, robots, bubbles, plant, schema, Pid, plant assembly, robots, dim plant, PL-ASSM, plotting line weight control, symbol drawing joint, Auto CAD using script file, set up of workout · MNU, workout MNU, ACAD, LSP and workout · MNU.

  18. Mobile application for surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Pifko, Luka

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the diploma thesis is to produce a system that supports field interviewers. The introduction defines the problem and reasons for making such a system. All the technologies which we have used to achieve the objective are described within. We have made a web application designed for questionnaire designers. The designing of the questionnaires is dynamic and client-side up until the user decides to send the data to the database. In addition to designing questionnaires, ...

  19. Corrosimetry: examples of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feron, D.; Ritti, D.; Plante, G.

    1991-01-01

    Corrosion rate of materials in industrial plants are often measured by weighing and examination of specimens. For real time determination of corrosion rate of metallic structures, two kinds of techniques are examined in this paper: continuous measurement of resistivity increase produced by corrosion of a specimen and electrochemical polarization of a corrosion electrode. Applications are briefly presented for corrosion of stainless steel by nitric acid in reprocessing plants, corrosion of ordinary steel by geothermal fluids and corrosion in marine environment

  20. Graph theory with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vasudev, C

    2006-01-01

    Salient Features Over 1500 problems are used to illustrate concepts, related to different topics, and introduce applications. Over 1000 exercises in the text with many different types of questions posed. Precise mathematical language is used without excessive formalism and abstraction. Care has been taken to balance the mix of notation and words in mathematical statements. Problem sets are stated clearly and unambiguously, and all are carefully graded for various levels of difficulty. This text has been carefully designed for flexible use.

  1. Android application security essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rai, Pragati

    2013-01-01

    Android Application Security Essentials is packed with examples, screenshots, illustrations, and real world use cases to secure your apps the right way.If you are looking for guidance and detailed instructions on how to secure app data, then this book is for you. Developers, architects, managers, and technologists who wish to enhance their knowledge of Android security will find this book interesting. Some prior knowledge of development on the Android stack is desirable but not required.

  2. Application Specific Optical Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Bishnu P.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we have attempted to provide a unified summary description of the most important propagation characteristics of an optical fiber followed by discussion on several variety of special fibers for realizing fiber amplifiers, dispersion compensating fibers, microstructured optical fibers, and so on. Even though huge progress has been made on development of optical fibers for telecom application, a need for developing special fibers, not necessarily for telecom alone, has arisen. Th...

  3. Nanotechnology and cancer applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gökdeniz, Mehmet; Akbaba, Muhsin; Nazlıcan, Ersin

    2018-01-01

    Applicationsof nanotechnology in various disciplines of medicine particularly cancer careare becoming increasingly popular so much so that the process of replacingtraditional health‑care by nanomedicine had already begun. Nanomedicine focuseson the formulations of imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic agents, which can becarried by biocompatible nanoparticles, for the purpose of cancer/ diseasemanagement.Common nanomaterials and devices applicable in cancer medicine are liposomes,polymeric‑mice...

  4. Optimization algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Choose the Correct Solution Method for Your Optimization ProblemOptimization: Algorithms and Applications presents a variety of solution techniques for optimization problems, emphasizing concepts rather than rigorous mathematical details and proofs. The book covers both gradient and stochastic methods as solution techniques for unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It discusses the conjugate gradient method, Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm, Powell method, penalty function, augmented Lagrange multiplier method, sequential quadratic programming, method of feasible direc

  5. Biomaterials and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reza Rezaie, Hamid; Öchsner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This short book presents an overview of different types of biomaterial such as bio ceramics, bio polymers, metals and bio composites, while especially focusing on nano biomaterials and their applications in different tissues. It provides a compact introduction to nano materials for drug delivery systems, tissue engineering and implants, while also reviewing essential trends in the biomaterial field over the last few decades and the latest developments.

  6. Microdosimetry and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlak, A.

    1989-01-01

    Basic microdosimetry principles and their theoretical and experimental aspects are explained and discussed. Part A gives a description of stochastic processes and presents the principles of microdosimetry, defines basic quantities and methods, such as linear energy transfer, the straggling theory, the theory of particle path structure, etc. Part B deals with practical applications of microdosimetry in radiobiology, radiotherapy, radiation protection, radiation chemistry, thermoluminescence and microelectronics. (J.J.). 57 figs

  7. Homomorphic encryption and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Xun; Bertino, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental concepts of homomorphic encryption. From these foundations, applications are developed in the fields of private information retrieval, private searching on streaming data, privacy-preserving data mining, electronic voting and cloud computing. The content is presented in an instructional and practical style, with concrete examples to enhance the reader's understanding. This volume achieves a balance between the theoretical and the practical components of modern information security. Readers will learn key principles of homomorphic encryption as well as their

  8. Applications of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalat, O.

    1994-01-01

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  9. Commercial applications for COIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Wayne C.; Carroll, David L.; King, D. M.; Fockler, L. A.; Stromberg, D. S.; Sexauer, M.; Milmoe, A.; Sentman, Lee H.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is a high power, fiber deliverable tool, which can be used for a number of different industrial applications. COIL is of particular interest because of its short fiber deliverable wavelength, high scaleable continuous wave power, and excellent material interaction properties. In past research the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign identified and decommissioning and decontamination (DD) of nuclear facilities as a primary focus for COIL technology. DD will be a major challenge in the coming decades. The use of a robotically driven fiber delivered cutting/ablation tool in contaminated areas promises to lower risks to workers for the DD mission. Further, the high cutting speed of COIL will significantly reduce the time required to cut contaminated equipment, reducing costs. The high power of COIL will permit the dismantling of thick stacks of piping and equipment as well as reactor vessels. COIL is very promising for the removal of material from contaminated surfaces, perhaps to depths thicker than an inch. Laser cutting and ablation minimizes dust and fumes, which reduces the required number of high efficiency particulate accumulator filters, thus reducing costly waste disposal. Other potential industrial applications for COIL are shipbuilding, automotive manufacturing, heavy machinery manufacturing, tasks requiring underwater cutting or welding, and there appear to be very promising applications for high powers lasers in the oil industry.

  10. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  11. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.

    1998-01-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country's main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community

  12. Bayesian theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dellaportas, Petros; Polson, Nicholas G; Stephens, David A

    2013-01-01

    The development of hierarchical models and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques forms one of the most profound advances in Bayesian analysis since the 1970s and provides the basis for advances in virtually all areas of applied and theoretical Bayesian statistics. This volume guides the reader along a statistical journey that begins with the basic structure of Bayesian theory, and then provides details on most of the past and present advances in this field. The book has a unique format. There is an explanatory chapter devoted to each conceptual advance followed by journal-style chapters that provide applications or further advances on the concept. Thus, the volume is both a textbook and a compendium of papers covering a vast range of topics. It is appropriate for a well-informed novice interested in understanding the basic approach, methods and recent applications. Because of its advanced chapters and recent work, it is also appropriate for a more mature reader interested in recent applications and devel...

  13. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  14. Therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.J.; Datz, F.L.; Beightol, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Whether a radiopharmaceutical has diagnostic or therapeutic application depends on both the isotope and pharmaceutical used. For diagnostic applications, the isotope should undergo only γ-decay, since usually only γ-radiation is detected by nuclear medicine cameras. The half-life should be just long enough to allow the procedure to be performed. In contrast, the isotope needed for therapeutic purposes should have particulate radiation, such as a β-particle (electron), since these are locally absorbed an increase the local radiation dose. γ-Radiation, which penetrates the tissues, produces less radiation dose than do Β-particles. Several references dealing with radioactive decay, particulate interactions, and diagnostic and therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals are available. Radiopharmaceuticals can legally be used only by physicians who are qualified by specific training in the safe handling of radionuclides. The experience and training of these physicians must be approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or Agreement State Agency authorized to license the use of radiopharmaceuticals. A list of all byproduct material and procedures is available in the Code of Federal Regulations. Of the many radiopharmaceuticals available for diagnostic and therapeutic use, only those commonly used are discussed in this chapter

  15. Applications of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  16. Future applications of heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Ulf

    1996-01-01

    In this review the status and future of heterostructure devices is discussed. The author concentrates on III/V and Si/SiGe. Performance and applications are folded to the data and expectations of the micro- and opto-electronic market and to the traditional Si-mainstream. New trends, i.e. the SIA-roadmap, are checked how heterodevices can fit in. Only the most attractive candidates for applications are considered, i.e. the heterobipolar-, the hetero field effect-transistors, the resonant tunnel diode and to a less extent, some optoelectronic devices. Considered figures of merit are frequencies, transconductance, noise at high and low frequencies, threshold voltage, power delay, threshold current and quantum efficiencies. It is pointed out how to optimize those by material and design. Extrapolations to the future potential of heterodevices are made, just taking the claimed scaling of lateral dimensions into consideration. Field of applications are presented, where heterodevices offer exclusive qualities, i.e. high frequency transmission and sensors, and new mixed systems. In the case of logic the trend goes to nanoscaled devices and ICs targeting nanoelectronics beyond traditional electronics. Heterostructure layers allow a vertical nanoscaling and thus give an additional degree of freedom for designing and optimation. It is an attractive challenge for scientists and engineers to solve the related technological problems like thin, low thermal budget oxides, like defect free buffer layers etc. Special attention is put on Si/SiGe, which is now on an upswing in electronics and photonics.

  17. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-03-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country`s main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  18. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  19. IMS applications analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RODACY,PHILIP J.; REBER,STEPHEN D.; SIMONSON,ROBERT J.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.

    2000-03-01

    This report examines the market potential of a miniature, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer. Military and civilian markets are discussed, as well as applications in a variety of diverse fields. The strengths and weaknesses of competing technologies are discussed. An extensive Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) bibliography is included. The conclusions drawn from this study are: (1) There are a number of competing technologies that are capable of detecting explosives, drugs, biological, or chemical agents. The IMS system currently represents the best available compromise regarding sensitivity, specificity, and portability. (2) The military market is not as large as the commercial market, but the military services are more likely to invest R and D funds in the system. (3) Military applications should be addressed before commercial applications are addressed. (4) There is potentially a large commercial market for rugged, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer systems. Commercial users typically do not invest R and D funds in this type of equipment rather, they wait for off-the-shelf availability.

  20. [The applicability of results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-León, I

    2015-11-01

    The ultimate aim of the critical reading of medical literature is to use the scientific advances in clinical practice or for innovation. This requires an evaluation of the applicability of the results of the studies that have been published, which begins with a clear understanding of these results. When the studies do not provide sufficient guarantees of rigor in design and analysis, the conditions necessary for the applicability of the results are not met; however, the fact that the results are reliable is not enough to make it worth trying to use their conclusions. This article explains how carrying out studies in experimental or artificial conditions often moves them away from the real conditions in which they claim to apply their conclusions. To evaluate this applicability, the article proposes evaluating a set of items that will enable the reader to determine the likelihood that the benefits and risks reported in the studies will yield the least uncertainty in the clinical arena where they aim to be applied. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. WAP - based telemedicine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, K.; Zhang, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    Telemedicine refers to the utilization of telecommunication technology for medical diagnosis, treatment, and patient care. Its aim is to provide expert-based health care to remote sites through telecommunication and information technologies. The significant advances in technologies have enabled the introduction of a broad range of telemedicine applications, which are supported by computer networks, wireless communication, and information superhighway. For example, some hospitals are using tele-radiology for remote consultation. Such a system includes medical imaging devices networked with computers and databases. Another growing area is patient monitoring, in which sensors are used to acquire biomedical signals, such as electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, and body temperature, from a remote patient, who could be in bed or moving freely. The signals are then relayed to remote systems for viewing and analysis. Telemedicine can be divided into two basic modes of operations: real-time mode, in which the patient data can be accessed remotely in real-time, and store-and-forward mode, in which the acquired data does not have to be accessed immediately. In the recent years, many parties have demonstrated various telemedicine applications based on the Internet and cellular phone as these two fields have been developing rapidly. A current, recognizable trend in telecommunication is the convergence of wireless communication and computer network technologies. This has been reflected in recently developed telemedicine systems. For example, in 1998 J. Reponen, et al. have demonstrated transmission and display of computerized tomography (CT) examinations using a remote portable computer wirelessly connected to a computer network through TCP/IP on a GSM cellular phone. Two years later, they carried out the same tests with a GSM-based wireless personal digital assistant (PDA). The WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) Forum was founded in 1997 to create a global protocol

  2. Creation of web applications by Rich Internet Application Adobe Flex

    OpenAIRE

    PEKA, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor work focuses on explaining the functions and development of interactive applications in Adobe Flex RIA also compared to similar web technologies such as AJAX, Microsoft Silverlight or Adobe Flash. Explain the difference between "ordinary" sites and Rich Internet Application (RIA) and the difference shows a series of demonstration examples were processed in Adobe Flash Builder (environment for building Flex applications). Also will be created large-scale application for comprehensive ...

  3. Game theory and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Akio

    2015-01-01

    This book integrates the fundamentals, methodology and major application fields of noncooperative and cooperative games, including conflict resolution. It includes a wide range of applications in many different areas, from economics to homeland security.

  4. Applications of Nano-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changhe; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Sheng, Yunlong

    2011-11-01

    As nanoscale fabrication techniques advance, nano-optics continues to offer enabling solutions to numerous practical applications for information optics. This Applied Optics feature issue focuses on the Application of Nano-optics. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  5. Ultrabroadband spectroscopy for security applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Sunniva; Berge, Luc; Skupin, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Ultrabroadband spectroscopy is a promising novel approach to overcome two major hurdles which have so far limited the application of THz spectroscopy for security applications: the increased bandwidth enables to record several characteristic spectroscopic features and the technique allows...

  6. Android application development with Maven

    CERN Document Server

    Papapetrou, Patroklos

    2015-01-01

    Android Application Development with Maven is intended for Android developers or devops engineers who want to use Maven to effectively develop quality Android applications. It would be helpful, but not necessary, if you have some previous experience with Maven.

  7. Manure application and ammonia volatilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: manure application, ammonia volatilization, environmental conditions, application technique, incorporation technique, draught force, work organization, costs Livestock manure applied on farmland is an important source of ammonia (NH3) volatilization, and NH3 is a major atmospheric

  8. E-commerce Smartphone Application

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Saleh Alqahtani; Robert Goodwin

    2012-01-01

    Mobile and e-commerce applications are tools for accessing the Internet and for buying products and services. These applications are constantly evolving due to the high rate of technological advances being made. This paper provides a new perspective on the types of applications that can be used. It describes and analyses device requirements, provides a literature review of important aspects of mobile devices that can use such applications and the requirements of websites designed for m-commer...

  9. Developing iPhone application

    OpenAIRE

    Nebo, Charles

    2015-01-01

    IPhone application popularity and demand are continuously on the increase since 2008 when Apple launched iPhone. Consequently, many applications are built targeting different user needs. But developing iPhone applications do have challenges. This research study explores current development study for developing iPhone application where the development environment and technologies are problematic. This paper intends to review some software development methodologies, methods, and techniques for ...

  10. Applications of nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2008-01-01

    * The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

  11. Finite mathematics models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Features step-by-step examples based on actual data and connects fundamental mathematical modeling skills and decision making concepts to everyday applicability Featuring key linear programming, matrix, and probability concepts, Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications emphasizes cross-disciplinary applications that relate mathematics to everyday life. The book provides a unique combination of practical mathematical applications to illustrate the wide use of mathematics in fields ranging from business, economics, finance, management, operations research, and the life and social sciences.

  12. Quality Analysis of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications are defined and different types of mobile applications are identified. Characteristics of quality are defined and their indicators are constructed to measure levels. Take into account 11 parameters analysis for mobile applications, which are arranged using weights and do a detailed analysis of the system of weights. For SMSEncrypt application performance measurement is done using an aggregate indicator based on the obtained weights system.

  13. Applications of Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The purpose of the earlier publication, The Application of Research Reactors, IAEA-TECDOC-1234, was to present descriptions of the typical forms of research reactor use. The necessary criteria to enable an application to be performed were outlined for each one, and, in many cases, the minimum as well as the desirable requirements were given. This revision of the publication over a decade later maintains the original purpose and now specifically takes into account the changes in service requirements demanded by the relevant stakeholders. In particular, the significant improvements in

  14. Applicant Perspectives on the Otolaryngology Residency Application Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-09

    ndorsing, Suggestion No.(%) (n=98) Establish a hard cap on the number of applications 43 (43.8) altov:ed per applicant Increase information and...Applicants are overall amenable to a hard cap on applicationsApplicants are interested in being part of the solution to the problem References...better the chances of match·ng. Alch Otoo1yngo/ Head~:< Surg_ 2008: 4 34(10)·1038. 3. Christophel JJ. Levine PA Too much of .a good thing . lAMA

  15. PSO-Ensemble Demo Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of the PSO-Ensemble project (FU2101) a demo application has been created. The application use ECMWF ensemble forecasts. Two instances of the application are running; one for Nysted Offshore and one for the total production (except Horns Rev) in the Eltra area. The output...

  16. Pervasive Application Rights Management Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Dusparic, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation describes an application rights management architecture that combines license management with digital rights management to provide an integrated platform for the specification, generation, delivery and management of application usage rights for pervasive computing environments. A new rights expression language is developed, extended from the existing language, ODRL, which allows the expression of mobile application usage rights and supports fine-grained usage ...

  17. MHD pilot industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, M.; Riviere-Wekstein, G.

    1994-01-01

    MHD industrial applications (and their historical developments) are sketched in the fields of nuclear fission, nuclear fusion and marine vehicles propelling. Nuclear fission projects resulted in promising prototypes between 1972 and 1980, especially for liquid-metal MHD generators. All of them have been stopped by the scientific policies of the governments. Nuclear fusion projects used mainly the equilibrium plasma of tokamak type reactors; some military projects used pulsed plasma to perform pulsed MHD generators. Marine vehicle propelling is the most advanced field. By june 1992, the japanese sea-going boat 'Yamato 1' was sailing with two MHD propellers. A few months later, the building of 'Yamato 2' has begun

  18. Biomedical applications of batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, Roger [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Linford, Roger [The Research Office, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Schlindwein, Walkiria [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-31

    An overview is presented of the many ways in which batteries and battery materials are used in medicine and in biomedical studies. These include the use of batteries as power sources for motorised wheelchairs, surgical tools, cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators, dynamic prostheses, sensors and monitors for physiological parameters, neurostimulators, devices for pain relief, and iontophoretic, electroporative and related devices for drug administration. The various types of battery and fuel cell used for this wide range of applications will be considered, together with the potential harmful side effects, including accidental ingestion of batteries and the explosive nature of some of the early cardiac pacemaker battery systems.

  19. Games, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, L C

    2011-01-01

    Anyone with a knowledge of basic mathematics will find this an accessible and informative introduction to game theory. It opens with the theory of two-person zero-sum games, two-person non-zero sum games, and n-person games, at a level between nonmathematical introductory books and technical mathematical game theory books. Succeeding sections focus on a variety of applications - including introductory explanations of gaming and meta games - that offer nonspecialists information about new areas of game theory at a comprehensible level. Numerous exercises appear with full solutions, in addition

  20. Applications in solid mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.

    2012-01-01

    Problems in solid mechanics constitute perhaps the largest field of application of finite element methods. The vast majority of solid mechanics problems involve the standard momentum balance equation, posed in a Lagrangian setting, with different models distinguished by the choice of nonlinear...... or linearized kinematics, and the constitutive model for determining the stress. For some common models, the constitutive relationships are rather complex. This chapter addresses a number of canonical solid mechanics models in the context of automated modeling, and focuses on some pertinent issues that arise...

  1. Heroku cloud application development

    CERN Document Server

    Hanjura, Anubhav

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow, hands-on guide that clearly explains the various components of the Heroku platform and provides step-by-step guidance as well as numerous examples on how to build and troubleshoot robust and scalable production-ready web applications on the Heroku platform.This book is intended for those who want to learn Heroku the right way. Perhaps you are new to Heroku or are someone who has heard about Heroku but have not built anything significant with it. You should have knowledge or familiarity with cloud computing and basic knowledge of database and network deployment.

  2. Cold regions isotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids

  3. Nuclear cratering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.M.

    1969-01-01

    The development of nuclear excavation technology is based on the promise that the relatively inexpensive energy available from thermonuclear explosives can be used to simultaneously break and move age quantities of rock and earth economically and safety. This paper discusses the economic and other advantages of using nuclear excavation for large engineering projects. A brief description of the phenomenology of nuclear excavation is given. Each of the several proposed general applications of nuclear excavation is discussed to include a few specific example of possible nuclear excavation projects. The discussion includes nuclear excavation for harbors, canals, terrain transits, aggregate production, mining and water resource development and conservation. (author)

  4. Rock engineering applications, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, J.A.; Dusseault, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to apply the theories and principles of rock engineering to actual engineering and construction tasks. It features insights on geology for mining and tunnelling applications. It is practical resource that focuses on the latest technological innovation and examines up-to-date procedures used by engineers for coping with complex rock conditions. The authors also discuss question related to underground space, from design approaches to underground housing and storage. And they cover the monitoring of storage caverns for liquid and gaseous products or toxic and radioactive wastes

  5. Product Licenses Database Application

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkovikj, Petar

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to organize and centralize the data about software tools available to CERN employees, as well as provide a system that would simplify the license management process by providing information about the available licenses and their expiry dates. The project development process is consisted of two steps: modeling the products (software tools), product licenses, legal agreements and other data related to these entities in a relational database and developing the front-end user interface so that the user can interact with the database. The result is an ASP.NET MVC web application with interactive views for displaying and managing the data in the underlying database.

  6. Mesotherapy: cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowski, Jill; Botts, Kayla; Rine, Lesley; Kato, Danielle; Pollock, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Mesotherapy, which has been compared to the anti-wrinkle injection Botox, has only recently become popular in the United States for providing body contouring and spot weight loss. Most adverse reactions associated with mesotherapy are mild and transient, and supporters of the procedure consider it a safer alternative to liposuction. Mainly owing to the absence of safety and efficacy data pertaining to mesotherapy, liposuction is currently the only method for fat removal that is endorsed by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons . Although mesotherapy has been used as a treatment for pain syndromes, arthritis, and many other disorders, this article focuses on its cosmetic applications.

  7. Shopify application development

    CERN Document Server

    Larkin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This is an easy-to follow manual that will guide you through the entire process of application development with Shopify, beginning with the installation and configuration of your local development environment for your app to the deployment of the app to Heroku. If you are a web developer or a designer who wants to extend Shopify stores by building apps, then this book is for you. A basic understanding of programming concepts and some familiarity with Shopify is all that is required to get started with Shopify app development.

  8. Ultracapacitors for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus; Wright, Randy; Hunt, Gary

    In response to a growing consensus in the auto industry that ultracapacitors can potentially play a key role in the modern vehicle power distribution network, a task force was created at the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to tackle issues facing the fledging industry. The task force embarked on first developing and establishing standards for performance and abuse tolerance of ultracapacitors in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and National Labs. Subsequently, potential applications in the automotive industry were identified and a consensus requirement specification was drawn as a development guide for the industry.

  9. Nuclear cratering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, M M [U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The development of nuclear excavation technology is based on the promise that the relatively inexpensive energy available from thermonuclear explosives can be used to simultaneously break and move age quantities of rock and earth economically and safety. This paper discusses the economic and other advantages of using nuclear excavation for large engineering projects. A brief description of the phenomenology of nuclear excavation is given. Each of the several proposed general applications of nuclear excavation is discussed to include a few specific example of possible nuclear excavation projects. The discussion includes nuclear excavation for harbors, canals, terrain transits, aggregate production, mining and water resource development and conservation. (author)

  10. Visual languages and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kang

    2010-01-01

    Visual languages have long been a pursuit of effective communication between human and machine. With rapid advances of the Internet and Web technology, human-human communication through the Web or electronic mobile devices is becoming more and more prevalent. Visual Languages and Applications is a comprehensive introduction to diagrammatical visual languages. This book discusses what visual programming languages are, and how such languages and their underlying foundations can be usefully applied to other fields in computer science. It also covers a broad range of contents from the underlying t

  11. Application testing with Capybara

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Start performing integration testing with Capybara immediately. This book will get you up and running quickly and assumes no knowledge or experience of the technology.This book is for developers and testers who have had some exposure to Ruby but who want to know how to test their applications using Capybara and its compatible drivers, such as Selenium-Webdriver and Rack-Test. The examples are deliberately kept simple and example HTML mark-up is always included so that you can copy the examples to practice and experiment on your own machine.

  12. Best Sale Mobile Application

    OpenAIRE

    Chittugnanamoorthy, Balakumar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to find a best way to advertise short-term sales and reduce paper waste. Another aim was to help the seller to identify a potential customer for a specific product, by means of providing a number of people accessing an advertisement. A mobile phone is one of the widely used electronic devices by many people. Modern mobile phones support a good internet connection. Also, people carry their mobile devices with them even outside their homes. So a mobile application ...

  13. Nonextensive entropy interdisciplinary applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsallis, Constantino

    2004-01-01

    A great variety of complex phenomena in many scientific fields exhibit power-law behavior, reflecting a hierarchical or fractal structure. Many of these phenomena seem to be susceptible to description using approaches drawn from thermodynamics or statistical mechanics, particularly approaches involving the maximization of entropy and of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics and standard laws in a natural way. The book addresses the interdisciplinary applications of these ideas, and also on various phenomena that could possibly be quantitatively describable in terms of these ideas.

  14. Optimization Foundations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, H Ronald

    2011-01-01

    A thorough and highly accessible resource for analysts in a broad range of social sciences. Optimization: Foundations and Applications presents a series of approaches to the challenges faced by analysts who must find the best way to accomplish particular objectives, usually with the added complication of constraints on the available choices. Award-winning educator Ronald E. Miller provides detailed coverage of both classical, calculus-based approaches and newer, computer-based iterative methods. Dr. Miller lays a solid foundation for both linear and nonlinear models and quickly moves on to dis

  15. Photocathodes in accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.; Gray, E.R.; Giles, P.M.; Springer, R.W.; Loebs, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Some electron accelerator applications require bursts of short pulses at high microscopic repetition rates and high peak brightness. A photocathode, illuminated by a mode-locked laser, is well suited to filling this need. The intrinsic brightness of a photoemitter beam is high; experiments are under way at Los Alamos to study the brightness of short bunches with high space charge after acceleration. A laser-illuminated Cs 3 Sb photoemitter is located in the first rf cavity of an injector linac. Diagnostics include a pepper-pot emittance analyzer, a magnetic spectrometer, and a streak camera

  16. Android Studio application development

    CERN Document Server

    Zapata, Belén Cruz

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide, which will show you how to create Android applications using the new Google official IDE, Android Studio.If you are a developer who wants to learn the key features of Android Studio, and learn how to create their first app, this book is ideal for you! Developers interested in this book should be familiar with the object- oriented programming paradigm, and the Java programming language. It is also recommended that you understand the main characteristics of the Android mobile system.

  17. Ultracapacitors for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus [DaimlerChrysler Corp., CIMS 526-00-00, 1870 Technology Dr., Troy, MI 48083 (United States); Wright, Randy; Hunt, Gary [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 834415-3830 (United States)

    2006-03-21

    In response to a growing consensus in the auto industry that ultracapacitors can potentially play a key role in the modern vehicle power distribution network, a task force was created at the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to tackle issues facing the fledging industry. The task force embarked on first developing and establishing standards for performance and abuse tolerance of ultracapacitors in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and National Labs. Subsequently, potential applications in the automotive industry were identified and a consensus requirement specification was drawn as a development guide for the industry. (author)

  18. Unix Application Migration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Microsoft. Redmond

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing

  19. Applicability of vulnerability maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, L.J.; Gosk, E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of aspects to vulnerability maps are discussed: the vulnerability concept, mapping purposes, possible users, and applicability of vulnerability maps. Problems associated with general-type vulnerability mapping, including large-scale maps, universal pollutant, and universal pollution scenario are also discussed. An alternative approach to vulnerability assessment - specific vulnerability mapping for limited areas, specific pollutant, and predefined pollution scenario - is suggested. A simplification of the vulnerability concept is proposed in order to make vulnerability mapping more objective and by this means more comparable. An extension of the vulnerability concept to the rest of the hydrogeological cycle (lakes, rivers, and the sea) is proposed. Some recommendations regarding future activities are given

  20. Gasdynamics: theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emanuel, G.

    1986-01-01

    The fundamental principles and applications of gasdynamic theory are presented in an introductory textbook intended for senior and graduate engineering students. The emphasis is on supersonic inviscid adiabatic flows with negligible body forces, and the approach aims to bridge the gap between traditional gasdynamics and CFD. Topics examined include thermodynamics, one-dimensional conservation equations, steady streamtube flows, normal and oblique shock waves, nozzle and diffuser flows, exact solutions for the steady homentropic flow of a perfect gas, and waverider aerodynamics. A glossary of symbols, summaries of the equations for each aspect of the theory, and fully worked problems for each chapter are provided. 82 references

  1. Materials for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana

    Energy priorities are changing nowadays. As mankind will probably have to face energy crisis, factors such as energy independence, energy security, stability of energy supply and the variety of energy sources become much more vital these days. Photovoltaics is exceptional compared to other renewable sources of energy due to its wide opportunity to gain energetic and environmental benefits. An overview of the present state of knowledge of the materials aspects of photovoltaic cells will be given, and new semiconductor materials, including nanomaterials, with potential for application in photovoltaic devices will be identified.

  2. Industrial applications of radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallien, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation processing refers to the use of ionizing radiation to initiate chemical or biological changes in various materials as a substitute for conventional thermal or chemical processes. The method was inroduced in the industrial field 30 years ago and is now being widely used for numerous applications, among which industrial radiography, polymer modification, sterilization or decontamination, and food preservation. Both electron beam accelerators and gamma sources can be used, depending mainly of the amount of radiation and the penetration required. Radiation processing presents an increasing economical importance; in 1986 the market volume of ionized products ranged 3 billion $ [fr

  3. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  4. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  5. Applications of gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibbott, Geoffrey S

    2004-01-01

    Gel dosimetry has been examined as a clinical dosimeter since the 1950s. During the last two decades, however, a rapid increase in the number of investigators has been seen, and the body of knowledge regarding gel dosimetry has expanded considerably. Gel dosimetry is still considered a research project, and the introduction of this tool into clinical use is proceeding slowly. This paper will review the characteristics of gel dosimetry that make it desirable for clinical use, the postulated and demonstrated applications of gel dosimetry, and some complications, set-backs, and failures that have contributed to the slow introduction into routine clinical use

  6. Dielectric heating. Industrial applications; Chauffage dielectrique. Applications industrielles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussy, G. [Nancy-1 Univ. Henri Poincare, Dir. de Recherche 54 (France); Rochas, J.F. [Societe Sairem, 75 - Paris (France); Oberlin, C. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. de Recherche, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-11-01

    The heating of insulating or badly power conducting products using high frequency (HF) electromagnetic waves and microwaves (MW) is used in several industrial applications. This article presents some examples of conventional or recent applications of dielectric heating in the industry: 1 - selection criteria between HF and MW heating systems; 2 - HF applications: traditional applications (wood forming and sticking, welding of thermoplastic materials, drying of textile materials, correction of the humidity profile in the paper industry, end-baking of biscuits in the food industry), recent applications (over-moulding of automotive glazing materials, gluing and moulding of plastic parts in the automotive industry, drying of the coating of textile ropes), innovative applications; 3 - microwave applications: traditional applications (moderating of frozen meat by 915 MHz microwaves, drying of coatings on polystyrene or sand core models for foundry, pre-vulcanization of rubber sections, 2450 MHz pasteurization of pumpable products with morsels), examples of recent applications (continuous dehydration in vacuum, MW assisted granulator-dryers in the pharmaceutical industry, decontamination of hospital wastes), examples of innovative applications in the chemical sector, applications in progress; 4 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  7. Environmental applications for biosurfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, Catherine N. [Department Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard W., Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada)]. E-mail: mulligan@civil.concordia.ca

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surfactants that are produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membrane by bacteria, yeasts and fungi. Examples include Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produces rhamnolipids, Candida (formerly Torulopsis) bombicola, one of the few yeasts to produce biosurfactants, which produces high yields of sophorolipids from vegetable oils and sugars and Bacillus subtilis which produces a lipopeptide called surfactin. This review includes environmental applications of these biosurfactants for soil and water treatment. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. However, more information is needed to be able to predict and model their behaviour. Full scale tests will be required. The role of biosurfactants in natural attenuation processes has not been determined. Very little information is available concerning the influence of soil components on the remediation process with biosurfactants. As most of the research until now has been performed with rhamnolipids, other biosurfactants need to be investigated as they may have more promising properties. - More information is needed to be able to predict and model the behaviour of biosurfactants.

  8. Environmental applications for biosurfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, Catherine N.

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surfactants that are produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membrane by bacteria, yeasts and fungi. Examples include Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produces rhamnolipids, Candida (formerly Torulopsis) bombicola, one of the few yeasts to produce biosurfactants, which produces high yields of sophorolipids from vegetable oils and sugars and Bacillus subtilis which produces a lipopeptide called surfactin. This review includes environmental applications of these biosurfactants for soil and water treatment. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. However, more information is needed to be able to predict and model their behaviour. Full scale tests will be required. The role of biosurfactants in natural attenuation processes has not been determined. Very little information is available concerning the influence of soil components on the remediation process with biosurfactants. As most of the research until now has been performed with rhamnolipids, other biosurfactants need to be investigated as they may have more promising properties. - More information is needed to be able to predict and model the behaviour of biosurfactants

  9. Applications of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.

    1993-01-01

    The additional spin degree of freedom of the neutron can be made use of in neutron scattering work in two fundamental ways: (a) directly for the identification of magnetic scattering effects and (b) indirectly as a spectroscopic tool for modulating and analysing beams. Although strong magnetic scattering contributions can often be studied by unpolarized neutrons, a fully unambiguous separation of nuclear and magnetic phenomena can only be achieved by the additional information provided by polarized neutrons, especially if one of the two kinds of contributions is weak compared to the other. In the most general case a sample with both magnetic and nuclear features can be characterized by as many as 16 independent dynamic correlation functions instead of the single well known S(q, ω) for non-magnetic nuclear scattering only. Polarization analysis in principle allows one to determine all these 16 functions. The indirect applications of polarized neutrons are also steadily gaining importance. The most widely used method of this kind, the application of Larmor precessions for high resolution energy analysis in Neutron Spin Echo spectroscopy opened up a whole new domain in inelastic neutron scattering which was not accessible to any other spectroscopic method with or without neutrons before. (author)

  10. Application software profiles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-04-15

    This article presented information on new software applications designed to facilitate petroleum exploration, drilling and production activities. Computer modelling and analysis enables oil and gas producers to characterize reservoirs, estimate reserves forecast production, plan operations and manage assets. Seven Calgary-based organizations were highlighted along with their sophisticated software tools, the applications and the new features available in each product. The geoSCOUT version 7.7 by GeoLOGIC Systems Ltd. integrates public and proprietary data on wells, well logs, reserves, pipelines, production, ownership and seismic location data. The Value Navigator and AFE Navigator by Energy Navigator provides control over reserves, production and cash flow forecasting. FAST Harmony, FAST Evolution, FAST CBM, FAST FieldNotes, Fast Piper, FAST RTA, FAST VirtuWell and FAST WellTest by Fekete Associates Inc. provide reserve evaluations for reservoir engineering projects and production data analysis. The esi.manage software program by 3esi improves business results for upstream oil and gas companies through enhanced decision making and workforce effectiveness. WELLFLO, PIPEFLO, FORGAS, OLGA, Drillbench, and MEPO wellbore solutions by Neotec provide unique platforms for flow simulation to optimize oil and gas production systems. Petrel, ECLIPSE, Avocet, PipeSim and Merak software tools by Schlumberger Information Solutions are petroleum systems modelling tools for geologic mapping, visualization modelling and reservoir engineering. StudioSL by Streamsim Technologies Inc. is a modelling tool for optimizing flood management. figs.

  11. Environmental Applications of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arturo A.

    2014-07-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently used in many applications including agriculture (Gruère, 2012; Khot et al. 2012; Lopez-Moreno et al. 2010; Peralta-Videa et al. 2011; Zhao et al. 2012), aerogels (Bigall et al. 2009), aerospace (Baur and Silverman, 2007), automotive (Coelho et al. 2012; Presting and König, 2003; Salonitis et al. 2010), catalysts (Zhou et al. 2011), coatings, paints and pigments (Dhoke et al. 2009; Gopalakrishnan et al. 2011; Khanna, 2008), composites (Borchardt, 2003; Khanna and Bakshi, 2009; Petrov and Georgiev, 2012; Sahoo et al. 2010), construction (Lee et al. 2010), cosmetics (Musee, 2011; Sabitha et al. 2012; Singh and Nanda, 2012), electronics and optics (Alda et al. 2005; Avasthi et al. 2007; Song et al. 2012; Subramanian and Takhee, 2012), energy (Serrano et al. 2009), environmental remediation (Dionysiou 2004; Khin et al. 2012), filtration and purification (Dhakras, 2011; Savage and Diallo, 2005), food products (Blasco and Picó, 2011; Weiss et al. 2006), medical (Boisseau and Loubaton, 2011; Farokhzad and Langer, 2006), packaging (Silvestre et al. 2011), paper and board (Kharisov and Kharissova, 2010), plastics, security (Marín and Merkoçi, 2012), sensors (Ding et al. 2010; Duncan et al. 2012; Su et al. 2012; Tan et al. 2012), and textiles (Qian and Hinestroza, 2004; Wong et al. 2006), and research is underway on many new applications...

  12. Application of radiation nowadays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibah Adnan

    2009-01-01

    Despite of scientist know about radiation since 1890, but they have successfully developed many of application to help human life. Now, we can see that radiation was applied in medical, academic, industrial, and generating electricity. Besides that, radiations also have other applications that can help in agriculture activities, archaeology, legislation, geology, space exploration and many more. In hospital, doctor use nuclear medicine to trace, monitor and save almost thousands of people every year. According to research, 7 out of 10 American citizens had already use this services at least once in their life. Universities, college, secondary school, research center also use nuclear material in their laboratory. For example, through research, radiation can help in plants study, agriculture technique, soils study and others. Industrial sector are one sector that applied radiation widely. For example, radiation can kill almost 80 % bacteria or dangerous microorganism in food or export products. Nowadays, radiation cannot be curtailed although it can give more benefit more than risk. It depends on how we manage it.

  13. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  14. Oracle Application Express 4 Recipes

    CERN Document Server

    Zehoo, Edmund

    2011-01-01

    Oracle Application Express 4 Recipes provides an example-based approach to learning Application Express - the ground-breaking, rapid application development platform included with every Oracle Database license. The recipes format is ideal for the quick-study who just wants a good example or two to kick start their thinking and get pointed in the right direction. The recipes cover the gamut of Application Express development. Author and Application Express expert Edmund Zehoo shows how to create data entry screens, visualize data in the form of reports and charts, implement validation and back-

  15. Terahertz Sensing, Imaging and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, C.; Hoshing, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Maki, K.; Hayashi, A. [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Sendai (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Diagnosis using terahertz (THz) wave holds a great potential for various applications in various fields because of its transmittance to many soft materials with the good spatial resolution. In addition, the presence of specific spectral absorption features of crystalline materials is also important for many applications. Such features are different from material to material to material and is applicable for identifying materials inside packages that are opaque to visible light. One of the most impressive examples of such applications is the detection of illicit drugs inside envelopes. In this talk, we will present our recent topics of THz sensing, imaging and applications including this example. We will also present the cancer diagnosis, an application of the photonic crystal to high sensitivity detection, and gas spectroscopy if we have enough time. We also would like to briefly review the recent topics related to THz applications.

  16. Terahertz Sensing, Imaging and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.; Hoshing, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Maki, K.; Hayashi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis using terahertz (THz) wave holds a great potential for various applications in various fields because of its transmittance to many soft materials with the good spatial resolution. In addition, the presence of specific spectral absorption features of crystalline materials is also important for many applications. Such features are different from material to material to material and is applicable for identifying materials inside packages that are opaque to visible light. One of the most impressive examples of such applications is the detection of illicit drugs inside envelopes. In this talk, we will present our recent topics of THz sensing, imaging and applications including this example. We will also present the cancer diagnosis, an application of the photonic crystal to high sensitivity detection, and gas spectroscopy if we have enough time. We also would like to briefly review the recent topics related to THz applications

  17. Applications of radionuclides in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1955-01-01

    After a brief recall of a few concepts (mass number, charge and beams properties) and the description of used detectors (ionization chamber, Geiger-Mueller counter, scintillation counters), some radionuclides applications are described. In a first part, the well-developed applications are presented in three distinct groups: continuous applications such as β and γ gauges (determination hydrogen content of an hydrocarbon and content of an emulsion; discharge of static electricity), discontinuous applications such as radiography and autoradiography, wear or manufacture problems (distribution of a fungicide on tobacco) and finally, applications in research laboratories such as diffusion, exchange and solubility. It also describes the applications which are still in development such as the action of beams on matter (reticulation and degradation of polymers, monomers polymerisation, cold sterilization). In conclusion, few advices on the opportunity of such applications and the choice of the radionuclides are given. (M.P.)

  18. Applications of high power microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, J.; Swegle, J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors address a number of applications for HPM technology. There is a strong symbiotic relationship between a developing technology and its emerging applications. New technologies can generate new applications. Conversely, applications can demand development of new technological capability. High-power microwave generating systems come with size and weight penalties and problems associated with the x-radiation and collection of the electron beam. Acceptance of these difficulties requires the identification of a set of applications for which high-power operation is either demanded or results in significant improvements in peRFormance. The authors identify the following applications, and discuss their requirements and operational issues: (1) High-energy RF acceleration; (2) Atmospheric modification (both to produce artificial ionospheric mirrors for radio waves and to save the ozone layer); (3) Radar; (4) Electronic warfare; and (5) Laser pumping. In addition, they discuss several applications requiring high average power than border on HPM, power beaming and plasma heating

  19. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  20. Application of safeguards procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The earliest applications of safeguards procedures took place in a political and technical climate far different from that of today. In the early 1960's there was a fear of the proliferation possibilities which could arise as more and more countries acquired nuclear power plants. Today nuclear power is being produced in some 20 countries without resulting in nuclear weapons proliferation. The export of equipment and technology for the nuclear fuel cycle, however, has become the subject of current concern. In view of these developments, it is not surprising that techniques in the application of safeguards have also changed. In order to appreciate the nature of these changes, it is important to be aware of the original general attitude towards the technical problems of safeguards applications. Originally, the common attitude was that the objectives of safeguards were self-evident and the methods, while in need of development, were known at least in outline. Today, it has become evident that before a safeguards procedure can be applied, the objectives must first be carefully defined, and the criteria against which success in meeting those objectives can be measured must also be developed. In line with this change, a significant part of the effort of the safeguards inspectorate is concerned with work preliminary and subsequent to the actual inspection work in the field. Over the last two years, for example, a considerable part of the work of experienced safeguards staff has been spent in analysing the possibilities of diverting material at each facility to be safeguarded. These analyses are carried out in depth by a 'facility officer' and are subjected to constructive criticism by teams composed of staff responsible for similar types of facilities as well as other technical experts. The analyses consider the measures currently considered practicable, to meet the diversion possibilities and where necessary list the development work needed to overcome any present

  1. Program improvement and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hink, M.; Imke, U.; Pfrang, W.; Porscha, B.; Struwe, D.; Zimmerer, W.; Allan, P.

    1995-01-01

    An account is given about further improvements of the SAS4A-Ref. 94.R0 version of the HCDA code. They concern in particular the DEFORM fuel rod deformation module. For a validation of the new code version, various CABRI experiments have been calculated, especially tests with high burnup fuel rods. Progress was shown to be achieved, but the precise timing and location of the observed fuel failures is still hard to calculate. The work was performed in close cooperation with partners in France, Britain, and Japan. An important application concerns the CAPRA project of a reactor for actinide burning. Its behavior under ULOF conditions was analyzed using the improved SAS4A Ref. 94 R0 code. The core design turned out to tend toward a long-term coolable configuration even more so than the EFR core design would do in an ULOF. (orig.)

  2. Piezoresistor design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Doll, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to piezoresistive MEMS sensor design. Piezoresistors transduce mechanical loads into electrical signals via a resistance change, and comprise a substantial portion of the commercial MEMS sensors market. Applications of piezoresistors include strain gauges, accelerometers, pressure sensors, force sensors, chemical sensors and resonators. This book also: ·         Demonstrates how the latest piezoresistor models and optimization techniques can be integrated for high performance piezoresistor design ·         Covers in detail piezoresistor sensitivity and noise models, signal conditioning, fabrication processes, low-power design and numerical optimization techniques ·         Provides an up-to-date discussion of alternative piezoresistive materials and MEMS transduction techniques ·         Explores in detail the tradeoffs in size, performance and complexity between piezoresistive sensing and popular alternatives (capacitive, piezoelectric an...

  3. Stochastic calculus and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Samuel N

    2015-01-01

    Completely revised and greatly expanded, the new edition of this text takes readers who have been exposed to only basic courses in analysis through the modern general theory of random processes and stochastic integrals as used by systems theorists, electronic engineers and, more recently, those working in quantitative and mathematical finance. Building upon the original release of this title, this text will be of great interest to research mathematicians and graduate students working in those fields, as well as quants in the finance industry. New features of this edition include: End of chapter exercises; New chapters on basic measure theory and Backward SDEs; Reworked proofs, examples and explanatory material; Increased focus on motivating the mathematics; Extensive topical index. "Such a self-contained and complete exposition of stochastic calculus and applications fills an existing gap in the literature. The book can be recommended for first-year graduate studies. It will be useful for all who intend to wo...

  4. Lidar: air pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, R.T.H.

    1977-01-01

    This introduction to the use of lidar in air pollution applications is mainly concerned with its capability to detect and monitor atmospheric particulates by elastic backscattering. Even when quite imperceptible to the eye, such particulates may be detected at ranges of several kilometers even by lidars of modest performance. This capability is valuable in connection with air pollution in the following ways: by mapping and tracking inhomogeneities in particulate concentration, atmospheric structure and motion may be monitored; measurements of the optical properties of the atmosphere provide an indication of turbidity or of particulate number or mass concentrations; and the capability of obtaining at a single point return signals from remote atmospheric volumes makes it possible to make range-resolved measurements of gaseous concentration along the path by using the resonant absorption of energy of appropriate wavelengths

  5. Web Platform Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsworth, Ashley [Sunvestment Group, Frederick, MD (United States); Kurtz, Jim [Sunvestment Group, Frederick, MD (United States); Brun de Pontet, Stephanie [Sunvestment Group, Frederick, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Sunvestment Energy Group (previously called Sunvestment Group) was established to create a web application that brings together site hosts, those who will obtain the energy from the solar array, with project developers and funders, including affinity investors. Sunvestment Energy Group (SEG) uses a community-based model that engages with investors who have some affinity with the site host organization. In addition to a financial return, these investors receive non-financial value from their investments and are therefore willing to offer lower cost capital. This enables the site host to enjoy more savings from solar through these less expensive Community Power Purchase Agreements (CPPAs). The purpose of this award was to develop an online platform to bring site hosts and investors together virtually.

  6. THz and Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sizov, Fedir; Detectors, Sources and Associated Electronics for THz Applications

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings comprise invited papers from highly experienced researchers in THz technology and security applications. THz detection of explosives represents one of the most appealing technologies to have recently emerged in dealing with terrorist attacks encountered by civil security and military forces throughout the world. Discussed are the most advanced technologies and developments, the various points of operational strength and weaknesses as well as are suggestions and predictions the best technological solutions to  overcome current operational limits.  The current status of various levels of cooling in THz detectors, sources and associated electronics are also addressed. The goal was to provide a clear view on the current technologies available and the required advances needed in order to achieve more efficient systems. This goal was outlined in part by establishing the baseline of current uncertainty estimations in physics-based modelling and the identification of key areas which require additi...

  7. Applications for electronic documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of electronic media to documents, specifically Safety Analysis Reports (SARs), prepared for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) programs being conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Efforts are underway to upgrade our document system using electronic format. To satisfy external requirements (DOE, State, and Federal), ER ampersand WM programs generate a complement of internal requirements documents including a SAR and Technical Safety Requirements along with procedures and training materials. Of interest, is the volume of information and the difficulty in handling it. A recently prepared ER ampersand WM SAR consists of 1,000 pages of text and graphics; supporting references add 10,000 pages. Other programmatic requirements documents consist of an estimated 5,000 pages plus references

  8. Phase transitions modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gitterman, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.

  9. Laser Applications in Orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh

    2013-01-01

    A laser is a collimated single wavelength of light which delivers a concentrated source of energy. Soon after different types of lasers were invented, investigators began to examine the effects of different wavelengths of laser energy on oral tissues, routine dental procedures and experimental applications. Orthodontists, along with other specialist in different fields of dentistry, can now benefit from several different advantages that lasers provide during the treatment process, from the beginning of the treatment, when separators are placed, to the time of resin residues removal from the tooth surface at the end of orthodontic treatment. This article outlines some of the most common usages of laser beam in orthodontics and also provides a comparison between laser and other conventional method that were the standard of care prior to the advent of laser in this field. PMID:25606324

  10. Tensors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Nazrul

    2006-01-01

    About the Book: The book is written is in easy-to-read style with corresponding examples. The main aim of this book is to precisely explain the fundamentals of Tensors and their applications to Mechanics, Elasticity, Theory of Relativity, Electromagnetic, Riemannian Geometry and many other disciplines of science and engineering, in a lucid manner. The text has been explained section wise, every concept has been narrated in the form of definition, examples and questions related to the concept taught. The overall package of the book is highly useful and interesting for the people associated with the field. Contents: Preliminaries Tensor Algebra Metric Tensor and Riemannian Metric Christoffel`s Symbols and Covariant Differentiation Riemann-Christoffel Tensor The e-Systems and the Generalized Krönecker Deltas Geometry Analytical Mechanics Curvature of a Curve, Geodesic Parallelism of Vectors Ricci`s Coefficients of Rotation and Congruence Hyper Surfaces

  11. Best matching theory & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moghaddam, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Mismatch or best match? This book demonstrates that best matching of individual entities to each other is essential to ensure smooth conduct and successful competitiveness in any distributed system, natural and artificial. Interactions must be optimized through best matching in planning and scheduling, enterprise network design, transportation and construction planning, recruitment, problem solving, selective assembly, team formation, sensor network design, and more. Fundamentals of best matching in distributed and collaborative systems are explained by providing: § Methodical analysis of various multidimensional best matching processes § Comprehensive taxonomy, comparing different best matching problems and processes § Systematic identification of systems’ hierarchy, nature of interactions, and distribution of decision-making and control functions § Practical formulation of solutions based on a library of best matching algorithms and protocols, ready for direct applications and apps development. Design...

  12. Radiotracers for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayudu, G.A.S.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the medical applications of radiotracers. Diagnostic uses and pharmacokinetics of isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals is emphasized. The volume one covers the following topics: Radiohalogenated compounds, including radioiodine; Tc-labeled compounds; and in-house prepared radiopharmaceuticals. The charge particle range vs. energy in every element is tabulated for protons for cyclotrons users. Discussions are also provided on nonimaging radiotracer methods; /sup 11/C, /sup 13/N, /sup 15/O, /sup 67/Ga. /sup 111/In, /sup 75/Se, /sup 123m/Te compounds; radioactive noble gases; and miscellaneous radiotracers for imaging. Vol. II: Pertinent nuclear science data such as radiation dosimetry, radionuclide production modes, radionuclides for therapy, human experimentation regulations and consent forms, and radiotracer laboratory designs are presented. 272 pp., 7 x 10, 1983, ISBN-0-8493-6016-1

  13. Biomaterials and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Sharma, Gayatri

    2018-05-01

    There is a growing demand for novel biomaterials for the replacement and repairing of soft and hard tissues such as bones, cartilage and blood vessels, decaying teeth, arthritic hips, injured tissues or even entire organs. The main aim of biomaterial research is to find the appropriate combination of chemical and physical properties matched with tissues replaced in the host. It improves the quality of life. On increasing number of people each year with increasing demands on these materials with higher expectations related to quality of life arising from an aging population. Now a day there is an ever-increasing search for novel biomaterials as the material requirements for complex biomedical devices increases with time. Many materials such as metals, ceramics, polymers, and glasses are being investigated as biomaterials. They are very useful in various fields due to their excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. This paper includes various eco-friendly biomaterials and their application in various fields.

  14. Interpretation and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter discusses the factors to be kept in mind during routine interpretation of MR images. This includes the factors that determine contrast on standard spin-echo images and some distinguishing features between true lesions and artifactually simulated lesions. This chapter also indicates the standard protocols for MRI of various portions of the body. Finally, the current indications for MRI of various portions of the body are suggested; however, it is recognized that the indications for MRI are rapidly increasing and consequently, at the time of publication of this chapter, it is likely that many more applications will have become evident. Interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images requires consideration of anatomy and tissue characteristics and extraction of artifacts resulting from motion and other factors

  15. Implantation for tribological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutenecker, R.; Cao-Minh, U.; Overbeck, R.

    1992-08-01

    Empirical results on the strength enhancement of steels by N- and B-implantation should be explained from a materials science point of view. The methods applied were X-ray diffractometry and element depth profiling. The investigations of N-implanted steels focussed on the nitride formation in selected model materials and, with respect to applications, in: X90 CrMoV and S 6-5-2 tool steels, austenite X10 CrNiTi189 as well as in hard chromium plates. Main topic in B-implanted steels were the transformations: crystalline Fe-phase - amorphous Fe-B-phase - crystalline boride phases. The result is an improvement in process control by first an insight into the strength enhancing mechanisms and second in into their generation depending on the materials microstructure and the process parameter. (orig.). 101 figs., 16 tabs., 15 refs [de

  16. RIA: Principles and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, A.A.; Glassman, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    What is the future of RIA? Has the application of RIA peaked? Will other and competing tests such as immunofluorescence and ELISA systems displace or replace the method? RIA is a sensitive, precise, and very often specific analytical tool. Its primary advantage is exquisite sensitivity. Problems related to specificity of antibody and/or antigen identification are reviewed in this paper. The same limitations will be encountered in the similar techniques of enzyme immunologic determination. Increasing difficulties with waste disposal of either radioactive material and/or organic solvents will cause those who utilize radionuclides to look again at alternatives. RIA has been an exciting developmental tool that has led the authors to look at dynamic physiologic and biochemical interactions. The time may come when there is replacement of the radionuclide portion by enzymes or fluorescent material

  17. Security in Computer Applications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Computer security has been an increasing concern for IT professionals for a number of years, yet despite all the efforts, computer systems and networks remain highly vulnerable to attacks of different kinds. Design flaws and security bugs in the underlying software are among the main reasons for this. This lecture addresses the following question: how to create secure software? The lecture starts with a definition of computer security and an explanation of why it is so difficult to achieve. It then introduces the main security principles (like least-privilege, or defense-in-depth) and discusses security in different phases of the software development cycle. The emphasis is put on the implementation part: most common pitfalls and security bugs are listed, followed by advice on best practice for security development. The last part of the lecture covers some miscellaneous issues like the use of cryptography, rules for networking applications, and social engineering threats. This lecture was first given on Thursd...

  18. Positioning and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogowski Jerzy B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents national report of Poland for IAG on positioning and applications. The selected research presented was carried out at leading Polish research institutions and concern precise multi-GNSS satellite positioning - relative and absolute - and also GNSS-based ionosphere and troposphere modelling and studies. The research resulted in noticeable advancements in these subjects confirmed by the development of new algorithms and methods. New and improved methods of precise GNSS positioning were developed, and also GNSS metrology was studied. New advanced troposphere models were presented and tested. In particular, these models allowed testing IPW variability on regional and global scales. Also, new regional ionosphere monitoring web-based services were developed and launched.

  19. Laser applications in neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Leonard J.

    1985-09-01

    The "false start" of the laser in neurosurgery should not be misconstrued as a denial of the inherent advantages of precision and gentleness in dealing with neural tissue. Rather, early investigators were frustrated by unrealistic expectations, cumbersome equipment, and a general ignorance of microtechnique. By the early 70s, microneurosurgery was well established, surgical laser equipment for free hand and microlinked application had been developed, and a more realistic view of the limitations of the laser had been established. Consequently, the late 70s really heralded the renaissance of the laser in neurosurgery. Since then, there has been an overwhelming acceptance of the tool in a variety of clinical situations, broadly categorized in five groups. 1)|Perhaps the most generally accepted area is in the removal of extra-axial tumors of the brain and spinal cord. These tumors, benign by histology but treacherous by location, do not present until a significant amount of neurological compensation has already occurred. The application of additional trauma to the neural tissue, whether by further tumor growth or surgical manipulation, frequently results in irreversible damage. Here, the ability of the laser to vaporize tissue, in a fairly hemostatic fashion, without mechanical or thermal damage to sensitive surrounding tissues, is essential. 2)|The ability to incise delicate neural tissue with minimal spread of thermal destruction to adjacent functioning tissue makes the laser the ideal instrument when tumors deep under the surface are encountered in the brain or spinal cord. Thus, the second group of applications is in the transgression of normal neural structures to arrive at deeper pathological tissue. 3)|The third area of benefit for the laser in neurosurgery has been in the performance of neuroablative procedures, calling for deliberate destruction of functioning neural tissue in a controlled fashion. Again, the precision and shape confinement of the destructive

  20. Ice slurry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, M.J.; Goldstein, V. [Sunwell Technologies Inc., 180 Caster Avenue, Woodbridge, L4L 5Y (Canada); Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single-phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. (author)

  1. Biotechnological applications of transglutaminases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, Natalie M; Pelletier, Joelle N

    2013-10-22

    In nature, transglutaminases catalyze the formation of amide bonds between proteins to form insoluble protein aggregates. This specific function has long been exploited in the food and textile industries as a protein cross-linking agent to alter the texture of meat, wool, and leather. In recent years, biotechnological applications of transglutaminases have come to light in areas ranging from material sciences to medicine. There has also been a substantial effort to further investigate the fundamentals of transglutaminases, as many of their characteristics that remain poorly understood. Those studies also work towards the goal of developing transglutaminases as more efficient catalysts. Progress in this area includes structural information and novel chemical and biological assays. Here, we review recent achievements in this area in order to illustrate the versatility of transglutaminases.

  2. Nanotechnology Applications for Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinel, Sibel; Montemagno, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, and the antiglaucoma treatments currently available suffer from various complications. Nanotechnology-based treatments show a great deal of promise in overcoming these complications and form the basis for next-generation glaucoma treatment strategies, with the help of applications such as controlled release, targeted delivery, increased bioavailability, diffusion limitations, and biocompatibility. Significant progress has been made in nanomedicine in the efficiency of antiglaucoma medications, nanofabrication systems such as microelectromechanical systems that remove the limitations of nanodevices, and tissue regeneration vesicles for developing glaucoma treatments not based on intraocular pressure. With the use of these advanced technologies, the prevention of glaucoma-induced blindness will be possible in the near future. Herein, we reviewed the recent advances in nanotechnology-based treatment strategies for glaucoma.

  3. Real analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Botelho, Fabio Silva

    2018-01-01

    This textbook introduces readers to real analysis in one and n dimensions. It is divided into two parts: Part I explores real analysis in one variable, starting with key concepts such as the construction of the real number system, metric spaces, and real sequences and series. In turn, Part II addresses the multi-variable aspects of real analysis. Further, the book presents detailed, rigorous proofs of the implicit theorem for the vectorial case by applying the Banach fixed-point theorem and the differential forms concept to surfaces in Rn. It also provides a brief introduction to Riemannian geometry. With its rigorous, elegant proofs, this self-contained work is easy to read, making it suitable for undergraduate and beginning graduate students seeking a deeper understanding of real analysis and applications, and for all those looking for a well-founded, detailed approach to real analysis.

  4. Plasma core reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, T.S.; Rodgers, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations are being conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of fissioning uranium plasma core reactors and to characterize space and terrestrial applications for such reactors. Uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) fuel is injected into core cavities and confined away from the surface by argon buffer gas injected tangentially from the peripheral walls. Power, in the form of thermal radiation emitted from the high-temperature nuclear fuel, is transmitted through fused-silica transparent walls to working fluids which flow in axial channels embedded in segments of the cavity walls. Radiant heat transfer calculations were performed for a six-cavity reactor configuration; each cavity is approximately 1 m in diameter by 4.35 m in length. Axial working fluid channels are located along a fraction of each cavity peripheral wall

  5. Information science and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings volume provides a snapshot of the latest issues encountered in technical convergence and convergences of security technology.  It explores how information science is core to most current research, industrial and commercial activities and consists of contributions covering topics including Ubiquitous Computing, Networks and Information Systems, Multimedia and Visualization, Middleware and Operating Systems, Security and Privacy, Data Mining and Artificial Intelligence, Software Engineering, and Web Technology.   The proceedings introduce the most recent information technology and ideas, applications and problems related to technology convergence, illustrated through case studies, and reviews converging existing security techniques.  Through this volume, readers will gain an understanding of the current state-of-the-art in information strategies and technologies of convergence security. The intended readership are researchers in academia, industry, and other research institutes focusing on ...

  6. Applications of cerebral SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, C., E-mail: claire.mcarthur@nhs.net [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jampana, R.; Patterson, J.; Hadley, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide three-dimensional functional images of the brain following the injection of one of a series of radiopharmaceuticals that crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes according to cerebral perfusion, neurotransmitter, or cell density. Applications include differentiating between the dementias, evaluating cerebrovascular disease, preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci, diagnosing movement disorders, and evaluation of intracerebral tumours, while also proving a useful research tool. Unlike positronemission tomography (PET), SPECT imaging is widely available and can be performed in any department that has access to a rotating gamma camera. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of cerebral SPECT and increase awareness of its role in the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  7. Increased Productivity for Emerging Grid Applications the Application Support System

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Andrew; Mendez Lorenzo, Patricia; Moscicki, Jakub; Lamanna, Massimo; Muraru, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Recently a growing number of various applications have been quickly and successfully enabled on the Grid by the CERN Grid application support team. This allowed the applications to achieve and publish large-scale results in a short time which otherwise would not be possible. We present the general infrastructure, support procedures and tools that have been developed. We discuss the general patterns observed in supporting new applications and porting them to the EGEE environment. The CERN Grid application support team has been working with the following real-life applications: medical and particle physics simulation (Geant4, Garfield), satellite imaging and geographic information for humanitarian relief operations (UNOSAT), telecommunications (ITU), theoretical physics (Lattice QCD, Feynman-loop evaluation), Bio-informatics (Avian Flu Data Challenge), commercial imaging processing and classification (Imense Ltd.) and physics experiments (ATLAS, LHCb, HARP). Using the EGEE Grid we created a standard infrastruct...

  8. Comparing Web Applications with Desktop Applications: An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, many desktop applications have been ported to the world wide web in order to reduce (multiplatform) development, distribution and maintenance costs. However, there is little data concerning the usability of web applications, and the impact of their usability on the total cost...... of developing and using such applications. In this paper we present a comparison of web and desktop applications from the usability point of view. The comparison is based on an empirical study that investigates the performance of a group of users on two calendaring applications: Yahoo!Calendar and Microsoft...... Calendar. The study shows that in the case of web applications the performance of the users is significantly reduced, mainly because of the restricted interaction mechanisms provided by current web browsers....

  9. Mobile applications in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ann Chang; Endly, Dawnielle C; Henley, Jill; Amir, Mahsa; Sampson, Blake P; Moreau, Jacqueline F; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2013-11-01

    With advancements in mobile technology, cellular phone-based mobile applications (apps) may be used in the practice and delivery of dermatologic care. To identify and categorize the variety of current mobile apps available in dermatology for patients and providers. Dermatology-related search terms were queried in the online app stores of the most commonly used mobile platforms developed by Apple, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, and Windows. Applications were assigned to categories based on description. Popularity, price, and reviews were recorded and target audiences were determined through websites offering online mobile apps. Number, type, and price of mobile apps in dermatology. A total of 229 dermatology-related apps were identified in the following categories: general dermatology reference (61 [26.6%]), self-surveillance/diagnosis (41 [17.9%]), disease guide (39 [17.0%]), educational aid (20 [8.7%]), sunscreen/UV recommendation (19 [8.3%]), calculator (12 [5.2%]), teledermatology (8 [3.5%]), conference (6 [2.6%]), journal (6 [2.6%]), photograph storage/sharing (5 [2.2%]), dermoscopy (2 [0.9%]), pathology (2 [0.9%]), and other (8 [3.5%]). The most reviewed apps included Ultraviolet ~ UV Index (355 reviews), VisualDx (306), SPF (128), iSore (61), and SpotMole (50). There were 209 unique apps, with 17 apps existing on more than 1 operating system. More than half of the apps were offered free of charge (117 [51.1%]). Paid apps (112 [48.9%]) ranged from $0.99 to $139.99 (median, $2.99). Target audiences included patient (117 [51.1%]), health care provider (94 [41.0%]), and both (18 [7.9%]). The widespread variety and popularity of mobile apps demonstrate a great potential to expand the practice and delivery of dermatologic care.

  10. Insulators for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    Design studies for fusion devices and reactors have become more detailed in recent years and with this has come a better understanding of requirements and operating conditions for insulators in these machines. Ceramic and organic insulators are widely used for many components of fusion devices and reactors namely: radio frequency (RF) energy injection systems (BeO, Al 2 O 3 , Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 3 N 4 ); electrical insulation for the torus structure (SiC, Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 4 Al 2 O 2 N 6 , Si 3 N 4 , Y 2 O 3 ); lightly-shielded magnetic coils (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 ); the toroidal field coil (epoxies, polyimides), neutron shield (B 4 C, TiH 2 ); high efficiency electrical generation; as well as the generation of very high temperatures for high efficiency hydrogen production processes (ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - mat, graphite and carbon - felt). Timely development of insulators for fusion applications is clearly necessary. Those materials to be used in fusion machines should show high resistance to radiation damage and maintain their structural integrity. Now the need is urgent for a variety of radiation resistant materials, but much effort in these areas is required for insulators to be considered seriously by the design community. This document contains 14 papers from an IAEA meeting. It was the objective of this meeting to identify existing problems in analysing various situations of applications and requirements of electrical insulators and ceramics in fusion and to recommend strategies and different stages of implementation. This meeting was endorsed by the International Fusion Research Council

  11. Clinical application of ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin as a human natural hormone is involved in fundamental regulatory processes of eating and energy balance. Ghrelin signals the nutrient availability from the gastrointestinal tract to the central nervous system, up-regulates food intake and lowers energy expenditure mainly through hypothalamic mediators acting both centrally and peripherally including the gastrointestinal tract (motility, epithelium), promotes both neuro-endocrine and inflammatory signals to increase skeletal muscle growth and decrease protein breakdown, and increases lipolysis while body fat utilization is reduced. Ghrelin does more to exert its probably sentinel role around "human energy": it influences through mainly extra-hypothalamic actions the hedonic and incentive value of food, mood and anxiety, sleep-wake regulation, learning and memory, and neurogenesis. Recently numerous ghrelin gene-derived peptides were discovered, demonstrating the complexity within the ghrelin/ghrelin receptor axis. For clinical applications, not only the natural ghrelin and its slice variants, but also several modified or artificial molecules acting at ghrelin-associated receptors were and are developed. Current clinical applications are limited to clinical studies, focusing mainly on cachexia in chronic heart failure, COPD, cancer, endstage- renal-disease or cystic fibrosis, but also on frailty in elderly, gastrointestinal motility (e.g., gastroparesis, functional dyspepsia, postoperative ileus), after curative gastrectomy, anorexia nervosa, growth hormone deficient patients, alcohol craving, sleep-wake regulation (e.g. major depression), or sympathetic nervous activity in obesity. The results of completed, preliminary studies support the clinical potential of ghrelin, ghrelin gene-derived peptides, and artificial analogues, suggesting that larger clinical trials are demanded to move ghrelin towards an available and reimbursed pharmaceutical intervention.

  12. Hydrogen energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okken, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    For the Energy and Material consumption Scenarios (EMS), by which emission reduction of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases can be calculated, calculations are executed by means of the MARKAL model (MARket ALlocation, a process-oriented dynamic linear programming model to minimize the costs of the energy system) for the Netherlands energy economy in the period 2000-2040, using a variable CO 2 emission limit. The results of these calculations are published in a separate report (ECN-C--92-066). The use of hydrogen can play an important part in the above-mentioned period. An overview of several options to produce or use hydrogen is given and added to the MARKAL model. In this report techno-economical data and estimates were compiled for several H 2 -application options, which subsequently also are added to the MARKAL model. After a brief chapter on hydrogen and the impact on the reduction of CO 2 emission attention is paid to stationary and mobile applications. The stationary options concern the mixing of natural gas with 10% hydrogen, a 100% substitution of natural gas by hydrogen, the use of a direct steam generator (combustion of hydrogen by means of pure oxygen, followed by steam injection to produce steam), and the use of fuel cells. The mobile options concern the use of hydrogen in the transportation sector. In brief, attention is paid to a hydrogen passenger car with an Otto engine, and a hydrogen passenger car with a fuel cell, a hybrid (metal)-hydride car, a hydrogen truck, a truck with a methanol fuel cell, a hydrogen bus, an inland canal boat with a hydrogen fuel cell, and finally a hydrogen airplane. 2 figs., 15 tabs., 1 app., 26 refs

  13. Applications of Gunn lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkan, N.; Chung, S. H.

    2008-04-01

    The principle of the operation of a Gunn laser is based on the band to band recombination of impact ionized non-equilibrium electron-hole pairs in propagating high field space-charge domains in a Gunn diode, which is biased above the negative differential resistance threshold and placed in a Fabry-Perot or a vertical micro cavity (VCSEL). In conventional VCSEL structures, unless specific measures such as the addition of oxide apertures and use of small windows are employed, the lack of uniformity in the density of current injected into the active region can reduce the efficiency and delay the lasing threshold. In a vertical-cavity structured Gunn device, however, the current is uniformly injected into the active region independently of the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) layers. Therefore, lasing occurs from the entire surface of the device. The light emission from Gunn domains is an electric field induced effect. Therefore, the operation of Gunn-VCSEL or F-P laser is independent of the polarity of the applied voltage. Red-NIR VCSELs emitting in the range of 630-850 nm are also possible when Ga 1-xAl xAs (x communications. Furthermore the device may find applications as an optical clock and cross link between microwave and NIR communications. The operation of a both Gunn-Fabry-Perot laser and Gunn-VCSEL has been demonstrated by us recently. In the current work we present the potential results of experimental and theoretical studies concerning the applications together with the gain and emission characteristics of Gunn-Lasers.

  14. Nuclear applications for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Building capacity for the safe application of nuclear technologies produces tangible socioeconomic benefits to developing countries. Identifying killer infections such as extrapulmonary tuberculosis and drug resistant strains of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa; Monitoring malaria drug resistance in Myanmar; - Teaching Jordanian farmers how to produce viable crops on salty soils; - Investigating water resources deep beneath the Nubian Desert; - Fighting acid rain in Poland; - Creating an energy strategy for Latin America; - Strengthening the security of nuclear sources in Kazakhstan. These are just some of examples of the practical ways in which the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fulfils its mandate to 'accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world'. And some of the reasons the IAEA's long history of global action was recognized through the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005. This list of activities reflects the diverse needs of Member States. It also demonstrates the enormous potential of nuclear technology and the breadth of expertise that lie within three IAEA technical programmes: Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Nuclear Energy, and Nuclear Safety and Security. More importantly, it speaks to the success of a determined effort to facilitate knowledge sharing and technology transfer through a cross-cutting mechanism known as the technical cooperation programme. Each year, the technical cooperation programme disburses approximately US $90 million, all of which is acquired through voluntary contributions from Member States. The programme concentrates on building capacity through training and education, expert advice, and equipment delivery. It is currently active in more than 110 countries across four geographic regions: Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Latin America

  15. IMS Application Developer's Handbook Creating and Deploying Innovative IMS Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Noldus, Rogier; Mulligan, Catherine; Fikouras, Ioannis; Ryde, Anders; Stille, Mats

    2011-01-01

    IMS Application Developer Handbook will give a hands-on view of exactly what needs to be done by IMS application developers to write an application and take it "live" on an operator's network. It will offer practical guidance on building innovative applications using the features and capabilities of the IMS network, show how the rapidly changing development environment is impacting on the business models employed in the industry and how existing network solutions can be moved towards IMS. The book will also elaborate on how IMS applies basic VoIP principles and techniques to realise a true mul

  16. Application architecture for .NET designing applications and services

    CERN Document Server

    Microsoft. Redmond

    2003-01-01

    Get expert architectural and design-level guidance for building distributed solutions with the Microsoft® .NET Framework-learning how to synthesize your knowledge of application development, servers, and infrastructure and business requirements. This guide assumes you are familiar with .NET component development and the basic principles of a layered distributed application design. It examines architectural issues and solution design for a range of project stakeholders-whether you build and design applications and services, recommend appropriate technologies and products for applications and s

  17. Low-Cost High-Efficiency Solar Cells with Wafer Bonding and Plasmonic Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanake, Katsuaki

    We fabricated a direct-bond interconnected multijunction solar cell, a two-terminal monolithic GaAs/InGaAs dual-junction cell, to demonstrate a proof-of-principle for the viability of direct wafer bonding for solar cell applications. The bonded interface is a metal-free n+GaAs/n +InP tunnel junction with highly conductive Ohmic contact suitable for solar cell applications overcoming the 4% lattice mismatch. The quantum efficiency spectrum for the bonded cell was quite similar to that for each of unbonded GaAs and InGaAs subcells. The bonded dual-junction cell open-circuit voltage was equal to the sum of the unbonded subcell open-circuit voltages, which indicates that the bonding process does not degrade the cell material quality since any generated crystal defects that act as recombination centers would reduce the open-circuit voltage. Also, the bonded interface has no significant carrier recombination rate to reduce the open circuit voltage. Engineered substrates consisting of thin films of InP on Si handle substrates (InP/Si substrates or epitaxial templates) have the potential to significantly reduce the cost and weight of compound semiconductor solar cells relative to those fabricated on bulk InP substrates. InGaAs solar cells on InP have superior performance to Ge cells at photon energies greater than 0.7 eV and the current record efficiency cell for 1 sun illumination was achieved using an InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs triple junction cell design with an InGaAs bottom cell. Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells from the InGaAsP-family of III-V materials grown epitaxially on InP substrates would also benefit from such an InP/Si substrate. Additionally, a proposed four-junction solar cell fabricated by joining subcells of InGaAs and InGaAsP grown on InP with subcells of GaAs and AlInGaP grown on GaAs through a wafer-bonded interconnect would enable the independent selection of the subcell band gaps from well developed materials grown on lattice matched substrates. Substitution of

  18. Impedance matched thin metamaterials make metals absorbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiucci, N; Bloemer, M J; Aközbek, N; D'Aguanno, G

    2013-11-13

    Metals are generally considered good reflectors over the entire electromagnetic spectrum up to their plasma frequency. Here we demonstrate an approach to tailor their absorbing characteristics based on the effective metamaterial properties of thin, periodic metallo-dielectric multilayers by exploiting a broadband, inherently non-resonant, surface impedance matching mechanism. Based on this mechanism, we design, fabricate and test omnidirectional, thin ( 99%) over a frequency range spanning from the UV to the IR. Our approach opens new venues to design cost effective materials for many applications such as thermo-photovoltaic energy conversion devices, light harvesting for solar cells, flat panel display, infrared detectors, stray light reduction, stealth and others.

  19. Special Issue on the Second International Workshop on Micro- and Nano-Scale Thermal Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Liu, Linhua; Zhu, Qunzhi; Mengüç, M. Pinar

    2015-06-01

    Micro- and nano-scale thermal radiation has become one of the fastest growing research areas because of advances in nanotechnology and the development of novel materials. The related research and development includes near-field radiation transfer, spectral and directional selective emitters and receivers, plasmonics, metamaterials, and novel nano-scale fabrication techniques. With the advances in these areas, important applications in energy harvesting such as solar cells and thermophotovoltaics, nanomanufacturing, biomedical sensing, thermal imaging as well as data storage with the localized heating/cooling have been pushed to higher levels.

  20. Deaf mobile application accessibility requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    Requirement for deaf mobile applications need to be analysed to ensure the disabilities need are instilled into the mobile applications developed for them. Universal design is understandable to comply every user needs, however specific disability is argued by the authors to have different need and requirements. These differences are among the reasons for these applications being developed to target for a specific group of people, however they are less usable and later abandoned. This study focuses on deriving requirements that are needed by the deaf in their mobile applications that are meant specifically for them. Studies on previous literature was conducted it can be concluded that graphic, text, multimedia and sign language interpreter are among mostly required features to be included in their mobile application to ensure the applications are usable for this community.

  1. Applicant Perspectives on the Otolaryngology Residency Application Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Matthew; Pingree, Christian; Laury, Adrienne M; Bowe, Sarah N

    2017-08-01

    It has been nearly 25 years since medical students were queried regarding their perspectives on otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) residency selection. Understanding this viewpoint is critical to improving the current application process. To evaluate the perceptions of 2016 OHNS residency applicants regarding the application process and offer suggestions for reform. In this cross-sectional study of anonymous online survey data, a 14-question survey was designed based on resources obtained from a computerized PubMed, Ovid, and GoogleScholar database search of the English language from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2015, was conducted using the following search terms: (medical student OR applicant) AND (application OR match) AND otolaryngology. The survey was administered to 2016 OHNS residency applicants to examine 4 primary areas: current attitudes toward the match, effect of the new Otolaryngology Program Directors Organization personal statement mandate, sources of advice and information, and suggestions for improvement. In January 2016, an email was sent to 100 program directors asking them to distribute the survey to current OHNS applicants at their institution. One follow-up reminder email was sent in February 2016. A link to the survey was posted on the Otomatch.com homepage on January 28, 2016, with the last response received on March 28, 2016. Survey responses regarding the residency application process. A total of 150 of 370 residency applicants (40.5%) responded to the survey. Of these, 125 respondents (90.6%) noted applying to programs in which they had no specific interest simply to improve their chances of matching. Applicants intended to apply to more programs than they actually did (63.6 vs 60.8; r = 0.19; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.40). Program directors advised fewer applications than other sources; however, 58 respondents (38.7%) did not receive advice from a program director. A total of 121 respondents (80.7%) found online program

  2. Other applications of ion microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cookson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the analytical and non-analytical applications of ion microbeams. The analytical applications considered include:-fusion research, environmental studies, ion implantations and criminology, and each is briefly discussed. Non-analytical applications in which nuclear microprobes have been used include:-thickness and uniformity measurements, energy loss radiography, channelling contrast, tomography, topography, ion implantation, and detector testing, and these are also discussed. (UK)

  3. Stable Structures for Distributed Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen DUMITRASCU; Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    For distributed applications, we define the linear, tree and graph structure types with different variants and modalities to aggregate them. The distributed applications have assigned structures that through their characteristics influence the costs of stages for developing cycle and the costs for exploitation, transferred to each user. We also present the quality characteristics of a structure for a stable application, which is focused on stability characteristic. For that characteristic we ...

  4. Mathematical modeling with multidisciplinary applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2013-01-01

    Features mathematical modeling techniques and real-world processes with applications in diverse fields Mathematical Modeling with Multidisciplinary Applications details the interdisciplinary nature of mathematical modeling and numerical algorithms. The book combines a variety of applications from diverse fields to illustrate how the methods can be used to model physical processes, design new products, find solutions to challenging problems, and increase competitiveness in international markets. Written by leading scholars and international experts in the field, the

  5. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF QUALITY TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Pavletić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dealing with one segment of broader research of universality an systematicness in application of seven basic quality tools (7QC tools, which is possible to use in different areas: power plant, process industry, government, health and tourism services. The aim of the paper was to show on practical examples that there is real possibility of application of 7QC tools. Furthermore, the research has to show to what extent are selected tools in usage and what reasons of avoiding their broader application are. The simple example of successful application of the quality tools are shown on selected company in process industry.

  6. Application coordination in pervasive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Majuntke, Verena Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive applications are designed to support users in their daily life. For this purpose, applications interact with their environment, i.e. their context. They are able to adapt themselves to context changes or to explicitly change the context via actuators. If multiple applications are executed in the same context, interferences are likely to occur. To manage interferences, a coordination framework is presented in this thesis. Interferences are detected using a context model and information about applications' interaction with the context. The resolution of interference is achieved through

  7. Designing and Programming CICS Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Horswill, John

    2011-01-01

    CICS is an application server that delivers industrial-strength, online transaction management for critical enterprise applications. Proven in the market for over 30 years with many of the world's leading businesses, CICS enables today's customers to modernize and extend their applications to take advantage of the opportunities provided by e-business while maximizing the benefits of their existing investments. Designing and Programming CICS Applications will benefit a diverse audience. It introduces new users of IBM's mainframe (OS/390) to CICS features. It shows experienced users how t

  8. Migrating Applications to IPv6

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan

    2011-01-01

    If IPv6 is to be adopted on a large scale, the applications running on desktop systems, laptops, and even mobile devices need to work just as well with this protocol as they do with IPv4. This concise book takes you beyond the network layer and helps you explore the issues you need to address if you are to successfully migrate your apps to IPv6. It's ideal for application developers, system/network architects, product managers, and others involved in moving your network to IPv6. Explore changes you need to make in your application's user interfaceMake sure your application is retrieving corre

  9. Peaceful applications of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, L.B.

    1975-12-01

    The intension of this report is to give a survey of the field of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions. As an introduction some examples of possibilities of application are given together with a simple description of nuclear explosions under ground. After a summary of what has been done and will be done in this field nationally and internationally, a short discussion of advantages and problems with peaceful application of nuclear explosions follows. The risks of spreading nuclear weapons due to this applications are also touched before the report is finished with an attempt to judge the future development in this field. (M.S.)

  10. Designing scientific applications on GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Couturier, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Many of today's complex scientific applications now require a vast amount of computational power. General purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) enable researchers in a variety of fields to benefit from the computational power of all the cores available inside graphics cards.Understand the Benefits of Using GPUs for Many Scientific ApplicationsDesigning Scientific Applications on GPUs shows you how to use GPUs for applications in diverse scientific fields, from physics and mathematics to computer science. The book explains the methods necessary for designing or porting your scientific appl

  11. The mobile application hacker's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chell, Dominic; Colley, Shaun; Whitehouse, Ollie

    2015-01-01

    See your app through a hacker's eyes to find the real sources of vulnerability The Mobile Application Hacker's Handbook is a comprehensive guide to securing all mobile applications by approaching the issue from a hacker's point of view. Heavily practical, this book provides expert guidance toward discovering and exploiting flaws in mobile applications on the iOS, Android, Blackberry, and Windows Phone platforms. You will learn a proven methodology for approaching mobile application assessments, and the techniques used to prevent, disrupt, and remediate the various types of attacks. Coverage i

  12. Enabling network-aware applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Brian L.; Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason; Stouffer, Martin

    2001-08-01

    Many high performance distributed applications use only a small fraction of their available bandwidth. A common cause of this problem is not a flaw in the application design, but rather improperly tuned network settings. Proper tuning techniques, such as setting the correct TCP buffers and using parallel streams, are well known in the networking community, but outside the networking community they are infrequently applied. In this paper, we describe a service that makes the task of network tuning trivial for application developers and users. Widespread use of this service should virtually eliminate a common stumbling block for high performance distributed applications.

  13. Basics and application of PSpice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Pyeong; Cho, Yong Beom; Mok, Hyeong Su; Baek, Dong CHeol

    2006-03-01

    This book is comprised of nineteenth chapters, which introduces basics and application of PSpice. The contents of this book are PSpice?, PSpice introduction, PSpice simulation, DC analysis, parametric analysis, Transient analysis, parametric analysis and measurements, Monte Carlo analysis, changing of device characteristic, ABM application. The elementary laws of circuit, R.L.C. basic circuit, Diode basic cc circuit, Transistor and EET basic circuit, OP-Amp basic circuit, Digital basic circuit, Analog, digital circuit practice, digital circuit application and practice and ABM circuit application and practice.

  14. JavaScript Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    MacCaw, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Building rich JavaScript applications that bring a desktop experience to the Web requires moving state from the server to the client side-not a simple task. This hands-on book takes proficient JavaScript developers through all the steps necessary to create state-of-the-art applications, including structure, templating, frameworks, communicating with the server, and many other issues. Throughout the book, you'll work with real-world example applications to help you grasp the concepts involved. Learn how to create JavaScript applications that offer a more responsive and improved experience. U

  15. Device design of GaSb/CdS thin film thermal photovoltaic solar cells%基于GaSb/CdS薄膜热光伏电池的器件设计∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴限量; 张德贤; 蔡宏琨; 周严; 倪牮; 张建军

    2015-01-01

    基于GaSb薄膜热光伏器件是降低热光伏系统成本的有效途径之一,本文主要针对GaSb/CdS薄膜热光伏器件结构进行理论分析.采用AFORS-HET软件进行模拟仿真,分析GaSb和CdS两种材料各自的缺陷态密度、界面态对电池性能的影响.根据软件模拟可以得知,吸收层GaSb的缺陷态密度以及GaSb与CdS之间的界面态密度是影响电池性能的重要因素.当GaSb缺陷态增加时,主要影响电池的填充因子,电池效率明显下降.而作为窗口层的CdS缺陷态密度对电池性能影响不明显,当CdS缺陷态密度上升4个数量级时,电池效率仅下降0.11%.%Enthusiasm in the research of thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) cells has been aroused because the low bandwidth semi-conductors of III-V family are coming into use. GaSb, as a member of III-V family, has many merits such as high absorption coeffcient, and low band gap of 0.725 eV at 300 K etc.. At present thermo-photovoltaic cells are usually based on GaSb wafer, and it can be manufactured by the vertical Bridgeman method. Thermo-photovoltaic cell based on GaSb films is one of the effective ways to reduce the cost of the thermo-photovoltaic system. GaSb polycrystalline films can be grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD) which has advantages in using fewer materials and energy, and also in doing little harm to the environment. Because of residual acceptor defects VGaGaSb, GaSb thin film is usually of p-type semiconductor. So we should find n-type semiconductor material to form pn junction. We choose CdS as the emission layer of a cell structure. CdS belongs to n-type semiconductor with a narrow band gap of 2.4 eV and high light transmissivity. CdS thin film grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) has passivation properties for GaSb. CdS layers can remove native oxides from GaSb surface and reduce the surface recombination velocity of GaSb. This paper focuses on theoretical analysis of GaSb/CdS thin film photovoltaic

  16. Streamers and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemen, A. J. M.

    2011-10-01

    In this invited lecture we give an overview of our 15 years of experience on streamer plasma research. Efforts are directed to integrating the competence areas of plasma physics, pulsed power technology and chemical processing. The current status is the development of a large scale pulsed corona system for gas treatment. Applications on biogas conditioning, VOC removal, odor abatement and control of traffic emissions have been demonstrated. Detailed research on electrical and chemical processes resulted in a boost of efficiencies. Energy transfer efficiency to the plasma was raised to above 90%. Simultaneous improvement of the plasma chemistry resulted in a highly efficient radical generation: O-radical production up to 50% of the theoretical maximum has been achieved. A major challenge in pulsed power driven streamers is to unravel, understand and ultimately control the complex interactions between the transient plasma, electrical circuits, and process. Even more a challenge is to yield electron energies that fit activation energies of the process. We will discuss our ideas on adjusting pulsed power waveforms and plasma reactor settings to obtain more controlled catalytic processing: the ``Chemical Transistor'' concept.

  17. Applications of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T χ implies that the ρ and a 1 vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the ρ mass increases with temperature, m ρ (T χ ) > m ρ (0). The author conjectures that at T χ the thermal ρ - a 1 , peak is relatively high, at about ∼1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The ω meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the ρ, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least ∼100 MeV by T χ . The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from open-quotes quenchedclose quotes heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates

  18. Phytase for Food Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Konietzny

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytase [myo-inositol(1,2,3,4,5,6hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolase], a phytate-specific phosphatase, is already used as a supplement in diets for monogastric animals to improvephosphate utilisation from phytate[myoinositol(1,2,3,4,5,6hexakisphosphate], the major storage form of phosphate in plant seeds. In recent years, this class of enzymes has also been found increasingly interesting for use in processing and manufacturing of food for human consumption, particularly because the decline in food phytate results in an enhancement of mineral bioavailability. Different strategies could be applied to optimise phytate degradation during food processing and digestion in the human alimentary tract such as adjustment of more favourable conditions during food processing for the phytases naturally occurring in the raw material, addition of isolated phytases to the production process, use of raw material with a high intrinsic phytate-degrading activity either naturally present or introduced by genetic engineering and the use of recombinant food-grade microorganisms as carriers for phytate-degrading activity in the human gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, phytases may find application in the production of functional foods or food supplements with health benefits. Last but not least, technological improvements are expected to occur due to phytate degradation during processing as shown for breadmaking, production of plant protein isolates, corn wet milling and the fractionation of cereal bran.

  19. [Application of blistering cupping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xingui; Chen, Zelin; Chen, Bo; Fan, Yihua; Chen, Xianghong

    2016-11-12

    Blistering cupping is special as eliminating wind and dampness as well as removing phlegm and blood stasis, and it achieves effects through suction. In this paper we reviewed relevant literature combined with clinical experience so as to summarize its operation attention through exploring the origin, mechanism and application. We divide the progress into the blistering period, the phlegm-stasis-eliminating period, and the escharosis period according to the changes of bubble and the things pulled out. Blistering cupping creates ways to eliminate concrete unhealthy influences through smoothing meridians and collaterals, such as phlegm and retained fluid, dampness and blood stasis. Thus chronic diseases are relieved. Also,we propose the rules of "blistering acupoints being related to disease location as well as the nature of acupoints and diseases". The therapy has been used to treat diseases of respiratory system, osteoarticular, skin and subcutaneous tissue, mental and behavioral disorders, and tumor, among which the effects of intractable diseases of respiratory and osteoarticular systems are definite. It deserves to be further explored and promoted.

  20. Medical application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E. H.

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology 4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments 5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body 6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed 7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography 8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer 9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease