WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermoelectric effect analysis

  1. Green thermoelectrics: Observation and analysis of plant thermoelectric response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goupil Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sensitive to thermal and electrical effects; yet the coupling of both, known as thermoelectricity, and its quantitative measurement in vegetal systems never were reported. We recorded the thermoelectric response of bean sprouts under various thermal conditions and stress. The obtained experimental data unambiguously demonstrate that a temperature difference between the roots and the leaves of a bean sprout induces a thermoelectric voltage between these two points. Basing our analysis of the data on the force-flux formalism of linear response theory, we found that the strength of the vegetal equivalent to the thermoelectric coupling is one order of magnitude larger than that in the best thermoelectric materials. Experimental data also show the importance of the thermal stress variation rate in the plant’s electrophysiological response. therefore, thermoelectric effects are sufficiently important to partake in the complex and intertwined processes of energy and matter transport within plants.

  2. Thermoelectric effects in magnetic nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatami, Moosa; Bauer, Gerrit E.W.; Zhang, Q.F.; Kelly, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    We model and evaluate the Peltier and Seebeck effects in magnetic multilayer nanostructures by a finite-element theory of thermoelectric properties. We present analytical expressions for the thermopower and the current-induced temperature changes due to Peltier cooling/heating. The thermopower of a

  3. Empirical Analysis for the Heat Exchange Effectiveness of a Thermoelectric Liquid Cooling and Heating Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansol Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the performance of thermoelectric module (TEM heat pump for simultaneous liquid cooling and heating and propose empirical models for predicting the heat exchange effectiveness. The experiments were conducted to investigate and collect the performance data of TEM heat pump where the working fluid was water. A total of 57 sets of experimental data were statistically analyzed to estimate the effects of each independent variable on the heat exchange effectiveness using analysis of variance (ANOVA. To develop the empirical model, the six design parameters were measured: the number of transfer units (NTU of the heat exchangers (i.e., water blocks, the inlet water temperatures and temperatures of water blocks at the cold and hot sides of the TEM. As a result, two polynomial equations predicting heat exchange effectiveness at the cold and hot sides of the TEM heat pump were derived as a function of the six selected design parameters. Also, the proposed models and theoretical model of conventional condenser and evaporator for heat exchange effectiveness were compared with the additional measurement data to validate the reliability of the proposed models. Consequently, two conclusions have been made: (1 the possibility of using the TEM heat pump for simultaneous cooling and heating was examined with the maximum temperature difference of 30 °C between cold and hot side of TEM, and (2 it is revealed that TEM heat pump has difference with the conventional evaporator and condenser from the comparison results between the proposed models and theoretical model due to the heat conduction and Joule effect in TEM.

  4. Thermoelectric Effects under Adiabatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Levy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates not fully explained voltage offsets observed by several researchers during the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of high Z materials. These offsets, traditionally attributed to faulty laboratory procedures, have proven to have an irreducible component that cannot be fully eliminated in spite of careful laboratory procedures. In fact, these offsets are commonly observed and routinely subtracted out of commercially available Seebeck measurement systems. This paper offers a possible explanation based on the spontaneous formation of an adiabatic temperature gradient in the presence of a force field. The diffusion-diffusion heat transport mechanism is formulated and applied to predict two new thermoelectric effects. The first is the existence of a temperature gradient across a potential barrier in a semiconductor and the second is the Onsager reciprocal of the first, that is, the presence of a measureable voltage that arises across a junction when the temperature gradient is forced to zero by a thermal clamp. Suggested future research includes strategies for utilizing the new thermoelectric effects.

  5. Effective thermal conductivity in thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, LL; Snyder, GJ; Toberer, ES

    2013-05-28

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from a temperature gradient. Optimizing these devices for maximum power production can be difficult due to the many heat transport mechanisms occurring simultaneously within the TEG. In this paper, we develop a model for heat transport in thermoelectric materials in which an "effective thermal conductivity" (kappa(eff)) encompasses both the one dimensional steady-state Fourier conduction and the heat generation/consumption due to secondary thermoelectric effects. This model is especially powerful in that the value of kappa(eff) does not depend upon the operating conditions of the TEG but rather on the transport properties of the TE materials themselves. We analyze a variety of thermoelectric materials and generator designs using this concept and demonstrate that kappa(eff) predicts the heat fluxes within these devices to 5% of the exact value. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  6. Detailed Modeling and Irreversible Transfer Process Analysis of a Multi-Element Thermoelectric Generator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Heng; Gou, Xiaolong; Yang, Suwen

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) power generation technology, due to its several advantages, is becoming a noteworthy research direction. Many researchers conduct their performance analysis and optimization of TE devices and related applications based on the generalized thermoelectric energy balance equations. These generalized TE equations involve the internal irreversibility of Joule heating inside the thermoelectric device and heat leakage through the thermoelectric couple leg. However, it is assumed that the thermoelectric generator (TEG) is thermally isolated from the surroundings except for the heat flows at the cold and hot junctions. Since the thermoelectric generator is a multi-element device in practice, being composed of many fundamental TE couple legs, the effect of heat transfer between the TE couple leg and the ambient environment is not negligible. In this paper, based on basic theories of thermoelectric power generation and thermal science, detailed modeling of a thermoelectric generator taking account of the phenomenon of energy loss from the TE couple leg is reported. The revised generalized thermoelectric energy balance equations considering the effect of heat transfer between the TE couple leg and the ambient environment have been derived. Furthermore, characteristics of a multi-element thermoelectric generator with irreversibility have been investigated on the basis of the new derived TE equations. In the present investigation, second-law-based thermodynamic analysis (exergy analysis) has been applied to the irreversible heat transfer process in particular. It is found that the existence of the irreversible heat convection process causes a large loss of heat exergy in the TEG system, and using thermoelectric generators for low-grade waste heat recovery has promising potential. The results of irreversibility analysis, especially irreversible effects on generator system performance, based on the system model established in detail have guiding significance for

  7. Spin thermoelectric effects in organic single-molecule devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.L.; Wang, M.X.; Qian, C.; Hong, X.K.; Zhang, D.B.; Liu, Y.S.; Yang, X.F., E-mail: xfyang@cslg.edu.cn

    2017-05-25

    Highlights: • A stronger spin thermoelectric performance in a polyacetylene device is observed. • For the antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering, a transport gap is opened. Thus the thermoelectric effects are largely enhanced. - Abstract: The spin thermoelectric performance of a polyacetylene chain bridging two zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) is investigated based on first principles method. Two different edge spin arrangements in ZGNRs are considered. For ferromagnetic (FM) ordering, transmission eigenstates with different spin indices distributed below and above Fermi level are observed, leading directly to a strong spin thermoelectric effect in a wide temperature range. With the edge spins arranged in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering, an obvious transport gap appears in the system, which greatly enhances the thermoelectric effects. The presence of a small spin splitting also induces a spin thermoelectric effect greater than the charge thermoelectric effect in certain temperature range. In general, the single-molecule junction exhibits the potential to be used for the design of perfect thermospin devices.

  8. Thermoelectric flux effect in superconducting indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harlingen, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a thermoelectric effect in superconductors which provides a mechanism for studying quasiparticle relaxation and scattering processes in non-equilibrium superconductors by transport measurements. We report measurements of the thermoelecric flux effect in samples consisting of indium and lead near the In transition temperature; in this temperature range, the contribution to DELTA/sub TAU/ from the Pb is insignificant and so values of OMEGA(T) are obtained for indium. The results of our experiments may be summarized as follows: (1) we have a thermally-generated flux effect in 5 superconducting In-Pb toroidal samples, (2) experimental tests suggest that the observed effect does indeed arise from the proposed thermoelectric flux effect, (3) OMEGA(T) for indium is found to diverge as (T/sub c/ - T)/sup -3/2/ more rapidly than predicted by simple theory, (4) OMEGA(T) at T/T sub c/ = .999 is nearly 10/sup 5/ larger than initially expected, (5) OMEGA (T) roughly correlates with the magnitude of the normal state thermoelectric coefficient for our samples

  9. Enhancing Thermoelectric Performance Using Nonlinear Transport Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-Hua; Imry, Yoseph

    2017-06-01

    We study nonlinear transport effects on the maximum efficiency and power for both inelastic and elastic thermoelectric generators. The former device refers to phonon-assisted hopping in double quantum dots, while the latter device is represented by elastic tunneling through a single quantum dot. We find that nonlinear thermoelectric transport can lead to enhanced efficiency and power for both types of devices. A comprehensive survey of various quantum-dot energy, temperature, and parasitic heat conduction reveals that the nonlinear transport-induced improvements of the maximum efficiency and power are overall much more significant for inelastic devices than for elastic devices, even for temperature biases as small as Th=1.2 Tc (Th and Tc are the temperatures of the hot and cold reservoirs, respectively). The underlying mechanism is revealed as due to the fact that, unlike the Fermi distribution, the Bose distribution is not bounded when the temperature bias increases. A large flux density of absorbed phonons leads to a great enhancement of the electrical current, output power, and energy efficiency, dominating over the concurrent increase of the parasitic heat current. Our study reveals that nonlinear transport effects can be a useful tool for improving thermoelectric performance.

  10. Thermoelectric conductivities at finite magnetic field and the Nernst effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keun-Young; Kim, Kyung Kiu; Seo, Yunseok; Sin, Sang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermoelectric conductivities of a strongly correlated system in the presence of a magnetic field by the gauge/gravity duality. We consider a class of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories with axion fields imposing momentum relaxation. General analytic formulas for the direct current (DC) conductivities and the Nernst signal are derived in terms of the black hole horizon data. For an explicit model study, we analyse in detail the dyonic black hole modified by momentum relaxation. In this model, for small momentum relaxation, the Nernst signal shows a bell-shaped dependence on the magnetic field, which is a feature of the normal phase of cuprates. We compute all alternating current (AC) electric, thermoelectric, and thermal conductivities by numerical analysis and confirm that their zero frequency limits precisely reproduce our analytic DC formulas, which is a non-trivial consistency check of our methods. We discuss the momentum relaxation effects on the conductivities including cyclotron resonance poles.

  11. Thermoelectric effects in a rectangular Aharonov-Bohm geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, A. J.; Faux, D. A.; Kearney, M. J.

    2016-04-01

    The thermoelectric transport properties of a rectangular Aharonov-Bohm ring at low temperature are investigated using a theoretical approach based on Green's functions. The oscillations in the transmission coefficient as the field is varied can be used to tune the thermoelectric response of the ring. Large magnitude thermopowers are obtainable which, in conjunction with low conductance, can result in a high thermoelectric figure of merit. The effects of single site impurities and more general Anderson disorder are considered explicitly in the context of evaluating their effect on the Fano-type resonances in the transmission coefficient. Importantly, it is shown that even for moderate levels of disorder, the thermoelectric figure of merit can remain significant, increasing the appeal of such structures from the perspective of specialist thermoelectric applications.

  12. Theoretical analysis of thermoelectric power of nanocrystalline ReSi2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kchoudhary, K; Kaurav; Gupta, N; Varshney, D

    2007-01-01

    The formulation is developed for the predictive modeling of thermoelectric power (S) of nano-crystalline ReSi 2 . We have evaluated the phonon thermoelectric power by incorporating the scattering of phonons with impurities, grain boundaries, charge careers and phonons. It is noticed that at low temperatures (T < 400 K), S increases and show power temperature dependence because of the larger mean free path of phonon, S shows a broad peak at about 550 K, which is artefact of the competition among umklapp scattering and grain boundaries scattering. Further, by increasing temperature S decreases with change in slope. The anomalies are well accounted in terms of interaction among the phonons-impurity, phonon grain boundaries and the umklapp scattering. Under certain conditions grain boundary scattering is expected to be more effective on heat carrying phonons than on Umklapp scattering, causing an increased thermoelectric power. Numerical analysis of thermoelectric power from the present model shows similar results as those revealed from experiments

  13. Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00173-14-1-G016 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 82-2020-17 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology NRL Grant N00173-14-l-G016 CODE 8200: Spacecraft Engineering Department...82-11-0 1: Space and Space Systems Technology General Engineering & Research, L.L.C. Technical & Administrative point of contact: Dr. Robin

  14. Intermolecular thermoelectric-like effects in molecular nano electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabzyan, H.; Safari, R.

    2012-01-01

    Intramolecular thermoelectric-like coefficients are introduced and computed of a single molecule nano electronic system. Values of the electronic Intramolecular thermoelectric-like coefficients are calculated based on the density and energy transfers between different parts of the molecule using quantum theory of atoms in molecule. Since, Joule and Peltier heating are even (symmetrical) and odd (antisymmetric) functions of the external bias, it is possible to divide Intramolecular thermoelectric-like coefficients into two components, symmetrical and antisymmetrical Intramolecular thermoelectric-like coefficients, which describe the intramolecular Joule-like and Peltier-like effects, respectively. In addition, a semiclassical temperature model is presented to describe intramolecular temperature mapping (intramolecular energy distributions) in molecular nano electronic systems.

  15. The influence of Thomson effect in the energy and exergy efficiency of an annular thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, S.C.; Manikandan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy analysis in the annular thermoelectric generator (ATEG) system is proposed. • Analytical expressions for the power output, exergy efficiency of an ATEG is derived. • The effects of S r , R L , and θ in P out and exergy efficiency of an ATEG is studied. • The influence of Thomson effect in P out and exergy efficiency of an ATEG is studied. - Abstract: The exoreversible thermodynamic model of an annular thermoelectric generator (ATEG) considering Thomson effect in conjunction with Peltier, Joule and Fourier heat conduction has been investigated using exergy analysis. New expressions for optimum current at the maximum power output and maximum energy, exergy efficiency conditions, and dimensionless irreversibilities in the ATEG are derived. The modified expression for figure of merit of a thermoelectric generator considering the Thomson effect has also been obtained. The results show that the power output, energy and exergy efficiency of the ATEG is lower than the flat plate thermoelectric generator. The effects of annular shape parameter (S r = r 2 /r 1 ), load resistance (R L ), dimensionless temperature ratio (θ = T h /T c ) and the thermal and electrical contact resistances in power output, energy/exergy efficiency of the ATEG have been studied. It has also been proved that because of the influence of Thomson effect, the power output and energy/exergy efficiency of the ATEG is reduced. This study will help in the designing of the actual annular thermoelectric generation systems

  16. Thermoelectric effects in disordered branched nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Piriatinskiy, Andrei

    2013-03-01

    We shall develop formalism of thermal and electrical transport in Si1 - x Gex and BiTe nanowires. The key feature of those nanowires is the possibility of dendrimer type branching. The branching tree can be of size comparable to the short wavelength of phonons and by far smaller than the long wavelength of conducting electrons. Hence it is expected that the branching may suppress thermal and let alone electrical conductance. We demonstrate that the morphology of branches strongly affects the electronic conductance. The effect is important to the class of materials known as thermoelectrics. The small size of the branching region makes large temperature and electrical gradients. On the other hand the smallness of the region would allow the electrical transport being ballistic. As usual for the mesoscopic systems we have to solve macroscopic (temperature) and microscopic ((electric potential, current)) equations self-consistently. Electronic conductance is studied via NEGF formalism on the irreducible electron transfer graph. We also investigate the figure of merit ZT as a measure of the suppressed electron conductance.

  17. A thermoelectric voltage effect in polyethylene oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, B; Kliem, H

    2003-01-01

    The conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO) is described with a three-dimensional hopping model considering electrostatic interactions between the ions. Ions fluctuate over energy-barriers in a multi-well potential. To decide whether positive or negative charges are responsible for this conductivity, the thermoelectric voltage is measured. The samples are embedded between two aluminium-electrodes. The oxide on the interface between the electrodes and the PEO serves as a blocking layer. The temperature of each electrode is controlled by a Peltier element. A temperature step is applied to one electrode by changing the temperature of one of the Peltier elements. Due to this temperature gradient, the mobile charges fluctuate thermally activated from the warmer side to the colder side of the sample. The direction of the measured thermoelectric voltage indicates the type of mobile charges. It is found that positive charges are mobile. Further, it is shown that the absolute value of the thermoelectric voltage depen...

  18. Performance and stress analysis of oxide thermoelectric module architecture designed for maximum power output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesekara, Waruna; Rosendahl, Lasse; Wu, NingYu

    Oxide thermoelectric materials are promising candidates for energy harvesting from mid to high temperature heat sources. In this work, the oxide thermoelectric materials and the final design of the high temperature thermoelectric module were developed. Also, prototypes of oxide thermoelectric...... of real thermoelectric uni-couples, the three-dimensional governing equations for the coupled heat transfer and thermoelectric effects were developed. Finite element simulations of this system were done using the COMSOL Multiphysics solver. Prototypes of the models were developed and the analytical...... generator were built for high temperature applications. This paper specifically discusses the thermoelectric module design and the prototype validations of the design. Here p type calcium cobalt oxide and n type aluminum doped ZnO were developed as the oxide thermoelectric materials. Hot side and cold side...

  19. Performance analysis of a stationary fuel cell thermoelectric cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, J.K.; Hwang, J.J.; Lin, C.H. [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan, 70005 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The main purpose of our study was to use an experimental method and system dynamic simulation technology to examine a proton exchange membrane fuel cell thermoelectric cogeneration system that provides both high-quality electric power and heated water. In the second part of our study, we experimentally verified the development of key components of the fuel cell and conducted a comprehensive analysis of the subsystems, including the fuel cell module, hydrogen supply subsystem, air supply subsystem, humidifier subsystem, and heat recovery subsystem. Finally, we integrated all of the subsystems into a PEM fuel cell thermoelectric cogeneration system and performed efficiency tests and analysis of power generation, heat recovery, and thermoelectric cogeneration. After comparing this system's efficiency results using simulation and experimentation, we determined that the accuracy of the simulation values when compared to the experimental values was >95%, showing that this system's simulation nearly approached the efficiency of the actual experiment, including more than 53% for power generation efficiency, more than 39% for heat recovery efficiency, and more than 93% for thermoelectric cogeneration combined efficiency. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Development and Analysis of Hybrid Thermoelectric Refrigerator Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifizi, M.; Zakaria, M. S.; Yaacob, Sazali; Wan, Khairunizam

    2018-03-01

    Thermoelectric module (TEM) is a type of solid-state devices which has the capability to maintain the accuracy of small temperature variation application. In this study, a hybrid thermoelectric refrigerator system is introduced by utilizing TEMs; direct and air to air thermoelectric heat pump to cool down and maintain low temperature for vaccines storage. Two different materials which are aluminum and stainless steel are used as container in hybrid thermoelectric refrigerator (HTER) configuration to investigate the response of every system in transient and steady state mode. A proper temperature sensor calibration technique is implemented to make certain real time data acquisition of the systems are not affected very much from the noise generated. From step response analysis, it is indicated that HTER I (aluminum) has rapid settling time from transient to steady state than HTER II (stainless steel) since aluminum has better thermal conductivity as compared to stainless steel. It is found that HTER I is better in cooling capability with the same input current instead of HTER II which required a longer time to achieve steady state mode. Besides, in Pseudo Random Binary Sequence (PRBS) response analysis injected to both systems shows HTER I is very sensitive to current input as the sequence length of HTER I is shorter than HTER II. However both systems depict the varying temperature in the range of 4 oC due to differences in thermal conductivity of container.

  1. Thermoelectric Generation Of Current - Theoretical And Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruciński, Adam; Rusowicz, Artur

    2017-12-01

    This paper provides some information about thermoelectric technology. Some new materials with improved figures of merit are presented. These materials in Peltier modules make it possible to generate electric current thanks to a temperature difference. The paper indicates possible applications of thermoelectric modules as interesting tools for using various waste heat sources. Some zero-dimensional equations describing the conditions of electric power generation are given. Also, operating parameters of Peltier modules, such as voltage and electric current, are analyzed. The paper shows chosen characteristics of power generation parameters. Then, an experimental stand for ongoing research and experimental measurements are described. The authors consider the resistance of a receiver placed in the electric circuit with thermoelectric elements. Finally, both the analysis of experimental results and conclusions drawn from theoretical findings are presented. Voltage generation of about 1.5 to 2.5 V for the temperature difference from 65 to 85 K was observed when a bismuth telluride thermoelectric couple (traditionally used in cooling technology) was used.

  2. Thermoelectric Generation Of Current – Theoretical And Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruciński Adam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides some information about thermoelectric technology. Some new materials with improved figures of merit are presented. These materials in Peltier modules make it possible to generate electric current thanks to a temperature difference. The paper indicates possible applications of thermoelectric modules as interesting tools for using various waste heat sources. Some zero-dimensional equations describing the conditions of electric power generation are given. Also, operating parameters of Peltier modules, such as voltage and electric current, are analyzed. The paper shows chosen characteristics of power generation parameters. Then, an experimental stand for ongoing research and experimental measurements are described. The authors consider the resistance of a receiver placed in the electric circuit with thermoelectric elements. Finally, both the analysis of experimental results and conclusions drawn from theoretical findings are presented. Voltage generation of about 1.5 to 2.5 V for the temperature difference from 65 to 85 K was observed when a bismuth telluride thermoelectric couple (traditionally used in cooling technology was used.

  3. A thermoelectric voltage effect in polyethylene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Bjoern; Wagner, Achim; Kliem, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    The conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO) is described with a three-dimensional hopping model considering electrostatic interactions between the ions. Ions fluctuate over energy-barriers in a multi-well potential. To decide whether positive or negative charges are responsible for this conductivity, the thermoelectric voltage is measured. The samples are embedded between two aluminium-electrodes. The oxide on the interface between the electrodes and the PEO serves as a blocking layer. The temperature of each electrode is controlled by a Peltier element. A temperature step is applied to one electrode by changing the temperature of one of the Peltier elements. Due to this temperature gradient, the mobile charges fluctuate thermally activated from the warmer side to the colder side of the sample. The direction of the measured thermoelectric voltage indicates the type of mobile charges. It is found that positive charges are mobile. Further, it is shown that the absolute value of the thermoelectric voltage depends on the energy-barrier heights in the multi-well potential

  4. Experimental analysis with numerical comparison for different thermoelectric generators configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favarel, Camille; Bédécarrats, Jean-Pierre; Kousksou, Tarik; Champier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 3 experimental TE generators are tested and compared to a numerical model. • Different mass flow rates and temperatures ranges were used. • Maximum output electrical power is guaranty by the use of MPPT DC/DC controllers. • The importance of the occupancy rate for the design of TEG is demonstrated. • The importance of the location of the TE modules is shown. - Abstract: Thermoelectric (TE) energy harvesting is a promising perspective to use waste heat. Due to the low efficiency of thermoelectric materials many analytical and numerical optimization studies have been developed. To be validated, an optimization must necessarily be linked to the experience. There are a lot of results on thermoelectric generators (TEG) based on experiments or model validations. Nevertheless, the validated models concern most of the time one TE module but rarely an entire system. Moreover, these models of complete system mainly concern the optimization of fluid flow rates or of heat exchangers. Our choice is to optimize the number of these modules in a whole system point of view. A numerical model using a software for numerical computation, based on multi-physics equations such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics and thermoelectricity was developed to predict both thermal and electrical powers of TEG. This paper aims to present the experimental validation of this model and shows interesting experimental results on the location of the TE modules. In parallel, an experimental set-up was built to compare and validate this model. This set-up is composed of a thermal loop with a hot gas source, a cold fluid, a hot fin exchanger, a cold tubular exchanger and thermoelectric modules. The number and the place of these modules can be changed to study different configurations. A specific maximum power point tracker DC/DC converter charging a battery is added in order to study the electrical power produced by the TEG. The analysis of the influence of the number of

  5. Heat transfer and performance analysis of thermoelectric stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, Yousef S.H.; Kseibi, Musaab M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Design and testing of a thermo electric stove. • Three biofuels namely: wood, peat and manure are used. • Heat transfer analysis is detailed. • Resulting thermoelectric energy for vital purposes in remote poor regions. • Evaluation of performance of the stove subcomponents. - Abstract: Access to electricity is one of the important challenges for remote poor regions of the world. Adding TEG (thermoelectric generators) to stoves can provide electricity for the basic benefits such as: operating radio, light, phones, medical instruments and other small electronic devices. Heat transfer analysis of a multi-purpose stove coupled with 12 TEG modules is presented. This analysis comprises a well aerodynamically designed combustor, finned TEG base plate, cooker and water heater beside the outer surface for space heating. Heat transfer analysis was also carried out for all the subcomponents of the stove, and performance predicted against the experimental results. It was found that the maximum power obtained is about 7.88 W using wood, manure or peat with an average overall efficiency of the stove about 60%.

  6. Thermoelectric and thermomagnetic effects in high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, R.P.; Ri, H.C.; Gross, R.; Kober, F.

    1992-01-01

    In the mixed state of high-temperature superconductors the dominant part of the Seebeck and Nernst effect is due to the thermal diffusion of quasiparticles and vortices, respectively. The authors' understanding of the Seebeck effect is based on the two-fluid counterflow model of Ginzburg and its extension to the mixed state with the presence of vortices. From the Nernst effect the transport entropy of the vortices is obtained. In this paper summarize the recent thermoelectric and thermomagnetic experiments, paying also attention to the role of the Magnus force (Hall effect) and to the thermal fluctuation effects near T c

  7. Design and analysis of solar thermoelectric power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatcharasathien, Narong; Hirunlabh, Jongjit; Khedari, Joseph; Daguenet, Michel

    2005-09-01

    This article reports on the design and performance analysis of a solar thermoelectric power generation plant (STEPG). The system considers both truncated compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) with a flat receiver and conventional flat-plate collectors, thermoelectric (TE) cooling and power generator modules and appropriate connecting pipes and control devices. The design tool uses TRNSYS IIsibat-15 program with a new component we developed for the TE modules. The main input data of the system are the specifications of TE module, the maximum hot side temperature of TE modules, and the desired power output. Examples of the design using truncated CPC and flat-plate collectors are reported and discussed for various slope angle and half-acceptance angle of CPC. To minimize system cost, seasonal adjustment of the slope angle between 0° and 30° was considered, which could give relatively high power output under Bangkok ambient condition. Two small-scale STEPGs were built. One of them uses electrical heater, whereas the other used a CPC with locally made aluminum foil reflector. Measured data showed reasonable agreement with the model outputs. TE cooling modules were found to be more appropriate. Therefore, the TRNSYS software and the developed TE component offer an extremely powerful tool for the design and performance analysis of STEPG plant.

  8. Thermoelectrical power analysis of precipitation in 6013 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdala, M.R.W.S.; Garcia de Blas, J.C.; Barbosa, C.; Acselrad, O.

    2008-01-01

    The 6013 aluminum alloy was first developed for application in the aircraft industry and, more recently, as a replacement option for the use of the 6061 alloy in the automotive industry. The present work describes the evolution of the process of formation and dissolution of different kinds of precipitates in 6013 aluminum alloy, subjected to different conditions of heat treatment, using for this purpose measurements of thermoelectrical power, Vickers microhardness and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Although in the last years many works have been published on the use of thermoelectrical power (TEP) measurements for the analysis of precipitation process in traditional alloys such as 6061, there is still little information related to 6013 alloy. The results obtained are compared with a previous characterization work on the same alloy using transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that TEP measurements are very sensitive to precipitation phenomena in this alloy, and it has been found that there is an inverse relation between TEP and Vickers microhardness values, which allowed proposing a precipitation sequence for 6013 aluminum alloy

  9. Analysis of a sandwich-type generator with self-heating thermoelectric elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mikyung; Yang, Hyein; Wee, Daehyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel and unique type of thermoelectric generators is proposed. • Heat source is combined in thermoelectric elements, reducing heat transfer problems. • Embedding radioactive isotopes is proposed as a way to implement the new design. • Conversion efficiency and power density are estimated for the proposed design. - Abstract: A novel and unique design of thermoelectric generators, in which a heat source is combined with thermoelectric elements, is proposed. By placing heat-generating radioactive isotopes inside the thermoelectric elements, the heat transfer limitation between the generator and the heat source can be eliminated, ensuring simplicity. The inner electrode is sandwiched between identical thermoelectric elements, which naturally allows the inner core to act as the hot side. Analysis shows that conversion efficiency and power density increase as the heat density inside the thermoelectric elements increases and as the thermoelectric performance of the material improves. The theoretical maximum efficiency is shown to be 50%. However, realistic performance under practical constraint is much worse. In realistic cases, the efficiency would be about 3% at best. The power density of the proposed design exhibits a much more reasonable value as high as 3000 W/m 2 . Although the efficiency is low, the simplicity of the proposed design combined with its reasonable power density may result in some, albeit limited, potential applications. Further investigation must be performed in order to realize such potential

  10. Stochastic Drought Risk Analysis and Projection Methods For Thermoelectric Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekera, Behailu Belamo

    Combined effects of socio-economic, environmental, technological and political factors impact fresh cooling water availability, which is among the most important elements of thermoelectric power plant site selection and evaluation criteria. With increased variability and changes in hydrologic statistical stationarity, one concern is the increased occurrence of extreme drought events that may be attributable to climatic changes. As hydrological systems are altered, operators of thermoelectric power plants need to ensure a reliable supply of water for cooling and generation requirements. The effects of climate change are expected to influence hydrological systems at multiple scales, possibly leading to reduced efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. This study models and analyzes drought characteristics from a thermoelectric systems operational and regulation perspective. A systematic approach to characterize a stream environment in relation to extreme drought occurrence, duration and deficit-volume is proposed and demonstrated. More specifically, the objective of this research is to propose a stochastic water supply risk analysis and projection methods from thermoelectric power systems operation and management perspectives. The study defines thermoelectric drought as a shortage of cooling water due to stressed supply or beyond operable water temperature limits for an extended period of time requiring power plants to reduce production or completely shut down. It presents a thermoelectric drought risk characterization framework that considers heat content and water quantity facets of adequate water availability for uninterrupted operation of such plants and safety of its surroundings. In addition, it outlines mechanisms to identify rate of occurrences of the said droughts and stochastically quantify subsequent potential losses to the sector. This mechanism is enabled through a model based on compound Nonhomogeneous Poisson Process. This study also demonstrates how

  11. Experimental analysis and performance evaluation of a tandem photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossyvakis, D.N.; Voutsinas, G.D.; Hristoforou, E.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental and theoretical investigation of a PV–TEG system has been conducted. • Poly-Si and dye-sensitized solar cells have been employed. • Thermoelectric generators of different thermoelement length have been tested. • A wide range considering cell’s operating temperature has been examined. - Abstract: Although photovoltaics have been established as the dominant technology considering the field of solar energy conversion systems, issues regarding their relatively low efficiency still remain practically unsolved. Very recently, the possibility of combining photovoltaic (PV) cells and thermoelectric generators (TEGs) in hybrid systems, as a means of improving the overall conversion efficiency, has attracted particular attention. In this paper, the performance of a tandem PV–TEG hybrid, employing poly-Si as well as dye-sensitized solar cells, has been examined experimentally. Thermoelectric devices of different thermoelement geometry have been tested in order to identify the corresponding performance effect. In addition, the outcomes of the experimental process have been exploited in order to evaluate the performance of the system under real operating conditions. The analysis conducted indicates that the utilization of TEGs with shorter thermoelements results in enhanced power output levels, when conditions of actual operation are considered. Moreover, although improved power output is obtained by the setup employing the polycrystalline cell, dye-sensitized technology could become particularly attractive when the incorporation of solar cells in PV–TEG hybrids operating under conditions of elevated temperature is examined.

  12. Effects of Fluid Directions on Heat Exchange in Thermoelectric Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suzuki, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Yuto; Fujisaka, Takeyuki

    2012-01-01

    Thermal fluids can transport heat to the large surface of a thermoelectric (TE) panel from hot and/or cold sources. The TE power thus obtainable was precisely evaluated using numerical calculations based on fluid dynamics and heat transfer. The commercial software FLUENT was coupled with a TE model...... for this purpose. The fluid velocity distribution and the temperature profiles in the fluids and TE modules were calculated in two-dimensional space. The electromotive force was then evaluated for counter-flow and split-flow models to show the effect of a stagnation point. Friction along the fluid surface along...

  13. Magneto-thermoelectric effects in NiFe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Maximilian

    2015-11-01

    In this thesis magneto-thermoelectric effects are investigated in a systematic way to separate the transverse spin Seebeck effect from other parasitic effects like the anomalous Nernst effect. In contrast to the first studies found in the literature, in NiFe thin films a contribution of the transverse spin Seebeck effect can be excluded. This surprising outcome was crosschecked in a variety of different sample layouts and collaborations with other universities to ensure the validity of these results. In general, this thesis solves a long time discussion about the existence of the transverse spin Seebeck effect in NiFe films and supports the importance of control measurements for the scientific community. Even if such ''negative'' results may not be the award winning ones, new discoveries should be treated with constructive criticism and be checked carefully by the scientific community.

  14. Numerical analysis of the performance prediction for a thermoelectric generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Nyung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The present study develops a two-dimensional numerical code that can predict the performance of a thermoelectric generator module including a p-leg/n-leg pair and top and bottom electrodes. The present code can simulate the detailed thermoelectric phenomena including the heat flow, electric current, Joule heating, Peltier heating, and Thomson heating, together with the efficiency of the modules whose properties depend on the temperature. The present numerical code can be used for the design optimization of a thermoelectric power generator.

  15. Thermoelectric effects of amorphous Ga-Sn-O thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Uenuma, Mutsunori; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-07-01

    The thermoelectric effects of an amorphous Ga-Sn-O (a-GTO) thin film have been evaluated as a physical parameter of a novel oxide semiconductor. Currently, a-GTO thin films are greatly desired not only because they do not contain rare metals and are therefore free from problems on the exhaustion of resources and the increase in cost but also because their initial characteristics and performance stabilities are excellent when they are used in thin-film transistors. In this study, an a-GTO thin film was deposited on a quartz substrate by RF magnetron sputtering and postannealing was performed in air at 350 °C for 1 h using an annealing furnace. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the a-GTO thin film were -137 µV/K and 31.8 S/cm at room temperature, and -183 µV/K and 43.8 S/cm at 397 K, respectively, and as a result, the power factor was 1.47 µW/(cm·K2) at 397 K; these values were roughly as high as those of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin films. Therefore, a-GTO thin films will be a candidate material for thermoelectric devices fabricated in a large area at a low cost by controlling the carrier mobility, carrier density, device structures, and so forth.

  16. The practical performance forecast and analysis of thermoelectric module from macro to micro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Limei; Chen, Huanxin; Xiao, Fu; Wang, Shengwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the practical performance of TEMs to meet specific requirements. • The influence of different input power sources are discussed. • The step-change phenomena of thermoelectric cooling are found and discussed. • The influence ratio of hot side heat exchanger and input power source is compared. - Abstract: The practical operating conditions of thermoelectric products, such as the input power source and the thermal resistance of hot side heat exchanger, are different from the theoretical study. Thus the equations, which are used to estimate the practical maximum cooling performance just according to the datum in datasheet of commercial thermoelectric module (TEM), are given. The nested loop method is adopted to solve the numerical model. This study provides a method to choose a suitable TEM for thermoelectric product to meet the application requirement. It finds that the minimum cold side temperature increase and the voltage for achieving the minimum cold side temperature step decrease with the increase of thermal resistance of hot side heat exchanger, respectively. The maximum temperature difference increase and the voltage for achieving the maximum temperature difference step increase with the increase of thermal resistance of hot side heat exchanger, respectively. According to the dimension, three kinds of thermoelectric module, bulk TEM, miniature TEM and micro TEM, are studied. The novel scale effect are discovered by comparing these TEMs. It found that the step-change phenomenon become more and more obvious with the decrease of the dimension of thermoelectric module. The influence ratio of thermal resistance of hot side heat exchanger on the maximum cooling performance increases and the influence ratio of input power source decreases from macro to micro, respectively. It forecasts that there exists a critical value for the dimension of thermoelectric module, when the dimension of thermoelectric module is smaller than this critical

  17. Nonlinear thermoelectric effects in high-field superconductor-ferromagnet tunnel junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kolenda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thermoelectric effects result from the coupling of charge and heat transport and can be used for thermometry, cooling and harvesting of thermal energy. The microscopic origin of thermoelectric effects is a broken electron–hole symmetry, which is usually quite small in metal structures. In addition, thermoelectric effects decrease towards low temperatures, which usually makes them vanishingly small in metal nanostructures in the sub-Kelvin regime.Results: We report on a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of thermoelectric effects in superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures. We investigate the dependence of thermoelectric currents on the thermal excitation, as well as on the presence of a dc bias voltage across the junction.Conclusion: Large thermoelectric effects are observed in superconductor/ferromagnet and superconductor/normal-metal hybrid structures. The spin-independent signals observed under finite voltage bias are shown to be reciprocal to the physics of superconductor/normal-metal microrefrigerators. The spin-dependent thermoelectric signals in the linear regime are due to the coupling of spin and heat transport, and can be used to design more efficient refrigerators.

  18. Effects of environmental temperature fluctuations on the parameters of a thermoelectric battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Yu.F.; Oganov, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical analysis is presented for the effects of lags on the output parameters of a radioisotope thermoelectric battery under conditions of diurnal temperature variation in the environment. Allowance for the inertial effects causes a phase shift and change in amplitude of the variations in the thermal and electrical parameters. The amplitude of the temperature fluctuations in the hot junctions is substantially reduced, while the output electrical power increases. The data provide a more rigorous basis for choosing the parameters of radioisotope batteries during design. 9 refs

  19. Thermoelectric effects and spin injection into superconductors with exchange field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, Tero [Dept. Phys., Univ. Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Silaev, Mihail [O.V. Lounasmaa Lab, Aalto Univ. (Finland); Dept. Theor. Physics, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Virtanen, Pauli [O.V. Lounasmaa Lab, Aalto Univ. (Finland); Giazotto, Francesco [NEST CNR-INFM and SNS Pisa (Italy); Ozaeta, Asier; Bergeret, Sebastian [CFM-CSIC and DIPC, San Sebastian (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    When a thin superconducting film is exposed to a longitudinal magnetic field or is in proximity to a ferromagnet, an exchange field separating the spin bands emerges in it. For low enough exchange fields superconductivity survives, but its response to external driving is strongly modified. In my talk I will show how at linear response such systems exhibit very strong thermoelectric response with an almost ideal efficiency. For strong driving, this effect creates a spin accumulation that can only relax via thermalization, and therefore at low temperatures has a very long range. Therefore our work explains recent observations of the long-range spin accumulation in spin-split superconductors. When injecting spin from injectors with non-collinear magnetization compared to the exchange field, the spins start to rotate around the latter. I will describe how superconductivity modifies this spin Hanle effect so that the resulting nonlocal magnetoresistance depends on the details of spin relaxation, therefore allowing for probing them.

  20. Parametric analysis of temperature gradient across thermoelectric power generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Chahine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parametric analysis of power generation from thermoelectric generators (TEGs. The aim of the parametric analysis is to provide recommendations with respect to the applications of TEGs. To proceed, the one-dimensional steady-state solution of the heat diffusion equation is considered with various boundary conditions representing real encountered cases. Four configurations are tested. The first configuration corresponds to the TEG heated with constant temperature at its lower surface and cooled with a fluid at its upper surface. The second configuration corresponds to the TEG heated with constant heat flux at its lower surface and cooled with a fluid at its upper surface. The third configuration corresponds to the TEG heated with constant heat flux at its lower surface and cooled by a constant temperature at its upper surface. The fourth configuration corresponds to the TEG heated by a fluid at its lower surface and cooled by a fluid at its upper surface. It was shown that the most promising configuration is the fourth one and temperature differences up to 70˚C can be achieved at 150˚C heat source. Finally, a new concept is implemented based on configuration four and tested experimentally.

  1. Effect of doping of N and B atoms on thermoelectric properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, the doping effect on the thermoelectric properties of the C60 molecule ... mopower and thermal conductance of atomic sized metallic contacts, 1D wires, single ..... For negative energies, the sign of thermopower is positive while.

  2. The effect of Cr buffer layer thickness on voltage generation of thin-film thermoelectric modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoshiri, Mizue; Mikami, Masashi; Ozaki, Kimihiro

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cr buffer layer thickness on the open-circuit voltage generated by thin-film thermoelectric modules of Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 (p-type) and Bi 2 Te 2.7 Se 0.3 (n-type) materials was investigated. A Cr buffer layer, whose thickness generally needs to be optimized to improve adhesion depending on the substrate surface condition, such as roughness, was deposited between thermoelectric thin films and glass substrates. When the Cr buffer layer was 1 nm thick, the Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivity of 1 µm thermoelectric thin films with the buffer layers were approximately equal to those of the thermoelectric films without the buffer layers. When the thickness of the Cr buffer layer was 1 µm, the same as the thermoelectric films, the Seebeck coefficients of the bilayer films were reduced by an electrical current flowing inside the Cr buffer layer and the generation of Cr 2 Te 3 . The open-circuit voltage of the thin-film thermoelectric modules decreased with an increase in the thickness of the Cr buffer layer, which was primarily induced by the electrical current flow. The reduction caused by the Cr 2 Te 3 generation was less than 10% of the total voltage generation of the modules without the Cr buffer layers. The voltage generation of thin-film thermoelectric modules could be controlled by the Cr buffer layer thickness. (paper)

  3. Design of segmented thermoelectric generator based on cost-effective and light-weight thermoelectric alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Seok; Kikuchi, Keiko; Itoh, Takashi; Iida, Tsutomu; Taya, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Segmented thermoelectric (TE) module operating at 500 °C for combustion engine system. • Si based light-weight TE generator increases the specific power density [W/kg]. • Study of contact resistance at the bonding interfaces maximizing output power. • Accurate agreement of the theoretical predictions with experimental results. - Abstract: A segmented thermoelectric (TE) generator was designed with higher temperature segments composed of n-type Mg 2 Si and p-type higher manganese silicide (HMS) and lower temperature segments composed of n- and p-type Bi–Te based compounds. Since magnesium and silicon based TE alloys have low densities, they produce a TE module with a high specific power density that is suitable for airborne applications. A two-pair segmented π-shaped TE generator was assembled with low contact resistance materials across bonding interfaces. The peak specific power density of this generator was measured at 42.9 W/kg under a 498 °C temperature difference, which has a good agreement with analytical predictions

  4. Performance analysis of a waste heat recovery thermoelectric generation system for automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Deng, Y.D.; Li, Z.; Su, C.Q.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A new automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator and its “four-TEGs” system are constructed, and the performance characteristics of system are discussed through road test and revolving drum test. - Highlights: • The automotive thermoelectric generator system was constructed and studied. • Road test and revolving drum test were used to measure the output power. • A performance of 201.7 V (open circuit voltage)/944 W obtained. - Abstract: Thermoelectric power generators are one of the promising green energy sources. In this case study, an energy-harvesting system which extracts heat from an automotive exhaust pipe and turns the heat into electricity by using thermoelectric power generators (TEGs) has been constructed. The test bench is developed to analysis the performance of TEG system characteristics, which are undertaken to assess the feasibility of automotive applications. Based on the test bench, a new system called “four-TEGs” system is designed and assembled into prototype vehicle called “Warrior”, through the road test and revolving drum test table, characteristics of the system such as hot-side temperature, cold-side temperature, open circuit voltage and power output are studied, and a maximum power of 944 W was obtained, which completely meets the automotive application. The present study shows the promising potential of using this kind of thermoelectric generator for low-temperature waste heat recovery vehicle

  5. General Approach for Composite Thermoelectric Systems with Thermal Coupling: The Case of a Dual Thermoelectric Cooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuautli Yanehowi Flores-Niño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we show a general approach for inhomogeneous composite thermoelectric systems, and as an illustrative case, we consider a dual thermoelectric cooler. This composite cooler consists of two thermoelectric modules (TEMs connected thermally in parallel and electrically in series. Each TEM has different thermoelectric (TE properties, namely thermal conductance, electrical resistance and the Seebeck coefficient. The system is coupled by thermal conductances to heat reservoirs. The proposed approach consists of derivation of the dimensionless thermoelectric properties for the whole system. Thus, we obtain an equivalent figure of merit whose impact and meaning is discussed. We make use of dimensionless equations to study the impact of the thermal conductance matching on the cooling capacity and the coefficient of the performance of the system. The equivalent thermoelectric properties derived with our formalism include the external conductances and all intrinsic thermoelectric properties of each component of the system. Our proposed approach permits us changing the thermoelectric parameters of the TEMs and the working conditions of the composite system. Furthermore, our analysis shows the effect of the number of thermocouples on the system. These considerations are very useful for the design of thermoelectric composite systems. We reproduce the qualitative behavior of a commercial composite TEM connected electrically in series.

  6. Thermoelectric generator performance analysis: Influence of pin tapering on the first and second law efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilbas, B.S.; Ali, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Double tapering of thermoelectric elements improves first and second law efficiency. • Pin geometric feature maximizing device output work does not maximize thermal efficiency. • Pin geometric feature maximizing first law efficiency slight alters for maximum second law efficiency. • External resistance and operating temperature ratios influence design configuration of thermoelectric generator. - Abstract: Thermoelectric generators are the important candidates for clean energy conversion from the waste heat; however, their low efficiency limits the practical applications of the devices. Tailoring the geometric configuration of the device in line with the operating conditions can improve the device performance. Consequently; in the present study, the influence of the pin geometric configuration on the thermoelectric generator performance is investigated. The dimensionless tapering parameter is introduced and its effect on the first and second law efficiencies is examined for various operating conditions including the external load resistance and the temperature ratio. It is found that the first and second law efficiencies are significantly influenced by the pin geometry. The dimensionless tapering parameter (a), increasing tapering of the thermoelectric pins, within the range of 2 ⩽ a ⩽ 4 results in improved first and second law efficiencies. However, the dimensionless tapering parameter maximizing the first and second law efficiencies does not maximize the device output power. This behavior is associated with the external load resistance which has a considerable influence on the device output power such that increasing external load resistance lowers the device output power

  7. Thermal Stress Analysis and Structure Parameter Selection for a Bi2Te3-Based Thermoelectric Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun-Ling; Du, Qun-Gui; Zhang, Xiao-Dan; Jiang, Xin-Qiang

    2011-05-01

    The output power and conversion efficiency of thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are mainly determined by their material properties, i.e., Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity. In practical applications, due to the influence of the harsh environment, the mechanical properties of TEMs should also be considered. Using the finite-element analysis (FEA) model in ANSYS software, we present the thermal stress distribution of a TEM based on the anisotropic mechanical properties and thermoelectric properties of hot-pressed materials. By analyzing the possibilities of damage along the cleavage plane of Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric materials and by optimizing the structure parameters, a TEM with better mechanical performance is obtained. Thus, a direction for improving the thermal stress resistance of TEMs is presented.

  8. Correlated evolution of colossal thermoelectric effect and Kondo insulating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Fuccillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the magnetic and transport properties of the Ru1−xFexSb2 solid solution, showing how the colossal thermoelectric performance of FeSb2 evolves due to changes in the amount of 3d vs. 4d electron character. The physical property trends shed light on the physical picture underlying one of the best low-T thermoelectric power factors known to date. Some of the compositions warrant further study as possible n- and p-type thermoelements for Peltier cooling well below 300 K. Our findings enable us to suggest possible new Kondo insulating systems that might behave similarly to FeSb2 as advanced thermoelectrics.

  9. Effect of Mach number on thermoelectric performance of SiC ceramics nose-tip for supersonic vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xiao-Yi; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper focus on the effects of Mach number on thermoelectric energy conversion for the limitation of aero-heating and the feasibility of energy harvesting on supersonic vehicles. A model of nose-tip structure constructed with SiC ceramics is developed to numerically study the thermoelectric performance in a supersonic flow field by employing the computational fluid dynamics and the thermal conduction theory. Results are given in the cases of different Mach numbers. Moreover, the thermoelectric performance in each case is predicted with and without Thomson heat, respectively. Due to the increase of Mach number, both the temperature difference and the conductive heat flux between the hot side and the cold side of nose tip are increased. This results in the growth of the thermoelectric power generated and the energy conversion efficiency. With respect to the Thomson effect, over 50% of total power generated converts to Thomson heat, which greatly reduces the thermoelectric power and efficiency. However, whether the Thomson effect is considered or not, with the Mach number increasing from 2.5 to 4.5, the thermoelectric performance can be effectively improved. -- Highlights: • Thermoelectric SiC nose-tip structure for aerodynamic heat harvesting of high-speed vehicles is studied. • Thermoelectric performance is predicted based on numerical methods and experimental thermoelectric parameters. • The effects of Mach number on thermoelectric performance are studied in the present paper. • Results with respect to the Thomson effect are also explored. • Output power and energy efficiency of the thermoelectric nose-tip are increased with the increase of Mach number

  10. Applications of thermoelectric modules on heat flow detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leephakpreeda, Thananchai

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents quantitative analysis and practical scenarios of implementation of the thermoelectric module for heat flow detection. Mathematical models of the thermoelectric effects are derived to describe the heat flow from/to the detected media. It is observed that the amount of the heat flow through the thermoelectric module proportionally induces the conduction heat owing to the temperature difference between the hot side and the cold side of the thermoelectric module. In turn, the Seebeck effect takes place in the thermoelectric module where the temperature difference is converted to the electric voltage. Hence, the heat flow from/to the detected media can be observed from both the amount and the polarity of the voltage across the thermoelectric module. Two experiments are demonstrated for viability of the proposed technique by the measurements of the heat flux through the building wall and thermal radiation from the outdoor environment during daytime. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis and Experimental Investigation of Optimum Design of Thermoelectric Cooling/Heating System for Car Seat Climate Control (CSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elarusi, Abdulmunaem; Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung

    2018-02-01

    The optimum design of a thermoelectric system for application in car seat climate control has been modeled and its performance evaluated experimentally. The optimum design of the thermoelectric device combining two heat exchangers was obtained by using a newly developed optimization method based on the dimensional technique. Based on the analytical optimum design results, commercial thermoelectric cooler and heat sinks were selected to design and construct the climate control heat pump. This work focuses on testing the system performance in both cooling and heating modes to ensure accurate analytical modeling. Although the analytical performance was calculated using the simple ideal thermoelectric equations with effective thermoelectric material properties, it showed very good agreement with experiment for most operating conditions.

  12. Simulation Analysis of Tilted Polyhedron-Shaped Thermoelectric Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangning; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2015-06-01

    The generation of thermoelectricity is considered a promising approach to harness the waste heat generated in industries, automobiles, gas fields, and other man-made processes. The waste heat can be converted to electricity via a thermoelectric (TE) generator. In this light, the generator performance depends on the geometric configuration of its constituent elements as well as their material properties. Our previous work reported TE behaviors for modules consisting of parallelogram-shaped elements, because elements with tilted laminate structures provide increased mechanical stability and efficient heat-transferring ability from the hot surface to the cold surface. Here, we study TE elements in the shape of a polyhedron that is obtained by mechanically truncating the edges of a parallelogram element in order to further enhance the generator performance and reduce TE material usage. The TE performance of the modules consisting of these polyhedron elements is numerically simulated by using the finite-volume method. The output power, voltage, and current of the polyhedral TE module are greater than those of the parallelogram-element module. The polyhedron shape positively affects heat transfer and the flow of electric charges in the light of increasing the efficiency of conversion from heat to electricity. By varying the shape of the truncated portions, we determine the optimal shape that enables homogeneous heat flux distribution and slow diffusion of thermal energy to obtain the better efficiency of conversion of heat into electricity. We believe that the findings of our study can significantly contribute to the design policy in TE generation.

  13. Effect of ball milling time on thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khade, Poonam; Bagwaiya, Toshi; Bhattacharaya, Shovit; Singh, Ajay; Jha, Purushottam; Shelke, Vilas

    2018-04-01

    The effect of different milling time on thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) was investigated. The nanomaterial was prepared by varying the ball milling time and followed by hot press sintering. The crystal structure and phase formation were verified by X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy. The experimental results show that electrical conductivity increases whereas thermal conductivity decreases with increasing milling time. The negative sign of seebeck coefficient indicate the n-type nature with majority charge carriers of electrons. A maximum figure of merit about 0.55 is achieved for l5hr ball milled Bi2Te3 sample. The present study demonstrates the simple and cost-effective method for synthesis of Bi2Te3 thermoelectric material at large scale thermoelectric applications.

  14. The strong thermoelectric effect in nanocarbon generated by the ballistic phonon drag of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidelman, E D; Vul', A Ya

    2007-01-01

    The thermoelectric power and thermoelectric figure of merit for carbon nanostructure consisting of graphite-like (sp 2 ) and diamond-like (sp 3 ) regions have been investigated. The probability of electron collisions with quasi-ballistic phonons in sp 2 regions has been analysed for the first time. We have shown that the probability is not small. We have analysed the influence of various factors on the process of the electron-ballistic phonon drag (the phonon drag effect). The thermoelectric power and thermoelectric figure of merit under conditions of ballistic transport were found to be substantially higher than those in the cases of drag by thermalized phonons and of electron diffusion. The thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in the case of a ballistic phonon contribution to the phonon drag of electrons should be 50 times that for chaotic phonons and 500 times that in the case of the diffusion process. In that case ZT should be a record (ZT≥2-3)

  15. Controlling the thermoelectric effect by mechanical manipulation of the electron's quantum phase in atomic junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Akira; Demir, Firuz; Kaneko, Satoshi; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Saffarzadeh, Alireza; Kirczenow, George; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2017-08-11

    The thermoelectric voltage developed across an atomic metal junction (i.e., a nanostructure in which one or a few atoms connect two metal electrodes) in response to a temperature difference between the electrodes, results from the quantum interference of electrons that pass through the junction multiple times after being scattered by the surrounding defects. Here we report successfully tuning this quantum interference and thus controlling the magnitude and sign of the thermoelectric voltage by applying a mechanical force that deforms the junction. The observed switching of the thermoelectric voltage is reversible and can be cycled many times. Our ab initio and semi-empirical calculations elucidate the detailed mechanism by which the quantum interference is tuned. We show that the applied strain alters the quantum phases of electrons passing through the narrowest part of the junction and hence modifies the electronic quantum interference in the device. Tuning the quantum interference causes the energies of electronic transport resonances to shift, which affects the thermoelectric voltage. These experimental and theoretical studies reveal that Au atomic junctions can be made to exhibit both positive and negative thermoelectric voltages on demand, and demonstrate the importance and tunability of the quantum interference effect in the atomic-scale metal nanostructures.

  16. Analysis Of Power Characteristics Of Model Thermoelectric Generator TEG Small Modular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisman H. Mahmud

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectrically Generator TEG can generate electricity from the temperature difference between hot and cold at the junction thermoelectric module with two different semiconductor materials there will be a flow of current through the junction so as to produce a voltage. This principle uses the Seebeck effect thermoelectric generator as a base. By using these principles this research was conducted to determine the potential of the electric energy of the two peltier modules which would be an alternative source for mobile charger using heat from source of methylated. The focus in this research is the testing of the model TEG Thermoelectric Generator Small Modular to generate power with a variety of different materials of 4 namely Bi2Te3 Bismuth Telluride PbTe-Bite CMO and CMO Cascade-32-62S-32-62S Calcium Mangan oxide to use the cold side heat sink and a fan to simulate heat aluminum plate attached to the hot side of the TEG modules with heat source of methylated. Test results on the TEG Small Modular Model for mobile charger output voltage obtained from 2 pieces Bi2Te3 module Bismuth Telluride Peltier strung together a series of 3.01 Volt with amp916T of 22.7 C which produce power of 0.091 Watt.

  17. Introduction to thermoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmid, H Julian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to Thermoelectricity is the latest work by Professor Julian Goldsmid drawing on his 55 years experience in the field. The theory of the thermoelectric and related phenomena is presented in sufficient detail to enable researchers to understand their observations and develop improved thermoelectric materials. The methods for the selection of materials and their improvement are discussed. Thermoelectric materials for use in refrigeration and electrical generation are reviewed. Experimental techniques for the measurement of properties and for the production of thermoelements are described. Special emphasis is placed on nanotechnology which promises to yield great improvements in the efficiency of thermoelectric devices. Chapters are also devoted to transverse thermoelectric effects and thermionic energy conversion, both techniques offering the promise of important applications in the future.

  18. Experimental Study on Effect of Operating Conditions on Thermoelectric Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudi Nezhad, Sajjad; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2017-01-01

    Effect of boundary conditions of thermal reservoirs on power generation of thermoelectric modules (TEMs) is examined experimentally. To realize the characteristics of the power generation by the TEMs, the system performance is studied over various volumetric flow rates and flow temperatures...

  19. Thermoelectricity in liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Said, Suhana; Nordin, Abdul Rahman; Abdullah, Norbani; Balamurugan, S.

    2015-09-01

    The thermoelectric effect, also known as the Seebeck effect, describes the conversion of a temperature gradient into electricity. A Figure of Merit (ZT) is used to describe the thermoelectric ability of a material. It is directly dependent on its Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, and inversely dependent on its thermal conductivity. There is usually a compromise between these parameters, which limit the performance of thermoelectric materials. The current achievement for ZT~2.2 falls short of the expected threshold of ZT=3 to allow its viability in commercial applications. In recent times, advances in organic thermoelectrics been significant, improving by over 3 orders of magnitude over a period of about 10 years. Liquid crystals are newly investigated as candidate thermoelectric materials, given their low thermal conductivity, inherent ordering, and in some cases, reasonable electrical conductivity. In this work the thermoelectric behaviour of a discotic liquid crystal, is discussed. The DLC was filled into cells coated with a charge injector, and an alignment of the columnar axis perpendicular to the substrate was allowed to form. This thermoelectric behavior can be correlated to the order-disorder transition. A reasonable thermoelectric power in the liquid crystal temperature regime was noted. In summary, thermoelectric liquid crystals may have the potential to be utilised in flexible devices, as a standalone power source.

  20. Effect of local atomic and electronic structures on thermoelectric properties of chemically substituted CoSi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C. C.; Pao, C. W.; Chen, J. L.; Chen, C. L.; Dong, C. L.; Liu, Y. S.; Lee, J. F.; Chan, T. S.; Chang, C. L.; Kuo, Y. K.; Lue, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    We report the effects of Ge partial substitution for Si on local atomic and electronic structures of thermoelectric materials in binary compound cobalt monosilicides (\\text{CoSi}_{1-x}\\text{Ge}_{x}\\text{:}\\ 0 \\le x \\le 0.15 ). Correlations between local atomic/electronic structure and thermoelectric properties are investigated by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The spectroscopic results indicate that as Ge is partially substituted onto Si sites at x \\le 0.05 , Co in CoSi1-xGex gains a certain amount of charge in its 3d orbitals. Contrarily, upon further replacing Si with Ge at x \\ge 0.05 , the Co 3d orbitals start to lose some of their charge. Notably, thermopower is strongly correlated with charge redistribution in the Co 3d orbital, and the observed charge transfer between Ge and Co is responsible for the variation of Co 3d occupancy number. In addition to Seebeck coefficient, which can be modified by tailoring the Co 3d states, local lattice disorder may also be beneficial in enhancing the thermoelectric properties. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectrum results further demonstrate that the lattice phonons can be enhanced by Ge doping, which results in the formation of the disordered Co-Co pair. Improvements in the thermoelectric properties are interpreted based on the variation of local atomic and electronic structure induced by lattice distortion through chemical substitution.

  1. Effect of high fluence neutron irradiation on transport properties of thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Leonard, K. J.

    2017-07-01

    Thermoelectric materials were subjected to high fluence neutron irradiation in order to understand the effect of radiation damage on transport properties. This study is relevant to the NASA Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) program in which thermoelectric elements are exposed to radiation over a long period of time in space missions. Selected n-type and p-type bismuth telluride materials were irradiated at the High Flux Isotope Reactor with a neutron fluence of 1.3 × 1018 n/cm2 (E > 0.1 MeV). The increase in the Seebeck coefficient in the n-type material was partially off-set by an increase in electrical resistivity, making the power factor higher at lower temperatures. For the p-type materials, although the Seebeck coefficient was not affected by irradiation, electrical resistivity decreased slightly. The figure of merit, zT, showed a clear drop in the 300-400 K range for the p-type material and an increase for the n-type material. Considering that the p-type and n-type materials are connected in series in a module, the overall irradiation damages at the device level were limited. These results, at neutron fluences exceeding a typical space mission, are significant to ensure that the radiation damage to thermoelectrics does not affect the performance of RTGs.

  2. The effect of doping on thermoelectric performance of p-type SnSe: Promising thermoelectric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Bathula, Sivaiah; Gahtori, Bhasker [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Tyagi, Kriti [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Acdemy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-National Physical Laboratory (NPL) Campus, New Delhi (India); Haranath, D. [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Dhar, Ajay, E-mail: adhar@nplindia.org [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-05-25

    Tin selenide (SnSe) based thermoelectric materials are being explored for making inexpensive and efficient thermoelectric devices with improved thermoelectric efficiency. As both Sn and Se are earth abundant and relatively inexpensive and these alloys do not involve toxic materials, such as lead and expensive tellurium. Hence, in the present study, we have synthesized SnSe doped with 2 at% of aluminium (Al), lead (Pb), indium (In) and copper (Cu) individually, which is not reported in literature. Out of these, Cu doped SnSe resulted in enhancement of figure-of-merit (zT) of ∼0.7 ± 0.02 at 773 K, synthesized employing conventional fusion method followed by spark plasma sintering. This enhancement in zT is ∼16% over the existing state-of-the-art value for p-type SnSe alloy doped with expensive Ag. This enhancement in ZT is primarily due to the presence of Cu{sub 2}Se second phase associated with intrinsic nanostructure formation of SnSe. This enhancement has been corroborated with the microstructural characterization using field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Also, Cu doped SnSe exhibited a higher value of carrier concentration in comparison to other samples doped with Al, Pb and In. Further, the compatibility factor of Cu doped SnSe alloys exhibited value of 1.62 V{sup −1} at 773 K and it is suitable to segment with most of the novel TE materials for obtaining the higher thermoelectric efficiencies. - Highlights: • Tin selenide (SnSe) doped with non-toxic and inexpensive dopants. • Synthesized highly dense SnSe employing Spark plasma sintering. • Enhanced thermoelectric compatibility factor of SnSe. • Enhanced thermoelectric performance of SnSe doped with Copper.

  3. Performance Analysis of Thermoelectric Based Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System with Nanofluid Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Output performance of a thermoelectric-based automotive waste heat recovery system with a nanofluid coolant is analyzed in this study. Comparison between Cu-Ethylene glycol (Cu-EG nanofluid coolant and ethylene glycol with water (EG-W coolant under equal mass flow rate indicates that Cu-EG nanofluid as a coolant can effectively improve power output and thermoelectric conversion efficiency for the system. Power output enhancement for a 3% concentration of nanofluid is 2.5–8 W (12.65–13.95% compared to EG-Water when inlet temperature of exhaust varies within 500–710 K. The increase of nanofluid concentration within a realizable range (6% has positive effect on output performance of the system. Study on the relationship between total area of thermoelectric modules (TEMs and output performance of the system indicates that optimal total area of TEMs exists for maximizing output performance of the system. Cu-EG nanofluid as coolant can decrease optimal total area of TEMs compared with EG-W, which will bring significant advantages for the optimization and arrangement of TEMs whether the system space is sufficient or not. Moreover, power output enhancement under Cu-EG nanofluid coolant is larger than that of EG-W coolant due to the increase of hot side heat transfer coefficient of TEMs.

  4. Performance Analysis of a Thermoelectric Solar Collector Integrated with a Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Therdyothin, A.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2013-07-01

    A novel heat pump system is proposed. A thermoelectric solar collector was coupled to a solar-assisted heat pump (TESC-HP) to work as an evaporator. The cooling effect of the system's refrigerant allowed the cold side of the system's thermoelectric modules to work at lower temperature, improving the conversion efficiency. The TESC-HP system mainly consisted of transparent glass, an air gap, an absorber plate that acted as a direct expansion-type collector/evaporator, an R-134a piston-type hermetic compressor, a water-cooled plate-type condenser, thermoelectric modules, and a water storage tank. Test results indicated that the TESC-HP has better coefficient of performance (COP) and conversion efficiency than the separate units. For the meteorological conditions in Mahasarakham, the COP of the TESC-HP system can reach 5.48 when the average temperature of 100 L of water is increased from 28°C to 40°C in 60 min with average ambient temperature of 32.5°C and average solar intensity of 815 W/m2, whereas the conversion efficiency of the TE power generator was around 2.03%.

  5. Importance of non-parabolic band effects in the thermoelectric properties of semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Parker, David; Singh, David J.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the thermoelectric properties of of n-type GeTe and SnTe in relation to the lead chalcogenides PbTe and PbSe. We find that the singly degenerate conduction bands of semiconducting GeTe and SnTe are highly non-ellipsoidal, even very close to the band edges. This leads to isoenergy surfaces with a strongly corrugated shape that is clearly evident at carrier concentrations well below 0.005 e per formula unit (7–9 × 1019 cm−3 depending on material). Analysis within Boltzmann theory suggests that this corrugation may be favorable for the thermoelectric transport. Our calculations also indicate that values of the power factor for these two materials may well exceed those of PbTe and PbSe. As a result these materials may exhibit n-type performance exceeding that of the lead chalcogenides. PMID:24196778

  6. MODELING OF THERMOELECTRIC SYSTEM FOR LOCAL THERMAL EFFECTS ON HUMAN FOREARM ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a model of the thermoelectric system for the thermal effect on the human forearm. The model is implemented on the basis of numerical solution of differentialequations of heat conduction for bodies of complex configuration. Two-dimensional and onedimensional graphs of the temperature change in different zones of the object of exposure aregiven.

  7. Modeling and performance analysis of a concentrated photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamba, Ravita; Kaushik, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic model of concentrated photovoltaic–thermoelectric system is analysed. • Thomson effect reduces the power output of PV, TE and hybrid PV–TEG system. • Effect of thermocouple number, irradiance, PV and TE current have been studied. • The optimum concentration ratio for maximum power output has been found out. • The overall efficiency and power output of hybrid PV–TEG system has been improved. - Abstract: In this study, a thermodynamic model for analysing the performance of a concentrated photovoltaic–thermoelectric generator (CPV–TEG) hybrid system including Thomson effect in conjunction with Seebeck, Joule and Fourier heat conduction effects has been developed and simulated in MATALB environment. The expressions for calculating the temperature of photovoltaic (PV) module, hot and cold sides of thermoelectric (TE) module are derived analytically as well. The effect of concentration ratio, number of thermocouples in TE module, solar irradiance, PV module current and TE module current on power output and efficiency of the PV, TEG and hybrid PV–TEG system have been studied. The optimum concentration ratio corresponding to maximum power output of the hybrid system has been found out. It has been observed that by considering Thomson effect in TEG module, the power output of the PV, TE and hybrid PV–TEG systems decreases and at C = 1 and 5, it reduces the power output of hybrid system by 0.7% and 4.78% respectively. The results of this study may provide basis for performance optimization of a practical irreversible CPV–TEG hybrid system.

  8. Quantum Effects in the Thermoelectric Power Factor of Low-Dimensional Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen T; Hasdeo, Eddwi H; Nugraha, Ahmad R T; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Saito, Riichiro

    2016-07-15

    We theoretically investigate the interplay between the confinement length L and the thermal de Broglie wavelength Λ to optimize the thermoelectric power factor of semiconducting materials. An analytical formula for the power factor is derived based on the one-band model assuming nondegenerate semiconductors to describe quantum effects on the power factor of the low-dimensional semiconductors. The power factor is enhanced for one- and two-dimensional semiconductors when L is smaller than Λ of the semiconductors. In this case, the low-dimensional semiconductors having L smaller than their Λ will give a better thermoelectric performance compared to their bulk counterpart. On the other hand, when L is larger than Λ, bulk semiconductors may give a higher power factor compared to the lower dimensional ones.

  9. Effect of Synthesis Procedure on Thermoelectric Property of SiGe Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Han, Jun; Jiang, Tao; Luo, Lili; Xiang, Yongchun

    2018-05-01

    SiGe thermoelectric material has been synthesized by ball milling combined with hot pressing (HP) or spark plasma sintering (SPS). Effects of ball milling time, powder to ball weight ratio and sintering method on microstructure and thermoelectric properties of SiGe are studied. The results show that longer ball milling time leads to decreased density and worse electrical properties. In the sintering process, SPS results in much larger density and better electrical properties than HP. The Si0.795Ge0.2B0.005 sample prepared by 2 h ball milling combined with SPS obtains a maximum power factor of 3.0 mW m-1 K-2 at 860 K and ZT of 0.95 at 1000 K.

  10. Influence of the effectiveness of raw materials on the reliability of thermoelectric cooling devices. Part I: single-stage TEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaikov V. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increase of the reliability of information systems depends on the reliability improvement of their component elements, including cooling devices, providing efficiency of thermally loaded components. Thermoelectric devices based on the Peltier effect have significant advantages compared with air and liquid systems for thermal modes of the radio-electronic equipment. This happens due to the absence of moving parts, which account for the failure rate. The article presents research results on how thermoelectric efficiency modules affect the failure rate and the probability of non-failure operation in the range of working temperature of thermoelectric coolers. The authors investigate a model of relative failure rate and the probability of failure-free operation single-stage thermoelectric devices depending on the main relevant parameters: the operating current flowing through the thermocouple and resistance, temperature changes, the magnitude of the heat load and the number of elements in the module. It is shown that the increase in the thermoelectric efficiency of the primary material for a variety of thermocouple temperature changes causes the following: maximum temperature difference increases by 18%; the number of elements in the module decreases; cooling coefficient increases; failure rate reduces and the probability of non-failure operation of thermoelectric cooling device increases. Material efficiency increase by 1% allows reducing failure rate by 2,6—4,3% in maximum refrigeration capacity mode and by 4,2—5,0% in minimal failure rate mode when temperature difference changes in the range of 40—60 K. Thus, the increase in the thermoelectric efficiency of initial materials of thermocouples can significantly reduce the failure rate and increase the probability of failure of thermoelectric coolers depending on the temperature difference and the current operating mode.

  11. Thermal resistance analysis and optimization of photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ershuai; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A detailed thermal resistance analysis of the PV-TE hybrid system is proposed. • c-Si PV and p-Si PV cells are proved to be inapplicable for the PV-TE hybrid system. • Some criteria for selecting coupling devices and optimal design are obtained. • A detailed process of designing the practical PV-TE hybrid system is provided. - Abstract: The thermal resistance theory is introduced into the theoretical model of the photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid system. A detailed thermal resistance analysis is proposed to optimize the design of the coupled system in terms of optimal total conversion efficiency. Systems using four types of photovoltaic cells are investigated, including monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, amorphous silicon photovoltaic cell and polymer photovoltaic cell. Three cooling methods, including natural cooling, forced air cooling and water cooling, are compared, which demonstrates a significant superiority of water cooling for the concentrating photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system. Influences of the optical concentrating ratio and velocity of water are studied together and the optimal values are revealed. The impacts of the thermal resistances of the contact surface, TE generator and the upper heat loss thermal resistance on the property of the coupled system are investigated, respectively. The results indicate that amorphous silicon PV cell and polymer PV cell are more appropriate for the concentrating hybrid system. Enlarging the thermal resistance of the thermoelectric generator can significantly increase the performance of the coupled system using amorphous silicon PV cell or polymer PV cell.

  12. Effect of linear temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties on energy conversion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    New thermal rate equations were developed by taking the temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ of the thermoelectric (TE) materials into the thermal rate equations on the assumption that they vary linearly with temperature T. The relative energy conversion efficiency η/η 0 for a single TE element was formulated by approximate analysis, where η and η 0 are the energy conversion efficiencies derived from the new and conventional thermal rate equations, respectively. Applying it to Si-Ge alloys, the temperature dependence of ρ is stronger than that of κ, so the former has a more significant effect on η/η 0 than the latter. However, the degree of contribution from both of them to η/η 0 was a little lower than 1% at the temperature difference ΔT of 600 K. When the temperature dependence of κ was increased to become equal to that of ρ, however, it was found that η/η 0 is increased by about 10% at ΔT = 600 K. It is clarified here that the temperature dependences of ρ and κ are also important factors for an improvement in η

  13. Electrical performance analysis and economic evaluation of combined biomass cook stove thermoelectric (BITE) generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C

    2007-05-01

    The use of biomass cook stoves is widespread in the domestic sector of developing countries, but the stoves are not efficient. To advance the versatility of the cook stove, we investigated the feasibility of adding a commercial thermoelectric (TE) module made of bismuth-telluride based materials to the stove's side wall, thereby creating a thermoelectric generator system that utilizes a proportion of the stove's waste heat. The system, a biomass cook stove thermoelectric generator (BITE), consists of a commercial TE module (Taihuaxing model TEP1-1264-3.4), a metal sheet wall which acts as one side of the stove's structure and serves as the hot side of the TE module, and a rectangular fin heat sink at the cold side of the TE module. An experimental set-up was built to evaluate the conversion efficiency at various temperature ranges. The experimental set-up revealed that the electrical power output and the conversion efficiency depended on the temperature difference between the cold and hot sides of the TE module. At a temperature difference of approximately 150 degrees C, the unit achieved a power output of 2.4W. The conversion efficiency of 3.2% was enough to drive a low power incandescent light bulb or a small portable radio. A theoretical model approximated the power output at low temperature ranges. An economic analysis indicated that the payback period tends to be very short when compared with the cost of the same power supplied by batteries. Therefore, the generator design formulated here could be used in the domestic sector. The system is not intended to compete with primary power sources but serves adequately as an emergency or backup source of power.

  14. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a hybrid solar thermoelectric generator with forced convection cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarraj, Pradeepkumar; Taylor, Robert A.; Banerjee, Debosmita; Maity, Dipak; Sinha Roy, Susanta

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid solar thermoelectric generators (HSTEGs) have garnered significant research attention recently due to their potential ability to cogenerate heat and electricity. In this paper, theoretical and experimental investigations of the electrical and thermal performance of a HSTEG system are reported. In order to validate the theoretical model, a laboratory scale HSTEG system (based on forced convection cooling) is developed. The HSTEG consists of six thermoelectric generator modules, an electrical heater, and a stainless steel cooling block. Our experimental analysis shows that the HSTEG is capable of producing a maximum electrical power output of 4.7 W, an electrical efficiency of 1.2% and thermal efficiency of 61% for an average temperature difference of 92 °C across the TEG modules with a heater power input of 382 W. These experimental results of the HSTEG system are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. This experimental/theoretical analysis can also serve as a guide for evaluating the performance of the HSTEG system with forced convection cooling.

  15. Effective suppression of thermoelectric voltage in nonlocal spin-valve measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariki, Taisei; Nomura, Tatsuya; Ohnishi, Kohei; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate that the background signal in the nonlocal spin-valve measurement can be sufficiently suppressed by optimizing the electrode design of the lateral spin valve. A relatively long length scale of heat propagation produces spin-independent thermoelectric signals under the combination of the Peltier and Seebeck effects. These unfavorable signals can be reduced by mixing the Peltier effects in two transparent ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic junctions. Proper understanding of the contribution from the heat current in no spin-current area is a key for effective reduction of the spin-independent background signal.

  16. Effect of Thermal Cycling on Zinc Antimonide Thin Film Thermoelectric Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhosseini, M.; Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, performance and stability of zinc antimonide thin film thermoelectric sample is analyzed under transient thermal conditions. The thermoelectric materials are deposited on glass based substrate where the heat flow is parallel with the thermoelectric element length. The specimen...

  17. Nominal power density analysis of thermoelectric pins with non-constant cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yaoguang; Mei, Deqing; Yao, Zhehe; Wang, Yancheng; Liu, Haiyan; Chen, Zichen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nominal power density of TEGs with non-constant cross sections pins is analyzed. • An analytical model of nominal power density (NPD) is developed. • Influences of shape parameter on NPD for different geometric pins are investigated. • Effects of dimensionless efficiency and the temperature ratio on NPD are examined. - Abstract: The investigation of the geometric structure of TEG (thermoelectric generator) pins is essential, as their geometry determines the performance of devices. In this study, nominal power density (NPD) is used to find a better geometric structure of thermoelectric pins of TEGs, since a comparison of maximum dimensionless efficiencies for different geometric pins cannot be used to identify the optimum geometry. The influence of shape parameter on NPD for TEG pins in linear, quadratic and exponential cross-sectional functions is studied. The NPD decreases when the shape parameter increases for different geometric pins, while the maximum values of NPD are the same. Then, the effects of dimensionless efficiency and the temperature ratio on the NPD are analyzed. The NPD decreases with the increase in dimensionless efficiency and temperature ratio. Pins with linear variation in cross section have the highest NPD among the three geometries of pins evaluated

  18. Inline chemical process analysis in micro-plants based on thermoelectric flow and impedimetric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, T; Kutzner, C; Hauptmann, P; Kropp, M; Lang, W; Brokmann, G; Steinke, A; Kienle, A

    2010-01-01

    In micro-plants, as used in chemical micro-process engineering, an integrated inline analytics is regarded as an important factor for the development and optimization of chemical processes. Up to now, there is a lack of sensitive, robust and low-priced micro-sensors for monitoring mixing and chemical conversion in micro-fluidic channels. In this paper a novel sensor system combining an impedimetric sensor and a novel pressure stable thermoelectric flow sensor for monitoring chemical reactions in micro-plants is presented. The CMOS-technology-based impedimetric sensor mainly consists of two capacitively coupled interdigital electrodes on a silicon chip. The thermoelectric flow sensor consists of a heater in between two thermopiles on a perforated membrane. The pulsed and constant current feeds of the heater were analyzed. Both sensors enable the analysis of chemical conversion by means of changes in the thermal and electrical properties of the liquid. The homogeneously catalyzed synthesis of n-butyl acetate as a chemical model system was studied. Experimental results revealed that in an overpressure regime, relative changes of less than 1% in terms of thermal and electrical properties can be detected. Furthermore, the transition from one to two liquid phases accompanied by the change in slug flow conditions could be reproducibly detected

  19. Equivalent Circuit Analysis of Photovoltaic-Thermoelectric Hybrid Device with Different TE Module Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining two different types of solar cells with different absorption bands into a hybrid cell is a very useful method to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. The experimental data of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs and thermoelectric generators (TEG was simulated by equivalent circuit method, and some parameters of DSSCs were obtained. Then, the equivalent circuit model with the obtained parameters was used to optimize the structure design of photovoltaic- (PV- thermoelectric (TE hybrid devices. The output power (Pout first increases to a maximum and then decreases by increasing the TE prism size, and a smaller spacing between p-type prism and n-type prism of a TE p-n junction causes a higher output power of TEG and hybrid device. When the spacing between TE prisms is 15 μm and the optimal base side length of TE prism is 40 μm, the maximum theoretical efficiency reaches 24.6% according to the equivalent circuit analysis. This work would give some enlightenment for the development of high-performance PV-TE hybrid devices.

  20. Investigation on the effect of thermal resistances on a highly concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system is studied. • The performances of different cooling systems are analyzed and compared. • Sandwiching a copper plate between the PV and TE can improve the efficiency. • Four thermal design principles of the system are proposed. - Abstract: A thermal analysis of a highly concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid system is carried out in this paper. Both the output power and the temperature distribution in the hybrid system are calculated by means of a three-dimensional numerical model. Three possible approaches for designing the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system are presented by analyzing the thermal resistance of the whole system. First, the sensitivity analysis shows that the thermal resistance between the TE module and the environment has a more great effect on the output power than the thermal resistance between the PV and the TE. The influence of the natural convection and the radiation can be ignored for the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system. Second, it is necessary to sandwich a copper plate between the PV and the TE for decreasing the thermal resistance between the PV and the TE. The role of the copper plate is to improve the temperature uniformity. Third, decreasing the area of PV cells can improve the efficiency of the highly concentrated PV-TE hybrid system. It should be pointed out that decreasing the area of PV cells also increases the total thermal resistance, but the raise of the efficiency is caused by the reduction of the heat transfer rate of the system. Therefore, the principle of minimizing the total thermal resistance may not be suitable for optimizing the area of PV cells.

  1. Thermoelectric performance of spin Seebeck effect in Fe3O4/Pt-based thin film heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a systematic study on the thermoelectric performance of spin Seebeck devices based on Fe3O4/Pt junction systems. We explore two types of device geometries: a spin Hall thermopile and spin Seebeck multilayer structures. The spin Hall thermopile increases the sensitivity of the spin Seebeck effect, while the increase in the sample internal resistance has a detrimental effect on the output power. We found that the spin Seebeck multilayers can overcome this limitation since the multilayers exhibit the enhancement of the thermoelectric voltage and the reduction of the internal resistance simultaneously, therefore resulting in significant power enhancement. This result demonstrates that the multilayer structures are useful for improving the thermoelectric performance of the spin Seebeck effect.

  2. Effects of ball milling on microstructures and thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xi; Shi, Li; Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The already low κ L of HMS can be suppressed further by decreasing the grain size. • The ball milling process can lead to the formation of secondary MnSi and W/C-rich phases. • The formation of the MnSi ad W/C rich phases is found to suppress the thermoelectric power factor. - Abstract: Bulk nanostructured higher manganese silicide (HMS) samples with different grain size are prepared by melting, subsequent ball milling (BM), and followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The effects of BM time on the microstructures and thermoelectric properties of these samples are investigated. It is found that BM effectively reduces the grain size to about 90 nm in the sample after SPS, which leads to a decrease in both the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. By prolonging the BM time, MnSi and tungsten/carbon-rich impurity phases are formed due to the impact-induced decomposition of HMS and contamination from the tungsten carbide jar and balls during the BM, respectively. These impurities result in a reduced Seebeck coefficient and increased thermal conductivity above room temperature. The measured size-dependent lattice thermal conductivities agree qualitatively with the reported calculation results based on a combined phonon and diffuson model. The size effects are found to be increasingly significant as temperature decreases. Because of the formation of the impurity phases and a relatively large grain size, the ZT values are not improved in the ball-milled HMS samples. These findings suggest the need of alternative approaches for the synthesis of pure HMS with further reduced grain size and controlled impurity doping in order to enhance the thermoelectric figure-of-merit of HMS via nanostructuring

  3. Effects of ball milling on microstructures and thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Shi, Li, E-mail: lishi@mail.utexas.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John B. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2015-08-25

    Highlights: • The already low κ{sub L} of HMS can be suppressed further by decreasing the grain size. • The ball milling process can lead to the formation of secondary MnSi and W/C-rich phases. • The formation of the MnSi ad W/C rich phases is found to suppress the thermoelectric power factor. - Abstract: Bulk nanostructured higher manganese silicide (HMS) samples with different grain size are prepared by melting, subsequent ball milling (BM), and followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The effects of BM time on the microstructures and thermoelectric properties of these samples are investigated. It is found that BM effectively reduces the grain size to about 90 nm in the sample after SPS, which leads to a decrease in both the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. By prolonging the BM time, MnSi and tungsten/carbon-rich impurity phases are formed due to the impact-induced decomposition of HMS and contamination from the tungsten carbide jar and balls during the BM, respectively. These impurities result in a reduced Seebeck coefficient and increased thermal conductivity above room temperature. The measured size-dependent lattice thermal conductivities agree qualitatively with the reported calculation results based on a combined phonon and diffuson model. The size effects are found to be increasingly significant as temperature decreases. Because of the formation of the impurity phases and a relatively large grain size, the ZT values are not improved in the ball-milled HMS samples. These findings suggest the need of alternative approaches for the synthesis of pure HMS with further reduced grain size and controlled impurity doping in order to enhance the thermoelectric figure-of-merit of HMS via nanostructuring.

  4. The system of thermoelectric air conditioning based on permeable thermoelements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkez R. G.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available There is thermoelectric air conditioner unit on the basis of permeable cooling thermoelements presented. In thermoelectric air conditioner unit the thermoelectric effects and the Joule–Thomson effect have been used for the air stream cooling. There have been described the method of temperature distribution analysis, the determinations of energy conversion power characteristics and design style of permeable thermoelement with maximum coefficient of performance described. The results of computer analysis concerning the application of the thermoelement legs material on the basis of Bi2Te3 have shown the possibility of coefficient of performance increase by a factor of 1,6—1,7 as compared with conventional thermoelectric systems.

  5. Impact Factors Analysis of the Hot Side Temperature of Thermoelectric Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Tan, Gangfeng; Yang, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The thermoelectric generator (TEG) plays a crucial role in converting the waste energy of exhaust into electricity, which ensures energy saving and increased fuel utilization efficiency. In the urban driving cycle, frequent vehicle operation, like deceleration or acceleration, results in continuous variation of the exhaust temperature. In order to make the operating performance stable, and to weaken the adverse effects of the frequent variation of the exhaust temperature on the lifetime and work efficiency of the electronic components of TEG systems, the output voltage of the thermoelectric (TE) module should stay more stable. This article provides an improved method for the temperature stability of the TE material hot side based on sandwiching material. From the view of the TEG system's average output power and the hot side temperature stability of the TE material, the analyzing factors, including the fluctuation frequency of the exhaust temperature and the physical properties and thickness of the sandwiching material are evaluated, respectively, in the sine and new European driving cycle (NEDC) fluctuation condition of the exhaust temperature. The results show few effects of sandwiching material thickness with excellent thermal conductivity on the average output power. During the 150-170 s of the NEDC test condition, the minimum hot side temperatures with a BeO ceramic thickness of 2 mm and 6 mm are, respectively, 537.19 K and 685.70 K, which shows the obvious effect on the hot side temperature stability of the BeO ceramic thickness in the process of acceleration and deceleration of vehicle driving.

  6. Impact of parasitic thermal effects on thermoelectric property measurements by Harman method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Beomjin; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Keun Kim, Seong; Kim, Jin-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Harman method is a rapid and simple technique to measure thermoelectric properties. However, its validity has been often questioned due to the over-simplified assumptions that this method relies on. Here, we quantitatively investigate the influence of the previously ignored parasitic thermal effects on the Harman method and develop a method to determine an intrinsic ZT. We expand the original Harman relation with three extra terms: heat losses via both the lead wires and radiation, and Joule heating within the sample. Based on the expanded Harman relation, we use differential measurement of the sample geometry to measure the intrinsic ZT. To separately evaluate the parasitic terms, the measured ZTs with systematically varied sample geometries and the lead wire types are fitted to the expanded relation. A huge discrepancy (∼28%) of the measured ZTs depending on the measurement configuration is observed. We are able to separately evaluate those parasitic terms. This work will help to evaluate the intrinsic thermoelectric property with Harman method by eliminating ambiguities coming from extrinsic effects

  7. Thermo-electric Analysis of the Interconnection of the LHC main Superconducting Bus Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Casali, M; Bottura, L; Siemko, A

    2013-01-01

    Spurred by the question of the maximum allowable energy for the operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have progressed in the understanding of the thermo-electric behavior of the 13 kA superconducting bus bars interconnecting its main magnets. A deep insight of the underlying mechanisms is required to ensure the protection of the accelerator against undesired effects of resistive transitions. This is especially important in case of defective interconnections which can jeopardize the operation of the whole LHC. In this paper we present a numerical model of the interconnections between the main dipole and quadrupole magnets, validated against experimental tests of an interconnection sample with a purposely built-in defect. We consider defective interconnections featuring a lack of bonding among the superconducting cables and the copper stabilizer components, such as those that could be present in the machine. We evaluate the critical defect length limiting the maximum allowable current for powering th...

  8. Analysis of the Primary Constraint Conditions of an Efficient Photovoltaic-Thermoelectric Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqiang Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical efficiency can be increased by combining photovoltaic (PV and the thermoelectric (TE systems. However, a simple and cursory combination is unsuitable because the negative impact of temperature on PV may be greater than its positive impact on TE. This study analyzed the primary constraint conditions based on the hybrid system model consisting of a PV and a TE generator (TEG, which includes TE material with temperature-dependent properties. The influences of the geometric size, solar irradiation and cold side temperature on the hybrid system performance is discussed based on the simulation. Furthermore, the effective range of parameters is demonstrated using the image area method, and the change trend of the area with different parameters illustrates the constraint conditions of an efficient PV-TE hybrid system. These results provide a benchmark for efficient PV-TEG design.

  9. Thermal, thermoelectric, and cathode poisoning effects in cold fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keesing, R.G.; Greenhow, R.C.; Cohler, M.D.; McQuillan, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an unsuccessful attempt to repeat the observations by Fleischmann and Pons of cold nuclear fusion in deuterium-charged palladium; no excess heat is found, nor is any gamma or neutron activity identified. Peltier heating at the palladium/platinum junction is investigated, but no effects are seen; the possibility remains, however, that a large Peltier coefficient may arise for deuterium concentrations that render the palladium-deuterium semiconducting. Finally, the effects of poisoning the palladium with cyanide were investigated

  10. Thermoelectric properties of electrodeposited tellurium films and the sodium lignosulfonate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Begoña; Rull-Bravo, Marta; Hodson, Stephen L.; Xu, Xianfan; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the addition of a surfactant, sodium lignosulfonate (SLS), on the thermoelectric properties of tellurium films prepared by electrochemical deposition is studied. The growth mechanism is found to have an important role in the thermoelectric properties since the grain size of the films is sharply reduced when the surfactant is added to the solution. For this reason, the electrical resistivity of the tellurium films when the surfactant is not added is 229 μΩ·m, which is lower than 798 μΩ·m with SLS. The Seebeck coefficient values are not influenced, with values in the vicinity of 285 μV/K for both solutions. The power factor resulted higher values than previous works, reaching values of 280 μW/m·K 2 (without SLS) and 82 μW/m·K 2 (with SLS) at room temperature. Finally, the thermal conductivity was measured by means of the Photoacoustic technique, which showed values of the order of 1 W/m·K for both solutions, which is a factor of 3 less than the bulk value of tellurium. A notable observation is that the power factor and the thermal conductivity of electrodeposited tellurium films have the same order of magnitude of bismuth telluride films grown by electrodeposition. The figure of merit is estimated to be approximately one order of magnitude higher than the bulk value, 0.09 without SLS and 0.03 with SLS, both at room temperature

  11. Effect of electron-vibration interactions on the thermoelectric efficiency of molecular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bailey C; Chiang, Chi-Wei; Chen, Yu-Chang

    2012-07-11

    From first-principles approaches, we investigate the thermoelectric efficiency of a molecular junction where a benzene molecule is connected directly to the platinum electrodes. We calculate the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT in the presence of electron-vibration interactions with and without local heating under two scenarios: linear response and finite bias regimes. In the linear response regime, ZT saturates around the electrode temperature T(e) = 25 K in the elastic case, while in the inelastic case we observe a non-saturated and a much larger ZT beyond T(e) = 25 K attributed to the tail of the Fermi-Dirac distribution. In the finite bias regime, the inelastic effects reveal the signatures of the molecular vibrations in the low-temperature regime. The normal modes exhibiting structures in the inelastic profile are characterized by large components of atomic vibrations along the current density direction on top of each individual atom. In all cases, the inclusion of local heating leads to a higher wire temperature T(w) and thus magnifies further the influence of the electron-vibration interactions due to the increased number of local phonons.

  12. Effect of Cooling Units on the Performance of an Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. Q.; Zhu, D. C.; Deng, Y. D.; Wang, Y. P.; Liu, X.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (AETEGs) are a hot topic in energy recovery. In order to investigate the influence of coolant flow rate, coolant flow direction and cooling unit arrangement in the AETEG, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) model and a related test bench are constructed. Water cooling is adopted in this study. Due to the non-uniformity of the surface temperature of the heat source, the coolant flow direction would affect the output performance of the TEG. Changing the volumetric flow rate of coolant can increase the output power of multi-modules connected in series or/and parallel as it can improve the temperature uniformity of the cooling unit. Since the temperature uniformity of the cooling unit has a strong influence on the output power, two cooling units are connected in series or parallel to research the effect of cooling unit arrangements on the maximum output power of the TEG. Experimental and theoretical analyses reveal that the net output power is generally higher with cooling units connected in parallel than cooling units connected in series in the cooling system with two cooling units.

  13. Thermoelectric and Hall-effect studies in hydrogenerated nickel foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, R.; Nigam, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    Thermo e.m.f. and Hall constant of hydrogenerated nickel foils have been measured. Termo e.m.f. shows a sign reversal which is not due to the change in sign of the charge carriers, as indicated by the Hall-effect measurements. To account for the sign reversal of thermo e.m.f., it is found necessary to take into account the surface states of chemisorbed hydrogen on nickel

  14. Effects of (Al,Ge) double doping on the thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi; Salta, Daniel; Zhang, Libin [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Weathers, Annie [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John B.; Shi, Li [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    Experiments and analysis have been carried out to investigate the effects of Al and (Al,Ge) doping on the microstructure and thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline higher manganese silicide (HMS) samples, which were prepared by solid-state reaction, ball milling, and followed by spark plasma sintering. It has been found that Al doping effectively increases the hole concentration, which leads to an increase in the electrical conductivity and power factor. By introducing the second dopant Ge into Al-doped HMS, the electrical conductivity is increased, and the Seebeck coefficient is decreased as a result of further increased hole concentration. The peak power factor is found to occur at a hole concentration between 1.8 × 10{sup 21} and 2.2 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} measured at room temperature. The (Al,Ge)-doped HMS samples show lower power factors owing to their higher hole concentrations. The mobility of Mn(Al{sub 0.0035}Ge{sub y}Si{sub 0.9965-y}){sub 1.8} with y = 0.035 varies approximately as T{sup −3/2} above 200 K, suggesting acoustic phonon scattering is the dominant scattering mechanism. The thermal conductivity of HMS does not change appreciably by Al or (Al,Ge) doping. The maximum ZT of (Al,Ge)-doped HMS is 0.57 at 823 K, which is similar to the highest value found in the Al-doped HMS samples. The ZT values were reduced in the Mn(Al{sub 0.0035}Ge{sub y}Si{sub 0.9965-y}){sub 1.8} samples with high Ge concentration of y = 0.025 and 0.035, because of reduced power factor. In addition, a two-band model was employed to show that the hole contribution to the thermal conductivity dominates the bipolar and electron contributions for all samples from 300 to 823 K and accounts for about 12% of the total thermal conductivity at about 800 K.

  15. Effects of (Al,Ge) double doping on the thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xi; Salta, Daniel; Zhang, Libin; Weathers, Annie; Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John B.; Shi, Li

    2013-01-01

    Experiments and analysis have been carried out to investigate the effects of Al and (Al,Ge) doping on the microstructure and thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline higher manganese silicide (HMS) samples, which were prepared by solid-state reaction, ball milling, and followed by spark plasma sintering. It has been found that Al doping effectively increases the hole concentration, which leads to an increase in the electrical conductivity and power factor. By introducing the second dopant Ge into Al-doped HMS, the electrical conductivity is increased, and the Seebeck coefficient is decreased as a result of further increased hole concentration. The peak power factor is found to occur at a hole concentration between 1.8 × 10 21 and 2.2 × 10 21  cm −3 measured at room temperature. The (Al,Ge)-doped HMS samples show lower power factors owing to their higher hole concentrations. The mobility of Mn(Al 0.0035 Ge y Si 0.9965-y ) 1.8 with y = 0.035 varies approximately as T −3/2 above 200 K, suggesting acoustic phonon scattering is the dominant scattering mechanism. The thermal conductivity of HMS does not change appreciably by Al or (Al,Ge) doping. The maximum ZT of (Al,Ge)-doped HMS is 0.57 at 823 K, which is similar to the highest value found in the Al-doped HMS samples. The ZT values were reduced in the Mn(Al 0.0035 Ge y Si 0.9965-y ) 1.8 samples with high Ge concentration of y = 0.025 and 0.035, because of reduced power factor. In addition, a two-band model was employed to show that the hole contribution to the thermal conductivity dominates the bipolar and electron contributions for all samples from 300 to 823 K and accounts for about 12% of the total thermal conductivity at about 800 K

  16. Effective Thermal Analysis of Using Peltier Module for Desalination Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hayder Al-Madhhachi

    2018-01-01

    The key objective of this study is to analyse the heat transfer processes involved in the evaporation and condensation of water in a water distillation system employing a thermoelectric module. This analysis can help to increase the water production and to enhance the system performance. For the analysis, a water distillation unit prototype integrated with a thermoelectric module was designed and fabricated. A theoretical model is developed to study the effect of the heat added, transferred a...

  17. Thermal effect of a thermoelectric generator on parallel microchannel heat sink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEG) convert heat energy to electrical power by means of semiconductor charge carriers serving as working fluid. In this work, a TEG is applied to a parallel microchannel heat sink. The effect of the inlet plenum arrangement on the laminar flow distribution...... in the channels is considered at a wide range of the pressure drop along the heat sink. The particular focus of this study is geometrical effect of the TEG on the heat transfer characteristics in the micro-heat sink. The hydraulic diameter of the microchannels is 270 μm, and three heat fluxes are applied...... on the hot surface of the TEG. By considering the maximum temperature limitation for Bi_2 Te_3 material and using the microchannel heat sink for cooling down the TEG system, an optimum pumping power is achieved. The results are in a good agreement with the previous experimental and theoretical studies....

  18. Electric Boiler and Heat Pump Thermo-Electrical Models for Demand Side Management Analysis in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The last fifteen years many European countries have integrated large percentage of renewable energy on their electricity generation mix. In Denmark the 21.3% of the electricity consumed nowadays is produced by the wind, and it has planned to be the 50% by 2025. In order to front future challenges...... on the power system control and operation, created by this unstable way of generation, Demand Side Management turns to be a promising solution. The storage capacity from thermo-electric units, like electric boilers and heat pumps, allows operating them with certain freedom. Hence they can be employed under...... certain coordination, to actively respond to the power system fluctuations. The following paper presents two simple thermo-electrical models of an electrical boiler and an air-source CO2 heat pump system. The purpose is using them in low voltage grids analysis to assess their capacity and flexibility...

  19. Analysis of thermoelectric properties of amorphous InGaZnO thin film by controlling carrier concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Fujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO thin films optimized by adjusting the carrier concentration. The a-IGZO films were produced under various oxygen flow ratios. The Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity were measured from 100 to 400 K. We found that the power factor (PF at 300 K had a maximum value of 82 × 10−6 W/mK2, where the carrier density was 7.7 × 1019 cm−3. Moreover, the obtained data was analyzed by fitting the percolation model. Theoretical analysis revealed that the Fermi level was located approximately above the potential barrier when the PF became maximal. The thermoelectric properties were controlled by the relationship between the position of Fermi level and the height of potential energy barriers.

  20. Simple experiments with a thermoelectric module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2005-01-01

    The Seebeck and Peltier effects are explored with a commercially available thermoelectric module and a data-acquisition system. Five topics are presented: (i) thermoelectric heating and cooling, (ii) the Seebeck coefficient, (iii) efficiency of a thermoelectric generator, (iv) the maximum temperature difference provided by a thermoelectric cooler and (v) the Peltier coefficient and the coefficient of performance. Using a data-acquisition system, the measurements are carried out in a reasonably short time. It is shown how to deduce quantities important for the theory and applications of thermoelectric devices

  1. Effect of quantum confinement on thermoelectric properties of vanadium dioxide nanofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, G.R.; Ahmad, Bilal [National Institute of Technology Srinagar, Nanotech Research Lab, Department of Physics, Kashmir (India)

    2017-12-15

    The quantum confinement effect on thermoelectric properties of pristine vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) nanofilms across semiconductor to metal phase transition (SMT) has been demonstrated by studying VO{sub 2} nanofilms of 15 nm thickness in comparison to microfilms of 290 nm thickness synthesized via inorganic sol-gel method casted on glass substrates by spin coating technique. The ebbing of phase transition temperature in nanofilms across SMT was consistent with the results obtained from resistance-temperature hysteresis contour during SMT dynamics of the nanofilms. The temperature dependent Hall and Seebeck measurements revealed that electrons were the charge carriers in the nanofilms and that the value of charge carrier concentration increased as much as 4 orders of magnitude while going across SMT which stood responsible almost entirely for resistance variations. The decline in carrier mobility and escalation in Seebeck coefficient in the low temperature semiconducting region were splendidly witnessed across SMT. (orig.)

  2. Effective use of thermal energy at both hot and cold side of thermoelectric module for developing efficient thermoelectric water distillation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Madhhachi, Hayder; Min, Gao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New distillation process using thermoelectric to assist evaporation/condensation. • Novel thermoelectric distillation system with reduced specific energy consumption. • Freshwater production by thermoelectrically assisted evaporation and condensation. - Abstract: An efficient thermoelectric distillation system has been designed and constructed for production of drinkable water. The unique design of this system is to use the heat from hot side of the thermoelectric module for water evaporation and the cold side for vapour condensation simultaneously. This novel design significantly reduces energy consumption and improves the system performance. The results of experiments show that the average water production is 28.5 mL/h with a specific energy consumption of 0.00114 kW h/mL in an evaporation chamber filled with 10 × 10 × 30 mm"3 of water. This is significantly lower than the energy consumption required by other existing thermoelectric distillation systems. The results also show that a maximum temperature difference between the hot and cold side of the thermoelectric module is 42.3 °C, which led to temperature increases of 26.4 °C and 8.4 °C in water and vapour, respectively.

  3. Study on a Battery Thermal Management System Based on a Thermoelectric Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Wei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As is known to all, a battery pack is significantly important for electric vehicles. However, its performance is easily affected by temperature. In order to address this problem, an enhanced battery thermal management system is proposed, which includes two parts: a modified cooling structure and a control unit. In this paper, more attention has been paid to the structure part. According to the heat generation mechanism of a battery and a thermoelectric chip, a simplified heat generation model for a single cell and a special cooling model were created in ANSYS 17.0. The effects of inlet velocity on the performance of different heat exchanger structures were studied. The results show that the U loop structure is more reasonable and the flow field distribution is the most uniform at the inlet velocity of 1.0 m/s. Then, on the basis of the above heat exchanger and the liquid flow velocity, the cooling effect of the improved battery temperature adjustment structure and the traditional liquid temperature regulating structure were analyzed. It can be seen that the liquid cooling structure combined with thermoelectric cooling demonstrates a better performance. With respect to the control system, the corresponding hardware and software were also developed. In general, the design process for this enhanced battery thermal management system can provide a wealth of guidelines for solving similar problems. The H commutation circuit, matrix switch circuit, temperature measurement circuit, and wireless communication modules were designed in the control system and the temperature control strategy was also developed.

  4. Effects of Lu and Tm Doping on Thermoelectric Properties of Bi2Te3 Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaprintsev, Maxim; Lyubushkin, Roman; Soklakova, Oxana; Ivanov, Oleg

    2018-02-01

    The Bi2Te3, Bi1.9Lu0.1Te3 and Bi1.9Tm0.1Te3 thermoelectrics of n-type conductivity have been prepared by the microwave-solvothermal method and spark plasma sintering. These compounds behave as degenerate semiconductors from room temperature up to temperature T d ≈ 470 K. Within this temperature range the temperature behavior of the specific electrical resistivity is due to the temperature changes of electron mobility determined by acoustic and optical phonon scattering. Above T d, an onset of intrinsic conductivity takes place when electrons and holes are present. At the Lu and Tm doping, the Seebeck coefficient increases, while the specific electrical resistivity and total thermal conductivity decrease within the temperature 290-630 K range. The increase of the electrical resistivity is related to the increase of electron concentration since the Tm and Lu atoms are donor centres in the Bi2Te3 lattice. The increase of the density-of-state effective mass for conduction band can be responsible for the increase of the Seebeck coefficient. The decrease of the total thermal conductivity in doped Bi2Te3 is attributed to point defects like the antisite defects and Lu or Tm atoms substituting for the Bi sites. In addition, reducing the electron thermal conductivity due to forming a narrow impurity (Lu or Tm) band having high and sharp density-of-states near the Fermi level can effectively decrease the total thermal conductivity. The thermoelectric figure-of-merit is enhanced from ˜ 0.4 for undoped Bi2Te3 up to ˜ 0.7 for Bi1.9Tm0.1Te3 and ˜ 0.9 for Bi1.9Lu0.1Te3.

  5. Thermoelectricity for future sustainable energy technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidenkaff Anke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectricity is a general term for a number of effects describing the direct interconversion of heat and electricity. Thermoelectric devices are therefore promising, environmental-friendly alternatives to conventional power generators or cooling units. Since the mid-90s, research on thermoelectric properties and their applications has steadily increased. In the course of years, the development of high-temperature resistant TE materials and devices has emerged as one of the main areas of interest focusing both on basic research and practical applications. A wide range of innovative and cost-efficient material classes has been studied and their properties improved. This has also led to advances in synthesis and metrology. The paper starts out with thermoelectric history, basic effects underlying thermoelectric conversion and selected examples of application. The main part focuses on thermoelectric materials including an outline of the design rules, a review on the most common materials and the feasibility of improved future high-temperature thermoelectric converters.

  6. Analysis of an Increase in the Efficiency of a Spark Ignition Engine Through the Application of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Galant, Marta; Siedlecki, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    We have analyzed the increase of the overall efficiency of a spark ignition engine through energy recovery following the application of an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design. The design of the generator was developed following emission investigations during vehicle driving under city traffic conditions. The measurement points were defined by actual operation conditions (engine speed and load), subsequently reproduced on an engine dynamometer. Both the vehicle used in the on-road tests and the engine dynamometer were fit with the same, downsized spark ignition engine (with high effective power-to-displacement ratio). The thermodynamic parameters of the exhaust gases (temperature and exhaust gas mass flow) were measured on the engine testbed, along with the fuel consumption and electric current generated by the thermoelectric modules. On this basis, the power of the ATEG and its impact on overall engine efficiency were determined.

  7. Thermoelectric effect in nano-scaled lanthanides doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otal, E H; Canepa, H R; Walsoee de Reca, N E [Centro de Investigacion en Solidos, CITEFA, San Juan Bautista de La Salle 4397 (B1603ALO) Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schaeuble, N; Aguirre, M H, E-mail: canepa@citefa.gov.a, E-mail: myriam.aguirre@empa.c [Solid State Chemistry and Catalysis, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2009-05-01

    Start Nano-scaled ZnO with 1% Er doping was prepared by soft chemistry methods. The synthesis was carried out in anhydrous polar solvent to achieve a crystal size of a few nanometers. Resulting particles were processed as precipitates or multi layer films. Structural characterization was evaluated by X-Ray diffraction and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In the case of films, UV-Vis characterization was made. The thermoelectrical properties of ZnO:Er were evaluated and compared with a typical good thermoelectric material ZnO:Al. Both materials have also shown high Seebeck coefficients and they can be considered as potential compounds for thermoelectric conversion.

  8. Theoretical and experimental analysis of a solar thermoelectric power generation device based on gravity-assisted heat pipes and solar irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Li, Wenbin; Kan, Jiangming; Xu, Daochun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A technical solution to the power supply of wireless sensor networks is presented. • The low voltage produced by device is boosted from around 1 V to more than 4 V. • An output current and voltage of the device is acquired as 343 mA and 1057 mV. • The device provides output power 362.56 mW in no electricity conditions. • The economic value of device is demonstrated. - Abstract: Solar thermoelectric power generation has been widely used to solve the power supply limitation issue for low-power wireless sensors because of its light weight, high reliability, low cost, lack of noise, and environmental friendliness. A solar thermoelectric power generation system based on gravity-assisted heat pipes and solar radiation is devised in this paper, and its behavior is continuously measured in realistic outdoor circumstances. The effects of key parameters, including solar luminous flux, load resistance, a proportional coefficient, and a relative Seebeck coefficient, are analyzed. Related experimental results show that the device can output a voltage of 1057 mV and an electrical current of 343 mA, resulting in an output power of 362.56 mW. With a stable external energy conversion module under aluminous flux of 7.81 × 10"4 lx, the voltage converted from the nature solar radiation is boosted from 1057 mV to 4.40 V, which meets the rated operating voltage of low power consumption components, such as low-power wireless sensors and ZigBee modules. An economic analysis of the system shows that the solar thermoelectric power generation device is both economically and technically competitive when it is applied in a low-voltage wireless sensor network.

  9. Thermo-electric analysis of the interconnection of the LHC main superconducting bus bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, P. P.; Breschi, M.; Casali, M.; Bottura, L.; Siemko, A.

    2013-01-01

    Spurred by the question of the maximum allowable energy for the operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have progressed in the understanding of the thermo-electric behavior of the 13 kA superconducting bus bars interconnecting its main magnets. A deep insight of the underlying mechanisms is required to ensure the protection of the accelerator against undesired effects of resistive transitions. This is especially important in case of defective interconnections which can jeopardize the operation of the whole LHC. In this paper we present a numerical model of the interconnections between the main dipole and quadrupole magnets, validated against experimental tests of an interconnection sample with a purposely built-in defect. We consider defective interconnections featuring a lack of bonding among the superconducting cables and the copper stabilizer components, such as those that could be present in the machine. We evaluate the critical defect length limiting the maximum allowable current for powering the magnets. We determine the dependence of the critical defect length on different parameters as the heat transfer towards the cooling helium bath, the quality of manufacturing, the operating conditions and the protection system parameters, and discuss the relevant mechanisms.

  10. Colossal enhancement in thermoelectric effect in a laterally coupled double-quantum-dot chain by the Coulomb interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Lun; Yi, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Thermoelectric effects, including Seebeck coefficient (S), thermal conductance (κ), and figure of merit (ZT), in a laterally coupled double-quantum-dot (DQD) chain with two external nonmagnetic contacts are investigated theoretically by the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. In this system, the DQD chain between two contacts forms a main channel for thermal electrons transporting, and each QD in the main chain couples laterally to a dangling one. The numerical calculations show that the Coulomb interactions not only lead to the splitting of the asymmetrical double-peak structure of the Seebeck coefficient, but also make the thermal spectrum show a strong violation of the Wiedemann–Franz law, leading to a colossal enhancement in ZT. These results indicate that the coupled DQD chain has potential applications in the thermoelectric devices with high thermal efficiency.

  11. Nonlocal thermoelectric effects and nonlocal Onsager relations in a three-terminal proximity-coupled superconductor-ferromagnet device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machon, Peter; Belzig, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Eschrig, Matthias [SEPnet and Hubbard Theory Consortium, Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    We study thermal and charge transport in a three-terminal setup consisting of a superconducting and two ferromagnetic contacts. We predict that the simultaneous presence of spin-filtering and of spin-dependent scattering phase shifts at each of the two interfaces will lead to very large nonlocal thermoelectric effects both in clean and in disordered systems. The symmetries of thermal and electric transport coefficients are related to fundamental thermodynamic principles by the Onsager reciprocity. Our results show that a nonlocal version of the Onsager relations for thermoelectric currents holds in a three terminal quantum coherent ferromagnet-superconductor heterostructure including spin-dependent crossed Andreev reflection and coherent electron transfer processes.

  12. Microstructure and thermoelectric properties of doped p-type CoSb3 under TGZM effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqiang; Li, Shuangming; Li, Xin; Zhong, Hong

    2017-05-01

    The Co-96.9 wt% Sb hypoeutectic alloy doped by 0.12 wt% YbFe was solidified in a Bridgman-type furnace based on temperature gradient zone melting (TGZM) effect. A mushy zone was observed between the complete liquid zone and the solid zone at different thermal stabilization time ranging from 15 min to 40 h. The mushy-zone solidified microstructures of the alloy only consist of CoSb3 and Sb phase. After 40 h thermal stabilization time, the volume fraction of CoSb3 in the mushy zone increases significantly up to 99.6% close to the solid-liquid interface. The hardness and fracture toughness of doped CoSb3 can reach 7.01 ± 0.69 GPa and 0.78 ± 0.08 MPa·m1/2, respectively. Meanwhile, the thermoelectric properties of the alloy were measured ranging from room temperature (RT) to 850 K. The Seebeck coefficient of the specimen prepared by TGZM effect after 40 h could reach 155 μV/K and the ZT value is 0.47 at 660 K, showing that it is feasible to prepare CoSb3 bulk material via TGZM effect. As a simple and one-step solidification method, the TGZM technique could be applied in the preparation of skutterudite compounds.

  13. Solar Thermoelectricity via Advanced Latent Heat Storage: A Cost-Effective Small-Scale CSP Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Rea, J.; Olsen, Michele L.; Oshman, C.; Hardin, C.; Alleman, Jeff; Sharp, J.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Hoeschele, G.; Parilla, Philip A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, Eric S.; Ginley, David S.

    2017-06-27

    We are developing a novel concentrating solar electricity-generating technology that is both modular and dispatchable. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) uses concentrated solar flux to generate high-temperature thermal energy, which directly converts to electricity via thermoelectric generators (TEGs), stored within a phase-change material (PCM) for electricity generation at a later time, or both allowing for simultaneous charging of the PCM and electricity generation. STEALS has inherent features that drive its cost-competitive scale to be much smaller than current commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Most obvious is modularity of the solid-state TEG, which favors smaller scales in the kilowatt range as compared to CSP steam turbines, which are minimally 50 MWe for commercial power plants. Here, we present techno-economic and market analyses that show STEALS can be a cost-effective electricity-generating technology with particular appeal to small-scale microgrid applications. We evaluated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for STEALS and for a comparable photovoltaic (PV) system with battery storage. For STEALS, we estimated capital costs and the LCOE as functions of the type of PCM including the use of recycled aluminum alloys, and evaluated the cost tradeoffs between plasma spray coatings and solution-based boron coatings that are applied to the wetted surfaces of the PCM subsystem. We developed a probabilistic cost model that accounts for uncertainties in the cost and performance inputs to the LCOE estimation. Our probabilistic model estimated LCOE for a 100-kWe STEALS system that had 5 hours of thermal storage and 8-10 hours of total daily power generation. For these cases, the solar multiple for the heliostat field varied between 1.12 and 1.5. We identified microgrids as a likely market for the STEALS system. We characterized microgrid markets in terms of nominal power, dispatchability, geographic location, and

  14. Solar thermoelectricity via advanced latent heat storage: A cost-effective small-scale CSP application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzmaier, G. C.; Rea, J.; Olsen, M. L.; Oshman, C.; Hardin, C.; Alleman, J.; Sharp, J.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Hoeschele, G.; Parilla, P. A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, E. S.; Ginley, D. S.

    2017-06-01

    We are developing a novel concentrating solar electricity-generating technology that is both modular and dispatchable. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) uses concentrated solar flux to generate high-temperature thermal energy, which directly converts to electricity via thermoelectric generators (TEGs), stored within a phase-change material (PCM) for electricity generation at a later time, or both allowing for simultaneous charging of the PCM and electricity generation. STEALS has inherent features that drive its cost-competitive scale to be much smaller than current commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Most obvious is modularity of the solid-state TEG, which favors smaller scales in the kilowatt range as compared to CSP steam turbines, which are minimally 50 MWe for commercial power plants. Here, we present techno-economic and market analyses that show STEALS can be a cost-effective electricity-generating technology with particular appeal to small-scale microgrid applications. We evaluated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for STEALS and for a comparable photovoltaic (PV) system with battery storage. For STEALS, we estimated capital costs and the LCOE as functions of the type of PCM including the use of recycled aluminum alloys, and evaluated the cost tradeoffs between plasma spray coatings and solution-based boron coatings that are applied to the wetted surfaces of the PCM subsystem. We developed a probabilistic cost model that accounts for uncertainties in the cost and performance inputs to the LCOE estimation. Our probabilistic model estimated LCOE for a 100-kWe STEALS system that had 5 hours of thermal storage and 8-10 hours of total daily power generation. For these cases, the solar multiple for the heliostat field varied between 1.12 and 1.5. We identified microgrids as a likely market for the STEALS system. We characterized microgrid markets in terms of nominal power, dispatchability, geographic location, and

  15. Recent Progress on PEDOT-Based Thermoelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingshuo; Mukaida, Masakazu; Kirihara, Kazuhiro; Naitoh, Yasuhisa; Ishida, Takao

    2015-02-16

    The thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-based materials have attracted attention recently because of their remarkable electrical conductivity, power factor, and figure of merit. In this review, we summarize recent efforts toward improving the thermoelectric properties of PEDOT-based materials. We also discuss thermoelectric measurement techniques and several unsolved problems with the PEDOT system such as the effect of water absorption from the air and the anisotropic thermoelectric properties. In the last part, we describe our work on improving the power output of thermoelectric modules by using PEDOT, and we outline the potential applications of polymer thermoelectric generators.

  16. Characteristics and parametric analysis of a novel flexible ink-based thermoelectric generator for human body sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Shaowei; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2018-01-01

    Flexible thermoelectric generator became an attractive technology for its wide use especially for curved surfaces applications. This study proposes design of a flexible thermoelectric generator, which is part of a sensor and supplies required electrical power for human body application...... elements thickness and thermoelectric module row number in a proper range can significantly enhance thermoelectric generator performance. The maximum output power can reach 0.2 μW/cm2, which indicates the proposed design is promising for supplying human body sensors. In addition, the basic optimal design....... The thermoelectric generator module has ink-based thermoelements which are made of nano-carbon bismuth telluride materials. Flexible fins conduct the body heat to the thermoelectric uni-couples, extended fins exchange the heat from the cold side of the thermoelectric generator to the ambient. A fully developed one...

  17. Thermoelectric behavior of conducting polymers: On the possibility of off-diagonal thermoelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateeva, N; Niculescu, H; Schlenoff, J; Testardi, L

    1997-07-01

    Non-cubic materials, when structurally aligned, possess sufficient anisotropy to exhibit thermoelectric effects where the electrical and thermal currents are orthogonal (off-diagonal thermoelectricity). The authors discuss the benefits of this form of thermoelectricity for devices and describe a search for suitable properties in the air-stable conducting polymers polyaniline and polypyrrole. They find the simple and general correlation that the logarithm of the electrical conductivity scales linearly with the Seebeck coefficient on doping but with proportionality in excess of the conventional prediction for thermoelectricity. The correlation is unexpected in its universality and unfavorable for thermoelectric applications. A simple model suggests that mobile charges of both signs exist in these polymers, and this leads to reduced thermoelectric efficiency. They also briefly discuss non air-stable polyacetylene, where ambipolar transport does not appear to occur, and where properties seem more favorable for thermoelectricity.

  18. Non-linear effects and thermoelectric efficiency of quantum dot-based single-electron transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbo, Vincent; Saint-Martin, Jérôme; Retailleau, Sylvie; Dollfus, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    By means of advanced numerical simulation, the thermoelectric properties of a Si-quantum dot-based single-electron transistor operating in sequential tunneling regime are investigated in terms of figure of merit, efficiency and power. By taking into account the phonon-induced collisional broadening of energy levels in the quantum dot, both heat and electrical currents are computed in a voltage range beyond the linear response. Using our homemade code consisting in a 3D Poisson-Schrödinger solver and the resolution of the Master equation, the Seebeck coefficient at low bias voltage appears to be material independent and nearly independent on the level broadening, which makes this device promising for metrology applications as a nanoscale standard of Seebeck coefficient. Besides, at higher voltage bias, the non-linear characteristics of the heat current are shown to be related to the multi-level effects. Finally, when considering only the electronic contribution to the thermal conductance, the single-electron transistor operating in generator regime is shown to exhibit very good efficiency at maximum power.

  19. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Oxide Materials for Effective Power Generation from Waste Heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini

    A large amount of thermal energy that emitted from many industrial processes is available as waste heat. It is difficult to reclaim this heat due to the dispersed nature and relative smallness of its sources. Thermoelectric conversion can offer a very promising method to overcome these difficulties...... by converting heat directly into electricity. However, the requirements for this task place in the materials are not easily satisfied by the conventional thermoelectric materials. Not only they must possess a high thermoelectric performance, they should also be stable at high temperatures and be composed...... of nontoxic and low-cost elements, and must be able to be processed and shaped cheaply. Oxides are among the strongest candidate materials for this purpose, and recently they have been intensively investigated and developed [1-5]. In this report, the development progress of two state-of-the-art p-type Ca3Co4O...

  20. Effect of heterogeneities on the thermoelectric power of pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, L.

    2006-12-01

    In service working conditions, the vessel of the Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) undergoes an ageing due to irradiation. In order to follow the evolution of the mechanical characteristics of the steel in service, EDF launched a surveillance program which consists to carry out mechanical tests on samples aged in reactor. However, the results of these tests have the disadvantage to be affected by the presence of heterogeneities within the steel. Indeed, because of its manufacturing process, the steel contains segregated areas. Thus, EDF launched Thermoelectric Power Measurements (TEP) on the resilience samples of the surveillance program, to complete the mechanical tests and to help with their interpretation. However, these measurements are today difficult to analyse because they include at the same time the effect of the irradiation and the effect of the metallurgical heterogeneities. The aim of this work consisted in evaluating the effect of the heterogeneities on the TEP of the non-irradiated vessel steel. For that, a numerical model was developed which allows to calculate the TEP of a composite structure. We have shown that the model is pertinent to highlight the effect of the heterogeneities on the TEP of the vessel steel, which is considered like a 'matrix'/'segregation' composite. The model allowed us to put emphasis on the influence of different parameters on the TEP measurement. We have thus showed that the measurements conditions have an important effect on the obtained TEP value (influence of the applied pressure, the position of the sample on the device, the site of the metallurgical heterogeneities,...). (author)

  1. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part I: Numerical Modeling and Baseline Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2013-04-01

    A numerical model has been developed to simulate coupled thermal and electrical energy transfer processes in a thermoelectric generator (TEG) designed for automotive waste heat recovery systems. This model is capable of computing the overall heat transferred, the electrical power output, and the associated pressure drop for given inlet conditions of the exhaust gas and the available TEG volume. Multiple-filled skutterudites and conventional bismuth telluride are considered for thermoelectric modules (TEMs) for conversion of waste heat from exhaust into usable electrical power. Heat transfer between the hot exhaust gas and the hot side of the TEMs is enhanced with the use of a plate-fin heat exchanger integrated within the TEG and using liquid coolant on the cold side. The TEG is discretized along the exhaust flow direction using a finite-volume method. Each control volume is modeled as a thermal resistance network which consists of integrated submodels including a heat exchanger and a thermoelectric device. The pressure drop along the TEG is calculated using standard pressure loss correlations and viscous drag models. The model is validated to preserve global energy balances and is applied to analyze a prototype TEG with data provided by General Motors. Detailed results are provided for local and global heat transfer and electric power generation. In the companion paper, the model is then applied to consider various TEG topologies using skutterudite and bismuth telluride TEMs.

  2. Anomalous Pd substitution effects in the thermoelectric oxide NaCo sub 2 sub - sub x Pd sub x O sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Kitawaki, R

    2002-01-01

    We prepared a set of polycrystalline samples of the thermoelectric oxide NaCo sub 2 sub - sub x Pd sub x O sub 4 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2), and investigated the Pd substitution effects on transport phenomena. The effects are so drastic that just 5-10% Pd ions reduce the resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient to one third of the values for x = 0, and increase the magnitude of the Hall coefficient by three times. A semi-quantitative analysis has revealed that the x = 0.2 sample has much smaller effective mass and carrier concentration than the x = 0.05 sample. This is difficult to explain within a rigid-band picture, and is qualitatively consistent with a strong-correlation picture applied to the Ce-based heavy-fermion systems.

  3. A review of thermoelectric cooling: Materials, modeling and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dongliang; Tan, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the recent advances of thermoelectric materials, modeling approaches, and applications. Thermoelectric cooling systems have advantages over conventional cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no working fluid, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. In this study, historical development of thermoelectric cooling has been briefly introduced first. Next, the development of thermoelectric materials has been given and the achievements in past decade have been summarized. To improve thermoelectric cooling system's performance, the modeling techniques have been described for both the thermoelement modeling and thermoelectric cooler (TEC) modeling including standard simplified energy equilibrium model, one-dimensional and three-dimensional models, and numerical compact model. Finally, the thermoelectric cooling applications have been reviewed in aspects of domestic refrigeration, electronic cooling, scientific application, and automobile air conditioning and seat temperature control, with summaries for the commercially available thermoelectric modules and thermoelectric refrigerators. It is expected that this study will be beneficial to thermoelectric cooling system design, simulation, and analysis. - Highlights: •Thermoelectric cooling has great prospects with thermoelectric material's advances. •Modeling techniques for both thermoelement and TEC have been reviewed. •Principle thermoelectric cooling applications have been reviewed and summarized

  4. Influence of heat treatments on thermoelectric power of pressure vessel steels: effect of microstructural evolutions of strongly segregated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houze, M.

    2002-12-01

    Thermoelectric power measurement (TEP) is a very potential non destructive evaluation method considered to follow ageing under neutron irradiation of pressure vessel steel of nuclear reactor. Prior to these problems, the aim of this study is to establish correlations between TEP variations and microstructural evolutions of pressure vessel steels during heat treatments. Different steels, permitting to simulate heterogeneities of pressure vessel steels and to deconvoluate main metallurgical phenomenons effects were studied. This work allowed to emphasize effect on TEP of: austenitizing and cooling conditions and therefore of microstructure, metallurgical transformations during tempering (recovery, precipitation of alloying elements), and particularly molybdenum precipitation associated to secondary hardening, residual austenite amount or partial austenitizing. (author)

  5. A note on the electrochemical nature of the thermoelectric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

    2016-04-01

    While thermoelectric transport theory is well established and widely applied, it is not always clear in the literature whether the Seebeck coefficient, which is a measure of the strength of the mutual interaction between electric charge transport and heat transport, is to be related to the gradient of the system's chemical potential or to the gradient of its electrochemical potential. The present article aims to clarify the thermodynamic definition of the thermoelectric coupling. First, we recall how the Seebeck coefficient is experimentally determined. We then turn to the analysis of the relationship between the thermoelectric power and the relevant potentials in the thermoelectric system: As the definitions of the chemical and electrochemical potentials are clarified, we show that, with a proper consideration of each potential, one may derive the Seebeck coefficient of a non-degenerate semiconductor without the need to introduce a contact potential as seen sometimes in the literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the phenomenological expression of the electrical current resulting from thermoelectric effects may be directly obtained from the drift-diffusion equation.

  6. Thermoelectric mini cooler coupled with micro thermosiphon for CPU cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Di; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Yang, Hong-Xing; Tang, Guang-Fa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a thermoelectric mini cooler coupling with a micro thermosiphon cooling system has been proposed for the purpose of CPU cooling. A mathematical model of heat transfer, depending on one-dimensional treatment of thermal and electric power, is firstly established for the thermoelectric module. Analytical results demonstrate the relationship between the maximal COP (Coefficient of Performance) and Q c with the figure of merit. Full-scale experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of thermoelectric operating voltage, power input of heat source, and thermoelectric module number on the performance of the cooling system. Experimental results indicated that the cooling production increases with promotion of thermoelectric operating voltage. Surface temperature of CPU heat source linearly increases with increasing of power input, and its maximum value reached 70 °C as the prototype CPU power input was equivalent to 84 W. Insulation between air and heat source surface can prevent the condensate water due to low surface temperature. In addition, thermal performance of this cooling system could be enhanced when the total dimension of thermoelectric module matched well with the dimension of CPU. This research could benefit the design of thermal dissipation of electronic chips and CPU units. - Highlights: • A cooling system coupled with thermoelectric module and loop thermosiphon is developed. • Thermoelectric module coupled with loop thermosiphon can achieve high heat-transfer efficiency. • A mathematical model of thermoelectric cooling is built. • An analysis of modeling results for design and experimental data are presented. • Influence of power input and operating voltage on the cooling system are researched

  7. Strain effect on electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of orthorhombic SnSe: A first principles study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Duc Cuong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Strain effect on thermoelectricity of orthorhombic SnSe is studied using density function theory. The Seebeck coefficients are obtained by solving Boltzmann Transport equation (BTE with interpolated band energies. As expected from the crystal structure, calculated Seebeck coefficients are highly anisotropic, and agree well with experiment. Changes in the Seebeck coefficients are presented, when strain is applied along b and c direction with strength from -3% to +3%, where influence by band gaps and band dispersions are significant. Moreover, for compressive strains, the sign change of Seebeck coefficients at particular direction suggests that the bipolar transport is possible for SnSe.

  8. Gigantic transverse voltage induced via off-diagonal thermoelectric effect in CaxCoO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kouhei; Kanno, Tsutomu; Sakai, Akihiro; Adachi, Hideaki; Yamada, Yuka

    2010-07-01

    Gigantic transverse voltages exceeding several tens volt have been observed in CaxCoO2 thin films with tilted c-axis orientation upon illumination of nanosecond laser pulses. The voltage signals were highly anisotropic within the film surface showing close relation with the c-axis tilt direction. The magnitude and the decay time of the voltage strongly depended on the film thickness. These results confirm that the large laser-induced voltage originates from a phenomenon termed the off-diagonal thermoelectric effect, by which a film out-of-plane temperature gradient leads to generation of a film in-plane voltage.

  9. Fine Art of Thermoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Viktor V; Gluba, Marc; Rappich, Jörg; Lang, Felix; Maryanchuk, Pavlo D; Nickel, Norbert H

    2018-02-07

    A detailed study of hitherto unknown electrical and thermoelectric properties of graphite pencil traces on paper was carried out by measuring the Hall and Seebeck effects. We show that the combination of pencil-drawn graphite and brush-painted poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) films on regular office paper results in extremely simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly thermoelectric power generators with promising output characteristics at low-temperature gradients. The working characteristics can be improved even further by incorporating n-type InSe flakes. The combination of pencil-drawn n-InSe:graphite nanocomposites and brush-painted PEDOT:PSS increases the power output by 1 order of magnitude.

  10. Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Berkun, Isil; Schmidt, Robert D.; Luzenski, Matthew F.; Lu, Xu; Bordon Sarac, Patricia; Case, Eldon D.; Hogan, Timothy P.

    2014-06-01

    Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds are promising candidate low-cost, lightweight, nontoxic thermoelectric materials made from abundant elements and are suited for power generation applications in the intermediate temperature range of 600 K to 800 K. Knowledge on the transport and mechanical properties of Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds is essential to the design of Mg2(Si,Sn)-based thermoelectric devices. In this work, such materials were synthesized using the molten-salt sealing method and were powder processed, followed by pulsed electric sintering densification. A set of Mg2.08Si0.4- x Sn0.6Sb x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.072) compounds were investigated, and a peak ZT of 1.50 was obtained at 716 K in Mg2.08Si0.364Sn0.6Sb0.036. The high ZT is attributed to a high electrical conductivity in these samples, possibly caused by a magnesium deficiency in the final product. The mechanical response of the material to stresses is a function of the elastic moduli. The temperature-dependent Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio, acoustic wave speeds, and acoustic Debye temperature of the undoped Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds were measured using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy from 295 K to 603 K. In addition, the hardness and fracture toughness were measured at room temperature.

  11. Exploring the Effect of Media, Salinity and Clay on the Thermoelectric Coupling Coefficient in Self-Potential Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C. D.; Revil, A.

    2014-12-01

    Self-potential is a non-invasive, passive geophysical technique with applications ranging from imaging oil and gas reservoirs to identifying preferential flow paths in earthen embankments. Several cross-coupled flow phenomena contribute to self-potential data, and there is a need to further quantify these various sources to enable better resolution and quantification of self-potential models. Very little research has been done to constrain thermoelectric source mechanisms that contribute to self-potential signals. A laboratory experiment has been designed to investigate the thermoelectric coupling coefficient (CTE) that relates the voltage change per degree centigrade (V/°C) in porous media. This study focuses on a sand tank experiment using a saturated silica sand. To isolate the temperature gradient dependence of self-potential measurements, no hydraulic gradient is applied to the tank, eliminating the streaming potential component of source current. Self-potential and temperature data are recorded while reservoirs of hot and cold water are established on opposite ends of the tank in order to generate thermoelectric source currents. Various thermal gradients ranging from 0 °C to 80 °C over 20 cm are examined for various salinities (10-3M- 1M NaCl), sand grain sizes and clay content to investigate influences on CTE. A short-duration contact of non-polarizing (Pb/PbCl) electrodes is implemented to minimize temperature drift of electrodes during the experiment. Surface self-potential and temperature measurements are made in 30 minute intervals. Initial measurements have revealed non-linear effects, including a decreased CTE as temperature gradient bounds approach 0 °C.

  12. Analysis of a Temperature-Controlled Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator During a Driving Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, F. P.; Alves, A.; Pires, J. M.; Martins, L. B.; Martins, J.; Oliveira, J.; Teixeira, J.; Goncalves, L. M.; Hall, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Thermoelectric generators can be used in automotive exhaust energy recovery. As car engines operate under wide variable loads, it is a challenge to design a system for operating efficiently under these variable conditions. This means being able to avoid excessive thermal dilution under low engine loads and being able to operate under high load, high temperature events without the need to deflect the exhaust gases with bypass systems. The authors have previously proposed a thermoelectric generator (TEG) concept with temperature control based on the operating principle of the variable conductance heat pipe/thermosiphon. This strategy allows the TEG modules’ hot face to work under constant, optimized temperature. The variable engine load will only affect the number of modules exposed to the heat source, not the heat transfer temperature. This prevents module overheating under high engine loads and avoids thermal dilution under low engine loads. The present work assesses the merit of the aforementioned approach by analysing the generator output during driving cycles simulated with an energy model of a light vehicle. For the baseline evaporator and condenser configuration, the driving cycle averaged electrical power outputs were approximately 320 W and 550 W for the type-approval Worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure Class 3 driving cycle and for a real-world highway driving cycle, respectively.

  13. The state of itinerant charge carriers and thermoelectric effects in correlated oxide metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzemsky, A.L.; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2000-10-01

    We analyzed the physics of transport processes and, in particular, the thermoelectric power in the mercurocuprates and other cuprates to get a better insight into the state of the carriers in these compounds. The actual problems related to the complicated mechanisms of carriers scattering above Tc are discussed. The experimental studies of thermoelectric power showed that the state of carriers in cuprates can be influenced by many complicated scattering processes, however the underlying mechanism for the linear decreasing of the TEP with increasing the temperature for most hole-doped HTSC cuprates is still not yet known. The actual problems related to the complicated mechanisms of carriers scattering above Tc are discussed for a few models of charge transport. A comparison between the analytical and experimental results is also made. It is concluded that the crucial factor for the understanding of the transport properties of correlated oxide metals is the nature of itinerant charge carriers, i.e. renormalized quasiparticles. (author)

  14. The Effect of (Ag, Ni, Zn)-Addition on the Thermoelectric Properties of Copper Aluminate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanagiya, Shun-ichi; Van Nong, Ngo; Xu, Jianxiao Jackie

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline bulk copper aluminate Cu1-x-yAgxByAlO2 with B = Ni or Zn were prepared by spark plasma sintering and subsequent thermal treatment. The influence of partial substitution of Ag, Ni and Zn for Cu-sites in CuAlO2 on the high temperature thermoelectric properties has been studied......, indicating a significant improvement compared with the non-doped CuAlO2 sample...

  15. Nano-Like Effects in Crystalline Thermoelectric Materials at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhuev, M. A.; Katin, I. V.

    2013-05-01

    The mechanisms of improving the figure of merit Z and power parameter W of thermoelectric materials (TEMs) in the transitions λph→a and λe→a are considered (Here λph and λe are the mean free path of the phonons and electrons in the sample, and a is the inter atomic distance). It is shown that the same mechanisms are responsible for the growth of Z and W crystalline TEMs at high temperatures.

  16. Design and Optimization of Effective Segmented Thermoelectric Generator for Waste Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Hoang Ngan

    ranges of 300 ‒ 700, and 900 – 1100 K are considered. The obtained results reveals that segmented thermoelectric generator comprising of Bi0.6Sb1.4Te3/Ba8Au5.3Ge40.7/PbTe-SrTe/SiGe as p-leg and either segmented Bi2Te3/PbTe/SiGe or Bi2Te3/Ba0.08La0.05Yb0.04Co4Sb12/La3Te4 as n-leg working in 300 – 1100 K...... been focused on material development, realizing high efficient thermoelectric generators from such well-developed materials is still limited. Moreover, no single thermoelectric material could withstand the wide temperature range required to boost efficiency of TEGs. By segmentation of different TE...... materials which operate optimally in each temperature range, this study aims at developing high performance segmented TEGs for medium-high (450 – 850 K) temperature application. The research is focused on the challenges in joining and minimizing the contact resistances between different TE materials...

  17. Energy efficiency analysis and impact evaluation of the application of thermoelectric power cycle to today's CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Min; Lund, Henrik; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    benefits, together with the environmental impact of this deployment, will then be estimated. By using the Danish thermal energy system as a paradigm, this paper will consider the TEG application to district heating systems and power plants through the EnergyPLAN model, which has been created to design......High efficiency thermoelectric generators (TEG) can recover waste heat from both industrial and private sectors. Thus, the development and deployment of TEG may represent one of the main drives for technological change and fuel substitution. This paper will present an analysis of system efficiency...... configurations for combustion systems. The feasible deployment of TEG in various CHP plants will be examined in terms of heat source temperature range, influences on CHP power specification and thermal environment, as well as potential benefits. The overall conversion efficiency improvements and economic...

  18. Thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    The main components of a thermoelectric generator are housed in an evacuated cylindrical vessel. In the middle of it there is the radioactive heat source, e.g. 90 Sr or 238 Pu, enclosed by a gamma radiation shield. This one is surrounded by a heat-insulating screen from getter material or indicidual sheets of titanium. In the bottom of the screen there are arranged several thermocouples on a circle. The thermocouples themselves are contained within casings sealed gas-tight and filled with an inert gas, e.g. argon. By separating the internal space of the generator vessel from the thermocouple casings, made of e.g. n- respectively p-doped lead telluride cylinders, for both the optimal gas state may be obtained. (DG) [de

  19. Effective Thermal Analysis of Using Peltier Module for Desalination Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Al-Madhhachi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of this study is to analyse the heat transfer processes involved in the evaporation and condensation of water in a water distillation system employing a thermoelectric module. This analysis can help to increase the water production and to enhance the system performance. For the analysis, a water distillation unit prototype integrated with a thermoelectric module was designed and fabricated. A theoretical model is developed to study the effect of the heat added, transferred and removed, in forced convection and laminar flow, during the evaporation and condensation processes. The thermoelectric module is used to convert electricity into heat under Peltier effect and control precisely the absorbed and released heat at the cold and hot sides of the module, respectively. Temperatures of water, vapour, condenser, cold and hot sides of the thermoelectric module and water production have been measured experimentally under steady state operation. The theoretical and experimental water production were found to be in agreement. The amount of heat that needs to be evaporated from water-vapour interface and transferred through the condenser surface to the thermoelectric module is crucial for the design and optimization of distillation systems.

  20. Effect of heat treatment on the electrical resistance of photoresist as related to radioisotopic thermoelectric generator aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.T. Jr.

    1979-03-01

    Photoresist is used in electrical contact definition and processing in radioisotopic thermoelectric generators. Inadequate removal of material during processing could lead to electrical shorting when exposed to the high temperature use environment. This effect has been simulated through studies of the electrical resistance of thin layers of photoresist (Kodak Metal Etch Resist) on glass (Corning 7052) with tungsten electrodes. Results show that both the photoresist and the glass contribute to the resistance. The glass resistance decreases with increasing temperature and becomes significant at high temperatures. Annealing studies on the photoresist show that the resistance of the photoresist decreases by over five orders of magnitude upon annealing to 500 0 C, with a corresponding decrease in activation energy from 0.27 eV (350 0 C anneal) to 0.10 eV (500 0 C anneal). Time dependent decreases in resistance of the photoresist were also measured for up to 8 to 9 days during high temperature anneals. Some electrolytic transport of tungsten may occur through the photoresist at high temperatures. Results are compared with data on thermoelectric generators and show that photoresist could cause the electrical aging (voltage degradation) problem observed in some generators

  1. Theoretical analysis of heat transfer in, and electrical performance of, a milliwatt radioisotopic powered thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biver, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified, theoretical model has been made for a radioisotope-powered milliwatt thermoelectric generator (RTG). Calculations of unit heat transfer and electrical performance characteristics are made in two ways: (a) using discrete values of input physical parameters for an individual unit; and (b) using a statistical simulation (Monte Carlo) approach for estimating the variation in performance in a group of N-units. The statistical simulation approach is useful in: (a) estimating the allowable range of input parameters conducive to the production design meeting specifications in a group of N-units; and (b) determining particular parameters that must be significantly restricted in variation to achieve desired performance. The available experimental data, as compared with the discrete value calculations, are in quite good agreement (within 5 percent generally). (U.S.)

  2. Numerical Analysis and Design of Thermal Management System for Lithium Ion Battery Pack Using Thermoelectric Coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new design of thermal management system for lithium ion battery pack using thermoelectric coolers (TECs is proposed. Firstly, the 3D thermal model of a high power lithium ion battery and the TEC is elaborated. Then the model is calibrated with experiment results. Finally, the calibrated model is applied to investigate the performance of a thermal management system for a lithium ion battery pack. The results show that battery thermal management system (BTMS with TEC can cool the battery in very high ambient temperature. It can also keep a more uniform temperature distribution in the battery pack than common BTMS, which will extend the life of the battery pack and may save the expensive battery equalization system.

  3. High Performance Thermoelectric Materials Using Solution Phase Synthesis of Narrow Bandgap Core/Shell Quantum Dots Deposited Into Colloidal Crystal Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    Thermoelectrics is the science and technology associated with thermoelectric converters, that is, the generation of electrical power based on the Seebeck effect and refrigeration by the Peltier effect...

  4. Dynamic thermoelectricity in uniform bipolar semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volovichev, I.N., E-mail: vin@ire.kharkov.ua

    2016-07-01

    The theory of the dynamic thermoelectric effect has been developed. The effect lies in an electric current flowing in a closed circuit that consists of a uniform bipolar semiconductor, in which a non-uniform temperature distribution in the form of the traveling wave is created. The calculations are performed for the one-dimensional model in the quasi-neutrality approximation. It was shown that the direct thermoelectric current prevails, despite the periodicity of the thermal excitation, the circuit homogeneity and the lack of rectifier properties of the semiconductor system. Several physical reasons underlining the dynamic thermoelectric effect are found. One of them is similar to the Dember photoelectric effect, its contribution to the current flowing is determined by the difference in the electron and hole mobilities, and is completely independent of the carrier Seebeck coefficients. The dependence of the thermoelectric short circuit current magnitude on the semiconductor parameters, as well as on the temperature wave amplitude, length and velocity is studied. It is shown that the magnitude of the thermoelectric current is proportional to the square of the temperature wave amplitude. The dependence of the thermoelectric short circuit current on the temperature wave length and velocity is the nonmonotonic function. The optimum values for the temperature wave length and velocity, at which the dynamic thermoelectric effect is the greatest, have been deduced. It is found that the thermoelectric short circuit current changes its direction with decreasing the temperature wave length under certain conditions. The prospects for the possible applications of the dynamic thermoelectric effect are also discussed.

  5. Ab initio optimization of phonon drag effect for lower-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liao, Bolin; Qiu, Bo; Huberman, Samuel; Esfarjani, Keivan; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Although the thermoelectric figure of merit zT above 300 K has seen significant improvement recently, the progress at lower temperatures has been slow, mainly limited by the relatively low Seebeck coefficient and high thermal conductivity. Here we report, for the first time to our knowledge, success in first-principles computation of the phonon drag effect—a coupling phenomenon between electrons and nonequilibrium phonons—in heavily doped region and its optimization to enhance the Seebeck coefficient while reducing the phonon thermal conductivity by nanostructuring. Our simulation quantitatively identifies the major phonons contributing to the phonon drag, which are spectrally distinct from those carrying heat, and further reveals that although the phonon drag is reduced in heavily doped samples, a significant contribution to Seebeck coefficient still exists. An ideal phonon filter is proposed to enhance zT of silicon at room temperature by a factor of 20 to ∼0.25, and the enhancement can reach 70 times at 100 K. This work opens up a new venue toward better thermoelectrics by harnessing nonequilibrium phonons. PMID:26627231

  6. Isovalent substitutes play in different ways: Effects of isovalent substitution on the thermoelectric properties of CoSi{sub 0.98}B{sub 0.02}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hui, E-mail: huisun3@iflytek.com [Department of Basic Teaching, Anhui Institute of Information Technology, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Lu, Xu [College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Morelli, Donald T. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Boron-added CoSi, CoSi{sub 0.98}B{sub 0.02}, possesses a very high thermoelectric power factor of 60 μW cm{sup −1} K{sup −2} at room temperature, which is among the highest power factors that have ever been reported for near-room-temperature thermoelectric applications. Since the electrical properties of this material have been tuned properly, isovalent substitution for its host atoms is intentionally employed to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity while maintaining the electronic properties unchanged. In our previous work, the effect of Rh substitution for Co atoms on the thermoelectric properties of CoSi{sub 0.98}B{sub 0.02} has been studied. Here, we present a study of the substitution of Ge for Si atoms in this compound. Even though Ge and Rh are isovalent with their corresponding host atoms, they play different roles in determining the electrical and thermal transport properties. Through the evaluation of the lattice thermal conductivity by the Debye approximation and the comparison between the high-temperature Seebeck coefficients, we propose that Rh substitution leads to a further overlapping of the conduction and the valence bands, while Ge substitution only shifts the Fermi level upward into the conduction band. Our results show that the influence of isovalent substitution on the electronic structure cannot be ignored when the alloying method is used to improve thermoelectric properties.

  7. Isovalent substitutes play in different ways: Effects of isovalent substitution on the thermoelectric properties of CoSi_0_._9_8B_0_._0_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hui; Lu, Xu; Morelli, Donald T.

    2016-01-01

    Boron-added CoSi, CoSi_0_._9_8B_0_._0_2, possesses a very high thermoelectric power factor of 60 μW cm"−"1 K"−"2 at room temperature, which is among the highest power factors that have ever been reported for near-room-temperature thermoelectric applications. Since the electrical properties of this material have been tuned properly, isovalent substitution for its host atoms is intentionally employed to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity while maintaining the electronic properties unchanged. In our previous work, the effect of Rh substitution for Co atoms on the thermoelectric properties of CoSi_0_._9_8B_0_._0_2 has been studied. Here, we present a study of the substitution of Ge for Si atoms in this compound. Even though Ge and Rh are isovalent with their corresponding host atoms, they play different roles in determining the electrical and thermal transport properties. Through the evaluation of the lattice thermal conductivity by the Debye approximation and the comparison between the high-temperature Seebeck coefficients, we propose that Rh substitution leads to a further overlapping of the conduction and the valence bands, while Ge substitution only shifts the Fermi level upward into the conduction band. Our results show that the influence of isovalent substitution on the electronic structure cannot be ignored when the alloying method is used to improve thermoelectric properties.

  8. Effects of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles on the Thermoelectric Properties of Heavy-Fermion YbAl3 Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Danqi; Mu, Xin; Zhou, Hongyu; Li, Cuncheng; Ma, Shifang; Ji, Pengxia; Hou, Weikang; Wei, Ping; Zhu, Wanting; Nie, Xiaolei; Zhao, Wenyu

    2018-06-01

    The magnetic nanocomposite thermoelectric materials xFe3O4/YbAl3 ( x = 0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) have been prepared by the combination of ultrasonic dispersion and spark plasma sintering process. The nanocomposites retain good chemical stability in the presence of the second-phase Fe3O4. The second-phase Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles are distributed on the interfaces and boundaries of the matrix. The x dependences of thermoelectric properties indicate that Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles can significantly decrease the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. The magnetic nanoparticles embedded in YbAl3 matrix are not only the phonon scattering centers of nanostructures, but also the electron scattering centers due to the Kondo-like effect between the magnetic moment of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the spin of electrons. The ZT values of the composites are first increased in the x range 0%-1.0% and then decreased when x > 1.0%. The highest ZT value reaches 0.3 at 300 K for the nanocomposite with x = 1.0%. Our work demonstrates that the Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles can greatly increase the thermoelectric performance of heavy-fermion YbAl3 thermoelectric materials through simultaneously scattering electrons and phonons.

  9. Experimental study and performance analysis of a thermoelectric cooling and heating system driven by a photovoltaic/thermal system in summer and winter operation modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wei; Zhou, JinZhi; Chen, Chi; Ji, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoelectric heating system driven by heat pipe PV/T system was built and test. • Theoretical analysis has been done and simulation results have been validated by experiments. • The energetic efficiency and exergetic efficiency in summer and winter operation mode was analyzed and compared. - Abstract: This paper presents theoretical and experimental investigations of the winter operation mode of a thermoelectric cooling and heating system driven by a heat pipe photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panel. And the energy and exergy analysis of this system in summer and winter operation modes are also done. The winter operation mode of this system is tested in an experimental room which temperature is controlled at 18 °C. The results indicate the average coefficient of performance (COP) of thermoelectric module of this system can be about 1.7, the electrical efficiency of the PV/T panel can reach 16.7%, and the thermal efficiency of this system can reach 23.5%. The energy and exergy analysis show the energetic efficiency of the system in summer operation mode is higher than that of it in winter operation mode, but the exergetic efficiency in summer operation mode is lower than that in winter operation mode, on the contrary

  10. Performance Analysis of Thermoelectric Modules Consisting of Square Truncated Pyramid Elements Under Constant Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Sae; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2018-06-01

    System design of a thermoelectric (TE) power generation module is pursued in order to improve the TE performance. Square truncated pyramid shaped P-N pairs of TE elements are connected electronically in series in the open space between two flat insulator boards. The performance of the TE module consisting of 2-paired elements is numerically simulated using commercial software and original TE programs. Assuming that the heat radiating into the hot surface is regulated, i.e., the amount of heat from the hot surface to the cold one is steadily constant, as it happens for solar radiation heating, the performance is significantly improved by changing the shape and the alignment pattern of the elements. When the angle θ between the edge and the base is smaller than 72°, and when the cold surface is kept at a constant temperature, two patterns in particular, amongst the 17 studied, show the largest TE power and efficiency. In comparison to other geometries, the smarter square truncated pyramid shape can provide higher performance using a large cold bath and constant heat transfer by heat radiation.

  11. Numerical and experimental analysis for exhaust heat exchangers in automobile thermoelectric generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengqiang Bai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ideal heat exchangers recover as much heat as possible from an engine exhaust at the cost of an acceptable pressure drop. They provide primary heat for a thermoelectric generator (TEG, and their capacity and efficiency is dependent on the material, shape, and type of the heat exchanger. Six different exhaust heat exchangers were designed within the same shell, and their computational fluid dynamics (CFD models were developed to compare heat transfer and pressure drop in typical driving cycles for a vehicle with a 1.2 L gasoline engine. The result showed that the serial plate structure enhanced heat transfer by 7 baffles and transferred the maximum heat of 1737 W. It also produced a maximum pressure drop of 9.7 kPa in a suburban driving cycle. The numerical results for the pipe structure and an empty cavity were verified by experiments. Under the maximum power output condition, only the inclined plate and empty cavity structure undergoes a pressure drop less than 80 kPa, and the largest pressure drop exceeds 190 kPa. In this case, a mechanism with a differential pressure switch is essential to bypass part of the exhaust.

  12. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Oxides for Energy Harvesting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2015-11-24

    As the world strives to adapt to the increasing demand for electrical power, sustainable energy sources are attracting significant interest. Around 60% of energy utilized in the world is wasted as heat. Different industrial processes, home heating, and exhausts in cars, all generate a huge amount of unused waste heat. With such a huge potential, there is also significant interest in discovering inexpensive technologies for power generation from waste heat. As a result, thermoelectric materials have become important for many renewable energy research programs. While significant advancements have been done in improving the thermoelectric properties of the conventional heavy-element based materials (such as Bi2Te3 and PbTe), high-temperature applications of thermoelectrics are still limited to one materials system, namely SiGe, since the traditional thermoelectric materials degrade and oxidize at high temperature. Therefore, oxide thermoelectrics emerge as a promising class of materials since they can operate athigher temperatures and in harsher environments compared to non-oxide thermoelectrics. Furthermore, oxides are abundant and friendly to the environment. Among oxides, crystalline SrTiO3 and ZnO are promising thermoelectric materials. The main objective of this work is therefore to pursue focused investigations of SrTiO3 and ZnO thin films and superlattices grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), with the goal of optimizing their thermoelectric properties by following different strategies. First, the effect of laser fluence on the thermoelectric properties of La doped epitaxial SrTiO3 films is discussed. Films grown at higher laser fluences exhibit better thermoelectric performance. Second, the role of crystal orientation in determining the thermoelectric properties of epitaxial Al doped ZnO (AZO) films is explained. Vertically aligned (c-axis) AZO films have superior thermoelectric properties compared to other films with different crystal orientations. Third

  13. Thermoelectric Energy Conversion: Materials, Devices, and Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present a discussion of challenges, progresses, and opportunities in thermoelectric energy conversion technology. We will start with an introduction to thermoelectric technology, followed by discussing advances in thermoelectric materials, devices, and systems. Thermoelectric energy conversion exploits the Seebeck effect to convert thermal energy into electricity, or the Peltier effect for heat pumping applications. Thermoelectric devices are scalable, capable of generating power from nano Watts to mega Watts. One key issue is to improve materials thermoelectric figure- of-merit that is linearly proportional to the Seebeck coefficient, the square of the electrical conductivity, and inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity. Improving the figure-of-merit requires good understanding of electron and phonon transport as their properties are often contradictory in trends. Over the past decade, excellent progresses have been made in the understanding of electron and phonon transport in thermoelectric materials, and in improving existing and identify new materials, especially by exploring nanoscale size effects. Taking materials to real world applications, however, faces more challenges in terms of materials stability, device fabrication, thermal management and system design. Progresses and lessons learnt from our effort in fabricating thermoelectric devices will be discussed. We have demonstrated device thermal-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency ∼10% and solar-thermoelectric generator efficiency at 4.6% without optical concentration of sunlight (Figure 1) and ∼8-9% efficiency with optical concentration. Great opportunities exist in advancing materials as well as in using existing materials for energy efficiency improvements and renewable energy utilization, as well as mobile applications. (paper)

  14. Thermoelectricity from wasted heat of integrated circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2012-05-22

    We demonstrate that waste heat from integrated circuits especially computer microprocessors can be recycled as valuable electricity to power up a portion of the circuitry or other important accessories such as on-chip cooling modules, etc. This gives a positive spin to a negative effect of ever increasing heat dissipation associated with increased power consumption aligned with shrinking down trend of transistor dimension. This concept can also be used as an important vehicle for self-powered systemson- chip. We provide theoretical analysis supported by simulation data followed by experimental verification of on-chip thermoelectricity generation from dissipated (otherwise wasted) heat of a microprocessor.

  15. Effect mutual carrying away of electrons and photons on thermomagnet and thermoelectric phenomena in semiconductors with generated statistics of current carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuliev, I.G.

    2000-01-01

    One studied the effects of the mutual carrying away of electrons and phonons on the thermomagnetic and thermoelectric phenomena in semiconductors with the degenerated statistics of current carriers. One estimated the conduction current within nonequilibrium electron-phonon system in the linear approximation on the basis of the degeneration parameter. Under the isothermal conductors the mutual carrying away was shown to affect essentially the values of the Nernst-Ettingshausen effects. One estimated the heat flow and analyzed the dependence of heat conductivity and of the Muggy-Regge (MR) effect on the magnetic field. The contribution of the mutual carrying away into the isothermal MR-effect was determined to be proportional to the degeneration parameter. One studied thermomagnetic and thermoelectric effects in the degenerated conductors with regard to the mutual carrying away of electrons and phonons both under the isothermal and under the adiabatic conditions [ru

  16. Thermoelectric materials having porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heremans, Joseph P.; Jaworski, Christopher M.; Jovovic, Vladimir; Harris, Fred

    2014-08-05

    A thermoelectric material and a method of making a thermoelectric material are provided. In certain embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises at least 10 volume percent porosity. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material has a zT greater than about 1.2 at a temperature of about 375 K. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a topological thermoelectric material. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a general composition of (Bi.sub.1-xSb.sub.x).sub.u(Te.sub.1-ySe.sub.y).sub.w, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, 1.8.ltoreq.u.ltoreq.2.2, 2.8.ltoreq.w.ltoreq.3.2. In further embodiments, the thermoelectric material includes a compound having at least one group IV element and at least one group VI element. In certain embodiments, the method includes providing a powder comprising a thermoelectric composition, pressing the powder, and sintering the powder to form the thermoelectric material.

  17. Effects of Channel Geometry and Coolant Fluid on Thermoelectric Net Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse; Sørensen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Channel geometry has a strong influence on the heat transfer coefficient and cooling energy input in a heat sink. The net power output in a thermoelectric generator (TEG) can be defined as power generation minus the required cooling energy in TEG. This study aims to evaluate the net power generat......, and the maximum net power output occurs at smaller Reynolds number when the channel hydraulic diameter reduces....... generation in TEG for different size of hydraulic diameter of plate-fin heat sink and over a wide range of Reynolds number. The particular focus of this study is to find optimal Reynolds number in each considered channel hydraulic diameter and to explore optimal channel hydraulic diameter for maximum TEG net...

  18. Thickness and strain effects on the thermoelectric transport in nanostructured Bi2Se3

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Yasir

    2014-01-23

    The structural stability, electronic structure, and thermal transport properties of one to six quintuple layers (QLs) of Bi2Se3 are investigated by van der Waals density functional theory and semi-classical Boltzmann theory. The bandgap amounts to 0.41 eV for a single QL and reduces to 0.23 eV when the number of QLs increases to six. A single QL has a significantly higher thermoelectric figure of merit (0.27) than the bulk material (0.10), which can be further enhanced to 0.30 by introducing 2.5% compressive strain. Positive phonon frequencies under strain indicate that the structural stability is maintained.

  19. The Effect of (Ag, Ni, Zn-Addition on the Thermoelectric Properties of Copper Aluminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiao Xu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline bulk copper aluminate Cu1-x-yAgxByAlO2 with B = Ni or Zn were prepared by spark plasma sintering and subsequent thermal treatment. The influence of partial substitution of Ag, Ni and Zn for Cu-sites in CuAlO2 on the high temperature thermoelectric properties has been studied. The addition of Ag and Zn was found to enhance the formation of CuAlO2 phase and to increase the electrical conductivity. The addition of Ag or Ag and Ni on the other hand decreases the electrical conductivity. The highest power factor of 1.26 × 10-4 W/mK2 was obtained for the addition of Ag and Zn at 1,060 K, indicating a significant improvement compared with the non-doped CuAlO2 sample.

  20. Thickness and strain effects on the thermoelectric transport in nanostructured Bi2Se3

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Yasir; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Singh, Nirpendra

    2014-01-01

    The structural stability, electronic structure, and thermal transport properties of one to six quintuple layers (QLs) of Bi2Se3 are investigated by van der Waals density functional theory and semi-classical Boltzmann theory. The bandgap amounts to 0.41 eV for a single QL and reduces to 0.23 eV when the number of QLs increases to six. A single QL has a significantly higher thermoelectric figure of merit (0.27) than the bulk material (0.10), which can be further enhanced to 0.30 by introducing 2.5% compressive strain. Positive phonon frequencies under strain indicate that the structural stability is maintained.

  1. Temperature gradient measurements by using thermoelectric effect in CNTs-silicone adhesive composite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tariq Saeed Chani

    Full Text Available This work presents the fabrication and investigation of thermoelectric cells based on composite of carbon nanotubes (CNT and silicone adhesive. The composite contains CNT and silicon adhesive 1∶1 by weight. The current-voltage characteristics and dependences of voltage, current and Seebeck coefficient on the temperature gradient of cell were studied. It was observed that with increase in temperature gradient the open circuit voltage, short circuit current and the Seebeck coefficient of the cells increase. Approximately 7 times increase in temperature gradient increases the open circuit voltage and short circuit current up to 40 and 5 times, respectively. The simulation of experimental results is also carried out; the simulated results are well matched with experimental results.

  2. Pseudo-direct bandgap transitions in silicon nanocrystals: effects on optoelectronics and thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vivek; Yu, Yixuan; Sun, Qi-C.; Korgel, Brian; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-11-01

    While silicon nanostructures are extensively used in electronics, the indirect bandgap of silicon poses challenges for optoelectronic applications like photovoltaics and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here, we show that size-dependent pseudo-direct bandgap transitions in silicon nanocrystals dominate the interactions between (photoexcited) charge carriers and phonons, and hence the optoelectronic properties of silicon nanocrystals. Direct measurements of the electronic density of states (DOS) for different sized silicon nanocrystals reveal that these pseudo-direct transitions, likely arising from the nanocrystal surface, can couple with the quantum-confined silicon states. Moreover, we demonstrate that since these transitions determine the interactions of charge carriers with phonons, they change the light emission, absorption, charge carrier diffusion and phonon drag (Seebeck coefficient) in nanoscaled silicon semiconductors. Therefore, these results can have important implications for the design of optoelectronics and thermoelectric devices based on nanostructured silicon.While silicon nanostructures are extensively used in electronics, the indirect bandgap of silicon poses challenges for optoelectronic applications like photovoltaics and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here, we show that size-dependent pseudo-direct bandgap transitions in silicon nanocrystals dominate the interactions between (photoexcited) charge carriers and phonons, and hence the optoelectronic properties of silicon nanocrystals. Direct measurements of the electronic density of states (DOS) for different sized silicon nanocrystals reveal that these pseudo-direct transitions, likely arising from the nanocrystal surface, can couple with the quantum-confined silicon states. Moreover, we demonstrate that since these transitions determine the interactions of charge carriers with phonons, they change the light emission, absorption, charge carrier diffusion and phonon drag (Seebeck coefficient) in

  3. Reliable Thermoelectric Module Design under Opposing Requirements from Structural and Thermoelectric Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karri, Naveen K.; Mo, Changki

    2018-06-01

    Structural reliability of thermoelectric generation (TEG) systems still remains an issue, especially for applications such as large-scale industrial or automobile exhaust heat recovery, in which TEG systems are subject to dynamic loads and thermal cycling. Traditional thermoelectric (TE) system design and optimization techniques, focused on performance alone, could result in designs that may fail during operation as the geometric requirements for optimal performance (especially the power) are often in conflict with the requirements for mechanical reliability. This study focused on reducing the thermomechanical stresses in a TEG system without compromising the optimized system performance. Finite element simulations were carried out to study the effect of TE element (leg) geometry such as leg length and cross-sectional shape under constrained material volume requirements. Results indicated that the element length has a major influence on the element stresses whereas regular cross-sectional shapes have minor influence. The impact of TE element stresses on the mechanical reliability is evaluated using brittle material failure theory based on Weibull analysis. An alternate couple configuration that relies on the industry practice of redundant element design is investigated. Results showed that the alternate configuration considerably reduced the TE element and metallization stresses, thereby enhancing the structural reliability, with little trade-off in the optimized performance. The proposed alternate configuration could serve as a potential design modification for improving the reliability of systems optimized for thermoelectric performance.

  4. Thermoelectrics and its energy harvesting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    .... It details the latest techniques for the preparation of thermoelectric materials employed in energy harvesting, together with advances in the thermoelectric characterisation of nanoscale material...

  5. Statistical Analysis of the Figure of Merit of a Two-Level Thermoelectric System: A Random Matrix Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Abbout, Adel

    2016-08-05

    Using the tools of random matrix theory we develop a statistical analysis of the transport properties of thermoelectric low-dimensional systems made of two electron reservoirs set at different temperatures and chemical potentials, and connected through a low-density-of-states two-level quantum dot that acts as a conducting chaotic cavity. Our exact treatment of the chaotic behavior in such devices lies on the scattering matrix formalism and yields analytical expressions for the joint probability distribution functions of the Seebeck coefficient and the transmission profile, as well as the marginal distributions, at arbitrary Fermi energy. The scattering matrices belong to circular ensembles which we sample to numerically compute the transmission function, the Seebeck coefficient, and their relationship. The exact transport coefficients probability distributions are found to be highly non-Gaussian for small numbers of conduction modes, and the analytical and numerical results are in excellent agreement. The system performance is also studied, and we find that the optimum performance is obtained for half-transparent quantum dots; further, this optimum may be enhanced for systems with few conduction modes.

  6. Statistical Analysis of the Figure of Merit of a Two-Level Thermoelectric System: A Random Matrix Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Abbout, Adel; Ouerdane, Henni; Goupil, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Using the tools of random matrix theory we develop a statistical analysis of the transport properties of thermoelectric low-dimensional systems made of two electron reservoirs set at different temperatures and chemical potentials, and connected through a low-density-of-states two-level quantum dot that acts as a conducting chaotic cavity. Our exact treatment of the chaotic behavior in such devices lies on the scattering matrix formalism and yields analytical expressions for the joint probability distribution functions of the Seebeck coefficient and the transmission profile, as well as the marginal distributions, at arbitrary Fermi energy. The scattering matrices belong to circular ensembles which we sample to numerically compute the transmission function, the Seebeck coefficient, and their relationship. The exact transport coefficients probability distributions are found to be highly non-Gaussian for small numbers of conduction modes, and the analytical and numerical results are in excellent agreement. The system performance is also studied, and we find that the optimum performance is obtained for half-transparent quantum dots; further, this optimum may be enhanced for systems with few conduction modes.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF VACUUM SUBLIMATION DRYERS USING THERMOELECTRIC MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Barykin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The main directions of use of freeze-dryed products and ingredients are revealed. The analysis of sales markets of freeze-dryed products is provided. It is shown that introduction of innovative production technologies will allow to develop dynamically not only to the large companies, but also small firms that will create prerequisites for growth of the Russian market of freeze-dryed products. Tendencies of development of the freeze-drying equipment are analysed. Relevance of development of energy saving freeze-dryers is proved The integrated approach to creation of competitive domestic technologies and the equipment for sublimation dehydration of thermolabile products consists in use of the effective combined remedies of a power supply, a process intensification, reduction of specific energy consumption and, as a result, decrease in product cost at achievement of high quality indicators. Advantages of thermoelectric modules as alternative direction to existing vapor-compression and absorbing refrigerating appliances are given. Researches of process of freeze-drying dehydration with use of thermoelectric modules are conducted. It is scientifically confirmed, that the thermoelectric module working at Peltier effect, promotes increase in refrigerating capacity due to use of the principle of the thermal pump. Options of use of thermoelectric modules in designs of dryers are offered. Optimum operating modes and number of modules in section are defined. Ways of increase of power efficiency of freeze-dryers with use of thermoelectric modules are specified. The received results will allow to make engineering calculations and design of progressive freeze-drying installations with various ways of a power supply.

  8. Thermoelectrically induced nonlinear free vibration analysis of piezo laminated composite conical shell panel with random fiber orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Achchhe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the free vibration response of piezo laminated composite geometrically nonlinear conical shell panel subjected to a thermo-electrical loading. The temperature field is assumed to be a uniform distribution over the shell surface and through the shell thickness and the electric field is assumed to be the transverse component E2 only. The material properties are assumed to be independent of the temperature and the electric field. The basic formulation is based on higher order shear deformation plate theory (HSDT with von-Karman nonlinearity. A C0 nonlinear finite element method based on direct iterative approach is outlined and applied to solve nonlinear generalized eigenvalue problem. Parametric studies are carried out to examine the effect of amplitude ratios, stacking sequences, cone angles, piezoelectric layers, applied voltages, circumferential length to thickness ratios, change in temperatures and support boundary conditions on the nonlinear natural frequency of laminated conical shell panels. The present outlined approach has been validated with those available results in the literature.

  9. Numerical simulations on the temperature gradient and thermal stress of a thermoelectric power generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yongjia; Ming, Tingzhen; Li, Xiaohua; Pan, Tao; Peng, Keyuan; Luo, Xiaobing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An appropriate ceramic plate thickness is effective in alleviating the thermal stress. • A smaller distance between thermo-pins can help prolong lifecycle of the TE module. • Either a thicker or a thinner copper conducting strip effectively reduces thermal stress. • A suitable tin soldering thickness will alleviate thermal stress intensity and increase thermal efficiency. - Abstract: Thermoelectric generator is a device taking advantage of the temperature difference in thermoelectric material to generate electric power, where the higher the temperature difference of the hot-cold ends, the higher the efficiency will be. However, higher temperature or higher heat flux upon the hot end will cause strong thermal stress which will negatively influence the lifecycle of the thermoelectric module. This phenomenon is very common in industrial applications but seldom has research work been reported. In this paper, numerical analysis on the thermodynamics and thermal stress performance of the thermoelectric module has been performed, considering the variation on the thickness of materials; the influence of high heat flux on thermal efficiency, power output, and thermal stress has been examined. It is found that under high heat flux imposing upon the hot end, the thermal stress is so strong that it has a decisive effect on the life expectation of the device. To improve the module’s working condition, different geometrical configurations are tested and the optimum sizes are achieved. Besides, the side effects on the efficiency, power output, and open circuit voltage output of the thermoelectric module are taken into consideration

  10. Mg2BIV: Narrow Bandgap Thermoelectric Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho

    2018-05-01

    Thermoelectric materials can convert thermal energy directly into electric energy and vice versa. The electricity generation from waste heat via thermoelectric devices can be considered as a new energy source. For instance, automotive exhaust gas and all industrial processes generate an enormous amount of waste heat that can be converted to electricity by using thermoelectric devices. Magnesium compound Mg2BIV (BIV = Si, Ge or Sn) has a favorable combination of physical and chemical properties and can be a good base for the development of new efficient thermoelectrics. Because they possess similar properties to those of group BIV elemental semiconductors, they have been recognized as good candidates for thermoelectric applications. Mg2Si, Mg2Ge and Mg2Sn with an antifluorite structure are narrow bandgap semiconductors with indirect band gaps of 0.77 eV, 0.74 eV, and 0.35 eV, respectively. Mg2BIV has been recognized as a promising material for thermoelectric energy conversion at temperatures ranging from 500 K to 800 K. Compared to other thermoelectric materials operating in the similar temperature range, such as PbTe and filled skutterudites, the important aspects of Mg2BIV are non-toxic and earth-abundant elements. Based on classical thermoelectric theory, the material factor β ( m* / m e)3/2μκ L -1 can be utilized as the criterion for thermoelectric material selection, where m* is the density-of-states effective mass, me is the mass of an electron, μ is the carrier mobility, and κL is the lattice thermal conductivity. The β for magnesium silicides is 14, which is very high compared to 0.8 for iron silicides, 1.4 for manganese silicides, and 2.6 for silicon-germanium alloys. In this paper, basic phenomena of thermoelectricity and transport parameters for thermoelectric materials were briefly introduced, and thermoelectric properties of Mg2BIV synthesized by using a solid-state reaction were reviewed. In addition, various Mg2BIV compounds were discussed

  11. Experimental Investigation of Zinc Antimonide Thin Film Thermoelectric Element over Wide Range of Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhosseini, Mojtaba; Rezania, Alireza; Blichfeld, Anders B.

    2017-01-01

    flows in plane with the thin film. At first, the effect of applying different temperatures at the hot side of the specimen is investigated to reach steady state in an open circuit analysis. Then, the study focuses on performance and stability analysis of the thermoelectric element operating under......Zinc antimonide compounds are among the most efficient thermoelectric (TE) materials with exceptional low thermal conductivity at moderate temperatures up to 350 °C. This study aims to evaluate the performance of a zinc antimonide thin film TE deposited on an insulating substrate, while the heat...

  12. Nanoscale thermoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failamani, F.

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials directly convert thermal energy to electrical energy when subjected to a temperature gradient, whereas if electricity is applied to thermoelectric materials, a temperature gradient is formed. The performance of thermoelectric materials is characterized by a dimensionless figure of merit (ZT = S2T/ρλ), which consists of three parameters, Seebeck coefficient (S), electrical resistivity (ρ) and thermal conductivity (λ). To achieve good performance of thermoelectric power generation and cooling, ZT's of thermoelectric materials must be as high as possible, preferably above unity. This thesis comprises three main parts, which are distributed into six chapters: (i) nanostructuring to improve TE performance of trivalent rare earth-filled skutterudites (chapter 1 and 2), (ii) interactions of skutterudite thermolectrics with group V metals as potential electrode or diffusion barrier for TE devices (chapter 3 and 4), and (iii) search for new materials for TE application (chapter 5 and 6). Addition of secondary phases, especially nano sized phases can cause additional reduction of the thermal conductivity of a filled skutterudite which improves the figure of merit (ZT) of thermoelectric materials. In chapter 1 we investigated the effect of various types of secondary phases (silicides, borides, etc.) on the TE properties of trivalent rare earth filled Sb-based skutterudites as commercially potential TE materials. In this context the possibilty to introduce borides as nano-particles (via ball-milling in terms of a skutterudite/boride composite) is also elucidated in chapter 2. As a preliminary study, crystal structure of novel high temperature FeB-type phases found in the ternary Ta-{Ti,Zr,Hf,}-B systems were investigated. In case of Ti and Hf this phase is the high temperature stabilization of binary group IV metal monoborides, whereas single crystal study of (Ta,Zr)B proves that it is a true ternary phase as no stable monoboride exist in the

  13. Oxidant-Dependent Thermoelectric Properties of Undoped ZnO Films by Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyunho

    2017-02-27

    Extraordinary oxidant-dependent changes in the thermoelectric properties of undoped ZnO thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been observed. Specifically, deionized water and ozone oxidants are used in the growth of ZnO by ALD using diethylzinc as a zinc precursor. No substitutional atoms have been added to the ZnO films. By using ozone as an oxidant instead of water, a thermoelectric power factor (σS) of 5.76 × 10 W m K is obtained at 705 K for undoped ZnO films. In contrast, the maximum power factor for the water-based ZnO film is only 2.89 × 10 W m K at 746 K. Materials analysis results indicate that the oxygen vacancy levels in the water- and ozone-grown ZnO films are essentially the same, but the difference comes from Zn-related defects present in the ZnO films. The data suggest that the strong oxidant effect on thermoelectric performance can be explained by a mechanism involving point defect-induced differences in carrier concentration between these two oxides and a self-compensation effect in water-based ZnO due to the competitive formations of both oxygen and zinc vacancies. This strong oxidant effect on the thermoelectric properties of undoped ZnO films provides a pathway to improve the thermoelectric performance of this important material.

  14. Effect of reducing agent strength on the growth and thermoelectric performance of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Asmaa; Hassan, Nazly; Refaat, Heba M.; Soliman, Hesham M. A.; El-Dissouky, A.

    2018-03-01

    A novel combination of Trizma, as an environmentally friendly chelating agent, with either weak or strong reducing agent was used to produce n-type bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) nanocrystals via water-based chemical route. The synthesized powders were consolidated into pellets utilizing spark plasma sintering (SPS). The sintered n-type pellets exhibited potentially high electrical conductivities (5.29 × 105 and 5.23 × 105 S.m‑1) and low lattice thermal conductivities (0.12 and 0.25 Wm‑1K‑1) respectively. These thermoelectric (TE) properties suggested that the partially coherent boundaries permitted significant phonons scattering and electrons transfer. These led to an enhanced figure-of-merit (ZT) values (0.52 and 0.97), which are considered to be significant among the reported ZT values at room-temperature for the undoped synthesized n-type Bi2Te3 nanoparticles. Therefore, the current investigation displayed an efficient method to improve ZT of TE materials via nanostructure orchestrating, resulting in a worthy candidate n-type nanostructured Bi2Te3 for room-temperature TE applications.

  15. Effect of Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC module and the water flow heatsink on Photovoltaic (PV panel performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panel suffers in low conversion efficiency of the output performance affected by the elevated operating temperature of the PV panel. It is important to keep the PV panel to operate at low temperature. To address this issue, this paper proposes the cooling system using thermoelectric cooling (TEC and water block heatsink for enhancing the PV panel output performance. These both types cooling system were designed located on the back side of the PV panel to cool down the operating temperature of the PV panel. To evaluate the function for the existing cooling systems, the experiment was subsequently performed for PV panel without and with different design of the cooling system in outdoor weather conditions. By comparing the experimental results, it is concluded that by the hybrid cooling system which combining TEC module and the water block heatsink could improve the output performance of the PV panel. By the reduction temperature of the PV panel by 16.04 %, the average output power of the PV panel has been boosted up from 8.59 W to 9.03 W. In short, the output power of the PV panel was enhanced by the reduction of the operating temperature of the PV panel.

  16. Effect of Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC) module and the water flow heatsink on Photovoltaic (PV) panel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, A. R.; Jusoh, MA; Shamira Idris, Ida

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) panel suffers in low conversion efficiency of the output performance affected by the elevated operating temperature of the PV panel. It is important to keep the PV panel to operate at low temperature. To address this issue, this paper proposes the cooling system using thermoelectric cooling (TEC) and water block heatsink for enhancing the PV panel output performance. These both types cooling system were designed located on the back side of the PV panel to cool down the operating temperature of the PV panel. To evaluate the function for the existing cooling systems, the experiment was subsequently performed for PV panel without and with different design of the cooling system in outdoor weather conditions. By comparing the experimental results, it is concluded that by the hybrid cooling system which combining TEC module and the water block heatsink could improve the output performance of the PV panel. By the reduction temperature of the PV panel by 16.04 %, the average output power of the PV panel has been boosted up from 8.59 W to 9.03 W. In short, the output power of the PV panel was enhanced by the reduction of the operating temperature of the PV panel.

  17. Portable Thermoelectric Power Generator Coupled with Phase Change Material

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Chong C.; Al-Kayiem Hussain H.; Sing Chin Y.

    2014-01-01

    Solar is the intermittent source of renewable energy and all thermal solar systems having a setback on non-functioning during the night and cloudy environment. This paper presents alternative solution for power generation using thermoelectric which is the direct conversion of temperature gradient of hot side and cold side of thermoelectric material to electric voltage. Phase change material with latent heat effect would help to prolong the temperature gradient across thermoelectric material f...

  18. Critical review of thermoelectrics in modern power generation applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqr Khalid M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermoelectric complementary effects have been discovered in the nineteenth century. However, their role in engineering applications has been very limited until the first half of the twentieth century, the beginning of space exploration era. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators have been the actual motive for the research community to develop efficient, reliable and advanced thermoelectrics. The efficiency of thermoelectric materials has been doubled several times during the past three decades. Nevertheless, there are numerous challenges to be resolved in order to develop thermoelectric systems for our modern applications. This paper discusses the recent advances in thermoelectric power systems and sheds the light on the main problematic concerns which confront contemporary research efforts in that field.

  19. Silver as a highly effective bonding layer for lead telluride thermoelectric modules assembled by rapid hot-pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.C.; Drymiotis, F.; Liao, L.L.; Dai, M.J.; Liu, C.K.; Chen, C.L.; Chen, Y.Y.; Kao, C.R.; Snyder, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag serves as a promising bonding material for PbTe operating at T Hot ⩽ 400 °C. • The Ag foils reacted vigorously with PbTe to form Ag 2 Te at 550 °C. • The Seebeck coefficient of Ag/PbTe/Ag is slightly higher than that of pure PbTe. • A cost-effective way for long-term operations at high temperature. - Abstract: We use the rapid hot-pressing method to bond Ag foil onto pure PbTe in order to assess its effectiveness as a bonding layer material for thermoelectric module applications. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are employed to examine intermetallic compound formation and microstructure evolution during isothermal aging at 400 °C and 550 °C. We find that Ag is a promising bonding material for PbTe modules operating at T Hot ⩽ 400 °C. Additionally, our approach highlights a highly effective and inexpensive method to metallize PbTe prior to module assembly

  20. Thermoelectricity: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberg, S.; Mathonnet, P.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief recall of the basic principles of thermoelectricity, the essential characteristics intervening in the different thermoelectric devices operating modes are defined. Properties of the materials the most used nowadays and performances of the apparatus that they allow to realize are indicated. Advantages and drawbacks of the principal applications in the form of electrical generators, refrigerators and heat pumps are pointed out [fr

  1. Modelling of thermoelectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lasse

    In order to discover new good thermoelectric materials, there are essentially two ways. One way is to go to the laboratory, synthesise a new material, and measure the thermoelectric properties. The amount of compounds, which can be investigated this way is limited because the process is time...... consuming. Another approach is to model the thermoelectric properties of a material on a computer. Several crystal structures can be investigated this way without use of much man power. I have chosen the latter approach. Using density functional theory I am able to calculate the band structure of a material....... This band structure I can then use to calculate the thermoelectric properties of the material. With these results I have investigated several materials and found the optimum theoretical doping concentration. If materials with these doping concentrations be synthesised, considerably better thermoelectric...

  2. Development in Zn4Sb-based thermoelectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Hao

    or thermopower,  the electrical conductivity, the thermal conductivity and T the absolute temperature. The best thermoelectrics are heavily doped semiconductors with high thermoelectric power factors and low thermal conductivities, known as “Phonon Glasses Electrical Crystals”. Zn4Sb3 is one such material......-section. The following part reports the effect of nano-particles on the thermoelectric properties and thermal stability of Zn4Sb3. Though TiO2 nano particles have remarkably enhanced the stability, the thermoelectric performance of all the nano-composites deteriorates. Optimization of the content of the nano...

  3. Designing and testing the optimum design of automotive air-to-air thermoelectric air conditioner (TEAC) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimum design of automotive thermoelectric AC system is proposed. • It is optimized by combining the thermal isolation and the dimensionless methods. • An experiment is conducted to validate the analytical design. - Abstract: The current project is discussing the optimization of counter flow air-to-air thermoelectric air conditioners (TEAC) system. Previous work showed an analytical model with experimental validation of a unit cell of TEAC system. However, the focus of this work is to simulate the optimum design of a whole TEAC system from given inlet parameters (i.e., hot and cold air mass flow rates and ambient temperatures). The analytical model was built by combining an optimal design method with dimensional analysis, which was recently developed, and the thermal isolation method in order to optimize the thermoelectric parameters (i.e., electrical current supplied and the number of thermocouples or the geometric factor, simultaneously). Moreover, based on the designed model, an experiment was conducted in order to study the accuracy of the analytical model. Even though the analytical model was built based on the thermoelectric ideal equations, it shows a good agreement with the experiment. This agreement was mainly a result of the use of the thermoelectric effective material properties which are obtained from the measured maximum thermoelectric module parameters. Since the experiment validate the analytical model, this model provides uncomplicated method to study the optimum design at given inputs.

  4. Effect of high temperature annealing on the thermoelectric properties of GaP doped SiGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersande, Jan W.; Wood, Charles; Draper, Susan

    1987-01-01

    Silicon-germanium alloys doped with GaP are used for thermoelectric energy conversion in the temperature range 300-1000 C. The conversion efficiency depends on Z = S-squared/rho lambda, a material's parameter (the figure of merit), where S is the Seebeck coefficient, rho is the electrical resistivity and lambda is the thermal conductivity. The annealing of several samples in the temperature range of 1100-1300 C resulted in the power factor P (= S-squared/rho) increasing with increased annealing temperature. This increase in P was due to a decrease in rho which was not completely offset by a drop in S-squared suggesting that other changes besides that in the carrier concentration took place. SEM and EDX analysis of the samples indicated the formation of a Ga-P-Ge rich phase as a result of the annealing. It is speculated that this phase is associated with the improved properties. Several reasons which could account for the improvement in the power factor of annealed GaP doped SiGe are given.

  5. Effect of Printing Parameters on Tensile, Dynamic Mechanical, and Thermoelectric Properties of FDM 3D Printed CABS/ZnO Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yah Yun Aw

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modelling (FDM has been widely used in medical appliances, automobile, aircraft and aerospace, household appliances, toys, and many other fields. The ease of processing, low cost and high flexibility of FDM technique are strong advantages compared to other techniques for thermoelectric polymer composite fabrication. This research work focuses on the effect of two crucial printing parameters (infill density and printing pattern on the tensile, dynamic mechanical, and thermoelectric properties of conductive acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/zinc oxide (CABS/ZnO composites fabricated by FDM technique. Results revealed significant improvement in tensile strength and Young’s modulus, with a decrease in elongation at break with infill density. Improvement in dynamic storage modulus was observed when infill density changed from 50% to 100%. However, the loss modulus and damping factor reduced gradually. The increase of thermal conductivity was relatively smaller compared to the improvement of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, therefore, the calculated figure of merit (ZT value increased with infill density. Line pattern performed better than rectilinear, especially in tensile properties and electrical conductivity. From the results obtained, FDM-fabricated CABS/ZnO showed much potential as a promising candidate for thermoelectric application.

  6. Effect of Printing Parameters on Tensile, Dynamic Mechanical, and Thermoelectric Properties of FDM 3D Printed CABS/ZnO Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Yah Yun; Yeoh, Cheow Keat; Idris, Muhammad Asri; Teh, Pei Leng; Hamzah, Khairul Amali; Sazali, Shulizawati Aqzna

    2018-03-22

    Fused deposition modelling (FDM) has been widely used in medical appliances, automobile, aircraft and aerospace, household appliances, toys, and many other fields. The ease of processing, low cost and high flexibility of FDM technique are strong advantages compared to other techniques for thermoelectric polymer composite fabrication. This research work focuses on the effect of two crucial printing parameters (infill density and printing pattern) on the tensile, dynamic mechanical, and thermoelectric properties of conductive acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/zinc oxide (CABS/ZnO composites fabricated by FDM technique. Results revealed significant improvement in tensile strength and Young's modulus, with a decrease in elongation at break with infill density. Improvement in dynamic storage modulus was observed when infill density changed from 50% to 100%. However, the loss modulus and damping factor reduced gradually. The increase of thermal conductivity was relatively smaller compared to the improvement of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, therefore, the calculated figure of merit (ZT) value increased with infill density. Line pattern performed better than rectilinear, especially in tensile properties and electrical conductivity. From the results obtained, FDM-fabricated CABS/ZnO showed much potential as a promising candidate for thermoelectric application .

  7. The Effects of Doping and Processing on the Thermoelectric Properties of Platinum Diantimonide Based Materials for Cryogenic Peltier Cooling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Spencer Laine

    The study of thermoelectrics is nearly two centuries old. In that time a large number of applications have been discovered for these materials which are capable of transforming thermal energy into electricity or using electrical work to create a thermal gradient. Current use of thermoelectric materials is in very niche applications with contemporary focus being upon their capability to recover waste heat. A relatively undeveloped region for thermoelectric application is focused upon Peltier cooling at low temperatures. Materials based on bismuth telluride semiconductors have been the gold standard for close to room temperature applications for over sixty years. For applications below room temperature, semiconductors based on bismuth antimony reign supreme with few other possible materials. The cause of this diculty in developing new, higher performing materials is due to the interplay of the thermoelectric properties of these materials. The Seebeck coecient, which characterizes the phenomenon of the conversion of heat to electricity, the electrical conductivity, and the thermal conductivity are all interconnected properties of a material which must be optimized to generate a high performance thermoelectric material. While for above room temperature applications many advancements have been made in the creation of highly ecient thermoelectric materials, the below room temperature regime has been stymied by ill-suited properties, low operating temperatures, and a lack of research. The focus of this work has been to investigate and optimize the thermoelectric properties of platinum diantimonide, PtSb2, a nearly zero gap semiconductor. The electronic properties of PtSb2 are very favorable for cryogenic Peltier applications, as it exhibits good conductivity and large Seebeck coecient below 200 K. It is shown that both n- and p-type doping may be applied to this compound to further improve its electronic properties. Through both solid solution formation and processing

  8. Parametric and exergetic analysis of waste heat recovery system based on thermoelectric generator and organic rankine cycle utilizing R123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Zhao, Jian; Tian, Hua; Liang, Xingyu; Wei, Haiqiao

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the combined TEG-ORC (thermoelectric generator and organic rankine cycle) used in exhaust heat recovery of ICE (internal combustion engine) theoretically. A theoretical model is proposed to calculate the optimal parameters of the bottoming cycle based on thermodynamic theory when net output power and volumetric expansion ratio are selected as objective functions, which affect system performance and size. The effects of relative TEG flow direction, TEG scale, highest temperature, condensation temperature, evaporator pressure and efficiency of IHE (internal heat exchanger) on system performance are investigated. R123 is chosen among the fluids whose decomposition temperature exceeds 600 K to avoid fluid resolving and resulting in wet stroke when expansion process ends. The thermodynamic irreversibility that occurs in evaporator, turbine, IHE, condenser, pump and TEG is revealed at target working areas. The results indicate a significant increase of system performance when TEG and IHE are combined with ORC bottoming cycle. It is also suggested that TEG-ORC system is suitable to recovering waste heat from engines, because TEG can extend the temperature range of heat source and thereby improve the security and fuel economy of engines. -- Highlights: ► Development of a TEG-ORC system using R123 as working fluid for WHR of engines. ► Performance of the developed cycle was investigated theoretically. ► Optimization of configurations and parameters can be obtained. ► Irreversibility in the evaporator, turbine, IHE, condenser, pump and TEG is revealed. ► Optimal net power and indicated efficiency is 27 kW and 45.7%, respectively.

  9. Effect of linear and non-linear components in the temperature dependences of thermoelectric properties on the energy conversion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    The new thermal rate equations were built up by taking the linear and non-linear components in the temperature dependences of the Seebeck coefficient α, the electrical resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ of a thermoelectric (TE) material into the thermal rate equations on the assumption that their temperature dependences are expressed by a quadratic function of temperature T. The energy conversion efficiency η for a single TE element was formulated using the new thermal rate ones proposed here. By applying it to the high-performance half-Heusler compound, the non-linear component in the temperature dependence of α among those of the TE properties has the greatest effect on η, so that η/η 0 was increased by 11% under the condition of T = 510 K and ΔT = 440 K, where η 0 is a well-known conventional energy conversion efficiency. It was thus found that the temperature dependences of TE properties have a significant influence on η. When one evaluates the accurate achievement rate of η exp obtained experimentally for a TE generator, therefore, η exp should be compared with η the estimated from the theoretical expression proposed here, not with η 0 , particularly when there is a strong non-linearity in the temperature dependence of TE properties.

  10. Exploring the doping effects of Ag in p-type PbSe compounds with enhanced thermoelectric performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanyu; Zheng, Gang; Luo, Tingting; She, Xiaoyu; Li, Han; Tang, Xinfeng

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we prepared a series of Ag-doped PbSe bulk materials by a melting-quenching process combined with a subsequent spark plasma sintering process, and systematically investigated the doping effects of Ag on the thermoelectric properties. Ag substitution in the Pb site does not introduce resonant levels near the valence band edge or detectable change in the density of state in the vicinity of the Fermi level, but moves the Fermi level down and increases the carrier concentration to a maximum value of ~4.7 × 1019 cm-3 which is still insufficient for heavily doped PbSe compounds. Nonetheless, the non-monotonic variation in carrier concentration with increasing Ag content indicates that Ag doping reaches the solution limit at ~1.0% and the excessive Ag presumably acts as donors in the materials. Moreover, the large energy gap of the PbSe-based material wipes off significant 'roll-over' in the Seebeck coefficient at elevated temperatures which gives rise to high power factors, being comparable to p-type Te analogues. Consequently, the maximum ZT reaches ~1.0 for the 1.5% Ag-doped samples with optimized carrier density, which is ~70% improvement in comparison with an undoped sample and also superior to the commercialized p-type PbTe materials.

  11. Exploring the doping effects of Ag in p-type PbSe compounds with enhanced thermoelectric performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shanyu; Zheng Gang; Luo Tingting; She Xiaoyu; Li Han; Tang Xinfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we prepared a series of Ag-doped PbSe bulk materials by a melting-quenching process combined with a subsequent spark plasma sintering process, and systematically investigated the doping effects of Ag on the thermoelectric properties. Ag substitution in the Pb site does not introduce resonant levels near the valence band edge or detectable change in the density of state in the vicinity of the Fermi level, but moves the Fermi level down and increases the carrier concentration to a maximum value of ∼4.7 × 10 19 cm -3 which is still insufficient for heavily doped PbSe compounds. Nonetheless, the non-monotonic variation in carrier concentration with increasing Ag content indicates that Ag doping reaches the solution limit at ∼1.0% and the excessive Ag presumably acts as donors in the materials. Moreover, the large energy gap of the PbSe-based material wipes off significant 'roll-over' in the Seebeck coefficient at elevated temperatures which gives rise to high power factors, being comparable to p-type Te analogues. Consequently, the maximum ZT reaches ∼1.0 for the 1.5% Ag-doped samples with optimized carrier density, which is ∼70% improvement in comparison with an undoped sample and also superior to the commercialized p-type PbTe materials.

  12. Thermoelectric coolers as power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, E.J.; Buist, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    There are many applications where thermoelectric (TE) coolers can be used effectively as power generators. The literature available on this subject is scarce and very limited in scope. This paper describes the configuration, capability, limitations and performance of TE coolers to be used as power generators. Also presented are performance curves enabling the user to design the optimum TE module for any given power generation application

  13. Impurity band effects on transport and thermoelectric properties of Fe2 -xNixVAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, I.; Budinska, B.; Milosavljevic, D.; Heinrich, P.; Khmelevskyi, S.; Moser, R.; Podloucky, R.; Prenninger, P.; Bauer, E.

    2017-07-01

    Full Heusler alloys of the series Fe2 -xNixVAl ,0 ≤x ≤0.2 , were prepared and characterized, and their physical properties, relevant to the thermoelectric performance of such materials, were studied in a wide temperature range. The starting material Fe2VAl is characterized by a pseudogap of the electronic density of states near the Fermi energy, with a gap width of the order of 1 eV. Density functional theory calculations were performed by application of two approaches. In the framework of the local-spin-density approximation and coherent potential approximation, the electronic densities of states of substitutional alloys were calculated, revealing that with increasing Ni content the Fermi energy moves toward the conduction band, and consequently, the nature of electronic transport changes from p type to n type. It appears that Ni, due to its extra electrons, provides a narrow impurity band near the Fermi level. These states can be made responsible for the experimentally observed evolution of transport properties. Furthermore, the Vienna ab initio Simulation package (vasp) was utilized for deriving electronic, structural, and vibrational properties of ordered Fe2VAl and Fe1.75Ni0.25VAl . In particular, it is found that due to Ni substitution there is a general shift to lower phonon frequencies by about 2 THz as compared to the undoped case. Associated to these modifications, the electrical resistivity, ρ (T ) , changes from a semiconducting-like behavior to a nonsimple metallic behavior, while the Seebeck coefficient reaches values of the order of -80 μ V /K around room temperature for the sample x =0.2 . The increase of the Ni content, in addition, goes along with a substantial reduction of the lattice part of the thermal conductivity. This change is analyzed in detail in terms of a disorder parameter Γ , characterizing the derangement of the crystalline lattice due to the substitution of Fe by Ni. Ab initio calculations of the phonon dynamics carried out

  14. The thermoelectric process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vining, C B

    1997-07-01

    The efficiency of thermoelectric technology today is limited by the properties of available thermoelectric materials and a wide variety of new approaches to developing better materials have recently been suggested. The key goal is to find a material with a large ZT, the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit. However, if an analogy is drawn between thermoelectric technology and gas-cycle engines then selecting different materials for the thermoelements is analogous to selecting a different working gas for the mechanical engine. And an attempt to improve ZT is analogous to an attempt to improve certain thermodynamic properties of the working-gas. An alternative approach is to focus on the thermoelectric process itself (rather than on ZT), which is analogous to considering alternate cycles such as Stirling vs. Brayton vs. Rankine etc., rather than merely considering alternative gases. Focusing on the process is a radically different approach compared to previous studies focusing on ZT. Aspects of the thermoelectric process and alternative approaches to efficient thermoelectric conversion are discussed.

  15. Thermoelectric Powered Wireless Sensors for Dry-Cask Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Thomas Alan

    This study focuses on the development of self-powered wireless sensors. These sensors can be used to measure key parameters in extreme environments; e.g., temperature monitoring for spent nuclear fuel during dry-cask storage. This study has developed a design methodology for these self-powered monitoring systems. The main elements that constitute this work consist of selecting and testing a power source for the wireless sensor, determination of the attenuation of the wireless signal, and testing the wireless sensor circuitry in an extreme environment. OrigenArp determined the decay heat and gamma/neutron source strength of the spent fuel throughout the service life of the dry-cask. A first principles analysis modeled the temperatures inside the dry-cask. A finite-element heat transfer code calculated the temperature distribution of the thermoelectric and heat sink. The temperature distributions determine the power produced by the thermoelectric. It was experimentally verified that a thermoelectric generator (HZ-14) with a DC/DC converter (Linear Technology LTC3108EDE) can power a transceiver (EmbedRF) at condition which represent prototypical conditions throughout and beyond the service life of the dry-cask. The wireless sensor is required to broadcast with enough power to overcome the attenuation from the dry-cask. It will be important to minimize the attenuation of the signal in order to broadcast with a small transmission power. To investigate the signal transmission through the dry-cask, CST Microwave Studio was used to determine the scattering parameter S2,1 for a horizontal dry-cask. Important parameters that can influence the transmission of the signal are antenna orientation, antenna placement, and transmission frequency. The thermoelectric generator, DC/DC converter, and transceiver were exposed to 60Co gamma radiation (exposure rate170.3 Rad/min) at the University of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center. The effects of gamma radiation on the

  16. A Review on the Fabrication of Polymer-Based Thermoelectric Materials and Fabrication Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Muhammad Akmal; Sahamir, Shahrir Razey; Datta, Robi Shankar; Long, Bui Duc; Mohd Sabri, Mohd Faizul; Mohd Said, Suhana

    2013-01-01

    Thermoelectricity, by converting heat energy directly into useable electricity, offers a promising technology to convert heat from solar energy and to recover waste heat from industrial sectors and automobile exhausts. In recent years, most of the efforts have been done on improving the thermoelectric efficiency using different approaches, that is, nanostructuring, doping, molecular rattling, and nanocomposite formation. The applications of thermoelectric polymers at low temperatures, especially conducting polymers, have shown various advantages such as easy and low cost of fabrication, light weight, and flexibility. In this review, we will focus on exploring new types of polymers and the effects of different structures, concentrations, and molecular weight on thermoelectric properties. Various strategies to improve the performance of thermoelectric materials will be discussed. In addition, a discussion on the fabrication of thermoelectric devices, especially suited to polymers, will also be given. Finally, we provide the challenge and the future of thermoelectric polymers, especially thermoelectric hybrid model. PMID:24324378

  17. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits

  18. Thermoelectric single-photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzanyan, A A; Petrosyan, V A; Kuzanyan, A S

    2012-01-01

    The ability to detect a single photon is the ultimate level of sensitivity in the measurement of optical radiation. Sensors capable of detecting single photons and determining their energy have many scientific and technological applications. Kondo-enhanced Seebeck effect cryogenic detectors are based on thermoelectric heat-to-voltage conversion and voltage readout. We evaluate the prospects of CeB 6 and (La,Ce)B 6 hexaboride crystals for their application as a sensitive element in this type of detectors. We conclude that such detectors can register a single UV photon, have a fast count rate (up to 45 MHz) and a high spectral resolution of 0.1 eV. We calculate the electric potential generated along the thermoelectric sensor upon registering a UV single photon.

  19. Thermal dynamics of thermoelectric phenomena from frequency resolved methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García-Cañadas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of thermoelectric (TE phenomena is important for the detailed knowledge of the operation of TE materials and devices. By analyzing the impedance response of both a single TE element and a TE device under suspended conditions, we provide new insights into the thermal dynamics of these systems. The analysis is performed employing parameters such as the thermal penetration depth, the characteristic thermal diffusion frequency and the thermal diffusion time. It is shown that in both systems the dynamics of the thermoelectric response is governed by how the Peltier heat production/absorption at the junctions evolves. In a single thermoelement, at high frequencies the thermal waves diffuse semi-infinitely from the junctions towards the half-length. When the frequency is reduced, the thermal waves can penetrate further and eventually reach the half-length where they start to cancel each other and further penetration is blocked. In the case of a TE module, semi-infinite thermal diffusion along the thickness of the ceramic layers occurs at the highest frequencies. As the frequency is decreased, heat storage in the ceramics becomes dominant and starts to compete with the diffusion of the thermal waves towards the half-length of the thermoelements. Finally, the cancellation of the waves occurs at the lowest frequencies. It is demonstrated that the analysis is able to identify and separate the different physical processes and to provide a detailed understanding of the dynamics of different thermoelectric effects.

  20. Solar thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toberer, Eric S.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Warren, Emily L.

    2016-05-03

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from concentrated sunlight. A novel detailed balance model for STEGs is provided and applied to both state-of-the-art and idealized materials. STEGs can produce electricity by using sunlight to heat one side of a thermoelectric generator. While concentrated sunlight can be used to achieve extremely high temperatures (and thus improved generator efficiency), the solar absorber also emits a significant amount of black body radiation. This emitted light is the dominant loss mechanism in these generators. In this invention, we propose a solution to this problem that eliminates virtually all of the emitted black body radiation. This enables solar thermoelectric generators to operate at higher efficiency and achieve said efficient with lower levels of optical concentration. The solution is suitable for both single and dual axis solar thermoelectric generators.

  1. Development and optimization of a stove-powered thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastbergen, Dan

    Almost a third of the world's population still lacks access to electricity. Most of these people use biomass stoves for cooking which produce significant amounts of wasted thermal energy, but no electricity. Less than 1% of this energy in the form of electricity would be adequate for basic tasks such as lighting and communications. However, an affordable and reliable means of accomplishing this is currently nonexistent. The goal of this work is to develop a thermoelectric generator to convert a small amount of wasted heat into electricity. Although this concept has been around for decades, previous attempts have failed due to insufficient analysis of the system as a whole, leading to ineffective and costly designs. In this work, a complete design process is undertaken including concept generation, prototype testing, field testing, and redesign/optimization. Detailed component models are constructed and integrated to create a full system model. The model encompasses the stove operation, thermoelectric module, heat sinks, charging system and battery. A 3000 cycle endurance test was also conducted to evaluate the effects of operating temperature, module quality, and thermal interface quality on the generator's reliability, lifetime and cost effectiveness. The results from this testing are integrated into the system model to determine the lowest system cost in $/Watt over a five year period. Through this work the concept of a stove-based thermoelectric generator is shown to be technologically and economically feasible. In addition, a methodology is developed for optimizing the system for specific regional stove usage habits.

  2. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

    2007-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

  3. Thermoelectric transport in superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinecke, T L; Broido, D A

    1997-07-01

    The thermoelectric transport properties of superlattices have been studied using an exact solution of the Boltzmann equation. The role of heat transport along the barrier layers, of carrier tunneling through the barriers, of valley degeneracy and of the well width and energy dependences of the carrier-phonon scattering rates on the thermoelectric figure of merit are given. Calculations are given for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and for PbTe, and the results of recent experiments are discussed.

  4. Optimization of a waste heat recovery system with thermoelectric generators by three-dimensional thermal resistance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Gia-Yeh; Hsu, Cheng-Ting; Fang, Chun-Jen; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The waste heat recovery system is modeled by three-dimensional thermal resistance. • This is a time-saving and efficient method to estimate power generation from TEGs. • Relations between power generation and varied factors can be rapidly revealed. • TEGs positions and uniformity of velocity profile should be considered together. • Power generation is more sensitive to either internal or external flow velocity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) thermal resistance analysis provides a rapid and simple method to estimate the power generated from a waste heat recovery system with thermoelectric generators (TEGs), and facilitates an optimization of the system. Such a system comprises three parts – a waste heat recovery chamber, TEG modules and a cooling system. A fin-structured duct serves as a waste heat recovery chamber, which is attached to the hot sides of the TEGs; the cold sides of the TEGs are attached to a cooling system. The waste heat recovery chamber harvests energy from exhaust heat that the TEGs convert into electricity. The estimation of generated power is an important part of the system design. Methods of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) assist the analysis and improve the performance with great accuracy but great computational duration. The use of this method saves much time relative to such CFD methods. In 3D thermal resistance analysis, a node of unknown temperature is located at the centroid of each cell into which the system is divided. The relations of unknown temperatures at the cells are based on the energy conservation and the definition of thermal resistance. The temperatures of inlet waste hot gas and ambient fluid are known. With these boundary conditions, the unknown temperatures in the system are solved, enabling estimation of the power generated with TEGs. A 3D model of the system was simulated with FloTHERM; its numerical solution matched the solution of the 3D thermal resistance analysis within 6%. The power

  5. Universal Majorana thermoelectric noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Sergey

    2018-04-01

    Thermoelectric phenomena resulting from an interplay between particle flows induced by electric fields and temperature inhomogeneities are extremely insightful as a tool providing substantial knowledge about the microscopic structure of a given system. By tuning, e.g., parameters of a nanoscopic system coupled via tunneling mechanisms to two contacts, one may achieve various situations where the electric current induced by an external bias voltage competes with the electric current excited by the temperature difference of the two contacts. Even more exciting physics emerges when the system's electronic degrees freedom split to form Majorana fermions which make the thermoelectric dynamics universal. Here, we propose revealing these unique universal signatures of Majorana fermions in strongly nonequilibrium quantum dots via noise of the thermoelectric transport beyond linear response. It is demonstrated that whereas mean thermoelectric quantities are only universal at large-bias voltages, the noise of the electric current excited by an external bias voltage and the temperature difference of the contacts is universal at any bias voltage. We provide truly universal, i.e., independent of the system's parameters, thermoelectric ratios between nonlinear response coefficients of the noise and mean current at large-bias voltages where experiments may easily be performed to uniquely detect these truly universal Majorana thermoelectric signatures.

  6. First-principles study on doping and temperature dependence of thermoelectric property of Bi2S3 thermoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Donglin; Hu, Chenguo; Zhang, Cuiling

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The direction-induced ZT is found. At ZZ direction and n = 1.47 × 10 19 cm −3 , the ZT can reach maximal value, 0.36, which is three times as much as maximal laboratorial value. This result matches well the analysis of electron effective mass. Highlights: ► Electrical transportations of Bi 2 S 3 depend on the concentration and temperature. ► The direction-induced ZT is found. ► At ZZ direction and n = 1.47 × 10 19 cm −3 , the ZT can reach maximal value, 0.36. ► The maximal ZT value is three times as much as maximal laboratorial value. ► By doping and temperature tuning, Bi 2 S 3 is a promising thermoelectric material. - Abstract: The electronic structure and thermoelectric property of Bi 2 S 3 are investigated. The electron and hole effective mass of Bi 2 S 3 is analyzed in detail, from which we find that the thermoelectric transportation varies in different directions in Bi 2 S 3 crystal. Along ac plane the higher figure of merit (ZT) could be achieved. For n-type doped Bi 2 S 3 , the optimal doping concentration is found in the range of (1.0–5.0) × 10 19 cm −3 , in which the maximal ZT reaches 0.21 at 900 K, but along ZZ direction, the maximal ZT reaches 0.36. These findings provide a new understanding of thermoelectricity-dependent structure factors and improving ZT ways. The donor concentration N increases as T increases at one bar of pressure under a suitable chemical potential μ, but above this chemical potential μ, the donor concentration N keeps a constant

  7. A design approach for integrating thermoelectric devices using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soprani, Stefano; Haertel, Jan Hendrik Klaas; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2016-01-01

    Efficient operation of thermoelectric devices strongly relies on the thermal integration into the energy conversion system in which they operate. Effective thermal integration reduces the temperature differences between the thermoelectric module and its thermal reservoirs, allowing the system...... to operate more efficiently. This work proposes and experimentally demonstrates a topology optimization approach as a design tool for efficient integration of thermoelectric modules into systems with specific design constraints. The approach allows thermal layout optimization of thermoelectric systems...... for different operating conditions and objective functions, such as temperature span, efficiency, and power recoveryrate. As a specific application, the integration of a thermoelectric cooler into the electronics section ofa downhole oil well intervention tool is investigated, with the objective of minimizing...

  8. Thermal economical analysis of plants configuration proposed for expansion of a thermoelectric power plant; Analise termoeconomica de configuracoes de plantas propostas para a expansao de uma usina termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Fabiano P.; Romao Junior, Ricardo A.; Mashiba, Marcos H.S.; Dib, Fernando H.; Maia, Cassio R.M.; Ramos, Ricardo A.V. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira (FEIS). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: pagliosa@dem.feis.unesp.br; fhdib@aluno.feis.unesp.br; rarjunior@aluno.feis.unesp.br; mashiba@dem.feis.unesp.br; cassio@dem.feis.unesp.br; ramos@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper performs thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses applied to a thermoelectric natural gas primarily open cycle power plant and posteriorly operating at combined cycle, with heat recovery steam generator with 1, 2 and 3 pressure level respectively. For the system thermodynamic, mass conservation, entropy and exergy balance equations are applied, considering a control volume for each equipment composing the plant. Using thermoeconomic analysis it is possible to evaluate the reflexes of the capital and fuel costs on the composition of the electricity generated, through the exergy fluxes, the exergy unitary costs and the exergoeconomic costs (US$/MWh), besides the costs for the produced powers. The plant is still submitted to known techniques of investment analysis for economical viability verification taking into account the investment and natural gas costs and the energy sales.

  9. Modeling and simulation of thermoelectric device working as a heat pump and an electric generator under Mediterranean climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nimr, Moh'd A.; Tashtoush, Bourhan M.; Jaradat, Ahmad A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of a small thermoelectric device used primarily as a heat pump and secondarily as an electricity generator when space heating and cooling are not required and incident solar radiation is sufficient. As a power generator, the thermoelectric device is integrated with an evacuated solar collector to utilize solar power. Performance of the thermoelectric device as a heat pump and as an electric generator is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The purpose of this study is to estimate the energy savings from using the thermoelectric device in its electricity generation mode. The potential of energy saving because of this electricity generation mode function, has been examined in three different cases. These cases represent the operation of the dual mode thermoelectric system in typical home, school and office buildings in the Mediterranean region. In addition, the effects of different parameters, such as the solar radiation and ambient conditions, on the device performance were investigated for both modes as well as parameters related to the device itself. Furthermore, hours of operation were estimated and the economic feasibility of the device was evaluated. Results of this study include performance curves of the thermoelectric device in both modes as well as the estimation of the payback period for Mediterranean regions. - Highlights: • A thermoelectric device in dual mode integrated with an evacuated tube is studied. • The device is used as a heat pump and as an electricity generator. • Performance curves describing the behavior of the system have been resulted. • Energy saving by the system are calculated and presented for a period of one year. • Economic analysis of the system has been included.

  10. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on the thermoelectric properties of the ɛ-polytype of InSe, GaSe, and InGaSe2 semiconductor compounds: an ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, H.; Olguín, D.; Cantarero, A.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents an ab initio study of the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the Seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric power factors of the ɛ-polytype of InSe, GaSe, and InGaSe2 semiconductor compounds. Our study is performed using the semi-classical Boltzmann theory and the rigid band approach. The electronic band structures of these materials are calculated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. The obtained thermoelectric properties are discussed in terms of the results of the electronic structure calculations. As we will show, our calculated Seebeck coefficient values indicate that these materials are good alternatives to other well-studied thermoelectric systems.

  11. Measurement and characterization techniques for thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tritt, T M

    1997-07-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric materials can pose many problems. A temperature difference can be established across these materials as an electrical current is passed due to the Peltier effect. The thermopower of these materials is quite large and thus large thermal voltages can contribute to many of the measurements necessary to investigate these materials. This paper will discuss the chracterization techniques necessary to investigate these materials and provide an overview of some of the potential systematic errors which can arise. It will also discuss some of the corrections one needs to consider. This should provide an introduction to the characterization and measurement of thermoelectric materials and provide references for a more in depth discussion of the concepts. It should also serve as an indication of the care that must be taken while working with thermoelectric materials.

  12. Effects of Synthesis and Processing on the Thermoelectric Properties of Ca3Co4O9+δ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, NingYu; Holgate, Tim; Van Nong, Ngo

    In the present study, Ca3Co4O9+δ was synthesized by solid-state and sol-gel reactions followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) under different conditions such as sintering temperatures, applied pressures and ramping rates. The materials were then characterized with respect to their microstructure......, phase purity and thermoelectric properties. With the identical optimal SPS process, the power factor of about 400 µW/m•K2 and 465 µW/m•K2 (at 800 °C) is measured from samples produced by solid-state and sol-gel reactions respectively, both of these values are higher than the value reported so far....... The thermoelectric performance improvement observed for the solid-state and sol-gel reactions suggests that the particle sizes may be a predominant key parameter of the Ca3Co4O9+δ thermoelectric properties. Smaller particle size (500 nm) as produced in this study by sol-gel synthesis method with optimal SPS process...

  13. Depth-profile analysis of thermoelectric layers on Si wafers by pulsed r.f. glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsberg, K.-G.; Schumacher, C.; Tempez, A.; Nielsch, K.; Broekaert, J.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the depth-profile analysis of thermoelectric layers deposited on Au and Cr covered Si wafers with the aid of pulsed radiofrequency glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry (pulsed RF-GD-TOFMS also called plasma profiling TOFMS (PP-TOFMS™)) is described. For thermoelectric materials the depth resolutions obtained with both PP-TOFMS and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are shown to be well comparable and in the order of the roughness of the corresponding layers (between 20 and 3700 nm). With both methods a direct solid analysis without any preparation steps is possible. In addition, the analysis of the samples with PP-TOFMS proved to be faster by a factor of 26 compared to SIMS, as sputtering rates were found to be 80 nm s −1 and 3 nm s −1 , respectively. For the analyzed samples the results of PP-TOFMS and SIMS show that a homogeneous deposition was obtained. Quantitative results for all samples could also be obtained directly by PP-TOFMS when the stoichiometry of one sample was determined beforehand for instance by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SEM-EDX). For Bi 2 Te 3 the standard deviation for the main component concentrations within one sample then is found to be between 1.1% and 1.9% and it is 3.6% from sample to sample. For Sb 2 Te 3 the values within one sample are from 1.7% to 4.2% and from sample to sample 5.3%, respectively. - Highlights: ► Depth resolution in sub micrometer size by glow discharge mass spectrometry. ► Bi and Sb telluride layers composition with GD-TOF-MS, ICP-OES and SEM-EDX agree. ► Homogeneities of layers measured with GD-TOF-MS and SIMS agree.

  14. Low cost thermoelectric module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpeerapun, T.; Hirunlabh, J. [King Mongkut Univ. of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand); Zeghmati, B. [Perpignan Univ., Perpignan (France). Faculty of Sciences; Scherrer, H.; Dauscher, A.; Weber, S.; Jahed, H.M.; Lernoir, B.; Kosalathip, V. [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux; Khedari, J. [South-East Asia Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The properties of a bismuth-telluride-antimony (Bi{sub x}Sb{sub 2-8}Te{sub 3}) polycrystalline thermoelectric material prepared using a novel melting and hot pressing process were investigated. The aim of the study was to synthesize the materials without the need for doping. Materials were weighed and placed in a quartz tube, which was sealed under vacuum and heated in a rocking furnace from room temperature to 750 degrees C over a period of 1 hour. Temperatures were maintained at 750 degrees C for a further 2 hours. The sample was then removed from the furnace and suddenly quenched in water. The ingot was then crushed into a powder using an agate mortar and sieved. Samples exhibiting a cylindrical shape were reserved. Samples were then examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine their morphology and homogeneity. A sample pellet was then prepared for thermal conductivity measurements at room temperature. the pellet was nickel-plated on both sides and stacked between circular copper disks with thermocouples. Data were collected when the system reached thermal equilibrium. The Seebeck coefficient was measured by applying a small temperature difference. Results showed that the process effectively transformed the base materials into an alloy. It was concluded that the hot pressing successfully synthesized the materials. 6 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  15. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride-organic hybrid films via graphene doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Airul Azha Abd; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Salleh, Muhamad Mat; Chen, Xiaomei; Oyama, Munetaka

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of graphene-doped bismuth telluride-PEDOT:PSS-glycerol (hybrid) films were investigated. Prior to the study, p-type and n-type hybrid films were prepared by doping the PEDOT:PSS-glycerol with the p- and n-type bismuth telluride. Graphene-doped hybrid films were prepared by adding graphene particles of concentration ranging from 0.02 to 0.1 wt% into the hybrid films. Films of graphene-doped hybrid system were then prepared on a glass substrate using a spin-coating technique. It was found that the electrical conductivity of the hybrid films increases with the increasing of the graphene-dopant concentration and optimum at 0.08 wt% for both p- and n-type films, namely 400 and 195 S/cm, respectively. Further increasing in the concentration caused a decreasing in the electrical conductivity. Analysis of the thermoelectric properties of the films obtained that the p-type film exhibited significant improvement in its thermoelectric properties, where the thermoelectric properties increased with the increasing of the doping concentration. Meanwhile, for the case of n-type film, graphene doping showed a negative effect to the thermoelectrical properties, where the thermoelectric properties decreased with the increasing of doping concentration. Seebeck coefficient (and power factor) for optimum p-type and n-type hybrid thin films, i.e., doped with 0.08 wt% of graphene, is 20 μV/K (and 160 μW m -1 K -2 ) and 10 μV/K (and 19.5 μW m -1 K -2 ), respectively. The obtained electrical conductivity and thermoelectric properties of graphene-doped hybrid film are interestingly several orders higher than the pristine hybrid films. A thermocouple device fabricated utilizing the p- and n-type graphene-doped hybrid films can generate an electric voltage as high as 2.2 mV under a temperature difference between the hot-side and the cold-side terminal as only low as 55 K. This is equivalent to the output power as high as 24.2 nW (for output load as high as 50

  16. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  17. Peltier coefficient measurement in a thermoelectric module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, Javier; Casanovas, Alejandro; Chimeno, José María

    2013-01-01

    A new method for measuring the Peltier coefficient in a thermocouple X/Y based on the energy balance at the junction has been proposed recently. This technique needs only the hot and cold temperatures of a thermoelectric module when an electric current flows through it as the operational variables. The temperature evolutions of the two module sides provide an evident and accurate idea of the Peltier effect. From these temperatures, the heat transfer between the module and the ambient is also evaluated. The thermoelectric phenomena are described in the framework of an observable theory. Based on this procedure, an experiment is presented for a university teaching laboratory at the undergraduate level. (paper)

  18. Quantum confinement effects on the thermoelectric figure of merit in Si/Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, X; Dresselhaus, M S; Wang, K L; Tanner, M O

    1997-07-01

    The Si/Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x} quantum well system is attractive for high temperature thermoelectric applications and for demonstration of proof-of-principle for enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit Z, since the interfaces and carrier densities can be well controlled in this system. The authors report here theoretical calculations for Z in this system, and results from theoretical modeling of quantum confinement effects in the presence of {delta}-doping within the barrier layers. The {delta}-doping layers are introduced by growing very thin layers of wide band gap materials within the barrier layers in order to increase the effective barrier height within the barriers and thereby reduce the barrier width necessary for the quantum confinement of carriers within the quantum well. The overall figure of merit is thereby enhanced due to the reduced barrier width and hence reduced thermal conductivity, {kappa}. The {delta}-doping should further reduce {kappa} in the barriers by introducing phonon scattering centers within the barrier region. The temperature dependence of Z for Si quantum wells is also discussed.

  19. Strategies for discovery and optimization of thermoelectric materials: Role of real objects and local fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Xiao, Chong

    2018-06-01

    Thermoelectric materials provide a renewable and eco-friendly solution to mitigate energy shortages and to reduce environmental pollution via direct heat-to-electricity conversion. Discovery of the novel thermoelectric materials and optimization of the state-of-the-art material systems lie at the core of the thermoelectric society, the basic concept behind these being comprehension and manipulation of the physical principles and transport properties regarding thermoelectric materials. In this mini-review, certain examples for designing high-performance bulk thermoelectric materials are presented from the perspectives of both real objects and local fields. The highlights of this topic involve the Rashba effect, Peierls distortion, local magnetic field, and local stress field, which cover several aspects in the field of thermoelectric research. We conclude with an overview of future developments in thermoelectricity.

  20. Introduction to thermoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmid, H Julian

    2016-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of thermoelectric energy conversion. It covers both theory and practice. The book is timely as it refers to the many improvements that have come about in the last few years through the use of nanostructures. The concept of semiconductor thermoelements led to major advances during the second half of the twentieth century, making Peltier refrigeration a widely used technique. The latest materials herald thermoelectric generation as the preferred technique for exploiting low-grade heat. The book shows how progress has been made by increasing the thermal resistivity of the lattice until it is almost as large as it is for glass. It points the way towards the attainment of similar improvements in the electronic parameters. It does not neglect practical considerations, such as the desirability of making thermocouples from inexpensive and environmentally acceptable materials. The second edition was extended to also include recent advances in thermoelectric ener...

  1. Spatial profile of thermoelectric effects during Peltier pulsing in Bi and Bi/MnBi eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, R. P.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The spatial profile of the thermal transients that occur during and following the current pulsing associated with Peltier Interface Demarcation during directional solidification is studied. Results for pure Bi are presented in detail and compared with corresponding results for the Bi/MnBi eutectic. Significant thermal transients occur throughout the sample that can be accounted for by the Peltier effect, the Thomson effect, and Joule heating. These effects are separated and their behavior is studied as a function of time, current density, and position with respect to the solid/liquid interface.

  2. A study on heat transfer enhancement using flow channel inserts for thermoelectric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesage, Frédéric J.; Sempels, Éric V.; Lalande-Bertrand, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal enhancement in a thermoelectric liquid generator is tested. • Thermal enhancement is brought upon by flow impeding inserts. • CFD simulations attribute thermal enhancement to velocity field alterations. • Thermoelectric power enhancement is measured and discussed. • Power enhancement relative to adverse pressure drop is investigated. - Abstract: Thermoelectric power production has many potential applications that range from microelectronics heat management to large scale industrial waste-heat recovery. A low thermoelectric conversion efficiency of the current state of the art prevents wide spread use of thermoelectric modules. The difficulties lie in material conversion efficiency, module design, and thermal system management. The present study investigates thermoelectric power improvement due to heat transfer enhancement at the channel walls of a liquid-to-liquid thermoelectric generator brought upon by flow turbulating inserts. Care is taken to measure the adverse pressure drop due to the presence of flow impeding obstacles in order to measure the net thermoelectric power enhancement relative to an absence of inserts. The results illustrate the power enhancement performance of three different geometric forms fitted into the channels of a thermoelectric generator. Spiral inserts are shown to offer a minimal improvement in thermoelectric power production whereas inserts with protruding panels are shown to be the most effective. Measurements of the thermal enhancement factor which represents the ratio of heat flux into heat flux out of a channel and numerical simulations of the internal flow velocity field attribute the thermal enhancement resulting in the thermoelectric power improvement to thermal and velocity field synergy

  3. Effect of high pressure sintering and annealing on microstructure and thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 doped with Gd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zou; Guiying Xun; Song Wang; Penglei Chen; Fengzhu Huang

    2014-01-01

    Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 of high performance doped with Gd bulk materials was prepared by a high pressure (6.0 GPa) sintering (HPS) method at 593 K, 633 K, 673 K and 693 K. The sample was then annealed for 36 h in a vacuum at 633 K. The phase composition, crystal structure and morphology of the sample were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electric conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity aspects of the sample were measured from 298 K to 473 K. The results show that high pressure sintering and the doping with Gd has a great effect on the crystal structure and the thermoelectric properties of the samples. The samples are consisted of nanoparticles before and after annealing, and these nanostructures have good stability at high temperature. HPS together with annealing can improve the TE properties of the sample by decreasing the thermal conductivity of the sample with nanostructures. The maximum ZT value of 0.74 was obtained at 423 K for the sample, which was sintered at 673 K and then annealed at 633 K for 36 h. Compared with the zone melting sample, it was increased by 85%at 423 K. Hence the temperature of the maximum of figure of merit was increased. The results can be applied to the field of thermoelectric power generation materials.

  4. Compatibility of Segments of Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Ursell, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    A method of calculating (usually for the purpose of maximizing) the power-conversion efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator is based on equations derived from the fundamental equations of thermoelectricity. Because it is directly traceable to first principles, the method provides physical explanations in addition to predictions of phenomena involved in segmentation. In comparison with the finite-element method used heretofore to predict (without being able to explain) the behavior of a segmented thermoelectric generator, this method is much simpler to implement in practice: in particular, the efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator can be estimated by evaluating equations using only hand-held calculator with this method. In addition, the method provides for determination of cascading ratios. The concept of cascading is illustrated in the figure and the definition of the cascading ratio is defined in the figure caption. An important aspect of the method is its approach to the issue of compatibility among segments, in combination with introduction of the concept of compatibility within a segment. Prior approaches involved the use of only averaged material properties. Two materials in direct contact could be examined for compatibility with each other, but there was no general framework for analysis of compatibility. The present method establishes such a framework. The mathematical derivation of the method begins with the definition of reduced efficiency of a thermoelectric generator as the ratio between (1) its thermal-to-electric power-conversion efficiency and (2) its Carnot efficiency (the maximum efficiency theoretically attainable, given its hot- and cold-side temperatures). The derivation involves calculation of the reduced efficiency of a model thermoelectric generator for which the hot-side temperature is only infinitesimally greater than the cold-side temperature. The derivation includes consideration of the ratio (u) between the

  5. Thermoelectric microgenerators. Current status and prospects of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strutynska L. T.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of current status and prospects of using thermoelectric microgenerators, including organic-fueled ones, is performed. Developments of thermoelectric microgenerators presented in this review demonstrate that their increasingly wide use forms a separate, very important line of thermoelectricity – micropower generation with growing potential of practical applications for charging batteries, mobile phones, digital cameras and photocameras, power supply to small radio stations, other portable devices, including medical. The ways of increasing the efficiency of such devices and relevant lines of their wide use in practice are determined.

  6. Thermoelectric air-cooling module for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Chang, Chih-Chung; Ke, Ming-Tsun; Chen, Sih-Li

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the thermoelectric air-cooling module for electronic devices. The effects of heat load of heater and input current to thermoelectric cooler are experimentally determined. A theoretical model of thermal analogy network is developed to predict the thermal performance of the thermoelectric air-cooling module. The result shows that the prediction by the model agrees with the experimental data. At a specific heat load, the thermoelectric air-cooling module reaches the best cooling performance at an optimum input current. In this study, the optimum input currents are from 6 A to 7 A at the heat loads from 20 W to 100 W. The result also demonstrates that the thermoelectric air-cooling module performs better performance at a lower heat load. The lowest total temperature difference-heat load ratio is experimentally estimated as -0.54 W K -1 at the low heat load of 20 W, while it is 0.664 W K -1 at the high heat load of 100 W. In some conditions, the thermoelectric air-cooling module performs worse than the air-cooling heat sink only. This article shows the effective operating range in which the cooling performance of the thermoelectric air-cooling module excels that of the air-cooling heat sink only.

  7. Thermoelectric System Absorbing Waste Heat from a Steel Ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baiyi; Meng, Xiangning; Zhu, Miaoyong; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2018-06-01

    China's iron and steel industry has made great progress in energy savings and emission reductions with the application of many waste heat recovery technologies. However, most of the medium and low temperature waste heat and radiant waste heat has not been effectively utilized. This paper proposes a thermoelectric system that generates electricity by absorbing the radiant heat from the surface of steel ladles in a steel plant. The thermoelectric behavior of modules in this system is analyzed by a numerical simulation method. The effects of external resistance and module structure on thermoelectric performance are also discussed in the temperature range of the wall surface of a steel ladle. The results show that the wall temperature has a significant influence on the thermoelectric behavior of the module, so its uniformity and stability should be considered in practical application. The ratio of the optimum external resistance to the internal resistance of the thermoelectric module is in the range of 1.6-2.0, which indicates the importance of external load optimization for a given thermoelectric system. In addition, the output power and the conversion efficiency of the module can be significantly improved by increasing the length of the thermoelectric legs and adopting a double-layer structure. Finally, through the optimization of external resistance and structure, the power output can reach 83-304 W/m2. This system is shown to be a promising approach for energy recovery.

  8. Parametric optimization designs of a thermoelectric refrigeration device existing Zeeman and Coulomb effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guangping; Lin, Bihong; Wu, Guocan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model of the quantum dot refrigeration devices is established. • The effects of the Zeeman and Coulomb effects on performance are discussed. • Maximum cooling rate and coefficient of performance are calculated. • Upper boundary of the optimal region of the device is discussed. • Optimum choice criteria of some important parameters are provided. - Abstract: A general class of quantum dot refrigeration devices, which is consisting of a single orbital interacting quantum dot and two metal leads with different temperatures and chemical potentials, is established. In the model, not only the Zeeman splitting of energy levels resulting from an external magnetic field but also the effect of a linear fade of the Coulomb energy caused by the splitting are taken into account simultaneously. Based on the quantum master equation, the occupation probabilities of quantum states for the electron are determined under the steady state condition. The general expressions of the particle fluxes, heat flows, power input, cooling rate and the coefficient of performance (COP) are derived. The influences of the energy level and external magnetic field on the performance of the refrigerator are discussed in detail. By applying numerical simulations, three-dimensional diagrams of the cooling rate and COP varying with the magnetic field and energy level are given. The maximum COP and the optimal values of corresponding parameters as well as the maximum cooling rate are obtained. The optimal regions of the magnetic field and the energy level are determined. The optimized scopes of the COP and cooling rate are provided. Some important conclusions in the previous literatures can be directly deduced from the current model under the different extreme conditions.

  9. Theoretical Analysis of Two Novel Hybrid Thermoelectric-Photovoltaic Systems Based on Cu₂ZnSnS₄ Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Bruno; Contento, Gaetano; Sabatelli, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Antonella; Narducci, Dario

    2017-03-01

    The development and commercialization of Photovoltaic (PV) cells with good cost-efficiency trade-off not using critical raw materials (CRMs) is one of the strategies chosen by the European Community (EC) to address the Energy Roadmap 2050. In this context Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cells are attracting a major interest since they have the potential to combine low price with relatively high conversion efficiencies. Although a ≈9% lab scale efficiency has already been reported for CZTS this technology is still far from being competitive in terms of cost per peak-power (€/Wp) with other common materials. One possible near-future solution to increase the CZTS competiveness comes from thermoelectrics. Actually it has already been shown that Hybrid Thermoelectric-Photovoltaic Systems (HTEPVs) based on CIGS, another kesterite very similar to CZTS, can lead to a significant efficiency improvement. However it has been also clarified how the optimal hybridization strategy cannot come from the simple coupling of solar cells with commercial TEGs, but special layouts have to be implemented. Furthermore, since solar cell performances are well known to decrease with temperature, thermal decoupling strategies of the PV and TEG sections have to be taken. To address these issues, we developed a model for two different HTEPV solutions, both coupled with CZTS solar cells. In the first case we considered a Thermally-Coupled HTEPV device (TC-HTEPV) in which the TEG is placed underneath the solar cell and in thermal contact with it. The second system consists instead of an Optically-Coupled but thermally decoupled device (OC-HTEPV) in which part of the solar spectrum is focused by a non-imaging optical concentrator on the TEG hot side. For both solutions the model returns conversion efficiencies higher than that of the CZTS solar cell alone. Specifically, increases of ≈30% are predicted for both kind of systems considered.

  10. Thermal conductivity anisotropy in holey silicon nanostructures and its impact on thermoelectric cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongqing; Lee, Jaeho

    2018-01-01

    Artificial nanostructures have improved prospects of thermoelectric systems by enabling selective scattering of phonons and demonstrating significant thermal conductivity reductions. While the low thermal conductivity provides necessary temperature gradients for thermoelectric conversion, the heat generation is detrimental to electronic systems where high thermal conductivity are preferred. The contrasting needs of thermal conductivity are evident in thermoelectric cooling systems, which call for a fundamental breakthrough. Here we show a silicon nanostructure with vertically etched holes, or holey silicon, uniquely combines the low thermal conductivity in the in-plane direction and the high thermal conductivity in the cross-plane direction, and that the anisotropy is ideal for lateral thermoelectric cooling. The low in-plane thermal conductivity due to substantial phonon boundary scattering in small necks sustains large temperature gradients for lateral Peltier junctions. The high cross-plane thermal conductivity due to persistent long-wavelength phonons effectively dissipates heat from a hot spot to the on-chip cooling system. Our scaling analysis based on spectral phonon properties captures the anisotropic size effects in holey silicon and predicts the thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio up to 20. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the thermoelectric cooling effectiveness of holey silicon is at least 30% greater than that of high-thermal-conductivity bulk silicon and 400% greater than that of low-thermal-conductivity chalcogenides; these results contrast with the conventional perception preferring either high or low thermal conductivity materials. The thermal conductivity anisotropy is even more favorable in laterally confined systems and will provide effective thermal management solutions for advanced electronics.

  11. Thermal conductivity anisotropy in holey silicon nanostructures and its impact on thermoelectric cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongqing; Lee, Jaeho

    2018-01-26

    Artificial nanostructures have improved prospects of thermoelectric systems by enabling selective scattering of phonons and demonstrating significant thermal conductivity reductions. While the low thermal conductivity provides necessary temperature gradients for thermoelectric conversion, the heat generation is detrimental to electronic systems where high thermal conductivity are preferred. The contrasting needs of thermal conductivity are evident in thermoelectric cooling systems, which call for a fundamental breakthrough. Here we show a silicon nanostructure with vertically etched holes, or holey silicon, uniquely combines the low thermal conductivity in the in-plane direction and the high thermal conductivity in the cross-plane direction, and that the anisotropy is ideal for lateral thermoelectric cooling. The low in-plane thermal conductivity due to substantial phonon boundary scattering in small necks sustains large temperature gradients for lateral Peltier junctions. The high cross-plane thermal conductivity due to persistent long-wavelength phonons effectively dissipates heat from a hot spot to the on-chip cooling system. Our scaling analysis based on spectral phonon properties captures the anisotropic size effects in holey silicon and predicts the thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio up to 20. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the thermoelectric cooling effectiveness of holey silicon is at least 30% greater than that of high-thermal-conductivity bulk silicon and 400% greater than that of low-thermal-conductivity chalcogenides; these results contrast with the conventional perception preferring either high or low thermal conductivity materials. The thermal conductivity anisotropy is even more favorable in laterally confined systems and will provide effective thermal management solutions for advanced electronics.

  12. Fe-Doping Effect on Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Bi0.48Sb1.52Te3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeona Mun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The substitutional doping approach has been shown to be an effective strategy to improve ZT of Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric raw materials. We herein report the Fe-doping effects on electronic and thermal transport properties of polycrystalline bulks of p-type Bi0.48Sb1.52Te3. After a small amount of Fe-doping on Bi/Sb-sites, the power factor could be enhanced due to the optimization of carrier concentration. Additionally, lattice thermal conductivity was reduced by the intensified point-defect phonon scattering originating from the mass difference between the host atoms (Bi/Sb and dopants (Fe. An enhanced ZT of 1.09 at 300 K was obtained in 1.0 at% Fe-doped Bi0.48Sb1.52Te3 by these synergetic effects.

  13. Thermoelectrode for thermoelectric converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodiul, Pavel; Bondarciuc, Nicolae; Ghitu, Dumitru; Nikolaeva, Albina; Konopko, Leonid; Turcan, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to the electronic engneering and can be used for manufacturing of thermoelectrodes for thermoelectric converters. The thermoelectrode is made of semiconductor anisotropic material in the form of thread in glass insulation. At the same timer, the thread is made of stannum-doped tellurium in the ratio of 0.1...3 at.%.

  14. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Oxides for Energy Harvesting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2015-01-01

    of thermoelectrics are still limited to one materials system, namely SiGe, since the traditional thermoelectric materials degrade and oxidize at high temperature. Therefore, oxide thermoelectrics emerge as a promising class of materials since they can operate

  15. A design approach for integrating thermoelectric devices using topology optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soprani, S.; Haertel, J.H.K.; Lazarov, B.S.; Sigmund, O.; Engelbrecht, K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The integration of a thermoelectric (TE) cooler into a robotic tool is optimized. • Topology optimization is suggested as design tool for TE integrated systems. • A 3D optimization technique using temperature dependent TE properties is presented. • The sensitivity of the optimization process to the boundary conditions is studied. • A working prototype is constructed and compared to the model results. - Abstract: Efficient operation of thermoelectric devices strongly relies on the thermal integration into the energy conversion system in which they operate. Effective thermal integration reduces the temperature differences between the thermoelectric module and its thermal reservoirs, allowing the system to operate more efficiently. This work proposes and experimentally demonstrates a topology optimization approach as a design tool for efficient integration of thermoelectric modules into systems with specific design constraints. The approach allows thermal layout optimization of thermoelectric systems for different operating conditions and objective functions, such as temperature span, efficiency, and power recovery rate. As a specific application, the integration of a thermoelectric cooler into the electronics section of a downhole oil well intervention tool is investigated, with the objective of minimizing the temperature of the cooled electronics. Several challenges are addressed: ensuring effective heat transfer from the load, minimizing the thermal resistances within the integrated system, maximizing the thermal protection of the cooled zone, and enhancing the conduction of the rejected heat to the oil well. The design method incorporates temperature dependent properties of the thermoelectric device and other materials. The 3D topology optimization model developed in this work was used to design a thermoelectric system, complete with insulation and heat sink, that was produced and tested. Good agreement between experimental results and

  16. Nanostructured silicon for thermoelectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranz, A.; Kähler, J.; Waag, A.; Peiner, E.

    2011-06-01

    Thermoelectric modules convert thermal energy into electrical energy and vice versa. At present bismuth telluride is the most widely commercial used material for thermoelectric energy conversion. There are many applications where bismuth telluride modules are installed, mainly for refrigeration. However, bismuth telluride as material for energy generation in large scale has some disadvantages. Its availability is limited, it is hot stable at higher temperatures (>250°C) and manufacturing cost is relatively high. An alternative material for energy conversion in the future could be silicon. The technological processing of silicon is well advanced due to the rapid development of microelectronics in recent years. Silicon is largely available and environmentally friendly. The operating temperature of silicon thermoelectric generators can be much higher than of bismuth telluride. Today silicon is rarely used as a thermoelectric material because of its high thermal conductivity. In order to use silicon as an efficient thermoelectric material, it is necessary to reduce its thermal conductivity, while maintaining high electrical conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient. This can be done by nanostructuring into arrays of pillars. Fabrication of silicon pillars using ICP-cryogenic dry etching (Inductive Coupled Plasma) will be described. Their uniform height of the pillars allows simultaneous connecting of all pillars of an array. The pillars have diameters down to 180 nm and their height was selected between 1 micron and 10 microns. Measurement of electrical resistance of single silicon pillars will be presented which is done in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with nanomanipulators. Furthermore, measurement of thermal conductivity of single pillars with different diameters using the 3ω method will be shown.

  17. Potency of Thermoelectric Generator for Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandy Putra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric Generator (TEG has been known as electricity generation for many years. If the temperature difference occurred between two difference semi conductor materials, the current will flow in the material and produced difference voltage. This principle is known as Seebeck effect that is the opposite of Peltier effect Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC. This research was conducted to test the potential of electric source from twelve peltier modules. Then, these thermoelectric generators were applied in hybrid car by using waste heat from the combustion engine. The experiment has been conducted with variations of peltier module arrangements (series and parallels and heater as heat source for the thermoelectric generator, with variations of heater voltage input (110V and 220V applied. The experimental result showed that twelve of peltier modules arranged in series and heater voltage of 220V generated power output of 8.11 Watts with average temperature difference of 42.82°C. This result shows that TEG has a bright prospect as alternative electric source.

  18. Lead telluride with increased mechanical stability for cylindrical thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    remain at a very high level, reaching a maximum figure of merit ZT around 1.2. In addition to the thermoelectric properties the mechanical properties of lanthanum doped lead telluride were studied for the first time within this work. Lanthanum significantly increases the hardness of PbTe. SEM analysis of sintered samples reveals vast amounts of lanthanum rich precipitates within the matrix. This is partly attributed to the chosen route for material synthesis. Furthermore, the doped material's thermoelectric properties are highly unstable. The reason for this still has to be investigated. Based on the process and material developments described in this work a prototype of a tubular thermoelectric generator was constructed. In the course of this construction a process for sintering rings and tubes of lead telluride was developed and successfully implemented.

  19. Non-invasive method of determination of thermoelectric materials figure of merit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashcheulov А. А.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric effects arising in a sample placed in a measuring oscillating loop have been studied. It has been shown that asymmetric character of flowing current results in a volumetric bundle of induced Foucault currents and regions of Peltier heat release by thermoelectric sample which leads to increasing of irreversible heat losses recorded by measuring oscillating loop. The presence of this effect has caused the emergence of ingenious non-invasive method for recording of thermoelectric materials figure of merit.

  20. High thermoelectric performance of graphite nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van-Truong; Saint-Martin, Jérôme; Dollfus, Philippe; Volz, Sebastian

    2018-02-22

    Graphite nanofibers (GNFs) have been demonstrated to be a promising material for hydrogen storage and heat management in electronic devices. Here, by means of first-principles and transport simulations, we show that GNFs can also be an excellent material for thermoelectric applications thanks to the interlayer weak van der Waals interaction that induces low thermal conductance and a step-like shape in the electronic transmission with mini-gaps, which are necessary ingredients to achieve high thermoelectric performance. This study unveils that the platelet form of GNFs in which graphite layers are perpendicular to the fiber axis can exhibit outstanding thermoelectric properties with a figure of merit ZT reaching 3.55 in a 0.5 nm diameter fiber and 1.1 in a 1.1 nm diameter one. Interestingly, by introducing 14 C isotope doping, ZT can even be enhanced up to more than 5, and more than 8 if we include the effect of finite phonon mean free path, which demonstrates the amazing thermoelectric potential of GNFs.

  1. Thermoelectric cooling container for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aivazov, A A; Shtern, Y I; Budaguan, B G; Makhrachev, K B; Pastor, M

    1997-07-01

    In this work the thermoelectric cooling container for storing and transportation of the medicine, particularly for insulin, is discussed. In the working volume the temperature is supported on the level of +4 C. The container can work in two operating conditions: with the power supply and without the power supply. Two removable blocks are used for this purpose. One block (thermoelectric) is used for the work with the power supply and another (passive)-for the work without power supply. The thermoelectric block has a 12V power supply, which is used in the automobiles, yachts and other kinds of transport. The temperature in the working volume is supported by the use of the Peltier effect. An electronic device is used in this block and stabilizes temperature on the level of +4 C and indicates information about working conditions. The thermoelectric container has a power supply block for work at 220(110)V. The working temperature in the container can be maintained in the absence of the power supply. In this case the necessary temperature conditions are supported by melting of the crystallized salt. For this purpose the container has a hermetic volume containing this salt and contacting with the working volume.

  2. Interference enhanced thermoelectricity in quinoid type structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strange, M., E-mail: strange@chem.ku.dk; Solomon, G. C. [Nano-Science Center and Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Seldenthuis, J. S.; Verzijl, C. J. O.; Thijssen, J. M. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-02-28

    Quantum interference (QI) effects in molecular junctions may be used to obtain large thermoelectric responses. We study the electrical conductance G and the thermoelectric response of a series of molecules featuring a quinoid core using density functional theory, as well as a semi-empirical interacting model Hamiltonian describing the π-system of the molecule which we treat in the GW approximation. Molecules with a quinoid type structure are shown to have two distinct destructive QI features close to the frontier orbital energies. These manifest themselves as two dips in the transmission, that remain separated, even when either electron donating or withdrawing side groups are added. We find that the position of the dips in the transmission and the frontier molecular levels can be chemically controlled by varying the electron donating or withdrawing character of the side groups as well as the conjugation length inside the molecule. This feature results in a very high thermoelectric power factor S{sup 2}G and figure of merit ZT, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, making quinoid type molecules potential candidates for efficient thermoelectric devices.

  3. Impact of the substrate on the efficiency of thin film thermoelectric technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Quintana, J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectricity is one of the simplest technologies for thermal energy conversion. Moreover, because of their relatively low efficiency, bulk thermoelectric materials are generally used in environments where their solid state nature outweighs their poor efficiency. Nevertheless, low dimensional thermoelectric materials shed a light in order to achieve higher thermoelectric performance than their bulk counterparts via quantum and spatial confinement of energy carriers. The Thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is the basic criterion for estimating the performance of thermoelectric materials. In this work, by way of an extension of the Harman method to thin films onto substrate to evaluate ZT it is shown that the solely presence of a substrate affects significantly the intrinsic value of the ZT independently of the electrical and thermal nature of the substrate. Furthermore, the model unveils that as the thickness ratio between substrate and thin film increases, the parameter ZT sharply tends to zero; this effect opens a serious problem to overcome by the thin film thermoelectric technology, especially at nanoscale. In this sense, challenges in order to engineering planar thermoelectric devices at micro/nanoscale are properly identified. - Highlights: • Extended Harman method to evaluate ZT of thin films onto substrate is presented. • ZT of thermoelectric thin films is strongly affected by substrate's nature. • Thin dielectric substrates are desirable to hold ZT in in-plane configuration. • Film/substrate thickness ratio play important role on the device performance. • Challenges to engineering planar thermoelectric devices are properly identified

  4. Depth-profile analysis of thermoelectric layers on Si wafers by pulsed r.f. glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinsberg, K.-G. [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Schumacher, C. [Institute for Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Tempez, A. [HORIBA Jobin Yvon, 16-18 rue du Canal, F-91160 Longjumeau (France); Nielsch, K. [Institute for Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Broekaert, J.A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    In this work the depth-profile analysis of thermoelectric layers deposited on Au and Cr covered Si wafers with the aid of pulsed radiofrequency glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry (pulsed RF-GD-TOFMS also called plasma profiling TOFMS (PP-TOFMS Trade-Mark-Sign )) is described. For thermoelectric materials the depth resolutions obtained with both PP-TOFMS and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are shown to be well comparable and in the order of the roughness of the corresponding layers (between 20 and 3700 nm). With both methods a direct solid analysis without any preparation steps is possible. In addition, the analysis of the samples with PP-TOFMS proved to be faster by a factor of 26 compared to SIMS, as sputtering rates were found to be 80 nm s{sup -1} and 3 nm s{sup -1}, respectively. For the analyzed samples the results of PP-TOFMS and SIMS show that a homogeneous deposition was obtained. Quantitative results for all samples could also be obtained directly by PP-TOFMS when the stoichiometry of one sample was determined beforehand for instance by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SEM-EDX). For Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} the standard deviation for the main component concentrations within one sample then is found to be between 1.1% and 1.9% and it is 3.6% from sample to sample. For Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} the values within one sample are from 1.7% to 4.2% and from sample to sample 5.3%, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depth resolution in sub micrometer size by glow discharge mass spectrometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi and Sb telluride layers composition with GD-TOF-MS, ICP-OES and SEM-EDX agree. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneities of layers measured with GD-TOF-MS and SIMS agree.

  5. Effects of Yttrium and Iron co-doping on the high temperature thermoelectric properties of Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+δ}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, NingYu, E-mail: niwu@dtu.dk; Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini; Linderoth, Søren

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • The Fe and Fe/Y doping at the Co- and Ca-sites of Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+δ} were investigated. • The rising ρ by Y doping can be mitigated by the coupled Fe doping. • The increased Seebeck coefficient by Y doping can be maintained in co-doped system. • The co-doped system leads to an improvement of the thermoelectric performance. • The co-doped system may preserve the merits from each component doping. - Abstract: A series of Y and Fe co-doped Ca{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}Co{sub 4−y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 9+δ} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.3, 0 ⩽ y ⩽ 0.1) samples synthesized by auto-combustion reaction and followed by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) processing with the effects of Fe and Y doping on the high temperature (RT to 800 °C) thermoelectric properties were systematically investigated. For the Fe-doped system (x = 0, y ⩽ 0.1), the electrical resistivity (ρ) decreased over the whole measured temperature range, while the Seebeck coefficient (S) remained almost the same. For the co-doped system, at any fixed Fe doping content, both ρ and S tended to increase with increasing Y dopants, however, the effect is more substantial on ρ than on S, particularly in the low temperature regime. In contrast to ρ and S, the in-plane thermal conductivity (κ) is only slightly influenced by Y and Fe substitutions. Among all the investigated samples, the co-doped sample with x = 0.1 and y = 0.03 showed a decrease of ρ, enhanced power factor over the measured temperature range, and improved ZT at 800 °C as compared to un-doped Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+δ}.

  6. Review—Organic Materials for Thermoelectric Energy Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Cowen, Lewis M.; Atoyo, Jonathan; Carnie, Matthew J.; Baran, Derya; Schroeder, Bob C.

    2017-01-01

    Organic semiconductor materials have been promising alternatives to their inorganic counterparts in several electronic applications such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, field effect transistors as well as thermoelectric generators. Their low cost, light weight and flexibility make them appealing in future applications such as foldable electronics and wearable circuits using printing techniques. In this report, we present a mini-review on the organic materials that have been used for thermoelectric energy generation.

  7. Method of manufacturing a layer thermoelectric battery. Herstellungsverfahren fuer Schichtthermobatterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidorenko, N.S.; Kolomoets, N.V.; Daschevsky, Z.M.; Granovsky, V.I.; Schemtschuschina, E.A.; Chernousov, L.N.; Schmidt, I.A.; Nikolaschina, L.A.; Gelfgat, D.M.; Sgibnev, I.V.

    1980-08-21

    A method of manufacturing a layer thermoelectric battery is described, whereby a film of a thermoelectric semiconductor material which is an n-type stoichiometric solid solution containing Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 is deposited on a substrate. Then heating is effected so that adjacent arms of the film are at different temperatures, some at a temperature of not above 300/sup 0/C, and others at a temperature of not less than 350/sup 0/C.

  8. Review—Organic Materials for Thermoelectric Energy Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Cowen, Lewis M.

    2017-01-29

    Organic semiconductor materials have been promising alternatives to their inorganic counterparts in several electronic applications such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, field effect transistors as well as thermoelectric generators. Their low cost, light weight and flexibility make them appealing in future applications such as foldable electronics and wearable circuits using printing techniques. In this report, we present a mini-review on the organic materials that have been used for thermoelectric energy generation.

  9. Thermoelectric properties of layered antiferromagnetic CuCrSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, Girish C.; Tripathi, T.S.; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit

    2014-01-01

    Here we study thermoelectric and magnetic properties of CuCrSe 2 samples sintered at various temperatures. Structural analysis with XRD shows an order-disorder transition for Cr atoms when the sintering temperature is increased above 1273 K. Metal-like electrical resistivity and anomalously large Seebeck coefficient are found about room temperature. Analysis of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the partially-disordered phase suggests hopping conduction of charge carriers. For both the ordered and disordered phases magnetic susceptibility follows Curie–Weiss temperature dependence at high temperatures above 150 K and shows an antiferromagnetic transition around 55 K. For the disordered phase, the effective magnetic moment is determined at 3.62 μ B ; this low value in comparison to the spin only value for Cr 3+ of 3.89 μ B indicates spin fluctuations in the paramagnetic state. The thermal conductivity in these phases is low and dominated by the lattice contribution. Values for the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) at room temperature are estimated to be 0.17 and 0.05 for the ordered and disordered phases, respectively. - Highlights: • Thermoelectric and magnetic properties of CuCrSe 2 samples are investigated. • The properties strongly depend on the degree of order of chromium atoms. • The degree of order is controlled by the sintering temperature. • Room-temperature figure of merit is estimated at 0.17 for the ordered phase. • For the disordered phase the figure of merit is lower

  10. Microwatt thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goslee, D.E.; Bustard, T.S.

    1976-01-01

    A microwatt thermoelectric generator suitable for implanting in the body is described. The generator utilizes a nuclear energy source. Provision is made for temporary electrical connection to the generator for testing purposes, and for ensuring that the heat generated by the nuclear source does not bypass the pile. Also disclosed is a getter which is resistant to shrinkage during sintering, and a foil configuration for controlling the radiation of heat from the nuclear source to the hot plate of the pile

  11. Microwatt thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goslee, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    A microwatt thermoelectric generator suitable for implanting in the body is described. The disclosed generator utilizes a nuclear energy source. Provision is made for temporary electrical connection to the generator for testing purposes, and for ensuring that the heat generated by the nuclear source does not bypass the pile. Also disclosed is a getter which is resistant to shrinkage during sintering, and a foil configuration for controlling the radiation of heat from the nuclear source to the hot plate of the pile

  12. Annealing effects on room temperature thermoelectric performance of p-type thermally evaporated Bi-Sb-Te thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhdeep; Singh, Janpreet; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Bismuth antimony telluride (Bi-Sb-Te) compounds have been investigated for the past many decades for thermoelectric (TE) power generation and cooling purpose. We synthesized this compound with a stoichiometry Bi1.2Sb0.8Te3 through melt cool technique and thin films of as synthesized material were deposited by thermal evaporation. The prime focus of the present work is to study the influence of annealing temperature on the room temperature (RT) power factor of thin films. Electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were studied and power factors were calculated which showed a peak value at 323 K. The compounds performance is comparable to some very efficient Bi-Sb-Te reported stoichiometries at RT scale. The values observed show that material has an enormous potential for energy production at ambient temperature scales.

  13. Effects of variable thermal conductivity on Stokes' flow of a thermoelectric fluid with fractional order of heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzat, M.A.; El-Bary, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the constitutive relation for the heat flux vector is derived to be the Fourier's law of heat conduction with a variable thermal conductivity and time-fractional order. The Stokes' flow of unsteady incompressible thermoelectric fluid due to a moving plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is molded. Stokes' first problem is solved by applying Laplace transform with respect to time variable and evaluating the inverse transform integrals by using a numerical approach. Numerical results for the temperature and the velocity distributions are given and illustrated graphically for given problem. The results indicate that the thermal conductivity and time-fractional order play a major role in the temperature and velocity distributions. (authors)

  14. Effect of bath temperature on structure, morphology and thermoelectric properties of CoSb{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Suchitra, E-mail: suchitrayadav87@gmail.com; Pandya, Dinesh K.; Chaudhary, Sujeet [Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2016-05-23

    CoSb{sub 3} thin films are deposited on conducting glass substrates (FTO) by electrodeposition at different bath temperatures (60°C, 70°C and 80°C) and the resulting influence of the bath temperature on the structure, morphology and electrical properties of films is investigated. X-ray diffraction confirms the formation of CoSb{sub 3} phase in the films. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that different morphologies ranging from branched nano-flakes to nano-needles evolve as bath temperature increases. It is concluded that a growth temperature of 80°C is suitable for producing CoSb{sub 3} films with such properties that show potential feasibility for thermoelectric applications.

  15. Electronic, phononic, and thermoelectric properties of graphyne sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevinçli, Hâldun; Sevik, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Electron, phonon, and thermoelectric transport properties of α-, β-, γ-, and 6,6,12-graphyne sheets are compared and contrasted with those of graphene. α-, β-, and 6,6,12-graphynes, with direction dependent Dirac dispersions, have higher electronic transmittance than graphene. γ-graphyne also attains better electrical conduction than graphene except at its band gap. Vibrationally, graphene conducts heat much more efficiently than graphynes, a behavior beyond an atomic density differences explanation. Seebeck coefficients of the considered Dirac materials are similar but thermoelectric power factors decrease with increasing effective speeds of light. γ-graphyne yields the highest thermoelectric efficiency with a thermoelectric figure of merit as high as ZT = 0.45, almost an order of magnitude higher than that of graphene

  16. Advances in thermoelectric materials research: Looking back and moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian; Tritt, Terry M

    2017-09-29

    High-performance thermoelectric materials lie at the heart of thermoelectrics, the simplest technology applicable to direct thermal-to-electrical energy conversion. In its recent 60-year history, the field of thermoelectric materials research has stalled several times, but each time it was rejuvenated by new paradigms. This article reviews several potentially paradigm-changing mechanisms enabled by defects, size effects, critical phenomena, anharmonicity, and the spin degree of freedom. These mechanisms decouple the otherwise adversely interdependent physical quantities toward higher material performance. We also briefly discuss a number of promising materials, advanced material synthesis and preparation techniques, and new opportunities. The renewable energy landscape will be reshaped if the current trend in thermoelectric materials research is sustained into the foreseeable future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  17. Opto-thermoelectric nanotweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linhan; Wang, Mingsong; Peng, Xiaolei; Lissek, Emanuel N.; Mao, Zhangming; Scarabelli, Leonardo; Adkins, Emily; Coskun, Sahin; Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Korgel, Brian A.; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.; Florin, Ernst-Ludwig; Zheng, Yuebing

    2018-04-01

    Optical manipulation of plasmonic nanoparticles provides opportunities for fundamental and technical innovation in nanophotonics. Optical heating arising from the photon-to-phonon conversion is considered as an intrinsic loss in metal nanoparticles, which limits their applications. We show here that this drawback can be turned into an advantage, by developing an extremely low-power optical tweezing technique, termed opto-thermoelectric nanotweezers. By optically heating a thermoplasmonic substrate, a light-directed thermoelectric field can be generated due to spatial separation of dissolved ions within the heating laser spot, which allows us to manipulate metal nanoparticles of a wide range of materials, sizes and shapes with single-particle resolution. In combination with dark-field optical imaging, nanoparticles can be selectively trapped and their spectroscopic response can be resolved in situ. With its simple optics, versatile low-power operation, applicability to diverse nanoparticles and tunable working wavelength, opto-thermoelectric nanotweezers will become a powerful tool in colloid science and nanotechnology.

  18. Methods of synthesizing thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Wei-Shu; Wang, Hengzhi; Wang, Hui; Yu, Bo; Chen, Gang

    2016-04-05

    Methods for synthesis of thermoelectric materials are disclosed. In some embodiments, a method of fabricating a thermoelectric material includes generating a plurality of nanoparticles from a starting material comprising one or more chalcogens and one or more transition metals; and consolidating the nanoparticles under elevated pressure and temperature, wherein the nanoparticles are heated and cooled at a controlled rate.

  19. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarjadi, M., E-mail: m.zebarjadi@rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  20. Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors for non-destructive analysis of works of art by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Cesareo, R; Castellano, A

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors, such as Si-PIN, Si-drift, Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te and HgI sub 2 , coupled to miniaturized low-power X-ray tubes, are well suited in portable systems for energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), analysis of archaeological samples. The Si-PIN detector is characterized by a thickness of about 300 mu m, an area of about 2x3 mm sup 2 , an energy resolution of about 200-250 eV at 5.9 keV and an entrance window of 25-75 mu m. The Si-drift detector has approximately the same area and thickness, but an energy resolution of 155 eV at 5.9 keV. The efficiency of these detectors is around 100% from 4 to 10 keV, and then decreases versus energy, reaching approx 9% at 30 keV. Coupled to a miniaturized 10 kV, 0.1 mA, Ca-anode or to a miniaturized 30 kV, 0.1 mA, W-anode X-ray tubes, portable systems can be constructed, which are able to analyse K-lines of elements up to about silver, and L-lines of heavy elements. The Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te detector ha...

  1. Portable Thermoelectric Power Generator Coupled with Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Chong C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar is the intermittent source of renewable energy and all thermal solar systems having a setback on non-functioning during the night and cloudy environment. This paper presents alternative solution for power generation using thermoelectric which is the direct conversion of temperature gradient of hot side and cold side of thermoelectric material to electric voltage. Phase change material with latent heat effect would help to prolong the temperature gradient across thermoelectric material for power generation. Besides, the concept of portability will enable different power source like solar, wasted heat from air conditioner, refrigerator, stove etc, i.e. to create temperature different on thermoelectric material for power generation. Furthermore, thermoelectric will generate direct current which is used by all the gadgets like Smartphone, tablet, laptop etc. The portable concept of renewable energy will encourage the direct usage of renewable energy for portable gadgets. The working principle and design of portable thermoelectric power generator coupled with phase change material is presented in this paper.

  2. Optimal Design of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagehi, Hassan; Attar, Alaa; Lee, Hosung

    2018-07-01

    The consumption of energy continues to increase at an exponential rate, especially in terms of conventional automobiles. Approximately 40% of the applied fuel into a vehicle is lost as waste exhausted to the environment. The desire for improved fuel efficiency by recovering the exhaust waste heat in automobiles has become an important subject. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) has the potential to convert exhaust waste heat into electricity as long as it is improving fuel economy. The remarkable amount of research being conducted on TEGs indicates that this technology will have a bright future in terms of power generation. The current study discusses the optimal design of the automotive exhaust TEG. An experimental study has been conducted to verify the model that used the ideal (standard) equations along with effective material properties. The model is reasonably verified by experimental work, mainly due to the utilization of the effective material properties. Hence, the thermoelectric module that was used in the experiment was optimized by using a developed optimal design theory (dimensionless analysis technique).

  3. Optimal Design of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagehi, Hassan; Attar, Alaa; Lee, Hosung

    2018-04-01

    The consumption of energy continues to increase at an exponential rate, especially in terms of conventional automobiles. Approximately 40% of the applied fuel into a vehicle is lost as waste exhausted to the environment. The desire for improved fuel efficiency by recovering the exhaust waste heat in automobiles has become an important subject. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) has the potential to convert exhaust waste heat into electricity as long as it is improving fuel economy. The remarkable amount of research being conducted on TEGs indicates that this technology will have a bright future in terms of power generation. The current study discusses the optimal design of the automotive exhaust TEG. An experimental study has been conducted to verify the model that used the ideal (standard) equations along with effective material properties. The model is reasonably verified by experimental work, mainly due to the utilization of the effective material properties. Hence, the thermoelectric module that was used in the experiment was optimized by using a developed optimal design theory (dimensionless analysis technique).

  4. Modeling and Experimentation of New Thermoelectric Cooler–Thermoelectric Generator Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Teffah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a modeling and experimental study of a new thermoelectric cooler–thermoelectric generator (TEC-TEG module is investigated. The studied module is composed of TEC, TEG and total system heatsink, all connected thermally in series. An input voltage (1–5 V passes through the TEC where the electrons by means of Peltier effect entrain the heat from the upper side of the module to the lower one creating temperature difference; TEG plays the role of a partial heatsink for the TEC by transferring this waste heat to the total system heatsink and converting an amount of this heat into electricity by a phenomenon called Seebeck effect, of the thermoelectric modules. The performance of the TEG as partial heatsink of TEC at different input voltages is demonstrated theoretically using the modeling software COMSOL Multiphysics. Moreover, the experiment validates the simulation result which smooths the path for a new manufacturing thermoelectric cascade model for the cooling and the immediate electric power generation.

  5. Microwatt thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hittman, F.; Bustard, T.S.

    1976-01-01

    A microwatt thermoelectric generator suitable for implanting in the body is described. The generator utilizes a nuclear energy source. Provision is made for temporary electrical connection to the generator for testing purposes, and for ensuring that the heat generated by the nuclear source does not bypass the pile. Also disclosed is a getter which is resistant to shrinkage during sintering, and a foil configuration for controlling the radiation of heat from the nuclear source to the hot plate of the pile. 2 claims, 4 drawing figures

  6. Microwatt thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, H.N.

    1978-01-01

    A microwatt thermoelectric generator suitable for implanting in the body is described. The disclosed generator utilizes a nuclear energy source. Provision is made for temporary electrical connection to the generator for testing purposes, and for ensuring that the heat generated by the nuclear source does not bypass the pile. Also disclosed is a getter which is resistant to shrinkage during sintering, and a foil configuration for controlling the radiation of heat from the nuclear source to the hot plate of the pile. 4 claims, 4 figures

  7. Superlattices in thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofo, J.O.; Mahan, G.D.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1994-08-01

    The electrical conductivity, thermopower and the electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of a superlattice, are calculated with the electric field and the thermal gradient applied parallel to the interfaces. Tunneling between quantum wells is included. The broadening of the lowest subband when the period of the superlattice is decreased produces a reduction of the thermoelectric figure of merit. However, we found that a moderate increase of the figure of merit may be expected for intermediate values of the period, due to the enhancement of the density of states produced by the superlattice structure

  8. Semiconductor thermoelectric generators

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, Wolfgang R

    2009-01-01

    It is well-known that fossil fuels are being rapidly depleted, and that atomic power is rejected by many people. As a consequence, there is a strong trend towards alternative sources such as wind, photovoltaics, solar heat and biomass. Strangely enough, quite another power source is generally neglected: namely, the thermoelectric generator (a device which converts heat, i.e. thermal energy, directly into electrical energy). The reason for this neglect is probably the low conversion efficiency, which is of the order of a few percent at most. However, there are two arguments in favor of the ther

  9. Survey and analysis of environmental performance indicators applied to thermoelectric generation styles; Levantamento e analise de indicadores de desempenho ambiental aplicados a empreendimentos termeletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Bruno Moreno Rodrigo de; Cardoso Junior, Ricardo Abranches Felix [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Country economic growth is proportional bond to it electric generation increasing capacity. Brazil, which has a power matrix predominantly renewable, currently is increasing generation, from thermoelectricity, due, mainly, to major facilities in relation to environmental licensing. Since this new Thermal Power Plants operating, tied to the generation with those ones already installed, will result in environmental impacts that must be properly controlled. Such control should follow the Environmental Performance Evaluation guidance, standardized by ABNT NBR ISO 14031/04. Therefore, the following work presents the main Environmental Performance Indicators applied to several thermoelectric generation styles (Oil, Natural Gas, Diesel, Mineral Coal, Biomass, Waste, Solar and Nuclear). (author)

  10. Co-optimized design of microchannel heat exchangers and thermoelectric generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Yazawa, K.; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    Designs of heat exchangers have mostly been disconnected to the performance of thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems. The development work, mostly focused on thermoelectric materials, required a significant amount of engineering parametric analysis. In this work, a micro plate-fin heat exchanger...... applied to a TEG is investigated and optimized to maximize the output power and the cost performance of generic TEG systems. The cost per performance is counted by a measure of price per power output ($/W). The channel width, channel height, fin thickness of heat exchanger, and fill factor of TEG...... are theoretically optimized for a wide range of pumping power. In conjunction with effective numeric tests, the model discusses the optimum size of the system components’ dimensions at two area sizes of the substrate plate of heat exchanger. Results show that at every pumping power, there are particular values...

  11. A Method for testing the integrated thermal resistance of thermoelectric modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Du, Qungui; Chen, Min

    2013-11-01

    The integrated thermal resistance (ITR) of thermoelectric modules (TEMs) is an important parameter that represents the thermal-conduction of ceramic substrates, copper conducting strips, and welding material used in the TEM as well as the thermal contact resistances between different materials. In this study, an accurate and practical test method is proposed for the ITR of TEMs according to thermoelectric heat transfer theory and the equivalent characteristics of heat flux through the cold and hot sides of TEMs in an open-circuit situation. By using such measurements and comparisons, it is verified that the measured ITR value in our mode is accurate and reliable. In particular this method accurately predicts the actual operating conditions of TEMs, in which TEMs are under certain mechanical pressure. It effectively solves the problem of thermal resistance extraction from operating TEMs and is of great significance in their analysis and optimization.

  12. Effect of surface treatment of thermoelectric materials on the properties of thermoelements made from solid solutions of Bi2Te3-Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3-Sb2Te3 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alieva, T.D.; Abdinov, D.Sh.; Salaev, Eh.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of surface treatment technology of samples of solid solutions of Ei 2 Te 3 -Bi 2 Se 3 and Bi 2 Te 3 -Sb 2 Te 3 systems on their thermoelectric efficiency is studied. Branches of thermoelements have been produced with the help of electroerosion or mechanical cutting of monocrystal ingots of semiconducting solid Bi 2 Te 3 -base solutions. It is shown that in case of the treatment of side surfaces of branches of thermoelements produced of monocrystals of Bi 2 Te 3 base solid solutions their thermoelectrical efficiency grows considerably. Maximum growth of efficiency (approximately 20%) is observed during mechanical grinding of branches surfaces with diamond paste with the following chemical or electrochemical etching [ru

  13. Manipulation of charge transport in thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Pei, Yanzhong

    2017-12-01

    While numerous improvements have been achieved in thermoelectric materials by reducing the lattice thermal conductivity (κL), electronic approaches for enhancement can be as effective, or even more. A key challenge is decoupling Seebeck coefficient (S) from electrical conductivity (σ). The first order approximation - a single parabolic band assumption with acoustic scattering - leads the thermoelectric power factor (S2σ) to be maximized at a constant reduced Fermi level (η 0.67) and therefore at a given S of 167 μV/K. This simplifies the challenge of maximization of σ at a constant η, leading to a large number of degenerate transport channels (band degeneracy, Nv) and a fast transportation of charges (carrier mobility, μ). In this paper, existing efforts on this issue are summarized and future prospectives are given.

  14. Effect of current on the microstructure and performance of (Bi2Te3)0.2(Sb2Te3)0.8 thermoelectric material via field activated and pressure assisted sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ruixue; Meng Qingsen; Fan Wenhao; Wang Zhong

    2011-01-01

    (Bi 2 Te 3 ) 0.2 (Sb 2 Te 3 ) 0.8 thermoelectric material was sintered via a field activated and pressure assisted sintering (FAPAS) process. By applying different current intensity (0, 60, 320 A/cm 2 ) in the sintering process, the effects of electric current on the microstructure and thermoelectric performance were investigated. This demonstrated that the application of electric current in the sintering process could significantly improve the uniformity and density of (Bi 2 Te 3 ) 0.2 (Sb 2 Te 3 ) 0.8 samples. When the current intensity was raised to 320 A/cm 2 , the preferred orientation of grains was observed. Moreover, positive effects on the thermoelectric performance of applying electric current in the sintering process were also confirmed. An increase of 0.02 and 0.11 in the maximum figure of merit ZT value could be acquired by applying current of 60 and 320 A/cm 2 , respectively. (semiconductor materials)

  15. Roles of Cu in the Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Cu-containing p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 materials have shown high thermoelectric performances and promising prospects for practical application in low-grade waste heat recovery. However, the position of Cu in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 is controversial, and the roles of Cu in the enhancement of thermoelectric performance are still not clear. In this study, via defects analysis and stability test, the possibility of Cu intercalation in p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 materials has been excluded, and the position of Cu is identified as doping at the Sb sites. Additionally, the effects of Cu dopants on the electrical and thermal transport properties have been systematically investigated. Besides introducing additional holes, Cu dopants can also significantly enhance the carrier mobility by decreasing the Debye screen length and weakening the interaction between carriers and phonons. Meanwhile, the Cu dopants interrupt the periodicity of lattice vibration and bring stronger anharmonicity, leading to extremely low lattice thermal conductivity. Combining the suppression on the intrinsic excitation, a high thermoelectric performance—with a maximum thermoelectric figure of merit of around 1.4 at 430 K—has been achieved in Cu0.005Bi0.5Sb1.495Te3, which is 70% higher than the Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 matrix.

  16. Roles of Cu in the Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Feng; Qiu, Pengfei; Song, Qingfeng; Chen, Hongyi; Lu, Ping; Ren, Dudi; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong

    2017-03-01

    Recently, Cu-containing p-type Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te₃ materials have shown high thermoelectric performances and promising prospects for practical application in low-grade waste heat recovery. However, the position of Cu in Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te₃ is controversial, and the roles of Cu in the enhancement of thermoelectric performance are still not clear. In this study, via defects analysis and stability test, the possibility of Cu intercalation in p-type Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te₃ materials has been excluded, and the position of Cu is identified as doping at the Sb sites. Additionally, the effects of Cu dopants on the electrical and thermal transport properties have been systematically investigated. Besides introducing additional holes, Cu dopants can also significantly enhance the carrier mobility by decreasing the Debye screen length and weakening the interaction between carriers and phonons. Meanwhile, the Cu dopants interrupt the periodicity of lattice vibration and bring stronger anharmonicity, leading to extremely low lattice thermal conductivity. Combining the suppression on the intrinsic excitation, a high thermoelectric performance-with a maximum thermoelectric figure of merit of around 1.4 at 430 K-has been achieved in Cu 0.005 Bi 0.5 Sb 1.495 Te₃, which is 70% higher than the Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te₃ matrix.

  17. Decoupling interrelated parameters for designing high performance thermoelectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chong; Li, Zhou; Li, Kun; Huang, Pengcheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-04-15

    The world's supply of fossil fuels is quickly being exhausted, and the impact of their overuse is contributing to both climate change and global political unrest. In order to help solve these escalating problems, scientists must find a way to either replace combustion engines or reduce their use. Thermoelectric materials have attracted widespread research interest because of their potential applications as clean and renewable energy sources. They are reliable, lightweight, robust, and environmentally friendly and can reversibly convert between heat and electricity. However, after decades of development, the energy conversion efficiency of thermoelectric devices has been hovering around 10%. This is far below the theoretical predictions, mainly due to the interdependence and coupling between electrical and thermal parameters, which are strongly interrelated through the electronic structure of the materials. Therefore, any strategy that balances or decouples these parameters, in addition to optimizing the materials' intrinsic electronic structure, should be critical to the development of thermoelectric technology. In this Account, we discuss our recently developed strategies to decouple thermoelectric parameters for the synergistic optimization of electrical and thermal transport. We first highlight the phase transition, which is accompanied by an abrupt change of electrical transport, such as with a metal-insulator and semiconductor-superionic conductor transition. This should be a universal and effective strategy to optimize the thermoelectric performance, which takes advantage of modulated electronic structure and critical scattering across phase transitions to decouple the power factor and thermal conductivity. We propose that solid-solution homojunction nanoplates with disordered lattices are promising thermoelectric materials to meet the "phonon glass electron crystal" approach. The formation of a solid solution, coupled with homojunctions, allows for

  18. Controlling the transmission line shape of molecular t-stubs and potential thermoelectric applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, Robert; Markussen, Troels

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric line shapes can occur in the transmission function describing electron transport in the vicinity of a minimum caused by quantum interference effects. Such asymmetry can be used to increase the thermoelectric efficiency of molecular junctions. So far, however, asymmetric line shapes hav...... calculations for a variety of t-stub molecules and also address their suitability for thermoelectric applications....

  19. Heat transfer enhancement of a modularised thermoelectric power generator for passenger vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Huang, Kuo; Yan, Yuying; Li, Yong; Twaha, Ssennoga; Zhu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Shape-adapted thermoelectric module for highly compact heat recovery exchanger assembly. •Heat pipe-assisted heat transfer enhancement method for better power output. •Highest power output ratio to the total volume of heat recovery exchanger. •Cascaded thermoelectric system can be scaled and extended for various power output. •Self-clamping design of thermoelectric module can solve the thermomechanical imbalances. -- Abstract: Transport represents over a quarter of Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and is the leading cause of air pollution in cities. It has not seen the same gradual decline in emissions as other sectors. Recently, the thermoelectric power generation (TEG) technology emerges as an alternative solution to the emission reduction challenge in this area. In this paper, we present an innovative pathway to an improved heat supply into the concentric shape-adapted TEG modules, integrating the heat pipe technologies. It relies on a phase changing approach which enhances the heat flux through the TEG surface. In order to improve the heat transfer for higher efficiency, in our work, the heat pipes are configured in the radial direction of the exhaust streams. The analysis shows that the power output is adequate for the limited space under the chassis of the passenger car. Much effort can also be applied to obtain enhanced convective heat transfer by adjusting the heat pipes at the dual sides of the concentric TEG modules. Heat enhancement at the hot side of the TEG has an effective impact on the total power out of the TEG modules. However, such improvements can be offset by the adjustment made from the coolant side. Predictably, the whole temperature profile of TEG system is subject to the durability and operational limitations of each component. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of heat transfer versus the TEG power generation under two possible configurations in the passenger car. The highest power output per

  20. Compliant Interfacial Layers in Thermoelectric Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdosy, Samad A. (Inventor); Li, Billy Chun-Yip (Inventor); Ravi, Vilupanur A. (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Anjunyan, Harut (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A thermoelectric power generation device is disclosed using one or more mechanically compliant and thermally and electrically conductive layers at the thermoelectric material interfaces to accommodate high temperature differentials and stresses induced thereby. The compliant material may be metal foam or metal graphite composite (e.g. using nickel) and is particularly beneficial in high temperature thermoelectric generators employing Zintl thermoelectric materials. The compliant material may be disposed between the thermoelectric segments of the device or between a thermoelectric segment and the hot or cold side interconnect of the device.

  1. Interfacial reactions in thermoelectric modules

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hsin-jay; Wu, Albert T.; Wei, Pei-chun; Chen, Sinn-wen

    2018-01-01

    Engineering transport properties of thermoelectric (TE) materials leads to incessantly breakthroughs in the zT values. Nevertheless, modular design holds a key factor to advance the TE technology. Herein, we discuss the structures of TE module

  2. Material parameters for thermoelectric performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thermoelectric performance of a thermoelement is ideally defined in terms of the so-called ... However, there are other parameters which are fairly good indicators ... Whereas a final deciding factor reflecting on .... matter of a future work.

  3. Thermoelectric properties of SnSe compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Xinhong [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Lu, Pengfei, E-mail: photon@bupt.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Wu, Liyuan; Han, Lihong [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Liu, Gang [School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Song, Yuxin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Shumin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Photonics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The electronic and thermoelectric properties of SnSe bulk material are studied. • The ZT can reach as high as 1.87 along yy and 1.6 along zz direction at 800k. • SnSe is an indirect-band material, and SOC has little effect on the band structure. • The high ZT can be attributed to the intrinsically ultralow thermal conductivity. - Abstract: A first-principles study and Boltzmann transport theory have been performed to evaluate the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of SnSe compound. The energy band structure and density of states are studied in detail. The electronic transport coefficients are then calculated as a function of chemical potential or temperature within the assumption of the constant relaxation time. The figure of merit ZT is obtained with the use of calculated thermoelectric properties and can reach as high as 1.87 along yy and 1.6 along zz direction at 800 K. Our theoretical result agrees well with previous experimental data.

  4. Superlattice design for optimal thermoelectric generator performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, Pankaj; Sharma, Abhishek; Mukherjee, Swarnadip; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2018-05-01

    We consider the design of an optimal superlattice thermoelectric generator via the energy bandpass filter approach. Various configurations of superlattice structures are explored to obtain a bandpass transmission spectrum that approaches the ideal ‘boxcar’ form, which is now well known to manifest the largest efficiency at a given output power in the ballistic limit. Using the coherent non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism coupled self-consistently with the Poisson’s equation, we identify such an ideal structure and also demonstrate that it is almost immune to the deleterious effect of self-consistent charging and device variability. Analyzing various superlattice designs, we conclude that superlattice with a Gaussian distribution of the barrier thickness offers the best thermoelectric efficiency at maximum power. It is observed that the best operating regime of this device design provides a maximum power in the range of 0.32–0.46 MW/m 2 at efficiencies between 54%–43% of Carnot efficiency. We also analyze our device designs with the conventional figure of merit approach to counter support the results so obtained. We note a high zT el   =  6 value in the case of Gaussian distribution of the barrier thickness. With the existing advanced thin-film growth technology, the suggested superlattice structures can be achieved, and such optimized thermoelectric performances can be realized.

  5. Thermoelectric properties of SnSe compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Xinhong; Lu, Pengfei; Wu, Liyuan; Han, Lihong; Liu, Gang; Song, Yuxin; Wang, Shumin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The electronic and thermoelectric properties of SnSe bulk material are studied. • The ZT can reach as high as 1.87 along yy and 1.6 along zz direction at 800k. • SnSe is an indirect-band material, and SOC has little effect on the band structure. • The high ZT can be attributed to the intrinsically ultralow thermal conductivity. - Abstract: A first-principles study and Boltzmann transport theory have been performed to evaluate the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of SnSe compound. The energy band structure and density of states are studied in detail. The electronic transport coefficients are then calculated as a function of chemical potential or temperature within the assumption of the constant relaxation time. The figure of merit ZT is obtained with the use of calculated thermoelectric properties and can reach as high as 1.87 along yy and 1.6 along zz direction at 800 K. Our theoretical result agrees well with previous experimental data

  6. Performance evaluation of an automotive thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubitsky, Andrei O.

    Around 40% of the total fuel energy in typical internal combustion engines (ICEs) is rejected to the environment in the form of exhaust gas waste heat. Efficient recovery of this waste heat in automobiles can promise a fuel economy improvement of 5%. The thermal energy can be harvested through thermoelectric generators (TEGs) utilizing the Seebeck effect. In the present work, a versatile test bench has been designed and built in order to simulate conditions found on test vehicles. This allows experimental performance evaluation and model validation of automotive thermoelectric generators. An electrically heated exhaust gas circuit and a circulator based coolant loop enable integrated system testing of hot and cold side heat exchangers, thermoelectric modules (TEMs), and thermal interface materials at various scales. A transient thermal model of the coolant loop was created in order to design a system which can maintain constant coolant temperature under variable heat input. Additionally, as electrical heaters cannot match the transient response of an ICE, modelling was completed in order to design a relaxed exhaust flow and temperature history utilizing the system thermal lag. This profile reduced required heating power and gas flow rates by over 50%. The test bench was used to evaluate a DOE/GM initial prototype automotive TEG and validate analytical performance models. The maximum electrical power generation was found to be 54 W with a thermal conversion efficiency of 1.8%. It has been found that thermal interface management is critical for achieving maximum system performance, with novel designs being considered for further improvement.

  7. New evaluation parameter for wearable thermoelectric generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethunge, Dimuthu; Kim, Woochul

    2018-04-01

    Wearable devices constitute a key application area for thermoelectric devices. However, owing to new constraints in wearable applications, a few conventional device optimization techniques are not appropriate and material evaluation parameters, such as figure of merit (zT) and power factor (PF), tend to be inadequate. We illustrated the incompleteness of zT and PF by performing simulations and considering different thermoelectric materials. The results indicate a weak correlation between device performance and zT and PF. In this study, we propose a new evaluation parameter, zTwearable, which is better suited for wearable applications compared to conventional zT. Owing to size restrictions, gap filler based device optimization is extremely critical in wearable devices. With respect to the occasions in which gap fillers are used, expressions for power, effective thermal conductivity (keff), and optimum load electrical ratio (mopt) are derived. According to the new parameters, the thermal conductivity of the material has become much more critical now. The proposed new evaluation parameter, namely, zTwearable, is extremely useful in the selection of an appropriate thermoelectric material among various candidates prior to the commencement of the actual design process.

  8. Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Anthony Lee, III

    Today's growing energy demands require new technologies to provide high efficiency clean energy. Thermoelectrics that convert heat to electrical energy directly can provide a method for the automobile industry to recover waste heat to power vehicle electronics, hence improving fuel economy. If large enough efficiencies can be obtained then the internal combustion engine could even be replaced. Exhaust temperature for automotive application range from 400 to 800 K. In this temperature range the current state of the art materials are bulk Si1-xGex alloys. By alternating layers of Si and Si1-xGex alloy device performance may be enhanced through quantum well effects and variations in material thermal properties. In this study, superlattices designed for in-plane operation with varying period and crystallinity are examined to determine the effect on electrical and thermal properties. In-plane electrical resistivity of these materials was found to be below the bulk material at a similar doping at room temperature, confirming the role of quantum wells in electron transport. As period is reduced in the structures boundary scattering limits electron propagation leading to increased resistivity. The Seebeck coefficient measured at room temperature is higher than the bulk material, additionally lending proof to the effects of quantum wells. When examining cross-plane operation the low doping in the Si layers of the device produce high resistivity resulting from boundary scattering. Thermal conductivity was measured from 77 K up to 674 K and shows little variation due to periodicity and temperature, however an order of magnitude reduction over bulk Si1-xGex is shown in all samples. A model is developed that suggests a combination of phonon dispersion effects and strong boundary scattering. Further study of the phonon dispersion effects was achieved through the examination of the heat capacity by combining thermal diffusivity with thermal conductivity. All superlattices show a

  9. Cost Scaling of a Real-World Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Generator: A Deeper Dive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Yee, Shannon; LeBlanc, Saniya

    2015-01-01

    Cost is equally important to power density or efficiency for the adoption of waste heat recovery thermoelectric generators (TEG) in many transportation and industrial energy recovery applications. In many cases the system design that minimizes cost (e.g., the $/W value) can be very different than the design that maximizes the system's efficiency or power density, and it is important to understand the relationship between those designs to optimize TEG performance-cost compromises. Expanding on recent cost analysis work and using more detailed system modeling, an enhanced cost scaling analysis of a waste heat recovery thermoelectric generator with more detailed, coupled treatment of the heat exchangers has been performed. In this analysis, the effect of the heat lost to the environment and updated relationships between the hot-side and cold-side conductances that maximize power output are considered. This coupled thermal and thermoelectric treatment of the exhaust waste heat recovery thermoelectric generator yields modified cost scaling and design optimization equations, which are now strongly dependent on the heat leakage fraction, exhaust mass flow rate, and heat exchanger effectiveness. This work shows that heat exchanger costs most often dominate the overall TE system costs, that it is extremely difficult to escape this regime, and in order to achieve TE system costs of $1/W it is necessary to achieve heat exchanger costs of $1/(W/K). Minimum TE system costs per watt generally coincide with maximum power points, but Preferred TE Design Regimes are identified where there is little cost penalty for moving into regions of higher efficiency and slightly lower power outputs. These regimes are closely tied to previously-identified low cost design regimes. This work shows that the optimum fill factor Fopt minimizing system costs decreases as heat losses increase, and increases as exhaust mass flow rate and heat exchanger effectiveness increase. These findings have

  10. Effect of high-temperature annealing on the microstructure and thermoelectric properties of GaP doped SiGe. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Susan L.

    1987-01-01

    Annealing of GaP doped SiGe will significantly alter the thermoelectric properties of the material resulting in increased performance as measured by the figure of merit Z and the power factor P. The microstructures and corresponding thermoelectric properties after annealing in the 1100 to 1300 C temperature range have been examined to correlate performance improvement with annealing history. The figure of merit and power factor were both improved by homogenizing the material and limiting the amount of cross-doping. Annealing at 1215 C for 100 hr resulted in the best combination of thermoelectric properties with a resultant figure of merit exceeding 1x10 to the -3 deg C to the -1 and a power factor of 44 microW/cm/deg C sq for the temperature range of interest for space power: 400 to 1000 C.

  11. Large enhancement of thermoelectric effects in a tunneling-coupled parallel DQD-AB ring attached to one normal and one superconducting lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Li, Zhi-Jian; Nie, Yi-Hang; Niu, Peng-bin

    2018-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the thermoelectric properties in a tunneling-coupled parallel DQD-AB ring attached to one normal and one superconducting lead. The role of the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters in improving thermoelectric properties is discussed. The peak value of figure of merit near gap edges increases with the asymmetry parameter decreasing, particularly, when asymmetry parameter is less than 0.5, the figure of merit near gap edges rapidly rises. When the interdot coupling strengh is less than the superconducting gap the thermopower spectrum presents a single-platform structure. While when the interdot coupling strengh is larger than the gap, a double-platform structure appears in thermopower spectrum. Outside the gap the peak values of figure of merit might reach the order of 102. On the basis of optimizing internal parameters the thermoelectric conversion efficiency of the device can be further improved by appropriately matching the total magnetic flux and the flux difference between two subrings.

  12. Thermoelectric generation coupling methanol steam reforming characteristic in microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Cao, Yiding; Wang, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) generator converts heat to electric energy by thermoelectric material. However, heat removal on the cold side of the generator represents a serious challenge. To address this problem and for improved energy conversion, a thermoelectric generation process coupled with methanol steam reforming (SR) for hydrogen production is designed and analyzed in this paper. Experimental study on the cold spot character in a micro-reactor with monolayer catalyst bed is first carried out to understand the endothermic nature of the reforming as the thermoelectric cold side. A novel methanol steam reforming micro-reactor heated by waste heat or methanol catalytic combustion for hydrogen production coupled with a thermoelectric generation module is then simulated. Results show that the cold spot effect exists in the catalyst bed under all conditions, and the associated temperature difference first increases and then decreases with the inlet temperature. In the micro-reactor, the temperature difference between the reforming and heating channel outlets decreases rapidly with an increase in thermoelectric material's conductivity coefficient. However, methanol conversion at the reforming outlet is mainly affected by the reactor inlet temperature; while at the combustion outlet, it is mainly affected by the reactor inlet velocity. Due to the strong endothermic effect of the methanol steam reforming, heat supply of both kinds cannot balance the heat needed at reactor local areas, resulting in the cold spot at the reactor inlet. When the temperature difference between the thermoelectric module's hot and cold sides is 22 K, the generator can achieve an output voltage of 55 mV. The corresponding molar fraction of hydrogen can reach about 62.6%, which corresponds to methanol conversion rate of 72.6%. - Highlights: • Cold spot character of methanol steam reforming was studied through experiment. • Thermoelectric generation Coupling MSR process has been

  13. Thermoelectric properties of c-GeSb{sub 0.75}Te{sub 0.5} to h-GeSbTe{sub 0.5} thin films through annealing treatment effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vora-ud, Athorn, E-mail: athornvora-ud@snru.ac.th [Program of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sakon Nakhon Rajabhat University, Mueang District, Sakon Nakhon 47000 (Thailand); Thermoelectrics Research Center, Research and Development Institution, Sakon Nakhon Rajabhat University, Mueang District, Sakon Nakhon 47000 (Thailand); Horprathum, Mati, E-mail: mati.horprathum@nectec.or.th [National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Eiamchai, Pitak [National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Muthitamongkol, Pennapa; Chayasombat, Bralee; Thanachayanont, Chanchana [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Pankiew, Apirak [National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Klamchuen, Annop [National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Naenkieng, Daengdech; Plirdpring, Theerayuth; Harnwunggmoung, Adul [Thermoelectric and Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Suvarnabhumi, Huntra Phranakhon, Si Ayutthaya 13000 (Thailand); Charoenphakdee, Anek [NANO-Thermoelectrics Research Center, Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Liberal Arts, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan, Mueng Nakorn Ratchasima 30000 Thailand (Thailand); Somkhunthot, Weerasak [Program of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Loei Rajabhat University, Muang District, Loei 42000 (Thailand); and others

    2015-11-15

    Germanium–Antimony–Tellurium (Ge–Sb–Te) thin films were deposited on silicon wafers with 1-μm silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}/Si) by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering from a 99.99% GeSbTe target of 1:1:1 ratio at ambient temperature. The samples were annealed at 573, 623, 673, and 723 K for 3600 s in a vacuum state. The effects of the annealing treatment on phase identification, atomic composition, morphology and film thickness, carrier concentration, mobility, and Seebeck coefficient of the Ge–Sb–Te samples have been investigated by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, auger electron spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Hall-effect measurements, and steady state method, respectively. The results demonstrated that the as-deposited Ge–Sb–Te sample was amorphous. Atomic composition of as-deposited and annealed films at 573 K and 623 K were GeSb{sub 0.75}Te{sub 0.5} while annealed films at 673 K and 723 K were GeSbTe{sub 0.5} due to Sb-rich GeSb{sub 0.75}Te{sub 0.5}. The samples annealed at 573 K and 623 K showed the crystal phases of cubic structure (c-GeSb{sub 0.75}Te{sub 0.5}) into hexagonal structure (h-GeSbTe{sub 0.5}) after annealing at 673 K and 723 K. The study demonstrated the insulating condition from the as-deposited GeSbTe film, and the changes towards the thermoelectric properties from the annealing treatments. The GeSbTe films annealed at 673 K yielded excellent thermoelectric properties with the electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and power factor at approximately 1.45 × 10{sup −5} Ωm, 71.07 μV K{sup −1}, and 3.48 × 10{sup −4} W m{sup −1} K{sup −2}, respectively. - Highlights: • GeSbTe thin films were successfully sputtered for thermoelectric properties. • GeSbTe films were examined among physical, electrical and thermoelectric properties. • Thermoelectric properties were discussed based on composition of the films.

  14. Thermoelectric transport through quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merker, Lukas Heinrich

    2016-06-30

    In this thesis the thermoelectric properties (electrical conductance, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductance)of quantum dots described by the Anderson impurity model have been investigated by using the numerical renormalization group (NRG) method. In order to make accurate calculations for thermoelectric properties of quantum impurity systems, a number of recent developments and refinements of the NRG have been implemented. These include the z-averaging and Campo discretization scheme, which enable the evaluation of physical quantities on an arbitrary temperature grid and at large discretization parameter Λ and the full density matrix (FDM) approach, which allows a more accurate calculation of spectral functions and transport coefficients. The implementation of the z-averaging and Campo discretization scheme has been tested within a new method for specific heats of quantum impurities. The accuracy of this new method was established by comparison with the numerical solution of the Bethe-ansatz equations for the Anderson model. The FDM approach was implemented and tested within a new approach to the calculation of impurity contributions to the uniform susceptibilities. Within this method a non-negligible contribution from the ''environmental'' degrees of freedom needs to be taken into account to recover the correct susceptibility, as shown by comparison with the Bethe-ansatz approach. An accurate method to calculate the conductance of a quantum dot is implemented, enabling the extraction of the Fermi liquid scaling coefficients c{sub T} and c{sub B} to high accuracy, being able to verify the results of the renormalized super perturbation theory approach (within its regime of validity). The method was generalized to higher order moments of the local level spectral function. This, as well as reduction of the SU(2) code to the U(1) symmetry, enabled the investigation of the effect of a magnetic field on the thermoelectric properties of quantum

  15. Anisotropic Thermoelectric Devices Made from Single-Crystal Semimetal Microwires in Glass Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, L. A.; Nikolaeva, A. A.; Kobylianskaya, A. K.; Huber, T. E.

    2018-06-01

    Thermoelectric heat conversion based on the Seebeck and Peltier effects generated at the junction between two materials of type- n and type- p is well known. Here, we present a demonstration of an unconventional thermoelectric energy conversion that is based on a single element made of an anisotropic material. In such materials, a heat flow generates a transverse thermoelectric electric field lying across the heat flow. Potentially, in applications involving miniature devices, the anisotropic thermoelectric (AT) effect has the advantage over traditional thermoelectrics that it simplifies the thermoelectric generator architecture. This is because the generator can be made of a single thermoelectric material without the complexity of a series of contacts forming a pile. A feature of anisotropic thermoelectrics is that the thermoelectric voltage is proportional to the element length and inversely proportional to the effective thickness. The AT effect has been demonstrated with artificial anisotropic thin film consisting of layers of alternating thermoelectric type, but there has been no demonstration of this effect in a long single-crystal. Electronic transport measurements have shown that the semimetal bismuth is highly anisotropic. We have prepared an experimental sample consisting of a 10-m-long glass-insulated single-crystal tin-doped bismuth microwire ( d = 4 μm). Crucial for this experiment is the ability to grow the microwire as a single-crystal using a technique of recrystallization with laser heating and under a strong electric field. The sample was wound as a spiral, bonded to a copper disk, and used in various experiments. The sensitivity of the sample to heat flow is as high as 10-2 V/W with a time constant τ of about 0.5 s.

  16. Anisotropic Thermoelectric Devices Made from Single-Crystal Semimetal Microwires in Glass Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, L. A.; Nikolaeva, A. A.; Kobylianskaya, A. K.; Huber, T. E.

    2018-04-01

    Thermoelectric heat conversion based on the Seebeck and Peltier effects generated at the junction between two materials of type-n and type-p is well known. Here, we present a demonstration of an unconventional thermoelectric energy conversion that is based on a single element made of an anisotropic material. In such materials, a heat flow generates a transverse thermoelectric electric field lying across the heat flow. Potentially, in applications involving miniature devices, the anisotropic thermoelectric (AT) effect has the advantage over traditional thermoelectrics that it simplifies the thermoelectric generator architecture. This is because the generator can be made of a single thermoelectric material without the complexity of a series of contacts forming a pile. A feature of anisotropic thermoelectrics is that the thermoelectric voltage is proportional to the element length and inversely proportional to the effective thickness. The AT effect has been demonstrated with artificial anisotropic thin film consisting of layers of alternating thermoelectric type, but there has been no demonstration of this effect in a long single-crystal. Electronic transport measurements have shown that the semimetal bismuth is highly anisotropic. We have prepared an experimental sample consisting of a 10-m-long glass-insulated single-crystal tin-doped bismuth microwire (d = 4 μm). Crucial for this experiment is the ability to grow the microwire as a single-crystal using a technique of recrystallization with laser heating and under a strong electric field. The sample was wound as a spiral, bonded to a copper disk, and used in various experiments. The sensitivity of the sample to heat flow is as high as 10-2 V/W with a time constant τ of about 0.5 s.

  17. The thermoelectric generators use for waste heat utilization from cement plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztekler Karol

    2017-01-01

    Production often entails the formation of by-product which is waste heat. One of the equipment processing heat into electricity is a thermoelectric generator. Its operation is based on the principle of thermoelectric phenomenon, which is known as a Seebeck phenomenon. The simplicity of thermoelectric phenomena allows its use in various industries, in which the main waste product is in the form of heat with the temperature of several hundred degrees. The study analyses the possibility of the thermoelectric systems use for the waste heat utilization resulting in the cement production at the cement plant. The location and design of the thermoelectric system that could be implemented in cement plant is chosen. The analysis has been prepared in the IPSEpro software.

  18. SMORN-1: thermoelectrically generated noise in sheathed thermocouples and in other low level instrumentation cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, F.; Meier, R.; Soenen, M.; Delcon, M.; Nysten, C.

    Starting from the fact that thermoelectric emfs of thermocouples are generated in the thermal gradients and not at the hot junction, it is shown how thermoelectric heterogeneity in conjunction with natural and forced convection phenomena gives rise to unwanted noise called: ''thermoelectric noise'' in the technological sense. A distinction is made between four different types of noise--i.e. uncorrelated noise, correlated noise, spectral noise and thermoelectric noise in the physical sense--each of which has its own characteristics. The experimental results presented reveal that noise amplitudes may be quite embarrassing when dealing with problems of quantitative signal fluctuation analysis. It is however emphasized that thermoelectric noise may also convey useful information which, without noise, might be lost

  19. Apparatus, System, and Method for On-Chip Thermoelectricity Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a thermoelectric generator. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric generator comprises a first thermoelectric region and a second thermoelectric region, where the second thermoelectric region may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region by a first conductor. In some embodiments, a second conductor may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region and a third conductor may be coupled to the second thermoelectric region. In some embodiments, the first conductor may be in a first plane, the first thermoelectric region and the second thermoelectric region may be in a second plane, and the second conductor and the third conductor may be in a third plane.

  20. Apparatus, System, and Method for On-Chip Thermoelectricity Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Fahad, Hossain M.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for a thermoelectric generator. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric generator comprises a first thermoelectric region and a second thermoelectric region, where the second thermoelectric region may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region by a first conductor. In some embodiments, a second conductor may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region and a third conductor may be coupled to the second thermoelectric region. In some embodiments, the first conductor may be in a first plane, the first thermoelectric region and the second thermoelectric region may be in a second plane, and the second conductor and the third conductor may be in a third plane.

  1. Thermoelectric powered wireless sensors for spent fuel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstens, T.; Corradini, M.; Blanchard, J.; Ma, Z.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes using thermoelectric generators to power wireless sensors to monitor spent nuclear fuel during dry-cask storage. OrigenArp was used to determine the decay heat of the spent fuel at different times during the service life of the dry-cask. The Engineering Equation Solver computer program modeled the temperatures inside the spent fuel storage facility during its service life. The temperature distribution in a thermoelectric generator and heat sink was calculated using the computer program Finite Element Heat Transfer. From these temperature distributions the power produced by the thermoelectric generator was determined as a function of the service life of the dry-cask. In addition, an estimation of the path loss experienced by the wireless signal can be made based on materials and thickness of the structure. Once the path loss is known, the transmission power and thermoelectric generator power requirements can be determined. This analysis estimates that a thermoelectric generator can produce enough power for a sensor to function and transmit data from inside the dry-cask throughout its service life. (authors)

  2. Encapsulation of high temperature thermoelectric modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, James R.; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Park, Youngsam

    2017-07-11

    A method of encapsulating a thermoelectric device and its associated thermoelectric elements in an inert atmosphere and a thermoelectric device fabricated by such method are described. These thermoelectric devices may be intended for use under conditions which would otherwise promote oxidation of the thermoelectric elements. The capsule is formed by securing a suitably-sized thin-walled strip of oxidation-resistant metal to the ceramic substrates which support the thermoelectric elements. The thin-walled metal strip is positioned to enclose the edges of the thermoelectric device and is secured to the substrates using gap-filling materials. The strip, substrates and gap-filling materials cooperatively encapsulate the thermoelectric elements and exclude oxygen and water vapor from atmospheric air so that the elements may be maintained in an inert, non-oxidizing environment.

  3. Deployable Thermoelectric Metamaterial Energy Harvesting Monitoring System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will combine a novel asynchronous monitoring system with the first-of-its-kind thermoelectric metamaterial.  The thermoelectric prototype is constructed...

  4. The effect of charge carrier and doping site on thermoelectric properties of Mg2Sn0.75Ge0.25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saparamadu, Udara; Mao, Jun; Dahal, Keshab; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fei; Song, Shaowei; Liu, Weishu; Ren, Zhifeng

    2017-01-01

    Mg 2 Sn 0.75 Ge 0.25 has been recently demonstrated to be a promising thermoelectric material for power generation in the temperature range from room temperature to 723 K because of the high power factor of ∼54 μW cm −1  K −2 upon Sb doping to the Sn site. The enhanced density of states effective mass and weak electron scattering from the alloying effect are believed to be the main reasons for the high power factor (PF) and hence high figure of merit (ZT). In this study, it is shown that the right choice of carrier donor also plays an important role in obtaining high power factor. The effect of carrier donors Y and La at Mg-site and Bi and P at Sn-site in Mg 2 Sn 0.75 Ge 0.25 is systematically investigated. It is found that charge donors at the Sn-site are much more effective than at the Mg-site in enhancing PF and ZT. Bi doped Mg 2 Sn 0.73 Bi 0.02 Ge 0.25 shows a peak ZT of ∼1.4 at 673 K, a peak PF of ∼54 μW cm −1  K −2 at 577 K, which resulted in an engineering figure of merit (ZT) eng of ∼0.76 and (PF) eng of ∼2.05 W m −1  K −1 for cold side fixed at 323 K and hot side at 723 K.

  5. Express method for contactless measurement of parameters of thermoelectric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashcheulov A. A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an original method for contactless express measurement of parameters of thermoelectric materials. The presence of a combination of AC and DC magnetic fields in the gap of the oscillating circuit, where the monitored sample of the thermoelectric material is located, leads — due to Ampere force — to delamination of geometric regions of the occurrence of half-cycles of Foucault current. This in turn causes the appearance of additional heat losses in the oscillating circuit caused by Peltier effect. Computer modeling of these processes with the use of the software package ComsolFenlab 3.3 allowed determining the nature and magnitude of the electric currents in oscillating circuit, the range of operating frequencies, and the ratio of amplitudes of the variable and fixed components of the magnetic field. These components eventually cause a certain temperature difference along the controlled sample, which difference is proportional to the thermoelectric figure of merit Z of the material. The basic expressions are obtained for determining the value of the Seebeck coefficient a, thermal conductivity ?, electrical conductivity ? and thermoelectric figure of merit Z. A description is given to the design of the device for contactless express measurement of parameters of thermoelectric materials based on Bi—Te—Se—Sb solid solutions. Its distinctive feature is the ability to determine the symmetric and asymmetric components of the electric conductivity of the material values. The actual error in parameter measurement in this case is 2%.

  6. Proposal for a phase-coherent thermoelectric transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giazotto, F.; Robinson, J. W. A.; Moodera, J. S.; Bergeret, F. S.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying materials and devices which offer efficient thermoelectric effects at low temperature is a major obstacle for the development of thermal management strategies for low-temperature electronic systems. Superconductors cannot offer a solution since their near perfect electron-hole symmetry leads to a negligible thermoelectric response; however, here we demonstrate theoretically a superconducting thermoelectric transistor which offers unparalleled figures of merit of up to ∼45 and Seebeck coefficients as large as a few mV/K at sub-Kelvin temperatures. The device is also phase-tunable meaning its thermoelectric response for power generation can be precisely controlled with a small magnetic field. Our concept is based on a superconductor-normal metal-superconductor interferometer in which the normal metal weak-link is tunnel coupled to a ferromagnetic insulator and a Zeeman split superconductor. Upon application of an external magnetic flux, the interferometer enables phase-coherent manipulation of thermoelectric properties whilst offering efficiencies which approach the Carnot limit

  7. Proposal for a phase-coherent thermoelectric transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giazotto, F., E-mail: giazotto@sns.it [NEST, Instituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Robinson, J. W. A., E-mail: jjr33@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Moodera, J. S. [Department of Physics and Francis Bitter Magnet Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bergeret, F. S., E-mail: sebastian-bergeret@ehu.es [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM-MPC), Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Manuel de Lardizabal 4, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain)

    2014-08-11

    Identifying materials and devices which offer efficient thermoelectric effects at low temperature is a major obstacle for the development of thermal management strategies for low-temperature electronic systems. Superconductors cannot offer a solution since their near perfect electron-hole symmetry leads to a negligible thermoelectric response; however, here we demonstrate theoretically a superconducting thermoelectric transistor which offers unparalleled figures of merit of up to ∼45 and Seebeck coefficients as large as a few mV/K at sub-Kelvin temperatures. The device is also phase-tunable meaning its thermoelectric response for power generation can be precisely controlled with a small magnetic field. Our concept is based on a superconductor-normal metal-superconductor interferometer in which the normal metal weak-link is tunnel coupled to a ferromagnetic insulator and a Zeeman split superconductor. Upon application of an external magnetic flux, the interferometer enables phase-coherent manipulation of thermoelectric properties whilst offering efficiencies which approach the Carnot limit.

  8. Strain-induced bi-thermoelectricity in tapered carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algharagholy, L. A. A.; Pope, T.; Lambert, C. J.

    2018-03-01

    We show that carbon-based nanostructured materials are a novel testbed for controlling thermoelectricity and have the potential to underpin the development of new cost-effective environmentally-friendly thermoelectric materials. In single-molecule junctions, it is known that transport resonances associated with the discrete molecular levels play a key role in the thermoelectric performance, but such resonances have not been exploited in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Here we study junctions formed from tapered CNTs and demonstrate that such structures possess transport resonances near the Fermi level, whose energetic location can be varied by applying strain, resulting in an ability to tune the sign of their Seebeck coefficient. These results reveal that tapered CNTs form a new class of bi-thermoelectric materials, exhibiting both positive and negative thermopower. This ability to change the sign of the Seebeck coefficient allows the thermovoltage in carbon-based thermoelectric devices to be boosted by placing CNTs with alternating-sign Seebeck coefficients in tandem.

  9. Validation, Optimization and Simulation of a Solar Thermoelectric Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkhali, Hadi Ali; Hamil, Ali; Lee, HoSung

    2017-12-01

    This study explores thermoelectrics as a viable option for small-scale solar thermal applications. Thermoelectric technology is based on the Seebeck effect, which states that a voltage is induced when a temperature gradient is applied to the junctions of two differing materials. This research proposes to analyze, validate, simulate, and optimize a prototype solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) model in order to increase efficiency. The intent is to further develop STEGs as a viable and productive energy source that limits pollution and reduces the cost of energy production. An empirical study (Kraemer et al. in Nat Mater 10:532, 2011) on the solar thermoelectric generator reported a high efficiency performance of 4.6%. The system had a vacuum glass enclosure, a flat panel (absorber), thermoelectric generator and water circulation for the cold side. The theoretical and numerical approach of this current study validated the experimental results from Kraemer's study to a high degree. The numerical simulation process utilizes a two-stage approach in ANSYS software for Fluent and Thermal-Electric Systems. The solar load model technique uses solar radiation under AM 1.5G conditions in Fluent. This analytical model applies Dr. Ho Sung Lee's theory of optimal design to improve the performance of the STEG system by using dimensionless parameters. Applying this theory, using two cover glasses and radiation shields, the STEG model can achieve a highest efficiency of 7%.

  10. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  11. Temperature dependent thermoelectric properties of chemically derived gallium zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Barasheed, Abeer Z.; Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the temperature dependent thermoelectric properties of sol-gel prepared ZnO and 3% Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films have been explored. The power factor of GZO films, as compared to ZnO, is improved by nearly 17% at high temperature. A stabilization anneal, prior to thermoelectric measurements, in a strongly reducing Ar/H2 (95/5) atmosphere at 500°C was found to effectively stabilize the chemically derived films, practically eliminating hysteresis during thermoelectric measurements. Subtle changes in the thermoelectric properties of stabilized films have been correlated to oxygen vacancies and excitonic levels that are known to exist in ZnO-based thin films. The role of Ga dopants and defects, formed upon annealing, in driving the observed complex temperature dependence of the thermoelectric properties is discussed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  12. Potential thermoelectric performance of hole-doped Cu2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xin; Parker, David; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J

    2013-01-01

    High thermoelectric performance in oxides requires stable conductive materials that have suitable band structures. Here we show, based on an analysis of the thermopower and related properties using first-principles calculations and Boltzmann transport theory in the relaxation time approximation, that hole-doped Cu 2 O may be such a material. We find that hole-doped Cu 2 O has a high thermopower of above 200 μV K −1 even with doping levels as high as 5.2 × 10 20 cm −3 at 500 K, mainly attributed to the heavy valence bands of Cu 2 O. This is reminiscent of the cobaltate family of high-performance oxide thermoelectrics and implies that hole-doped Cu 2 O could be an excellent thermoelectric material if suitably doped. (paper)

  13. Thermoelectricity Generation and Electron-Magnon Scattering in a Natural Chalcopyrite Mineral from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Ran; Khan, Atta Ullah; Tsujii, Naohito; Takai, Ken; Nakamura, Ryuhei; Mori, Takao

    2015-10-26

    Current high-performance thermoelectric materials require elaborate doping and synthesis procedures, particularly in regard to the artificial structure, and the underlying thermoelectric mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we report that a natural chalcopyrite mineral, Cu1+x Fe1-x S2 , obtained from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent can directly generate thermoelectricity. The resistivity displayed an excellent semiconducting character, and a large thermoelectric power and high power factor were found in the low x region. Notably, electron-magnon scattering and a large effective mass was detected in this region, thus suggesting that the strong coupling of doped carriers and antiferromagnetic spins resulted in the natural enhancement of thermoelectric properties during mineralization reactions. The present findings demonstrate the feasibility of thermoelectric energy generation and electron/hole carrier modulation with natural materials that are abundant in the Earth's crust. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Performance evaluation of micro thermoelectric module for hot spot cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ook Joong; Lee, Kong Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The experimental and numerical study is carried out to investigate the availability of micro TEM for hot spot cooling of an IC chip. It is found that an acrylic plate integrating with copper plate and imbedded micro TEM represents good hot spot cooling of the IC chip when CO2 laser is used to hot spot heating. Effective active local cooling phenomena by the TEM are well investigated by experiment. The measured temperature drop in the hot spot point is compared to numerical result using the TAS program for every case. Numerical result shows good agreement with experiment using some appropriate thermal and thermoelectric properties of TEM and TIM obtained by trial and error. Measurement of thermo-physical properties such as contact thermal resistance and thickness of liquid TIM is difficult but can be estimated by numerical analysis

  15. Quasi-two-dimensional thermoelectricity in SnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayari, V.; Senkovskiy, B. V.; Rybkovskiy, D.; Ehlen, N.; Fedorov, A.; Chen, C.-Y.; Avila, J.; Asensio, M.; Perucchi, A.; di Pietro, P.; Yashina, L.; Fakih, I.; Hemsworth, N.; Petrescu, M.; Gervais, G.; Grüneis, A.; Szkopek, T.

    2018-01-01

    Stannous selenide is a layered semiconductor that is a polar analog of black phosphorus and of great interest as a thermoelectric material. Unusually, hole doped SnSe supports a large Seebeck coefficient at high conductivity, which has not been explained to date. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, optical reflection spectroscopy, and magnetotransport measurements reveal a multiple-valley valence-band structure and a quasi-two-dimensional dispersion, realizing a Hicks-Dresselhaus thermoelectric contributing to the high Seebeck coefficient at high carrier density. We further demonstrate that the hole accumulation layer in exfoliated SnSe transistors exhibits a field effect mobility of up to 250 cm2/V s at T =1.3 K . SnSe is thus found to be a high-quality quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor ideal for thermoelectric applications.

  16. Thinking Like a Chemist: Intuition in Thermoelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Wolfgang G; Zevalkink, Alex; Gibbs, Zachary M; Hautier, Geoffroy; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    2016-06-06

    The coupled transport properties required to create an efficient thermoelectric material necessitates a thorough understanding of the relationship between the chemistry and physics in a solid. We approach thermoelectric material design using the chemical intuition provided by molecular orbital diagrams, tight binding theory, and a classic understanding of bond strength. Concepts such as electronegativity, band width, orbital overlap, bond energy, and bond length are used to explain trends in electronic properties such as the magnitude and temperature dependence of band gap, carrier effective mass, and band degeneracy and convergence. The lattice thermal conductivity is discussed in relation to the crystal structure and bond strength, with emphasis on the importance of bond length. We provide an overview of how symmetry and bonding strength affect electron and phonon transport in solids, and how altering these properties may be used in strategies to improve thermoelectric performance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Research Update: Phonon engineering of nanocrystalline silicon thermoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichiro Shiomi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline silicon thermoelectrics can be a solution to improve the cost-effectiveness of thermoelectric technology from both material and integration viewpoints. While their figure-of-merit is still developing, recent advances in theoretical/numerical calculations, property measurements, and structural synthesis/fabrication have opened up possibilities to develop the materials based on fundamental physics of phonon transport. Here, this is demonstrated by reviewing a series of works on nanocrystalline silicon materials using calculations of multiscale phonon transport, measurements of interfacial heat conduction, and synthesis from nanoparticles. Integration of these approaches allows us to engineer phonon transport to improve the thermoelectric performance by introducing local silicon-oxide structures.

  18. AUTOMATIC BIOMASS BOILER WITH AN EXTERNAL THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Brázdil; Ladislav Šnajdárek; Petr Kracík; Jirí Pospíšil

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of an external thermoelectric generator that utilizes the waste heat from a small-scale domestic biomass boiler with nominal rated heat output of 25 kW. The low-temperature Bi2Te3 generator based on thermoelectric modules has the potential to recover waste heat from gas combustion products as effective energy. The small-scale generator is constructed from independent segments. Measurements have shown that up to 11 W of electricity can be generat...

  19. Wearable thermoelectric generators for body-powered devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonov, V.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion on energy scavenging for wearable devices in conjunction with human body properties. Motivation, analysis of the relevant properties of the human body, and results of optimization of a thermopile and a thermoelectric generator for wearable and portable devices are

  20. Thermal analysis of the heat recuperator of a combined cycle thermoelectric central; Analisis termico del recuperador de calor de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes, Hernando; Sanchez, I; Lazcano, L C; Ambriz, Juan Jose; Alvarez, M [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, O [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Tula (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The thermoelectric centrals of the combined cycle type (Brayton Cycle and Rankine Cycle) present a series of opportunities to increase the efficiency of the combined cycle or of the generated power. This paper shows the methodology for the performance of energy balances in a heat recuperator (H. R.), typically employed in the combined cycle stations operating in Mexico, for the assessment of the energy harnessing in the different sections conforming a H. R. The effect of the installation of evaporative coolers and/or an absorption cooling system at the gas turbine compressor intake on the steam generation in the heat recuperator, is evaluated. This extra generation of steam is quantified for its potential use in the same absorption refrigeration system. From the assessment, it follows up that the steam generation in the H.R. is inversely proportional to the ambient temperature and that, although the increased amount of steam generated can not be harnessed in total by the steam turbine, the remaining fraction is good enough to cover the heat demand for the operation of the refrigeration system. [Espanol] Las centrales termoelectricas del tipo ciclo combinado (ciclo Brayton y ciclo Rankine) presentan un conjunto de oportunidades para incrementar la eficiencia del ciclo combinado o bien la potencia generada. En el presente trabajo se expone la metodologia para realizar los balances de energia en un recuperador de calor (R.C.) tipicamente utilizado en las Centrales de Ciclo Combinado (CCC) que operan en Mexico, para evaluar el aprovechamiento de la energia en las diferentes secciones que conforman un R.C. Se evalua el efecto que tiene la instalacion de enfriadores evaporativos y/o un sistema de enfriamiento por absorcion en la succion del compresor de la turbina de gas sobre la generacion de vapor en el recuperador de calor. Se cuantifica esta generacion extra de vapor para su posible utilizacion en el mismo sistema de refrigeracion por absorcion. De la evaluacion se

  1. Thermal analysis of the heat recuperator of a combined cycle thermoelectric central; Analisis termico del recuperador de calor de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes, Hernando; Sanchez, I.; Lazcano, L. C.; Ambriz, Juan Jose; Alvarez, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, O. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Tula (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The thermoelectric centrals of the combined cycle type (Brayton Cycle and Rankine Cycle) present a series of opportunities to increase the efficiency of the combined cycle or of the generated power. This paper shows the methodology for the performance of energy balances in a heat recuperator (H. R.), typically employed in the combined cycle stations operating in Mexico, for the assessment of the energy harnessing in the different sections conforming a H. R. The effect of the installation of evaporative coolers and/or an absorption cooling system at the gas turbine compressor intake on the steam generation in the heat recuperator, is evaluated. This extra generation of steam is quantified for its potential use in the same absorption refrigeration system. From the assessment, it follows up that the steam generation in the H.R. is inversely proportional to the ambient temperature and that, although the increased amount of steam generated can not be harnessed in total by the steam turbine, the remaining fraction is good enough to cover the heat demand for the operation of the refrigeration system. [Espanol] Las centrales termoelectricas del tipo ciclo combinado (ciclo Brayton y ciclo Rankine) presentan un conjunto de oportunidades para incrementar la eficiencia del ciclo combinado o bien la potencia generada. En el presente trabajo se expone la metodologia para realizar los balances de energia en un recuperador de calor (R.C.) tipicamente utilizado en las Centrales de Ciclo Combinado (CCC) que operan en Mexico, para evaluar el aprovechamiento de la energia en las diferentes secciones que conforman un R.C. Se evalua el efecto que tiene la instalacion de enfriadores evaporativos y/o un sistema de enfriamiento por absorcion en la succion del compresor de la turbina de gas sobre la generacion de vapor en el recuperador de calor. Se cuantifica esta generacion extra de vapor para su posible utilizacion en el mismo sistema de refrigeracion por absorcion. De la evaluacion se

  2. An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rodgers; James Castle

    2008-08-31

    This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury

  3. Dismantling and chemical characterization of spent Peltier thermoelectric devices for antimony, bismuth and tellurium recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balva, Maxime; Legeai, Sophie; Garoux, Laetitia; Leclerc, Nathalie; Meux, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Major uses of thermoelectricity concern refrigeration purposes, using Peltier devices, mainly composed of antimony, bismuth and tellurium. Antimony was identified as a critical raw material by EU and resources of bismuth and tellurium are not inexhaustible, so it is necessary to imagine the recycling of thermoelectric devices. That for, a complete characterization is needed, which is the aim of this work. Peltier devices were manually dismantled in three parts: the thermoelectric legs, the alumina plates on which remain the electrical contacts and the silicone paste used to connect the plates. The characterization was performed using five Peltier devices. It includes mass balances of the components, X-ray diffraction analysis of the thermoelectric legs and elemental analysis of each part of the device. It appears that alumina represents 45% of a Peltier device in weight. The electrical contacts are mainly composed of copper and tin, and the thermoelectric legs of bismuth, tellurium and antimony. Thermoelectric legs appear to be Se-doped Bi 2 Te 3 and (Bi 0,5 Sb 1,5 )Te 3 for n type and p type semiconductors, respectively. This work shows that Peltier devices can be considered as a copper ore and that thermoelectric legs contain high amounts of bismuth, tellurium and antimony compared to their traditional resources.

  4. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2013-08-08

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  5. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.; Inayat, Salman Bin; Smith, Casey Eben

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  6. Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized

  7. Studies of bulk materials for thermoelectric cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J W; Nolas, G S; Volckmann, E H

    1997-07-01

    The authors discuss ongoing work in three areas of thermoelectric materials research: (1) broad band semiconductors featuring anion networks, (2) filled skutterudites, and (3) polycrystalline Bi-Sb alloys. Key results include: a preliminary evaluation of a previously untested ternary semiconductor, KSnSb; the first reported data in which Sn is used as a charge compensator in filled antimonide skutterudites; the finding that Sn doping does not effect polycrystalline Bi{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} as it does single crystal samples.

  8. Nanostructured layers of thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Jeffrey J.; Lynch, Jared; Coates, Nelson; Forster, Jason; Sahu, Ayaskanta; Chabinyc, Michael; Russ, Boris

    2018-01-30

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to thermoelectric materials. In one aspect, a method includes providing a plurality of nanostructures. The plurality of nanostructures comprise a thermoelectric material, with each nanostructure of the plurality of nanostructures having first ligands disposed on a surface of the nanostructure. The plurality of nanostructures is mixed with a solution containing second ligands and a ligand exchange process occurs in which the first ligands disposed on the plurality of nanostructures are replaced with the second ligands. The plurality of nanostructures is deposited on a substrate to form a layer. The layer is thermally annealed.

  9. Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors for non-destructive analysis of works of art by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, Roberto; Ettore Gigante, Giovanni; Castellano, Alfredo

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors, such as Si-PIN, Si-drift, Cd 1-x Zn x Te and HgI 2 , coupled to miniaturized low-power X-ray tubes, are well suited in portable systems for energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), analysis of archaeological samples. The Si-PIN detector is characterized by a thickness of about 300 μm, an area of about 2x3 mm 2 , an energy resolution of about 200-250 eV at 5.9 keV and an entrance window of 25-75 μm. The Si-drift detector has approximately the same area and thickness, but an energy resolution of 155 eV at 5.9 keV. The efficiency of these detectors is around 100% from 4 to 10 keV, and then decreases versus energy, reaching ∼9% at 30 keV. Coupled to a miniaturized 10 kV, 0.1 mA, Ca-anode or to a miniaturized 30 kV, 0.1 mA, W-anode X-ray tubes, portable systems can be constructed, which are able to analyse K-lines of elements up to about silver, and L-lines of heavy elements. The Cd 1-x Zn x Te detector has an area of 4 mm 2 and a thickness of 3 mm. It has an energy resolution of about 300 eV at 5.9 keV, and an efficiency of 100% over the whole range of X-rays. Finally the HgI 2 detector has an efficiency of about 100% in the whole range of X-rays, and an energy resolution of about 200 eV at 5.9 keV. Coupled to a small 50-60 kV, 1 mA, W-anode X-ray tube, portable systems can be constructed, for the analysis of practically all elements. These systems were applied to analysis in the field of archaeometry and in all applications for which portable systems are needed or at least useful (for example X-ray transmission measurements, X-ray microtomography and so on). Results of in-field use of these detectors and a comparison among these room temperature detectors in relation to concrete applications are presented. More specifically, concerning EDXRF analysis, ancient gold samples were analysed in Rome, in Mexico City and in Milan, ancient bronzes in Sassari, in Bologna, in Chieti and in Naples, and sulfur (due to

  10. High-temperature thermoelectric behavior of lead telluride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The central problem in thermoelectric material research is the selection of ... temperature range (400–1000 K), and bismuth telluride-based materials .... parent from the results that band non-parabolicity has a significant effect on the .... M P Singh thankfully acknowledges financial assistance from the Council of Scien-.

  11. Thermoelectric generator hidden in a shirt with a fabric radiator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonov, V.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Hoof, C.V.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of thermopiles in garments has been performed in this work in different ways. It is shown that textile has a minor effect on power generation, which enables completely hidden and unobtrusive energy harvester. A one-milliwatt thermoelectric generator is then integrated between two layers

  12. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [MIT; Ren, Zhifeng [University of Houston

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  13. Material parameters for thermoelectric performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thermoelectric performance of a thermoelement is ideally defined in terms of the so-called figure-of-merit = 2 / , where , and refer respectively to the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of the thermoelement material. However, there are other parameters which are fairly good ...

  14. High Performance Bulk Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    Over 13 plus years, we have carried out research on electron pairing symmetry of superconductors, growth and their field emission property studies on carbon nanotubes and semiconducting nanowires, high performance thermoelectric materials and other interesting materials. As a result of the research, we have published 104 papers, have educated six undergraduate students, twenty graduate students, nine postdocs, nine visitors, and one technician.

  15. The effect of a distinct diameter variation on the thermoelectric properties of individual Bi0.39Te0.61 nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojda, D; Mitdank, R; Fischer, S F; Mogilatenko, A; Töllner, W; Nielsch, K; Wang, Z; Kröner, M; Woias, P

    2014-01-01

    The reduction of the thermal conductivity induced by nano-patterning is one of the major approaches for tailoring thermoelectric material properties. In particular, the role of surface roughness and morphology is under debate. Here, we choose two individual bismuth telluride nanowires (NWs), one with a strong diameter variation between 190 nm and 320 nm (NW1) and the other of 187 nm diameter with smooth sidewalls (NW2). Both serve as model systems for which bulk properties are expected if surface properties do not contribute. We investigate the role of the diameter variation by means of a combined full-thermoelectrical, structural and chemical characterization. By transmission electron microscopy the structure, chemical composition and morphology were determined after the thermoelectrical investigation. The NWs showed an oriented growth along the [110] direction and the same composition. The Seebeck coefficients of both NWs are comparable to each other. The electrical conductivity of both NWs exceeds the bulk value indicating the presence of a topological surface state. Whereas the thermal conductivity of NW2 compares to the bulk, the thermal conductivity of NW1 is about half of NW2 which is discussed with respect to its distinct diameter variation. (invited article)

  16. Effects of Mev Si Ions and Thermal Annealing on Thermoelectric and Optical Properties of SiO2/SiO2+Ge Multi-nanolayer thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, S.; Alim, M. A.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Muntele, C.

    Thermoelectric generator devices have been prepared from 200 alternating layers of SiO2/SiO2+Ge superlattice films using DC/RF magnetron sputtering. The 5 MeV Si ionsbombardmenthasbeen performed using the AAMU Pelletron ion beam accelerator to formquantum dots and / or quantum clusters in the multi-layer superlattice thin films to decrease the cross-plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient and increase the cross-plane electrical conductivity to increase the figure of merit, ZT. The fabricated devices have been annealed at the different temperatures to tailor the thermoelectric and optical properties of the superlattice thin film systems. While the temperature increased, the Seebeck coefficient continued to increase and reached the maximum value of -25 μV/K at the fluenceof 5x1013 ions/cm2. The decrease in resistivity has been seen between the fluence of 1x1013 ions/cm2 and 5x1013 ions/cm2. Transport properties like Hall coefficient, density and mobility did not change at all fluences. Impedance spectroscopy has been used to characterize the multi-junction thermoelectric devices. The loci obtained in the C*-plane for these data indicate non-Debye type relaxation displaying the presence of the depression parameter.

  17. Application of Thermoelectric Devices to Fuel Cell Power Generation: Demonstration and Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huston, John; Wyatt, Chris; Nichols, Chris; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DOD) is concerned with reliable and cost-effective power generation of on-site power generators as well as minimizing the environment impact of these generators. Thermoelectric (TE...

  18. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-31

    The thermoelectric generator shorting system provides the capability to monitor and short-out individual thermoelectric couples in the event of failure. This makes the series configured thermoelectric generator robust to individual thermoelectric couple failure. Open circuit detection of the thermoelectric couples and the associated short control is a key technique to ensure normal functionality of the TE generator under failure of individual TE couples. This report describes a five-year effort whose goal was the understanding the issues related to the development of a thermoelectric energy recovery device for a Class-8 truck. Likely materials and important issues related to the utility of this generator were identified. Several prototype generators were constructed and demonstrated. The generators developed demonstrated several new concepts including advanced insulation, couple bypass technology and the first implementation of skutterudite thermoelectric material in a generator design. Additional work will be required to bring this system to fruition. However, such generators offer the possibility of converting energy that is otherwise wasted to useful electric power. Uur studies indicate that this can be accomplished in a cost-effective manner for this application.

  19. Compressive strain induced enhancement in thermoelectric-power-factor in monolayer MoS2 nanosheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimple; Jena, Nityasagar; De Sarkar, Abir

    2017-01-01

    Strain and temperature induced tunability in the thermoelectric properties in monolayer MoS 2 (ML-MoS 2 ) has been demonstrated using density functional theory coupled to semi-classical Boltzmann transport theory. Compressive strain, in general and uniaxial compressive strain (along the zig-zag direction), in particular, is found to be most effective in enhancing the thermoelectric power factor, owing to the higher electronic mobility and its sensitivity to lattice compression along this direction. Variation in the Seebeck coefficient and electronic band gap with strain is found to follow the Goldsmid–Sharp relation. n-type doping is found to raise the relaxation time-scaled thermoelectric power factor higher than p-type doping and this divide widens with increasing temperature. The relaxation time-scaled thermoelectric power factor in optimally n-doped ML-MoS 2 is found to undergo maximal enhancement under the application of 3% uniaxial compressive strain along the zig-zag direction, when both the ( direct ) electronic band gap and the Seebeck coefficient reach their maximum, while the electron mobility drops down drastically from 73.08 to 44.15 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . Such strain sensitive thermoelectric responses in ML-MoS 2 could open doorways for a variety of applications in emerging areas in 2D-thermoelectrics, such as on-chip thermoelectric power generation and waste thermal energy harvesting. (paper)

  20. Solder free joining as a highly effective method for making contact between thermoelectric materials and metallic electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Safdar Abbas; Le, Thanh Hung; Van Nong, Ngo

    2017-01-01

    /react with both Ag and Ni electrodes, and penetrate into ZnSb legs. SEM-EDX analysis recorded a significant excess of Zn in the ZnSb leg after joining. We found that, using microlayers of Ti and Cr as interconnecting agent, a very good interfacial contact was obtained, and the starting composition of ZnSb legs...

  1. A comparative study on the thermoelectric effect of parent oxypnictides LaTAsO (T = Fe, Ni)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Qian; Zhu Zengwei; Lin Xiao; Cao Guanghan; Xu Zhuan; Chen Genfu; Luo Jianlin; Wang Nanlin

    2010-01-01

    The thermopower and Nernst effect were investigated for undoped parent compounds LaFeAsO and LaNiAsO. Both the thermopower and Nernst signal in iron-based LaFeAsO are significantly larger than those in nickel-based LaNiAsO. Furthermore, abrupt changes in both the thermopower and Nernst effect are observed below the structural phase transition temperature and spin-density wave (SDW) type antiferromagnetic (AFM) order temperature in Fe-based LaFeAsO. On the other hand, the Nernst effect is very small in the Ni-based LaNiAsO and it is weakly temperature-dependent, reminiscent of the case in normal metals. We suggest that the effect of SDW order on the spin scattering rate should play an important role in the anomalous temperature dependence of the Hall effect and Nernst effect in LaFeAsO. The contrasting behaviour between the LaFeAsO and LaNiAsO systems implies that the LaFeAsO system is fundamentally different from the LaNiAsO system and this may provide clues to the mechanism of high T c superconductivity in Fe-based systems. (fast track communication)

  2. The effect of structural vacancies on the thermoelectric properties of (Cu₂Te){sub 1–x}(Ga₂Te₃)x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Zuxin; Young Cho, Jung; Tessema, Misle M. [Optimal Inc., Plymouth Township, MI 48170 (United States); Salvador, James R., E-mail: james.salvador@gm.com [GM Global R and D, Warren, MI 48090 (United States); Waldo, Richard A. [GM Global R and D, Warren, MI 48090 (United States); Wang, Hsin; Cai, Wei [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We have studied the effects of structural vacancies on the thermoelectric properties of the ternary compounds (Cu₂Te)1–x(Ga₂Te₃)x (x=0.5, 0.55, 0.571, 0.6, 0.625, 0.667 and 0.75), which are solid solutions found in the pseudo-binary phase diagram for Cu₂Te and Ga₂Te₃, and possesses tunable structural vacancy concentrations. This materials system is not suitable due to the cost and scarcity of the constituent elements, but the vacancy behavior is well understood and will provide a valuable test case for other systems more suitable from the standpoint of cost and abundance of raw materials, which also possesses these vacancy features, but whose structural characterization is lacking at this stage. We find that the nominally defect free phase CuGaTe₂ possess the highest ZT (ZT=S²T/ρκ, where S is the Seebeck coefficient and ρ is the electrical resistivity κ is the thermal conductivity and T is the absolute temperature) which approaches 1 at 840 K and seems to continuously increase above this temperature. This result is due to the unexpectedly low thermal conductivity found for this material at high temperature. The low thermal conductivity was caused by strong Umklapp (thermally resistive scattering processes involving three phonons) phonon scattering. We find that due to the coincidentally strong scattering of carriers by the structural defects that higher concentrations of these features lead to poor electrical transport properties and decreased ZT. - Graphical abstract: Thermal conductivity and zT as a function of temperature for a series of compounds of the type (Cu₂Te)1–x(Ga₂Te₃)x (x=0.5, 0.55, 0.571, 0.6, 0.625, 0.667 and 0.75). Highlights: • All the samples show p-type semiconducting behavior in the temperature dependence of the Seebeck and Hall coefficients. • The increased carrier concentration and the introduction of vacancies diminish the carrier mobility and power factor. • The low

  3. A 3D TCAD simulation of a thermoelectric module configured for thermoelectric power generation, cooling and heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, C. A.; Shammas, N. Y. A.; Grainger, S.; Taylor, I.; Simpson, K.

    2012-06-01

    This paper documents the 3D modeling and simulation of a three couple thermoelectric module using the Synopsys Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) semiconductor simulation software. Simulation results are presented for thermoelectric power generation, cooling and heating, and successfully demonstrate the basic thermoelectric principles. The 3D TCAD simulation model of a three couple thermoelectric module can be used in the future to evaluate different thermoelectric materials, device structures, and improve the efficiency and performance of thermoelectric modules.

  4. Investigation of mesoporous structures for thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, A.; Carstensen, J.; Foell, H.; Boor, J.; Schmidt, V.

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous silicon is an attractive material for thermoelectric application. For pore wall thicknesses around <100 nm, phonons can not penetrate the porous layer while electrons still can, due to there smaller mean free path length. The resulting good electrical and bad thermal conductivity is a premise for efficient thermoelectric devices. This paper presents results regarding homogeneity, high porosity, and optimal pore wall thicknesses for porous silicon based thermoelectric devices.

  5. Applications of nuclear-powered thermoelectric generators in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The source of electrical power which enables information to be transmitted from the space crafts Voyager 1 and 2 back to Earth after a time period of more than a decade and at a distance of more than a billion miles is known as an RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator). It utilises the Seebeck effect in producing electricity from heat. In essence it consists of a large number of semiconductor thermocouples connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel. A temperature difference is maintained across the thermocouples by providing a heat source, which in the case of an RTG is a radioactive isotope, and the heat sink is space. The combination of an energy-conversion system, free of moving parts and a long-life, high energy-density heat source, provides a supply of electrical power typically in the range of tens to hundred of watts and which operates reliably over extended periods of time. An electric power source, based upon thermoelectric conversion by which utilises a nuclear reactor as a heat source, has also been deployed in space and a 100-kW system is being developed to provide electrical power to a variety of commercial and military projects including SDI. Developments in thermoelectrics that have taken place in the western world during the past 30 years are primarily due to United States interest and involvement in the exploration of space. This paper reviews US applications of nuclear-powered thermoelectric generators in space. (author)

  6. High Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of ZnO Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li

    of the dopants and dopant concentrations, a large power factor was obtainable. The sample with the composition of Zn0.9Cd0.1Sc0.01O obtained the highest zT ∼0.3 @1173 K, ~0.24 @1073K, and a good average zT which is better than the state-of-the-art n-type thermoelectric oxide materials. Meanwhile, Sc-doped Zn......This thesis investigated the high temperature thermoelectric properties of ZnO based materials. The investigation first focused on the doping mechanisms of Al-doped ZnO, and then the influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the thermoelectric properties of Al, Ga-dually doped Zn......O. Following that, the nanostructuring effect for Al-doped ZnO was systematically investigated using samples with different microstructure morphologies. At last, the newly developed ZnCdO materials with superior thermoelectric properties and thermal stability were introduced as promising substitutions...

  7. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  8. AUTOMATIC BIOMASS BOILER WITH AN EXTERNAL THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Brázdil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and test results of an external thermoelectric generator that utilizes the waste heat from a small-scale domestic biomass boiler with nominal rated heat output of 25 kW. The low-temperature Bi2Te3 generator based on thermoelectric modules has the potential to recover waste heat from gas combustion products as effective energy. The small-scale generator is constructed from independent segments. Measurements have shown that up to 11 W of electricity can be generated by one segment. Higher output power can be achieved by linking thermoelectric segments. The maximum output power is given by the dew point of the flue gas. The electrical energy that is generated can be used, e.g., for power supply or for charging batteries. In the near future, thermoelectric generators could completely eliminate the dependence an automated domestic boiler system on the power supply from the electricity grid, and could ensure comfortable operation in the event of an unexpected power grid failure.

  9. Thermoelectric Power Factor Limit of a 1D Nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ju; Burke, Adam; Svilans, Artis; Linke, Heiner; Thelander, Claes

    2018-04-01

    In the past decade, there has been significant interest in the potentially advantageous thermoelectric properties of one-dimensional (1D) nanowires, but it has been challenging to find high thermoelectric power factors based on 1D effects in practice. Here we point out that there is an upper limit to the thermoelectric power factor of nonballistic 1D nanowires, as a consequence of the recently established quantum bound of thermoelectric power output. We experimentally test this limit in quasiballistic InAs nanowires by extracting the maximum power factor of the first 1D subband through I -V characterization, finding that the measured maximum power factors conform to the theoretical limit. The established limit allows the prediction of the achievable power factor of a specific nanowire material system with 1D electronic transport based on the nanowire dimension and mean free path. The power factor of state-of-the-art semiconductor nanowires with small cross section and high crystal quality can be expected to be highly competitive (on the order of mW /m K2 ) at low temperatures. However, they have no clear advantage over bulk materials at, or above, room temperature.

  10. Solar thermoelectricity via advanced latent heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, M. L.; Rea, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Hardin, C.; Oshman, C.; Vaughn, J.; Roark, T.; Raade, J. W.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Sharp, J.; Avery, A. D.; Bobela, D.; Bonner, R.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Parilla, P. A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, E. S.; Ginley, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    We report on a new modular, dispatchable, and cost-effective solar electricity-generating technology. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) integrates several state-of-the-art technologies to provide electricity on demand. In the envisioned STEALS system, concentrated sunlight is converted to heat at a solar absorber. The heat is then delivered to either a thermoelectric (TE) module for direct electricity generation, or to charge a phase change material for thermal energy storage, enabling subsequent generation during off-sun hours, or both for simultaneous electricity production and energy storage. The key to making STEALS a dispatchable technology lies in the development of a "thermal valve," which controls when heat is allowed to flow through the TE module, thus controlling when electricity is generated. The current project addresses each of the three major subcomponents, (i) the TE module, (ii) the thermal energy storage system, and (iii) the thermal valve. The project also includes system-level and techno- economic modeling of the envisioned integrated system and will culminate in the demonstration of a laboratory-scale STEALS prototype capable of generating 3kWe.

  11. Thermoelectricity in correlated narrow-gap semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Jan M.

    2018-05-01

    We review many-body effects, their microscopic origin, as well as their impact on thermoelectricity in correlated narrow-gap semiconductors. Members of this class—such as FeSi and FeSb2—display an unusual temperature dependence in various observables: insulating with large thermopowers at low temperatures, they turn bad metals at temperatures much smaller than the size of their gaps. This insulator-to-metal crossover is accompanied by spectral weight-transfers over large energies in the optical conductivity and by a gradual transition from activated to Curie–Weiss-like behaviour in the magnetic susceptibility. We show a retrospective of the understanding of these phenomena, discuss the relation to heavy-fermion Kondo insulators—such as Ce3Bi4Pt3 for which we present new results—and propose a general classification of paramagnetic insulators. From the latter, FeSi emerges as an orbital-selective Kondo insulator. Focussing on intermetallics such as silicides, antimonides, skutterudites, and Heusler compounds we showcase successes and challenges for the realistic simulation of transport properties in the presence of electronic correlations. Further, we explore new avenues in which electronic correlations may contribute to the improvement of thermoelectric performance.

  12. Tetradymites as thermoelectrics and topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heremans, Joseph P.; Cava, Robert J.; Samarth, Nitin

    2017-10-01

    Tetradymites are M2X3 compounds — in which M is a group V metal, usually Bi or Sb, and X is a group VI anion, Te, Se or S — that crystallize in a rhombohedral structure. Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 are archetypical tetradymites. Other mixtures of M and X elements produce common variants, such as Bi2Te2Se. Because tetradymites are based on heavy p-block elements, strong spin-orbit coupling greatly influences their electronic properties, both on the surface and in the bulk. Their surface electronic states are a cornerstone of frontier work on topological insulators. The bulk energy bands are characterized by small energy gaps, high group velocities, small effective masses and band inversion near the centre of the Brillouin zone. These properties are favourable for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials but make it difficult to obtain an electrically insulating bulk, which is a requirement of topological insulators. This Review outlines recent progress made in bulk and thin-film tetradymite materials for the optimization of their properties both as thermoelectrics and as topological insulators.

  13. Anomalous thermoelectric phenomena in lattice models of multi-Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Sukhachov, P. O.

    2017-10-01

    The thermoelectric transport coefficients are calculated in a generic lattice model of multi-Weyl semimetals with a broken time-reversal symmetry by using the Kubo's linear response theory. The contributions connected with the Berry curvature-induced electromagnetic orbital and heat magnetizations are systematically taken into account. It is shown that the thermoelectric transport is profoundly affected by the nontrivial topology of multi-Weyl semimetals. In particular, the calculation reveals a number of thermal coefficients of the topological origin which describe the anomalous Nernst and thermal Hall effects in the absence of background magnetic fields. Similarly to the anomalous Hall effect, all anomalous thermoelectric coefficients are proportional to the integer topological charge of the Weyl nodes. The dependence of the thermoelectric coefficients on the chemical potential and temperature is also studied.

  14. Investigation of Nanophase Materials for Thermoelectric Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stokes, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    .... We have also made contributions to new, pressure-dependent thermoelectric transport measurement techniques and chemical techniques for creating ordered nanoparticle assemblies consisting of two different nanoparticle materials.

  15. Optimal operation of thermoelectric cooler driven by solar thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, N.M.; El Shenawy, E.T.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of using a solar thermoelectric generator (TEG) to drive a small thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is studied in the present work. The study includes the theory of both the TEG and the TEC, giving special consideration to determination of the number of TEG modules required to power the TEC to achieve the best performance of the TEG-TEC system all year round. Commercially available thermoelectric modules (TE) are used in the system. The TEG contains 49 thermocouples and the TEC contains 127 thermocouples. A simple arrangement of plane reflectors that are designed to receive maximum solar energy during noon time is used to heat the TEG. Performance tests are conducted to determine both the physical properties and the performance curves of the available TE modules. Also, empirical relations describing the performance of the TEG and TEC modules have been established. These relations are used to develop a mathematical model simulating the TEG-TEC system to predict its performance all year round under the actual climatic conditions of Cairo, Egypt (30 deg. N latitude). The model results are used to determine the number of TEG modules required to drive a single TEC module at maximum cooling capacity. The results show that five thermocouples of the TEG can drive one thermocouple of the TEC, which coincides with the previous theory of the TEG-TEC. This means that 10 of the used TEG modules are required to power the used TEC at optimum performance most times of the year

  16. High thermoelectric performances of Bi–AE–Co–O compounds directionally growth from the melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, J.C.; Rasekh, S.; Madre, M.A.; Torres, M.A.; Sotelo, A.E.

    2018-01-01

    Bi2AE2Co2Ox (AE=Ca, Sr, and Ba) thermoelectric compounds were grown from the melt by the laser floating zone technique. Microstructural analysis of as-grown samples has shown the formation of well-aligned thermoelectric grains together with a relative high amount of secondary phases. On the other hand, a short (24h) thermal treatment (810°C for Sr, 800°C for Ca, and 750°C for Ba) under air, raises of thermoelectric phase content through the recombination of the secondary ones. These microstructural modifications led to a large decrease of electrical resistivity, improving the power factor. These results have been compared with samples prepared by the conventional solid state method and with the best values reported in the literature. From these data, it is possible to deduce that the high thermoelectric characteristics obtained in these samples make them very attractive for practical applications. [es

  17. Experimental evaluation of an active solar thermoelectric radiant wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, ZhongBing; Zhang, Ling; Gong, GuangCai; Han, TianHe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel active solar thermoelectric radiant wall are proposed and tested. • The novel wall can control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy. • The novel wall can eliminate building envelop thermal loads and provide cooling capacity for space cooling. • Typical application issues including connection strategies, coupling with PV system etc. are discussed. - Abstract: Active solar thermoelectric radiant wall (ASTRW) system is a new solar wall technology which integrates thermoelectric radiant cooling and photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In ASTRW system, a PV system transfers solar energy directly into electrical energy to power thermoelectric cooling modes. Both the thermoelectric cooling modes and PV system are integrated into one enclosure surface as radiant panel for space cooling and heating. Hence, ASTRW system presents fundamental shift from minimizing building envelope energy losses by optimizing the insulation thickness to a new regime where active solar envelop is designed to eliminate thermal loads and increase the building’s solar gains while providing occupant comfort in all seasons. This article presents an experimental study of an ASTRW system with a dimension of 1580 × 810 mm. Experimental results showed that the inner surface temperature of the ASTRW is 3–8 °C lower than the indoor temperature of the test room, which indicated that the ASTRW system has the ability to control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy and reduce the air conditioning system requirements. Based on the optimal operating current of TE modules and the analysis based upon PV modeling theories, the number and type of the electrical connections for the TE modules in ASTRW system are discussed in order to get an excellent performance in the operation of the ASTRW system

  18. Disordered Zinc in Zn4Sb3 with Phonon-Glass and Electron-Crystal Thermoelectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Christensen, Mogens; Nishibori, Eiji; Caillat, Thierry; Brummerstedt Iversen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    By converting waste heat into electricity, thermoelectric generators could be an important part of the solution to today's energy challenges. The compound Zn4Sb3 is one of the most efficient thermoelectric materials known. Its high efficiency results from an extraordinarily low thermal conductivity in conjunction with the electronic structure of a heavily doped semiconductor. Previous structural studies have been unable to explain this unusual combination of properties. Here, we show through a comprehensive structural analysis using single-crystal X-ray and powder-synchrotron-radiation diffraction methods, that both the electronic and thermal properties of Zn4Sb3 can be understood in terms of unique structural features that have been previously overlooked. The identification of Sb3- ions and Sb-2(4-) dimers reveals that Zn4Sb3 is a valence semiconductor with the ideal stoichiometry Zn13Sb10. In addition, the structure contains significant disorder, with zinc atoms distributed over multiple positions. The discovery of glass-like interstitial sites uncovers a highly effective mechanism for reducing thermal conductivity. Thus Zn4Sb3 is in many ways an ideal 'phonon glass, electron crystal' thermoelectric material.

  19. High-throughput exploration of thermoelectric and mechanical properties of amorphous NbO{sub 2} with transition metal additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Music, Denis, E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Geyer, Richard W.; Hans, Marcus [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 10, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-07-28

    To increase the thermoelectric efficiency and reduce the thermal fatigue upon cyclic heat loading, alloying of amorphous NbO{sub 2} with all 3d and 5d transition metals has systematically been investigated using density functional theory. It was found that Ta fulfills the key design criteria, namely, enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient and positive Cauchy pressure (ductility gauge). These quantum mechanical predictions were validated by assessing the thermoelectric and elastic properties on combinatorial thin films, which is a high-throughput approach. The maximum power factor is 2813 μW m{sup −1} K{sup −2} for the Ta/Nb ratio of 0.25, which is a hundredfold increment compared to pure NbO{sub 2} and exceeds many oxide thermoelectrics. Based on the elasticity measurements, the consistency between theory and experiment for the Cauchy pressure was attained within 2%. On the basis of the electronic structure analysis, these configurations can be perceived as metallic, which is consistent with low electrical resistivity and ductile behavior. Furthermore, a pronounced quantum confinement effect occurs, which is identified as the physical origin for the Seebeck coefficient enhancement.

  20. High-throughput exploration of thermoelectric and mechanical properties of amorphous NbO_2 with transition metal additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Geyer, Richard W.; Hans, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    To increase the thermoelectric efficiency and reduce the thermal fatigue upon cyclic heat loading, alloying of amorphous NbO_2 with all 3d and 5d transition metals has systematically been investigated using density functional theory. It was found that Ta fulfills the key design criteria, namely, enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient and positive Cauchy pressure (ductility gauge). These quantum mechanical predictions were validated by assessing the thermoelectric and elastic properties on combinatorial thin films, which is a high-throughput approach. The maximum power factor is 2813 μW m"−"1 K"−"2 for the Ta/Nb ratio of 0.25, which is a hundredfold increment compared to pure NbO_2 and exceeds many oxide thermoelectrics. Based on the elasticity measurements, the consistency between theory and experiment for the Cauchy pressure was attained within 2%. On the basis of the electronic structure analysis, these configurations can be perceived as metallic, which is consistent with low electrical resistivity and ductile behavior. Furthermore, a pronounced quantum confinement effect occurs, which is identified as the physical origin for the Seebeck coefficient enhancement.

  1. About thermo-electric properties of bismuth telluride doped by gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akperov, M.M.; Ismailov, Sh.S.; Shukyurova, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Results of study of the Gd impurities effect on the bismuth telluride thermo-electric properties are presented. The experiment was carried out within the temperature range T=300-700 K. It is determined, that at temperature increase the energy level is appreciably closing up to bismuth telluride forbidden zone which makes up 0.16-0.24 eV. Such anomalous energy properties of gadolinium in telluride affect on material thermoelectric properties

  2. The effect of electron and hole doping on the thermoelectric properties of shandite-type Co3Sn2S2

    OpenAIRE

    Mangelis, Panagiotis; Vaqueiro, Paz; Jumas, Jean-Claude; da Silva, Ivan; Smith, Ronald I; Powell, Anthony V

    2017-01-01

    Electron and hole doping in Co3Sn2S2, through chemical substitution of cobalt by the neighbouring elements, nickel and iron, affects both the structure and thermoelectric properties. Electron doping to form Co3-xNixSn2S2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 3) results in an expansion of the kagome layer and materials become increasingly metallic as cobalt is substituted. Conversely, hole doping in Co3-xFexSn2S2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6) leads to a transition from metallic to n-type semiconducting behaviour at x = 0.5. Iron substitu...

  3. The effect of simultaneous substitution on the electronic band structure and thermoelectric properties of Se-doped Co3SnInS2 with the Kagome lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Fujioka, Masaya; Shibuya, Taizo; Nakai, Junya; Yoshiyasu, Keigo; Sakai, Yuki; Takano, Yoshihiko; Kamihara, Yoichi; Matoba, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties and electronic band structures for Se-doped Co3SnInS2 were examined. The parent compound of this material (Co3Sn2S2) has two kinds of Sn sites (Sn1 and Sn2 sites). The density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the indium substitution at the Sn2 site induces a metallic band structure, on the other hand, a semiconducting band structure is obtained from substitution at the Sn1 site. However, according to the previous reports, since the indium atom prefe...

  4. Effect of Sb content on the thermoelectric properties of annealed CoSb{sub 3} thin films deposited via RF co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Aziz, E-mail: aziz_ahmed@ust.ac.kr [Department of Nano-Mechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), 156 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seungwoo, E-mail: swhan@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano-Mechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), 156 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-30

    Graphical abstract: The X-ray diffraction patterns and temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient of the annealed Co–Sb thin films. - Highlights: • CoSb{sub 3} phase thin films were prepared using RF co sputtering method. • Thin film thermoelectric properties were hugely dependent on Sb content. • All thin films shows n-type conduction behavior at high temperatures. • The thin films with excess Sb possess the largest Seebeck coefficient. • The thin films with CoSb{sub 2} phase possess the largest power factor. - Abstract: A series of CoSb{sub 3} thin films with Sb contents in the range 70–79 at.% were deposited at room temperature via RF co-sputtering. The thin films were amorphous in the as-deposited state and annealed at 300 °C for 3 h to obtain crystalline samples. The annealed thin films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and these data indicate that the films exhibited good crystallinity. The XRD patterns indicate single-phase CoSb{sub 3} thin films in the Sb-rich samples. For the Sb-deficient samples, however, mixed-phase thin films consisting of CoSb{sub 2} and CoSb{sub 3} components were obtained. The electrical and thermoelectric properties were measured at temperatures up to 760 K and found to be highly sensitive to the phases that were present. We observed a change in the thermoelectric properties of the films from p-type at low temperatures to n-type at high temperatures, which indicates potential applications as n-type thermoelectric thin films. A large Seebeck coefficient and power factor was obtained for the single-phase CoSb{sub 3} thin films. The CoSb{sub 2} phase thin films were also found to possess a significant Seebeck coefficient, which coupled with the much smaller electrical resistivity, provided a larger power factor than the single-phase CoSb{sub 3} thin films. We report maximum power factor of 7.92 mW/m K{sup 2} for the CoSb{sub 2}-containing mixed phase thin film and 1

  5. Effect of Sb content on the thermoelectric properties of annealed CoSb_3 thin films deposited via RF co-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Aziz; Han, Seungwoo

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The X-ray diffraction patterns and temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient of the annealed Co–Sb thin films. - Highlights: • CoSb_3 phase thin films were prepared using RF co sputtering method. • Thin film thermoelectric properties were hugely dependent on Sb content. • All thin films shows n-type conduction behavior at high temperatures. • The thin films with excess Sb possess the largest Seebeck coefficient. • The thin films with CoSb_2 phase possess the largest power factor. - Abstract: A series of CoSb_3 thin films with Sb contents in the range 70–79 at.% were deposited at room temperature via RF co-sputtering. The thin films were amorphous in the as-deposited state and annealed at 300 °C for 3 h to obtain crystalline samples. The annealed thin films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and these data indicate that the films exhibited good crystallinity. The XRD patterns indicate single-phase CoSb_3 thin films in the Sb-rich samples. For the Sb-deficient samples, however, mixed-phase thin films consisting of CoSb_2 and CoSb_3 components were obtained. The electrical and thermoelectric properties were measured at temperatures up to 760 K and found to be highly sensitive to the phases that were present. We observed a change in the thermoelectric properties of the films from p-type at low temperatures to n-type at high temperatures, which indicates potential applications as n-type thermoelectric thin films. A large Seebeck coefficient and power factor was obtained for the single-phase CoSb_3 thin films. The CoSb_2 phase thin films were also found to possess a significant Seebeck coefficient, which coupled with the much smaller electrical resistivity, provided a larger power factor than the single-phase CoSb_3 thin films. We report maximum power factor of 7.92 mW/m K"2 for the CoSb_2-containing mixed phase thin film and 1.26 mW/m K"2 for the stoichiometric CoSb_3 thin film.

  6. Effect of spark plasma sintering conditions on the thermoelectric properties of (Bi{sub 0.25}Sb{sub 0.75}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang-Soon [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Heon [High Temp. Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Beomjin; Kim, Seong Keun [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki-Suk; Baik, Jeong Min [School of Materials and Science Engineering, UNIST, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); KIST-UNIST Ulsan Center for Convergent Materials, UNIST, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Jun [Center for Opto-Electronic Materials and Devices, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Ik [High Temp. Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Dow-Bin; Kim, Jin-Sang [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seung-Hyub, E-mail: shbaek77@kist.re.kr [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); KIST-UNIST Ulsan Center for Convergent Materials, UNIST, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanomaterials Science and Technology, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-05

    As a field-assisted technique, spark plasma sintering (SPS) enables densification of specimens in a very short period of time compared to other sintering techniques. For high performance thermoelectric material synthesis, SPS is widely used to fabricate nanograin-structured thermoelectric materials by rapidly densifying the nanopowders suppressing grain growth. However, the microstructural evolution behavior of thermoelectric materials by SPS, another important process during sintering, has been rarely studied. Here, we explore SPS as a tool to control the microstructure by long-time SPS. Using p-type (Bi{sub 0.25}Sb{sub 0.75}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} thermoelectric materials as a model system, we systematically vary SPS temperature and time to understand the correlations between SPS conditions, microstructural evolution, and the thermoelectric properties. Our results show that the relatively low eutectic temperature (∼420 °C) and the existence of volatile tellurium (Te) are critical factors to determine both microstructure and thermoelectric property. In the liquid-phase sintering regime, rapid evaporation of Te leads to a strong dependence of thermoelectric property on SPS time. On the other hand, in the solid-phase sintering regime, there is a weak dependence on SPS time. The optimum thermoelectric figure-of-merit (Z) of 2.93 × 10{sup −3}/K is achieved by SPS at 500 °C for 30 min. Our results will provide an insight on the optimization of SPS conditions for materials containing volatile elements with low eutectic temperature. - Highlights: • Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is used to synthesize the thermoelectric (Bi{sub 0.25}Sb{sub 0.75}){sub 2}Te{sub 3}. • Liquid phase and volatile element are a key for the microstructure and thermoelectric property. • Thermoelectric figure-of-merit of 2.9 × 10{sup −3}/K is achieved at 500 °C for 30 min.

  7. Thermoelectric properties control due to doping level and sintering conditions for FGM thermoelectric element

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, T; Shiraishi, K; Ohmori, M; Hirai, T

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectric performance is determined with three factors, namely, Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity. For metal and single crystalline semiconductor, those factors have close interrelation each $9 other. However, as the sintered thermoelectric element has various levels of superstructure from macro scale and micro scale in terms of the thermoelectric mechanism, the relationship among them is more complex than that for the $9 melt- grown element, so it is suggested that the control of the temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties is possible to enhance the thermoelectric performance for wide temperature range due to FGM approach. The research $9 objective is to investigate the characteristics of the thermoelectric properties for various doping levels and hot-pressed conditions to make the thermoelectric elements for which the temperature dependence of the performance is $9 controlled due to FGM approach varying the doping levels and sintering conditions. By usage ...

  8. Thermal conductivity engineering in width-modulated silicon nanowires and thermoelectric efficiency enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zianni, Xanthippi

    2018-03-01

    Width-modulated nanowires have been proposed as efficient thermoelectric materials. Here, the electron and phonon transport properties and the thermoelectric efficiency are discussed for dimensions above the quantum confinement regime. The thermal conductivity decreases dramatically in the presence of thin constrictions due to their ballistic thermal resistance. It shows a scaling behavior upon the width-modulation rate that allows for thermal conductivity engineering. The electron conductivity also decreases due to enhanced boundary scattering by the constrictions. The effect of boundary scattering is weaker for electrons than for phonons and the overall thermoelectric efficiency is enhanced. A ZT enhancement by a factor of 20-30 is predicted for width-modulated nanowires compared to bulk silicon. Our findings indicate that width-modulated nanostructures are promising for developing silicon nanostructures with high thermoelectric efficiency.

  9. Thermoelectric Properties of the XCoSb (X: Ti,Zr,Hf) Half-Heusler Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Gandi, Appala

    2017-09-18

    We investigate the thermoelectric properties of the half-Heusler alloys XCoSb (X: Ti,Zr,Hf) by solving Boltzmann transport equations and discuss them in terms of the electronic band structure. The rigid band approximation is employed to address the effects of doping. While many half-Heuser alloys show excellent thermoelectric performance, the materials under study are special by supporting both n- and p-doping. We identify the reasons for this balanced thermoelectric transport and explain why experimentally p-doping is superior to n-doping. We also determine the spectrum of phonon mean free paths to guide grain refinement methods to enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit.

  10. Enhanced thermoelectric power in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Pu, Jiang

    2016-07-27

    The carrier-density-dependent conductance and thermoelectric properties of large-area MoS2 and WSe2 monolayers are simultaneously investigated using the electrolyte gating method. The sign of the thermoelectric power changes across the transistor off-state in the ambipolar WSe2 transistor as the majority carrier density switches from electron to hole. The thermopower and thermoelectric power factor of monolayer samples are one order of magnitude larger than that of bulk materials, and their carrier-density dependences exhibit a quantitative agreement with the semiclassical Mott relation based on the two-dimensional energy band structure, concluding the thermoelectric properties are enhanced by the low-dimensional effect.

  11. Mechanical Response of Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Case, Eldon D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-05-01

    A sufficient mechanical response of thermoelectric materials (TEMats) to structural loadings is a prerequisite to the exploitation of any candidate TEMat's thermoelectric efficiency. If a TEMat is mechanically damaged or cracks from service-induced stresses, then its thermal and electrical functions can be compromised or even cease. Semiconductor TEMats tend to be quite brittle and have a high coefficient of thermal expansion; therefore, they can be quite susceptible to mechanical failure when subjected to operational thermal gradients. Because of this, sufficient mechanical response (vis-a-vis, mechanical properties) of any candidate TEMat must be achieved and sustained in the context of the service-induced stress state to which it is subjected. This report provides an overview of the mechanical responses of state-of-the-art TEMats; discusses the relevant properties that are associated with those responses and their measurement; and describes important, nonequilibrium phenomena that further complicate their use in thermoelectric devices. For reference purposes, the report also includes several appendixes that list published data on elastic properties and strengths of a variety of TEMats.

  12. High thermoelectric power factor in two-dimensional crystals of Mo S2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippalgaonkar, Kedar; Wang, Ying; Ye, Yu; Qiu, Diana Y.; Zhu, Hanyu; Wang, Yuan; Moore, Joel; Louie, Steven G.; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    The quest for high-efficiency heat-to-electricity conversion has been one of the major driving forces toward renewable energy production for the future. Efficient thermoelectric devices require high voltage generation from a temperature gradient and a large electrical conductivity while maintaining a low thermal conductivity. For a given thermal conductivity and temperature, the thermoelectric power factor is determined by the electronic structure of the material. Low dimensionality (1D and 2D) opens new routes to a high power factor due to the unique density of states (DOS) of confined electrons and holes. The 2D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) semiconductors represent a new class of thermoelectric materials not only due to such confinement effects but especially due to their large effective masses and valley degeneracies. Here, we report a power factor of Mo S2 as large as 8.5 mW m-1K-2 at room temperature, which is among the highest measured in traditional, gapped thermoelectric materials. To obtain these high power factors, we perform thermoelectric measurements on few-layer Mo S2 in the metallic regime, which allows us to access the 2D DOS near the conduction band edge and exploit the effect of 2D confinement on electron scattering rates, resulting in a large Seebeck coefficient. The demonstrated high, electronically modulated power factor in 2D TMDCs holds promise for efficient thermoelectric energy conversion.

  13. The effect of electron and hole doping on the thermoelectric properties of shandite-type Co3Sn2S2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelis, Panagiotis; Vaqueiro, Paz; Jumas, Jean-Claude; da Silva, Ivan; Smith, Ronald I.; Powell, Anthony V.

    2017-07-01

    Electron and hole doping in Co3Sn2S2, through chemical substitution of cobalt by the neighbouring elements, nickel and iron, affects both the structure and thermoelectric properties. Electron doping to form Co3-xNixSn2S2 (0≤x≤3) results in an expansion of the kagome layer and materials become increasingly metallic as cobalt is substituted. Conversely, hole doping in Co3-xFexSn2S2 (0≤x≤0.6) leads to a transition from metallic to n-type semiconducting behaviour at x=0.5. Iron substitution induces a small increase in the separation between the kagome layers and improves the thermoelectric performance. Neutron diffraction data reveal that substitution occurs at the Co 9(d) site in a disordered fashion. Mössbauer spectroscopy reveals two iron environments with very different isomer shifts, which may be indicative of a mixed-valence state, while Sn exhibits an oxidation state close to zero in both series. Co2.6Fe0.4Sn2S2 exhibits a maximum figure-of-merit, ZT=0.2 at 523 K while Co2.4Fe0.6Sn2S2 reaches a power factor of 10.3 μW cm-1 K-2 close to room temperature.

  14. Thermoelectric effects in magnetic nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Frank Lennart

    2012-01-01

    Elektronentransport is een belangrijk natuurkundig verschijnsel dat vaak wordt gebruikt in de hedendaagse technologie. Alle elektrische apparaten, variërend van stofzuigers tot computerchips, zijn in principe gebaseerd op dit type transport. Ondanks dat elektronen meerdere eigenschappen hebben,

  15. Experimental investigation of a portable desalination unit configured by a thermoelectric cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yıldırım, Cihan; Soylu, Sezgi Koçak; Atmaca, İbrahim; Solmuş, İsmail

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Portable humidification–dehumidification desalination system configured by a thermoelectric cooler is experimentally studied. • Effect of feed water mass flow rate and air flow velocity on COP value of TEC and system productivity are investigated. • Maximum daily yield of system and COP value of TEC unit were recorded as 143.6 g and 0.78, respectively. - Abstract: Possible use of a novel portable desalination system was investigated experimentally. The system is based on humidification–dehumidification principle and thermoelectric cooling technique. A thermoelectric cooler was integrated into the system to enhance the process of both humidification and dehumidification. A prototype was fabricated and its performance was tested for various working conditions of the prototype to observe complex relation between psychrometric and thermoelectric phenomena. The effect of feed water mass flow rate and air flow velocity on the COP value of the thermoelectric cooler and clean water production of the system were examined. The maximum daily yield of the system and the COP value of the thermoelectric cooler unit were recorded as 143.6 g and 0.78, respectively

  16. A Flue Gas Tube for Thermoelectric Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a flue gas tube (FGT) (1) for generation of thermoelectric power having thermoelectric elements (8) that are integrated in the tube. The FTG may be used in combined heat and power (CHP) system (13) to produce directly electricity from waste heat from, e.g. a biomass boiler...

  17. Test system for thermoelectric modules and materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejtmánek, Jiří; Knížek, Karel; Švejda, V.; Horna, P.; Sikora, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 10 (2014), s. 3726-3732 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17538S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : thermoelectric power module * automatic thermoelectric testing setup * heat flow measurement * power generation * heat recovery Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.798, year: 2014

  18. Thermal and stress analyses in thermoelectric generator with tapered and rectangular pin configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Akhtar, S.S.; Sahin, A.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal stress developed in thermoelectric generators is critical for long service applications. High temperature gradients, due to a large temperature difference across the junctions, causes excessive stress levels developed in the device pins and electrodes at the interfaces. In the present study, a thermoelectric generator with horizontal pin configuration is considered and thermal stress analysis in the device is presented. Ceramic wafer is considered to resemble the high temperature plate and copper electrodes are introduced at the pin junctions to reduce the electrical resistance between the pins and the high and low temperature junction plates during the operation. Finite element code is used to simulate temperature and stress fields in the thermoelectric generator. In the simulations, convection and radiation losses from the thermoelectric pins are considered and bismuth telluride pin material with and without tapering is incorporated. It is found that von Mises stress attains high values at the interface between the hot and cold junctions and the copper electrodes. Thermal stress developed in tapered pin configuration attains lower values than that of rectangular pin cross-section. - Highlights: • Different cold junction temperatures improves thermoelectric generator performance. • von Mises stress remains high across copper electrodes and hot junction ceramics. • von Mises stress reduces along pin length towards cold junction. • Pin tapering lowers stress levels in thermoelectric generator.

  19. semiconducting nanostructures: morphology and thermoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Mario; Torán, Raquel; Gómez, Clara M.; Cantarero, Andrés

    2014-08-01

    Semiconducting metallic oxides, especially perosvkite materials, are great candidates for thermoelectric applications due to several advantages over traditionally metallic alloys such as low production costs and high chemical stability at high temperatures. Nanostructuration can be the key to develop highly efficient thermoelectric materials. In this work, La 1- x Ca x MnO 3 perosvkite nanostructures with Ca as a dopant have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method to be used in thermoelectric applications at room temperature. Several heat treatments have been made in all samples, leading to a change in their morphology and thermoelectric properties. The best thermoelectric efficiency has been obtained for a Ca content of x=0.5. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient are strongly related to the calcium content.

  20. Fabrication of a Micro Cooler using Thermoelectric Thin Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S. W.; Choi, H. J.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. J.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    In general a ThermoElectric Cooler (TEC) consists of a series of P type and N type thermoelectric materials sandwiched between two wafers. When a DC current passes through these materials, three different effects take place; Peltier effect, Joule heating effect and heat transfer by conduction due to temperature difference between hot and cold plates. In this study we have developed a micro TEC using Bi2Te3 (N type) and Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 (P type) thin films. In order to improve that performance of a micro TEC, we made 10 um height TE legs using special PR only for lift-off. We measured COP (coefficient of performance) and temperature difference between hot and cold connectors with current

  1. Thermoelectric transport and Peltier cooling of cold atomic gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Charles; Kollath, Corinna; Georges, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    This brief review presents the emerging field of mesoscopic physics with cold atoms, with an emphasis on thermal and 'thermoelectric' transport, i.e. coupled transport of particles and entropy. We review in particular the comparison between theoretically predicted and experimentally observed thermoelectric effects in such systems. We also show how combining well-designed transport properties and evaporative cooling leads to an equivalent of the Peltier effect with cold atoms, which can be used as a new cooling procedure with improved cooling power and efficiency compared to the evaporative cooling currently used in atomic gases. This could lead to a new generation of experiments probing strong correlation effects of ultracold fermionic atoms at low temperatures.

  2. Thermoelectric generators: A review of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champier, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reviews the state of the art of thermoelectric generators. • The latest thermoelectric modules are introduced. • Waste heat recovery in transport and industry with thermoelectric generators. • Domestic and industrial applications of thermoelectric generators. • Thermoelectric generators in space, micro-generation and solar conversion. - Abstract: In past centuries, men have mainly looked to increase their production of energy in order to develop their industry, means of transport and quality of life. Since the recent energy crisis, researchers and industrials have looked mainly to manage energy in a better way, especially by increasing energy system efficiency. This context explains the growing interest for thermoelectric generators. Today, thermoelectric generators allow lost thermal energy to be recovered, energy to be produced in extreme environments, electric power to be generated in remote areas and microsensors to be powered. Direct solar thermal energy can also be used to produce electricity. This review begins with the basic principles of thermoelectricity and a presentation of existing and future materials. Design and optimization of generators are addressed. Finally in this paper, we developed an exhaustive presentation of thermoelectric generation applications covering electricity generation in extreme environments, waste heat recovery in transport and industry, domestic production in developing and developed countries, micro-generation for sensors and microelectronics and solar thermoelectric generators. Many recent applications are presented, as well as the future applications which are currently being studied in research laboratories or in industry. The main purpose of this paper is to clearly demonstrate that, almost anywhere in industry or in domestic uses, it is worth checking whether a TEG can be added whenever heat is moving from a hot source to a cold source.

  3. Technical Feasibility Evaluation on The Use of A Peltier Thermoelectric Module to Recover Automobile Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiartha, N.; Sastra Negara, P.

    2018-01-01

    A thermoelectric module composes of integrated p-n semiconductors as hot and cold side junctions and uses Seebeck effect between them to function as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to directly convert heat into electrical power. Exhaust heat from engines as otherwise wasted to the atmosphere is one of the heat sources freely available to drive the TEG. This paper evaluates technical feasibility on the use of a Peltier thermoelectric module for energy recovery application of such kind of waste heat. An experimental apparatus has been setup to simulate real conditions of automobile engine exhaust piping system. It includes a square section aluminium ducting, an aluminium fin heat sink and a TEC1 12706 thermoelectric module. A heater and a cooling fan are employed to simulate hot exhaust gas and ambient air flows, respectively. Electrical loading is controlled by resistors. Dependent variables measured during the test are cold and hot side temperatures, open and loaded circuit output voltages and electrical current. The test results revealed a promising application of the Peltier thermoelectric module for the engine exhaust heat recovery, though the loaded output power produced and loaded output voltage are still far lower than the commercially thermoelectric module originally purposed for the TEG application.

  4. Chemical Potential Tuning and Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties in Indium Selenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Jin Hee

    2015-03-20

    Researchers have long been searching for the materials to enhance thermoelectric performance in terms of nano scale approach in order to realize phonon-glass-electron-crystal and quantum confinement effects. Peierls distortion can be a pathway to enhance thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT by employing natural nano-wire-like electronic and thermal transport. The phonon-softening known as Kohn anomaly, and Peierls lattice distortion decrease phonon energy and increase phonon scattering, respectively, and, as a result, they lower thermal conductivity. The quasi-one-dimensional electrical transport from anisotropic band structure ensures high Seebeck coefficient in Indium Selenide. The routes for high ZT materials development of In₄Se₃ - δ are discussed from quasi-one-dimensional property and electronic band structure calculation to materials synthesis, crystal growth, and their thermoelectric properties investigations. The thermoelectric properties of In₄Se₃ - δ can be enhanced by electron doping, as suggested from the Boltzmann transport calculation. Regarding the enhancement of chemical potential, the chlorine doped In₄Se₃ - δ Cl 0.03 compound exhibits high ZT over a wide temperature range and shows state-of-the-art thermoelectric performance of ZT = 1.53 at 450 °C as an n -type material. It was proven that multiple elements doping can enhance chemical potential further. Here, we discuss the recent progress on the enhancement of thermoelectric properties in Indium Selenides by increasing chemical potential.

  5. Chemical Potential Tuning and Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties in Indium Selenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Soo Rhyee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have long been searching for the materials to enhance thermoelectric performance in terms of nano scale approach in order to realize phonon-glass-electron-crystal and quantum confinement effects. Peierls distortion can be a pathway to enhance thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT by employing natural nano-wire-like electronic and thermal transport. The phonon-softening known as Kohn anomaly, and Peierls lattice distortion decrease phonon energy and increase phonon scattering, respectively, and, as a result, they lower thermal conductivity. The quasi-one-dimensional electrical transport from anisotropic band structure ensures high Seebeck coefficient in Indium Selenide. The routes for high ZT materials development of In4Se3−δ are discussed from quasi-one-dimensional property and electronic band structure calculation to materials synthesis, crystal growth, and their thermoelectric properties investigations. The thermoelectric properties of In4Se3−δ can be enhanced by electron doping, as suggested from the Boltzmann transport calculation. Regarding the enhancement of chemical potential, the chlorine doped In4Se3−δCl0.03 compound exhibits high ZT over a wide temperature range and shows state-of-the-art thermoelectric performance of ZT = 1.53 at 450 °C as an n-type material. It was proven that multiple elements doping can enhance chemical potential further. Here, we discuss the recent progress on the enhancement of thermoelectric properties in Indium Selenides by increasing chemical potential.

  6. Automotive Thermoelectric Generator impact on the efficiency of a drive system with a combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziolkowski Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the combustion engine drive systems efficiency is currently being achieved by structural changes in internal combustion engines and its equipment, which are geared towards limiting mechanical, thermal and outlet losses. For this reason, downsizing. In addition to these changes, all manner of exhaust gas energy recovery systems are being investigated and implemented, including turbocompound, turbogenerators and thermoelectric generators. The article presents the author’s idea of a thermoelectric generator system of automotive applications ATEG (Automotive Thermoelectric Generator and the study of the recovery of exhaust gas energy stream. The ATEG consists of a heat exchanger, thermoelectric modules and a cooling system. In this solution, 24 commercial thermoelectric modules based on Bi2Te3 (bismuth telluride were used. Measurements were made at two engine test sites on which SI and CI engines were installed. The exhaust gas parameters (temperature and mass flow rate, fuel consumption and operating parameters of the ATEG – the intensity and the voltage generated by the thermoelectric modules and the temperature on the walls of the heat exchanger – were all measured in the experiments. Based on the obtained results, the exhaust gas energy flow and the power of the ATEG were determined as well as its effect on the diesel engine drive system efficiency.

  7. Thermoelectric properties of semiconductor nanowire networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Piryatinski, Andrei

    2016-03-01

    To examine the thermoelectric (TE) properties of a semiconductor nanowire (NW) network, we propose a theoretical approach mapping the TE network on a two-port network. In contrast to a conventional single-port (i.e., resistor) network model, our model allows for large scale calculations showing convergence of TE figure of merit, ZT, with an increasing number of junctions. Using this model, numerical simulations are performed for the Bi2Te3 branched nanowire (BNW) and Cayley tree NW (CTNW) network. We find that the phonon scattering at the network junctions plays a dominant role in enhancing the network ZT. Specifically, disordered BNW and CTNW demonstrate an order of magnitude higher ZT enhancement compared to their ordered counterparts. Formation of preferential TE pathways in CTNW makes the network effectively behave as its BNW counterpart. We provide formalism for simulating large scale nanowire networks hinged upon experimentally measurable TE parameters of a single T-junction.

  8. Thermoelectric and thermospintronic transport in Dirac material-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Hao

    The growing need for power due to the rapid developments of the technologies has urged both engineers and scientists to study more sustainable types of energy. On the other hand, the improvement of our abilities although enable us, for example, to double the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit approximately every two years (Moore's law), comes with side effect due to overheating. Taking advantage of thermoelectric effect has thus become one of the obvious solutions for the problems. But due to the poor efficiency of electricity-heat conversion, there are still challenges to be overcome in order to fully utilize the idea. In the past few years, the realization of graphene along with the discoveries of topological insulators (TI) which are both considered as Dirac material (DM) have offer alternative routs for improving the energy conversion efficiency through different approaches as well as novel quantum effects of materials themselves for investigation. The aim of this thesis is to present contributions to improving the efficiency of thermoelectric conversion as well as analyzing spin transport phenomena that occur in nano-devices. This thesis spans the areas of thermoelectric (TE) effect, spin-Seebeck effect (SSE) and the spin transport on the 3D topological insulator (TI). The different methods have been applied ranging from tight-binding (TB) approximation to density function theory (DFT) combined with non-equilibrium function (NEGF) techniques.

  9. Maximization of the Thermoelectric Cooling of a Graded Peltier Device by Analytical Heat-Equation Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiébaut, E.; Goupil, C.; Pesty, F.; D'Angelo, Y.; Guegan, G.; Lecoeur, P.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing the maximum cooling effect of a Peltier cooler can be achieved through material and device design. The use of inhomogeneous, functionally graded materials may be adopted in order to increase maximum cooling without improvement of the Z T (figure of merit); however, these systems are usually based on the assumption that the local optimization of the Z T is the suitable criterion to increase thermoelectric performance. We solve the heat equation in a graded material and perform both analytical and numerical analysis of a graded Peltier cooler. We find a local criterion that we use to assess the possible improvement of graded materials for thermoelectric cooling. A fair improvement of the cooling effect (up to 36%) is predicted for semiconductor materials, and the best graded system for cooling is described. The influence of the equation of state of the electronic gas of the material is discussed, and the difference in term of entropy production between the graded and the classical system is also described.

  10. Analysis of nanostructuring in high figure-of-merit Ag{sub 1-x}Pb{sub m}SbTe{sub 2+m} thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Bruce A; Harringa, Joel L [Materials and Engineering Physics Program, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University Ames, IA (United States); Kramer, Matthew J [Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University Ames, IA (United States); Han, Mi-Kyung [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University Evanston, IL (United States); Chung, Duck-Young [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Kanatzidis, Mercouri G [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University Evanston, IL (United States); Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    2009-04-23

    Thermoelectric materials based on quaternary compounds Ag{sub 1-x}Pb{sub m}SbTe{sub 2+m} exhibit high dimensionless figure-of-merit values, ranging from 1.5 to 1.7 at 700 K. The primary factor contributing to the high figure of merit is a low lattice thermal conductivity, achieved through nanostructuring during melt solidification. As a consequence of nucleation and growth of a second phase, coherent nanoscale inclusions form throughout the material, which are believed to result in scattering of acoustic phonons while causing only minimal scattering of charge carriers. Here, characterization of the nanosized inclusions in Ag{sub 0.53}Pb{sub 18}Sb{sub 1.2}Te{sub 20} that shows a strong tendency for crystallographic orientation along the {l_brace}001{r_brace} planes, with a high degree of lattice strain at the interface, consistent with a coherent interfacial boundary is reported. The inclusions are enriched in Ag relative to the matrix, and seem to adopt a cubic, 96 atom per unit cell Ag{sub 2}Te phase based on the Ti{sub 2}Ni type structure. In-situ high-temperature synchrotron radiation diffraction studies indicated that the inclusions remain thermally stable to at least 800 K. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable advances were made in the late '50's and early early '60's in the theory and development of materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. This early work culminated in a variety of materials, spanning a range of temperatures, with the product of the figure of merit, Z, and temperature, T, i.e., the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, of the order of one. This experimental limitation appeared to be universal and led a number of investigators to explore the possibility that a ZT - also represents a theoretical limitation. It was found not to be so

  12. High temperature hall effect measurement system design, measurement and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkun, Isil

    -toxic thermoelectric materials made from abundant elements and are suited for power generation application in the intermediate temperature range of (600 K - 800 K). In this work the thermoelectric materials were synthesized by a solid-state reac- tion using a molten-salt sealing method. The ingots produced were then powder processed, followed by pulsed electric sintering (PECS) densification. A set of Mg2.08Si0.4--x Sn0.6Sbx (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.072) compounds were investigated and a peak ZT of 1.50 was obtained at 716 K in Mg2.08Si 0.364Sn0.6Sb0.036 [2]. The high ZT value is related to a high electrical conductivity in these samples, which are possibly caused by a magnesium deficiency in the final prod- uct. Analysis of the measured results using LabVIEW and MATLAB developed programs showed good agreement with expected results and gave insight on mixed carrier dopant concentrations. [1] I. Berkun, S. N. Demlow, N. Suwanmonkha, T. P. Hogan, and T. A. Grotjohn, "Hall Effect Measurement System for Characterization of Doped Single Crystal Diamond," in MRS Proceedings, vol. 1511, Cambridge Univ Press, 2013. [2] P. Gao, I. Berkun, R. D. Schmidt, M. F. Luzenski, X. Lu, P. B. Sarac, E. D. Case, and T. P. Hogan, "Transport and Mechanical Properties of High-ZT Mg2. 08si0. 4- x Sn0. 6sb x Thermoelectric Materials," Journal of Electronic Materials, pp. 1--14, 2013.

  13. Effects of Ni and carbon-coated Ni addition on the thermoelectric properties of 25Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}+75Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} base composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Min; Dharmaiah, Peyala; Femi, Olu Emmanuel; Lee, Chul Hee; Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we report the effect of nickel (Ni) and carbon coated nickel (C-Ni) on the thermoelectric and mechanical properties of 25Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}+75Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (GA) base composites. Ni and C-Ni powders were synthesized using pulse wire evaporation and mixed with 25Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}+75Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} in a planetary ball mill. The morphology of the Ni and C-Ni powders and GA + x (x = none, Ni, or C-Ni) composites were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermoelectric properties of the GA + x (x = none, Ni, or C-Ni) composites shows that the addition of Ni increases the carrier concentration while the presence of C-Ni reduces the carrier concentration to a level comparable to the bare sample (x = 0). Subsequently, the Seebeck coefficient of the GA + C-Ni sample increases by about 18% more than in the bare sample. The thermal conductivity of the GA + Ni and GA + C-Ni samples was considerably lower at room temperature compared to the bare sample. The mechanical properties of the GA + Ni and GA + C-Ni composite samples show a three-fold improvement compared to the bare sample. - Highlights: • Ni and carbon-coated Ni nanoparticles were incorporated into 25Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}+75Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (BST) matrix. • Seebeck coefficient increased by 18% for BST/carbon coated Ni composites. • BST/carbon coated Ni composite reduces the thermal conductivity (21%). • The Vickers hardness of the BST/C-Ni composite samples significantly improved.

  14. A holistic 3D finite element simulation model for thermoelectric power generator element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Guangxi; Yu, Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a holistic simulation model for the thermoelectric energy harvester. • Account for delta Seebeck coefficient and carrier charge densities variations. • Solution of thermo-electric coupling problem with finite element method. • Model capable of predicting phenomena not captured by traditional models. • A simulation tool for design of innovative TEM materials and structures. - Abstract: Harvesting the thermal energy stored in the ambient environment provides a potential sustainable energy source. Thermoelectric power generators have advantages of having no moving parts, being durable, and light-weighted. These unique features are advantageous for many applications (i.e., carry-on medical devices, embedded infrastructure sensors, aerospace, transportation, etc.). To ensure the efficient applications of thermoelectric energy harvesting system, the behaviors of such systems need to be fully understood. Finite element simulations provide important tools for such purpose. Although modeling the performance of thermoelectric modules has been conducted by many researchers, due to the complexity in solving the coupled problem, the influences of the effective Seebeck coefficient and carrier density variations on the performance of thermoelectric system are generally neglected. This results in an overestimation of the power generator performance under strong-ionization temperature region. This paper presents an advanced simulation model for thermoelectric elements that considers the effects of both factors. The mathematical basis of this model is firstly presented. Finite element simulations are then implemented on a thermoelectric power generator unit. The characteristics of the thermoelectric power generator and their relationship to its performance are discussed under different working temperature regions. The internal physics processes of the TEM harvester are analyzed from the results of computational simulations. The new model

  15. Very High Output Thermoelectric Devices Based on ITO Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, Gustave; Gregory, Otto J.

    2009-01-01

    A material having useful thermoelectric properties was synthesized by combining indium-tin-oxide (ITO) with a NiCoCrAlY alloy/alumina cermet. This material had a very large Seebeck coefficient with electromotive-force-versustemperature behavior that is considered to be excellent with respect to utility in thermocouples and other thermoelectric devices. When deposited in thin-film form, ceramic thermocouples offer advantages over precious-metal (based, variously, on platinum or rhodium) thermocouples that are typically used in gas turbines. Ceramic thermocouples exhibit high melting temperatures, chemical stability at high temperatures, and little or no electromigration. Oxide ceramics also resist oxidation better than metal thermocouples, cost substantially less than precious-metal thermocouples, and, unlike precious-metal thermocouples, do not exert catalytic effects.

  16. Beat the Deviations in Estimating Maximum Power of Thermoelectric Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Junling; Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    Under a certain temperature difference, the maximum power of a thermoelectric module can be estimated by the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current. In practical measurement, there exist two switch modes, either from open to short or from short to open, but the two modes can give...... different estimations on the maximum power. Using TEG-127-2.8-3.5-250 and TEG-127-1.4-1.6-250 as two examples, the difference is about 10%, leading to some deviations with the temperature change. This paper analyzes such differences by means of a nonlinear numerical model of thermoelectricity, and finds out...... that the main cause is the influence of various currents on the produced electromotive potential. A simple and effective calibration method is proposed to minimize the deviations in specifying the maximum power. Experimental results validate the method with improved estimation accuracy....

  17. Thermoelectricity an introduction to the principles

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, D K C

    2006-01-01

    This introductory treatment provides an understanding of the fundamental concepts and principles involved in the study of thermoelectricity in solids and of conduction in general. Aimed at graduate-level students and those interested in basic theory, it will be especially valuable to experimental physicists working in fields connected with electron transport and to theoreticians seeking a survey of thermoelectricity and related questions.Chronicling the early history of thermoelectricity from its discovery to modern times, this text features a considerable amount of experimental data and discu

  18. Enhanced electrical transport and thermoelectric properties in Ni doped Cu3SbSe4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aparabal; Dhama, P.; Das, Anish; Sarkar, Kalyan Jyoti; Banerji, P.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we report the enhanced thermoelectric performance of Cu3SbSe4 by Ni doping at Cu site. Cu3-xNixSbSe4 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) were prepared by melt growth, ball milling followed by spark plasma sintering. Structural characterization, phase analysis and surface morphology were carried out using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Electrical and thermal properties of all the samples were investigated in the temperature range 300 - 650 K. Decrease in electrical resistivity with Ni doping due to increase in carrier concentration with enhanced Seebeck coefficient via increase in density of state near the Fermi level gives a remarkably high power factor. At the same time, thermal conductivity was found to decrease due to increased carrier-phonon scattering and acoustic phonon scattering. Consequently, a remarkable enhancement in the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT˜ 0.65) of Cu3-xNixSbSe4 was achieved for x = 0.01 sample. Thus, Ni doping is an effective approach to improve the efficiency of Cu3SbSe4.

  19. Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B

    2012-10-16

    An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.

  20. Thermodynamic Analysis of TEG-TEC Device Including Influence of Thomson Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanli; Chen, Lingen; Meng, Fankai; Sun, Fengrui

    2018-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of a thermoelectric cooler driven by thermoelectric generator (TEG-TEC) device is established considering Thomson effect. The performance is analyzed and optimized using numerical calculation based on non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory. The influence characteristics of Thomson effect on the optimal performance and variable selection are investigated by comparing the condition with and without Thomson effect. The results show that Thomson effect degrades the performance of TEG-TEC device, it decreases the cooling capacity by 27 %, decreases the coefficient of performance (COP) by 19 %, decreases the maximum cooling temperature difference by 11 % when the ratio of thermoelectric elements number is 0.6, the cold junction temperature of thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is 285 K and the hot junction temperature of thermoelectric generator (TEG) is 450 K. Thomson effect degrades the optimal performance of TEG-TEC device, it decreases the maximum cooling capacity by 28 % and decreases the maximum COP by 28 % under the same junction temperatures. Thomson effect narrows the optimal variable range and optimal working range. In the design of the devices, limited-number thermoelectric elements should be more allocated appropriately to TEG when consider Thomson effect. The results may provide some guidelines for the design of TEG-TEC devices.

  1. Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties of PEDOT:PSS and Tellurium-PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Composites by Simple Chemical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin Bae, Eun; Hun Kang, Young; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Yun Cho, Song

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and tellurium-PEDOT:PSS (Te-PEDOT:PSS) hybrid composites were enhanced via simple chemical treatment. The performance of thermoelectric materials is determined by their electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient. Significant enhancement of the electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites from 787.99 and 11.01 to 4839.92 and 334.68 S cm-1, respectively was achieved by simple chemical treatment with H2SO4. The power factor of the developed materials could be effectively tuned over a very wide range depending on the concentration of the H2SO4 solution used in the chemical treatment. The power factors of the developed thermoelectric materials were optimized to 51.85 and 284 μW m-1 K-2, respectively, which represent an increase of four orders of magnitude relative to the corresponding parameters of the untreated thermoelectric materials. Using the Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites, a flexible thermoelectric generator that could be embedded in textiles was fabricated by a printing process. This thermoelectric array generates a thermoelectric voltage of 2 mV using human body heat.

  2. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator licensed hardware package and certification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Averette, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the Licensed Hardware package and the Certification Test portions of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System. This package has been designed to meet those portions of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) relating to ''Type B'' shipments of radioactive materials. The detailed information for the anticipated license is presented in the safety analysis report for packaging, which is now in process and undergoing necessary reviews. As part of the licensing process, a full-size Certification Test Article unit, which has modifications slightly different than the Licensed Hardware or production shipping units, is used for testing. Dimensional checks of the Certification Test Article were made at the manufacturing facility. Leak testing and drop testing were done at the 300 Area of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The hardware includes independent double containments to prevent the environmental spread of 238 Pu, impact limiting devices to protect portions of the package from impacts, and thermal insulation to protect the seal areas from excess heat during accident conditions. The package also features electronic feed-throughs to monitor the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator's temperature inside the containment during the shipment cycle. This package is designed to safely dissipate the typical 4500 thermal watts produced in the largest Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. The package also contains provisions to ensure leak tightness when radioactive materials, such as a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the Cassini Mission, planned for 1997 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, are being prepared for shipment. These provisions include test ports used in conjunction with helium mass spectrometers to determine seal leakage rates of each containment during the assembly process

  3. Thermoelectric transport properties of high mobility organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshvaran, Deepak; Broch, Katharina; Warwick, Chris N.; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2016-09-01

    Transport in organic semiconductors has traditionally been investigated using measurements of the temperature and gate voltage dependent mobility of charge carriers within the channel of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). In such measurements, the behavior of charge carrier mobility with temperature and gate voltage, studied together with carrier activation energies, provide a metric to quantify the extent of disorder within these van der Waals bonded materials. In addition to the mobility and activation energy, another potent but often-overlooked transport coefficient useful in understanding disorder is the Seebeck coefficient (also known as thermoelectric power). Fundamentally, the Seebeck coefficient represents the entropy per charge carrier in the solid state, and thus proves powerful in distinguishing materials in which charge carriers move freely from those where a high degree of disorder causes the induced carriers to remain trapped. This paper briefly covers the recent highlights in the field of organic thermoelectrics, showing how significant strides have been made both from an applied standpoint as well as from a viewpoint of fundamental thermoelectric transport physics. It shall be illustrated how thermoelectric transport parameters in organic semiconductors can be tuned over a significant range, and how this tunability facilitates an enhanced performance for heat-to-electricity conversion as well as quantifies energetic disorder and the nature of the density of states (DOS). The work of the authors shall be spotlighted in this context, illustrating how Seebeck coefficient measurements in the polymer indacenodithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole (IDTBT) known for its ultra-low degree of torsion within the polymer backbone, has a trend consistent with low disorder. 1 Finally, using examples of the small molecules C8-BTBT and C10-DNTT, it shall be discussed how the Seebeck coefficient can aid the estimation of the density and distribution of trap states

  4. Review on Polymers for Thermoelectric Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Culebras

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we report the state-of-the-art of polymers in thermoelectricity. Classically, a number of inorganic compounds have been considered as the best thermoelectric materials. Since the prediction of the improvement of the figure of merit by means of electronic confinement in 1993, it has been improved by a factor of 3–4. In the mean time, organic materials, in particular intrinsically conducting polymers, had been considered as competitors of classical thermoelectrics, since their figure of merit has been improved several orders of magnitude in the last few years. We review here the evolution of the figure of merit or the power factor during the last years, and the best candidates to compete with inorganic materials. We also outline the best polymers to substitute classical thermoelectric materials and the advantages they present in comparison with inorganic systems.

  5. Flexible Thermoelectric Generators on Silicon Fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the development of a Thermoelectric Generator on Flexible Silicon Fabric is explored to extend silicon electronics for flexible platforms. Low cost, easily deployable plastic based flexible electronics are of great interest for smart

  6. Review on Polymers for Thermoelectric Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Mario; Gómez, Clara M; Cantarero, Andrés

    2014-09-18

    In this review, we report the state-of-the-art of polymers in thermoelectricity. Classically, a number of inorganic compounds have been considered as the best thermoelectric materials. Since the prediction of the improvement of the figure of merit by means of electronic confinement in 1993, it has been improved by a factor of 3-4. In the mean time, organic materials, in particular intrinsically conducting polymers, had been considered as competitors of classical thermoelectrics, since their figure of merit has been improved several orders of magnitude in the last few years. We review here the evolution of the figure of merit or the power factor during the last years, and the best candidates to compete with inorganic materials. We also outline the best polymers to substitute classical thermoelectric materials and the advantages they present in comparison with inorganic systems.

  7. PV-hybrid and thermoelectric collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockendorf, G.; Sillmann, R. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH, Emmerthal (Germany); Podlowski, L.; Litzenburger, B. [SolarWerk GmbH, Teltow (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Two different principles of thermoelectric cogeneration solar collectors have been realized and investigated. Concerning the first principle, the thermoelectric collector (TEC) delivers electricity indirectly by first producing heat and subsequently generating electricity by means of a thermoelectric generator. Concerning the second principle, the photovoltaic-hybrid collector (PVHC) uses photovoltaic cells, which are cooled by a liquid heat-transfer medium. The characteristics of both collector types are described. Simulation modules have been developed and implemented in TRNSYS 14.1 (1994), in order to simulate their behaviour in typical domestic hot-water systems. The discussion of the results shows that the electric output of the PV-hybrid collector is significantly higher than that of the thermoelectric collector. (author)

  8. Modeling of interface roughness in thermoelectric composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gather, F; Heiliger, C; Klar, P J

    2011-01-01

    We use a network model to calculate the influence of the mesoscopic interface structure on the thermoelectric properties of superlattice structures consisting of alternating layers of materials A and B. The thermoelectric figure of merit of such a composite material depends on the layer thickness, if interface resistances are accounted for, and can be increased by proper interface design. In general, interface roughness reduces the figure of merit, again compared to the case of ideal interfaces. However, the strength of this reduction depends strongly on the type of interface roughness. Smooth atomic surface diffusion leading to alloying of materials A and B causes the largest reduction of the figure of merit. Consequently, in real structures, it is important not only to minimize interface roughness, but also to control the type of roughness. Although the microscopic effects of interfaces are only empirically accounted for, using a network model can yield useful information about the dependence of the macroscopic transport coefficients on the mesoscopic disorder in structured thermoelectric materials.

  9. Soluble Lead and Bismuth Chalcogenidometallates: Versatile Solders for Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [Department; Son, Jae Sung [Department; School; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S. [Department; Filatov, Alexander S. [Department; Hazarika, Abhijit [Department; Wang, Yuanyuan [Department; Hudson, Margaret H. [Department; Sun, Cheng-Jun [Advanced; Chattopadhyay, Soma [Physical; Talapin, Dmitri V. [Department; Center

    2017-07-27

    Here we report the syntheses of largely unexplored lead and bismuth chalcogenidometallates in the solution phase. Using N2H4 as the solvent, new compounds such as K6Pb3Te6·7N2H4 were obtained. These soluble molecular compounds underwent cation exchange processes using resin chemistry, replacing Na+ or K+ by decomposable N2H5+ or tetraethylammonium cations. They also transformed into stoichiometric lead and bismuth chalcogenide nanomaterials with the addition of metal salts. Such a versatile chemistry led to a variety of composition-matched solders to join lead and bismuth chalcogenides and tune their charge transport properties at the grain boundaries. Solution-processed thin films composed of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 microparticles soldered by (N2H5)6Bi0.5Sb1.5Te6 exhibited thermoelectric power factors (~28 μW/cm K2) comparable to those in vacuum-deposited Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 films. The soldering effect can also be integrated with attractive fabrication techniques for thermoelectric modules, such as screen printing, suggesting the potential of these solders in the rational design of printable and moldable thermoelectrics.

  10. A thermoelectric cap for seafloor hydrothermal vents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a thermoelectric cap (TC) to harvest hydrothermal energy. • The TC was deployed at a hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, Taiwan. • The TC monitored the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the field test. • The TC could make the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids a viable power source. - Abstract: Long-term in situ monitoring is crucial to seafloor scientific investigations. One of the challenges of operating sensors in seabed is the lifespan of the sensors. Such sensors are commonly powered by batteries when other alternatives, such as tidal or solar energy, are unavailable. However, the batteries have a limited lifespan and must be recharged or replaced periodically, which is costly and impractical. A thermoelectric cap, which harvests the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids through a conduction pipe and converts the heat to electrical energy by using thermoelectric generators, was developed to avoid these inconveniences. The thermoelectric cap was combined with a power and temperature measurement system that enables the thermoelectric cap to power a light-emitting diode lamp, an electronic load (60 Ω), and 16 thermocouples continuously. The thermoelectric cap was field tested at a shallow hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan. By using the thermal gradient between hydrothermal fluids and seawater, the thermoelectric cap obtained a sustained power of 0.2–0.5 W during the field test. The thermoelectric cap successfully powered the 16 thermocouples and recorded the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the entire field test. Our results show that the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids can be an alternative renewable power source for oceanographic research.

  11. Thermoelectric nanomaterials materials design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-01-01

    Presently, there is an intense race throughout the world to develop good enough thermoelectric materials which can be used in wide scale applications. This book focuses comprehensively on very recent up-to-date breakthroughs in thermoelectrics utilizing nanomaterials and methods based in nanoscience. Importantly, it provides the readers with methodology and concepts utilizing atomic scale and nanoscale materials design (such as superlattice structuring, atomic network structuring and properties control, electron correlation design, low dimensionality, nanostructuring, etc.). Furthermore, also

  12. Optoelectronic and low temperature thermoelectric studies on nanostructured thin films of silver gallium selenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena; Nazer, Sheeba; Abraham, Anitha; Nair, Sinitha B.; Pradeep, B.; Urmila, K. S.; Okram, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of silver gallium selenide were deposited on ultrasonically cleaned soda lime glass substrates by multi-source vacuum co-evaporation technique. The structural analysis done by X-ray diffraction ascertained the formation of nano structured tetragonal chalcopyrite thin films. The compound formation was confirmed by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic technique has been used for surface morphological analysis. Direct allowed band gap ∼1.78eV with high absorption coefficient ∼10 6 /m was estimated from absorbance spectra. Low temperature thermoelectric effects has been investigated in the temperature range 80–330K which manifested an unusual increase in Seebeck coefficient with negligible phonon drag toward the very low and room temperature regime. The electrical resistivity of these n-type films was assessed to be ∼2.6Ωm and the films showed good photo response

  13. Optoelectronic and low temperature thermoelectric studies on nanostructured thin films of silver gallium selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena; Nazer, Sheeba; Abraham, Anitha; Nair, Sinitha B.; Pradeep, B.; Urmila, K. S.; Okram, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of silver gallium selenide were deposited on ultrasonically cleaned soda lime glass substrates by multi-source vacuum co-evaporation technique. The structural analysis done by X-ray diffraction ascertained the formation of nano structured tetragonal chalcopyrite thin films. The compound formation was confirmed by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic technique has been used for surface morphological analysis. Direct allowed band gap ˜1.78eV with high absorption coefficient ˜106/m was estimated from absorbance spectra. Low temperature thermoelectric effects has been investigated in the temperature range 80-330K which manifested an unusual increase in Seebeck coefficient with negligible phonon drag toward the very low and room temperature regime. The electrical resistivity of these n-type films was assessed to be ˜2.6Ωm and the films showed good photo response.

  14. Lead telluride with increased mechanical stability for cylindrical thermoelectric generators; Bleitellurid mit erhoehter mechanischer Stabilitaet fuer zylindrische thermoelektrische Generatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Andreas

    2013-04-30

    properties remain at a very high level, reaching a maximum figure of merit ZT around 1.2. In addition to the thermoelectric properties the mechanical properties of lanthanum doped lead telluride were studied for the first time within this work. Lanthanum significantly increases the hardness of PbTe. SEM analysis of sintered samples reveals vast amounts of lanthanum rich precipitates within the matrix. This is partly attributed to the chosen route for material synthesis. Furthermore, the doped material's thermoelectric properties are highly unstable. The reason for this still has to be investigated. Based on the process and material developments described in this work a prototype of a tubular thermoelectric generator was constructed. In the course of this construction a process for sintering rings and tubes of lead telluride was developed and successfully implemented.

  15. Lead telluride with increased mechanical stability for cylindrical thermoelectric generators; Bleitellurid mit erhoehter mechanischer Stabilitaet fuer zylindrische thermoelektrische Generatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Andreas

    2013-04-30

    its thermoelectric properties remain at a very high level, reaching a maximum figure of merit ZT around 1.2. In addition to the thermoelectric properties the mechanical properties of lanthanum doped lead telluride were studied for the first time within this work. Lanthanum significantly increases the hardness of PbTe. SEM analysis of sintered samples reveals vast amounts of lanthanum rich precipitates within the matrix. This is partly attributed to the chosen route for material synthesis. Furthermore, the doped material's thermoelectric properties are highly unstable. The reason for this still has to be investigated. Based on the process and material developments described in this work a prototype of a tubular thermoelectric generator was constructed. In the course of this construction a process for sintering rings and tubes of lead telluride was developed and successfully implemented.

  16. The effect of simultaneous substitution on the electronic band structure and thermoelectric properties of Se-doped Co3SnInS2 with the Kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Masaya; Shibuya, Taizo; Nakai, Junya; Yoshiyasu, Keigo; Sakai, Yuki; Takano, Yoshihiko; Kamihara, Yoichi; Matoba, Masanori

    2014-12-01

    The thermoelectric properties and electronic band structures for Se-doped Co3SnInS2 were examined. The parent compound of this material (Co3Sn2S2) has two kinds of Sn sites (Sn1 and Sn2 sites). The density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the indium substitution at the Sn2 site induces a metallic band structure, on the other hand, a semiconducting band structure is obtained from substitution at the Sn1 site. However, according to the previous reports, since the indium atom prefers to replace the tin atom at the Sn1 site rather than the Sn2 site, the resistivity of Co3SnInS2 shows semiconducting-like behavior. In this study we have demonstrated that metallic behavior and a decrease in resistivity for Se-doped Co3SnInS2 occurs without suppression of the Seebeck coefficient. From the DFT calculations, when the selenium content is above 0.5, the total crystallographic energy shows that a higher indium occupancy at Sn2 site is more stable. Therefore, it is suggested that the selenium doping suppress the site preference for indium substitution. This is one of the possible explanations for the metallic conductivity observed in Se-doped Co3SnInS2

  17. Interfacial reactions in thermoelectric modules

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hsin-jay

    2018-02-21

    Engineering transport properties of thermoelectric (TE) materials leads to incessantly breakthroughs in the zT values. Nevertheless, modular design holds a key factor to advance the TE technology. Herein, we discuss the structures of TE module and illustrate the inter-diffusions across the interface of constituent layers. For Bi2Te3-based module, soldering is the primary bonding method, giving rise to the investigations on the selections of solder, diffusion barrier layer and electrode. For mid-temperature PbTe-based TE module, hot-pressing or spark plasma sintering are alternative bonding approaches; the inter-diffusions between the diffusion barrier layer, electrode and TE substrate are addressed as well.

  18. Effect of surface treatment of thermoelectric materials on the properties of thermoelements made from solid solutions of Bi/sub 2/Te/sub 3/-Bi/sub 2/Se/sub 3/ and Bi/sub 2/Te/sub 3/-Sb/sub 2/Te/sub 3/ systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alieva, T.D.; Abdinov, D.Sh.; Salaev, Eh.Yu.

    1981-10-01

    Effect of surface treatment technology of samples of solid solutions of Ei/sub 2/Te/sub 3/-Bi/sub 2/Se/sub 3/ and Bi/sub 2/Te/sub 3/-Sb/sub 2/Te/sub 3/ systems on their thermoelectric efficiency is studied. Branches of thermoelements have been produced with the help of electroerosion or mechanical cutting of monocrystal ingots of semiconducting solid Bi/sub 2/Te/sub 3/-base solutions. It is shown that in case of the treatment of side surfaces of branches of thermoelements produced of monocrystals of Bi/sub 2/Te/sub 3/ base solid solutions their thermoelectrical efficiency grows considerably. Maximum growth of efficiency (approximately 20%) is observed during mechanical grinding of branches surfaces with diamond paste with the following chemical or electrochemical etching.

  19. Experimental Investigation of a Temperature-Controlled Car Seat Powered by an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, H.; Wang, Y. P.; Yuan, X. H.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.

    2016-03-01

    To improve the riding comfort and rational utilization of the electrical energy captured by an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG), a temperature-controlled car seat was constructed to adjust the temperature of the car seat surface. Powered by the ATEG and the battery, the seat-embedded air conditioner can improve the riding comfort using a thermoelectric device to adjust the surface temperature of the seat, with an air duct to regulate the cold side and hot side of the thermoelectric device. The performance of the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and theoretical analysis on the optimum state of the TEC device are put forward. To verify the rationality of the air duct design and to ensure sufficient air supply, the velocity field of the air duct system was obtained by means of the finite element method. To validate the reliability of the numerical simulation, the air velocity around the thermoelectric device was measured by a wind speed transmitter. The performance of the temperature-controlled car seat has been validated and is in good agreement with bench tests and real vehicle tests.

  20. Thermal characteristics of combined thermoelectric generator and refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilbas, Bekir S.; Sahin, Ahmet Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TEM location in between the evaporator and condenser results in low coefficient of performance. • TEM location in between condenser and its ambient improves coefficient of performance of the combined system. • High temperature ratio enhances coefficient of performance of combined system. • Certain values of parameters enhance combined system performance. - Abstract: A combined thermal system consisting of a thermoelectric generator and a refrigerator is considered and the effect of location of the thermoelectric generator, in the refrigeration cycle, on the performance characteristics of the combined system is investigated. The operating conditions and their influence on coefficient of performance of the combined system are examined through introducing the dimensionless parameters, such as λ(λ = Q HTE /Q H , where Q HTE is heat transfer to the thermoelectric generator from the condenser, Q H is the total heat transfer from the condenser to its ambient), temperature ratio (θ L = T L /T H , where T L is the evaporator temperature and T H is the condenser temperature), r C (r C = C L /C H , where C L is the thermal capacitance due to heat transfer to evaporator and C H , is the thermal capacitance due to heat rejected from the condenser), θ W (θ W = T W /T H , where T W is the ambient temperature), θ C (θ C = T C /T H , where T C is the cold space temperature). It is found that the location of the thermoelectric generator in between the condenser and the evaporator decreases coefficient of performance of the combined system. Alternatively, the location of thermoelectric device in between the condenser and its ambient enhances coefficient of performance of the combined system. The operating parameters has significant effect on the performance characteristics of the combined system; in which case temperature ratio (θ L ) within the range of 0.68–0.70, r C = 2.5, θ W = 0.85, and θ C = 0.8 improve coefficient of performance of the

  1. Hierarchical thermoelectrics : Crystal grain boundaries as scalable phonon scatterers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selli, Daniele; Boulfelfel, Salah Eddine; Schapotschnikow, PZ; Donadio, Davide; Leoni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric materials are strategically valuable for sustainable development, as they allow for the generation of electrical energy from wasted heat. In recent years several strategies have demonstrated some efficiency in improving thermoelectric properties. Dopants affect carrier

  2. Nano-Micro Materials Enabled Thermoelectricity From Window Glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Inayat, Salman Bin

    2012-01-01

    of individual glass strips to form the thickness depth of the glass on subsequent curing of the strips, and c) embedding nano-manufactured thermoelectric pillars, have been implemented for innovative integration of thermoelectric materials into window glasses

  3. Conditions for enhanced performance of segmented thermoelectrics under load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Sebastian; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2017-08-01

    The Onsager-de Groot-Callen transport theory is used to investigate the performance of double segmented thermoelectrics as generators. We show that such an inhomogeneous device usually performs worse than predicted by the effective transport coefficients. This is caused by the difference of the open circuit Seebeck voltage and the Seebeck voltage under operating conditions. The electrical current and the related interface Peltier effect cause a self-organization of the temperature profile such that the temperature drop across the material with the higher absolute Seebeck coefficient is reduced. However, including Joule heating we derive conditions for the opposite effect resulting in an enhanced power.

  4. High Performance High Temperature Thermoelectric Composites with Metallic Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, James M. (Inventor); Bux, Sabah K. (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Ravi, Vilupanur A. (Inventor); Firdosy, Samad A. (Inventor); Star, Kurt (Inventor); Kaner, Richard B. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention provides a composite thermoelectric material. The composite thermoelectric material can include a semiconductor material comprising a rare earth metal. The atomic percent of the rare earth metal in the semiconductor material can be at least about 20%. The composite thermoelectric material can further include a metal forming metallic inclusions distributed throughout the semiconductor material. The present invention also provides a method of forming this composite thermoelectric material.

  5. Phase transition enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit in copper chalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Brown

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available While thermoelectric materials can be used for solid state cooling, waste heat recovery, and solar electricity generation, low values of the thermoelectric figure of merit, zT, have led to an efficiency too low for widespread use. Thermoelectric effects are characterized by the Seebeck coefficient or thermopower, which is related to the entropy associated with charge transport. For example, coupling spin entropy with the presence of charge carriers has enabled the enhancement of zT in cobalt oxides. We demonstrate that the coupling of a continuous phase transition to carrier transport in Cu2Se over a broad (360–410 K temperature range results in a dramatic peak in thermopower, an increase in phonon and electron scattering, and a corresponding doubling of zT (to 0.7 at 406 K, and a similar but larger increase over a wider temperature range in the zT of Cu1.97Ag.03Se (almost 1.0 at 400 K. The use of structural entropy for enhanced thermopower could lead to new engineering approaches for thermoelectric materials with high zT and new green applications for thermoelectrics.

  6. Vulnerability of US thermoelectric power generation to climate change when incorporating state-level environmental regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lu; Hejazi, Mohamad; Li, Hongyi; Forman, Barton; Zhang, Xiao

    2017-07-10

    This study explores the interactions between climate and thermoelectric generation in the U.S. by coupling an Earth System Model with a thermoelectric power generation model. We validated model simulations of power production for selected power plants (~44% of existing thermoelectric capacity) against reported values. In addition, we projected future usable capacity for existing power plants under two different climate change scenarios. Results indicate that climate change alone may reduce average thermoelectric generating capacity by 2%-3% by the 2060s. Reductions up to 12% are expected if environmental requirements are enforced without waivers for thermal variation. This study concludes that the impact of climate change on the U.S. thermoelectric power system is less than previous estimates due to an inclusion of a spatially-disaggregated representation of environmental regulations and provisional variances that temporarily relieve power plants from permit requirements. This work highlights the significance of accounting for legal constructs in which the operation of power plants are managed, and underscores the effects of provisional variances in addition to environmental requirements.

  7. Convergence of valence bands for high thermoelectric performance for p-type InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hai-Zhu; Li, Ruo-Ping; Liu, Jun-Hui; Huang, Ming-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Band engineering to converge the bands to achieve high valley degeneracy is one of effective approaches for designing ideal thermoelectric materials. Convergence of many valleys in the valence band may lead to a high Seebeck coefficient, and induce promising thermoelectric performance of p-type InN. In the current work, we have systematically investigated the electronic structure and thermoelectric performance of wurtzite InN by using the density functional theory combined with semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. Form the results, it can be found that intrinsic InN has a large Seebeck coefficient (254 μV/K) and the largest value of Z e T is 0.77. The transport properties of p-type InN are better than that of n-type one at the optimum carrier concentration, which mainly due to the large Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN, although the electrical conductivity of n-type InN is larger than that of p-type one. We found that the larger Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN may originate from the large valley degeneracy in the valence band. Moreover, the low minimum lattice thermal conductivity for InN is one key factor to become a good thermoelectric material. Therefore, p-type InN could be a potential material for further applications in the thermoelectric area.

  8. A research on thermoelectric generator's electrical performance under temperature mismatch conditions for automotive waste heat recovery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.B. Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The thermoelectric generators recover useful energy by the function of thermoelectric modules which can convert waste heat energy into electricity from automotive exhaust. In the actual operation, the electrical connected thermoelectric modules are operated under temperature mismatch conditions and then the problem of decreased power output causes due to the inhomogeneous temperature gradient distribution on heat exchanger surface. In this case study, an individual module test system and a test bench have been carried out to test and analyze the impact of thermal imbalance on the output electrical power at module and system level. Variability of the temperature difference and clamping pressure are also tested in the individual module measurement. The system level experimental results clearly describe the phenomenon of thermoelectric generator's decreased power output under mismatched temperature condition and limited working temperature. This situation is improved with thermal insulation on the modules and proved to be effective.

  9. Thermoelectric performance enhancement of SrTiO3 by Pr doping

    KAUST Repository

    Kahaly, M. Upadhyay; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate Pr doping at the Sr site as a possible route to enhance the thermoelectric behavior of SrTiO3-based materials, using first principles calculations in full-potential density functional theory. The effects of the Pr dopant on the local electronic structure and resulting transport properties are compared to common Nb doping. We demonstrate a substantial enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit and develop an explanation for the positive effects, which opens new ways for materials optimization by substitutional doping at the perovskite B site. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  10. Passive flow heat exchanger simulation for power generation from solar pond using thermoelectric generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharin, Nuraida'Aadilia; Arzami, Amir Afiq; Singh, Baljit; Remeli, Muhammad Fairuz; Tan, Lippong; Oberoi, Amandeep

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a thermoelectric generator heat exchanger system was designed and simulated for electricity generation from solar pond. A thermoelectric generator heat exchanger was studied by using Computational Fluid Dynamics to simulate flow and heat transfer. A thermoelectric generator heat exchanger designed for passive in-pond flow used in solar pond for electrical power generation. A simple analysis simulation was developed to obtain the amount of electricity generated at different conditions for hot temperatures of a solar pond at different flow rates. Results indicated that the system is capable of producing electricity. This study and design provides an alternative way to generate electricity from solar pond in tropical countries like Malaysia for possible renewable energy applications.

  11. Effect of synthesis methods on the Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} thermoelectric ceramic performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo, A.; Rasekh, Sh.; Torres, M.A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC—Universidad de Zaragoza, M" a de Luna, 3, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain); Bosque, P. [Centro Universitario de la Defensa de Zaragoza. Academia General Militar. Ctra. de Huesca s/n. 50090, Zaragoza (Spain); Madre, M.A., E-mail: amadre@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC—Universidad de Zaragoza, M" a de Luna, 3, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain); Diez, J.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC—Universidad de Zaragoza, M" a de Luna, 3, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Three different synthesis methods producing nanometric grain sizes, coprecipitation with ammonium carbonate, oxalic acid, and by attrition milling have been studied to produce Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} ceramics and compared with the classical solid state route. These three processes have produced high reactive precursors and all the organic material and CaCO{sub 3}·have been decomposed in a single thermal treatment. Coprecipitation leads to pure Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} phase, while attrition milling and classical solid state produce small amounts of Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 6} secondary phase. Power factor values are similar for all three samples, being slightly lower for the ones produced by attrition milling. These values are much higher than the obtained in samples prepared by the classical solid state method, used as reference. The maximum power factor values determined at 800 °C (∼0.43 mW/K{sup 2} m) are slightly higher than the best reported values obtained in textured ones which also show much higher density values. - Graphical abstract: Impressive raise of PF in Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} thermoelectric materials obtained from nanometric grains. - Highlights: • Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} has been produced by four different methods. • Precursors particle sizes influences on the final performances. • Coprecipitation methods produce single Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} phase. • Power factor reaches values comparable to high density textured materials.

  12. Hall and thermoelectric evaluation of p-type InAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, M.C., E-mail: magnus.wagener@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Wagener, V.; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    This paper compares the galvanometric and thermoelectric evaluation of the electrical characteristics of narrow gap semiconductors. In particular, the influence of a surface inversion layer is incorporated into the analysis of the temperature-dependent Hall and thermoelectric measurements of p-type InAs. The temperature at which the Seebeck coefficient of p-type material changes sign is shown to be unaffected by the presence of degenerate conduction paths. This finding consequently facilitated the direct determination of the acceptor density of lightly doped thin film InAs.

  13. Numerical and experimental investigation of thermoelectric cooling in down-hole measuring tools; a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohitha Weerasinghe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of Peltier cooling in down-hole seismic tooling has been restricted by the performance of such devices at elevated temperatures. Present paper analyses the performance of Peltier cooling in temperatures suited for down-hole measuring equipment using measurements, predicted manufacturer data and computational fluid dynamic analysis. Peltier performance prediction techniques is presented with measurements. Validity of the extrapolation of thermoelectric cooling performance at elevated temperatures has been tested using computational models for thermoelectric cooling device. This method has been used to model cooling characteristics of a prototype downhole tool and the computational technique used has been proven valid.

  14. Thermoelectric automotive waste heat energy recovery using maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuang; Chau, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and implements a thermoelectric waste heat energy recovery system for internal combustion engine automobiles, including gasoline vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The key is to directly convert the heat energy from automotive waste heat to electrical energy using a thermoelectric generator, which is then regulated by a DC-DC Cuk converter to charge a battery using maximum power point tracking. Hence, the electrical power stored in the battery can be maximized. Both analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can work well under different working conditions, and is promising for automotive industry.

  15. Hall and thermoelectric evaluation of p-type InAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagener, M.C.; Wagener, V.; Botha, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the galvanometric and thermoelectric evaluation of the electrical characteristics of narrow gap semiconductors. In particular, the influence of a surface inversion layer is incorporated into the analysis of the temperature-dependent Hall and thermoelectric measurements of p-type InAs. The temperature at which the Seebeck coefficient of p-type material changes sign is shown to be unaffected by the presence of degenerate conduction paths. This finding consequently facilitated the direct determination of the acceptor density of lightly doped thin film InAs.

  16. CO Sensing Performance of a Micro Thermoelectric Gas Sensor with AuPtPd/SnO₂ Catalyst and Effects of a Double Catalyst Structure with Pt/α-Al₂O₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tomoyo; Itoh, Toshio; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Shin, Woosuck

    2015-12-15

    The CO sensing properties of a micro thermoelectric gas sensor (micro-TGS) with a double AuPtPd/SnO₂ and Pt/α-Al₂O₃ catalyst were investigated. While several nanometer sized Pt and Pd particles were uniformly dispersed on SnO₂, the Au particles were aggregated as particles measuring >10 nm in diameter. In situ diffuse reflectance Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT) analysis of the catalyst showed a CO adsorption peak on Pt and Pd, but no clear peak corresponding to the interaction between CO and Au was detected. Up to 200 °C, CO combustion was more temperature dependent than that of H₂, while H₂ combustion was activated by repeated exposure to H₂ gas during the periodic gas test. Selective CO sensing of the micro-TGS against H₂ was attempted using a double catalyst structure with 0.3-30 wt% Pt/α-Al₂O₃ as a counterpart combustion catalyst. The sensor output of the micro-TGS decreased with increasing Pt content in the Pt/α-Al₂O₃ catalyst, by cancelling out the combustion heat from the AuPtPd/SnO₂ catalyst. In addition, the AuPtPd/SnO₂ and 0.3 wt% Pt/α-Al₂O₃ double catalyst sensor showed good and selective CO detection. We therefore demonstrated that our micro-TGS with double catalyst structure is useful for controlling the gas selectivity of CO against H₂.

  17. Energy Optimization for a Weak Hybrid Power System of an Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Quan, Shuhai; Xie, Changjun; Tang, Xinfeng; Ran, Bin; Jiao, Yatian

    2017-11-01

    An integrated starter generator (ISG)-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) scheme is proposed based on the automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG). An eddy current dynamometer is used to simulate the vehicle's dynamic cycle. A weak ISG hybrid bench test system is constructed to test the 48 V output from the power supply system, which is based on engine exhaust-based heat power generation. The thermoelectric power generation-based system must ultimately be tested when integrated into the ISG weak hybrid mixed power system. The test process is divided into two steps: comprehensive simulation and vehicle-based testing. The system's dynamic process is simulated for both conventional and thermoelectric powers, and the dynamic running process comprises four stages: starting, acceleration, cruising and braking. The quantity of fuel available and battery pack energy, which are used as target vehicle energy functions for comparison with conventional systems, are simplified into a single energy target function, and the battery pack's output current is used as the control variable in the thermoelectric hybrid energy optimization model. The system's optimal battery pack output current function is resolved when its dynamic operating process is considered as part of the hybrid thermoelectric power generation system. In the experiments, the system bench is tested using conventional power and hybrid thermoelectric power for the four dynamic operation stages. The optimal battery pack curve is calculated by functional analysis. In the vehicle, a power control unit is used to control the battery pack's output current and minimize energy consumption. Data analysis shows that the fuel economy of the hybrid power system under European Driving Cycle conditions is improved by 14.7% when compared with conventional systems.

  18. Maximum Efficiency of Thermoelectric Heat Conversion in High-Temperature Power Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Khvesyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern trends in development of aircraft engineering go with development of vehicles of the fifth generation. The features of aircrafts of the fifth generation are motivation to use new high-performance systems of onboard power supply. The operating temperature of the outer walls of engines is of 800–1000 K. This corresponds to radiation heat flux of 10 kW/m2 . The thermal energy including radiation of the engine wall may potentially be converted into electricity. The main objective of this paper is to analyze if it is possible to use a high efficiency thermoelectric conversion of heat into electricity. The paper considers issues such as working processes, choice of materials, and optimization of thermoelectric conversion. It presents the analysis results of operating conditions of thermoelectric generator (TEG used in advanced hightemperature power devices. A high-temperature heat source is a favorable factor for the thermoelectric conversion of heat. It is shown that for existing thermoelectric materials a theoretical conversion efficiency can reach the level of 15–20% at temperatures up to 1500 K and available values of Ioffe parameter being ZT = 2–3 (Z is figure of merit, T is temperature. To ensure temperature regime and high efficiency thermoelectric conversion simultaneously it is necessary to have a certain match between TEG power, temperature of hot and cold surfaces, and heat transfer coefficient of the cooling system. The paper discusses a concept of radiation absorber on the TEG hot surface. The analysis has demonstrated a number of potentialities for highly efficient conversion through using the TEG in high-temperature power devices. This work has been implemented under support of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation; project No. 1145 (the programme “Organization of Research Engineering Activities”.

  19. Thermoelectric Properties of Hot-Pressed and PECS-Sintered Magnesium-Doped Copper Aluminum Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Morelli, Donald T.

    2011-05-01

    Copper aluminum oxide (CuAlO2) is considered as a potential candidate for thermoelectric applications. Partially magnesium-doped CuAlO2 bulk pellets were fabricated using solid-state reactions, hot-pressing, and pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) techniques. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were adopted for structural analysis. High-temperature transport property measurements were performed on hot-pressed samples. Electrical conductivity increased with Mg doping before secondary phases became significant, while the Seebeck coefficient displayed the opposite trend. Thermal conductivity was consistently reduced as the Mg concentration increased. Effects of Mg doping, preparation conditions, and future modification on this material's properties are discussed.

  20. Coupled Thermoelectric Devices: Theory and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaziel A. Rojas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address theoretically and experimentally the optimization problem of the heat transfer occurring in two coupled thermoelectric devices. A simple experimental set up is used. The optimization parameters are the applied electric currents. When one thermoelectric is analysed, the temperature difference Δ T between the thermoelectric boundaries shows a parabolic profile with respect to the applied electric current. This behaviour agrees qualitatively with the corresponding experimental measurement. The global entropy generation shows a monotonous increase with the electric current. In the case of two coupled thermoelectric devices, elliptic isocontours for Δ T are obtained in applying an electric current through each of the thermoelectrics. The isocontours also fit well with measurements. Optimal figure of merit is found for a specific set of values of the applied electric currents. The entropy generation-thermal figure of merit relationship is studied. It is shown that, given a value of the thermal figure of merit, the device can be operated in a state of minimum entropy production.

  1. Improvement In The COP Of Thermoelectric Cooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Patel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper described the study for heat transfer through thermoelectric cooler TEC by use of multistage thermoelectric module. To satisfy the heat dissipation of modern electronic element thermal designers have to increase fin area and fan speed to improve its cooling capacity. However the increase of fin area is restricted by the space. Besides the increase of fan speed would induce noise which damages human health. So air cooling by fan is hardly to meet the requirement of modern electronic component. Recently thermoelectric cooler TEC is applied to electronic cooling with the advantages of small size quietness and reliability. A typical thermoelectric cooler consists of p-type and n-type semiconductor pellets connected electrically in series and sandwiched between two ceramic substrates. Whenever direct current passes through the circuit it causes temperature differential between TEC sides. As a result one face of TEC which is called cold side will be cooled while its opposite face which is called hot side is simultaneously heated. The main problem over the use of TEC is the limited COP and its thermal performance. But these can be eliminated by use of multistage thermoelectric cooler.

  2. Thermoelectricity analogy method for computing the periodic heat transfer in external building envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Changhai; Wu Zhishen

    2008-01-01

    Simple and effective computation methods are needed to calculate energy efficiency in buildings for building thermal comfort and HVAC system simulations. This paper, which is based upon the theory of thermoelectricity analogy, develops a new harmonic method, the thermoelectricity analogy method (TEAM), to compute the periodic heat transfer in external building envelopes (EBE). It presents, in detail, the principles and specific techniques of TEAM to calculate both the decay rates and time lags of EBE. First, a set of linear equations is established using the theory of thermoelectricity analogy. Second, the temperature of each node is calculated by solving the linear equations set. Finally, decay rates and time lags are found by solving simple mathematical expressions. Comparisons show that this method is highly accurate and efficient. Moreover, relative to the existing harmonic methods, which are based on the classical control theory and the method of separation of variables, TEAM does not require complicated derivation and is amenable to hand computation and programming

  3. Integration of dispenser-printed ultra-low-voltage thermoelectric and energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z; Chen, A; Winslow, R; Madan, D; Nill, M; Wright, P K; Juang, R C; Evans, J W

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an integrated energy harvesting prototype that consists of dispenser-printed thermoelectric energy harvesting and electrochemical energy storage devices. Parallel-connected thermoelectric devices with low internal resistances were designed, fabricated and characterized. The use of a commercially available dc-to-dc converter was explored to step-up a 27.1 mV input voltage from a printed thermoelectric device to a regulated 2.34 V output at a maximum of 34% conversion efficiency. The regulated power succeeds in charging dispenser-printed, zinc-based micro-batteries with charging efficiencies of up to 67%. The prototype presented in this work demonstrates the feasibility of deploying a printable, cost-effective and perpetual power solution for practical wireless sensor network applications. (paper)

  4. Efficient p-n junction-based thermoelectric generator that can operate at extreme temperature conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavez, Ruben; Angst, Sebastian; Hall, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In many industrial processes a large proportion of energy is lost in the form of heat. Thermoelectric generators can convert this waste heat into electricity by means of the Seebeck effect. However, the use of thermoelectric generators in practical applications on an industrial scale is limited...... in part because electrical, thermal, and mechanical bonding contacts between the semiconductor materials and the metal electrodes in current designs are not capable of withstanding thermal-mechanical stress and alloying of the metal-semiconductor interface when exposed to the high temperatures occurring...... in many real-world applications. Here we demonstrate a concept for thermoelectric generators that can address this issue by replacing the metallization and electrode bonding on the hot side of the device by a p-n junction between the two semiconductor materials, making the device robust against...

  5. Large thermoelectric efficiency of doped polythiophene junction: A density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsanamlou, Zahra; Bagheri Tagani, Meysam; Rahimpour Soleimani, Hamid

    2018-06-01

    The thermoelectric properties of polythiophene (PT) coupled to the Au (111) electrodes are studied based on density functional theory with nonequilibrium Green function formalism. Specially, the effect of Li and Cl adsorbents on the thermoelectric efficiency of the PT junction is investigated in different concentrations of the dopants for two lengths of the PT. Results show that the presence of dopants can bring the structural changes in the oligomer and modify the arrangement of the molecular levels leading to the dramatic changes in the transmission spectra of the junction. Therefore, the large enhancement in thermopower and consequently figure of merit is obtained by dopants which makes the doped PT junction as a beneficial thermoelectric device.

  6. Low-Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of Fe2VAl with Partial Cobalt Doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Morelli, Donald T.

    2012-06-01

    Ternary metallic alloy Fe2VAl with a pseudogap in its energy band structure has received intensive scrutiny for potential thermoelectric applications. Due to the sharp change in the density of states profile near the Fermi level, interesting transport properties can be triggered to render possible enhancement in the overall thermoelectric performance. Previously, this full-Heusler-type alloy was partially doped with cobalt at the iron sites to produce a series of compounds with n-type conductivity. Their thermoelectric properties in the temperature range of 300 K to 850 K were reported. In this research, efforts were made to extend the investigation on (Fe1- x Co x )2VAl to the low-temperature range. Alloy samples were prepared by arc-melting and annealing. Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity measurements were performed from 80 K to room temperature. The effects of cobalt doping on the material's electronic and thermal properties are discussed.

  7. High Temperature Thermoelectric Oxides Engineered At Multiple Length Scales For Energy Harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohuchi, Fumio [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Bordia, Rajendra [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Thermoelectric aspects of the processing parameters the n-type relaxors, including SrxBa1-xNb2O6 (SBN100x), Sr2Nb2O7 (SN) and SrBi2Nb2O9 (SBiN), were investigated. A solution combustion synthesis (SCS) route was devised to fabricate SBN, SN and SBiN nanoparticles with excellent phase purity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to deduce the local cation site occupancy, and detailed thermoelectric transport processes were investigated. Based on the identified behavior, effectiveness of pore formers on the thermoelectric performance was investigated with the goal of decreasing κ through enhanced phonon scattering while preserving the electron transport characteristics.

  8. Finding New Thermoelectric Compounds Using Crystallographic Data: Atomic Displacement Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakoumakos, B.C.; Mandrus, D.G.; Sales, B.C.; Sharp, J.W.

    1999-08-29

    A new structure-property relationship is discussed which links atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) and the lattice thermal conductivity of clathrate-like compounds. For many clathrate-like compounds, in which one of the atom types is weakly bound and ''rattles'' within its atomic cage, room temperature ADP information can be used to estimate the room temperature lattice thermal conductivity, the vibration frequency of the ''rattler'', and the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Neutron data and X-ray crystallography data, reported in the literature, are used to apply this analysis to several promising classes of thermoelectric materials.

  9. Finding New Thermoelectric Compounds Using Crystallographic Data: Atomic Displacement Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakoumakos, B.C.; Mandrus, D.G.; Sales, B.C.; Sharp, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    A new structure-property relationship is discussed which links atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) and the lattice thermal conductivity of clathrate-like compounds. For many clathrate-like compounds, in which one of the atom types is weakly bound and ''rattles'' within its atomic cage, room temperature ADP information can be used to estimate the room temperature lattice thermal conductivity, the vibration frequency of the ''rattler'', and the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Neutron data and X-ray crystallography data, reported in the literature, are used to apply this analysis to several promising classes of thermoelectric materials

  10. Development of a prototype thermoelectric space cooling system using phase change material to improve the performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongliang

    , for the thermoelectric cooling unit, for the PCM thermal storage unit, and for the outdoor air-water heat exchanger. When modeling PCM thermal storage unit, the enthalpy method has been adopted. Since natural convection has been observed in experiments playing a key effect on heat transfer in PCM, a staged effective thermal conductivity (ke) concept and modified Rayleigh (Ra) number formula have been developed to better capture natural convection's variable effects during the PCM charging process. Therefore, a modeling-based design procedure for thermoelectric cooling system integrating with PCM has been proposed. A case study has been completed for a model office room to demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative evaluations to the major system components. Results of this research can be extended to other applications in relevant areas. For instance, the proposed PCM thermal storage unit can be applied to integration with water-cooled conventional air-conditioning devices. Instead of using water cooling, a case study of using the proposed PCM unit for a water-cooled air-conditioner shows a COP increase of more than 25.6%.

  11. Distributed detection and control of defective thermoelectric generation modules using sensor nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Min

    2014-01-01

    are described, respectively. Defective and potentially healing conditions are dynamically monitored by a voltage sensor node and a temperature sensor node, both of which can judge the defective TEM and decide the related switching actions in a nearly independent way. The periodical wireless transmission from......To maximize the energy productivity, effective in-field detection and real-time control of defective thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are critical in constituting a thermoelectric generation system (TEGS). In this paper, autonomous and distributed sensor nodes are designed to implement the wireless...... a considerable power improvement is illustrated with the proposed measuring method and setup....

  12. Development and Testing of an Integrated Sandia Cooler Thermoelectric Device (SCTD).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry A.; Staats, Wayne Lawrence,; Leick, Michael Thomas; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Radermacher, Reinhard; Martin, Cara; Nasuta, Dennis; Kalinowski, Paul; Hoffman, William

    2014-12-01

    This report describes a FY14 effort to develop an integrated Sandia Cooler T hermoelectric D evice (SCTD) . The project included a review of feasible thermoelectric (TE) cooling applications, baseline performance testing of an existing TE device, analysis and design development of an integrated SCTD assembly, and performance measurement and validation of the integrated SCTD prototype.

  13. Thermoelectric properties of WSi{sub 2}–Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1−x} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dynys, F.W.; Sayir, A. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Mackey, J., E-mail: jam151@zips.uakron.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325 (United States); Sehirlioglu, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • We explore a novel W/Si/Ge composite system for thermoelectric applications. • The influence of crucible selection on electrical properties is investigated. • Introduction of W can reduce the expensive Ge component of the alloy. - Abstract: Thermoelectric properties of the W/Si/Ge alloy system have been investigated with varying concentration levels of germanium and tungsten. The alloys were fabricated by directional solidification with the Bridgman method using boron nitride and fused silica crucibles. The effect of crucible contamination was investigated and found to result in doping the system to suitable levels for thermoelectric applications. The system has been demonstrated as a suitable high temperature p-type thermoelectric material exhibiting high power factors, >3000 μW/m K{sup 2}. Seebeck coefficients of the system are on the order of +300 μV/K and electrical conductivities of 2.8 × 10{sup 4} S/m at the optimum operating temperature. The best composition, 0.9 at% W/9.3 at% Ge, achieved a figure of merit comparable to RTG values over the temperature range of interest. The results suggest that W addition can reduce the use of expensive Ge component of the alloy. Reported are the details of processing conditions, microstructure development, and temperature dependent thermoelectric properties. The material system was stable at the temperatures required for NASA’s radioisotope thermoelectric generators.

  14. Peridynamic Formulation for Coupled Thermoelectric Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migbar Assefa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of heat and electrical current flow simultaneously in thermoelectric convertor using classical theories do not consider the influence of defects in the material. This is because traditional methods are developed based on partial differential equations (PDEs and lead to infinite fluxes at the discontinuities. The usual way of solving such PDEs is by using numerical technique, like Finite Element Method (FEM. Although FEM is robust and versatile, it is not suitable to model evolving discontinuities. To avoid such shortcomings, we propose the concept of peridynamic theory to derive the balance of energy and charge equations in the coupled thermoelectric phenomena. Therefore, this paper presents the transport of heat and charge in thermoelectric material in the framework of peridynamic (PD theory. To illustrate the reliability of the PD formulation, numerical examples are presented and results are compared with those from literature, analytical solutions, or finite element solutions.

  15. Holistic quantum design of thermoelectric niobium oxynitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Denis; Bliem, Pascal; Hans, Marcus

    2015-06-01

    We have applied holistic quantum design to thermoelectric NbON (space group Pm-3m). Even though transport properties are central in designing efficient thermoelectrics, mechanical properties should also be considered to minimize their thermal fatigue during multiple heating/cooling cycles. Using density functional theory, elastic constants of NbON were predicted and validated by nanoindentation measurements on reactively sputtered thin films. Based on large bulk-to-shear modulus ratio and positive Cauchy pressure, ceramic NbON appears ductile. These unusual properties may be understood by analyzing the electronic structure. Nb-O bonding is of covalent-ionic nature with metallic contributions. Second neighbor O-N bonds exhibit covalent-ionic character. Upon shear loading, these O-N bonds break giving rise to easily shearable planes. Ductile NbON, together with large Seebeck coefficient and low thermal expansion, is promising for thermoelectric applications.

  16. Method of operating a thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-11-05

    A method for operating a thermoelectric generator supplying a variable-load component includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a first output and determining a first load current and a first load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded first output. The method also includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a second output and determining a second load current and a second load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded second output. The method includes calculating a maximum power output of the thermoelectric generator from the determined first load current and voltage and the determined second load current and voltage, and commanding the variable-load component to operate at a third output. The commanded third output is configured to draw the calculated maximum power output from the thermoelectric generator.

  17. Graphite moderated reactor for thermoelectric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akazawa, Issei; Yamada, Akira; Mizogami, Yorikata

    1998-01-01

    Fuel rods filled with cladded fuel particles distributed and filled are buried each at a predetermined distance in graphite blocks situated in a reactor core. Perforation channels for helium gas as coolants are formed to the periphery thereof passing through vertically. An alkali metal thermoelectric power generation module is disposed to the upper lid of a reactor container while being supported by a securing receptacle. Helium gas in the coolant channels in the graphite blocks in the reactor core absorbs nuclear reaction heat, to be heated to a high temperature, rises upwardly by the reduction of the specific gravity, and then flows into an upper space above the laminated graphite block layer. Then the gas collides against a ceiling and turns, and flows down in a circular gap around the circumference of the alkali metal thermoelectric generation module. In this case, it transfers heat to the alkali metal thermoelectric generation module. (I.N.)

  18. Knudsen pump driven by a thermoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharas, Kunal; McNamara, Shamus

    2010-01-01

    The first use of a thermoelectric material in the bidirectional operation of a gas pump using thermal transpiration has been demonstrated. The thermoelectric material maintains a higher temperature difference which favors thermal transpiration and thus increases the efficiency of gas pumping. Since the hot and cold sides of the thermoelectric material are reversible, the direction of the pump may be changed by reversing the electrical current direction. Two different pump designs are presented that illustrate some of the design tradeoffs. The pumps are characterized by measuring the pressure difference that may be generated and by measuring the flow rate in the forward and reverse directions. For a pump composed of a porous material with a pore size of 100 nm, a maximum flow rate of 0.74 cm 3 min −1 and a maximum pressure of 1.69 kPa are achieved

  19. NANOSTRUCTURING AS A WAY FOR THERMOELECTRIC EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Bochkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of thermoelectric energy conversion is proved. Perspectives of nanostructures usage as thermoelectric materials are shown. The authors have systematized and generalized the methods and investigation results of bulk nanostructure thermoelectrics based on Bi-Sb-Te solid solutions. Ways of nanoparticles fabrication and their subsequent sintering into a bulk sample, results of structure study of the received materials are shown by methods of electronic microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy, results of mechanical properties investigation. Methods of manufacturing suggested with the authors’ participation and properties of thermoelectric nanocomposites, fabricated with addition of fullerene, thermally split graphite, graphene and molybdenum disulphide are discussed. Methods for prevention of recrystallization, measurement methods of thermoelectric properties of studied nanothermoelectrics are considered, including electric and thermal conductivities, thermoemf and the figure of merit. Factors that influence on thermoelectric figure of merit, including the tunneling of carriers through interfaces between nanograins, the additional phonon scattering on nanograin borders and the energy filtration of carriers through barriers have been theoretically investigated. Mechanisms and ways for improvement of the figure of merit are determined. Experimental confirmation for thermoelectric figure of merit increase is received. Physical mechanisms of thermoelectric figure of merit increase are shown by perceptivity of nanostructures utilization. The growth of thermoelectric figure of merit means an expansion of areas for rational application of thermoelectric energy generation and thermoelectric cooling.

  20. On the Placement of Thermoelectric Generators in Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhuev, M. A.; Katin, I. V.

    2010-09-01

    The placement of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) in vehicles is analyzed, taking into account the interaction of the TEG with the internal combustion engine (ICE). Alternative locations of the TEG directly in the ICE, on the exhaust pipe, and on the cooling system are considered. In all three cases there is a conflict between the two thermal machines, which reduces the total efficiency of the thermodynamic (ICE + TEG) system. It is shown that the cause of the conflict is the low efficiency of the TEG ( η TEG effect in TEG legs are discussed.

  1. Nonlocal thermoelectric symmetry relations in ferromagnet-superconductor proximity structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machon, Peter; Belzig, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Eschrig, Matthias [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham Hill, EGHAM, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The symmetries of thermal and electric transport coefficients in quantum coherent structures are related to fundamental thermodynamic principles by the Onsager reciprocity. We generalize Onsager's symmetry relation to nonlocal thermoelectric currents in a three terminal ferromagnet-superconductor heterostructure including spin-dependent crossed Andreev reflection and direct electron transfer processes. We proof this general symmetry by applying spin-dependent boundary conditions for quasi-classical Green's functions in both the clean and the dirty limit. We predict an anomalously large local thermopower and a nonlocal Seebeck effect, which can be explained by the spin-dependent spectral properties.

  2. Thermoelectric Control Of Temperatures Of Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.; West, James W.; Hutchinson, Mark A.; Lawrence, Robert M.; Crum, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Prototype controlled-temperature enclosure containing thermoelectric devices developed to house electronically scanned array of pressure sensors. Enclosure needed because (1) temperatures of transducers in sensors must be maintained at specified set point to ensure proper operation and calibration and (2) sensors sometimes used to measure pressure in hostile environments (wind tunnels in original application) that are hotter or colder than set point. Thus, depending on temperature of pressure-measurement environment, thermoelectric devices in enclosure used to heat or cool transducers to keep them at set point.

  3. Thermoelectric materials and devices made therewith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosed invention includes improved devices and materials for thermoelectric conversion, particularly for operation at temperatures of 300 0 C. and below. Disordered p-type semiconductor elements incorporate compound adjuvants of silver and lead to achieve enhanced ''figure of merit'' values and corresponding increased efficiencies of thermoelectric conversion. Similar results are obtained with disordered n-type elements by employing lowered selenium contents, preferably in combination with cuprous bromide. Improved conversion devices include powder pressed elements from one or both of these materials

  4. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  5. On mutual electron and phonon drag and low-temperature anomalies of thermoelectric and thermomagnetic effects in HgSe:Fe crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuleev, I.G.; Arapova, I.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    Different approaches to solving the set of transport equations for a nonequilibrium electron-phonon system in the magnetic field are considered. The effect of mutual drag of electron and phonon on the magnetic field dependence of the Nernst-Ettingshausen coefficients is analyzed. A detailed analysis of the dependence of the iron content in HgSe:Fe crystals with regard to the mutual electron and phonon drag is carried out. Kinetic coefficients corresponding to these approaches to the solutions are calculated for conductors with the degenerate statistics of the current carriers [ru

  6. An oxide-based thermoelectric generator: Transversal thermoelectric strip-device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, S.; Bochmann, A.; Reimann, T.; Schulz, T.; Dreßler, C.; Töpfer, J.

    2015-07-01

    A special design of an oxide-based transversal thermoelectric device utilizing thermoelectric oxides in combination with a ceramic multilayer technology is proposed. Metal strips within the ceramic matrix replace the tilted stack of alternating layers used in artificial anisotropic transversal thermoelectric devices. Numerical three-dimensional simulations of both device types reveal better thermoelectric performance data for the device with metal stripes. A monolithic transversal strip-device based on the material combination La1.97Sr0.03CuO4/Ag6Pd1 was prepared and electrically characterized. A maximum power output of 4.0 mW was determined at ΔT = 225 K for the monolithic device. The observed results are in remarkable agreement with three-dimensional numerical simulations utilizing the transport parameters of the two materials and the geometry data of the device.

  7. CONVERTER SOLAR RADIATION INTO ELECTRICITY TO SUPPLY THE AUTOMOTIVE SEMICONDUCTOR THERMOELECTRIC AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility to increase the efficiency of converters of solar radiation into electricity by combining constructive photoelectric effect, See-beck thermoeffect and semiconductor solar cells, which will create integrated device to provide power semiconductor thermoelectric automobile air conditioner. 

  8. Protection and thermal management of thermoelectric generator system using phase change materials: An experimental investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Atouei, Saeed; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Ranjbar, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    In most thermoelectric systems the thermal boundary conditions are transient, and thermal manage-ment of the system is critical to improve electrical performance of the system. In this study, effect of using phase change materials (PCM) to control the hot and cold side temperatures...

  9. Thermoelectrics in Coulomb-coupled quantum dots: Cotunneling and energy-dependent lead couplings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walldorf, Nicklas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Kaasbjerg, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    We study thermoelectric effects in Coulomb-coupled quantum-dot (CCQD) systems beyond lowest-order tunneling processes and the often applied wide-band approximation. To this end, we present a master-equation (ME) approach based on a perturbative T -matrix calculation of the charge and heat tunneli...

  10. Thermoelectric Performance of the MXenes M2CO2 (M = Ti, Zr, or Hf)

    KAUST Repository

    Gandi, Appala; Alshareef, Husam N.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    MXenes, M2CO2, where M = Ti, Zr, or Hf, in order to evaluate the effect of the metal M on the thermoelectric performance. The lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity, obtained from the phonon life times, is found to be lowest in Ti2CO2

  11. Enhanced thermoelectric performance with participation of F-electrons in β-Zn4Sb3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mian; Qin, Xiaoying; Liu, Changsong; Li, Xiyu; Yang, Xiuhui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Find an effective route to enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit of β-Zn 4 Sb 3 . • Provide the corresponding theoretical predictions. • Investigated the effects of doping Ce and Pr in β-Zn 4 Sb 3 . -- Abstract: The effects of rare-earth element impurities Ce and Pr on the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of β-Zn 4 Sb 3 were investigated by performing self-consistent ab initio electronic structure calculations within density functional theory and solving the Boltzmann transport equations within the relaxation time approximation. The results demonstrated that these rare-earth element impurities with f orbitals could introduce giant sharp resonant peaks in the density of states (DOS) near the host valence band maximum in energy. And these deliberately engineered DOS peaks result in a sharp increase of the room-temperature Seebeck coefficient and power factor from those of impurity-free system by a factor of 100 and 22, respectively. Additionally, with the simultaneous declining of carrier thermal conductivity, a potential 5-fold increase at least with Ce doping and more than 3 times increase with Pr doping in the thermoelectric figure of merit of β-Zn 4 Sb 3 at room temperature are achieved. The effective DOS restructuring strategy opens up new opportunities for thermoelectric power generation and waste heat recovery at large scale

  12. Stretchable Helical Architecture Inorganic-Organic Hetero Thermoelectric Generator

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Singh, Devendra; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Foulds, Ian G.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    To achieve higher power output from a thermoelectric generator (TEG), one needs to maintain a larger temperature difference between hot and cold end. In that regard, a stretchable TEG can be interesting to adaptively control the temperature difference. Here we show, the development of simple yet versatile and highly stretchable thermoelectric generators (TEGs), by combining well-known inorganic thermoelectric materials Bismuth Telluride and Antimony Telluride (Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3) with organic substrates (Off-Stoichiometry Thiol-Enes polymer platform – OSTE, polyimide or paper) and novel helical architecture (double-arm spirals) to achieve over 100% stretchability. First, an OSTE-based TEG design demonstrates higher open circuit voltage generation at 100% strain than at rest, although it exhibits high internal resistance and a relatively complex fabrication process. The second, simpler TEG design, achieves a significant resistance reduction and two different structural substrates (PI and paper) are compared. The paper-based TEG generates 17 nW (ΔT = 75 °C) at 60% strain, which represents more than twice the power generation while at rest (zero strain). On the other hand, polyimide produces more conductive TE films and higher power (~35 nW at ΔT = 75 °C) but due to its higher thermal conductivity, power does not increase at stretch. In conclusion, highly stretchable TEGs can lead to higher temperature gradients (thus higher power generation), given that thermal conductivity of the structural material is low enough. Furthermore, either horizontal or vertical displacement can be achieved with double-arm helical architecture, hence allowing to extend the device to any nearby and mobile heat sink for continuous, effectively higher power generation.

  13. Stretchable Helical Architecture Inorganic-Organic Hetero Thermoelectric Generator

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2016-10-26

    To achieve higher power output from a thermoelectric generator (TEG), one needs to maintain a larger temperature difference between hot and cold end. In that regard, a stretchable TEG can be interesting to adaptively control the temperature difference. Here we show, the development of simple yet versatile and highly stretchable thermoelectric generators (TEGs), by combining well-known inorganic thermoelectric materials Bismuth Telluride and Antimony Telluride (Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3) with organic substrates (Off-Stoichiometry Thiol-Enes polymer platform – OSTE, polyimide or paper) and novel helical architecture (double-arm spirals) to achieve over 100% stretchability. First, an OSTE-based TEG design demonstrates higher open circuit voltage generation at 100% strain than at rest, although it exhibits high internal resistance and a relatively complex fabrication process. The second, simpler TEG design, achieves a significant resistance reduction and two different structural substrates (PI and paper) are compared. The paper-based TEG generates 17 nW (ΔT = 75 °C) at 60% strain, which represents more than twice the power generation while at rest (zero strain). On the other hand, polyimide produces more conductive TE films and higher power (~35 nW at ΔT = 75 °C) but due to its higher thermal conductivity, power does not increase at stretch. In conclusion, highly stretchable TEGs can lead to higher temperature gradients (thus higher power generation), given that thermal conductivity of the structural material is low enough. Furthermore, either horizontal or vertical displacement can be achieved with double-arm helical architecture, hence allowing to extend the device to any nearby and mobile heat sink for continuous, effectively higher power generation.

  14. Feasibility of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery from Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byunghee

    2015-01-01

    A thermoelectric generator has the most competitive method to regenerate the waste heat from research reactors, because it has no limitation on operating temperature. In addition, since the TEG is a solid energy conversion device converting heat to electricity directly without moving parts, the regenerating power system becomes simple and highly reliable. In this regard, a waste heat recovery using thermoelectric generator (TEG) from 15-MW pool type research reactor is suggested and the feasibility is demonstrated. The producible power from waste heat is estimated with respect to the reactor parameters, and an application of the regenerated power is suggested by performing a safety analysis with the power. The producible power from TEG is estimated with respect to the LMTD of the HX and the required heat exchange area is also calculated. By increasing LMTD from 2 K to 20K, the efficiency and the power increases greatly. Also an application of the power regeneration system is suggested by performing a safety analysis with the system, and comparing the results with reference case without the power regeneration

  15. Mechanical characterization of hydroxyapatite, thermoelectric materials and doped ceria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaofeng

    For a variety of applications of brittle ceramic materials, porosity plays a critical role structurally and/or functionally, such as in engineered bone scaffolds, thermoelectric materials and in solid oxide fuel cells. The presence of porosity will affect the mechanical properties, which are essential to the design and application of porous brittle materials. In this study, the mechanical property versus microstructure relations for bioceramics, thermoelectric (TE) materials and solid oxide fuel cells were investigated. For the bioceramic material hydroxyapatite (HA), the Young's modulus was measured using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) as a function of (i) porosity and (ii) microcracking damage state. The fracture strength was measured as a function of porosity using biaxial flexure testing, and the distribution of the fracture strength was studied by Weibull analysis. For the natural mineral tetrahedrite based solid solution thermoelectric material (Cu10Zn2As4S13 - Cu 12Sb4S13), the elastic moduli, hardness and fracture toughness were studied as a function of (i) composition and (ii) ball milling time. For ZiNiSn, a thermoelectric half-Heusler compound, the elastic modulus---porosity and hardness---porosity relations were examined. For the solid oxide fuel cell material, gadolina doped ceria (GDC), the elastic moduli including Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured by RUS as a function of porosity. The hardness was evaluated by Vickers indentation technique as a function of porosity. The results of the mechanical property versus microstructure relations obtained in this study are of great importance for the design and fabrication of reliable components with service life and a safety factor. The Weibull modulus, which is a measure of the scatter in fracture strength, is the gauge of the mechanical reliability. The elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio are needed in analytical or numerical models of the thermal and

  16. Effects of Li and Na intercalation on electronic, bonding and thermoelectric transport properties of MX{sub 2} (M = Ta; X = S or Se) dichalcogenides – Ab initio investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meziane, Souheyr; Feraoun, Houda [Unité de Recherche Matériaux et Energies Renouvelables – URMER, Université de Tlemcen (Algeria); Ouahrani, Tarik [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Ecole Préparatoire en Sciences et Techniques, B.P. 230, 13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Esling, Claude, E-mail: claude.esling@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire d’Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux, LEM3 UMR CNRS 7239, Université de Lorraine UL, Metz 57045 (France); Laboratoire d’Excellence “DAMAS”: Design of Metal Alloys for low-mAss Structures, Université de Lorraine – Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex 01 (France)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •Topological method is used to analyze the chemical bonding in Li(Na)TaX{sub 2} dichalcogenide compounds. •For the first time, Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity were estimated. •The best figure of merit is established for 2H-LiTaS{sub 2}. •Some new thermoelectric compounds are found. -- Abstract: Using the pseudo-potential method and semi-classical Boltzmann theory, electronic, chemical bonding and thermoelectric transport properties of sample and Li or Na intercalated Ta(S, Se){sub 2} dichalcogenides have been reported. The chemical bonding is studied using the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM). Then, the Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and figure of merit have been calculated in the temperature range 100–700 K. It was shown that the thermoelectric transport properties strongly depend on the Alkali metals doping and the two main structures 1T- or 2H- as well as the temperature. 2H-LiTaS{sub 2} have been selected as the best candidate for thermoelectrical applications with zT = 1.1.

  17. Effect of a powder compaction process on the thermoelectric properties of Bi.sub.2./sub.Sr.sub.2./sub.Co.sub.1.8./sub.O.sub.x./sub. ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rubešová, K.; Hlásek, T.; Jakeš, V.; Huber, Š.; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Sedmidubský, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2015), 525-531 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17538S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : bismuth cobaltites * sol-gel * thermoelectrics * spark plasma sintering * hot pressing Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.933, year: 2015

  18. Thermoelectric property of fine-grained CoSb3 skutterudite compound fabricated by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weishu; Zhang Boping; Li Jingfeng; Zhao Lidong

    2007-01-01

    Skutterudite CoSb 3 polycrystalline materials were prepared using a combined process of mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The influence of SPS temperature on the thermoelectric properties was focused in this work with a special emphasis on the analysis of the size effects of grains. The average grain sizes decreased from 300 to 50 nm with decreasing SPS temperatures from 600 to 300 deg. C. The electrical resistivities of samples spark plasma sintered at 300-600 deg. C all decreased with increasing temperature, indicating a classic intrinsic conduction behaviour of semiconductors. The samples spark plasma sintered at 300-500 deg. C showed a positive Seebeck coefficient while the sample spark plasma sintered at 600 deg. C showed a negative Seebeck coefficient. The room-temperature thermal conductivities were reduced from 4.30 to 2.92 W m -1 K -1 as the grain sizes were decreased from 300 to 100 nm corresponding to SPS at 600 and 400 deg. C, respectively. The present work indicates that MA and SPS is a good combination for fabricating fine-grained CoSb 3 thermoelectric materials

  19. Thermoelectric transport in rare-earth compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Ulrike

    2007-07-01

    This work focuses on the thermoelectric transport in rare-earth compounds. The measurements of the thermal conductivity, thermopower, and Nernst coefficient are supplemented by investigations of other quantities as magnetic susceptibility and specific heat. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to the relevant physical concepts. Section 1 of that chapter summarizes the characteristic properties of rare-earth systems; section 2 gives an overview on thermoelectric transport processes in magnetic fields. The applied experimental techniques as well as the new experimental setup are described in detail in Chapter 3. The experimental results are presented in Chapter 4-6, of which each concentrates on a different subject. In Chapter 4, various Eu clathrates and the skutterudite-like Ce{sub 3}Rh{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} are presented, which have been investigated as potential thermoelectric materials for applications. Chapter 5 focusses on the study of the energy scales in the heavy-fermion series Lu{sub 1-x}Yb{sub x}Rh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ce{sub x}La{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} by means of thermopower investigations. Chapter 6 is dedicated to the thermoelectric transport properties of the correlated semimetal CeNiSn with special emphasis on the Nernst coefficient of this compound. (orig.)

  20. Thermoelectric Generator Emulator for MPPT Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Man, Elena Anamaria; Sera, Dezso; Máthé, Lászlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to use a DC power supply as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) emulator to perform static and dynamic maximum power point tracking (MPPT). First, the electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese-oxide module is performed on a TEG test rig. Afterwards...

  1. Experimental Study of a Thermoelectric Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Junpeng; Gao, Junling; Chen, Min

    2011-01-01

    . System-level simulation is carried out using a quasi-one-dimensional numerical model that enables direct comparison with experimental results. The results of both experiment and simulation will provide a foundation to improve and optimize complex thermoelectric generation systems....

  2. Thermoelectric transport in rare-earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    This work focuses on the thermoelectric transport in rare-earth compounds. The measurements of the thermal conductivity, thermopower, and Nernst coefficient are supplemented by investigations of other quantities as magnetic susceptibility and specific heat. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to the relevant physical concepts. Section 1 of that chapter summarizes the characteristic properties of rare-earth systems; section 2 gives an overview on thermoelectric transport processes in magnetic fields. The applied experimental techniques as well as the new experimental setup are described in detail in Chapter 3. The experimental results are presented in Chapter 4-6, of which each concentrates on a different subject. In Chapter 4, various Eu clathrates and the skutterudite-like Ce 3 Rh 4 Sn 13 are presented, which have been investigated as potential thermoelectric materials for applications. Chapter 5 focusses on the study of the energy scales in the heavy-fermion series Lu 1-x Yb x Rh 2 Si 2 and Ce x La 1-x Ni 2 Ge 2 by means of thermopower investigations. Chapter 6 is dedicated to the thermoelectric transport properties of the correlated semimetal CeNiSn with special emphasis on the Nernst coefficient of this compound. (orig.)

  3. Thermoelectric devices and applications for the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Larry C.; DeSteese, John G.; Martin, Peter M.; Johnston, John W.; Peters, Timothy J.

    2016-03-08

    High performance thin film thermoelectric couples and methods of making the same are disclosed. Such couples allow fabrication of at least microwatt to watt-level power supply devices operating at voltages greater than one volt even when activated by only small temperature differences.

  4. Thermoelectric neutron dosimetry: a short introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, F.; Meier, R.; Debrue, J.; Leonard, F.; Schubert, W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives a short introduction and state-of-the-art account of an unconventional, non destructive neutron dosimetry method based on monitoring the neutron fluence dependent changes of the thermoelectric properties of base metals and alloys. The basic principles are exposed and illustrated with experimental data obtained during an exploratory irradiation in the BR2 reactor

  5. Design concepts for improved thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slack, G A

    1997-07-01

    Some new guidelines are given that should be useful in the search for thermoelectric materials that are better than those currently available. In particular, clathrate and cryptoclathrate compounds with filler atoms in their cages offer the ability to substantially lower the lattice thermal conductivity.

  6. Test System for Thermoelectric Modules and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejtmánek, J.; Knížek, K.; Švejda, V.; Horna, P.; Sikora, M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a design for a complex measuring device that enables its user to assess the parameters of power-generating thermoelectric modules (TEMs) (or bulk thermoelectric materials) under a wide range of temperatures ( T cold = 25°C to 90°C, T hot TEM, the actual heat flow through the module, and its mechanical load, which can be varied during the measurement. Key components of our testing setup are (i) a measuring chamber where the TEM/material is compressed between thermally shielded heating blocks equipped with a mechanical loading system and water-cooled copper-based cooler, (ii) an electrical load system, (iii) a type K thermocouple array connected to a data acquisition computer, and (iv) a thermostatic water-based cooling system with electronically controlled flow rate and temperature of cooling water. Our testing setup represents a useful tool able to assess, e.g., the thermoelectric parameters of newly developed TEMs and materials or to evaluate the thermoelectric parameters of commercially available modules and materials for comparison with values declared by the manufacturer.

  7. CO Sensing Performance of a Micro Thermoelectric Gas Sensor with AuPtPd/SnO2 Catalyst and Effects of a Double Catalyst Structure with Pt/α-Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tomoyo; Itoh, Toshio; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Shin, Woosuck

    2015-01-01

    The CO sensing properties of a micro thermoelectric gas sensor (micro-TGS) with a double AuPtPd/SnO2 and Pt/α-Al2O3 catalyst were investigated. While several nanometer sized Pt and Pd particles were uniformly dispersed on SnO2, the Au particles were aggregated as particles measuring >10 nm in diameter. In situ diffuse reflectance Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT) analysis of the catalyst showed a CO adsorption peak on Pt and Pd, but no clear peak corresponding to the interaction between CO and Au was detected. Up to 200 °C, CO combustion was more temperature dependent than that of H2, while H2 combustion was activated by repeated exposure to H2 gas during the periodic gas test. Selective CO sensing of the micro-TGS against H2 was attempted using a double catalyst structure with 0.3–30 wt% Pt/α-Al2O3 as a counterpart combustion catalyst. The sensor output of the micro-TGS decreased with increasing Pt content in the Pt/α-Al2O3 catalyst, by cancelling out the combustion heat from the AuPtPd/SnO2 catalyst. In addition, the AuPtPd/SnO2 and 0.3 wt% Pt/α-Al2O3 double catalyst sensor showed good and selective CO detection. We therefore demonstrated that our micro-TGS with double catalyst structure is useful for controlling the gas selectivity of CO against H2. PMID:26694397

  8. Direct contact thermoelectric generator (DCTEG): A concept for removing the contact resistance between thermoelectric modules and heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Young; Negash, Assmelash; Cho, Gyubaek

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A design concept of a direct contact thermoelectric generator (DCTEG) is proposed. • Power generation characteristics of the DCTEG on a diesel engine are examined. • Maximum power output of ∼45 W and conversion efficiency of ∼2.0% are obtained. • Effect of clearance on energy conversion of the DCTEG is numerically investigated. • A 132% increase in output power with a flush mounted configuration is obtained. - Abstract: This paper proposes the concept of a direct contact thermoelectric generator (DCTEG) to enhance the practicality and widen the application areas of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). In the DCTEG, one thermoelectric module (TEM) surface is directly exposed to a heat source, and the other surface is in direct contact with a coolant flow. The current direct-contact configuration is beneficial for system fabrication, maintenance, long-term reliability, and maximizing energy usage in cooperation with other energy systems because of its simple configuration and lack of interfaces between the TEMs and heat sources. In order to validate the proposed concept experimentally, a DCTEG was constructed by fabricating customized TEMs and exhaust gas and coolant channels with openings to mount the TEMs. A diesel engine served as a heat source by providing hot exhaust gas into the DCTEG, while the coolant (water–ethylene glycol mixture) was pumped into the coolant channels to remove heat. Based on the experimental results obtained under various engine operating conditions, the power generation of the DCTEG was characterized in the form of current–voltage and power–voltage curves. The maximum output power of 43 W and conversion efficiency of 2.0% were obtained under the highest engine load and rotation speed conditions. A series of numerical simulations was carried out to investigate the effect of the system configuration on the DCTEG power generation performance with the clearance between the TEM surfaces and exhaust gas

  9. Thermoelectric properties of IV–VI-based heterostructures and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, P.D., E-mail: pabloborges@ufv.br [Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Tec., Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Rio Paranaíba, MG (Brazil); Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Petersen, J.E.; Scolfaro, L. [Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Leite Alves, H.W. [Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João Del Rei, Caixa Postal 110, São João Del Rei 36300-000, MG (Brazil); Myers, T.H. [Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Doping in a manner that introduces anisotropy in order to reduce thermal conductivity is a significant focus in thermoelectric research today. By solving the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equations in the constant scattering time (τ) approximation, in conjunction with ab initio electronic structure calculations, within Density Functional Theory, we compare the Seebeck coefficient (S) and figure of merit (ZT) of bulk PbTe to PbTe/SnTe/PbTe heterostructures and PbTe doping superlattices (SLs) with periodically doped planes. Bismuth and Thallium were used as the n- and p-type impurities, respectively. The effects of carrier concentration are considered via chemical potential variation in a rigid band approximation. The impurity bands near the Fermi level in the electronic structure of PbTe SLs are of Tl s- and Bi p-character, and this feature is independent of the doping concentration or the distance between impurity planes. We observe the impurity bands to have a metallic nature in the directions perpendicular to the doping planes, yet no improvement on the values of ZT is found when compared to bulk PbTe. For the PbTe/SnTe/PbTe heterostructures, the calculated S presents good agreement with recent experimental data, and an anisotropic behavior is observed for low carrier concentrations (n<10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}). A large value of ZT{sub ||} (parallel to the growth direction) of 3.0 is predicted for n=4.7×10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} and T=700 K, whereas ZT{sub p} (perpendicular to the growth direction) is found to peak at 1.5 for n=1.7×10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}. Both electrical conductivity enhancement and thermal conductivity reduction are analyzed. - Graphical abstract: Figure of merit for PbTe/SnTe/PbTe heterostructure along the [0 0 1] direction, P.D. Borges, J.E. Petersen, L. Scolfaro, H.W. Leite Alves, T.H. Myers, Improved thermoelectric properties of IV–VI-based heterostructures and superlattices. - Highlights: • Thermoelectric properties of IV

  10. Thermoelectric properties of cobalt–antimonide thin films prepared by radio frequency co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Aziz; Han, Seungwoo, E-mail: swhan@kimm.re.kr

    2015-07-31

    Co–Sb thin films with an Sb content in the range 65–76 at.%, were deposited on a thermally oxidized Si (100) substrate preheated at 200 °C using radio-frequency co-sputtering. Evaluation using scanning electron microscopy images and X-ray diffraction reveals that the films were polycrystalline, with a grain size in the range 100–250 nm. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis indicates single-phase CoSb{sub 2} and CoSb{sub 3} films, as well as multiphase thin films with either CoSb{sub 2} or CoSb{sub 3} as the dominant phase. The electrical and thermoelectric properties were measured and found to be strongly dependent on the observed phases and the defect concentrations. The CoSb{sub 2} thin films were found to exhibit a significant n-type thermoelectric effect, which, coupled with the very low electrical resistivity, resulted in a larger power factor than that of the CoSb{sub 3} thin films. We find power factors of 0.73 mWm{sup −1} K{sup −2} and 0.67 mWm{sup −1} K{sup −2} for the CoSb{sub 2} and CoSb{sub 3} thin films, respectively. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline Co–Sb thin films were obtained by present deposition strategy. • CoSb{sub 2} and CoSb{sub 3} have semimetal and semiconductor characteristics respectively. • The Seebeck coefficient depends heavily on defect concentration and impurity phases. • Film properties in the second heating cycle were different from the first. • CoSb{sub 2} is found to possess significant n-type thermopower.

  11. Application of cascading thermoelectric generator and cooler for waste heat recovery from solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Houcheng; Kong, Wei; Dong, Feifei; Xu, Haoran; Chen, Bin; Ni, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cascading thermoelectric devices are proposed to recover waste heat from SOFCs. • A theoretical model is developed to analyze the new hybrid system performance. • Performance parameters for evaluating the hybrid system are specified. • Feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system are demonstrated. • Effects of some important parameters on the system performance are discussed. - Abstract: Besides electricity generation, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) produce a significant amount of waste heat, which needs to be immediately removed to ensure the normal operation of SOFCs. If the waste heat is recovered through bottoming thermal devices, the global efficiency of SOFCs can be improved. In this study, a new hybrid system mainly consisting of a thermoelectric generator, a thermoelectric cooler and an SOFC is proposed to recover the waste heat from SOFC for performance enhancement. The thermodynamic and electrochemical irreversible losses in each component are fully considered. An analytical relationship between the SOFC operating current density and the thermoelectric devices dimensionless electric current is derived, from which the range of SOFC operating current density that permits the thermoelectric devices to effectively work is determined. The equivalent power output and efficiency for the hybrid system are specified under different operating current density regions. The feasibility and effectiveness are illustrated by comparing the proposed hybrid system with the stand-alone SOFC. It is found that the power density and efficiency of the proposed system allow 2.3% and 4.6% larger than that of the stand-alone SOFC, respectively. Finally, various parametric analyses are performed to discuss the effects of some design and operation parameters on the hybrid system performance.

  12. Full-spectrum photon management of solar cell structures for photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuanpei; Xuan, Yimin; Yang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel photon management method is proposed for hybrid photovoltaic–thermoelectric systems. • Composite structured surfaces enable creditable ultra-broadband anti-reflection property. • Incorporation of anti-reflection and light-trapping brings spectral absorption and transmission. • The efficient photon management of the structured surface is also omnidirectional. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel ultra-broadband photon management structure is proposed for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells used in the photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid system. Nanostructures are employed on both front and back side. Optical behavior of the structure in ultra-broadband (300–2500 nm) are investigated through the Finite Difference Time Domain method. By combing moth-eye and inverted-parabolic surface, a new composite surface structure is proposed for anti-reflection in the ultra-broadband wavelengths. Front metallic nanoparticles, plasmonic back reflector and metallic gratings are studied for light-trapping and the effect of plasmonic back reflector is validated by the experimental data of the external quantum efficiency. The effects of incident angle are discussed for metallic gratings. Numerical computation shows that the incorporation of anti-reflection and light-trapping can obtain high absorption in the solar cell and ensure the rest incident light transmits to the thermoelectric generator efficiently. This work shows potential full-spectrum utilization of solar energy for various photovoltaic devices related with hybrid photovoltaic–thermoelectric systems

  13. Thermoelectric energy harvesting for a solid waste processing toilet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, C. David; Baldasaro, Nicholas G.; Bulman, Gary E.; Stoner, Brian R.

    2014-06-01

    Over 2.5 billion people do not have access to safe and effective sanitation. Without a sanitary sewer infrastructure, self-contained modular systems can provide solutions for these people in the developing world and remote areas. Our team is building a better toilet that processes human waste into burnable fuel and disinfects the liquid waste. The toilet employs energy harvesting to produce electricity and does not require external electrical power or consumable materials. RTI has partnered with Colorado State University, Duke University, and Roca Sanitario under a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Reinvent the Toilet Challenge (RTTC) grant to develop an advanced stand-alone, self-sufficient toilet to effectively process solid and liquid waste. The system operates through the following steps: 1) Solid-liquid separation, 2) Solid waste drying and sizing, 3) Solid waste combustion, and 4) Liquid waste disinfection. Thermoelectric energy harvesting is a key component to the system and provides the electric power for autonomous operation. A portion of the exhaust heat is captured through finned heat-sinks and converted to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices to provide power for the electrochemical treatment of the liquid waste, pumps, blowers, combustion ignition, and controls.

  14. Materials growth and characterization of thermoelectric and resistive switching devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Kate J.

    In the 74 years since diode rectifier based radar technology helped the allied forces win WWII, semiconductors have transformed the world we live in. From our smart phones to semiconductor-based energy conversion, semiconductors touch every aspect of our lives. With this thesis I hope to expand human knowledge of semiconductor thermoelectric devices and resistive switching devices through experimentation with materials growth and subsequent materials characterization. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) was the primary method of materials growth utilized in these studies. Additionally, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), atomic layer deposition (ALD),ion beam sputter deposition, reactive sputter deposition and electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation were also used in this research for device fabrication. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were the primary characterization methods utilized for this research. Additional device and materials characterization techniques employed include: current-voltage measurements, thermoelectric measurements, x-ray diffraction (XRD), reflection absorption infra-red spectroscopy (RAIRS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL), and raman spectroscopy. As society has become more aware of its impact on the planet and its limited resources, there has been a push toward developing technologies to sustainably produce the energy we need. Thermoelectric devices convert heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectric devices have the potential to save huge amounts of energy that we currently waste as heat, if we can make them cost-effective. Semiconducting thin films and nanowires appear to be promising avenues of research to attain this goal. Specifically, in this work we will explore the use of ErSb thin films as well as Si and InP nanowire networks for thermoelectric applications. First we will discuss the growth of

  15. Thermoelectric Generators Based on Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Edith; Uhl, Stefanie; Jeandupeux, Laure; López, Pilar Pérez; Sanglard, Pauline; Vanoli, Ennio; Marti, Roger; Keppner, Herbert

    2018-06-01

    Looking at energy harvesting using body or waste heat for portable electronic or on-board devices, Ionic liquids are interesting candidates as thermoactive materials in thermoelectric generators (TEGs) because of their outstanding properties. Two different kinds of ionic liquid, with alkylammonium and choline as cations, were studied, whereby different anions and redox couples were combined. This study focussed on the intention to find non-hazardous and environmentally friendly ionic liquids for TEGs to be selected among the thousands that can potentially be used. Seebeck coefficients (SEs) as high as - 15 mV/K were measured, in a particular case for an electrode temperature difference of 20 K. The bottleneck of our TEG device is still the abundance of negative SE liquids matching the internal resistance with the existing positive SE-liquids at series connections. In this paper, we show further progress in finding increased negative SE liquids. For current extraction from the TEG, the ionic liquid must be blended with a redox couple, allowing carrier exchange in a cyclic process under a voltage which is incuced by the asymmetry of the generator in terms of hot and cold electrodes. In our study, two types of redox pairs were tested. It was observed that a high SE of an ionic liquid/redox blend is not a sufficient condition for high power output. It appears that more complex effects between the ionic liquid and the electrode determine the magnitude of the final current/power output. The physico-chemical understanding of such a TEG cell is not yet available.

  16. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2015-03-01

    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M

  17. High thermoelectric performances of Bi–AE–Co–O compounds directionally growth from the melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Carlos Diez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bi2AE2Co2Ox (AE = Ca, Sr, and Ba thermoelectric compounds were grown from the melt by the laser floating zone technique. Microstructural analysis of as-grown samples has shown the formation of well-aligned thermoelectric grains together with a relative high amount of secondary phases. On the other hand, a short (24 h thermal treatment (810 °C for Sr, 800 °C for Ca, and 750 °C for Ba under air, raises of thermoelectric phase content through the recombination of the secondary ones. These microstructural modifications led to a large decrease of electrical resistivity, improving the power factor. These results have been compared with samples prepared by the conventional solid state method and with the best values reported in the literature. From these data, it is possible to deduce that the high thermoelectric characteristics obtained in these samples make them very attractive for practical applications.

  18. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement by Surrounding Crystalline Semiconductors with Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices may play a key role in future energy production and utilization. However, relatively poor performance of current TE materials has slowed development of new energy conversion applications. Recent reports have shown that the dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, for TE devices can be increased beyond the state-of-the-art level by nanoscale structuring of materials to reduce their thermal conductivity. New morphologically designed TE materials have been fabricated at the NASA Langley Research Center, and their characterization is underway. These newly designed materials are based on semiconductor crystal grains whose surfaces are surrounded by metallic nanoparticles. The nanoscale particles are used to tailor the thermal and electrical conduction properties for TE applications by altering the phonon and electron transport pathways. A sample of bismuth telluride decorated with metallic nanoparticles showed less thermal conductivity and twice the electrical conductivity at room temperature as compared to pure Bi2Te3. Apparently, electrons cross easily between semiconductor crystal grains via the intervening metallic nanoparticle bridges, but phonons are scattered at the interfacing gaps. Hence, if the interfacing gap is larger than the mean free path of the phonon, thermal energy transmission from one grain to others is reduced. Here we describe the design and analysis of these new materials that offer substantial improvements in thermoelectric performance.

  19. The thermoelectric performance of bulk three-dimensional graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhi, E-mail: yangzhi@tyut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Lan, Guoqiang; Ouyang, Bin [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 0C5 (Canada); Xu, Li-Chun; Liu, Ruiping [College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liu, Xuguang, E-mail: liuxuguang@tyut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Song, Jun [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 0C5 (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    The electronic and thermoelectric properties of a new carbon bulk material, three-dimensional (3D) graphene, are investigated in this study. Our results show that 3D graphene has unique electronic structure, i.e., near the Fermi level there exist Dirac cones. More importantly, the thermoelectric performance of 3D graphene is excellent, at room temperature the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) is 0.21, an order of magnitude higher than that of graphene. By introducing line defects, the ZT of 3D graphene could be enhanced to 1.52, indicating 3D graphene is a powerful candidate for constructing novel thermoelectric materials. - Highlights: • There exist Dirac cones in three-dimensional (3D) graphene. • The thermoelectric performance of 3D graphene is excellent. • The defective 3D graphene has better thermoelectric performance.

  20. Enhanced thermoelectric power in ultrathin topological insulators with magnetic doping

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2014-09-07

    We derive analytical expressions for the magnetic moment and orbital magnetization as well as for the corresponding thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of a topological insulator film. We demonstrate enhancement of the thermoelectric transport for decreasing film thickness and for application of an exchange field due to the tunable band gap. Combining hybridization and exchange field is particularly suitable for heat to electric energy conversion and thermoelectric cooling.