Thermodynamic cycle analysis for capacitive deionization
Biesheuvel, P.M.
2009-01-01
Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an ion removal technology based on temporarily storing ions in the polarization layers of two oppositely positioned electrodes. Here we present a thermodynamic model for the minimum work required for ion separation in the fully reversible case by describing the ionic
Second Law Of Thermodynamics Analysis Of Triple Cycle Power Plant
Matheus M. Dwinanto
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Triple cycle power plant with methane as a fuel has been analyzed on the basis of second law of thermodynamics.In this model, ideal Brayton cycle is selected as a topping cycle as it gives higher efficiency at lower pressure ratio comparedintercooler and reheat cycle. In trilple cycle the bottoming cycles are steam Rankine and organic Rankine cycle. Ammoniahas suitable working properties like critical temperature, boiling temperature, etc. Steam cycle consists of a deaerator andreheater. The bottoming ammonia cycle is a ideal Rankine cycle. Single pressure heat recovery steam and ammoniagenerators are selected for simplification of the analysis. The effects of pressure ratio and maximum temperature which aretaken as important parameters regarding the triple cycle are discussed on performance and exergetic losses. On the otherhand, the efficiency of the triple cycle can be raised, especially in the application of recovering low enthalpy content wasteheat. Therefore, by properly combining with a steam Rankine cycle, the ammonia Rankine cycle is expected to efficientlyutilize residual yet available energy to an optimal extent. The arrangement of multiple cycles is compared with combinedcycle having the same sink conditions. The parallel type of arrangement of bottoming cycle is selected due to increasedperformance.
Thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected advanced gas turbine cycles
Pandey, Devendra; Bade, Mukund H.
2017-12-01
This paper deals with thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle. To analyse the thermodynamic performance of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycles, a methodology based on pinch analysis is proposed. This graphical methodology is a systematic approach proposed for a selection of gas turbine with steam injection. The developed graphs are useful for selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) for optimal operation of it and helps designer to take appropriate decision. The selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle can be done either at minimum steam ratio (ratio of mass flow rate of steam to air) with maximum efficiency or at maximum steam ratio with maximum net work conditions based on the objective of plants designer. Operating the steam injection based advanced gas turbine plant at minimum steam ratio improves efficiency, resulting in reduction of pollution caused by the emission of flue gases. On the other hand, operating plant at maximum steam ratio can result in maximum work output and hence higher available power.
Thermodynamic Analysis of an Irreversible Maisotsenko Reciprocating Brayton Cycle
Fuli Zhu
2018-03-01
Full Text Available An irreversible Maisotsenko reciprocating Brayton cycle (MRBC model is established using the finite time thermodynamic (FTT theory and taking the heat transfer loss (HTL, piston friction loss (PFL, and internal irreversible losses (IILs into consideration in this paper. A calculation flowchart of the power output (P and efficiency (η of the cycle is provided, and the effects of the mass flow rate (MFR of the injection of water to the cycle and some other design parameters on the performance of cycle are analyzed by detailed numerical examples. Furthermore, the superiority of irreversible MRBC is verified as the cycle and is compared with the traditional irreversible reciprocating Brayton cycle (RBC. The results can provide certain theoretical guiding significance for the optimal design of practical Maisotsenko reciprocating gas turbine plants.
Thermodynamic Analysis of a Supercritical Mercury Power Cycle
Roberts, A.S. Jr.
1969-04-01
An heat engine is considered which employs supercritical mercury as the working fluid and a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator for thermal to electrical energy conversion. The main thrust of the paper is power cycle thermodynamics, where constraints are imposed by utilizing a MHD generator operating between supercritical, electrically conducting states of the working fluid; and, pump work is accomplished with liquid mercury. The temperature range is approximately 300 to 2200 K and system pressure is > 1,500 atm. Equilibrium and transport properties are carefully considered since these are known to vary radically in the vicinity of the critical point, which is found near the supercritical states of interest. A maximum gross plant efficiency is 20% with a regenerator effectiveness of 90% and greater, a cycle pressure ratio of two, and with highly efficient pump and generator. Certain specified cycle irreversibilities and others such as heat losses and heat exchanger pressure drops, which are not accounted for explicitly, reduce the gross plant efficiency to a few per cent. Experimental efforts aimed at practical application of the power cycle are discouraged by the marginal thermodynamic performance predicted by this study, unless such applications are insensitive to gross cycle efficiency
Thermodynamic Analysis of a Supercritical Mercury Power Cycle
Roberts, Jr, A S
1969-04-15
An heat engine is considered which employs supercritical mercury as the working fluid and a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator for thermal to electrical energy conversion. The main thrust of the paper is power cycle thermodynamics, where constraints are imposed by utilizing a MHD generator operating between supercritical, electrically conducting states of the working fluid; and, pump work is accomplished with liquid mercury. The temperature range is approximately 300 to 2200 K and system pressure is > 1,500 atm. Equilibrium and transport properties are carefully considered since these are known to vary radically in the vicinity of the critical point, which is found near the supercritical states of interest. A maximum gross plant efficiency is 20% with a regenerator effectiveness of 90% and greater, a cycle pressure ratio of two, and with highly efficient pump and generator. Certain specified cycle irreversibilities and others such as heat losses and heat exchanger pressure drops, which are not accounted for explicitly, reduce the gross plant efficiency to a few per cent. Experimental efforts aimed at practical application of the power cycle are discouraged by the marginal thermodynamic performance predicted by this study, unless such applications are insensitive to gross cycle efficiency.
Thermodynamic analysis of a simple Organic Rankine Cycle
Javanshir, Alireza; Sarunac, Nenad
2017-01-01
Thermodynamic performance (thermal efficiency and net power output) of a simple subcritical and supercritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) was analyzed over a range of operating conditions for a number of working fluids to determine the effect of operating parameters on cycle performance and select the best working fluid. The results show that for an ORC operating with a dry working fluid, thermal efficiency decreases with an increase in the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) due to the convergence of the isobaric lines with temperature. The results also show that efficiency of an ORC operating with isentropic working fluids is higher compared to the dry and wet fluids, and working fluids with higher specific heat capacity provide higher cycle net power output. New expressions for thermal efficiency of a subcritical and supercritical simple ORC are proposed. For a subcritical ORC without the superheat, thermal efficiency is expressed as a function of the Figure of Merit (FOM), while for the superheated subcritical ORC thermal efficiency is given in terms of the modified Jacob number. For the supercritical ORC, thermal efficiency is expressed as a function of dimensionless temperature. - Highlights: • Analyzing thermodynamic performance of ORC over a range of operating conditions. • Selecting the best working fluid suitable for a simple ORC. • Proposing new expressions for thermal efficiency of a simple ORC.
Nonlinear Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization of a Carnot Engine Cycle
Michel Feidt
2016-06-01
Full Text Available As part of the efforts to unify the various branches of Irreversible Thermodynamics, the proposed work reconsiders the approach of the Carnot engine taking into account the finite physical dimensions (heat transfer conductances and the finite speed of the piston. The models introduce the irreversibility of the engine by two methods involving different constraints. The first method introduces the irreversibility by a so-called irreversibility ratio in the entropy balance applied to the cycle, while in the second method it is emphasized by the entropy generation rate. Various forms of heat transfer laws are analyzed, but most of the results are given for the case of the linear law. Also, individual cases are studied and reported in order to provide a simple analytical form of the results. The engine model developed allowed a formal optimization using the calculus of variations.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles
Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn
2002-01-01
This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indirectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supplementary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas, or pyrolysis gas. {The interest in this cycle arise from a recent...... demonstration of a two-stage gasification process through construction of several plants.} A preliminary analysis of the ideal recuperated Brayton cycle shows that for this cycle any supplementary firing will have a marginal efficiency of unity per extra unit of fuel. The same result is obtained...
Aphornratana, S; Eames, I W [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Process Engineering
1995-05-01
The paper provides an easy to follow description of the second law (of thermodynamics) method as applied to a single-effect absorption refrigerator cycle. Results are presented in a novel graphical format, which aids insight and understanding of those factors that most affect the performance of absorption refrigerators, and which in turn provides strong indicators for the direction of future research. A novel method of calculating the entropy of lithium bromide solutions is offered. (author)
Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles
Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn
2003-01-01
to result in a high marginal efficiency. The paper shows that depending on the application, this is not always the case. The interest in this cycle arises from a recent demonstration of the feasibility of a two-stage gasification process through construction of several plants. The gas from this process...... could be divided into two streams, one for primary and one for supplementary firing. A preliminary analysis of the ideal, recuperated Brayton cycle shows that for this cycle any supplementary firing will have a marginal efficiency of unity per extra unit of fuel. The same result is obtained...
Gas turbine cooling modeling - Thermodynamic analysis and cycle simulations
Jordal, Kristin
1999-02-01
Considering that blade and vane cooling are a vital point in the studies of modern gas turbines, there are many ways to include cooling in gas turbine models. Thermodynamic methods for doing this are reviewed in this report, and, based on some of these methods, a number of model requirements are set up and a Cooled Gas Turbine Model (CGTM) for design-point calculations of cooled gas turbines is established. Thereafter, it is shown that it is possible to simulate existing gas turbines with the CGTM. Knowledge of at least one temperature in the hot part of the turbine (TET, TRIT or possibly TIT) is found to be vital for a complete heat balance over the turbine. The losses, which are caused by the mixing of coolant and main flow, are in the CGTM considered through a polytropic efficiency reduction factor S. Through the study of S, it can be demonstrated that there is more to gain from coolant reduction in a small and/or old turbine with poor aerodynamics, than there is to gain in a large, modern turbine, where the losses due to interaction between coolant and main flow are, relatively speaking, small. It is demonstrated, at the design point (TET=1360 deg C, {pi}=20) for the simple-cycle gas turbine, that heat exchanging between coolant and fuel proves to have a large positive impact on cycle efficiency, with an increase of 0.9 percentage points if all of the coolant passes through the heat exchanger. The corresponding improvement for humidified coolant is 0.8 percentage points. A design-point study for the HAT cycle shows that if all of the coolant is extracted after the humidification tower, there is a decrease in coolant requirements of 7.16 percentage points, from 19.58% to 12.52% of the compressed air, and an increase in thermal efficiency of 0.46 percentage points, from 53.46% to 53.92%. Furthermore, it is demonstrated with a TET-parameter variation, that the cooling of a simple-cycle gas turbine with humid air can have a positive effect on thermal efficiency
Thermodynamic analysis of a novel integrated solar combined cycle
Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Yongping
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A novel ISCC scheme with two-stage DSG fields has been proposed and analyzed. • HRSG and steam turbine working parameters have been optimized to match the solar integration. • New scheme exhibits higher solar shares in the power output and solar-to-electricity efficiency. • Thermodynamic performances between new and reference systems have been investigated and compared. - Abstract: Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems have become more and more popular due to their high fuel and solar energy utilization efficiencies. Conventional ISCC systems with direct steam generation (DSG) have only one-stage solar input. A novel ISCC with DSG system has been proposed and analyzed in this paper. The new system consists two-stage solar input, which would significantly increase solar share in the total power output. Moreover, how and where solar energy is input into ISCC system would have impact on the solar and system overall efficiencies, which have been analyzed in the paper. It has been found that using solar heat to supply latent heat for vaporization of feedwater would be superior to that to be used for sensible heating purposes (e.g. Superheating steam). The study shows that: (1) producing both the high- and low-pressure saturated steam in the DSG trough collector could be an efficient way to improve process and system performance; (2) for a given live steam pressure, the optimum secondary and reheat steam conditions could be matched to reach the highest system thermal efficiency and net solar-to-electricity efficiency; (3) the net solar-to-electricity efficiency could reach up to 30% in the novel two-stage ISCC system, higher than that in the one-stage ISCC power plant; (4) compared with the conventional combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power system, lower stack temperature could be achieved, owing to the elimination of the approach-temperature-difference constraint, resulting in better thermal match in the heat recovery steam generator
Analysis of engineering cycles thermodynamics and fluid mechanics series
Haywood, R W
1980-01-01
Analysis of Engineering Cycles, Third Edition, deals principally with an analysis of the overall performance, under design conditions, of work-producing power plants and work-absorbing refrigerating and gas-liquefaction plants, most of which are either cyclic or closely related thereto. The book is organized into two parts, dealing first with simple power and refrigerating plants and then moving on to more complex plants. The principal modifications in this Third Edition arise from the updating and expansion of material on nuclear plants and on combined and binary plants. In view of increased
Coskun, Ahmet; Bolatturk, Ali; Kanoglu, Mehmet
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We conduct the thermodynamic and economic analysis of various geothermal power cycles. • The optimization process was performed to minimize the exergy losses. • Kalina cycle is a new technology compared to flash and binary cycles. • It is shown that Kalina cycle presents a viable choice for both thermodynamically and economically. - Abstract: Geothermal power generation technologies are well established and there are numerous power plants operating worldwide. Turkey is rich in geothermal resources while most resources are not exploited for power production. In this study, we consider geothermal resources in Kutahya–Simav region having geothermal water at a temperature suitable for power generation. The study is aimed to yield the method of the most effective use of the geothermal resource and a rational thermodynamic and economic comparison of various cycles for a given resource. The cycles considered include double-flash, binary, combined flash/binary, and Kalina cycle. The selected cycles are optimized for the turbine inlet pressure that would generate maximum power output and energy and exergy efficiencies. The distribution of exergy in plant components and processes are shown using tables. Maximum first law efficiencies vary between 6.9% and 10.6% while the second law efficiencies vary between 38.5% and 59.3% depending on the cycle considered. The maximum power output, the first law, and the second law efficiencies are obtained for Kalina cycle followed by combined cycle and binary cycle. An economic analysis of four cycles considered indicates that the cost of producing a unit amount of electricity is 0.0116 $/kW h for double flash and Kalina cycles, 0.0165 $/kW h for combined cycle and 0.0202 $/kW h for binary cycle. Consequently, the payback period is 5.8 years for double flash and Kalina cycles while it is 8.3 years for combined cycle and 9 years for binary cycle
Detailed thermodynamic analysis of a diffusion-absorption refrigeration cycle
Taieb, Ahmed; Mejbri, Khalifa; Bellagi, Ahmed
2016-01-01
This paper proposes an advanced simulation model for a Diffusion-Absorption Refrigerator DAR using ammonia/water/hydrogen as working fluids, and developed to describe and predict the behavior of the device under different operating conditions. The system is supposed to be cooled with ambient air and actuated with solar hot water available at 200 °C. The DAR is first simulated for a set of basic data; a COP of 0.126 associated to a cooling capacity of 22.3 W are found. Basing on the obtained results an exergetic analysis of the system is performed which shows that the rectifier contribution to the exergy destruction is the most important with 34%. In a second step, the thermal capacities of all heat exchangers of the DAR are evaluated and the mathematical model so modified that the calculated capacities are now used as input data. A parametric study of the cycle is then carried out. The COP is found to exhibit a maximum when the heat supplied to the boiler or to the bubble pump is varied. Similar behavior is observed for variable submergence ratio. It is further noted that the COP is very sensitive to the ambient air temperature and to the absorber efficiency. - Highlights: • A detailed model of a Diffusion Absorption is developed and simulated. • Irreversibility of each component of the cycle is examined. • A modified model based on thermal capacity of components of the DAR is elaborated. • System performance is calculated over a series of practical operating conditions.
Qureshi, S.; Memon, A.G.; Abbasi, A.F.
2017-01-01
In Pakistan, the thermal efficiency of the power plants is low because of a huge share of fuel energy is dumped into the atmosphere as waste heat. The ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) has been revealed as one of the promising technologies to recover waste heat to enhance the thermal efficiency of the power plant. In current work, ORC is proposed as a second bottoming cycle for existing CCPP (Combined Cycle Power Plant). In order to assess the efficiency of the plant, a thermodynamic model is developed in the ESS (Engineering Equation Solver) software. The developed model is used for parametric analysis to assess the effects of various operating parameters on the system performance. The analysis of results shows that the integration of ORC system with existing CCPP system enhances the overall power output in the range of 150.5-154.58 MW with 0.24-5% enhancement in the efficiency depending on the operating conditions. During the parametric analysis of ORC, it is observed that inlet pressure of the turbine shows a significant effect on the performance of the system as compared to other operating parameters. (author)
The realization and analysis of a new thermodynamic cycle for internal combustion engine
Dorić Jovan Ž.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents description and thermodynamic analysis of a new thermodynamic cycle. Realization of this new cycle is possible to achieve with valveless internal combustion engine with more complete expansion. The main purpose of this new IC engine is to increase engines’ thermal efficiency. The engine was designed so that the thermodynamic changes of the working fluid are different than in conventional engines. Specific differences are reflected in a more complete expansion of the working fluid (the expansion stroke is larger than compression stroke, valveless gas flowing and complete discharge of residual combustion products from the combustion chamber. In this concept, the movement of the piston is different than in conventional piston mechanisms. The results obtained herein include the efficiency characteristics of irreversible reciprocating new engine cycle which is very similar to Miller cycle. The results show that with this thermodynamic cycle engine has higher efficiency than with the standard Otto cycle. In this article, the patent application material under number 2008/607 at the Intellectual Property Office of the Republic of Serbia was used.
Exergetical analysis of combustion, heat transfers, thermodynamical cycles and their applications
Buchet, E.
1983-11-01
Exergetic analysis allowed to show up and evaluate irreversibilities in combustion, vapor exchanges and thermodynamic cycles, and also to justify processes often used to improve yields of thermal and energetic plants, and among them some more and more complex in cogeneration plants. This analysic method has been applied to thermal or nuclear steam power plant, to gas turbines and to cogeneration [fr
Optimum design and thermodynamic analysis of a gas turbine and ORC combined cycle with recuperators
Cao, Yue; Gao, Yike; Zheng, Ya; Dai, Yiping
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A GT-ORC combined cycle with recuperators was designed. • The effect of the ORC turbine inlet pressure on the combined cycle was examined. • Toluene was a more suitable working fluid for the GT-ORC combined cycle. • The GT-ORC combined cycle performed better than the GT-Rankine combined cycle. • The sensitivity analysis to the ambient temperature was completed. - Abstract: Gas turbines are widely used in distributed power generation because of their high efficiency, low pollution and low operational cost. To further utilize the waste heat from gas turbines, an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) was proposed as the bottoming cycle for gas turbines in this paper. Two recuperators were coupled with the combined cycle to increase the thermal efficiency, and aromatics were chosen as the working fluid for the bottoming cycle. This paper focused on the optimum design and thermodynamic analysis of the gas turbine and ORC (GT-ORC) combined cycle. Results showed that the net power and thermal efficiency of the ORC increased with the ORC turbine inlet pressure and achieved optimum values at a specific pressure based on the optimum criteria. Furthermore, compared with the GT-Rankine combined cycle, the GT-ORC combined cycle had better thermodynamic performance. Toluene was a more suitable working fluid for the GT-ORC combined cycle. Moreover, ambient temperature sensitivity simulations concluded that the GT-ORC combined cycle had a maximum thermal efficiency and the combined cycle net power was mainly determined by the topping gas turbine cycle.
Thermodynamical cycle analysis of gas in a thermocompressor
Arques, P.
1998-07-01
A thermocompressor is a compressor that transforms the heat of a source into an energy of pressure without intermediate mechanical work. It is a Stirling engine simplification into a driven machine for which the piston that provides the power has been suppressed. This thermocompressor comprises a free piston displacer that separates cold and hot gas. The simulation takes into account the movement of the piston, heat transfers and variable mass with the time. The thermocompressor is a compressor of gas that works between one hot and one cold source. This compressor has neither crankshaft nor connecting rod assembly. In this paper, the author presents some results concerning this type of compressor. The ratio of pressures that it is possible to obtain is a function of the ratio of hot and cold source temperatures and of the extreme volume ratio. The global efficiency of the cycle with the regenerator go up by an maximum independent of the regenerator efficiency. The open cycle is executed in a thermocompressor that has a free piston separating cold and hot gas, intake and exhaust valves and the regenerator. The thermocompressor compression efficiency decreases when the volumetric ratio increases. For the gas, it is therefore desirable to have an extreme volume ratio closest to 1. In the paper, the author presents : Actual and calculated evolution of the free piston velocity compared to the theoretical evolution obtained by calculation with a pressure linearisation; friction influence between piston and cylinder; the differential equation of the movement of the piston; the period of pulsation of the piston; influence of the piston adiabaticity. By analytical study followed by an actual simulation, the author shows that: the regenerator efficiency has a very strong influence on the engine efficiency; taking into account the hot source temperature, the choice of volumes has affects the efficiency, consequences which must be taken into account.
Thermodynamic analysis of a new dual evaporator CO2 transcritical refrigeration cycle
Abdellaoui, Ezzaalouni Yathreb; Kairouani, Lakdar Kairouani
2017-03-01
In this work, a new dual-evaporator CO2 transcritical refrigeration cycle with two ejectors is proposed. In this new system, we proposed to recover the lost energy of condensation coming off the gas cooler and operate the refrigeration cycle ejector free and enhance the system performance and obtain dual-temperature refrigeration simultaneously. The effects of some key parameters on the thermodynamic performance of the modified cycle are theoretically investigated based on energetic and exergetic analysis. The simulation results for the modified cycle indicate more effective system performance improvement than the single ejector in the CO2 vapor compression cycle using ejector as an expander ranging up to 46%. The exergetic analysis for this system is made. The performance characteristics of the proposed cycle show its promise in dual-evaporator refrigeration system.
Thermodynamic analysis of a new dual evaporator CO2 transcritical refrigeration cycle
Abdellaoui Ezzaalouni Yathreb
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In this work, a new dual-evaporator CO2 transcritical refrigeration cycle with two ejectors is proposed. In this new system, we proposed to recover the lost energy of condensation coming off the gas cooler and operate the refrigeration cycle ejector free and enhance the system performance and obtain dual-temperature refrigeration simultaneously. The effects of some key parameters on the thermodynamic performance of the modified cycle are theoretically investigated based on energetic and exergetic analysis. The simulation results for the modified cycle indicate more effective system performance improvement than the single ejector in the CO2 vapor compression cycle using ejector as an expander ranging up to 46%. The exergetic analysis for this system is made. The performance characteristics of the proposed cycle show its promise in dual-evaporator refrigeration system.
Lee, Ho Yong; Park, Sang Hee; Kim, Kyoung Hoon
2016-01-01
A comparative thermodynamic performance and optimization analysis of basic organic flash cycle (OFCB), organic flash cycle with two-phase expander (OFCT), and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) activated by low-temperature sensible energy is carried out in the subcritical pressure regions. The three substances of R245fa, R123, and o-xylene are considered as the working fluids. Effects of cycle type, working fluid, and evaporation and source temperatures are systemically investigated on the system performance such as net power production, thermal and exergy efficiencies, and exergy destruction ratios at each component of the systems. Results show that the cycle type or working fluid which shows optimum performance depends on the source temperature, and organic flash cycle shows a potential for efficient recovery of low grade energy source.
Application of exergy analysis to the thermodynamical study of operation cycles of diesel engines
Zellat, M
1987-01-01
To simulate the operation cycle of a diesel engine a general methodology is proposed, called as exergy theory, based on the simultaneous application of the first and second principles of thermodynamics. This analysis accounts for the exergy losses in function of what can be recovered from the second principle and give a more fruitful representation than the pure energy analysis which takes into account only the first principle. The concept of a recovery power turbine RPT, linked to the driving shaft and declutchable is described. The yield increase in nominal power and at half-charge when the RPT is disconnected, is explained by exergy analysis.
Murphy, R.W.
1992-01-01
Magneto-thermodynamic property characterizations were selected, adapted, and compared to material property data for gadolinium gallium garnet in the temperature range 4--40 K and magnetic field range 0--6 T. The most appropriate formulations were incorporated into a model in which methods similar to those previously developed for other materials and temperature ranges were used to make limitation and relative performance assessments of Carnot, ideal regenerative, and pseudo-constant field regenerative cycles. Analysis showed that although Carnot cycle limitations on available temperature lift for gadolinium gallium garnet are not as severe as those for materials previously examined, substantial improvements in cooling capacity/temperature lift combinations can be achieved using regenerative cycles within specified fields limits if significant loss mechanisms are mitigated
Mohammadi, Amin; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh; Pourfayaz, Fathollah; Ahmadi, Mohammad Hossein
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of a hybrid CCHP system. • Sensitivity analysis is performed on the most important parameters of the system. • Pressure ratio and gas turbine inlet temperature are the most effective parameters. - Abstract: Hybrid power systems are gained more attention due to their better performance and higher efficiency. Widespread use of these systems improves environmental situation as they reduce the amount of fossil fuel consumption. In this paper a hybrid system composed of a gas turbine, an ORC cycle and an absorption refrigeration cycle is proposed as a combined cooling, heating and power system for residential usage. Thermodynamic analysis is applied on the system. Also a parametric analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of different parameters on the system performance and output cooling, heating and power. The results show that under design conditions, the proposed plant can produce 30 kW power, 8 kW cooling and almost 7.2 ton hot water with an efficiency of 67.6%. Moreover, parametric analysis shows that pressure ratio and gas turbine inlet temperature are the most important and influential parameters. After these two, ORC turbine inlet temperature is the most effective parameter as it can change both net output power and energy efficiency of the system.
Zheng Danxing; Meng Xuelin
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Two novel fundamental concepts of the absorption refrigeration cycle were proposed. ► The interaction mechanism of compressor pressure increasing with other key-parameters was investigated. ► A set of optimal operating condition of hybrid refrigeration cycle was found. ► A simulation and investigation for R134a-DMF hybrid refrigeration cycle was performed. - Abstract: The absorption–compression hybrid refrigeration cycle has been considered as an effective approach to reduce the mechanical work consumption by using low-grade heat, such as solar energy. This work aims at studying the thermodynamic mechanism of the hybrid refrigeration cycle. Two fundamental concepts have been proposed, which are the ultimate refrigerating temperature (or the ultimate temperature lift) and the behavior turning. On the basis of that, the interaction mechanism of compressor pressure increasing with other key-parameters and the impact of compressor pressure increasing on the cycle performance have been investigated. The key-parameters include the concentration difference, the circulation ratio of working fluid, etc. The work points out that the hybrid refrigeration cycle performance varies with the change of compressor outlet pressure and depends on which one achieves dominance in the hybrid refrigeration cycle, the absorption sub-system or the compression sub-system. The behavior turning point during parameters changing corresponds to a maximum value of the heat powered coefficient of performance. In this case, the hybrid refrigeration cycle performance is optimal because the low-grade heat utilization is the most effective. In addition, to validate the theoretical analysis, a solar hybrid refrigeration cycle with R134a–DMF as working pair was simulated. The Peng–Robinson equation of state was adopted to calculate thermophysical properties when the reliability assessment of the prediction models on the available literature data of R134a–DMF system had been
Thermodynamic analysis and system design of a novel split cycle engine concept
Dong, Guangyu; Morgan, Robert E.; Heikal, Morgan R.
2016-01-01
The split cycle engine is a new reciprocating internal combustion engine with a potential of a radical efficiency improvement. In this engine, the compression and combustion–expansion processes occur in different cylinders. In the compression cylinder, the charge air is compressed through a quasi-isothermal process by direct cooling of the air. The high pressure air is then heated in a recuperator using the waste heat of exhaust gas before induction to the combustion cylinder. The combustion process occurs during the expansion stroke, in a quasi-isobaric process. In this paper, a fundamental theoretical cycle analysis and one-dimensional engine simulation of the split cycle engine was undertaken. The results show that the thermal efficiency (η) is mainly decided by the CR (compression ratio) and ER (expansion ratio), the regeneration effectiveness (σ), and the temperature rising ratio (N). Based on the above analysis, a system optimization of the engine was conducted. The results showed that by increasing CR from 23 to 25, the combustion and recuperation processes could be improved. By increasing the expansion ratio to 26, the heat losses during the gas exchange stroke were further reduced. Furthermore, the coolant temperatures of the compression and expansion chambers can be controlled separately to reduce the wall heat transfer losses. Compared to a conventional engine, a 21% total efficiency improvement was achieved when the split cycle was applied. It was concluded that through the system optimization, a total thermal efficiency of 53% can be achieved on split cycle engine. - Highlights: • Fundamental mechanism of the split cycle engine is investigated. • The key affecting factors of the thermodynamic cycle efficiency are identified. • The practical efficiency of split cycle applying on diesel engine is analysed. • The design optimization on the split cycle engine concept is conducted.
Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang
2004-02-01
The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.
Hossein Rezvantalab
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, a new combined power and refrigeration cycle is proposed, which combines the Rankine and absorption refrigeration cycles. Using a binary ammonia-water mixture as the working fluid, this combined cycle produces both power and refrigeration output simultaneously by employing only one external heat source. In order to achieve the highest possible exergy efficiency, a secondary turbine is inserted to expand the hot weak solution leaving the boiler. Moreover, an artificial neural network (ANN is used to simulate the thermodynamic properties and the relationship between the input thermodynamic variables on the cycle performance. It is shown that turbine inlet pressure, as well as heat source and refrigeration temperatures have significant effects on the net power output, refrigeration output and exergy efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the results of ANN are in excellent agreement with the mathematical simulation and cover a wider range for evaluation of cycle performance.
Thermodynamic analysis of turbine blade cooling on the performance of gas turbine cycle
Sarabchi, K.; Shokri, M.
2002-01-01
Turbine inlet temperature strongly affects gas turbine performance. Today blade cooling technologies facilitate the use of higher inlet temperatures. Of course blade cooling causes some thermodynamic penalties that destroys to some extent the positive effect of higher inlet temperatures. This research aims to model and evaluate the performance of gas turbine cycle with air cooled turbine. In this study internal and transpiration cooling methods has been investigated and the penalties as the result of gas flow friction, cooling air throttling, mixing of cooling air flow with hot gas flow, and irreversible heat transfer have been considered. In addition, it is attempted to consider any factor influencing actual conditions of system in the analysis. It is concluded that penalties due to blade cooling decrease as permissible temperature of the blade surface increases. Also it is observed that transpiration method leads to better performance of gas turbine comparing to internal cooling method
Property Uncertainty Analysis and Methods for Optimal Working Fluids of Thermodynamic Cycles
Frutiger, Jerome
in the context of an industrial organic Rankine cycle, used for the recovery of waste heat from an engine of a marine container ship. The study illustrates that the model structure is vital for the uncertainties of equations of state and suggests that uncertainty becomes a criterion (along with e.g. goodness......-of-fit or ease of use) for the selection of an equation of state for a specific application. Furthermore, two studies on the identification of suitable working fluids for thermodynamic cycles are presented. The first one selects and assesses working fluid candidates for an organic Rankine cycle system to recover......There is an increasing interest in recovering industrial waste heat at low tempera-tures (70-250◦C). Thermodynamic cycles, such as heat pumps or organic Rankine cycles, can recover this heat and transfer it to other process streams or convert it into electricity. The working fluid, circulating...
Jaroslav KOZACZKA
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The thermodynamic analysis of the absorption/desorption section of the ICGC–cycle has been presented using the Second Law with special emphasis on the thermodynamic effectivity concept and usability for complex systems investigations. Essential problems have been discussed based on the classical bibliographical items on the subject. Numerical calculations have been accomplished using results obtained in the first part, which contained absorption and desorption modeling approach oriented onto thermodynamic analyzes. Additionally the special properties of dilute solutions, especially the CO2/water system, have been presented and the problem of the solute chemical concentration exergy change suggested.
Thermodynamic analysis of a binary power cycle for different EGS geofluid temperatures
Zhang Fuzen; Jiang Peixe
2012-01-01
Enhanced Geothermal Systems show promise for meeting growing energy demands. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) can be used to convert low and medium-temperature geothermal energy to electricity, but the working fluid must be carefully selected for the ORC system design. This paper compares the system performance using R134a, isobutane, R245fa and isopentane for four typical geofluid temperatures below 200 °C. Three type (subcritical, superheated and transcritical) power generation cycles and two heat transfer control models (total heat control model and vaporization control model) are used for different EGS source temperatures and working fluids. This paper presents a basic analysis method to select the most suitable working fluid and to optimize the operating and design parameters for a given EGS resource based on the thermodynamics. - Highlights: ► We present a method to selecting working fluids for EGS resources. ► Working fluids with critical temperatures near geofluid temperature is priority. ► Operating conditions requiring use of total heat control model give good behave. ► Transcritical cycle is good choice.
Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated solid oxide fuel cell cycle with a rankine cycle
Rokni, Masoud
2010-01-01
Hybrid systems consisting of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) on the top of a steam turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas (NG). A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the fuel while a pre-reformer breaks down the heavier hydro-carbons. The pre-treated fuel enters then into the anode side of the SOFC. The remaining fuels after the SOFC stacks enter a burner for further burning. The off-gases are then used to produce steam for a Rankine cycle in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Different system setups are suggested. Cyclic efficiencies up to 67% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional combined cycles (CC). Both adiabatic steam reformer (ASR) and catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) fuel pre-reformer reactors are considered in this investigation.
Thermodynamic Analysis of an Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cycle with a Rankine Cycle
Rokni, Masoud
2010-01-01
Hybrid systems consisting of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) on the top of a Steam Turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas (NG). A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the fuel while a pre-reformer breaks down the heavier hydrocarbons. The pre-treated fuel......% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional Combined Cycles (CC). Both ASR (Adiabatic Steam Reformer) and CPO (Catalytic Partial Oxidation) fuel pre-reformer reactors are considered in this investigation....
Thermodynamic analysis of the heat regenerative cycle in porous medium engine
Liu Hongsheng; Xie Maozhao; Wu Dan
2009-01-01
The advantages of homogeneous combustion in internal combustion engines are well known all over the world. Recent years, porous medium (PM) engine has been proposed as a new type engine based on the technique of combustion in porous medium, which can fulfils all requirements to perform homogeneous combustion. In this paper, working processes of a PM engine are briefly introduced and an ideal thermodynamic model of the PM heat regeneration cycle in PM engine is developed. An expression for the relation between net work output and thermal efficiency is derived for the cycle. In order to evaluate of the cycle, the influences of the expansion ratio, initial temperature and limited temperature on the net work and efficiency are discussed, and the availability terms of the cycle are analyzed. Comparing the PM heat regenerative cycle of the PM engine against Otto cycle and Diesel cycle shows that PM heat regenerative cycle can improve net work output greatly with little drop of efficiency. The aim of this paper is to predict the thermodynamic performance of PM heat regeneration cycle and provide a guide to further investigations of the PM engine
Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator
Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.
1992-01-01
A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.
La, D.; Li, Y.; Dai, Y.J.; Ge, T.S.; Wang, R.Z.
2012-01-01
A novel rotary desiccant cooling cycle is proposed and studied using thermodynamic analysis method. The proposed cycle integrates the technologies of isothermal dehumidification and regenerative evaporative cooling, which are beneficial for irreversibility reduction. Thermodynamic investigation on the basic rotary desiccant cooling cycle shows that the exergy efficiency of the basic cycle is only 8.6%. The processes of desiccant dehumidification and evaporative cooling, which are essentially the basis for rotary desiccant cooling, affect the exergy performance of the cycle greatly and account for about one third of the total exergy destruction. The proposed cycle has potential to improve rotary desiccant cooling technology. It is advantageous in terms of both heat source utilization rate and space cooling capacity. The exergy efficiency of the new cycle is enhanced significantly to 29.1%, which is about three times that of the ventilation cycle, and 60% higher than that of the two-stage rotary desiccant cooling cycle. Furthermore, the regeneration temperature is reduced from 80 °C to about 60 °C. The corresponding specific exergy of the supply air is increased by nearly 30% when compared with the conventional cycles. -- Highlights: ► A novel rotary desiccant cooling cycle is developed using thermodynamic analysis method. ► Isothermal dehumidification and regenerative evaporative cooling have been integrated. ► The cycle is advantageous in terms of both heat source utilization rate and space cooling capacity. ► Cascaded energy utilization is beneficial for cycle performance improvement. ► Upper limits, which will be helpful to practical design and optimization, are obtained.
Koronaki, I.P.; Rogdakis, E.; Kakatsiou, T.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A neural network model based on experimental data was developed. ► Description of the experimental setup. ► Prediction of the state conditions of air at the process and regeneration stream. ► Sensitivity Analysis performed on these predicted results. ► Predicted output values in line with correlation model based on data from industry. - Abstract: This paper examines the performance of an installed open cycle air-conditioning system with a silica gel desiccant wheel which uses a conventional heat pump and heat exchangers for the improvement of the outlet air of the system. A neural network model based on the training of a black box model with experimental data was developed as a method based on experimental results predicting the state conditions of air at the process and regeneration stream. The model development was followed by a Sensitivity Analysis performed on these predicted results. The key parameters were the thermodynamic condition of process and regeneration air streams, the sensible heat factor of the room, and the mass air flow ratio of the regeneration and process streams. The results of this analysis revealed that all investigated parameters influenced the performance of the desiccant unit. Predicted output values of the proposed Neural Network Model for Desiccant Systems are in line with results from other correlation models based on the interpolation of experimental data obtained from industrial air conditioning installations.
Briola, Stefano; Di Marco, Paolo; Gabbrielli, Roberto
2017-01-01
A novel Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) cycle, operating with two-phase devices for the compression and expansion processes and a single-component wet working fluid, is proposed. A detailed sensitivity analysis of the novel CCHP cycle has been investigated in order to evaluate, in terms of energy performance indicators, its potentiality to serve typical trigenerative tertiary and industrial end-users with different fixed operating temperatures. In general, the novel CCHP cycle is characterized by higher energy performance indicators than a separated energy production system. The comparison between the novel CCHP cycle and several commercialized CCHP systems has been performed in the case studies related to tertiary and industrial end-users. The novel CCHP cycle shows a trigenerative capability in wide ranges of the end-users demands without surplus or deficit of the electric or thermal powers. Furthermore, the maximum allowable capital cost of the whole novel CCHP plant (BEPCC), that will assure the profitability of the investment, is calculated in the tertiary and industrial end-users case studies. For the tertiary end-user, the capital costs of the commercialized CCHP are between the minimum and maximum BEPCC values. On the contrary, for the industrial end-user, they are lower than the minimum and maximum BEPCC values. - Highlights: • Novel CCHP cycle with two-phase expanders and compressors has been conceived. • Novel CCHP cycle has higher performances than a separated energy production system. • Novel CCHP cycle satisfies the user demands in wide ranges without surplus/deficit. • Tertiary user: novel CCHP cycle is competitive against marketed CCHP systems. • Industrial user: novel CCHP cycle is not competitive against marketed CCHP systems.
Xu, S.Z.; Wang, L.W.; Wang, R.Z.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Activated carbon–ammonia multi-stage adsorption refrigerator was analyzed. • COP, exergetic efficiency and entropy production of cycles were calculated. • Single-stage cycle usually has the advantages of simple structure and high COP. • Multi-stage cycles adapt to critical conditions better than single-stage cycle. • Boundary conditions for choosing optimal cycle were summarized as tables. - Abstract: Activated carbon–ammonia multi-stage adsorption refrigeration cycle was analyzed in this article, which realized deep-freezing for evaporating temperature under −18 °C with heating source temperature much lower than 100 °C. Cycle mathematical models for single, two and three-stage cycles were established on the basis of thorough thermodynamic analysis. According to simulation results of thermodynamic evaluation indicators such as COP (coefficient of performance), exergetic efficiency and cycle entropy production, multi-stage cycle adapts to high condensing temperature, low evaporating temperature and low heating source temperature well. Proposed cycle with selected working pair can theoretically work under very severe conditions, such as −25 °C evaporating temperature, 40 °C condensing temperature, and 70 °C heating source temperature, but under these working conditions it has the drawback of low cycle adsorption quantity. It was found that both COP and exergetic efficiency are of great reference value in the choice of cycle, whereas entropy production is not so useful for cycle stage selection. Finally, the application boundary conditions of single-stage, two-stage, and three-stage cycles were summarized as tables according to the simulation results, which provides reference for choosing optimal cycle under different conditions.
Thermodynamic and economic analysis on geothermal integrated combined-cycle power plants
Bettocchi, R.; Cantore, G.; Negri di Montenegro, G.; Gadda, E.
1992-01-01
This paper considers geothermal integrated power plants obtained matching a geothermal plant with, a two pressure level combined plant. The purpose of the paper is the evaluation of thermodynamic and economic aspects on geothermal integrated combined-cycle power plant and a comparison with conventional solutions. The results show that the integrated combined plant power is greater than the sum of combined cycle and geothermal plant powers considered separately and that the integrated plant can offer economic benefits reaching the 16% of the total capital required
FINITE TIME THERMODYNAMIC MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR AN IRREVERSIBLE ATKINSON CYCLE
Yanlin Ge
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Performance of an air-standard Atkinson cycle is analyzed by using finite-time thermodynamics. The irreversible cycle model which is more close to practice is founded. In this model, the non-linear relation between the specific heats of working fluid and its temperature, the friction loss computed according to the mean velocity of the piston, the internal irreversibility described by using the compression and expansion efficiencies, and heat transfer loss are considered. The relations between the power output and the compression ratio, between the thermal efficiency and the compression ratio, as well as the optimal relation between power output and the efficiency of the cycle are derived by detailed numerical examples. Moreover, the effects of internal irreversibility, heat transfer loss and friction loss on the cycle performance are analyzed. The results obtained in this paper may provide guidelines for the design of practical internal combustion engines.
Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Kyung Chun
2014-01-01
Thermodynamic analysis of a combined cycle using a low grade heat source and LNG cold energy was carried out. The combined cycle consisted of an ammonia–water Rankine cycle with and without regeneration and a LNG Rankine cycle. A parametric study was conducted to examine the effects of the key parameters, such as ammonia mass fraction, turbine inlet pressure, condensation temperature. The effects of the ammonia mass fraction on the temperature distributions of the hot and cold streams in heat exchangers were also investigated. The characteristic diagram of the exergy efficiency and heat transfer capability was proposed to consider the system performance and expenditure of the heat exchangers simultaneously. The simulation showed that the system performance is influenced significantly by the parameters with the ammonia mass fraction having largest effect. The net work output of the ammonia–water cycle may have a peak value or increase monotonically with increasing ammonia mass fraction, which depends on turbine inlet pressure or condensation temperature. The exergy efficiency may decrease or increase or have a peak value with turbine inlet pressure depending on the ammonia mass fraction. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis was performed for a combined cycle utilizing LNG cold energy. • Ammonia–water Rankine cycle and LNG Rankine cycle was combined. • A parametric study was conducted to examine the effects of the key parameters. • Characteristics of the exergy efficiency and heat transfer capability were proposed. • The system performance was influenced significantly by the ammonia mass fraction
Thermodynamic analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based on industrial data
Tumen Ozdil, N. Filiz; Segmen, M. Rıdvan; Tantekin, Atakan
2015-01-01
In this study, thermodynamic analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is presented in a local power plant that is located southern of Turkey. The system that is analyzed includes an evaporator, a turbine, a condenser, a pump and a generator as components. System components are analyzed separately using actual plant data and performance cycle. The relationship between pinch point and exergy efficiency is observed. As the pinch point temperature decreases, the exergy efficiency increases due to low exergy destruction rate. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the ORC are calculated as 9.96% and 47.22%, respectively for saturated liquid form which is the real condition. In order to show the effect of the water phase of the evaporator inlet, exergy destruction and exergy efficiencies of components and overall system are calculated for different water phases. The exergy efficiency of the ORC is calculated as 41.04% for water mixture form which has quality 0.3. On the other hand, it is found as 40.29% for water mixture form which has quality 0.7. Lastly, it is calculated as 39.95% for saturated vapor form. Moreover, exergy destruction rates of the system are 520.01 kW for saturated liquid form, 598.39 kW for water mixture form which has quality 0.3, 609.5 kW for water mixture form which has quality 0.7 and 614.63 kW for saturated vapor form. The analyses show that evaporator has important effect on the system efficiency in terms of exergy rate. The evaporator is investigated particularly in order to improve the performance of the overall system. - Highlights: • Energy and exergy analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). • The main reasons of the irreversibility in the ORC. • Determination of exergy efficiency for the different water phases in the evaporator inlet. • Determination of the effect of the ambient temperature on ORC efficiency.
Thermodynamic analysis of heat recovery steam generator in combined cycle power plant
Ravi Kumar Naradasu
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Combined cycle power plants play an important role in the present energy sector. The main challenge in designing a combined cycle power plant is proper utilization of gas turbine exhaust heat in the steam cycle in order to achieve optimum steam turbine output. Most of the combined cycle developers focused on the gas turbine output and neglected the role of the heat recovery steam generator which strongly affects the overall performance of the combined cycle power plant. The present paper is aimed at optimal utilization of the flue gas recovery heat with different heat recovery steam generator configurations of single pressure and dual pressure. The combined cycle efficiency with different heat recovery steam generator configurations have been analyzed parametrically by using first law and second law of thermodynamics. It is observed that in the dual cycle high pressure steam turbine pressure must be high and low pressure steam turbine pressure must be low for better heat recovery from heat recovery steam generator.
Detonation Jet Engine. Part 1--Thermodynamic Cycle
Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.
2016-01-01
We present the most relevant works on jet engine design that utilize thermodynamic cycle of detonative combustion. The efficiency advantages of thermodynamic detonative combustion cycle over Humphrey combustion cycle at constant volume and Brayton combustion cycle at constant pressure were demonstrated. An ideal Ficket-Jacobs detonation cycle, and…
Involvement of Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis in a Concurrent Approach to Reciprocating Engine Design
J. Macek
2001-01-01
Full Text Available A modularised approach to thermodynamic optimisation of new concepts of volumetric combustion engines concerning efficiency and emissions is outlined. Levels of primary analysis using a computerised general-change entropy diagram and detailed multizone, 1 to 3-D finite volume methods are distinguished. The use of inverse algorithms based on the same equations is taken into account.
Thermodynamic analysis of an organic rankine cycle using a tubular solar cavity receiver
Loni, R.; Kasaeian, A.B.; Mahian, O.; Sahin, A.Z.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A non-regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle has been analyzed. • R113, R601, R11, R141b, Ethanol and Methanol were used as the working fluid. • A parabolic dish concentrator with a square prismatic cavity receiver was used. • Thermal efficiency, second law efficiency, and net power output were analyzed. - Abstract: In this study, a non-regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been thermodynamically analyzed under superheated conditions, constant evaporator pressure of 2.5 MPa, and condenser temperature of 300 K. R113, R601, R11, R141b, Ethanol and Methanol were employed as the working fluid. A parabolic dish concentrator with a square prismatic tubular cavity receiver was used as the heat source of the ORC system. The effects of the tube diameter, the cavity depth, and the solar irradiation on the thermodynamic performance of the selected working fluid were investigated. Some thermodynamic parameters were analyzed in this study. These thermodynamic parameters included the thermal efficiency, second law efficiency, total irreversibility, availability ratio, mass flow rate, and net power output. The results showed that, among the selected working fluids, methanol had the highest thermal efficiency, net power output, second law efficiency, and availability ratio in the range of turbine inlet temperature (TIT) considered. On the other hand, methanol had the smallest total irreversibility in the same range of TIT. The results showed also that mass flow rate and consequently the net power output increased for higher solar irradiation, smaller tube diameter, and for the case of cubical cavity receiver (i.e. cavity depth h equal to the receiver aperture side length a).
A Thermodynamic Analysis of Two Competing Mid-Sized Oxyfuel Combustion Combined Cycles
Egill Thorbergsson
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A comparative analysis of two mid-sized oxyfuel combustion combined cycles is performed. The two cycles are the semiclosed oxyfuel combustion combined cycle (SCOC-CC and the Graz cycle. In addition, a reference cycle was established as the basis for the analysis of the oxyfuel combustion cycles. A parametric study was conducted where the pressure ratio and the turbine entry temperature were varied. The layout and the design of the SCOC-CC are considerably simpler than the Graz cycle while it achieves the same net efficiency as the Graz cycle. The fact that the efficiencies for the two cycles are close to identical differs from previously reported work. Earlier studies have reported around a 3% points advantage in efficiency for the Graz cycle, which is attributed to the use of a second bottoming cycle. This additional feature is omitted to make the two cycles more comparable in terms of complexity. The Graz cycle has substantially lower pressure ratio at the optimum efficiency and has much higher power density for the gas turbine than both the reference cycle and the SCOC-CC.
Mohtaram, Soheil; Chen, Wen; Zargar, T.; Lin, Ji
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Energy exergy analysis is conducted to find the effects of RP. • EES software is utilized to perform the detailed energy-exergy analyses. • Effects investigated through energy and exergy destruction, enthalpy, yields, etc. • Detailed results are reported showing the performance of gas and combined cycle. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of compressor pressure ratio (RP) on the thermodynamic performances of ammonia-water combined cycle through energy and exergy destruction, enthalpy temperature, yields, and flow velocity. The energy-exergy analysis is conducted on the ammonia water combined cycle and the Rankine cycle, respectively. Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software is utilized to perform the detailed analyses. Values and ratios regarding heat drop and exergy loss are presented in separate tables for different equipments. The results obtained by the energy-exergy analysis indicate that by increasing the pressure ratio compressor, exergy destruction of high-pressure compressors, intercooler, gas turbine and the special produced work of gas turbine cycle constantly increase and the exergy destruction of recuperator, in contrast, decreases continuously. In addition, the least amount of input fuel into the combined cycle is observed when the pressure ratio is no less than 7.5. Subsequently, the efficiency of the cycle in gas turbine and combined cycle is reduced because the fuel input into the combined cycle is increased.
Tebchirani, Tarik Linhares; Matos, Rudmar Serafim [Pos graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering (PGMEC), Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mails: tarik@utfpr.edu.br, rudmar@demec.ufpr.br
2010-07-01
This paper presents results from thermodynamic comparison of a conventional compression cycle and a steam cycle that uses a heat exchanger countercurrent (liquid line/suction line) in an air conditioning system split. The main objective is to study the relationship between the COP and the mass variation of refrigerant to the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. The papers presented in the literature discuss the matter in a theoretical way, are summarized in tables of rare loss statements without specification of methods. The methodology of work is based on testing of an air conditioner operating conventionally and also with the heat exchanger for the determination of values and parameters of interest. The tests were performed in a thermal chamber with temperature controlled and equipped with a data acquisition system for reading and storage results. The refrigerant was R22. Besides making possible an assessment of the feasibility of cost-benefit thermodynamics, it is suggested a different method for installing the equipment type split. (author)
Thermodynamic analysis of PBMR plant
Sen, S.; Kadiroglu, O.K.
2002-01-01
The thermodynamic analysis of a PBMR is presented for various pressures and temperatures values. The design parameters of the components of the power plant are calculated and an optimum cycle for the maximum thermal efficiency is sought for. (author)
Zhang, Chenghu; Li, Yaping
2017-01-01
Concept of reversible heat exchange process as the theoretical model of the cycle combined heat exchanger could be useful to determine thermodynamics characteristics and the limitation values in the isolated heat exchange system. In this study, the classification of the reversible heat exchange processes is presented, and with the numerical method, medium temperature variation tendency and the useful work production and usage in the whole process are investigated by the construction and solution of the mathematical descriptions. Various values of medium inlet temperatures and heat capacity ratio are considered to analyze the effects of process parameters on the outlet temperature lift/drop. The maximum process work transferred from the Carnot cycle region to the reverse cycle region is also researched. Moreover, influence of the separating point between different sub-processes on temperature variation profile and the process work production are analyzed. In addition, the heat-exchange-enhancement-factor is defined to study the enhancement effect of the application of the idealized process in the isolated heat exchange system, and the variation degree of this factor with process parameters change is obtained. The research results of this paper can be a theoretical guidance to construct the cycle combined heat exchange process in the practical system. - Highlights: • A theoretical model of Cycle combined heat exchange process is proposed. • The classification of reversible heat exchange process are presented. • Effects of Inlet temperatures and heat capacity ratio on process are analyzed. • Process work transmission through the whole process is studied. • Heat-exchange-enhancement-factor can be a criteria to express the application effect of the idealized process.
Thermoeconomic analysis of a solar enhanced energy storage concept based on thermodynamic cycles
Henchoz, Samuel; Buchter, Florian; Favrat, Daniel; Morandin, Matteo; Mercangöz, Mehmet
2012-01-01
Large scale energy storage may play an increasingly important role in the power generation and distribution sector, especially when large shares of renewable energies will have to be integrated into the electrical grid. Pumped-hydro is the only large scale storage technology that has been widely used. However the spread of this technology is limited by geographic constraints. In the present work, a particular implementation of a storage concept based on thermodynamic cycles, invented by ABB Switzerland ltd. Corporate Research, has been analysed thermoeconomically. A variant using solar thermal collectors is presented. It benefits from the synergy between daily variations in solar irradiance and in electricity demand. This results in an effective increase of the electric energy storage efficiency. A steady state multi-objective optimization of a 50 MW plant was done; minimizing the investment costs and maximizing the energy storage efficiency. Several types of cold storage substances have been implemented in the formulation and two different types of solar collector were investigated. A storage efficiency of 57% at a cost of 1200 USD/kW was calculated for an optimized plant using solar energy. Finally, a computation of the behaviour of the plant along the year showed a yearly availability of 84.4%. -- Highlights: ► A variant of electric energy storage based on thermodynamic cycles is presented. ► It uses solar collectors to improve the energy storage efficiency. ► An optimization minimizing capital cost and maximizing energy storage efficiency, was carried out. ► Capital costs lie between 982 and 3192 USD/kW and efficiency between 43.8% and 84.4%.
Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of an irreversible Ericsson cryogenic refrigerator cycle
Ahmadi, Mohammad Hossein; Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Thermodynamic modeling of Ericsson refrigeration is performed. • The latter is achieved using NSGA algorithm and thermodynamic analysis. • Different decision makers are utilized to determine optimum values of outcomes. - Abstract: Optimum ecological and thermal performance assessments of an Ericsson cryogenic refrigerator system are investigated in different optimization settings. To evaluate this goal, ecological and thermal approaches are proposed for the Ericsson cryogenic refrigerator, and three objective functions (input power, coefficient of performance and ecological objective function) are gained for the suggested system. Throughout the current research, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) and thermodynamic analysis are employed to specify optimum values of the input power, coefficient of performance and ecological objective function of an Ericsson cryogenic refrigerator system. Four setups are assessed for optimization of the Ericsson cryogenic refrigerator. Throughout the three scenarios, a conventional single-objective optimization has been utilized distinctly with each objective function, nonetheless of other objectives. Throughout the last setting, input power, coefficient of performance and ecological function objectives are optimized concurrently employing a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (GA) named the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). As in multi-objective optimization, an assortment of optimum results named the Pareto optimum frontiers are gained rather than a single ultimate optimum result gained via conventional single-objective optimization. Thus, a process of decision making has been utilized for choosing an ultimate optimum result. Well-known decision-makers have been performed to specify optimized outcomes from the Pareto optimum results in the space of objectives. The outcomes gained from aforementioned optimization setups are discussed and compared employing an index of deviation presented in this
Gong, Xi Wu [Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhejian (China); Wang, Xiao Qiong; Li, You Rong; Wu, Chun Mei [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)
2015-07-15
We present a novel coupled organic Rankine cycle (CORC) system driven by the low-grade waste heat, which couples a transcritical organic Rankine cycle with a subcritical organic Rankine cycle. Based on classical thermodynamic theory, a detailed performance analysis on the novel CORC system was performed. The results show that the pressure ratio of the expander is decreased in the CORC and the selection of the working fluids becomes more flexible and abundant. With the increase of the pinch point temperature difference of the internal heat exchanger, the net power output and thermal efficiency of the CORC all decrease. With the increase of the critical temperature of the working fluid, the system performance of the CORC is improved. The net power output and thermal efficiency of the CORC with isentropic working fluids are higher than those with dry working fluids.
Zhang, Jianqiang; Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Qinglian
2017-09-01
The efficiency calculation and cycle optimization were carried out for the Synergistic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine (SABRE) with deeply precooled combined cycle. A component-level model was developed for the engine, and exergy efficiency analysis based on the model was carried out. The methods to improve cycle efficiency have been proposed. The results indicate cycle efficiency of SABRE is between 29.7% and 41.7% along the flight trajectory, and most of the wasted exergy is occupied by the unburned hydrogen in exit gas. Exergy loss exists in each engine component, and the sum losses of main combustion chamber(CC), pre-burner(PB), precooler(PC) and 3# heat exchanger(HX3) are greater than 71.3% of the total loss. Equivalence ratio is the main influencing factor of cycle, and it can be regulated by adjusting parameters of helium loop. Increase the maximum helium outlet temperature of PC by 50 K, the total assumption of hydrogen will be saved by 4.8%, and the cycle efficiency is advanced by 3% averagely in the trajectory. Helium recirculation scheme introduces a helium recirculation loop to increase local helium flow rate of PC. It turns out the total assumption of hydrogen will be saved by 9%, that's about 1740 kg, and the cycle efficiency is advanced by 5.6% averagely.
Thermodynamic Analysis of a Rankine Cycle Powered Vapor Compression Ice Maker Using Solar Energy
Bing Hu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by solar energy, a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of generation temperature, condensation temperature, and working fluid types on the system performance were analyzed. The results show that the cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day depend largely on generation temperature and condensation temperature and they increase firstly and then decrease with increasing generation temperature. For every working fluid there is an optimal generation temperature at which organic Rankine efficiency achieves the maximum value. The cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day are, respectively, 126.44 W m−2 and 7.61 kg m−2 day−1 at the generation temperature of 140°C for working fluid of R245fa, which demonstrates the feasibility of organic Rankine cycle powered vapor compression ice maker.
Bai, Tao; Yan, Gang; Yu, Jianlin
2015-01-01
In this paper, a modified dual-evaporator CO 2 transcritical refrigeration cycle with two-stage ejector (MDRC) is proposed. In MDRC, the two-stage ejector are employed to recover the expansion work from cycle throttling processes and enhance the system performance and obtain dual-temperature refrigeration simultaneously. The effects of some key parameters on the thermodynamic performance of the modified cycle are theoretically investigated based on energetic and exergetic analyses. The simulation results for the modified cycle show that two-stage ejector exhibits more effective system performance improvement than the single ejector in CO 2 dual-temperature refrigeration cycle, and the improvements of the maximum system COP (coefficient of performance) and system exergy efficiency could reach 37.61% and 31.9% over those of the conventional dual-evaporator cycle under the given operating conditions. The exergetic analysis for each component at optimum discharge pressure indicates that the gas cooler, compressor, two-stage ejector and expansion valves contribute main portion to the total system exergy destruction, and the exergy destruction caused by the two-stage ejector could amount to 16.91% of the exergy input. The performance characteristics of the proposed cycle show its promise in dual-evaporator refrigeration system. - Highlights: • Two-stage ejector is used in dual-evaporator CO 2 transcritical refrigeration cycle. • Energetic and exergetic methods are carried out to analyze the system performance. • The modified cycle could obtain dual-temperature refrigeration simultaneously. • Two-stage ejector could effectively improve system COP and exergy efficiency
Katsanos, C.O.; Hountalas, D.T.; Pariotis, E.G.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► ORC improves bsfc from 10.7% to 8.4% as engine load increases from 25% to 100%. ► Increasing ORC high pressure increases thermodynamic efficiency and power output. ► Operating at high pressure the ORC is favorable for the engine cooling system. ► The low temperature values of the ORC favors heat extraction from the EGR gas. ► The impact of the exhaust gas heat exchanger on engine backpressure is limited. - Abstract: A theoretical study is conducted to investigate the potential improvement of the overall efficiency of a heavy-duty truck diesel engine equipped with a Rankine bottoming cycle for recovering heat from the exhaust gas. To this scope, a newly developed thermodynamic simulation model has been used, considering two different working media: water and the refrigerant R245ca. As revealed from the analysis, due to the variation of exhaust gas temperature with engine load it is necessary to modify the Rankine cycle parameters i.e. high pressure and superheated vapor temperature. For this reason, a new calculation procedure is applied for the estimation of the optimum Rankine cycle parameters at each operating condition. The calculation algorithm is conducted by taking certain design criteria into account, such as the exhaust gas heat exchanger size and its pinch point requirement. From the comparative evaluation between the two working media examined, using the optimum configuration of the cycle for each operating condition, it has been revealed that the brake specific fuel consumption improvement ranges from 10.2% (at 25% engine load) to 8.5% (at 100% engine load) for R245ca and 6.1% (at 25% engine load) to 7.5% (at 100% engine load) for water.
Abdul Ghafoor Memon
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, thermodynamic and statistical analyses were performed on a gas turbine system, to assess the impact of some important operating parameters like CIT (Compressor Inlet Temperature, PR (Pressure Ratio and TIT (Turbine Inlet Temperature on its performance characteristics such as net power output, energy efficiency, exergy efficiency and fuel consumption. Each performance characteristic was enunciated as a function of operating parameters, followed by a parametric study and optimization. The results showed that the performance characteristics increase with an increase in the TIT and a decrease in the CIT, except fuel consumption which behaves oppositely. The net power output and efficiencies increase with the PR up to certain initial values and then start to decrease, whereas the fuel consumption always decreases with an increase in the PR. The results of exergy analysis showed the combustion chamber as a major contributor to the exergy destruction, followed by stack gas. Subsequently, multiple regression models were developed to correlate each of the response variables (performance characteristic with the predictor variables (operating parameters. The regression model equations showed a significant statistical relationship between the predictor and response variables.
Ma Zheshu
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Indirectly or externally-fired gas-turbines (IFGT or EFGT are novel technology under development for small and medium scale combined power and heat supplies in combination with micro gas turbine technologies mainly for the utilization of the waste heat from the turbine in a recuperative process and the possibility of burning biomass or 'dirty' fuel by employing a high temperature heat exchanger to avoid the combustion gases passing through the turbine. In this paper, by assuming that all fluid friction losses in the compressor and turbine are quantified by a corresponding isentropic efficiency and all global irreversibilities in the high temperature heat exchanger are taken into account by an effective efficiency, a one dimensional model including power output and cycle efficiency formulation is derived for a class of real IFGT cycles. To illustrate and analyze the effect of operational parameters on IFGT efficiency, detailed numerical analysis and figures are produced. The results summarized by figures show that IFGT cycles are most efficient under low compression ratio ranges (3.0-6.0 and fit for low power output circumstances integrating with micro gas turbine technology. The model derived can be used to analyze and forecast performance of real IFGT configurations.
Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A
2013-01-01
A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.
2015-01-01
Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differ strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and mass. For propulsion power systems, size and mass are essential drivers that should be minimized during conception processes. Considering this aspect, this paper aims the development of a design-based model of a Closed Regenerative Brayton Cycle that applies the thermal conductance of the main components in order to predict the energy conversion performance, allowing its use as a preliminary tool for heat exchanger and radiator panel sizing. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterizations were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. A binary mixture of Helium–Xenon with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of the components sizing in the energy efficiency is evaluated in this paper, including the radiator panel area. Moreover, an optimization analysis based on the final mass of heat the exchangers is performed. - Highlights: • A design-based model of a Closed Brayton Cycle is proposed for nuclear space needs. • Turbomachinery efficiency presented a strong influence on the system efficiency. • Radiator area presented the highest potential to increase the system efficiency. • There is maximum system efficiency for each total mass of heat exchangers. • Size or efficiency optimization was performed by changing heat exchanger proportion.
Uusitalo, Antti; Honkatukia, Juha; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Larjola, Jaakko
2014-01-01
Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a Rankine cycle using organic fluid as the working fluid instead of water and steam. The ORC process is a feasible choice in waste heat recovery applications producing electricity from relatively low-temperature waste heat sources or in applications having a rather low power output. Utilizing waste heat from a large high-efficiency reciprocating engine power plant with ORC processes is studied by means of computations. In addition to exhaust gas heat recovery, this study represents and discusses an idea of directly replacing the charge air cooler (CAC) of a large turbocharged engine with an ORC evaporator to utilize the charge air heat in additional power production. A thermodynamic analysis for ORCs was carried out with working fluids toluene, n-pentane, R245fa and cyclohexane. The effect of different ORC process parameters on the process performance are presented and analyzed in order to investigate the heat recovery potential from the exhaust gas and charge air. A simplified feasibility consideration is included by comparing the ratio of the theoretical heat transfer areas needed and the obtained power output from ORC processes. The greatest potential is related to the exhaust gas heat recovery, but in addition also the lower temperature waste heat streams could be utilized to boost the electrical power of the engine power plant. A case study for a large-scale gas-fired engine was carried out showing that the maximum power increase of 11.4% was obtained from the exhaust gas and 2.4% from the charge air heat. - Highlights: • Waste heat recovery potential of reciprocating engines was studied. • Thermodynamic optimization for ORCs was carried out with different fluids. • The utilization of exhaust gas and charge air heat is presented and discussed. • Simplified economic feasibility study was included in the analysis. • Power increase of 11.4% was obtained from exhaust gas and 2.4% from charge air
Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik
2015-01-01
The Kalina cycle has seen increased interest in the last few years as an efficient alternative to the conventional steam Rankine cycle. However, the available literature gives little information on the algorithms to solve or optimise this inherently complex cycle. This paper presents a detailed a...
Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik
2015-01-01
The Kalina cycle has seen increased interest in the last few years as an efficient alternative to the conventional steam Rankine cycle. However, the available literature gives little information on the algorithms to solve or optimise this inherently complex cycle. This paper presents a detailed approach to solve and optimise a Kalina cycle for high temperature (a turbine inlet temperature of 500 °C) and high pressure (over 100 bar) applications using a computationally efficient solution algorithm. A central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation was considered as a case study. Four different layouts for the Kalina cycle based on the number and/or placement of the recuperators in the cycle were optimised and compared based on performance parameters such as the cycle efficiency and the cooling water requirement. The cycles were modelled in steady state and optimised with the maximisation of the cycle efficiency as the objective function. It is observed that the different cycle layouts result in different regions for the optimal value of the turbine inlet ammonia mass fraction. Out of the four compared layouts, the most complex layout KC1234 gives the highest efficiency. The cooling water requirement is closely related to the cycle efficiency, i.e., the better the efficiency, the lower is the cooling water requirement. - Highlights: • Detailed methodology for solving and optimising Kalina cycle for high temperature applications. • A central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation considered as a case study. • Four Kalina cycle layouts based on the placement of recuperators optimised and compared
Park, Hansaem; Kim, Min Soo
2014-01-01
The maximum efficiency of a heat engine is able to be estimated by using a Carnot cycle. Even though, in terms of efficiency, the Carnot cycle performs the role of reference very well, its application is limited to the case of infinite heat reservoirs, which is not that realistic. Moreover, considering that one of the recent key issues is to produce maximum work from low temperature and finite heat sources, which are called renewable energy sources, more advanced theoretical cycles, which can present a new standard, and the research about them are necessary. Therefore, in this paper, a sequential Carnot cycle, where multiple Carnot cycles are connected in parallel, is studied. The cycle adopts a finite heat source, which has a certain initial temperature and heat capacity, and an infinite heat sink, which is assumed to be ambient air. Heat transfer processes in the cycle occur with the temperature difference between a heat reservoir and a cycle. In order to resolve the heat transfer rate in those processes, the product of an overall heat transfer coefficient and a heat transfer area is introduced. Using these conditions, the performance of a sequential Carnot cycle is analytically calculated. Furthermore, as the efforts for enhancing the work of the cycle, the optimization research is also conducted with numerical calculation. - Highlights: • Modified sequential Carnot cycles are proposed for evaluating low grade heat sources. • Performance of sequential Carnot cycles is calculated analytically. • Optimization study for the cycle is conducted with numerical solver. • Maximum work from a heat source under a certain condition is obtained by equations
Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Mohammadi, Amir H.; Dehghani, Saeed
2013-01-01
Highlights: • The optimal power of an endoreversible Stirling cycle is investigated. • In the endoreversible cycle, external heat transfer processes are considered irreversible. • Optimal temperature of the heat source leading to a maximum power for the cycle is detained. • Effect of design parameters on the power and its corresponding thermal efficiency is studied. - Abstract: In this communication, the optimal power of an endoreversible Stirling cycle with perfect regeneration is investigated. In the endoreversible cycle, external heat transfer processes are irreversible. Optimal temperature of the heat source leading to a maximum power for the cycle is detained. Moreover, effect of design parameters of the Stirling engine on the maximized power of the engine and its corresponding thermal efficiency is studied
Fernandez, F.J.; Prieto, M.M.; Suarez, I.
2011-01-01
A recent novel adjustment of the Span-Wagner equation of state for siloxanes, used as working fluids in high-temperature organic Rankine cycles, is applied in a mathematical model to solve cycles under several working conditions. The proposed scheme includes a thermo-oil intermediate heat circuit between the heat source and the organic Rankine cycle. Linear and cyclic siloxanes are assayed in saturated, superheated and supercritical cycles. The cycle includes an internal heat exchanger (regenerative cycle), although a non-regenerative scheme is also solved. In the first part of the study, a current of combustion gases cooled to close to their dew point temperature is taken as the reference heat source. In the second part, the outlet temperature of the heat source is varied over a wide range, determining appropriate fluids and schemes for each thermal level. Simple linear (MM, MDM) siloxanes in saturated regenerative schemes show good efficiencies and ensure thermal stability of the working fluid. -- Highlights: → Organic Rankine cycles with polymethylsiloxanes as working fluids were modelled. → The cycle scheme is regenerative and includes an intermediate heat transfer fluid. → The fluid properties were calculated by means of the Span-Wagner equation of state. → Vapour conditions to the expander and source thermal level were analysed. → Siloxanes MM, MDM and D 4 under saturated conditions were the best options.
Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of Rankine power cycle with thermal driven pump
Lakew, Amlaku Abie; Bolland, Olav; Ladam, Yves
2011-01-01
Highlights: → The work is focused on theoretical aspects of thermal driven pump (TDP) Rankine cycle. → The mechanical pump is replaced by thermal driven pump. → Important parameters of thermal driven pump Rankine cycle are investigated. → TDP Rankine cycle produce more power but it requires additional low grade heat. - Abstract: A new approach to improve the performance of supercritical carbon dioxide Rankine cycle which uses low temperature heat source is presented. The mechanical pump in conventional supercritical carbon dioxide Rankine cycle is replaced by thermal driven pump. The concept of thermal driven pump is to increase the pressure of a fluid in a closed container by supplying heat. A low grade heat source is used to increase the pressure of the fluid instead of a mechanical pump, this increase the net power output and avoid the need for mechanical pump which requires regular maintenance and operational cost. The thermal driven pump considered is a shell and tube heat exchanger where the working fluid is contained in the tube, a tube diameter of 5 mm is chosen to reduce the heating time. The net power output of the Rankine cycle with thermal driven pump is compared to that of Rankine cycle with mechanical pump and it is observed that the net power output is higher when low grade thermal energy is used to pressurize the working fluid. The thermal driven pump consumes additional heat at low temperature (60 o C) to pressurize the working fluid.
Closed power cycles thermodynamic fundamentals and applications
Invernizzi, Costante Mario
2013-01-01
With the growing attention to the exploitation of renewable energies and heat recovery from industrial processes, the traditional steam and gas cycles are showing themselves often inadequate. The inadequacy is due to the great assortment of the required sizes power and of the large kind of heat sources. Closed Power Cycles: Thermodynamic Fundamentals and Applications offers an organized discussion about the strong interaction between working fluids, the thermodynamic behavior of the cycle using them and the technological design aspects of the machines. A precise treatment of thermal engines op
Thermodynamic cycles of adsorption desalination system
Wu, Jun W.; Hu, Eric J.; Biggs, Mark J.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Thermodynamic cycles of adsorption desalination (AD) system have been identified all possible evaporator temperature scenarios. ► Temperature of evaporator determines the cycle. ► Higher evaporator temperature leads to higher water production if no cooling is required. -- Abstract: The potential to use waste heat to co-generate cooling and fresh water from saline water using adsorption on silica is attracting increasing attention. A variety of different thermodynamic cycles of such an adsorption desalination (AD) system arise as the temperature of the saline water evaporator is varied relative to temperature of the water used to cool the adsorbent as it adsorbs the evaporated water. In this paper, all these possible thermodynamic cycles are enumerated and analysed to determine their relative performances in terms of specific energy consumption and fresh water productivity.
Thermodynamic analysis of diesel engine coupled with ORC and absorption refrigeration cycle
Salek, Farhad; Moghaddam, Alireza Naghavi; Naserian, Mohammad Mahdi
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Coupling ORC and Ammonia absorption cycles with diesel engine to recover energy. • By using designed bottoming system, recovered diesel engine energy is about 10%. • By using designed bottoming system, engine efficiency will grow about 4.65%. - Abstract: In this paper, Rankine cycle and Ammonia absorption cycle are coupled with Diesel engine to recover the energy of exhaust gases. The novelty of this paper is the use of ammonia absorption refrigeration cycle bottoming Rankine cycle which coupled with diesel engine to produce more power. Bottoming system converts engine exhaust thermal energy to cooling and mechanical energy. Energy transfer process has been done by two shell and tube heat exchangers. Simulation processes have been done by programming mathematic models of cycles in EES Program. Based on results, recovered energy varies with diesel engine load. For the particular load case of current research, the use of two heat exchangers causes 0.5% decrement of engine mechanical power. However, the recovered energy is about 10% of engine mechanical power.
Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.; Ryzhkov, A. F.
2017-11-01
Raising the efficiency and environmental friendliness of electric power generation from coal is the aim of numerous research groups today. The traditional approach based on the steam power cycle has reached its efficiency limit, prompted by materials development and maneuverability performance. The rival approach based on the combined cycle is also drawing nearer to its efficiency limit. However, there is a reserve for efficiency increase of the integrated gasification combined cycle, which has the energy efficiency at the level of modern steam-turbine power units. The limit of increase in efficiency is the efficiency of NGCC. One of the main problems of the IGCC is higher costs of receiving and preparing fuel gas for GTU. It would be reasonable to decrease the necessary amount of fuel gas in the power unit to minimize the costs. The effect can be reached by raising of the heat value of fuel gas, its heat content and the heat content of cycle air. On the example of the process flowsheet of the IGCC with a power of 500 MW, running on Kuznetsk bituminous coal, by means of software Thermoflex, the influence of the developed technical solutions on the efficiency of the power plant is considered. It is received that rise in steam-air blast temperature to 900°C leads to an increase in conversion efficiency up to 84.2%. An increase in temperature levels of fuel gas clean-up to 900°C leads to an increase in the IGCC efficiency gross/net by 3.42%. Cycle air heating reduces the need for fuel gas by 40% and raises the IGCC efficiency gross/net by 0.85-1.22%. The offered solutions for IGCC allow to exceed net efficiency of analogous plants by 1.8-2.3%.
Thermodynamic analysis of SCW NPP cycles with thermo-chemical co-generation of hydrogen
Naidin, N.; Mokry, S.; Monichan, R.; Chophla, K.; Pioro, I.; Naterer, G.; Gabriel, K.
2009-01-01
Research activities are currently conducted worldwide to develop Generation IV nuclear reactor concepts with the objective of improving thermal efficiency and increasing economic competitiveness of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) compared to modern thermal power plants. The Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) concept is one of the six Generation IV options chosen for further investigation and development in several countries including Canada and Russia. Water-cooled reactors operating at subcritical pressures (10 - 16 MPa) have provided a significant amount of electricity production for the past 50 years. However, the thermal efficiency of the current NPPs is not very high (30 - 35%). As such, more competitive designs, with higher thermal efficiencies, which will be close to that of modern thermal power plants (45 - 50%), need to be developed and implemented. Super-Critical Water (SCW) NPPs will have much higher operating parameters compared to current NPPs (i.e., steam pressures of about 25 MPa and steam outlet temperatures up to 625 o C). Furthermore, SCWRs operating at higher temperatures can facilitate an economical co-generation of hydrogen through thermochemical cycles (particularly, the copper-chlorine cycle) or direct high-temperature electrolysis. The two SCW NPP cycles proposed by this paper are based on direct, regenerative, no-reheat and single-reheat configurations. As such, the main parameters and performance in terms of thermal efficiency of the SCW NPP concepts mentioned above are being analyzed. The cycles are generally comprised of: an SCWR, a SC turbine, one deaerator, ten feedwater heaters, and pumps. The SC turbine of the no-reheat cycle consists of one High-Pressure (HP) cylinder and two Low-Pressure (LP) cylinders. Alternatively, the SC turbine for the single-reheat cycle is comprised of one High-Pressure (HP) cylinder, one Intermediate-Pressure (IP) cylinder and two Low-Pressure (LP) cylinders. Since the single-reheat option
Thermodynamic Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Plant with a Kalina Cycle
Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud
2015-01-01
% is achieved; plant size and nominal power are selected based on the required cultivation area. SOFC heat recovery with SKC is compared to a Steam Cycle (SC). Although ammonia-water more accurately fits the temperature profile of the off-gases, the presence of a Hybrid Recuperator enhances the available work......-treated fuel then enters the anode side of the SOFC. Complete fuel oxidation is ensured in a burner by off-gases exiting the SOFC stacks. Off-gases are utilized as heat source for a SKC where a mixture of ammonia and water is expanded in a turbine to produce additional electric power. Thus, a triple novel......A hybrid plant that consists of a gasification system, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and a Simple Kalina Cycle (SKC) is investigated. Woodchips are introduced into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas, which is then fed into an integrated SOFC-SKC plant to produce electricity. The pre...
Arash Nemati
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A thermodynamic modeling and optimization is carried out to compare the advantages and disadvantages of organic Rankine cycle (ORC and Kalina cycle (KC as a bottoming cycle for waste heat recovery from CGAM cogeneration system. Thermodynamic models for combined CGAM/ORC and CGAM/KC systems are performed and the effects of some decision variables on the energy and exergy efficiency and turbine size parameter of the combined systems are investigated. Solving simulation equations and optimization process have been done using direct search method by EES software. It is observed that at the optimum pressure ratio of air compressor, produced power of bottoming cycles has minimum values. Also, evaporator pressure optimizes the performance of cycle, but this optimum pressure level in ORC (11 bar is much lower than that of Kalina (46 bar. In addition, ORC's simpler configuration, higher net produced power and superheated turbine outlet flow, which leads to a reliable performance for turbine, are other advantages of ORC. Kalina turbine size parameter is lower than that of the ORC which is a positive aspect of Kalina cycle. However, by a comprehensive comparison between Kalina and ORC, it is concluded that the ORC has significant privileges for waste heat recovery in this case.
Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan
Computer Aided Molecular Design (CAMD) is an important tool to generate, test and evaluate promising chemical products. CAMD can be used in thermodynamic cycle for the design of pure component or mixture working fluids in order to improve the heat transfer capacity of the system. The safety......, there is no information about the reliability of the data. Furthermore, the global optimality of the GC parameters estimation is often not ensured....
Ribeiro, Bernardo Sousa; Martins, Jorge
2007-01-01
One of the ways to improve thermodynamic efficiency of Spark Ignition engines is by the optimisation of valve timing and lift and compression ratio. The throttleless engine and the Miller cycle engine are proven concepts for efficiency improvements of such engines. This paper reports on an engine with variable valve timing (VVT) and variable compression ratio (VCR) in order to fulfill such an enhancement of efficiency. Engine load is controlled by the valve opening per...
Finite time thermodynamics of power and refrigeration cycles
Kaushik, Shubhash C; Kumar, Pramod
2017-01-01
This book addresses the concept and applications of Finite Time Thermodynamics to various thermal energy conversion systems including heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. The book is the first of its kind, presenting detailed analytical formulations for the design and optimisation of various power producing and cooling cycles including but not limited to: • Vapour power cycles • Gas power cycles • Vapour compression cycles • Vapour absorption cycles • Rankine cycle coupled refrigeration systems Further, the book addresses the thermoeconomic analysis for the optimisation of thermal cycles, an important field of study in the present age and which is characterised by multi-objective optimization regarding energy, ecology, the environment and economics. Lastly, the book provides the readers with key techniques associated with Finite Time Thermodynamics, allowing them to understand the relevance of irreversibilitie s associated with real processes and the scientific r...
Shokati, Naser; Mohammadkhani, Farzad; Farrokhi, Navid; Ranjbar, Faramarz
2014-12-01
During manufacture of engines, evaluation of engine performance is essential. This is accomplished in test cells. During the test, a significant portion of heat energy released by the fuel is wasted. In this study, in order to recover these heat losses, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is recommended. The study has been conducted assuming the diesel oil to be composed of a single hydrocarbon such as C12H26. The composition of exhaust gases (products of combustion) have been computed (and not determined experimentally) from the stoichiometric equation representing the combustion reaction. The test cell heat losses are recovered in three separate heat exchangers (preheater, evaporator and superheater). These heat exchangers are separately designed, and the whole system is analyzed from energy and exergy viewpoints. Finally, a parametric study is performed to investigate the effect of different variables on the system performance characteristics such as the ORC net power, heat exchangers effectiveness, the first law efficiency, exergy destruction and heat transfer surfaces. The results of the study show that by utilizing ORC, heat recovery equivalent to 8.85 % of the engine power is possible. The evaporator has the highest exergy destruction rate, while the pump has the lowest among the system components. Heat transfer surfaces are calculated to be 173.6, 58.7, and 11.87 m2 for the preheater, evaporator and superheater, respectively.
Heat pipe thermodynamic cycle and its applications
Kobayashi, Y.
1985-01-01
A new type of thermodynamic cycle originating from extended application of the heat pipe principle is proposed and its thermal cycle is discussed from the viewpoint of theoretical thermal efficiency and Coefficient of Performance. An idealized structure that will meet the basic function for thermal systems is also suggested. A significant advantage of these systems is their use with lowtemperature energy sources found in nature or heat rejected from industrial sites
Complete determination of the Pin1 catalytic domain thermodynamic cycle by NMR lineshape analysis
Greenwood, Alexander I.; Rogals, Monique J.; De, Soumya; Lu, Kun Ping; Kovrigin, Evgenii L.; Nicholson, Linda K.
2011-01-01
The phosphorylation-specific peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 catalyzes the isomerization of the peptide bond preceding a proline residue between cis and trans isomers. To best understand the mechanisms of Pin1 regulation, rigorous enzymatic assays of isomerization are required. However, most measures of isomerase activity require significant constraints on substrate sequence and only yield rate constants for the cis isomer, k cat cis and apparent Michaelis constants, K M App . By contrast, NMR lineshape analysis is a powerful tool for determining microscopic rates and populations of each state in a complex binding scheme. The isolated catalytic domain of Pin1 was employed as a first step towards elucidating the reaction scheme of the full-length enzyme. A 24-residue phosphopeptide derived from the amyloid precurser protein intracellular domain (AICD) phosphorylated at Thr668 served as a biologically-relevant Pin1 substrate. Specific 13 C labeling at the Pin1-targeted proline residue provided multiple reporters sensitive to individual isomer binding and on-enzyme catalysis. We have performed titration experiments and employed lineshape analysis of phosphopeptide 13 C– 1 H constant time HSQC spectra to determine k cat cis , k cat trans , K D cis , and K D trans for the catalytic domain of Pin1 acting on this AICD substrate. The on-enzyme equilibrium value of [E·trans]/[E·cis] = 3.9 suggests that the catalytic domain of Pin1 is optimized to operate on this substrate near equilibrium in the cellular context. This highlights the power of lineshape analysis for determining the microscopic parameters of enzyme catalysis, and demonstrates the feasibility of future studies of Pin1-PPIase mutants to gain insights on the catalytic mechanism of this important enzyme.
Toghyani, Somayeh; Baniasadi, Ehsan; Afshari, Ebrahim
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The performance of an integrated nano-fluid based solar Rankine cycle is studied. • The effect of solar intensity, ambient temperature, and volume fraction is evaluated. • The concept of Finite Time Thermodynamics is applied. • It is shown that CuO/oil nano-fluid has the best performance from exergy perspective. - Abstract: In this paper, the performance of an integrated Rankine power cycle with parabolic trough solar system and a thermal storage system is simulated based on four different nano-fluids in the solar collector system, namely CuO, SiO_2, TiO_2 and Al_2O_3. The effects of solar intensity, dead state temperature, and volume fraction of different nano-particles on the performance of the integrated cycle are studied using second law of thermodynamics. Also, the genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the net output power of the solar Rankine cycle. The solar thermal energy is stored in a two-tank system to improve the overall performance of the system when sunlight is not available. The concept of Finite Time Thermodynamics is applied for analyzing the performance of the solar collector and thermal energy storage system. This study reveals that by increasing the volume fraction of nano-particles, the exergy efficiency of the system increases. At higher dead state temperatures, the overall exergy efficiency is increased, and higher solar irradiation leads to considerable increase of the output power of the system. It is shown that among the selected nano-fluids, CuO/oil has the best performance from exergy perspective.
He, Zhonglu; Zhang, Yufeng; Dong, Shengming; Ma, Hongting; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Xuelian; Deng, Na; Sheng, Ying
2017-01-01
Highlights: • An ORC power plant driven by low grade heat source is set up. • Energy and exergy analysis at off-design conditions is conducted. • The twin screw expander performance is characterized. • An empirical model to predict the net power output and thermal efficiency. - Abstract: This paper deals with an experimental study on a 50-kW Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power generation plant driven by low-grade heat source. Hot water boiler and solar-thermal system were used as the low-grade heat source providing hot water at temperature ranging from 65 to 95 °C. A twin screw compressor has been modified as the expansion machine in the ORC module and its expansion efficiency under variable operating conditions was tested in the experiments. This work was purposed to assess the ORC system and get the performance map at off-design operating conditions in a typical year from the view of the first and the second law of thermodynamics. The maximum electricity production and thermal efficiency were 46.5 kW and 6.52% respectively at the optimal operating condition. The highest exergetic efficiency reached 36.3% and the exergy analysis showed that evaporation pressure and condensation pressure were the key parameters to influence the exergy flow and exergetic efficiency. Furthermore, by fitting the actual plant data obtained in different months, an empirical model has been developed to predict the net power output and thermal efficiency with acceptable accuracy. Lastly, as an illustration, the empirical model is used to analyze the performance of the solar-driven ORC system.
Advanced adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle: A thermodynamic framework
Chakraborty, Anutosh
2011-01-01
We have developed a thermodynamic framework to calculate adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle performances as a function of pore widths and pore volumes of highly porous adsorbents, which are formulated from the rigor of thermodynamic property surfaces of adsorbent-adsorbate system and the adsorption interaction potential between them. Employing the proposed formulations, the coefficient of performance (COP) and overall performance ratio (OPR) of adsorption cycle are computed for various pore widths of solid adsorbents. These results are compared with experimental data for verifying the proposed thermodynamic formulations. It is found from the present analysis that the COP and OPR of adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle is influenced by (i) the physical characteristics of adsorbents, (ii) characteristics energy and (iii) the surface-structural heterogeneity factor of adsorbent-water system. The present study confirms that there exists a special type of adsorbents having optimal physical characteristics that allows us to obtain the best performance.
A brief review study of various thermodynamic cycles for high temperature power generation systems
Yu, Si-Cong; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Yan; Li, Hong-Xu; Zhang, Xin-Rong
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Various high temperature power generation cycles for are reviewed and analyzed. • The operating temperature is higher than 700 K for high temperature power systems. • Thermodynamic cycle model study and working fluid choices are discussed. • Characteristics and future developments of high temperature cycles are presented and compared. - Abstract: This paper presents a review of the previous studies and papers about various thermodynamic cycles working for high temperature power generation procedures, in these cycles the highest temperature is not lower than 700 K. Thermodynamic cycles that working for power generation are divided into two broad categories, thermodynamic cycle model study and working fluid analysis. Thermodynamic cycle contains the simple cycle model and the complex cycle model, emphasis has been given on the complex thermodynamic cycles due to their high thermal efficiencies. Working fluids used for high temperature thermodynamic cycles is a dense gas rather than a liquid. A suitable thermodynamic cycle is crucial for effectively power generation especially under the condition of high temperature. The main purpose is to find out the characteristics of various thermodynamic cycles when they are working in the high temperature region for power generation. As this study shows, combined cycles with both renewable and nonrenewable energies as the heat source can show good performance
Alternative thermodynamic cycle for the Stirling machine
Romanelli, Alejandro
2017-12-01
We develop an alternative thermodynamic cycle for the Stirling machine, where the polytropic process plays a central role. Analytical expressions for pressure and temperatures of the working gas are obtained as a function of the volume and the parameter that characterizes the polytropic process. This approach achieves closer agreement with the experimental pressure-volume diagram and can be adapted to any type of Stirling engine.
Olumayegun, Olumide; Wang, Meihong; Kelsall, Greg
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Nitrogen closed Brayton cycle for small modular sodium-cooled fast reactor studied. • Thermodynamic modelling and analysis of closed Brayton cycle performed. • Two-shaft configuration proposed and performance compared to single shaft. • Preliminary design of heat exchangers and turbomachinery carried out. - Abstract: Sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is considered the most promising of the Generation IV reactors for their near-term demonstration of power generation. Small modular SFRs (SM-SFRs) have less investment risk, can be deployed more quickly, are easier to operate and are more flexible in comparison to large nuclear reactor. Currently, SFRs use the proven Rankine steam cycle as the power conversion system. However, a key challenge is to prevent dangerous sodium-water reaction that could happen in SFR coupled to steam cycle. Nitrogen gas is inert and does not react with sodium. Hence, intercooled closed Brayton cycle (CBC) using nitrogen as working fluid and with a single shaft configuration has been one common power conversion system option for possible near-term demonstration of SFR. In this work, a new two shaft nitrogen CBC with parallel turbines was proposed to further simplify the design of the turbomachinery and reduce turbomachinery size without compromising the cycle efficiency. Furthermore, thermodynamic performance analysis and preliminary design of components were carried out in comparison with a reference single shaft nitrogen cycle. Mathematical models in Matlab were developed for steady state thermodynamic analysis of the cycles and for preliminary design of the heat exchangers, turbines and compressors. Studies were performed to investigate the impact of the recuperator minimum terminal temperature difference (TTD) on the overall cycle efficiency and recuperator size. The effect of turbomachinery efficiencies on the overall cycle efficiency was examined. The results showed that the cycle efficiency of the proposed
Lei Qi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We explore the thermodynamic efficiency of a solar-driven combined cycle power system with manganese oxide-based thermochemical energy storage system. Manganese oxide particles are reduced during the day in an oxygen-lean atmosphere obtained with a fluidized-bed reactor at temperatures in the range of 750–1600°C using concentrated solar energy. Reduced hot particles are stored and re-oxidized during night-time to achieve continuous power plant operation. The steady-state mass and energy conservation equations are solved for all system components to calculate the thermodynamic properties and mass flow rates at all state points in the system, taking into account component irreversibilities. The net power block and overall solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies, and the required storage volumes for solids and gases in the storage system are predicted. Preliminary results for a system with 100 MW nominal solar power input at a solar concentration ratio of 3000, designed for constant round-the-clock operation with 8 hours of on-sun and 16 hours of off-sun operation and with manganese oxide particles cycled between 750 and 1600°C yield a net power block efficiency of 60.0% and an overall energy conversion efficiency of 41.3%. Required storage tank sizes for the solids are estimated to be approx. 5–6 times smaller than those of state-of-the-art molten salt systems.
Lei, Qi; Bader, Roman; Kreider, Peter; Lovegrove, Keith; Lipiński, Wojciech
2017-11-01
We explore the thermodynamic efficiency of a solar-driven combined cycle power system with manganese oxide-based thermochemical energy storage system. Manganese oxide particles are reduced during the day in an oxygen-lean atmosphere obtained with a fluidized-bed reactor at temperatures in the range of 750-1600°C using concentrated solar energy. Reduced hot particles are stored and re-oxidized during night-time to achieve continuous power plant operation. The steady-state mass and energy conservation equations are solved for all system components to calculate the thermodynamic properties and mass flow rates at all state points in the system, taking into account component irreversibilities. The net power block and overall solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies, and the required storage volumes for solids and gases in the storage system are predicted. Preliminary results for a system with 100 MW nominal solar power input at a solar concentration ratio of 3000, designed for constant round-the-clock operation with 8 hours of on-sun and 16 hours of off-sun operation and with manganese oxide particles cycled between 750 and 1600°C yield a net power block efficiency of 60.0% and an overall energy conversion efficiency of 41.3%. Required storage tank sizes for the solids are estimated to be approx. 5-6 times smaller than those of state-of-the-art molten salt systems.
Luo, Ercang
2012-06-01
This paper analyzes the thermodynamic cycle of oscillating-flow regenerative machines. Unlike the classical analysis of thermodynamic textbooks, the assumptions for pistons' movement limitations are not needed and only ideal flowing and heat transfer should be maintained in our present analysis. Under such simple assumptions, the meso-scale thermodynamic cycles of each gas parcel in typical locations of a regenerator are analyzed. It is observed that the gas parcels in the regenerator undergo Lorentz cycle in different temperature levels, whereas the locus of all gas parcels inside the regenerator is the Ericson-like thermodynamic cycle. Based on this new finding, the author argued that ideal oscillating-flow machines without heat transfer and flowing losses is not the Stirling cycle. However, this new thermodynamic cycle can still achieve the same efficiency of the Carnot heat engine and can be considered a new reversible thermodynamic cycle under two constant-temperature heat sinks.
Li, L.; Ge, Y.T.; Luo, X.; Tassou, S.A.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • CO_2 is a promising working fluid to be applied in low-grade power generation systems. • Thermodynamic models of CO_2 transcritical power cycles (T-CO_2) and R245fa ORC were developed. • Energy and exergy analyses were carried out for T-CO_2 and R245fa ORC systems. • Optimal system designs are existed for both T-CO_2 and R245fa ORC systems. - Abstract: In this paper, a theoretical study is conducted to investigate and compare the performance of CO_2 transcritical power cycles (T-CO_2) and R245fa organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) using low-grade thermal energy to produce useful shaft or electrical power. Each power cycle consists of typical Rankine cycle components, such as a working fluid pump, gas generator or evaporator, turbine with electricity generator, air cooled condenser and recuperator (internal heat exchanger). The thermodynamic models of both cycles have been developed and are applied to calculate and compare the cycle thermal and exergy efficiencies at different operating conditions and control strategies. The simulation results show that the system performances for both cycles vary with different operating conditions. When the heat source (waste heat) temperature increases from 120 °C to 260 °C and heat sink (cooling air) temperature is reduced from 20 °C to 0 °C, both thermal efficiencies of R245fa ORC and T-CO_2 with recuperator can significantly increase. On the other hand, R245fa ORC and T-CO_2 exergy efficiencies increase with lower heat sink temperatures and generally decrease with higher heat source temperatures. In addition, with the same operating conditions and heat transfer assumptions, the thermal and exergy efficiencies of R245fa ORCs are both slightly higher than those of T-CO_2. However, the efficiencies of both cycles can be enhanced by installing a recuperator in each system at specified operating conditions. Ultimately, optimal operating states can be predicted, with particular focus on the working fluid expander
Hamdi, Basma; Mabrouk, Mohamed Tahar; Kairouani, Lakdar; Kheiri, Abdelhamid
2017-06-01
Different configurations of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems are potential thermodynamic concepts for power generation from low grade heat. The aim of this work is to investigate and optimize the performances of the three main ORC systems configurations: basic ORC, ORC with internal heat exchange (IHE) and regenerative ORC. The evaluation for those configurations was performed using seven working fluids with typical different thermodynamic behaviours (R245fa, R601a, R600a, R227ea, R134a, R1234ze and R1234yf). The optimization has been performed using a genetic algorithm under a comprehensive set of operative parameters such as the fluid evaporating temperature, the fraction of flow rate or the pressure at the steam extracting point in the turbine. Results show that there is no general best ORC configuration for all those fluids. However, there is a suitable configuration for each fluid. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui
Efficiency of an air-cooled thermodynamic cycle
Bezborodov, Yu.A.; Bubnov, V.P.; Nesterenko, V.B.
1979-01-01
The application of air, nitrogen, helium and the chemically reacting N 2 O 4 reversible 2NO 2 reversible 2NO + O 2 system as working agents and coolants for a low capacity nuclear power plant is investigated. The above system due to its physico-chemical and thermo-physical properties allows both a gaseous cycle and a cycle with condensation. The analysis has shown that a thermodynamic air-cooled cycle with the dissociating nitrogen tetroxide in the temperature range from 500 to 600 deg C has an advantage over cycles with air and nitrogen. To identify the chemical reaction kinetics in the thermodynamic processes, thermodynamic calculations of the gas-liquid cycle with N 2 O 4 both with simple and intermediate heat regeneration at different pressures over hot side were performed. At gas pressures lower than 12 - 15 atm, the cycle with a simple regeneration is more effective, and at pressure increase, the cycle with an intermediate regeneration is preferable
Zhang, Guoqiang; Zheng, Jiongzhi; Xie, Angjun; Yang, Yongping; Liu, Wenyi
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Based on the PG9351FA gas turbine, two gas-steam combined cycles are redesigned. • Analysis of detailed off-design characteristics of the combined cycle main parts. • Suggestions for improving design and operation performance of the combined cycle. • Higher design efficiency has higher off-design efficiency in general PR range. • High pressure ratio combined cycles possess good off-design performance. - Abstract: To achieve a highly efficient design and operation of combined cycles, this study analyzed in detail the off-design characteristics of the main components of three combined cycles with different compressor pressure ratios (PRs) based on real units. The off-design model of combined cycle was built consisting of a compressor, a combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The PG9351FA unit is selected as the benchmark unit, on the basis of which the compressor is redesigned with two different PRs. Then, the design/off-design characteristics of the three units with different design PRs and the interactive relations between topping and bottoming cycles are analyzed with the same turbine inlet temperature (TIT). The results show that the off-design characteristics of the topping cycle affect dramatically the combined cycle performance. The variation range of the exergy efficiency of the topping cycle for the three units is between 11.9% and 12.4% under the design/off-design conditions. This range is larger than that of the bottoming cycle (between 9.2% and 9.5%). The HRSG can effectively recycle the heat/heat exergy of the gas turbine exhaust. Comparison among the three units shows that for a traditional gas-steam combined cycle, a high design efficiency results in a high off-design efficiency in the usual PR range. The combined cycle design efficiency of higher pressure ratio is almost equal to that of the PG9351FA, but its off-design efficiency is higher (maximum 0.42%) and the specific power decreases. As for
Advanced thermodynamic (exergetic) analysis
Tsatsaronis, G; Morosuk, T
2012-01-01
Exergy analysis is a powerful tool for developing, evaluating and improving an energy conversion system. However, the lack of a formal procedure in using the results obtained by an exergy analysis is one of the reasons for exergy analysis not being very popular among energy practitioners. Such a formal procedure cannot be developed as long as the interactions among components of the overall system are not being taken properly into account. Splitting the exergy destruction into unavoidable and avoidable parts in a component provides a realistic measure of the potential for improving the thermodynamic efficiency of this component. Alternatively splitting the exergy destruction into endogenous and exogenous parts provides information on the interactions among system components. Distinctions between avoidable and unavoidable exergy destruction on one side and endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction on the other side allow the engineer to focus on the thermodynamic inefficiencies that can be avoided and to consider the interactions among system components. The avoidable endogenous and the avoidable exogenous exergy destruction provide the best guidance for improving the thermodynamic performance of energy conversion systems.
Mousapour, Ashkan; Hajipour, Alireza; Rashidi, Mohammad Mehdi; Freidoonimehr, Navid
2016-01-01
In this paper, the first and second-laws efficiencies are applied to performance analysis of an irreversible Miller cycle. In the irreversible cycle, the linear relation between the specific heat of the working fluid and its temperature, the internal irreversibility described using the compression and expansion efficiencies, the friction loss computed according to the mean velocity of the piston and the heat-transfer loss are considered. The effects of various design parameters, such as the minimum and maximum temperatures of the working fluid and the compression ratio on the power output and the first and second-laws efficiencies of the cycle are discussed. In the following, a procedure named ANN is used for predicting the thermal efficiency values versus the compression ratio, and the minimum and maximum temperatures of the Miller cycle. Nowadays, Miller cycle is widely used in the automotive industry and the obtained results of this study will provide some significant theoretical grounds for the design optimization of the Miller cycle. - Highlights: • The performance of an irreversible Miller cycle is investigated using FFT. • The effects of design parameters on the performance of the cycle are investigated. • ANN is applied to predict the thermal efficiency and the power output values. • There is an excellent correlation between FTT and ANN data. • ANN can be applied to predict data where FTT analysis has not been performed.
Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting: With Thermodynamic-Based Cycles
Saber Mohammadi; Akram Khodayari
2012-01-01
This work deals with energy harvesting from temperature variations using ferroelectric materials as a microgenerator. The previous researches show that direct pyroelectric energy harvesting is not effective, whereas thermodynamic-based cycles give higher energy. Also, at different temperatures some thermodynamic cycles exhibit different behaviours. In this paper pyroelectric energy harvesting using Lenoir and Ericsson thermodynamic cycles has been studied numerically and the two cycles were c...
Advanced adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle: A thermodynamic framework
Chakraborty, Anutosh; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, K. C.
2011-01-01
We have developed a thermodynamic framework to calculate adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle performances as a function of pore widths and pore volumes of highly porous adsorbents, which are formulated from the rigor of thermodynamic property
Evaporative gas turbine cycles. A thermodynamic evaluation of their potential
Rosen, P M
1993-03-01
The report presents a systematic method of thermodynamically evaluating different gas turbine cycles, treating the working fluids as ideal gases (c{sub p}=c{sub p}(T)). All models used to simulate different components in the cycles are presented in the report in detail and then connected in a computer program fully developed by the author. The report focuses on the theme of evaporative gas turbine cycles, in which low level heat is used to evaporate water into the compressed air stream between the compressor and recuperator. This leads to efficiency levels close to a comparable combined cycle but without the steam bottoming cycle. A parametric analysis has been conducted with the aim of deciding the best configuration of an evaporative cycle both for an uncooled expander and for a cooled expander. The model proposed to simulate the cooled expander is a combination between two existing models. (121 refs., 35 figs.,).
Mondal, Subha; De, Sudipta
2017-01-01
Both Organic flash cycle and transcritical CO_2 power cycle (T-CO_2 power cycle) allow cooling of hot flue gas stream to an appreciably lower temperature due to the absence of pinch limitation. In the present study, a combined thermodynamic and economic comparison is conducted between a T-CO_2 power cycle and Organic flash cycles using R-245fa and R600 as the working fluids. It is observed that work output per kg of flue gas flow rate is slightly higher for the T-CO_2 power cycle if the flue gas is allowed to cool to the corresponding lowest possible temperature in the Heat Recovery Unit (HRU). It is also observed that with maximum possible cooling of flue gas, minimum bare module costs (BMCs) for each kW power output of OFCs are somewhat higher compared to that of T-CO_2 power cycle. Minimum BMCs for each kW output of OFCs can be reduced substantially by increasing terminal temperature difference at the low temperature end of the HRU. However, the increasing terminal temperature difference at the low temperature end of the HRU is having negligible effect on BMC ($/kW) of T-CO_2 power cycle. - Highlights: • Combined thermodynamic and economic analysis done for T-CO_2 power cycle and OFC. • With highest heat recovery, T-CO_2 cycle produces slightly higher work output/kg of flue gas. • With highest heat recovery, minimum bare module costs in $/kW is slightly higher for OFCs. • Work outputs/kg of flue gas of all cycles are almost equal for these minimum BMCs. • BMCs in $/kW for OFCs sharply decrease with larger flue gas exit temperature.
Ust, Yasin; Arslan, Feyyaz; Ozsari, Ibrahim; Cakir, Mehmet
2015-01-01
Miller cycle engines are one of the popular engine concepts that are available for improving performance, reducing fuel consumption and NO x emissions. There are many research studies that investigated the modification of existing conventional engines for operation on a Miller cycle. In this context, a comparative performance analysis and optimization based on exergetic performance criterion, total exergy output and exergy efficiency has been carried out for an irreversible Dual–Miller Cycle cogeneration system having finite-rate of heat transfer, heat leak and internal irreversibilities. The EPC (Exergetic Performance Coefficient) criterion defined as the ratio of total exergy output to the loss rate of availability. Performance analysis has been also extended to the Otto–Miller and Diesel-Miller cogeneration cycles which may be considered as two special cases of the Dual–Miller cycle. The effect of the design parameters such as compression ratio, pressure ratio, cut-off ratio, Miller cycle ratio, heat consumer temperature ratio, allocation ratio and the ratio of power to heat consumed have also been investigated. The results obtained from this paper will provide guidance for the design of Dual–Miller Cycle cogeneration system and can be used for selection of optimal design parameters. - Highlights: • A thermodynamic performance estimation tool for DM cogeneration cycle is presented. • Using the model two special cases OM and dM cogeneration cycles can be analyzed. • The effects of r M , ψ, χ 2 and R have been investigated. • The results evaluate exergy output and environmental aspects together.
Sadeghi, Mohsen; Nemati, Arash; Ghavimi, Alireza; Yari, Mortaza
2016-01-01
In this paper, the performance of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) powered by geothermal water, in three different configurations, including the simple ORC, PTORC (parallel two-stage ORC) and STORC (series two-stage ORC), using zeotrpoic working fluids is investigated from the viewpoints of the energy and exergy. In addition, considering the net power output and TSP (turbine size parameter) as the two objective functions, the multi-objective optimization with the aim of maximizing the first function and minimizing the second one, is performed to determine the optimal values of decision variables including evaporators 1 and 2 pressure, the pinch point temperature difference and the superheating degree. The results show that using zeotropic mixtures as the working fluid instead of a pure fluid such as R245fa, leads to 27.76%, 24.98% and 24.79% improvement in power generation in the simple ORC, PTORC and STORC, respectively and also lower values of TSP. Moreover, it is observed that STORC has the highest amount of net power output and R407A can be selected as the most appropriate working fluid. The optimization results demonstrate that at the final optimum point achieved by Pareto frontier, the values of the objective functions are gained 877 kW and 0.08218 m, respectively. - Highlights: • Three different configurations of ORC powered by geothermal water are analyzed. • The thermodynamic performance of these systems using zeotrpoic mixtures is investigated. • Multi-objective optimization is performed to obtain optimum performance. • The Pareto-frontier is used to automatically select the most promising solutions.
Galindo, J.; Ruiz, S.; Dolz, V.; Royo-Pascual, L.; Haller, R.; Nicolas, B.; Glavatskaya, Y.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • An experimental analysis of an ORC is presented and applied to a gasoline engine. • 28 Steady-state operating points have been tested to evaluate expander performance. • Optimum points have been used to analyze power balances and cycle efficiencies. - Abstract: This paper deals with the experimental testing of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) integrate in a 2 liter turbocharged gasoline engine using ethanol as working fluid. The main components of the cycle are a boiler, a condenser, a pump and a swash-plate expander. Five engine operating points have been tested, they correspond to a nominal heat input into the boiler of 5, 12, 20, 25 and 30 kW. With the available bill of material based on prototypes, power balances and cycles efficiencies were estimated, obtaining a maximum improvement in the ICE mechanical power and an expander shaft power of 3.7% and 1.83 kW respectively. A total of 28 steady-state operating points were measured to evaluate performance of the swash-plate expander prototype. Operating parameters of the expander, such as expander speed and expansion ratio, were shifted. The objective of the tests is to master the system and understand physical parameters influence. The importance of each parameter was analyzed by fixing all the parameters, changing each time one specific value. In these sensitivity studies, maximum ideal and real Rankine efficiency value of 19% and 6% were obtained respectively
Glassman, Arthur J.; Jones, Scott M.
1991-01-01
This analysis and this computer code apply to full, split, and dual expander cycles. Heat regeneration from the turbine exhaust to the pump exhaust is allowed. The combustion process is modeled as one of chemical equilibrium in an infinite-area or a finite-area combustor. Gas composition in the nozzle may be either equilibrium or frozen during expansion. This report, which serves as a users guide for the computer code, describes the system, the analysis methodology, and the program input and output. Sample calculations are included to show effects of key variables such as nozzle area ratio and oxidizer-to-fuel mass ratio.
Yu, Jianlin; Xu, Zong; Tian, Gaolei [Department of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, West Xianning Road, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi' an Shaanxi 710049 (China)
2010-12-15
In this study, a thermodynamic analysis on the performance of a transcritical cycle using azeotropic refrigerant mixtures of R32/R290 with mass fraction of 70/30 has been performed. The main purpose of this study is to theoretically verify the possibility of applying the chosen refrigerant mixture in small heat pumps for high temperature water heating applications. Performance evaluation has been carried out for a simple azeotropic mixture R32/R290 transcritical cycle by varying evaporator temperature, outlet temperature of gas cooler and compressor discharge pressure. Furthermore, the effects of an internal heat exchanger on the transcritical R32/R290 cycle have been presented at different operating conditions. The results show that high heating coefficient of performance (COP{sub h}) and volumetric heating capacity can be achieved by using this transcritical cycle. It is desirable to apply the chosen refrigerant mixture R32/R290 in small heat pump water heater for high temperature water heating applications, which may produce hot water with temperature up to 90 C. (author)
Yan, Gang; Bai, Tao; Yu, Jianlin
2016-01-01
This study presents a modified ejector expansion cycle with zeotropic mixtures (R290/R600a) for freezers, in which an ejector and a phase-separator are employed to enhance the cycle performance. Energetic and exergetic methods are used to theoretically investigate the system operating characteristics. In addition, comparative research among the modified cycle, conventional ejector expansion cycle and basic throttling cycle is carried out. The results demonstrate that the modified cycle exhibits higher refrigeration COP (coefficient of performance), volumetric refrigeration capacity and system exergy efficiency than conventional ejector expansion cycle and basic throttling cycle. Under the given operation conditions, the system performance improvements of the modified cycle in terms of the COP, refrigeration capacity and system exergy efficiency over the basic throttling cycle could reach about 56.0%, 4.5% and 77.7%, respectively. The performance characteristics of the proposed cycle show its potential practical advantages in freezer applications. - Highlights: • A zeotropic mixture based ejector refrigeration cycle with a separator is proposed. • Comparative research among the different cycles is carried out. • Energetic and exergetic methods are used to investigate the system performance. • The COP and system exergy efficiency are improved by 56.0% and 77.7%, respectively.
Quantum thermodynamic cycles and quantum heat engines. II.
Quan, H T
2009-04-01
We study the quantum-mechanical generalization of force or pressure, and then we extend the classical thermodynamic isobaric process to quantum-mechanical systems. Based on these efforts, we are able to study the quantum version of thermodynamic cycles that consist of quantum isobaric processes, such as the quantum Brayton cycle and quantum Diesel cycle. We also consider the implementation of the quantum Brayton cycle and quantum Diesel cycle with some model systems, such as single particle in a one-dimensional box and single-mode radiation field in a cavity. These studies lay the microscopic (quantum-mechanical) foundation for Szilard-Zurek single-molecule engine.
Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.; Pioro, Igor
2008-01-01
Increases in the power generation efficiency of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are mainly limited by the permissible temperatures in nuclear reactors and the corresponding temperatures and pressures of the coolants in reactors. Coolant parameters are limited by the corrosion rates of materials and nuclear-reactor safety constraints. The advanced construction materials for the next generation of CANDU reactors, which employ supercritical water (SCW) as a coolant and heat carrier, permit improved 'steam' parameters (outlet temperatures up to 625degC and pressures of about 25 MPa). An increase in the temperature of steam allows it to be utilized in thermochemical water splitting cycles to produce hydrogen. These methods are considered by many to be among the most efficient ways to produce hydrogen from water and to have advantages over traditional low-temperature water electrolysis. However, even lower temperature water splitting cycles (Cu-Cl, UT-3, etc.) require an intensive heat supply at temperatures higher than 550-600degC. A sufficient increase in the heat transfer from the nuclear reactor to a thermochemical water splitting cycle, without jeopardizing nuclear reactor safety, might be effectively achieved by application of a heat pump, which increases the temperature of the heat supplied by virtue of a cyclic process driven by mechanical or electrical work. Here, a high-temperature chemical heat pump, which employs the reversible catalytic methane conversion reaction, is proposed. The reaction shift from exothermic to endothermic and back is achieved by a change of the steam concentration in the reaction mixture. This heat pump, coupled with the second steam cycle of a SCW nuclear power generation plant on one side and a thermochemical water splitting cycle on the other, increases the temperature of the 'nuclear' heat and, consequently, the intensity of heat transfer into the water splitting cycle. A comparative preliminary thermodynamic analysis is conducted of
Song, Jian; Song, Yin; Gu, Chun-wei
2015-01-01
Escalating fuel prices and imposition of carbon dioxide emission limits are creating renewed interest in methods to increase the thermal efficiency of marine diesel engines. One viable means to achieve such improved thermal efficiency is the conversion of engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy, either mechanical or electrical. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology to recover waste heat. This paper examines waste heat recovery of a marine diesel engine using ORC technology. Two separated ORC apparatuses for the waste heat from both the jacket cooling water and the engine exhaust gas are designed as the traditional recovery system. The maximum net power output is chosen as the evaluation criterion to select the suitable working fluid and define the optimal system parameters. To simplify the waste heat recovery, an optimized system using the jacket cooling water as the preheating medium and the engine exhaust gas for evaporation is presented. The influence of preheating temperature on the system performance is evaluated to define the optimal operating condition. Economic and off-design analysis of the optimized system is conducted. The simulation results reveal that the optimized system is technically feasible and economically attractive. - Highlights: • ORC is used to recover waste heat from both exhaust gas and jacket cooling water. • Comparative study is conducted for different ORC systems. • Thermal performance, system structure and economic feasibility are considered. • Optimal preheating temperature of the system is selected
Llagostera, Jorge [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: llagost@fem.unicamp.br
1995-07-01
This paper presents a thermodynamic relation, defined to improve methodologies in Second Law Analysis of thermal systems. This relation is defined dividing the specific thermomechanical exergy by the specific enthalpy of a substance, adopting as reference a selected thermodynamic state. This relation is determined and analyzed for liquid water and steam in a range of temperatures (30 deg C - 700 deg C) and pressures (0.101325 MPa - 18.1 Mpa). The behavior of the proposed relation is compared against the exergy behavior as function of temperature and pressure. The proposed relation can be used to compare and evaluate thermodynamic states that have similar exergy content. It makes possible to identify the states presenting higher exergetic level per enthalpy unit. This concept can be useful in thermodynamic analysis and optimization of steam cycles and thermal processes. (author)
Thermodynamic cycle calculations for a pumped gaseous core fission reactor
Kuijper, J.C.; Van Dam, H.
1991-01-01
Finite and 'infinitesimal' thermodynamic cycle calculations have been performed for a 'solid piston' model of a pumped Gaseous Core Fission Reactor with dissociating reactor gas, consisting of Uranium, Carbon and Fluorine ('UCF'). In the finite cycle calculations the influence has been investigated of several parameters on the thermodynamics of the system, especially on the attainable direct (nuclear to electrical) energy conversion efficiency. In order to facilitate the investigation of the influence of dissociation, a model gas, 'Modelium', was developed, which approximates, in a simplified, analytical way, the dissociation behaviour of the 'real' reactor gas. Comparison of the finite cycle calculation results with those of a so-called infinitesimal Otto cycle calculation leads to the conclusion that the conversion efficiency of a finite cycle can be predicted, without actually performing the finite cycle calculation, with reasonable accuracy, from the so-called 'infinitesimal efficiency factor', which is determined only by the thermodynamic properties of the reactor gas used. (author)
Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud; Larsen, Ulrik
2013-01-01
into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas which fuels the combined solid oxide fuel cells e organic Rankine cycle system to produce electricity. More than a hundred fluids are considered as possible alternative for the organic cycle using non-ideal equations of state (or state-of-the-art equations......A 100 kWe hybrid plant consisting of gasification system, solid oxide fuel cells and organic Rankine cycle is presented. The nominal power is selected based on cultivation area requirement. For the considered output a land of around 0.5 km2 needs to be utilized. Woodchips are introduced...... achieved by simple and double stage organic Rankine cycle plants and around the same efficiency of a combined gasification, solid oxide fuel cells and micro gas turbine plant. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Thermodynamic design of natural gas liquefaction cycles for offshore application
Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung
2014-09-01
A thermodynamic study is carried out for natural gas liquefaction cycles applicable to offshore floating plants, as partial efforts of an ongoing governmental project in Korea. For offshore liquefaction, the most suitable cycle may be different from the on-land LNG processes under operation, because compactness and simple operation are important as well as thermodynamic efficiency. As a turbine-based cycle, closed Claude cycle is proposed to use NG (natural gas) itself as refrigerant. The optimal condition for NG Claude cycle is determined with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS), and the results are compared with fully-developed C3-MR (propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant) JT cycles and various N2 (nitrogen) Brayton cycles in terms of efficiency and compactness. The newly proposed NG Claude cycle could be a good candidate for offshore LNG processes.
A combined thermodynamic cycle used for waste heat recovery of internal combustion engine
He, Maogang; Zhang, Xinxin; Zeng, Ke; Gao, Ke
2011-01-01
In this paper, we present a steady-state experiment, energy balance and exergy analysis of exhaust gas in order to improve the recovery of the waste heat of an internal combustion engine (ICE). Considering the different characteristics of the waste heat of exhaust gas, cooling water, and lubricant, a combined thermodynamic cycle for waste heat recovery of ICE is proposed. This combined thermodynamic cycle consists of two cycles: the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), for recovering the waste heat of lubricant and high-temperature exhaust gas, and the Kalina cycle, for recovering the waste heat of low-temperature cooling water. Based on Peng–Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS), the thermodynamic parameters in the high-temperature ORC were calculated and determined via an in-house computer program. Suitable working fluids used in high-temperature ORC are proposed and the performance of this combined thermodynamic cycle is analyzed. Compared with the traditional cycle configuration, more waste heat can be recovered by the combined cycle introduced in this paper. -- Highlights: ► We study the energy balance of fuel in internal combustion engine. ► Heat recovery effect of exhaust gas is good when ICE is at a high-load condition. ► We propose a new combined thermodynamic cycle for waste heat of ICE. ► The combined cycle has a higher recovery efficiency than previous configurations.
Not all counterclockwise thermodynamic cycles are refrigerators
Dickerson, R. H.; Mottmann, J.
2016-06-01
Clockwise cycles on PV diagrams always represent heat engines. It is therefore tempting to assume that counterclockwise cycles always represent refrigerators. This common assumption is incorrect: most counterclockwise cycles cannot be refrigerators. This surprising result is explored here for quasi-static ideal gas cycles, and the necessary conditions for refrigeration cycles are clarified. Three logically self-consistent criteria can be used to determine if a counterclockwise cycle is a refrigerator. The most fundamental test compares the counterclockwise cycle with a correctly determined corresponding Carnot cycle. Other criteria we employ include a widely accepted description of the functional behavior of refrigerators, and a corollary to the second law that limits a refrigerator's coefficient of performance.
Chen, D.Z.; Yu, C.P.
1990-01-01
A combined thermodynamic cycle using nuclear and hydrogen energy as heat sources was investigated in this paper. The cycle is composed of top cycle using HTGR as energy source and helium as working medium and a bottom cycle with H 2 /O 2 direct combustion product as working substance. hydrogen and oxygen are thermochemically by splitting of water produced through a part of nuclear heat recovered from the top cycle. They may be delivered to the O 2 /H 2 users or used as fuels for the high temperature bottom Rankine steam cycle. The combined cycle not only uses the new energy sources instead of conventional fossil fuels but it possess the advantages of both helium and steam cycle. It has a high thermal efficiency, large unit capacity, many-sided usage and less pollution. It may represent a new type of combined cycles for future energy conversion and power generation. Using computer diagram, a variety of schemes were calculated and analyzed. The influence of some main parameters upon the cycle performance were also studied
Thermodynamic calculation of a district energy cycle
Hoehlein, B.; Bauer, A.; Kraut, G.; Scherberich, F.D.
1975-08-01
This paper presents a calculation model for a nuclear district energy circuit. Such a circuit means the combination of a steam reforming plant with heat supply from a high-temperature nuclear reactor and a methanation plant with heat production for district heating or electricity production. The model comprises thermodynamic calculations for the endothermic methane reforming reaction as well as the exothermic CO-hydrogenation in adiabatic reactors and allows the optimization of the district energy circuit under consideration. (orig.) [de
Thermodynamic analysis of a novel dual-loop organic Rankine cycle for engine waste heat and LNG cold
Sung, Taehong; Kim, Kyung Chun
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A novel dual ORC system is designed for engine waste heat and LNG cold. • Exhaust gas and jacket cooling water are considered as heat sources. • LNG and boil-off gas are considered as heat sinks. • ORC loops are optimized to produce the maximum net work output. - Abstract: The marine sector produces a large portion of total air pollution, so the emissions of the engines used must be improved. This can be achieved using a new eco-friendly engine and waste-heat recovery system. A dual-fuel (DF) engine has been introduced for LNG carriers that is eco-friendly and has high thermal efficiency since it uses natural gas as fuel. The thermal efficiency could be further improved with the organic Rankine cycle (ORC). A novel dual-loop ORC system was designed for DF engines. The upper ORC loop recovers waste heat from the exhaust gas, and the bottom ORC loop recovers waste heat from the jacket cooling water and LNG cold. Both ORC loops were optimized to produce the maximum net work output. The optimum simple dual-loop ORC with n-pentane and R125 as working fluids produces an additional power output of 729.1 kW, which is 4.15% of the original engine output. Further system improvement studies were conducted using a recuperator and preheater, and the feasibility of using boil-off gas as a heat sink was analyzed. Optimization of the system configuration revealed that the preheater and recuperator with n-pentane and R125 as working fluids increase the maximum net work output by 906.4 kW, which is 5.17% of the original engine output.
Thermodynamic Cycle and CFD Analyses for Hydrogen Fueled Air-breathing Pulse Detonation Engines
Povinelli, Louis A.; Yungster, Shaye
2002-01-01
This paper presents the results of a thermodynamic cycle analysis of a pulse detonation engine (PDE) using a hydrogen-air mixture at static conditions. The cycle performance results, namely the specific thrust, fuel consumption and impulse are compared to a single cycle CFD analysis for a detonation tube which considers finite rate chemistry. The differences in the impulse values were indicative of the additional performance potential attainable in a PDE.
Korlu, Mahmood; Pirkandi, Jamasb; Maroufi, Arman
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A gas turbine cycle equipped with a double acting Stirling engine is proposed. • The hybrid cycle effects, efficiency and power outputs are investigated. • The energy dissipation, the net enthalpy loss and wall heat leakage are considered. • The hybrid cycle improves the efficiency from 23.6 to 38.8%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the thermodynamic performance of a gas turbine cycle equipped with a double acting Stirling engine. A portion of gas turbine exhaust gases are allocated to providing the heat required for the Stirling engine. Employing this hybrid cycle improves gas turbine performance and power generation. The double acting Stirling engine is used in this study and the non-ideal adiabatic model is used to numerical solution. The regenerator’s net enthalpy loss, the regenerator’s wall heat leakage, the energy dissipation caused by pressure drops in heat exchangers and regenerator are the losses that were taken into account for the Stirling engine. The hybrid cycle, gas turbine governing equations and Stirling engine analyses are carried out using the Matlab software. The pressure ratio of the compressor, the inlet temperature of turbine, the porosity, length and diameter of the regenerator were chosen as essential parameters in this article. Also the hybrid cycle effects, efficiency and power outputs are investigated. The results show that the hybrid gas turbine and Stirling engine improves the efficiency from 23.6 to 38.8%.
Li, Keqiao; Cai, Dehua; Liu, Yue; Jiang, Jingkai; Sun, Wei; He, Guogeng
2017-01-01
Graphical abstract: A novel air-cooled non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle using R290/refrigeration oil has been thermodynamically analyzed. Influences of the ejector and the non-adiabatic absorber applications on the system performance and other system operation parameters have been investigated. The simulation results will be of great help to the miniaturization and practical application of the air-cooled absorption refrigeration system. - Highlights: • A novel air-cooled non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle is proposed. • Influences of the ejector and the air-cooled non-adiabatic absorber applications on the system performance are investigated. • Variations of system performance and other system operation parameters are investigated. • R290/refrigeration oil mixture used as working pairs is analyzed. - Abstract: This paper thermodynamically analyzes a novel air-cooled non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle with R290/oil mixture driven by exhaust heat. An ejector located at the upstream of the non-adiabatic absorber is employed to improve the cycle performance. Variations of COP, circulation ratio and component heat load of the system as a function of generating temperature, pressure ratio, absorption temperature, condensing temperature and evaporating temperature have been investigated in this work. The simulation results show that, compared with the conventional absorption refrigeration cycle, this non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle has higher absorption efficiency, better performance, wider working condition range and lower total heat load and its COP can reach as high as 0.5297. The implementation of the ejector and the non-adiabatic absorber helps to realize the miniaturization and wider application of the absorption refrigeration system. In addition, R290/oil mixture is a kind of highly potential working pairs for absorption refrigeration.
Choi, Byung Chul; Kim, Young Min
2013-01-01
A dual loop waste heat recovery power generation system that comprises an upper trilateral cycle and a lower organic Rankine cycle, in which discharged exhaust gas heat is recovered and re-used for propulsion power, was theoretically applied to an internal combustion engine for propulsion in a 6800 TEU container ship. The thermodynamic properties of this exhaust gas heat recovery system, which vary depending on the boundary temperature between the upper and lower cycles, were also investigated. The results confirmed that this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system exhibited a maximum net output of 2069.8 kW, and a maximum system efficiency of 10.93% according to the first law of thermodynamics and a maximum system exergy efficiency of 58.77% according to the second law of thermodynamics. In this case, the energy and exergy efficiencies of the dual loop system were larger than those of the single loop trilateral cycle. Further, in the upper trilateral cycle, the volumetric expansion ratio of the turbine could be considerably reduced to an adequate level to be employed in the practical system. When this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system was applied to the main engine of the container ship, which was actually in operation, a 2.824% improvement in propulsion efficiency was confirmed in comparison to the case of a base engine. This improvement in propulsion efficiency resulted in about 6.06% reduction in the specific fuel oil consumption and specific CO 2 emissions of the main engine during actual operation. - Highlights: • WHRS was theoretically applied to exhaust gas of a main engine for ship propulsion. • A dual loop EG-WHRS using water and R1234yf as working fluids has been suggested. • Limitation of single loop trilateral cycle was improved by the dual loop system. • The propulsion efficiency of 2.824% was improved by the dual loop EG-WHRS. • This resulted in about 6.06% reduction in the SFOC and specific CO
Vatani, Ali; Khazaeli, Ali; Roshandel, Ramin; Panjeshahi, Mohammad Hassan
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Using an integrated pre-reformer before feeding a DIR-MCFC is proposed. ► An ORC with different working fluid is used for waste heat recovery from the proposed plant. ► Performance of compound system is evaluated by thermodynamic analysis. ► An improvement on simultaneously heat integration between the units and waste heat recovery is performed. ► Overall energy and exergy efficiencies are found to be 60.45% and 57.75%. - Abstract: This work deals with waste heat recovery from a proposed direct internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell (DIR-MCFC), including an integrated pre-reformer. In this regard, some advantages are attainable over exhaust gas recycling. For instance, due to low temperature in the pre-reformer, carbon deposition and coke formation resulting from higher hydrocarbons can be eliminated. In this study, the cathode outlet provides the heat requirement for the pre-reforming process. After partial heat recovery from the cathode outlet, the stream still has a considerable energy and exergy (352.55 °C and 83.687 kW respectively). This study investigates waste heat recovery from the proposed DIR-MCFC, using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with two different configurations. In the first case, the cathode outlet provides the heat requirement for the pre-reforming process; then, it enters the heat recovery vapor generator of the organic Rankine cycle. In the second case, the cathode outlet is split into two streams for using in an ORC and supplying the pre-reforming process required heat. Several substances are selected as working fluids in order to compare their performance in the waste heat recovery system. The overall results at optimum conditions indicate that the energy and exergy efficiencies of the compound system are increased and its exergy loss is decreased with cathode splitting for all substances (1.1% average over all fluids). It is concluded that cathode splitting has a significant impact on the substances which
Thermodynamic analysis of chemical heat pumps
Obermeier, Jonas; Müller, Karsten; Arlt, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
Thermal energy storages and heat pump units represent an important part of high efficient renewable energy systems. By using thermally driven, reversible chemical reactions a combination of thermal energy storage and heat pump can be realized. The influences of thermophysical properties of the involved components on the efficiency of a heat pump cycle is analysed and the relevance of the thermodynamic driving force is worked out. In general, the behaviour of energetic and exergetic efficiency is contrary. In a real cycle, higher enthalpies of reaction decrease the energetic efficiency but increase the exergetic efficiency. Higher enthalpies of reaction allow for lower offsets from equilibrium state for a default thermodynamic driving force of the reaction. - Highlights: • A comprehensive efficiency analysis of gas-solid heat pumps is proposed. • Link between thermodynamic driving force and equilibrium drop is shown. • Calculation of the equilibrium drop based on thermochemical properties. • Reaction equilibria of the decomposition reaction of salt hydrates. • Contrary behavior of energetic and exergetic efficiency
Multi-pressure boiler thermodynamics analysis code
Lorenzoni, G.
1992-01-01
A new method and the relative FORTRAN program for the thermodynamics design analysis of a multipressure boiler are reported. This method permits the thermodynamics design optimization with regard to total exergy production and a preliminary costs
Fermi, Enrico
1956-01-01
Indisputably, this is a modern classic of science. Based on a course of lectures delivered by the author at Columbia University, the text is elementary in treatment and remarkable for its clarity and organization. Although it is assumed that the reader is familiar with the fundamental facts of thermometry and calorimetry, no advanced mathematics beyond calculus is assumed.Partial contents: thermodynamic systems, the first law of thermodynamics (application, adiabatic transformations), the second law of thermodynamics (Carnot cycle, absolute thermodynamic temperature, thermal engines), the entr
Thermodynamic evaluation of the Kalina split-cycle concepts for waste heat recovery applications
Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Knudsen, Thomas; Larsen, Ulrik; Haglind, Fredrik
2014-01-01
The Kalina split-cycle is a thermodynamic process for converting thermal energy into electrical power. It uses an ammonia–water mixture as a working fluid (like a conventional Kalina cycle) and has a varying ammonia concentration during the pre-heating and evaporation steps. This second feature results in an improved match between the heat source and working fluid temperature profiles, decreasing the entropy generation in the heat recovery system. The present work compares the thermodynamic performance of this power cycle with the conventional Kalina process, and investigates the impact of varying boundary conditions by conducting an exergy analysis. The design parameters of each configuration were determined by performing a multi-variable optimisation. The results indicate that the Kalina split-cycle with reheat presents an exergetic efficiency by 2.8% points higher than a reference Kalina cycle with reheat, and by 4.3% points without reheat. The cycle efficiency varies by 14% points for a variation of the exhaust gas temperature of 100 °C, and by 1% point for a cold water temperature variation of 30 °C. This analysis also pinpoints the large irreversibilities in the low-pressure turbine and condenser, and indicates a reduction of the exergy destruction by about 23% in the heat recovery system compared to the baseline cycle. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic performance of the Kalina split-cycle is assessed. • The Kalina split-cycle is compared to the Kalina cycle, with and without reheat. • An exergy analysis is performed to evaluate its thermodynamic performance. • The impact of varying boundary conditions is investigated. • The Kalina split-cycle displays high exergetic efficiency for low- and medium-temperature applications
Thermodynamic Optimization of Supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycles
Rhim, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sung-Ho; Kim, Su-Hyun; Yeom, Choong-Sub [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
The supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle has been studied for nuclear applications, mainly for one of the alternative power conversion systems of the sodium cooled fast reactor, since 1960's. Although the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle has not been expected to show higher efficiency at lower turbine inlet temperature over the conventional steam Rankine cycle, the higher density of supercritical CO{sub 2} like a liquid in the supercritical region could reduce turbo-machinery sizes, and the potential problem of sodium-water reaction with the sodium cooled fast reactor might be solved with the use of CO{sub 2} instead of water. The supercritical CO{sub 2} recompression Brayton cycle was proposed for the better thermodynamic efficiency than for the simple supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. Thus this paper presents the efficiencies of the supercritical CO{sub 2} recompression Brayton cycle along with several decision variables for the thermodynamic optimization of the supercritical CO{sub 2} recompression Brayton cycle. The analytic results in this study show that the system efficiency reaches its maximum value at a compressor outlet pressure of 200 bars and a recycle fraction of 30 %, and the lower minimum temperature approach at the two heat exchangers shows higher system efficiency as expected.
Thermodynamic performance optimization of a combined power/cooling cycle
Pouraghaie, M.; Atashkari, K.; Besarati, S.M.; Nariman-zadeh, N.
2010-01-01
A combined thermal power and cooling cycle has already been proposed in which thermal energy is used to produce work and to generate a sub-ambient temperature stream that is suitable for cooling applications. The cycle uses ammonia-water mixture as working fluid and is a combination of a Rankine cycle and absorption cycle. The very high ammonia vapor concentration, exiting turbine under certain operating conditions, can provide power output as well as refrigeration. In this paper, the goal is to employ multi-objective algorithms for Pareto approach optimization of thermodynamic performance of the cycle. It has been carried out by varying the selected design variables, namely, turbine inlet pressure (P h ), superheater temperature (T superheat ) and condenser temperature (T condensor ). The important conflicting thermodynamic objective functions that have been considered in this study are turbine work (w T ), cooling capacity (q cool ) and thermal efficiency (η th ) of the cycle. It is shown that some interesting and important relationships among optimal objective functions and decision variables involved in the combined cycle can be discovered consequently. Such important relationships as useful optimal design principles would have not been obtained without the use of a multi-objective optimization approach.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Ionic Compounds: Synthetic Applications.
Yoder, Claude H.
1986-01-01
Shows how thermodynamic cycles can be used to understand trends in heats of formation and aqueous solubilities and, most importantly, how they may be used to choose synthetic routes to new ionic compounds. (JN)
La, Dong; Li, Yong; Dai, Yanjun; Ge, Tianshu; Wang, Ruzhu
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Effects of irreversible processes on the performance of desiccant cooling cycle are identified. ► The exergy destructions involved are classified by the properties of the individual processes. ► Appropriate indexes for thermodynamic evaluation are proposed based on thermodynamic analyses. - Abstract: Thermodynamic analyses of desiccant cooling cycle usually focus on the overall cycle performance in previous study. In this paper, the effects of the individual irreversible processes in each component on thermodynamic performance are analyzed in detail. The objective of this paper is to reveal the elemental features of the individual components, and to show their effects on the thermodynamic performance of the whole cycle in a fundamental way. Appropriate indexes for thermodynamic evaluation are derived based on the first and second law analyses. A generalized model independent of the connection of components is developed. The results indicate that as the effectiveness of the desiccant wheel increases, the cycle performance is increased principally due to the significant reduction in exergy carried out by exhaust air. The corresponding exergy destruction coefficient of the cycle with moderate performance desiccant wheel is decreased greatly to 3.9%, which is more than 50% lower than that of the cycle with low performance desiccant wheel. The effect of the heat source is similar. As the temperature of the heat source increases from 60 °C to 90 °C, the percentage of exergy destruction raised by exhaust air increases sharply from 5.3% to 21.8%. High heat exchanger effectiveness improves the cycle performance mainly by lowering the irreversibility of the heat exchanger, using less regeneration heat and pre-cooling the process air effectively
Heat exchangers for high-temperature thermodynamic cycles
Fraas, A.P.
1975-01-01
The special requirements of heat exchangers for high temperature thermodynamic cycles are outlined and discussed with particular emphasis on cost and thermal stress problems. Typical approaches that have been taken to a comprehensive solution intended to meet all of the many boundary conditions are then considered by examining seven typical designs including liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers for nuclear plants, a heater for a closed cycle gas turbine coupled to a fluidized bed coal combustion chamber, steam generators for nuclear plants, a fossil fuel-fired potassium boiler, and a potassium condenser-steam generator. (auth)
Thermodynamic studies of a HAT cycle and its components
Nyberg, Bjoern; Thern, Marcus
2012-01-01
Highlights: → Performance maps for HAT cycles with different complexity are shown. → A suggestion, where to extract cooling air for the turbine is presented. → The influence of the makeup water on total efficiency is shown. → The optimal pressure level for intercooling is described. -- Abstract: The electric power grid contains more and more renewable power production such as wind and solar power. The use of renewable power sources increases the fluctuations in the power grid which increase the demand for highly efficient, fast-starting power-producing units that can cope with sudden production losses. One of the more innovative power plant cycles, that have the potential of competing with conventional combined power plants in efficiency but has a higher availability and faster start up time, is the Evaporative Gas Turbine (EvGT) or Humid Air Turbine (HAT). A thermodynamic evaluation of different HAT cycle layouts has been done in this paper. Each layout is evaluated separately which makes it possible to study different components individual contribution to the efficiency and specific power. The thermodynamic evaluation also shows that it is important to look at different cool-flow extracting positions. The effect of water temperature entering the cycle, called make-up water, and where it is introduced into the cycle has been evaluated. The make-up water temperature also affects the optimal pressure level for intercooling and it is shown that an optimal position can be decided considering design parameters of the compressor and the water circuit.
Perform Thermodynamics Measurements on Fuel Cycle Case Study Systems
Martin, Leigh R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2014-09-01
This document was prepared to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M3FT-14IN0304022, “Perform Thermodynamics Measurements on Fuel Cycle Case Study Systems.” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics FCR&D work package. This document reports preliminary work in support of determining the thermodynamic parameters for the ALSEP process. The ALSEP process is a mixed extractant system comprised of a cation exchanger 2-ethylhexyl-phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) and a neutral solvating extractant N,N,N’,N’-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA). The extractant combination produces complex organic phase chemistry that is challenging for traditional measurement techniques. To neutralize the complexity, temperature dependent solvent extraction experiments were conducted with neat TODGA and scaled down concentrations of the ALSEP formulation to determine the enthalpies of extraction for the two conditions. A full set of thermodynamic data for Eu, Am, and Cm extraction by TODGA from 3.0 M HNO3 is reported. These data are compared to previous extraction results from a 1.0 M HNO3 aqueous medium, and a short discussion of the mixed HEH[EHP]/TODGA system results is offered.
Biological catalysis of the hydrological cycle: life's thermodynamic function
Michaelian, K.
2011-01-01
Darwinian theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere on the surface of the Earth of greatest biomass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of a vast amount of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its apparently life barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The dissipation of sunlight into heat by organic molecules in the biosphere and its coupling to the water cycle (as well as other abiotic processes), is by far the greatest entropy producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function; acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding irreversible abiotic process such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants of the plants and cyanobacteria, helping them to grow and to spread into initially inhospitable areas.
Chen, Qun; Xu, Yun-Chao; Hao, Jun-Hong
2014-01-01
Highlights: • An optimization method for practical thermodynamic cycle is developed. • The entransy-based heat transfer analysis and thermodynamic analysis are combined. • Theoretical relation between system requirements and design parameters is derived. • The optimization problem can be converted into conditional extremum problem. • The proposed method provides several useful optimization criteria. - Abstract: A thermodynamic cycle usually consists of heat transfer processes in heat exchangers and heat-work conversion processes in compressors, expanders and/or turbines. This paper presents a new optimization method for effective improvement of thermodynamic cycle performance with the combination of entransy theory and thermodynamics. The heat transfer processes in a gas refrigeration cycle are analyzed by entransy theory and the heat-work conversion processes are analyzed by thermodynamics. The combination of these two analysis yields a mathematical relation directly connecting system requirements, e.g. cooling capacity rate and power consumption rate, with design parameters, e.g. heat transfer area of each heat exchanger and heat capacity rate of each working fluid, without introducing any intermediate variable. Based on this relation together with the conditional extremum method, we theoretically derive an optimization equation group. Simultaneously solving this equation group offers the optimal structural and operating parameters for every single gas refrigeration cycle and furthermore provides several useful optimization criteria for all the cycles. Finally, a practical gas refrigeration cycle is taken as an example to show the application and validity of the newly proposed optimization method
Plaznik, Uroš; Tušek, Jaka; Kitanovski, Andrej; Poredoš, Alojz
2013-01-01
We have analyzed the influence of different magnetic thermodynamic cycles on the performance of a magnetic cooling device with an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) based on the Brayton, Ericsson and Hybrid Brayton–Ericsson cycles. Initially, a numerical simulation was performed using a 1D, time-dependent, numerical model. Then a comparison was made with respect to the cooling power and the COP for different temperature spans. We showed that applying the Ericsson or the Hybrid Brayton–Ericsson cycle with an AMR, instead of the standard Brayton cycle, can increase the efficiency of the selected cooling device. Yet, in the case of the Ericsson cycle, the cooling power was decreased compared to the Hybrid and especially compared to the Brayton cycle. Next, an experimental analysis was carried out using a linear-type magnetic cooling device. Again, the Brayton, Ericsson and Hybrid Brayton–Ericsson cycles with an AMR were compared with respect to the cooling power and the COP for different temperature spans. The results of the numerical simulation were confirmed. The Hybrid Brayton–Ericsson cycle with an AMR showed the best performance if a no-load temperature span was considered as a criterion. -- Highlights: • New thermodynamic cycles with an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) are presented. • Three different thermodynamic cycles with an AMR were analyzed. • Numerical and experimental analyses were carried out. • The best overall performance was achieved with the Hybrid Brayton–Ericsson cycle. • With this cycle the temperature span of test device was increased by almost 10%
Thermodynamic modelling of a recompression CO_2 power cycle for low temperature waste heat recovery
Banik, Shubham; Ray, Satyaki; De, Sudipta
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Thermodynamic model for recompression T-CO_2 is developed. • Energetic and exergetic analysis compared with S-CO_2 and Reg. Brayton cycle. • Maximum efficiency of 13.6% is obtained for T-CO_2 cycle. • Optimum recompression ratio of 0.48 is obtained for minimum irreversibility. • Reg. Brayton has better efficiency, T-CO_2 offers minimum irreversibility. - Abstract: Due to the rising prices of conventional fossil fuels, increasing the overall thermal efficiency of a power plant is essential. One way of doing this is waste heat recovery. This recovery is most difficult for low temperature waste heat, below 240 °C, which also covers majority of the waste heat source. Carbon dioxide, with its low critical temperature and pressure, offers an advantage over ozone-depleting refrigerants used in Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) and hence is most suitable for the purpose. This paper introduces parametric optimization of a transcritical carbon dioxide (T-CO_2) power cycle which recompresses part of the total mass flow of working fluid before entering the precooler, thereby showing potential for higher cycle efficiency. Thermodynamic model for a recompression T-CO_2 power cycle has been developed with waste heat source of 2000 kW and at a temperature of 200 °C. Results obtained from this model are analysed to estimate effects on energetic and exergetic performances of the power cycle with varying pressure and mass recompression ratio. Higher pressure ratio always improves thermodynamic performance of the cycle – both energetic and exergetic. Higher recompression ratio also increases exergetic efficiency of the cycle. However, it increases energy efficiency, only if precooler inlet temperature remains constant. Maximum thermal efficiency of the T-CO_2 cycle with a recompression ratio of 0.26 has been found to be 13.6%. To minimize total irreversibility of the cycle, an optimum ratio of 0.48 was found to be suitable.
Thermodynamic analysis of biochemical systems
Yuan, Y.; Fan, L.T.; Shieh, J.H.
1989-01-01
Introduction of the concepts of the availability (or exergy), datum level materials, and the dead state has been regarded as some of the most significant recent developments in classical thermodynamics. Not only the available energy balance but also the material and energy balances of a biological system may be established in reference to the datum level materials in the dead state or environment. In this paper these concepts are illustrated with two examples of fermentation and are shown to be useful in identifying sources of thermodynamic inefficiency, thereby leading naturally to the rational definition of thermodynamic efficiency of a biochemical process
Olga V. Vysokomornaya
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer processes with phase transition is developed. It allows analysis of integral characteristics for the condenser setup of independent power-supply plant with the organic Rankine cycle. Different kinds of organic liquids can be used as a coolant and working substance. The temperatures of the working liquid at the condenser outlet under different values of outside air temperature are determined. The comparative analysis of the utilization efficiency of different cooling systems and organic coolants is carried out.
Mathematical modeling of the complete thermodynamic cycle of a new Atkinson cycle gas engine
Shojaeefard, Mohammad Hassan; Keshavarz, Mojtaba
2015-01-01
The Atkinson cycle provides the potential to increase the efficiency of SI engines using overexpansion concept. This also will suggest decrease in CO_2 generation by internal combustion engine. In this study a mathematical modeling of complete thermodynamic cycle of a new two-stroke Atkinson cycle SI engine will be presented. The mathematical modeling is carried out using two-zone combustion analysis in order to make the model predict exhaust emission so that its values could be compared with the values of conventional SI engine. The model also is validated against experimental tests in that increase in efficiency is achieved compared to conventional SI engines. - Highlights: • The complete cycle model for the rotary Atkinson engine was developed. • Comparing the results with experimental data shows good model validity. • The model needs further improvement for the scavenging phase. • There is 5% increment in thermal efficiency with new engine compared to conventional SI engines.
Vysokomorny Vladimir S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer processes with phase transition is developed. It allows analyzing of integral characteristics for the condenser setup of independent power-supply plant with the organic Rankine cycle. Different kinds of organic liquids can be used as a coolant and working substance. The temperatures of the working liquid at the condenser outlet under different values of outside air temperature are determined. The comparative analysis of the utilization efficiency of different cooling systems and organic coolants is carried out.
Thermodynamic analysis of elastic-plastic deformation
Lubarda, V.
1981-01-01
The complete set of constitutive equations which fully describes the behaviour of material in elastic-plastic deformation is derived on the basis of thermodynamic analysis of the deformation process. The analysis is done after the matrix decomposition of the deformation gradient is introduced into the structure of thermodynamics with internal state variables. The free energy function, is decomposed. Derive the expressions for the stress response, entropy and heat flux, and establish the evolution equation. Finally, we establish the thermodynamic restrictions of the deformation process. (Author) [pt
Thermodynamic analysis of solar assisted multi-functional trigeneration system
Önder KIZILKAN
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this study, modelling and thermodynamic analysis of solar assisted trigeneration system was carried out. The required thermal energy for gas and vapor cycles were supplied from solar tower which is a new concept for gas cycle applications. Additionally, an absorption refrigeration cycle, vapor production process, drying process and water heating process were integrated to the system. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the trigeneration system were determined by the application of first and second law analyses. The results showed that the gas cycle efficiency was found to be 31%, vapor cycle efficiency was found to be 28% and coefficient of performance (COP values of the refrigeration system was found to be 0.77. Also the highest exergy destruction rate was found to be 4154 kW in solar tower.Keywords: Solar tower, Trigeneration, Gas cycle, Vapor cycle, Energy, Exergy
Song, Jian; Li, Yan; Gu, Chun-wei; Zhang, Li
2014-01-01
Low-grade waste heat source accounts for a large part of the total industrial waste heat, which cannot be efficiently recovered. The ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) system has been proved to be a promising solution for the utilization of low-grade heat sources. It is evident that there might be several waste heat sources distributing in different temperature levels in one industry unit, and the entire recovery system will be extremely large and complex if the different heat sources are utilized one by one through several independent ORC subsystems. This paper aims to design and optimize a comprehensive ORC system to recover multi-strand waste heat sources in Shijiazhuang Refining and Chemical Company in China, involving defining suitable working fluids and operating parameters. Thermal performance is a first priority criterion for the system, and system simplicity, technological feasibility and economic factors are considered during optimization. Four schemes of the recovery system are presented in continuous optimization progress. By comparison, the scheme of dual integrated subsystems with R141B as a working fluid is optimal. Further analysis is implemented from the view of economic factors and off-design conditions. The analytical method and optimization progress presented can be widely applied in similar multi-strand waste heat sources recovery. - Highlights: • This paper focuses on the recovery of multi-strand waste heat sources. • ORC technology is used as a promising solution for the recovery. • Thermal performance, system simplicity and economic factors are considered
Thermodynamics, thermoeconomic and economic analysis of ...
The thermoeconomic analysis proposes the distribution of costs based on thermodynamic concepts, enabling the evaluation of reflection of the investment costs and fuel in the cost of products (steam and electricity). The economic analysis acts as a deciding factor for acceptance or project rejection. Keywords: Cogeneration ...
Saikawa, Michiyuki; Koyama, Shigeru
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The ideal vapor compression cycle for tap water heating and its COP were defined. • It was verified theoretically that CO_2 achieves the highest COP for tap water heating. • The prototype of CO_2 heat pump water heater for residential use was developed. • Further COP improvement of CO_2 heat pump water heater was estimated. - Abstract: The ideal vapor compression cycle for tap water heating and its coefficient of performance (COP) have been studied theoretically at first. The ideal cycle is defined as the cycle whose high temperature heat source varies temperature with constant specific heat and other processes are same as the reverse Carnot cycle. The COP upper limit of single stage compression heat pump cycle for tap water heating with various refrigerants such as fluorocarbons and natural refrigerants was calculated. The refrigerant which achieves the highest COP for supplying hot water is CO_2. Next, the prototype of CO_2 heat pump water heater for residential use has been developed. Its outline and experimental results are described. Finally its further possibility of COP improvement has been studied. The COP considered a limit from a technical point of view was estimated about 6.0 at the Japanese shoulder season (spring and autumn) test condition of heating water from 17 °C to 65 °C at 16 °C heat source air temperature (dry bulb)/12 °C (wet bulb).
Thermodynamic analysis of a pulse tube engine
Moldenhauer, Stefan; Thess, André; Holtmann, Christoph; Fernández-Aballí, Carlos
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Numerical model of the pulse tube engine process. ► Proof that the heat transfer in the pulse tube is out of phase with the gas velocity. ► Proof that a free piston operation is possible. ► Clarifying the thermodynamic working principle of the pulse tube engine. ► Studying the influence of design parameters on the engine performance. - Abstract: The pulse tube engine is an innovative simple heat engine based on the pulse tube process used in cryogenic cooling applications. The working principle involves the conversion of applied heat energy into mechanical power, thereby enabling it to be used for electrical power generation. Furthermore, this device offers an opportunity for its wide use in energy harvesting and waste heat recovery. A numerical model has been developed to study the thermodynamic cycle and thereby help to design an experimental engine. Using the object-oriented modeling language Modelica, the engine was divided into components on which the conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy were applied. These components were linked via exchanged mass and enthalpy. The resulting differential equations for the thermodynamic properties were integrated numerically. The model was validated using the measured performance of a pulse tube engine. The transient behavior of the pulse tube engine’s underlying thermodynamic properties could be evaluated and studied under different operating conditions. The model was used to explore the pulse tube engine process and investigate the influence of design parameters.
Zhu, Z. G.; Zhuang, M.; Jiang, Q. F.; Y Zhang, Q.; Feng, H. S.
2017-12-01
In 310-80 K pre-cooling stage, the temperature of the HP helium stream reduces to about 80 K where nearly 73% of the enthalpy drop from room temperature to 4.5 K occurs. Apart from the most common liquid nitrogen pre-cooling, another 310-80 K pre-cooling configuration with turbine is employed in some helium cryoplants. In this paper, thermodynamic and economical performance of these two kinds of 310-80 K pre-cooling stage configurations has been studied at different operating conditions taking discharge pressure, isentropic efficiency of turbines and liquefaction rate as independent parameters. The exergy efficiency, total UA of heat exchangers and operating cost of two configurations are computed. This work will provide a reference for choosing 310-80 K pre-cooling stage configuration during design.
Thermodynamic analysis of algal biocrude production
Beal, C.M.; Hebner, R.E.; Webber, M.E.
2012-01-01
Although algal biofuels possess great potential, profitable production is quite challenging. Much of this challenge is rooted in the thermodynamic constraints associated with producing fuels with high energy, low entropy, and high exergy from dispersed materials. In this study, a preliminary thermodynamic analysis is presented that calculates the energy, entropy, and exergy of the intermediate products for algal biocrude production. These values are also used in an initial attempt to characterize the thermodynamic efficiency of that system. The production pathway is simplified by assuming ideal solutions throughout. Results for the energy and exergy efficiencies, and the first-order energy and exergy return on investment, of the system are given. The summary finding is that the first-order energy return on investment in the best case considered could be as high as 520, as compared to 1.7 × 10 −3 in the experimental unit under development. While this analysis shows that significant improvement may be possible, the ultimate thermodynamic efficiency of algal biofuels likely lies closer to the moderate case examined here, which yielded a first-order energy return on investment of 10. For perspective, the first-order energy return on investment for oil and gas production has been estimated in the literature to be ∼35. -- Highlights: ► A first-principles thermodynamic analysis was conducted for algal biocrude production. ► The energy, entropy, and exergy was determined for each intermediate product by assuming the products were ideal solutions. ► The thermodynamic properties were used to calculate the energy and exergy return on investments for three cases. ► It was determined that the energy and exergy return on investments could be as high as ∼500. ► More realistic assumptions for efficient systems yielded return on investments on the order of 10.
Thermodynamic assessment of a wind turbine based combined cycle
Rabbani, M.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G.F.
2012-01-01
Combined cycles use the exhaust gases released from a Gas Turbine (GT). Approximately 30–40% of the turbine shaft work is typically used to drive the Compressor. The present study analyzes a system that couples a Wind Turbine (WT) with a combined cycle. It demonstrates how a WT can be used to supply power to the Compressor in the GT cycle and pump fluid through a reheat Rankine cycle, in order to increase the overall power output. Three different configurations are discussed, namely high penetration, low penetration and wind power addition. In the case of a low electricity demand and high penetration configuration, extra wind power is used to compress air which can then be used in the low penetration configuration. During a high load demand, all the wind power is used to drive the pump and compressor and if required additional compressed air is supplied by a storage unit. The analysis shows that increasing the combustion temperature reduces the critical velocity and mass flow rate. Increases in wind speed reduce both energy and exergy efficiency of the overall system. -- Highlights: ► This study analyzes a system that couples a wind turbine with a combined power generation cycle. ► Surplus wind power is used to compress air, which is then stored and used at a later time. ► Increasing the pressure ratio will reduce the work ratio between the Rankine and Brayton cycles. ► A higher combustion temperature will increase the net work output, as well as the system energy and exergy efficiencies.
Thermodynamical analysis of human thermal comfort
Prek, Matjaz
2006-01-01
Traditional methods of human thermal comfort analysis are based on the first law of thermodynamics. These methods use an energy balance of the human body to determine heat transfer between the body and its environment. By contrast, the second law of thermodynamics introduces the useful concept of exergy. It enables the determination of the exergy consumption within the human body dependent on human and environmental factors. Human body exergy consumption varies with the combination of environmental (room) conditions. This process is related to human thermal comfort in connection with temperature, heat, and mass transfer. In this paper a thermodynamic analysis of human heat and mass transfer based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics in presented. It is shown that the human body's exergy consumption in relation to selected human parameters exhibits a minimal value at certain combinations of environmental parameters. The expected thermal sensation also shows that there is a correlation between exergy consumption and thermal sensation. Thus, our analysis represents an improvement in human thermal modelling and gives more information about the environmental impact on expected human thermal sensation
A point of view on Otto cycle approach specific for an undergraduate thermodynamics course in CMU
Memet, F.; Preda, A.
2015-11-01
This paper refers to the description of the way in which can be presented to future marine engineers the analyzis of the performance of an Otto cycle, in a manner which is beyond the classic approach of the course of thermodynamics in Constanta Maritime University. The conventional course of thermodynamics is dealing with the topic of performance analysis of the cycle of the internal combustion engine with isochoric combustion for the situation in which the working medium is treated as such a perfect gas. This type of approach is viable only when are considered relatively small temperature differences. But this is the situation when specific heats are seen as constant. Instead, the practical experience has shown that small temperature differences are not viable, resulting the need for variable specific heat evaluation. The presentation bellow is available for the adiabatic exponent written as a liniar function depending on temperature. In the section of this paper dedicated to methods and materials, the situation in which the specific heat is taken as constant is not neglected, additionaly being given the algorithm for variable specific heat.For the both cases it is given the way in which it is assessed the work output. The calculus is based on the cycle shown in temperature- entropy diagram, in which are also indicated the irreversible adiabatic compression and expansion. The experience achieved after understanding this theory will allow to future professionals to deal successfully with the design practice of internal combustion engines.
Thermodynamic analysis of a supercritical water reactor
Edwards, M.
2007-01-01
A thermodynamic model has been developed for a hypothetical design of a Supercritical Water Reactor, with emphasis on Canadian design criteria. The model solves for cycle efficiency, mass flows and physical conditions throughout the plant based on input parameters of operating pressures and efficiencies of components. The model includes eight feedwater heaters, three feedwater pumps, a deaerator, a condenser, the core, three turbines and two reheaters. To perform the calculations, Microsoft Excel was used in conjunction with FLUIDCAL-IAPWS95 and VBA code. The calculations show that a thermal efficiency of 47.5% can be achieved with a core outlet temperature of 625 o C. (author)
Salehzadeh, A.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; JalaliVahid, D.
2013-01-01
Multiple energy generating cycles such as tri-generation cycles, which produce heat and cold in addition to power through burning of a primary fuel, have increasingly been used in recent decades. On the other hand, advanced exergy analysis of thermodynamic systems by splitting exergy destruction into endogenous and exogenous parts identifies internal irreversibilities of each of the components and the effect of these irreversibilities on the performance of other components. Therefore, main sources of exergy destruction in cycles can be highlighted and useful recommendations in order to improve the performance of thermodynamic cycles can be presented. In the present work, a tri-generation cycle with 100 MW power production, 70 MW heat and 9 MW cooling capacity is considered. For this tri-generation cycle, effects of various thermodynamic parameters on the amount of endogenous and exogenous exergy destructions, exergy loss and the amount of fuel consumption, are investigated. The results indicate that, increasing compressor pressure ratio, pre-heater outlet temperature and excess air leads to better combustion and lower exergy loss and fuel consumption. Increasing the mass flow rate of steam generator, while keeping the cycle outlet temperature constant and considering cooling capacity variable, lead to increase the first- and second-law efficiencies of the cycle. - Highlights: ► Advanced exergy analysis is used to analyze a tri-generation cycle. ► Increasing compressor pressure ratio leads to lower exergy loss and fuel consumption. ► Exergy loss is lowered by increasing pre-heater outlet temperature. ► Increasing the air flow rate of the cycle improves the performance of the cycle
Yamaji, K [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)
1980-07-01
Systems analysis of the thorium cycle, a nuclear fuel cycle accomplished by using thorium, is reported in this paper. Following a brief review on the history of the thorium cycle development, analysis is made on the three functions of the thorium cycle; (1) auxiliary system of U-Pu cycle to save uranium consumption, (2) thermal breeder system to exert full capacity of the thorium resource, (3) symbiotic system to utilize special features of /sup 233/U and neutron sources. The effects of the thorium loading in LWR (Light Water Reactor), HWR (Heavy Water Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) are considered for the function of auxiliary system of U-Pu cycle. Analysis is made to find how much uranium is saved by /sup 233/U recycling and how the decrease in Pu production influences the introduction of FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor). Study on thermal breeder system is carried out in the case of MSBR (Molten Salt Breeder Reactor). Under a certain amount of fissile material supply, the potential system expansion rate of MSBR, which is determined by fissile material balance, is superior to that of FBR because of the smaller specific fissile inventory of MSBR. For symbiotic system, three cases are treated; i) nuclear heat supply system using HTGR, ii) denatured fuel supply system for nonproliferation purpose, and iii) hybrid system utilizing neutron sources other than fission reactor.
The thermodynamics of pyrochemical processes for liquid metal reactor fuel cycles
Johnson, I.
1987-01-01
The thermodynamic basis for pyrochemical processes for the recovery and purification of fuel for the liquid metal reactor fuel cycle is described. These processes involve the transport of the uranium and plutonium from one liquid alloy to another through a molten salt. The processes discussed use liquid alloys of cadmium, zinc, and magnesium and molten chloride salts. The oxidation-reduction steps are done either chemically by the use of an auxiliary redox couple or electrochemically by the use of an external electrical supply. The same basic thermodynamics apply to both the salt transport and the electrotransport processes. Large deviations from ideal solution behavior of the actinides and lanthanides in the liquid alloys have a major influence on the solubilities and the performance of both the salt transport and electrotransport processes. Separation of plutonium and uranium from each other and decontamination from the more noble fission product elements can be achieved using both transport processes. The thermodynamic analysis is used to make process design computations for different process conditions
Multiparameter Cell Cycle Analysis.
Jacobberger, James W; Sramkoski, R Michael; Stefan, Tammy; Woost, Philip G
2018-01-01
Cell cycle cytometry and analysis are essential tools for studying cells of model organisms and natural populations (e.g., bone marrow). Methods have not changed much for many years. The simplest and most common protocol is DNA content analysis, which is extensively published and reviewed. The next most common protocol, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine S phase labeling detected by specific antibodies, is also well published and reviewed. More recently, S phase labeling using 5'-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and a chemical reaction to label substituted DNA has been established as a basic, reliable protocol. Multiple antibody labeling to detect epitopes on cell cycle regulated proteins, which is what this chapter is about, is the most complex of these cytometric cell cycle assays, requiring knowledge of the chemistry of fixation, the biochemistry of antibody-antigen reactions, and spectral compensation. However, because this knowledge is relatively well presented methodologically in many papers and reviews, this chapter will present a minimal Methods section for one mammalian cell type and an extended Notes section, focusing on aspects that are problematic or not well described in the literature. Most of the presented work involves how to segment the data to produce a complete, progressive, and compartmentalized cell cycle analysis from early G1 to late mitosis (telophase). A more recent development, using fluorescent proteins fused with proteins or peptides that are degraded by ubiquitination during specific periods of the cell cycle, termed "Fucci" (fluorescent, ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicators) provide an analysis similar in concept to multiple antibody labeling, except in this case cells can be analyzed while living and transgenic organisms can be created to perform cell cycle analysis ex or in vivo (Sakaue-Sawano et al., Cell 132:487-498, 2007). This technology will not be discussed.
Sunhee Kim
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In the Republic of Korea, efficient biogas-fuelled power systems are needed to use the excess biogas that is currently burned due to a lack of suitable power technology. We examined the performance of a biogas-fuelled micro-gas turbine (MGT system and a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The MGT provides robust operation with low-grade biogas, and the exhaust can be used for heating the biodigester. Similarly, the bottoming ORC generates additional power output with the exhaust gas. We selected a 1000-kW MGT for four co-digestion plants with 28,000-m3 capacity. A 150-kW ORC system was selected for the MGT exhaust gas. We analysed the effects of the system size, methane concentration, and ORC operating conditions. Based on the system performance, we analysed the annual performance of the MGT with a combined heat and power (CHP system, bottoming ORC, or both a bottoming ORC and CHP system. The annual net power outputs for each system were 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0 MWh per year, respectively.
Thermodynamic and Mechanical Analysis of a Thermomagnetic Rotary Engine
Fajar, D M; Khotimah, S N; Khairurrijal
2016-01-01
A heat engine in magnetic system had three thermodynamic coordinates: magnetic intensity ℋ, total magnetization ℳ, and temperature T, where the first two of them are respectively analogous to that of gaseous system: pressure P and volume V. Consequently, Carnot cycle that constitutes the principle of a heat engine in gaseous system is also valid on that in magnetic system. A thermomagnetic rotary engine is one model of it that was designed in the form of a ferromagnetic wheel that can rotates because of magnetization change at Curie temperature. The study is aimed to describe the thermodynamic and mechanical analysis of a thermomagnetic rotary engine and calculate the efficiencies. In thermodynamic view, the ideal processes are isothermal demagnetization, adiabatic demagnetization, isothermal magnetization, and adiabatic magnetization. The values of thermodynamic efficiency depend on temperature difference between hot and cold reservoir. In mechanical view, a rotational work is determined through calculation of moment of inertia and average angular speed. The value of mechanical efficiency is calculated from ratio between rotational work and heat received by system. The study also obtains exergetic efficiency that states the performance quality of the engine. (paper)
Thermodynamic and Mechanical Analysis of a Thermomagnetic Rotary Engine
Fajar, D. M.; Khotimah, S. N.; Khairurrijal
2016-08-01
A heat engine in magnetic system had three thermodynamic coordinates: magnetic intensity ℋ, total magnetization ℳ, and temperature T, where the first two of them are respectively analogous to that of gaseous system: pressure P and volume V. Consequently, Carnot cycle that constitutes the principle of a heat engine in gaseous system is also valid on that in magnetic system. A thermomagnetic rotary engine is one model of it that was designed in the form of a ferromagnetic wheel that can rotates because of magnetization change at Curie temperature. The study is aimed to describe the thermodynamic and mechanical analysis of a thermomagnetic rotary engine and calculate the efficiencies. In thermodynamic view, the ideal processes are isothermal demagnetization, adiabatic demagnetization, isothermal magnetization, and adiabatic magnetization. The values of thermodynamic efficiency depend on temperature difference between hot and cold reservoir. In mechanical view, a rotational work is determined through calculation of moment of inertia and average angular speed. The value of mechanical efficiency is calculated from ratio between rotational work and heat received by system. The study also obtains exergetic efficiency that states the performance quality of the engine.
Thermodynamic analysis of environmental problems of energy
Kaganovich Boris M.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses the problems of the ecological analysis of physicochemical processes in power units and the impact of energy systems on the nature in large territorial regions. The model of extreme intermediate states developed at the Energy Systems Institute based on the principles of classical equilibrium thermodynamics was chosen to devise specific computational methods. The results of the conducted studies are presented and directions for further work are outlined.
A thermodynamic study of waste heat recovery from GT-MHR using organic Rankine cycles
Yari, Mortaza; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.
2011-01-01
This paper presents an investigation on the utilization of waste heat from a gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) using different arrangements of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for power production. The considered organic Rankine cycles were: simple organic Rankine cycle (SORC), ORC with internal heat exchanger (HORC) and regenerative organic Rankine cycle (RORC). The performances of the combined cycles were studied from the point of view of first and second-laws of thermodynamics. Individual models were developed for each component and the effects of some important parameters such as compressor pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, and evaporator and environment temperatures on the efficiencies and on the exergy destruction rate were studied. Finally the combined cycles were optimized thermodynamically using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software. Based on the identical operating conditions for the GT-MHR cycle, a comparison between the three combined cycles and a simple GT-MHR cycle is also were made. This comparison was also carried out from the point of view of economics. The GT-MHR/SORC combined cycle proved to be the best among all the cycles from the point of view of both thermodynamics and economics. The efficiency of this cycle was about 10% higher than that of GT-MHR alone. (orig.)
An integrated optimization for organic Rankine cycle based on entransy theory and thermodynamics
Li, Tailu; Fu, Wencheng; Zhu, Jialing
2014-01-01
The organic Rankine cycle has been one of the essential heat-work conversion technologies nowadays. Lots of effectual optimization methods are focused on the promotion of the system efficiency, which are mainly relied on engineering experience and numerical simulations rather than theoretical analysis. A theoretical integrated optimization method was established based on the entransy theory and thermodynamics, with the ratio of the net power output to the ratio of the total thermal conductance to the thermal conductance in the condenser as the objective function. The system parameters besides the optimal pinch point temperature difference were obtained. The results show that the mass flow rate of the working fluid is inversely proportional to the evaporating temperature. An optimal evaporating temperature maximizes the net power output, and the maximal net power output corresponds to the maximal entransy loss and the change points of the heat source outlet temperature and the change rates for the entropy generation and the entransy dissipation. Moreover, the net power output and the total thermal conductance are inversely proportional to the pinch point temperature difference, contradicting with each other. Under the specified condition, the optimal operating parameters are ascertained, with the optimal pinch point temperature difference of 5 K. - Highlights: • We establish an integrated optimization model for organic Rankine cycle. • The model combines the entransy theory with thermodynamics. • The maximal net power output corresponds to the maximal entransy loss. • The pinch point temperature difference is optimized to be 5 K
Low-temperature behaviour of an ideal Bose gas and some forbidden thermodynamic cycles
Chen Jincan; Lin Bihong
2003-01-01
Based on the equation of state of an ideal Bose gas, the heat capacities at constant volume and constant pressure of the Bose system are derived and used to analyse the low-temperature behaviour of the Bose system. It is expounded that some important thermodynamic processes such as a constant pressure and an adiabatic process cannot be carried out from the region of T > T c to that of T c , where T c is the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation of the Bose system. Consequently, some typical thermodynamic cycles such as the Carnot cycle, Brayton cycle, Otto cycle, Ericsson cycle, Diesel cycle and Atkinson cycle cannot be operated across the critical temperature T c of Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal Bose gas
Lingen Chen
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A thermodynamic model of an open combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles with regeneration before the inverse cycle is established in this paper by using thermodynamic optimization theory. The flow processes of the working fluid with the pressure drops and the size constraint of the real power plant are modeled. There are 13 flow resistances encountered by the working fluid stream for the cycle model. Four of these, the friction through the blades and vanes of the compressors and the turbines, are related to the isentropic efficiencies. The remaining nine flow resistances are always present because of the changes in flow cross-section at the compressor inlet of the top cycle, regenerator inlet and outlet, combustion chamber inlet and outlet, turbine outlet of the top cycle, turbine outlet of the bottom cycle, heat exchanger inlet, and compressor inlet of the bottom cycle. These resistances associated with the flow through various cross-sectional areas are derived as functions of the compressor inlet relative pressure drop of the top cycle, and control the air flow rate, the net power output and the thermal efficiency. The analytical formulae about the power output, efficiency and other coefficients are derived with 13 pressure drop losses. It is found that the combined cycle with regenerator can reach higher thermal efficiency but smaller power output than those of the base combined cycle at small compressor inlet relative pressure drop of the top cycle.
Romano, M.C.; Campanari, S.; Spallina, V.; Lozza, G.
2011-01-01
This work discusses the thermodynamic analysis of integrated gasification fuel cell plants, where a simple cycle gas turbine works in a hybrid cycle with a pressurized intermediate temperature–solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), integrated with a coal gasification and syngas cleanup island and a bottoming
Thermodynamic analysis of pumped thermal electricity storage
White, Alexander; Parks, Geoff; Markides, Christos N.
2013-01-01
The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater need for electricity storage. Although there are many existing and emerging storage technologies, most have limitations in terms of geographical constraints, high capital cost or low cycle life, and few are of sufficient scale (in terms of both power and storage capacity) for integration at the transmission and distribution levels. This paper is concerned with a relatively new concept which will be referred to here as Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage (PTES), and which may be able to make a significant contribution towards future storage needs. During charge, PTES makes use of a high temperature ratio heat pump to convert electrical energy into thermal energy which is stored as ‘sensible heat’ in two thermal reservoirs, one hot and one cold. When required, the thermal energy is then converted back to electricity by effectively running the heat pump backwards as a heat engine. The paper focuses on thermodynamic aspects of PTES, including energy and power density, and the various sources of irreversibility and their impact on round-trip efficiency. It is shown that, for given compression and expansion efficiencies, the cycle performance is controlled chiefly by the ratio between the highest and lowest temperatures in each reservoir rather than by the cycle pressure ratio. The sensitivity of round-trip efficiency to various loss parameters has been analysed and indicates particular susceptibility to compression and expansion irreversibility
A Network Thermodynamic Approach to Compartmental Analysis
Mikulecky, D. C.; Huf, E. G.; Thomas, S. R.
1979-01-01
We introduce a general network thermodynamic method for compartmental analysis which uses a compartmental model of sodium flows through frog skin as an illustrative example (Huf and Howell, 1974a). We use network thermodynamics (Mikulecky et al., 1977b) to formulate the problem, and a circuit simulation program (ASTEC 2, SPICE2, or PCAP) for computation. In this way, the compartment concentrations and net fluxes between compartments are readily obtained for a set of experimental conditions involving a square-wave pulse of labeled sodium at the outer surface of the skin. Qualitative features of the influx at the outer surface correlate very well with those observed for the short circuit current under another similar set of conditions by Morel and LeBlanc (1975). In related work, the compartmental model is used as a basis for simulation of the short circuit current and sodium flows simultaneously using a two-port network (Mikulecky et al., 1977a, and Mikulecky et al., A network thermodynamic model for short circuit current transients in frog skin. Manuscript in preparation; Gary-Bobo et al., 1978). The network approach lends itself to computation of classic compartmental problems in a simple manner using circuit simulation programs (Chua and Lin, 1975), and it further extends the compartmental models to more complicated situations involving coupled flows and non-linearities such as concentration dependencies, chemical reaction kinetics, etc. PMID:262387
Heat recovery from Diesel engines: A thermodynamic comparison between Kalina and ORC cycles
Bombarda, Paola; Invernizzi, Costante M.; Pietra, Claudio
2010-01-01
In the context of heat recovery for electric power generation, Kalina cycle (a thermodynamic cycle using as working fluid a mixture of water and ammonia) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) represent two different eligible technologies. In this work a comparison between the thermodynamic performances of Kalina cycle and an ORC cycle, using hexamethyldisiloxane as working fluid, was conducted for the case of heat recovery from two Diesel engines, each one with an electrical power of 8900 kWe. The maximum net electric power that can be produced exploiting the heat source constituted by the exhaust gases mass flow (35 kg/s for both engines, at 346 deg. C) was calculated for the two thermodynamic cycles. Owing to the relatively low useful power, for the Kalina cycle a relatively simple plant layout was assumed. Supposing reasonable design parameters and a logarithmic mean temperature difference in the heat recovery exchanger of 50 deg. C, a net electric power of 1615 kW and of 1603 kW respectively for the Kalina and for the ORC cycle was calculated. Although the obtained useful powers are actually equal in value, the Kalina cycle requires a very high maximum pressure in order to obtain high thermodynamic performances (in our case, 100 bar against about 10 bar for the ORC cycle). So, the adoption of Kalina cycle, at least for low power level and medium-high temperature thermal sources, seems not to be justified because the gain in performance with respect to a properly optimized ORC is very small and must be obtained with a complicated plant scheme, large surface heat exchangers and particular high pressure resistant and no-corrosion materials.
Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Han, Chul Ho; Kim, Kyoungjin
2012-01-01
The power generation systems using a binary working fluid such as ammonia–water mixture are proven to be the feasible method for utilizing a low-temperature waste heat source. In this work, ammonia–water based Rankine (AWR) regenerative Rankine (AWRR) power generation cycles are comparatively analyzed by investigating the effects of ammonia mass concentration in the working fluid on the thermodynamic performances of systems. Temperature distributions of fluid streams in the heat exchanging devices are closely examined at different levels of ammonia concentration and they might be the most important design consideration in optimizing the power systems using a binary working fluid. The analysis shows that the lower limit of workable ammonia concentration decreases with increasing turbine inlet pressure. Results also show that both the thermal and exergy efficiencies of AWRR system are generally better than those of AWR system, and can have peaks at the minimum allowable ammonia concentrations in the working range of system operation.
ThermoCycle: A Modelica library for the simulation of thermodynamic systems
Quoilin, Sylvain; Desideri, Adriano; Wronski, Jorrit
2014-01-01
This paper presents the results of an on-going project to develop ThermoCycle, an open Modelica library for the simulation of low-capacity thermodynamic cycles and thermal systems. Special attention is paid to robustness and simulation speed since dynamic simulations are often limited by numerical...... constraints and failures, either during initialization or during integration. Furthermore, the use of complex equations of state (EOS) to compute thermodynamic properties significantly decreases the simulation speed. In this paper, the approach adopted in the library to overcome these challenges is presented...
Output power analyses for the thermodynamic cycles of thermal power plants
Sun Chen; Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang
2014-01-01
Thermal power plant is one of the important thermodynamic devices, which is very common in all kinds of power generation systems. In this paper, we use a new concept, entransy loss, as well as exergy destruction, to analyze the single reheating Rankine cycle unit and the single stage steam extraction regenerative Rankine cycle unit in power plants. This is the first time that the concept of entransy loss is applied to the analysis of the power plant Rankine cycles with reheating and steam extraction regeneration. In order to obtain the maximum output power, the operating conditions under variant vapor mass flow rates are optimized numerically, as well as the combustion temperatures and the off-design flow rates of the flue gas. The relationship between the output power and the exergy destruction rate and that between the output power and the entransy loss rate are discussed. It is found that both the minimum exergy destruction rate and the maximum entransy loss rate lead to the maximum output power when the combustion temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are prescribed. Unlike the minimum exergy destruction rate, the maximum entransy loss rate is related to the maximum output power when the highest temperature and heat capacity flow rate of the flue gas are not prescribed. (general)
Dumont, Y.
2008-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the design of an assembly of a hydrogen production process by the thermochemical iodine-sulphur cycle and a nuclear reactor. The suggested coupling network uses a power cycle which produces a work which is directly used for the heat pump running. The purpose of this thermodynamic cycle association is to recover the rejected energy at low temperature of a process to provide the energy needs of this same process at high temperature. This association is applied to the studied coupling. The construction of the energy distribution network is designed by the pinch analysis. In the case of a conventional coupling, the efficiency of hydrogen production is 22.0%. By integrating the associated cycles into the coupling, the efficiency of production is 42.6%. The exergetic efficiency, representative of the energy using quality, increases from 58.7% to 85.4%. (author) [fr
Fu, Jianqin; Liu, Jingping; Xu, Zhengxin; Ren, Chengqin; Deng, Banglin
2013-01-01
In this paper, a novel approach for exhaust heat recovery was proposed to improve IC (internal combustion) engine fuel efficiency and also to achieve the goal for direct usage of methanol as IC engine fuel. An open organic Rankine cycle system using methanol as working medium is coupled to IC engine exhaust pipe for exhaust heat recovery. In the bottom cycle, the working medium first undergoes dissociation and expansion processes, and is then directed back to IC engine as fuel. As the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle are combined together, this scheme forms a combined thermodynamic cycle. Then, this concept was applied to a turbocharged engine, and the corresponding simulation models were built for both of the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle. On this basis, the energy saving potential of this combined cycle was estimated by parametric analyses. Compared to the methanol vapor engine, IC engine in-cylinder efficiency has an increase of 1.4–2.1 percentage points under full load conditions, while the external bottom cycle can increase the fuel efficiency by 3.9–5.2 percentage points at the working pressure of 30 bar. The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points. - Highlights: • A combined thermodynamic cycle using methanol as working medium for IC engine exhaust heat recovery is proposed. • The external bottom cycle of exhaust heat recovery and IC engine working cycle are combined together. • IC engine fuel efficiency could be improved from both in-cylinder working cycle and external bottom cycle. • The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points at full load
Preliminary thermodynamic study for an efficient turbo-blower external combustion Rankine cycle
Romero Gómez, Manuel; Romero Gómez, Javier; Ferreiro Garcia, Ramón; Baaliña Insua, Álvaro
2014-08-01
This research paper presents a preliminary thermodynamic study of an innovative power plant operating under a Rankine cycle fed by an external combustion system with turbo-blower (TB). The power plant comprises an external combustion system for natural gas, where the combustion gases yield their thermal energy, through a heat exchanger, to a carbon dioxide Rankine cycle operating under supercritical conditions and with quasi-critical condensation. The TB exploits the energy from the pressurised exhaust gases for compressing the combustion air. The study is focused on the comparison of the combustion system's conventional technology with that of the proposed. An energy analysis is carried out and the effect of the flue gas pressure on the efficiency and on the heat transfer in the heat exchanger is studied. The coupling of the TB results in an increase in efficiency and of the convection coefficient of the flue gas with pressure, favouring a reduced volume of the heat exchanger. The proposed innovative system achieves increases in efficiency of around 12 % as well as a decrease in the heat exchanger volume of 3/5 compared with the conventional technology without TB.
Pham, Hong-Son
2015-01-01
The supercritical CO 2 (sc-CO 2 ) cycle has been gaining an increasing attention in the engineering world as an alternative to the Rankine steam cycle. Indeed, it provides high efficiency and allows for compact footprint and simple system layout. This study aims to contribute to the research and development on this cycle; the thermodynamic potential and the physical processes, in particular those related to the real gas behavior of the working fluid near its critical point, are considered. The first part of the thesis reports the mapping of the thermodynamic performance of the sc-CO 2 cycle in a 250 - 850 C TIT (Turbine Inlet Temperature) range, for different configurations. These data provide a preliminary guideline to the maximum performance and inter-linked constraints when coupling the cycle to a specific application. Following this generic study, the cycle has been investigated at TITs of 275 and 515 C for SMR (Small Modular Reactor) and SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) applications, respectively, to encompass their specific requirements. The recompression cycle in condensing mode has been identified as the most interesting option in both cases. For the SFR, it achieves an attractive thermal efficiency of 45.7% while keeping the IHX (Intermediate Heat exchanger) inlet temperature below 330 C, as currently considered for this application. The study subsequently addresses the performance and operation of the sc-CO 2 compressor by means of CFD simulations. First, numerical results on a small scale compressor - implemented in a sc-CO 2 compression test loop - have been confronted with the experimental data, highlighting the implications of the measurement uncertainty on the reliability of the compressor performance. Nonetheless, a very good agreement has been achieved regarding the compressor inlet and outlet temperatures and pressures, supporting a first qualification of the CFD technique. Simulations on a real scale compressor - designed for the SMR application
A study on different thermodynamic cycle schemes coupled with a high temperature gas-cooled reactor
Qu, Xinhe; Yang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Jie
2017-01-01
Highlights: • The features of three different power generation schemes, including closed Brayton cycle, non-reheating combined cycle and reheating combined cycle, coupled with high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) were investigated and compared. • The effects and mechanism of reactor core outlet temperature, compression ratio and other key parameters over cycle characteristics were analyzed by the thermodynamic models.. • It is found that reheated combined cycle has the highest efficiency. Reactor outlet temperature and main steam parameters are key factors to improve the cycle’s performance. - Abstract: With gradual increase in reactor outlet temperature, the efficient power conversion technology has become one of developing trends of (very) high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). In this paper, different cycle power generation schemes for HTGRs were systematically studied. Physical and mathematical models were established for these three cycle schemes: closed Brayton cycle, simple combined cycle, and reheated combined cycle. The effects and mechanism of key parameters such as reactor core outlet temperature, reactor core inlet temperature and compression ratio on the features of these cycles were analyzed. Then, optimization results were given with engineering restrictive conditions, including pinch point temperature differences. Results revealed that within the temperature range of HTGRs (700–900 °C), the reheated combined cycle had the highest efficiency, while the simple combined cycle had the lowest efficiency (900 °C). The efficiencies of the closed Brayton cycle, simple combined cycle and reheated combined cycle are 49.5%, 46.6% and 50.1%, respectively. These results provide insights on the different schemes of these cycles, and reveal the effects of key parameters on performance of these cycles. It could be helpful to understand and develop a combined cycle coupled with a high temperature reactor in the future.
Reyes-Belmonte, Miguel A.; Sebastián, Andrés; González-Aguilar, José; Romero, Manuel
2017-06-01
The potential of using different thermodynamic cycles coupled to a solar tower central receiver that uses a novel heat transfer fluid is analyzed. The new fluid, named as DPS, is a dense suspension of solid particles aerated through a tubular receiver used to convert concentrated solar energy into thermal power. This novel fluid allows reaching high temperatures at the solar receiver what opens a wide range of possibilities for power cycle selection. This work has been focused into the assessment of power plant performance using conventional, but optimized cycles but also novel thermodynamic concepts. Cases studied are ranging from subcritical steam Rankine cycle; open regenerative Brayton air configurations at medium and high temperature; combined cycle; closed regenerative Brayton helium scheme and closed recompression supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle. Power cycle diagrams and working conditions for design point are compared amongst the studied cases for a common reference thermal power of 57 MWth reaching the central cavity receiver. It has been found that Brayton air cycle working at high temperature or using supercritical carbon dioxide are the most promising solutions in terms of efficiency conversion for the power block of future generation by means of concentrated solar power plants.
Sustainable biocatalytic biodiesel production : A thermodynamic analysis
Guezel, G
2012-09-15
In the present thesis it was aimed at achieving thermodynamic analysis of reactions involved in enzymatic biodiesel production with specific focus on chemical and phase equilibria of reactive systems. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production (biocatalytic ethanolysis) presents significant advantages: Easy recovery of glycerol, no complex down-processing operations for elimination of catalyst and salt, and requires less organic solvent and lower energy consumption compared with conventional chemical methods. In overall, the major aims of this thesis were evaluating and subsequently finding feasible solutions to the questions emerged during the corresponding studies that have been performed worldwide. Some of the questions that were answered as appropriate as possible can be listed as follows: 1) What is the solubility of EtOH in vegetable oils and in FAEE blends and how does it change with temperature? 2) Is it possible to prevent denaturing impact of EtOH on biocatalysts? 3) What are the feedstock content (water and FFA) impacts on glycerol and EtOH miscibility with ester species? 4) Is it necessary removing glycerol by-product simultaneously? 5) Is it feasible providing monophasic or homogeneous reaction media that procure lower external mass transfer resistance? 6) What are the moisture absorption limits of FAAE species? 7) How are the interactions of reactive species in terms of miscibility/immiscibility phenomena? 8) Is it thermodynamically feasible providing monophasic reaction media? 9) How can LLE and VLE phase behaviors help to determine optimum reaction conditions? 10) How can the results of LLE and VLE studies be used so as to determine appropriate refining operations? (LN)
Andryushchenko, A.I.; Dubinin, A.B.; Krylov, E.E.
1988-01-01
The problem of choice of working fluids for NPP closed gas turbines (CGT) is discussed. Thermostable in the working temperature range, chemically inert relatively to structural materials, fire- and explosion - proof substances, radiation-resistant and having satisfactory neutron-physical characteristics are used as the working fluids. Final choice of a gas as a working fluid is exercised based on technical and economic comparison of different variants at optimum thermodynamic cycle and parameters for each gas. The character and degree of the effect of thermodynamic properties of gases on configuration of reference cycles of regenerative CGT are determined. It is established that efficiency and optimum parameters in nodal points of the reference cycle are specified by the degree of removing the compression processes from the critical point. Practical importance of the obtained results presupposes the possibility of rapid estimation of the efficiency of using a gas without multiparametric optimization
Gomez, V. E.; Vidal, A. S.; Garcia, C. A.; Garcia-Valladares, O.; Best, R. B.; Hernandez, J. G.; Velazquez, N. L.
2004-07-01
In this article a solar system of refrigeration by absorption with heat exchange generator absorber (GAX) was analyzed. A theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the energetic behavior of the GAX absorption system was made. Experimental results were obtained with generation temperatures of 190 and 220 C, the evaporation temperature was set at 9 C and temperatures of cooling fluids (air and water) were set at 30 C and 28 C, respectively. It was possible to appreciate that the GAX effect decrease whether absorber, type falling film, is operated in option of parallel flow and it was increased when the absorber was operated in option of counterflow. (Author)
Systemic analysis of thermodynamic properties of lanthanide halides
Mirsaidov, U.; Badalov, A.; Marufi, V.K.
1992-01-01
System analysis of thermodynamic characteristics of lanthanide halides was carried out. A method making allowances for the influence of spin and orbital moments of momentum of the main states of lanthanide trivalent ions in their natural series was employed. Unknown in literature thermodynamic values were calculated and corrected for certain compounds. The character of lanthanide halide thermodynamic parameter change depending on ordinal number of the metals was ascertained. Pronouncement of tetrad-effect in series of compounds considered was pointed out
Thermodynamic analysis and numerical modeling of supercritical injection
Banuti, Daniel
2015-01-01
Although liquid propellant rocket engines are operational and have been studied for decades, cryogenic injection at supercritical pressures is still considered essentially not understood. This thesis intends to approach this problem in three steps: by developing a numerical model for real gas thermodynamics, by extending the present thermodynamic view of supercritical injection, and finally by applying these methods to the analysis of injection. A new numerical real gas thermodynamics mode...
Thermodynamic performance analysis of ramjet engine at wide working conditions
Ou, Min; Yan, Li; Tang, Jing-feng; Huang, Wei; Chen, Xiao-qian
2017-03-01
Although ramjet has the advantages of high-speed flying and higher specific impulse, the performance parameters will decline seriously with the increase of flight Mach number and flight height. Therefore, the investigation on the thermodynamic performance of ramjet is very crucial for broadening the working range. In the current study, a typical ramjet model has been employed to investigate the performance characteristics at wide working conditions. First of all, the compression characteristic analysis is carried out based on the Brayton cycle. The obtained results show that the specific cross-section area (A2 and A5) and the air-fuel ratio (f) have a great influence on the ramjet performance indexes. Secondly, the thermodynamic calculation process of ramjet is given from the view of the pneumatic thermal analysis. Then, the variable trends of the ramjet performance indexes with the flow conditions, the air-fuel ratio (f), the specific cross-sectional area (A2 and A5) under the fixed operating condition, equipotential dynamic pressure condition and variable dynamic pressure condition have been discussed. Finally, the optimum value of the specific cross-sectional area (A5) and the air-fuel ratio (f) of the ramjet model at a fixed work condition (Ma=3.5, H=12 km) are obtained.
Thermodynamic model and parametric analysis of a tubular SOFC module
Campanari, Stefano
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been considered in the last years as one of the most promising technologies for very high-efficiency electric energy generation from natural gas, both with simple fuel cell plants and with integrated gas turbine-fuel cell systems. Among the SOFC technologies, tubular SOFC stacks with internal reforming have emerged as one of the most mature technology, with a serious potential for a future commercialization. In this paper, a thermodynamic model of a tubular SOFC stack, with natural gas feeding, internal reforming of hydrocarbons and internal air preheating is proposed. In the first section of the paper, the model is discussed in detail, analyzing its calculating equations and tracing its logical steps; the model is then calibrated on the available data for a recently demonstrated tubular SOFC prototype plant. In the second section of the paper, it is carried out a detailed parametric analysis of the stack working conditions, as a function of the main operating parameters. The discussion of the results of the thermodynamic and parametric analysis yields interesting considerations about partial load SOFC operation and load regulation, and about system design and integration with gas turbine cycles.
Besarati, S.M.; Atashkari, K.; Jamali, A.; Hajiloo, A.; Nariman-zadeh, N.
2010-01-01
This paper presents a simultaneous optimization study of two outputs performance of a previously proposed combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. It has been carried out by varying the upper cycle pressure ratio, the expansion pressure of the bottom cycle and using variable, above atmospheric, bottom cycle inlet pressure. Multi-objective genetic algorithms are used for Pareto approach optimization of the cycle outputs. The two important conflicting thermodynamic objectives that have been considered in this work are net specific work (w s ) and thermal efficiency (η th ). It is shown that some interesting features among optimal objective functions and decision variables involved in the Baryton and inverse Brayton cycles can be discovered consequently.
Advanced gas turbine cycles a brief review of power generation thermodynamics
Horlock, JH
2003-01-01
Primarily this book describes the thermodynamics of gas turbine cycles. The search for high gas turbine efficiency has produced many variations on the simple ""open circuit"" plant, involving the use of heat exchangers, reheating and intercooling, water and steam injection, cogeneration and combined cycle plants. These are described fully in the text. A review of recent proposals for a number of novel gas turbine cycles is also included. In the past few years work has been directed towards developing gas turbines which produce less carbon dioxide, or plants from which the CO2 can be d
Nuclear fuel cycle system analysis
Ko, W. I.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, S. G.; Park, B. H.; Song, K. C.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, H. H.; Chang, H. L.; Jeong, C. J.
2012-04-01
The nuclear fuel cycle system analysis method has been designed and established for an integrated nuclear fuel cycle system assessment by analyzing various methodologies. The economics, PR(Proliferation Resistance) and environmental impact evaluation of the fuel cycle system were performed using improved DB, and finally the best fuel cycle option which is applicable in Korea was derived. In addition, this research is helped to increase the national credibility and transparency for PR with developing and fulfilling PR enhancement program. The detailed contents of the work are as follows: 1)Establish and improve the DB for nuclear fuel cycle system analysis 2)Development of the analysis model for nuclear fuel cycle 3)Preliminary study for nuclear fuel cycle analysis 4)Development of overall evaluation model of nuclear fuel cycle system 5)Overall evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle system 6)Evaluate the PR for nuclear fuel cycle system and derive the enhancement method 7)Derive and fulfill of nuclear transparency enhancement method The optimum fuel cycle option which is economical and applicable to domestic situation was derived in this research. It would be a basis for establishment of the long-term strategy for nuclear fuel cycle. This work contributes for guaranteeing the technical, economical validity of the optimal fuel cycle option. Deriving and fulfillment of the method for enhancing nuclear transparency will also contribute to renewing the ROK-U.S Atomic Energy Agreement in 2014
Brunet, Robert; Cortés, Daniel; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo; Jiménez, Laureano; Boer, Dieter
2012-01-01
This work presents a computational approach for the simultaneous minimization of the total cost and environmental impact of thermodynamic cycles. Our method combines process simulation, multi-objective optimization and life cycle assessment (LCA) within a unified framework that identifies in a systematic manner optimal design and operating conditions according to several economic and LCA impacts. Our approach takes advantages of the complementary strengths of process simulation (in which mass, energy balances and thermodynamic calculations are implemented in an easy manner) and rigorous deterministic optimization tools. We demonstrate the capabilities of this strategy by means of two case studies in which we address the design of a 10 MW Rankine cycle modeled in Aspen Hysys, and a 90 kW ammonia-water absorption cooling cycle implemented in Aspen Plus. Numerical results show that it is possible to achieve environmental and cost savings using our rigorous approach. - Highlights: ► Novel framework for the optimal design of thermdoynamic cycles. ► Combined use of simulation and optimization tools. ► Optimal design and operating conditions according to several economic and LCA impacts. ► Design of a 10MW Rankine cycle in Aspen Hysys, and a 90kW absorption cycle in Aspen Plus.
Brunet, Robert; Cortes, Daniel [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Guillen-Gosalbez, Gonzalo [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Jimenez, Laureano [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Boer, Dieter [Departament d' Enginyeria Mecanica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007, Tarragona (Spain)
2012-12-15
This work presents a computational approach for the simultaneous minimization of the total cost and environmental impact of thermodynamic cycles. Our method combines process simulation, multi-objective optimization and life cycle assessment (LCA) within a unified framework that identifies in a systematic manner optimal design and operating conditions according to several economic and LCA impacts. Our approach takes advantages of the complementary strengths of process simulation (in which mass, energy balances and thermodynamic calculations are implemented in an easy manner) and rigorous deterministic optimization tools. We demonstrate the capabilities of this strategy by means of two case studies in which we address the design of a 10 MW Rankine cycle modeled in Aspen Hysys, and a 90 kW ammonia-water absorption cooling cycle implemented in Aspen Plus. Numerical results show that it is possible to achieve environmental and cost savings using our rigorous approach. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel framework for the optimal design of thermdoynamic cycles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined use of simulation and optimization tools. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimal design and operating conditions according to several economic and LCA impacts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design of a 10MW Rankine cycle in Aspen Hysys, and a 90kW absorption cycle in Aspen Plus.
Thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine including regenerator dead volume
Puech, Pascal; Tishkova, Victoria [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CNRS, CEMES, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France)
2011-02-15
This paper provides a theoretical investigation on the thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine with linear and sinusoidal variations of the volume. The regenerator in a Stirling engine is an internal heat exchanger allowing to reach high efficiency. We used an isothermal model to analyse the net work and the heat stored in the regenerator during a complete cycle. We show that the engine efficiency with perfect regeneration doesn't depend on the regenerator dead volume but this dead volume strongly amplifies the imperfect regeneration effect. An analytical expression to estimate the improvement due to the regenerator has been proposed including the combined effects of dead volume and imperfect regeneration. This could be used at the very preliminary stage of the engine design process. (author)
Thermodynamic analysis of a minimum maintenance solar pump
Brew-Hammond, A.; Roullier, J.; Appeagyei-Kissi, D. (University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana))
1993-10-01
The Minimum Maintenance Solar Pump (MMSP) is a solar-thermal pumping system which operates on a diurnal cycle with solar heating and nocturnal cooling/suction. Several prototypes of the MMSP have been constructed in Ghana, Canada and France with varying degrees of success. A thermodynamic analysis of the MMSP has yielded an expression which is used with the aid of a micro-computer to predict the performance characteristics of the MMSP. The predictions compare favourably with available experimental results and indicate that it is imperative for temperatures well above 80[sup o]C to be obtained in the MMSP if pumping is to be achieved at heads of practical significance. (author)
Thermodynamic analysis of the advanced zero emission power plant
Kotowicz Janusz
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the structure and parameters of advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP. This concept is based on the replacement of the combustion chamber in a gas turbine by the membrane reactor. The reactor has three basic functions: (i oxygen separation from the air through the membrane, (ii combustion of the fuel, and (iii heat transfer to heat the oxygen-depleted air. In the discussed unit hot depleted air is expanded in a turbine and further feeds a bottoming steam cycle (BSC through the main heat recovery steam generator (HRSG. Flue gas leaving the membrane reactor feeds the second HRSG. The flue gas consist mainly of CO2 and water vapor, thus, CO2 separation involves only the flue gas drying. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of described power plant are presented.
Thermodynamic analyses and optimization of a recompression N2O Brayton power cycle
Sarkar, Jahar
2010-01-01
Thermodynamic analyses and simultaneous optimizations of cycle pressure ratio and flow split fraction to get maximum efficiency of N 2 O recompression Brayton cycle have been performed to study the effects of various operating conditions and component performances. The energetic as well as exergetic performance comparison with its counterpart recompression CO 2 cycle is presented as well. Optimization shows that the optimum minimum cycle pressure is close to pseudo-critical pressure for supercritical cycle, whereas saturation pressure corresponding to minimum cycle temperature for condensation cycle. Results show that the maximum thermal efficiency increases with decrease in minimum cycle temperature and increase in both maximum cycle pressure and temperature. Influence of turbine performance on cycle efficiency is more compared to that of compressors, HTR (high temperature recuperator) and LTR (low temperature recuperator). Comparison shows that N 2 O gives better thermal efficiency (maximum deviation of 1.2%) as well as second law efficiency compared to CO 2 for studied operating conditions. Component wise irreversibility distribution shows the similar trends for both working fluids. Present study reveals that N 2 O is a potential option for the recompression power cycle.
Partial Derivative Games in Thermodynamics: A Cognitive Task Analysis
Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Roundy, David; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A.
2014-01-01
Several studies in recent years have demonstrated that upper-division students struggle with the mathematics of thermodynamics. This paper presents a task analysis based on several expert attempts to solve a challenging mathematics problem in thermodynamics. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we highlight the importance of cognitive task…
Thermodynamic DFT analysis of natural gas.
Neto, Abel F G; Huda, Muhammad N; Marques, Francisco C; Borges, Rosivaldo S; Neto, Antonio M J C
2017-08-01
Density functional theory was performed for thermodynamic predictions on natural gas, whose B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(d), CBS-QB3, G3, and G4 methods were applied. Additionally, we carried out thermodynamic predictions using G3/G4 averaged. The calculations were performed for each major component of seven kinds of natural gas and to their respective air + natural gas mixtures at a thermal equilibrium between room temperature and the initial temperature of a combustion chamber during the injection stage. The following thermodynamic properties were obtained: internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy, which enabled us to investigate the thermal resistance of fuels. Also, we estimated an important parameter, namely, the specific heat ratio of each natural gas; this allowed us to compare the results with the empirical functions of these parameters, where the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and G3/G4 methods showed better agreements. In addition, relevant information on the thermal and mechanic resistance of natural gases were investigated, as well as the standard thermodynamic properties for the combustion of natural gas. Thus, we show that density functional theory can be useful for predicting the thermodynamic properties of natural gas, enabling the production of more efficient compositions for the investigated fuels. Graphical abstract Investigation of the thermodynamic properties of natural gas through the canonical ensemble model and the density functional theory.
Irreversible thermodynamic analysis and application for molecular heat engines
Lucia, Umberto; Açıkkalp, Emin
2017-09-01
Is there a link between the macroscopic approach to irreversibility and microscopic behaviour of the systems? Consumption of free energy keeps the system away from a stable equilibrium. Entropy generation results from the redistribution of energy, momentum, mass and charge. This concept represents the essence of the thermodynamic approach to irreversibility. Irreversibility is the result of the interaction between systems and their environment. The aim of this paper is to determine lost works in a molecular engine and compare results with macro (classical) heat engines. Firstly, irreversible thermodynamics are reviewed for macro and molecular cycles. Secondly, irreversible thermodynamics approaches are applied for a quantum heat engine with -1/2 spin system. Finally, lost works are determined for considered system and results show that macro and molecular heat engines obey same limitations. Moreover, a quantum thermodynamic approach is suggested in order to explain the results previously obtained from an atomic viewpoint.
Modeling and analysis of advanced binary cycles
Gawlik, K.
1997-12-31
A computer model (Cycle Analysis Simulation Tool, CAST) and a methodology have been developed to perform value analysis for small, low- to moderate-temperature binary geothermal power plants. The value analysis method allows for incremental changes in the levelized electricity cost (LEC) to be determined between a baseline plant and a modified plant. Thermodynamic cycle analyses and component sizing are carried out in the model followed by economic analysis which provides LEC results. The emphasis of the present work is on evaluating the effect of mixed working fluids instead of pure fluids on the LEC of a geothermal binary plant that uses a simple Organic Rankine Cycle. Four resources were studied spanning the range of 265{degrees}F to 375{degrees}F. A variety of isobutane and propane based mixtures, in addition to pure fluids, were used as working fluids. This study shows that the use of propane mixtures at a 265{degrees}F resource can reduce the LEC by 24% when compared to a base case value that utilizes commercial isobutane as its working fluid. The cost savings drop to 6% for a 375{degrees}F resource, where an isobutane mixture is favored. Supercritical cycles were found to have the lowest cost at all resources.
A low pressure thermodynamic cycle for electric power generation without mechanical compressor
Proto, G.; Lenti, R.
1996-01-01
According to the 2 nd thermodynamic law there is no compulsion to have an expansion from high pressure level to atmospheric pressure, the only reason relying upon the minimization of the plant volumetry which is just one of the overall cost parameters. A thermodynamic cycle without rotating machinery does exist in avionic applications like the RAMJET, in which air flowing at supersonic speed is compressed in a convergent duct before being heated in the combustion chamber and then expanded to a much higher MACH number. The concept discussed here, however, is referred to a physical principle of different nature. In fact the inlet air flow is quasi static, while the propelling kinetic energy is the residual energy following the gas combustion, expansion, cooling in Supersonic Flow and ultimately its fluidic compression in a convergent duct. The concept theoretically relies upon the so called 'Simple T 0 change' transformation, according to which, in a Supersonic Flow at constant cross section and without mechanical dissipation, a decrease in the gas stagnation temperature (T 0 ) will turn into an increase of its stagnation pressure. The paper discusses the feasibility of such a process, focusing on a specific conceptual application to a subatmospheric pressure, high temperature Brayton cycle getting to the conclusion that, even with the materials technology limitations, there is the potential for significant improvement of the actual thermodynamic cycle efficiency. (author). 6 figs.,1 tab., 2 refs
Zanchini, E.
1988-01-01
The definition of energy, in thermodynamics, is dependent by starting operative definitions of the basic concepts of physics on which it rests, such as those of isolated systems, ambient of a system, separable system and set of separable states. Then the definition of energy is rigorously extended to open systems. The extension gives a clear physical meaning to the concept of energy difference between two states with arbitrary different compositions
The heat is on: thermodynamic analysis in fragment-based drug discovery
Edink, E.S.; Jansen, C.J.W.; Leurs, R.; De Esch, I.J.
2010-01-01
Thermodynamic analysis provides access to the determinants of binding affinity, enthalpy and entropy. In fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), thermodynamic analysis provides a powerful tool to discriminate fragments based on their potential for successful optimization. The thermodynamic data
Thermodynamic analysis of air solar collector
Luminosu, Loan; Fara, Laurentiu
2006-01-01
The paper presents the experimental study of an air solar installation with a collecting area A c =4.2m 2 and variable working fluid flow rate in the range 0.02/0.06 kg/s. The experimental data are processed statistically through thermodynamic analysis using energy (semi-empirical and exergy methods. The aim of the paper is to establish the optimal air flow rate through this solar thermal system in order to ensure minimum irreversibility of the collecting-heating-cooling process under Romania's insolation conditions. The paper is also a demonstrative example of cost-effective and efficient use of solar energy for heating in Romania. It is experimentally proven that for this solar installation, the optimum air flow rate is of 0.04 kg/s. At a flow rate of 0.04 kg/s, irreversibility has the lowest values for all daytime hours with a maximum at noon (2640 W). For this flow rate the energy efficiency reaches the highest values. The maximum exergy efficiency value is 0 e x-max=0.197. In March 2000 the solar installation operated as an alternative thermal source for heating a garage, having an inner volume V=64.5 m 3 . The efficiency of the solar installation used for heating the garage is η=0.321. The economic ratio defined as the ratio between monetary benefit and financial investment is r=1.82. A value above 1 of ration r shows the economic utility of the solar installation for users who need thermal energy at low heat carrier levels. The study is useful to designers and users of solar thermal systems inCentral Europe as well as in other geographical areas where climatic conditions are comparable to those in South-Western Romania.(Author)
Bjørn, Anders; Moltesen, Andreas; Laurent, Alexis
2018-01-01
of different sources. The output is a compiled inventory of elementary flows that is used as basis of the subsequent life cycle impact assessment phase. This chapter teaches how to carry out this task through six steps: (1) identifying processes for the LCI model of the product system; (2) planning...
Braun, R.; Kusterer, K.; Sugimoto, T.; Tanimura, K.; Bohn, D.
2013-12-01
different working fluids and ORC conditions have been analyzed in order to evaluate the best configuration. The investigations have been performed by application of improved thermodynamic and process analysis tools, which consider the real gas behavior of the analyzed fluids. The results show that by combined operation of the solar thermal gas turbine and the ORC, the combined cycle efficiency is approximately 4%-points higher than in the solar-thermal gas turbine cycle.
Micro gas turbine thermodynamic and economic analysis up to 500 kWe size
Galanti, Leandro; Massardo, Aristide F.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Thermoeconomic analysis and optimization of micro gas turbines up to 500 kWe. → Analysis carried out for both regenerative and intercooled regenerative cycles. → Focus on thermodynamic, geometric and cost parameters of the main MGT devices. → ICR cycle has an interesting reduction in capital and electricity costs, rising size. → Complete thermoeconomic investigation is essential to support thermodynamic analysis. -- Abstract: In this paper a thermoeconomic analysis and optimization of micro gas turbines (MGT) up to 500 kWe is presented. This analysis is strongly related to the need of minimizing specific capital cost, still high for MGT large market penetration, and optimizing MGT size to match market needs. The analysis was carried out for both existing regenerative MGT cycles and new inter-cooled regenerative cycles, using the Web-based ThermoEconomic Modular Program by the University of Genoa. The attention is mainly focused on the basis of thermodynamic, geometric and capital cost parameters of the main MGT devices (such as recuperator size, material and effectiveness, turbine inlet temperature, and compressor pressure ratio) and on economic scenario (fuel cost, cost of electricity, etc.) for different MGT size in the range 25-500 kWe.
Hassan, H.Z.; Mohamad, A.A.
2013-01-01
Due to the intermittent nature of the solar radiation, the day-long continuous production of cold is a challenge for solar-driven adsorption cooling systems. In the present study, a developed solar-powered adsorption cooling system is introduced. The proposed system is able to produce cold continuously along the 24-h of the day. The theoretical thermodynamic operating cycle of the system is based on adsorption at constant temperature. Both the cooling system operating procedure as well as the theoretical thermodynamic cycle are described and explained. Moreover, a steady state differential thermodynamic analysis is performed for all components and processes of the introduced system. The analysis is based on the energy conservation principle and the equilibrium dynamics of the adsorption and desorption processes. The Dubinin–Astakhov adsorption equilibrium equation is used in this analysis. Furthermore, the thermodynamic properties of the refrigerant are calculated from its equation of state. The case studied represents a water chiller which uses activated carbon–methanol as the working pair. The chiller is found to produce a daily mass of 2.63 kg cold water at 0 °C from water at 25 °C per kg of adsorbent. Moreover, the proposed system attains a cooling coefficient of performance of 0.66. - Highlights: • A new continuous operation solar-driven adsorption refrigeration system is introduced. • The theoretical thermodynamic cycle is presented and explained. • A complete thermodynamic analysis is performed for all components and processes of the system. • Activated carbon–methanol is used as the working pair in the case study
Polettini, Matteo; Esposito, Massimiliano
2014-01-01
In this paper and Paper II, we outline a general framework for the thermodynamic description of open chemical reaction networks, with special regard to metabolic networks regulating cellular physiology and biochemical functions. We first introduce closed networks “in a box”, whose thermodynamics is subjected to strict physical constraints: the mass-action law, elementarity of processes, and detailed balance. We further digress on the role of solvents and on the seemingly unacknowledged property of network independence of free energy landscapes. We then open the system by assuming that the concentrations of certain substrate species (the chemostats) are fixed, whether because promptly regulated by the environment via contact with reservoirs, or because nearly constant in a time window. As a result, the system is driven out of equilibrium. A rich algebraic and topological structure ensues in the network of internal species: Emergent irreversible cycles are associated with nonvanishing affinities, whose symmetries are dictated by the breakage of conservation laws. These central results are resumed in the relation a + b = s Y between the number of fundamental affinities a, that of broken conservation laws b and the number of chemostats s Y . We decompose the steady state entropy production rate in terms of fundamental fluxes and affinities in the spirit of Schnakenberg's theory of network thermodynamics, paving the way for the forthcoming treatment of the linear regime, of efficiency and tight coupling, of free energy transduction, and of thermodynamic constraints for network reconstruction
Polettini, Matteo; Esposito, Massimiliano
2014-07-14
In this paper and Paper II, we outline a general framework for the thermodynamic description of open chemical reaction networks, with special regard to metabolic networks regulating cellular physiology and biochemical functions. We first introduce closed networks "in a box", whose thermodynamics is subjected to strict physical constraints: the mass-action law, elementarity of processes, and detailed balance. We further digress on the role of solvents and on the seemingly unacknowledged property of network independence of free energy landscapes. We then open the system by assuming that the concentrations of certain substrate species (the chemostats) are fixed, whether because promptly regulated by the environment via contact with reservoirs, or because nearly constant in a time window. As a result, the system is driven out of equilibrium. A rich algebraic and topological structure ensues in the network of internal species: Emergent irreversible cycles are associated with nonvanishing affinities, whose symmetries are dictated by the breakage of conservation laws. These central results are resumed in the relation a + b = s(Y) between the number of fundamental affinities a, that of broken conservation laws b and the number of chemostats s(Y). We decompose the steady state entropy production rate in terms of fundamental fluxes and affinities in the spirit of Schnakenberg's theory of network thermodynamics, paving the way for the forthcoming treatment of the linear regime, of efficiency and tight coupling, of free energy transduction, and of thermodynamic constraints for network reconstruction.
Dai, Baomin; Liu, Shengchun; Zhu, Kai; Sun, Zhili; Ma, Yitai
2017-01-01
New configurations of transcritical CO_2 refrigeration cycle combined with a thermoelectric (TE) subcooler and an expander (TES+EXP_H_M and TES+EXP_M_L) are proposed. The expander can operate between the high-pressure to the vessel pressure, or from vessel pressure to evaporation pressure. A power system is utilized to balance and supply power to thermoelectric subcooler and compressor. Thermodynamic performance optimizations and analyses are presented. Comparisons are carried out with the BASE, EXP_H_M, EXP_M_L, and TES cycles. The results show that the coefficient of performance (COP) improvement is more notable when the expander is installed between the liquid receiver and the evaporator. Maximum COP is obtained for the new cycles with a simultaneous optimization of discharge pressure and subcooling temperature. The new proposed TES+EXP_M_L cycle shows an excellent and steady performance than other cycles. It operates not only with the highest COP, but also the lowest discharge pressure. Under the working conditions of high gas cooler outlet temperature or low evaporation temperature, the merits of COP improvement and discharge pressure reduction are more prominent. The new cycle is more suitable for the hot regions where the CO_2 can not be sufficiently subcooled or the refrigerated space operates at low evaporation temperature. - Highlights: • New configurations of transcritical CO_2 refrigeration cycle are proposed. • New cycles are optimized and compared with other cycles. • The position of expander has an evident influence on the performance of CO_2 cycle. • TES+EXP_M_L cycle shows the highest COP and lowest discharge pressure. • The range of application for the TES+EXP_M_L cycle is recommended.
Osman Özkaraca
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Geothermal energy is a renewable form of energy, however due to misuse, processing and management issues, it is necessary to use the resource more efficiently. To increase energy efficiency, energy systems engineers carry out careful energy control studies and offer alternative solutions. With this aim, this study was conducted to improve the performance of a real operating air-cooled organic Rankine cycle binary geothermal power plant (GPP and its components in the aspects of thermodynamic modeling, exergy analysis and optimization processes. In-depth information is obtained about the exergy (maximum work a system can make, exergy losses and destruction at the power plant and its components. Thus the performance of the power plant may be predicted with reasonable accuracy and better understanding is gained for the physical process to be used in improving the performance of the power plant. The results of the exergy analysis show that total exergy production rate and exergy efficiency of the GPP are 21 MW and 14.52%, respectively, after removing parasitic loads. The highest amount of exergy destruction occurs, respectively, in condenser 2, vaporizer HH2, condenser 1, pumps 1 and 2 as components requiring priority performance improvement. To maximize the system exergy efficiency, the artificial bee colony (ABC is applied to the model that simulates the actual GPP. Under all the optimization conditions, the maximum exergy efficiency for the GPP and its components is obtained. Two of these conditions such as Case 4 related to the turbine and Case 12 related to the condenser have the best performance. As a result, the ABC optimization method provides better quality information than exergy analysis. Based on the guidance of this study, the performance of power plants based on geothermal energy and other energy resources may be improved.
HESS Opinions "Biological catalysis of the hydrological cycle: life's thermodynamic function"
Michaelian, K.
2012-08-01
Darwinian theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living components of the biosphere on the Earth's surface of greatest biomass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of a vast amount of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its apparently life-barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The dissipation of sunlight into heat by organic molecules in the biosphere, and its coupling to the water cycle (as well as other abiotic processes), is by far the greatest entropy-producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function, acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding irreversible abiotic processes such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants of the plants and cyanobacteria, helping them to grow, and to spread into initially inhospitable areas.
HESS Opinions "Biological catalysis of the hydrological cycle: life's thermodynamic function"
K. Michaelian
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Darwinian theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living components of the biosphere on the Earth's surface of greatest biomass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of a vast amount of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its apparently life-barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The dissipation of sunlight into heat by organic molecules in the biosphere, and its coupling to the water cycle (as well as other abiotic processes, is by far the greatest entropy-producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function, acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding irreversible abiotic processes such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants of the plants and cyanobacteria, helping them to grow, and to spread into initially inhospitable areas.
Analysis of possible fuel cycles
Boehm, H.; Kessler, G.; Engelmann, P.; Maerkl, H.; Stoll, W.
1978-01-01
A brief survey is presented of the most important fuel cycles. A rough analysis of fuel cycles is attempted under the aspects of proliferation, status of technical feasibility, resource conservation and waste management and the most important criteria for such an analysis are discussed. Among the multitude of potential combinations of fuel cycles and types of reactors only a few have reached a level of technical feasibility which would make them eligible for commercial implementation within the next decade. However, if, for instance, the higher proliferation resistance of a specific fuel cycle is to be utilized to diminish the worldwide proliferation hazard, that cycle would first of all have to be introduced on an industrial scale as quickly as possible. The analysis shows that the reduction of the bazard of worldwide proliferation will continue to be the objective primarily of international agreements and measures taken in the political realm. (orig.) [de
Thermodynamic control-oriented modeling of cycle-to-cycle exhaust gas temperature in an HCCI engine
Dehghani Firoozabadi, M.; Shahbakhti, M.; Koch, C.R.; Jazayeri, S.A.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • First thermodynamic model in the literature to predict exhaust temperature in HCCI engines. • The model can be used for integrated control of HCCI combustion and exhaust temperature. • The model is experimentally validated at over 300 steady state and transient conditions. • Results show a good agreement between predicted and measured exhaust temperatures. • Sensitivity of exhaust gas temperature to variation of engine variables is shown. - Abstract: Model-based control of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine exhaust temperature is a viable solution to optimize efficiency of both engine and the exhaust aftertreatment system. Low exhaust temperature in HCCI engines can limit the abatement of hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in an exhaust aftertreatment system. A physical–empirical model is described for control of exhaust temperature in HCCI engines. This model captures cycle-to-cycle dynamics affecting exhaust temperature and is based on thermodynamic relations and semi-empirical correlations. It incorporates intake and exhaust gas flow dynamics, residual gas mixing, and fuel burn rate and is validated with experimental data from a single cylinder engine at over 300 steady state and transient conditions. The validation results indicate a good agreement between predicted and measured exhaust gas temperature
Comparative energy analysis on a new regenerative Brayton cycle
Goodarzi, M.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • New regenerative Brayton cycle has been introduced. • New cycle has higher thermal efficiency and lower exhausted heat per output power. • Regenerator may remain useful in the new cycle even at high pressure ratio. • New regenerative Brayton cycle is suggested for low pressure ratio operations. - Abstract: Gas turbines are frequently used for power generation. Brayton cycle is the basis for gas turbine operation and developing the alternative cycles. Regenerative Brayton cycle is a developed cycle for basic Brayton cycle with higher thermal efficiency at low to moderate pressure ratios. A new regenerative Brayton cycle has been introduced in the present study. Energy analysis has been conducted on ideal cycles to compare them from the first law of thermodynamics viewpoint. Comparative analyses showed that the new regenerative Brayton cycle has higher thermal efficiency than the original one at the same pressure ratio, and also lower heat absorption and exhausted heat per unite output power. Computed results show that new cycle improves thermal efficiency from 12% to 26% relative to the original regenerative Brayton cycle in the range of studied pressure ratios. Contrary to the original regenerative Brayton cycle, regenerator remains useful in the new regenerative Brayton cycle even at higher pressure ratio.
The Carnot cycle and the teaching of thermodynamics: a historical approach
Laranjeiras, Cássio C.; Portela, Sebastião I. C.
2016-09-01
The Carnot cycle is a topic that is traditionally present in introductory physics courses dedicated to the teaching of thermodynamics, playing an essential role in introducing the concept of Entropy and the consequent formulation of the second Law. Its effective understanding and contribution to the development of thermodynamics is often hindered, however. Among other things, this is the result of a pragmatic approach, which usually limits itself to presenting the isotherms and adiabatic curves in a P-V diagram and is totally disconnected from the historical fundamentals of Heat Theory. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the potential of an approach to the subject that recovers the historical and social dimensions of scientific knowledge, and to promote reflections about the nature of science (NOS).
Progress in Finite Time Thermodynamic Studies for Internal Combustion Engine Cycles
Yanlin Ge
2016-04-01
Full Text Available On the basis of introducing the origin and development of finite time thermodynamics (FTT, this paper reviews the progress in FTT optimization for internal combustion engine (ICE cycles from the following four aspects: the studies on the optimum performances of air standard endoreversible (with only the irreversibility of heat resistance and irreversible ICE cycles, including Otto, Diesel, Atkinson, Brayton, Dual, Miller, Porous Medium and Universal cycles with constant specific heats, variable specific heats, and variable specific ratio of the conventional and quantum working fluids (WFs; the studies on the optimum piston motion (OPM trajectories of ICE cycles, including Otto and Diesel cycles with Newtonian and other heat transfer laws; the studies on the performance limits of ICE cycles with non-uniform WF with Newtonian and other heat transfer laws; as well as the studies on the performance simulation of ICE cycles. In the studies, the optimization objectives include work, power, power density, efficiency, entropy generation rate, ecological function, and so on. The further direction for the studies is explored.
Thermodynamics in rotating systems—analysis of selected examples
Güémez, J; Fiolhais, M
2014-01-01
We solve a set of selected exercises on rotational motion requiring a mechanical and thermodynamical analysis. When non-conservative forces or thermal effects are present, a complete study must use the first law of thermodynamics together with Newton’s second law. The latter is here better expressed in terms of an ‘angular’ impulse–momentum equation (Poinsot–Euler equation), or, equivalently, in terms of a ‘rotational’ pseudo-work–energy equation. Thermodynamical aspects in rotational systems, when e.g. frictional forces are present or when there is a variation of the rotational kinetic energy due to internal sources of energy, are discussed. (paper)
Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis
Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti Freire
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas–Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability.
Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis
Freire, Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti; Alexandrino, Francisco; Marcelino, Henrique Rodrigues; Picciani, Paulo Henrique de Souza; Silva, Kattya Gyselle de Holanda e; Genre, Julieta; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes; do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa
2017-01-01
Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS) is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB) kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas–Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability. PMID:28773009
Thermodynamic analysis of dust sulphation reactions
Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A.
1997-12-31
Sulphation reactions of metal oxides with SO{sub 2} and O. or SO{sub 3} play significant roles in sulphation roasting of sulphide and oxide minerals as well as in desulphurisation process of combustion gases. In metallurgical waste-heat boilers for sulphide smelting, the sulphation of the oxidic flue dust in the atmosphere containing sulphur oxides is an unavoidable process, and the sulphation reactions have to be guided in a controlled way in the proper parts of the gas handling equipment. In this report, some thermodynamic analyses were conducted for the oxide sulphation reactions in relation to sulphide smelting processes. The phase stability of Me-S-O systems especially for oxides - sulphates equilibrium was studied under different thermodynamic conditions of gas compositions and temperatures. The sulphate stability was analysed for an example of gas compositions in the copper flash smelter of Outokumpu Harjavalta Metals Oy, in relation to temperature. In the report, most of the information was from literature. Moreover, a number of thermodynamic computations were carried out with the HSC program, and the constructed phase stability diagrams were compared with those from the literature whenever possible. The maximum temperatures for stable sulphates under normal operating conditions of the waste-heat boilers in sulphide smelting processes were obtained. This report will serve as the basis for the kinetic studies of the sulphation reactions and the sulphation reaction modelling in pyrometallurgical processes. (orig.) SULA 2 Programme. 36 refs.
Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis.
Freire, Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti; Alexandrino, Francisco; Marcelino, Henrique Rodrigues; Picciani, Paulo Henrique de Souza; Silva, Kattya Gyselle de Holanda E; Genre, Julieta; Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes de; Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do
2017-06-13
Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS) is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB) kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas-Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability.
Analysis of thermodynamic properties for high-temperature superconducting oxides
Kushwah, S.S.; Shanker, J.
1993-01-01
Analysis of thermodynamic properties such as specific heat, Debye temperature, Einstein temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, bulk modulus, and Grueneisen parameter is performed for rare-earth-based, Tl-based, and Bi-based superconducting copper oxides. Values of thermodynamic parameters are calculated and reported. The relationship between the Debye temperature and the superconducting transition temperature is used to estimate the values of T c using the interaction parameters from Ginzburg. (orig.)
Thermodynamic analysis of a directly heated oxyfuel supercritical power system
Chowdhury, A.S.M. Arifur; Bugarin, Luz; Badhan, Antara; Choudhuri, Ahsan; Love, Norman
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis of a supercritical power cycle is presented. • The supercritical power cycle is modeled using ASPEN HYSYS®. • A liquid methane and oxygen feed system is more efficient than a gaseous system. • CO_2 recirculated in gas form is 10.6% more efficient than when in liquid form. • Commercially available technologies permit liquid feed system delivery. - Abstract: Directly heated supercritical oxy-fuel gas turbines have potential to provide a higher thermal efficiency and lower pollutant emissions compared to current gas turbine systems. Motivated by the advantages of an oxyfuel-based directly heated supercritical power system, this paper presents an analysis of different operating conditions using ASPEN HYSYS®. This study first investigates the efficiency of gaseous or liquid methane and oxygen feed systems. T-s and P-v diagrams are generated and compared to each other to determine which is more efficient. The analysis revealed that the entropy generated during the combustion process for a liquid feed system is approximately three times higher than when methane and oxygen are compressed in gaseous form and delivered to the combustor and burned. To mitigate the high temperatures (3300 K) of the methane and oxygen combustion reaction, carbon dioxide is recirculated. For this portion of the system, the use of gaseous and liquid carbon dioxide recirculation loops and their corresponding efficiencies are determined. The investigation shows that the system yielded a higher net efficiency of 55.1% when gaseous carbon dioxide is recirculated as a diluent with liquid methane and oxygen delivery to the combustor.
Anammox revisited: thermodynamic considerations in early studies of the microbial nitrogen cycle.
Oren, Aharon
2015-08-01
This paper explores the early literature on the thermodynamics of processes in the microbial nitrogen cycle, evaluating parameters of transfer of energy which depends on the initial and final states of the system, the mechanism of the reactions involved and the rates of these reactions. Processes discussed include the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (the anammox reaction), the use of inorganic nitrogen compounds as electron donors for anoxygenic photosynthesis, and the mechanism and bioenergetics of biological nitrogen fixation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Thermodynamic analysis of volatile organometallic fission products
Auxier II, J.D.; Hall, H.L.; Cressy, Derek
2016-01-01
The ability to perform rapid separations in a post nuclear weapon detonation scenario is an important aspect of national security. In the past, separations of fission products have been performed using solvent extraction, precipitation, etc. The focus of this work is to explore the feasibility of using thermochromatography, a technique largely employed in superheavy element chemistry, to expedite the separation of fission products from fuel components. A series of fission product complexes were synthesized and the thermodynamic parameters were measured using TGA/DSC methods. Once measured, these parameters were used to predict their retention times using thermochromatography. (author)
Analysis of Maisotsenko open gas turbine bottoming cycle
Saghafifar, Mohammad; Gadalla, Mohamed
2015-01-01
Maisotsenko gas turbine cycle (MGTC) is a recently proposed humid air turbine cycle. An air saturator is employed for air heating and humidification purposes in MGTC. In this paper, MGTC is integrated as the bottoming cycle to a topping simple gas turbine as Maisotsenko bottoming cycle (MBC). A thermodynamic optimization is performed to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of MBC as compared with air bottoming cycle (ABC). Furthermore, detailed sensitivity analysis is reported to present the effect of different operating parameters on the proposed configurations' performance. Efficiency enhancement of 3.7% is reported which results in more than 2600 tonne of natural gas fuel savings per year. - Highlights: • Developed an accurate air saturator model. • Introduced Maisotsenko bottoming cycle (MBC) as a power generation cycle. • Performed Thermodynamic optimization for MBC and air bottoming cycle (ABC). • Performed detailed sensitivity analysis for MBC under different operating conditions. • MBC has higher efficiency and specific net work output as compared to ABC
Thermodynamics of Gas Turbine Cycles with Analytic Derivatives in OpenMDAO
Gray, Justin; Chin, Jeffrey; Hearn, Tristan; Hendricks, Eric; Lavelle, Thomas; Martins, Joaquim R. R. A.
2016-01-01
A new equilibrium thermodynamics analysis tool was built based on the CEA method using the OpenMDAO framework. The new tool provides forward and adjoint analytic derivatives for use with gradient based optimization algorithms. The new tool was validated against the original CEA code to ensure an accurate analysis and the analytic derivatives were validated against finite-difference approximations. Performance comparisons between analytic and finite difference methods showed a significant speed advantage for the analytic methods. To further test the new analysis tool, a sample optimization was performed to find the optimal air-fuel equivalence ratio, , maximizing combustion temperature for a range of different pressures. Collectively, the results demonstrate the viability of the new tool to serve as the thermodynamic backbone for future work on a full propulsion modeling tool.
Chen, Yi; Han, Wei; Jin, Hongguang
2016-01-01
Highlights: • This paper proposes a new thermal compressor model with boost pressure ratio. • The proposed model is an effective way to optimize the absorption-generation process. • Boost pressure ratio is a key parameter in the proposed thermal compressor model. • The optimum boost pressure ratios for two typical refrigeration systems are obtained. - Abstract: The absorption refrigeration cycle is a basic cycle that establishes the systems for utilizing mid-low temperature heat sources. A new thermal compressor model with a key parameter of boost pressure ratio is proposed to optimize the absorption-generation process. The ultimate generation pressure and boost pressure ratio are used to represent the potential and operating conditions of the thermal compressor, respectively. Using the proposed thermal compressor model, the operation mechanism and requirements of the absorption refrigeration system and absorption-compression refrigeration system are elucidated. Furthermore, the two typical heat conversion systems are optimized based on the thermal compressor model. The optimum boost pressure ratios of the absorption refrigeration system and the absorption-compression refrigeration system are 0.5 and 0.75, respectively. For the absorption refrigeration system, the optimum generation temperature is 125.31 °C at the cooling water temperature of 30 °C, which is obtained by simple thermodynamic calculation. The optimized thermodynamic performance of the absorption-compression refrigeration system is 16.7% higher than that of the conventional absorption refrigeration system when the generation temperature is 100 °C. The thermal compressor model proposed in this paper is an effective method for simplifying the optimization of the thermodynamic systems involving an absorption-generation process.
Land use impact evaluation in life cycle assessment based on ecosystem thermodynamics
Wagendorp, Tim; Gulinck, Hubert; Coppin, Pol; Muys, Bart
2006-01-01
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies of products with a major part of their life cycle in biological production systems (i.e. forestry and agriculture) are often incomplete because the assessment of the land use impact is not operational. Most method proposals include the quality of the land in a descriptive way using rank scores for an arbitrarily selected set of indicators. This paper first offers a theoretical framework for the selection of suitable indicators for land use impact assessment, based on ecosystem thermodynamics. According to recent theories on the thermodynamics of open systems, a goal function of ecosystems is to maximize the dissipation of exogenic exergy fluxes by maximizing the internal exergy storage under form of biomass, biodiversity and complex trophical networks. Human impact may decrease this ecosystem exergy level by simplification, i.e. decreasing biomass and destroying internal complexity. Within this theoretical framework, we then studied possibilities for assessing the land use impact in a more direct way by measuring the ecosystems' capacity to dissipate solar exergy. Measuring ecosystem thermal characteristics by using remote sensing techniques was considered a promising tool. Once operational, it could offer a quick and cheap alternative to quantify land use impacts in any terrestrial ecosystem of any size. Recommendations are given for further exploration of this method and for its integration into an ISO compatible LCA framework
Tan, Yingying; Wang, Lin; Liang, Kunfeng
2015-01-01
In this paper, an auto-cascade ejector refrigeration cycle (ACERC) is proposed to obtain lower refrigeration temperature based on conventional ejector refrigeration and auto-cascade refrigeration principle. The thermodynamic performance of ACERC is investigated theoretically. The zeotropic refrigerant mixture R32 + R236fa is used as its working fluid. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the effects of some thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance. The study shows that refrigerant mixture composition, condenser outlet temperature and evaporation pressure have effects on performance of ACERC. The theoretical results also indicate that the ACERC can achieve the lowest refrigeration temperature at the temperature level of −30 °C. The application of zeotropic refrigerant mixture auto-cascade refrigeration in the ejector refrigeration cycle can provide a new way to obtain lower refrigeration temperature utilizing low-grade thermal energy. - Highlights: • An auto-cascade ejector refrigerator with R32 + R236fa mixed refrigerant is proposed. • The cycle can obtain a refrigeration temperature at −30 °C temperature range. • The effects of some thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance are evaluated
Applicability of the minimum entropy generation method for optimizing thermodynamic cycles
Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang
2013-01-01
Entropy generation is often used as a figure of merit in thermodynamic cycle optimizations.In this paper,it is shown that the applicability of the minimum entropy generation method to optimizing output power is conditional.The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power when the total heat into the system of interest is not prescribed.For the cycles whose working medium is heated or cooled by streams with prescribed inlet temperatures and prescribed heat capacity flow rates,it is theoretically proved that both the minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number correspond to the maximum output power when the virtual entropy generation induced by dumping the used streams into the environment is considered.However,the minimum principle of entropy generation is not tenable in the case that the virtual entropy generation is not included,because the total heat into the system of interest is not fixed.An irreversible Carnot cycle and an irreversible Brayton cycle are analysed.The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power if the heat into the system of interest is not prescribed.
Applicability of the minimum entropy generation method for optimizing thermodynamic cycles
Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang
2013-01-01
Entropy generation is often used as a figure of merit in thermodynamic cycle optimizations. In this paper, it is shown that the applicability of the minimum entropy generation method to optimizing output power is conditional. The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power when the total heat into the system of interest is not prescribed. For the cycles whose working medium is heated or cooled by streams with prescribed inlet temperatures and prescribed heat capacity flow rates, it is theoretically proved that both the minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number correspond to the maximum output power when the virtual entropy generation induced by dumping the used streams into the environment is considered. However, the minimum principle of entropy generation is not tenable in the case that the virtual entropy generation is not included, because the total heat into the system of interest is not fixed. An irreversible Carnot cycle and an irreversible Brayton cycle are analysed. The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power if the heat into the system of interest is not prescribed. (general)
Wang, Yufei; Tang, Qikui; Wang, Mengying; Feng, Xiao
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles (KC) for multi-stream waste heat recovery. • Divide waste heat into straight, convex and concave based on its composite curve. • Use heat ratio and temperature of the most point to show the feature of waste heat. • KC is suitable for straight and most concave heat, while ORC for convex one. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and Kalina cycle are the main technologies to recover waste heat for power generation. Up to now, many works dealing with the thermodynamic performance comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles are available, but these studies considered for heat recovery from a single heat source or stream. In the process industry, there are multiple waste heat streams, forming a complex heat source profile. In this paper, based on the simulation model developed in the Aspen Hysys software, the two cycles are calculated and compared. According to the waste heat composite curve, the multi-stream waste heat is divided into three kinds, straight, convex, and concave waste heat. Two parameters, the ratio of the heat above and below the most salient/concave point (R) and the temperature of the most point, are used to roughly express the feature of waste heat. With the efficiency from waste heat (exergy) to power as energy performance indicator, the calculation results for waste heat with maximum supply temperature 180 °C show that for straight and concave waste heat with R not less than 0.2, Kalina cycle is better than ORC, while for convex waste heat, ORC is preferable. The work can provide a reference to choose a suitable technology to recover low temperature waste heat for power generation in the process industry.
Alves, Lourenco Gobira; Nebra, Silvia Azucena
2004-01-01
One of the proposals to increase the performance of the gas turbines is to improve chemical recuperated cycle. In this cycle, the heat in the turbine exhaust gases is used to heat and modify the chemical characteristics of the fuel. One mixture of natural gas and steam receives heat from the exhaust turbine gases; the mixture components react among themselves producing hot synthesis gas. In this work, an analysis and nonlinear optimization of the cycle were made in order to investigate the temperature and pressure influence on the global cycle performance. The chemical composition in the reformer was assumed according to chemical equilibrium equations, which presents good agreement with data from literature. The mixture of hot gases was treated like ideal gases. The maximum net profit was achieved and a thermodynamic second law analysis was made in order to detect the greatest sources of irreversibility
Kazemi, Neda; Samadi, Fereshteh
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A new cycle was designed to improve basic organic Rankine cycle performance. • Peng Robinson equation of state was used to obtain properties of working fluids. • Operating parameters were optimized with three different objective functions. • Efficiency of new organic Rankine cycle is higher than other considered cycles. • Return on investment of new cycle for Iran is more than France and America. - Abstract: The main goal of this study is to propose and investigate a new organic Rankine cycle based on three considered configurations: basic organic Rankine cycle, regenerative organic Rankine cycle and two-stage evaporator organic Rankine cycle in order to increase electricity generation from geothermal sources. To analyze the considered cycles’ performance, thermodynamic (energy and exergy based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics) and economic (specific investment cost) models are investigated. Also, a comparison of cycles modeling results is carried out in optimum conditions according to different optimization which consist thermodynamic, economic and thermo-economic objective functions for maximizing exergy efficiency, minimizing specific investment cost and applying a multi-objective function in order to maximize exergy efficiency and minimize specific investment cost, respectively. Optimized operating parameters of cycles include evaporators and regenerative temperatures, pinch point temperature difference of evaporators and degree of superheat. Furthermore, Peng Robinson equation of state is used to obtain thermodynamic properties of isobutane and R123 which are selected as dry and isentropic working fluids, respectively. The results of optimization indicate that, thermal and exergy efficiencies increase and exergy destruction decrease especially in evaporators for both working fluids in new proposed organic Rankine cycle compared to the basic organic Rankine cycle. Moreover, the amount of specific investment cost in new
GESIT: a thermodynamic program for single cycle gas turbine plants with and without intercoolers
Heil, J
1973-08-01
A computer program for the thermodynamic modeling of singlecycle gas turbine plants is described. A high-temperature reactor is assumed as a heat source in the program, but the HTR can be replaced with another heat source without difficulty. Starting from a set of independent data, the program calculates efficiencies and mass flows. It indicates all values for a heat and power balance and prints out the temperatures and pressures for the different parts of the cycle. Besides this, the program is able to optimize the compression ratios for minimal power input. It also takes into account turbine rotor cooling (at the roots of the blades). Furthermore, the program is able to use either total pressure loss or specified losses in different parts of the cycle. The program GESlT can also handle systems with one or two intercoolers, or with no intercooler. GESIT gives all input and output values for the heat exchangers and turbo-machines. First the single-cycle gas turbine plant is described. After that the computational basis for the program and the program structure is explained. Instructions for data input are given so that the program can be immediately utilized. An example of input data together with the associated output is presented. (auth)
Sanjay; Singh, Onkar; Prasad, B.N.
2008-01-01
A comparative study of the influence of different means of turbine blade cooling on the thermodynamic performance of combined cycle power plant is presented. Seven schemes involving air and steam as coolants under open and closed loop cooling techniques have been studied. The open loop incorporates the internal convection, film and transpiration cooling techniques. Closed loop cooling includes only internal convection cooling. It has been found that closed loop steam cooling offers more specific work and consequently gives higher value of plant efficiency of about 60%, whereas open loop transpiration steam cooling, open loop steam internal convection cooling, transpiration air cooling, film steam cooling, film air, and internal convection air cooling have been found to yield lower values of plant efficiency in decreasing order as compared to closed loop steam cooling
Kiesel, Nikolai; Blaser, Florian; Delic, Uros; Grass, David; Dechant, Andreas; Lutz, Eric; Bathaee, Marzieh; Aspelmeyer, Markus
2015-08-01
Combining optical levitation and cavity optomechanics constitutes a promising approach to prepare and control the motional quantum state of massive objects (>10^9 amu). This, in turn, would represent a completely new type of light-matter interface and has, for example, been predicted to enable experimental tests of macrorealistic models or of non-Newtonian gravity at small length scales. Such ideas have triggered significant experimental efforts to realizing such novel systems. To this end, we have recently successfully demonstrated cavity-cooling of a levitated sub-micron silica particle in a classical regime at a pressure of approximately 1mbar. Access to higher vacuum of approx. 10^-6 mbar has been demonstrated using 3D-feedback cooling in optical tweezers without cavity-coupling. Here we will illustrate our strategy towards trapping, 3D-cooling and quantum control of nanoparticles in ultra-high vacuum using cavity-based feedback cooling methods and clean particle loading with hollow-core photonic crystal fibers. We will also discuss the current experimental progress both in 3D-cavity cooling and HCPCF-based transport of nanoparticles. As yet another application of cavity-controlled levitated nanoparticles we will show how to implement a thermodynamic Sterling cycle operating in the underdamped regime. We present optimized protocols with respect to efficiency at maximum power in this little explored regime. We also show that the excellent level of control in our system will allow reproducing all relevant features of such optimized protocols. In a next step, this will enable studies of thermodynamics cycles in a regime where the quantization of the mechanical motion becomes relevant.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Closed Steady or Cyclic Systems
Jim McGovern
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Closed, steady or cyclic thermodynamic systems, which have temperature variations over their boundaries, can represent an extremely large range of plants, devices or natural objects, such as combined heating, cooling and power plants, computers and data centres, and planets. Energy transfer rates can occur across the boundary, which are characterized as heat or work. We focus on the finite time thermodynamics aspects, on energy-based performance parameters, on rational efficiency and on the environmental reference temperature. To do this, we examine the net work rate of a closed, steady or cyclic system bounded by thermal resistances linked to isothermal reservoirs in terms of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Citing relevant references from the literature, we propose a methodology that can improve the thermodynamic analysis of an energy-transforming or an exergy-destroying plant. Through the reflections and analysis presented, we have found an explanation of the second law that clarifies the link between the Clausius integral of heat over temperature and the reference temperature of the Gouy–Stodola theorem. With this insight and approach, the specification of the environmental reference temperature in exergy analysis becomes more solid. We have explained the relationship between the Curzon Ahlborn heat engine and an irreversible Carnot heat engine. We have outlined the nature of subsystem rational efficiencies and have found Rant’s anergy to play an important role. We postulate that heat transfer through thermal resistance is the sole basis of irreversibility.
Exergy analysis of helium liquefaction systems based on modified Claude cycle with two-expanders
Thomas, Rijo Jacob; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan
2011-06-01
Large-scale helium liquefaction systems, being energy-intensive, demand judicious selection of process parameters. An effective tool for design and analysis of thermodynamic cycles for these systems is exergy analysis, which is used to study the behavior of a helium liquefaction system based on modified Claude cycle. Parametric evaluation using process simulator Aspen HYSYS® helps to identify the effects of cycle pressure ratio and expander flow fraction on the exergetic efficiency of the liquefaction cycle. The study computes the distribution of losses at different refrigeration stages of the cycle and helps in selecting optimum cycle pressures, operating temperature levels of expanders and mass flow rates through them. Results from the analysis may help evolving guidelines for designing appropriate thermodynamic cycles for practical helium liquefaction systems.
Liu, Qibin; Bai, Zhang; Wang, Xiaohe; Lei, Jing; Jin, Hongguang
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Two solar-biomass hybrid combined cycle power generation systems are proposed. • The characters of the two proposed systems are compared. • The on-design and off-design properties of the system are numerically investigated. • The favorable performances of thermochemical hybrid routine are validated. - Abstract: Two solar-biomass hybrid combined cycle power generation systems are proposed in this work. The first system employs the thermochemical hybrid routine, in which the biomass gasification is driven by the concentrated solar energy, and the gasified syngas as a solar fuel is utilized in a combined cycle for generating power. The second system adopts the thermal integration concept, and the solar energy is directly used to heat the compressed air in the topping Brayton cycle. The thermodynamic performances of the developed systems are investigated under the on-design and off-design conditions. The advantages of the hybrid utilization technical mode are demonstrated. The solar energy can be converted and stored into the chemical fuel by the solar-biomass gasification, with the net solar-to-fuel efficiency of 61.23% and the net solar share of 19.01% under the specific gasification temperature of 1150 K. Meanwhile, the proposed system with the solar thermochemical routine shows more favorable behaviors, the annual system overall energy efficiency and the solar-to-electric efficiency reach to 29.36% and 18.49%, while the with thermal integration concept of 28.03% and 15.13%, respectively. The comparison work introduces a promising approach for the efficient utilization of the abundant solar and biomass resources in the western China, and realizes the mitigation of CO_2 emission.
Lansing, F. L.
1977-01-01
Various configurations combining solar-Rankine and fuel-Brayton cycles were analyzed in order to find the arrangement which has the highest thermal efficiency and the smallest fuel share. A numerical example is given to evaluate both the thermodynamic performance and the economic feasibility of each configuration. The solar-assisted regenerative Rankine cycle was found to be leading the candidates from both points of energy utilization and fuel conservation.
The Life Cycle Analysis Toolbox
Bishop, L.; Tonn, B.E.; Williams, K.A.; Yerace, P.; Yuracko, K.L.
1999-01-01
The life cycle analysis toolbox is a valuable integration of decision-making tools and supporting materials developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to help Department of Energy managers improve environmental quality, reduce costs, and minimize risk. The toolbox provides decision-makers access to a wide variety of proven tools for pollution prevention (P2) and waste minimization (WMin), as well as ORNL expertise to select from this toolbox exactly the right tool to solve any given P2/WMin problem. The central element of the toolbox is a multiple criteria approach to life cycle analysis developed specifically to aid P2/WMin decision-making. ORNL has developed numerous tools that support this life cycle analysis approach. Tools are available to help model P2/WMin processes, estimate human health risks, estimate costs, and represent and manipulate uncertainties. Tools are available to help document P2/WMin decision-making and implement programs. Tools are also available to help track potential future environmental regulations that could impact P2/WMin programs and current regulations that must be followed. An Internet-site will provide broad access to the tools
Thermal modeling of a hydraulic hybrid vehicle transmission based on thermodynamic analysis
Kwon, Hyukjoon; Sprengel, Michael; Ivantysynova, Monika
2016-01-01
Hybrid vehicles have become a popular alternative to conventional powertrain architectures by offering improved fuel efficiency along with a range of environmental benefits. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles (HHV) offer one approach to hybridization with many benefits over competing technologies. Among these benefits are lower component costs, more environmentally friendly construction materials, and the ability to recover a greater quantity of energy during regenerative braking which make HHVs partially well suited to urban environments. In order to further the knowledge base regarding HHVs, this paper explores the thermodynamic characteristics of such a system. A system model is detailed for both the hydraulic and thermal components of a closed circuit hydraulic hybrid transmission following the FTP-72 driving cycle. Among the new techniques proposed in this paper is a novel method for capturing rapid thermal transients. This paper concludes by comparing the results of this model with experimental data gathered on a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) transmission dynamometer possessing the same architecture, components, and driving cycle used within the simulation model. This approach can be used for several applications such as thermal stability analysis of HHVs, optimal thermal management, and analysis of the system's thermodynamic efficiency. - Highlights: • Thermal modeling for HHVs is introduced. • A model for the hydraulic and thermal system is developed for HHVs. • A novel method for capturing rapid thermal transients is proposed. • The thermodynamic system diagram of a series HHV is predicted.
Thermodynamic evaluation of the Kalina split-cycle concepts for waste heat recovery applications
Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Knudsen, Thomas; Larsen, Ulrik
2014-01-01
of varying boundary conditions by conducting an exergy analysis. The design parameters of each configuration were determined by performing a multi-variable optimisation. The results indicate that the Kalina split-cycle with reheat presents an exergetic efficiency by 2.8% points higher than a reference Kalina...... and condenser, and indicates a reduction of the exergy destruction by about 23% in the heat recovery system compared to the baseline cycle....
Thermodynamic analysis of a milk pasteurization process assisted by geothermal energy
Yildirim, Nurdan; Genc, Seda
2015-01-01
Renewable energy system is an important concern for sustainable development of the World. Thermodynamic analysis, especially exergy analysis is an intense tool to assess sustainability of the systems. Food processing industry is one of the energy intensive sectors where dairy industry consumes substantial amount of energy among other food industry segments. Therefore, in this study, thermodynamic analysis of a milk pasteurization process assisted by geothermal energy was studied. In the system, a water–ammonia VAC (vapor absorption cycle), a cooling section, a pasteurizer and a regenerator were used for milk pasteurization. Exergetic efficiencies of each component and the whole system were separately calculated. A parametric study was undertaken. In this regard, firstly the effect of the geothermal resource temperature on (i) the total exergy destruction of the absorption cycle and the whole system, (ii) the efficiency of the VAC, the whole system and COP (coefficient of performance) of the VAC, (iii) the flow rate of the pasteurized milk were investigated. Then, the effect of the geothermal resource flow rate on the pasteurization load was analyzed. The exergetic efficiency of the whole system was calculated as 56.81% with total exergy destruction rate of 13.66 kW. The exergetic results were also illustrated through the Grassmann diagram. - Highlights: • Geothermal energy assisted milk pasteurization system was studied thermodynamically. • The first study on exergetic analysis of a milk pasteurization process with VAC. • The thermodynamic properties of water–ammonia mixture were calculated by using EES. • Energetic and exergetic efficiency calculated as 71.05 and 56.81%, respectively.
Thermodynamics-based Metabolite Sensitivity Analysis in metabolic networks.
Kiparissides, A; Hatzimanikatis, V
2017-01-01
The increasing availability of large metabolomics datasets enhances the need for computational methodologies that can organize the data in a way that can lead to the inference of meaningful relationships. Knowledge of the metabolic state of a cell and how it responds to various stimuli and extracellular conditions can offer significant insight in the regulatory functions and how to manipulate them. Constraint based methods, such as Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and Thermodynamics-based flux analysis (TFA), are commonly used to estimate the flow of metabolites through genome-wide metabolic networks, making it possible to identify the ranges of flux values that are consistent with the studied physiological and thermodynamic conditions. However, unless key intracellular fluxes and metabolite concentrations are known, constraint-based models lead to underdetermined problem formulations. This lack of information propagates as uncertainty in the estimation of fluxes and basic reaction properties such as the determination of reaction directionalities. Therefore, knowledge of which metabolites, if measured, would contribute the most to reducing this uncertainty can significantly improve our ability to define the internal state of the cell. In the present work we combine constraint based modeling, Design of Experiments (DoE) and Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) into the Thermodynamics-based Metabolite Sensitivity Analysis (TMSA) method. TMSA ranks metabolites comprising a metabolic network based on their ability to constrain the gamut of possible solutions to a limited, thermodynamically consistent set of internal states. TMSA is modular and can be applied to a single reaction, a metabolic pathway or an entire metabolic network. This is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to use metabolic modeling in order to provide a significance ranking of metabolites to guide experimental measurements. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier
Thomas, Dennis G; Jaramillo-Riveri, Sebastian; Baxter, Douglas J; Cannon, William R
2014-12-26
We have applied a new stochastic simulation approach to predict the metabolite levels, material flux, and thermodynamic profiles of the oxidative TCA cycles found in E. coli and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and in the reductive TCA cycle typical of chemolithoautotrophs and phototrophic green sulfur bacteria such as Chlorobaculum tepidum. The simulation approach is based on modeling states using statistical thermodynamics and employs an assumption similar to that used in transition state theory. The ability to evaluate the thermodynamics of metabolic pathways allows one to understand the relationship between coupling of energy and material gradients in the environment and the self-organization of stable biological systems, and it is shown that each cycle operates in the direction expected due to its environmental niche. The simulations predict changes in metabolite levels and flux in response to changes in cofactor concentrations that would be hard to predict without an elaborate model based on the law of mass action. In fact, we show that a thermodynamically unfavorable reaction can still have flux in the forward direction when it is part of a reaction network. The ability to predict metabolite levels, energy flow, and material flux should be significant for understanding the dynamics of natural systems and for understanding principles for engineering organisms for production of specialty chemicals.
Thermodynamic constitutive model for load-biased thermal cycling test of shape memory alloy
Young, Sung; Nam, Tae-Hyun
2013-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermodynamic calculation model for martensitic transformation of shape memory alloy was proposed. • Evolution of the self-accommodation was considered independently by a rate-dependent kinetic equation. • Finite element calculation was conducted for B2–B19′ transformation of Ti–44.5Ni–5Cu–0.5 V (at.%). • Three-dimensional numerical results predict the macroscopic strain under bias loading accurately. - Abstract: This paper presents a three-dimensional calculation model for martensitic phase transformation of shape memory alloy. Constitutive model based on thermodynamic theory was provided. The average behavior was accounted for by considering the volume fraction of each martensitic variant in the material. Evolution of the volume fraction of each variant was determined by a rate-dependent kinetic equation. We assumed that nucleation rate is faster for the self-accommodation than for the stress-induced variants. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was conducted and the results were compared with the experimental data of Ti–44.5Ni–5Cu–0.5 V (at.%) alloy under bias loading
Zhang, Guoqiang; Zheng, Jiongzhi; Yang, Yongping; Liu, Wenyi
2016-01-01
Highlights: • An off-design performance simulation of triple-pressure reheat HRSG is executed. • The bottoming cycle characteristics of energy transfer/conversion are analyzed. • Concise formulas for the off-design performance of bottoming cycle are proposed. • The accuracy of the formulas is verified under different load control strategies. • The errors of the formulas are generally within 1% at a load of 100–50%. - Abstract: Concise semi-theoretical, semi-empirical formulas are developed in this study to predict the off-design performance of the bottoming cycle of the gas–steam turbine combined cycle. The formulas merely refer to the key thermodynamic design parameters (full load parameters) of the bottoming cycle and off-design gas turbine exhaust temperature and flow, which are convenient in determining the overall performance of the bottoming cycle. First, a triple-pressure reheat heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is modeled, and thermodynamic analysis is performed. Second, concise semi-theoretical, semi-empirical performance prediction formulas for the bottoming cycle are proposed through a comprehensive analysis of the heat transfer characteristics of the HRSG and the energy conversion characteristics of the steam turbine under the off-design condition. The concise formulas are found to be effective, i.e., fast, simple, and precise in obtaining the thermodynamic parameters for bottoming cycle efficiency, HRSG heat transfer capacity, HRSG efficiency, steam turbine power output, and steam turbine efficiency under the off-design condition. Accuracy is verified by comparing the concise formulas’ calculation results with the simulation results and practical operation data under different load control strategies. The calculation errors are within 1.5% (mainly less than 1% for both simulation and actual operation data) under combined cycle load (gas turbine load) ranging from 50% to 100%. However, accuracy declines sharply when the turbine
Vincze, A.; Sidawi, K.; Abdullah, R.; Baldock, M.; Saltanov, E.; Pioro, I., E-mail: andrei.vincze@uoit.net, E-mail: khalil.sidawi@uoit.net, E-mail: rand.abdullah@uoit.net, E-mail: matthew.baldock@uoit.net, E-mail: eugene.saltanov@uoit.ca, E-mail: igor.pioro@uoit.ca [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, ON (Canada)
2014-07-01
Current Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) play a significant role in energy production around the world. All NPPs operating today employ a Rankine steam cycle for the conversion of thermal power to electricity. This paper will examine the steam cycle arrangement an experimental pressure channel reactor using Nuclear Steam Superheat (NSS) and compare it to two advanced reactor designs, the Advanced CANDU Reactor 1000 (ACR-1000) and the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) designs. The thermodynamic cycle layout and thermal efficiencies of the three reactor types will be discussed. (author)
Morandin, Matteo; Maréchal, François; Mercangöz, Mehmet; Buchter, Florian
2012-01-01
The interest in large scale electricity storage (ES) with discharging time longer than 1 h and nominal power greater than 1 MW, is increasing worldwide as the increasing share of renewable energy, typically solar and wind energy, imposes severe load management issues. Thermo-electrical energy storage (TEES) based on thermodynamic cycles is currently under investigation at ABB corporate research as an alternative solution to pump hydro and compressed air energy storage. TEES is based on the conversion of electricity into thermal energy during charge by means of a heat pump and on the conversion of thermal energy into electricity during discharge by means of a thermal engine. The synthesis and the thermodynamic optimization of a TEES system based on hot water, ice storage and transcritical CO 2 cycles, is discussed in two papers. In this first paper a methodology for the conceptual design of a TEES system based on the analysis of the thermal integration between charging and discharging cycles through Pinch Analysis tools is introduced. According to such methodology, the heat exchanger network and temperatures and volumes of storage tanks are not defined a priori but are determined after the cycle parameters are optimized. For this purpose a heuristic procedure based on the interpretation of the composite curves obtained by optimizing the thermal integration between the cycles was developed. Such heuristic rules were implemented in a code that allows finding automatically the complete system design for given values of the intensive parameters of the charging and discharging cycles only. A base case system configuration is introduced and the results of its thermodynamic optimization are discussed here. A maximum roundtrip efficiency of 60% was obtained for the base case configuration assuming turbomachinery and heat exchanger performances in line with indications from manufacturers. -- Highlights: ► Energy storage based on water, ice, and transcritical CO 2 cycles is
Thermodynamically consistent Bayesian analysis of closed biochemical reaction systems
Goutsias John
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry from noisy time series measurements of molecular concentrations is an important step for building predictive models of cellular function. Inference techniques currently available in the literature may produce rate constant values that defy necessary constraints imposed by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics. As a result, these techniques may lead to biochemical reaction systems whose concentration dynamics could not possibly occur in nature. Therefore, development of a thermodynamically consistent approach for estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system is highly desirable. Results We introduce a Bayesian analysis approach for computing thermodynamically consistent estimates of the rate constants of a closed biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry given experimental data. Our method employs an appropriately designed prior probability density function that effectively integrates fundamental biophysical and thermodynamic knowledge into the inference problem. Moreover, it takes into account experimental strategies for collecting informative observations of molecular concentrations through perturbations. The proposed method employs a maximization-expectation-maximization algorithm that provides thermodynamically feasible estimates of the rate constant values and computes appropriate measures of estimation accuracy. We demonstrate various aspects of the proposed method on synthetic data obtained by simulating a subset of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling pathway, and examine its robustness under conditions that violate key assumptions. Software, coded in MATLAB®, which implements all Bayesian analysis techniques discussed in this paper, is available free of charge at http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS%20lab/software.html. Conclusions Our approach provides an attractive statistical methodology for
Life-cycle cost analysis of adsorption cycles for desalination
Thu, Kyaw; Chakraborty, A.; Saha, B.B.; Chun, Won Gee; Ng, K.C.
2010-01-01
This paper presents the thermo-economic analysis of the adsorption desalination (AD) cycle that is driven by low-temperature waste heat from exhaust of industrial processes or renewable sources. The AD cycle uses an adsorbent such as the silica gel
Mechanical breakdown in the nuclear multifragmentation phenomena. Thermodynamic analysis
Bulavin, L.A.; Cherevko, K.V.; Sysoev, V.M.
2012-01-01
Based on a similarity of the Van der Waals and nucleon-nucleon interaction the known thermodynamic relations for ordinary liquids are used to analyze the possible decay channels in the proton induced nuclear multifragmentation phenomena. The main features of the different phase trajectories in the P-V plane are compared with the experimental data on multifragmentation. It allowed choosing the phase trajectories with the correct qualitative picture of the phenomena. Based on the thermodynamic analysis of the proton-induced multifragmentation phenomena the most appropriate decay channel corresponding to the realistic phase trajectory is chosen. Macroscopic analysis of the suggested decay channel is done in order to check the possibility of the mechanical breakdown of the heated system. Based on a simple thermodynamic model preliminary quantitative calculations of corresponding macroscopic parameters (energy, pressure) are done and therefore the model verification on macroscopic level is held. It is shown that on macroscopic level the chosen decay channel through the mechanical breakdown meets the necessary conditions for describing the proton-induced multifragmentation phenomena
THERMODYNAMIC TOPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION OF MAXIMUM BOILING AZEOTROPES
W. F. Shen
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides a feasibility study of azeotropic mixture separation based on a topological analysis combining thermodynamic knowledge of residue curve maps, univolatility and unidistribution curves, and extractive profiles. Thermodynamic topological features related to process operations for typical ternary diagram classes 1.0-2 are, for the first time, discussed. Separating acetone/chloroform is presented as an illustrative example; different entrainers are investigated: several heavy ones, a light one, and water, covering the Serafimov classes 1.0-2, 1.0-1a and 3.1-4, respectively. The general feasibility criterion that was previously established for ternary mixtures including only one azeotrope (1.0-1a or 1.0-2 is now, for the first time, extended to that including three azeotropes (class 3.1–4.
Rajesh Kumar; S.C. Kaushik; Raj Kumar; Ranjana Hans
2016-01-01
Brayton heat engine model is developed in MATLAB simulink environment and thermodynamic optimization based on finite time thermodynamic analysis along with multiple criteria is implemented. The proposed work investigates optimal values of various decision variables that simultaneously optimize power output, thermal efficiency and ecological function using evolutionary algorithm based on NSGA-II. Pareto optimal frontier between triple and dual objectives is obtained and best optimal value is s...
THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION METHODS IN LIGNITE POWER PLANTS
Koroneos J. Christopher; Sakiltzis Christos; Rovas C. Dimitrios
2008-01-01
The green house effect is a very pressing issue of our times due to the big impact it will have in the future of life in our planet. The temperature increase of the earth which is the major impact of the greenhouse effect may change forever the climate and the way of life in many countries. It may lead to the reduction of agricultural production and at the end to famine, in several nations. The minimization of CO2 emissions and the introduction of new energy sources is the only solution to the catastrophe that is coming if inaction prevails. The objective of this work is to analyze the methods of the CO2 removal from the flue gases of power plants that use solid fuels. It is especially fit to the Greek conditions where the main fuel used is lignite. Three methods have been examined and compared thermodynamically. These are: (a) Removal of CO2 from the flue gas stream by absorption, (b) The combustion of lignite with pure oxygen and (c) The gasification of lignite. The lignite used in the analysis is the Greek lignite, produced at the Western Macedonia mines. The power plant, before carbon sequestration, has an efficiency of 39%, producing 330MW of electric power. After sequestration, the CO2 is compressed to pressures between 80-110 atm, before its final disposal. In the first method, the sequestration of CO2 is done utilizing a catalyst. The operation requires electricity and high thermal load which is received from low pressure steam extracted from the turbines. Additionally, electricity is required for the compression of the CO2 to 100 bars. This leads to a lower efficiency of the power plant by by 13%. In the second method, the lignite combustion is done with pure O2 produced at an air separation unit. The flue gasses are made up of CO2 and water vapor. This method requires electricity for carbon dioxide compression and the Air Separation unit, thus, the power plant efficiency is lowered by 26%. In the lignite gasification method, the products are a mixture of
Network thermodynamic approach compartmental analysis. Na+ transients in frog skin.
Mikulecky, D C; Huf, E G; Thomas, S R
1979-01-01
We introduce a general network thermodynamic method for compartmental analysis which uses a compartmental model of sodium flows through frog skin as an illustrative example (Huf and Howell, 1974a). We use network thermodynamics (Mikulecky et al., 1977b) to formulate the problem, and a circuit simulation program (ASTEC 2, SPICE2, or PCAP) for computation. In this way, the compartment concentrations and net fluxes between compartments are readily obtained for a set of experimental conditions involving a square-wave pulse of labeled sodium at the outer surface of the skin. Qualitative features of the influx at the outer surface correlate very well with those observed for the short circuit current under another similar set of conditions by Morel and LeBlanc (1975). In related work, the compartmental model is used as a basis for simulation of the short circuit current and sodium flows simultaneously using a two-port network (Mikulecky et al., 1977a, and Mikulecky et al., A network thermodynamic model for short circuit current transients in frog skin. Manuscript in preparation; Gary-Bobo et al., 1978). The network approach lends itself to computation of classic compartmental problems in a simple manner using circuit simulation programs (Chua and Lin, 1975), and it further extends the compartmental models to more complicated situations involving coupled flows and non-linearities such as concentration dependencies, chemical reaction kinetics, etc.
Thermodynamic analysis of a new combined cooling and power system using ammonia–water mixture
Wang, Jiangfeng; Wang, Jianyong; Zhao, Pan; Dai, Yiping
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A new combined cooling and power system is proposed. • Exergy destruction analysis is used to identify irreversibility of components in system. • Thermodynamic parameter analysis is performed for system. - Abstract: In order to achieve both power and cooling supply for users, a new combined cooling and power system using ammonia–water mixture is proposed to utilizing low grade heat sources, such as industrial waste heat, solar energy and geothermal energy. The proposed system combines a Kalina cycle and an ammonia–water absorption refrigeration cycle, in which the ammonia–water turbine exhaust is delivered to a separator to extract purer ammonia vapor. The purer ammonia vapor enters an evaporator to generate refrigeration output after being condensed and throttled. Mathematical models are established to simulate the combined system under steady-state conditions. Exergy destruction analysis is conducted to display the exergy destruction distribution in the system qualitatively and the results show that the major exergy destruction occurs in the heat exchangers. Finally a thermodynamic sensitivity analysis is performed and reveals that with an increase in the pressure of separator I or the ammonia mass fraction of basic solution, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system increase, whereas with an increase in the temperature of separator I, the ammonia–water turbine back pressure or the condenser II pressure, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system drop.
Chan, C.W.; Ling-Chin, J.; Roskilly, A.P.
2013-01-01
A major cause of energy inefficiency is a result of the generation of waste heat and the lack of suitable technologies for cost-effective utilisation of low grade heat in particular. The market potential for surplus/waste heat from industrial processes in the UK is between 10 TWh and 40 TWh, representing a significant potential resource which has remained unexploited to date. This paper reviews selected technologies suitable for utilisation of waste heat energy, with specific focus on low grade heat, including: (i) chemical heat pumps, such as adsorption and absorption cycles for cooling and heating; (ii) thermodynamic cycles, such as the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), the supercritical Rankine cycle (SRC) and the trilateral cycle (TLC), to produce electricity, with further focus on expander and zeotropic mixtures, and (iii) thermal energy storage, including sensible and latent thermal energy storages and their corresponding media to improve the performance of low grade heat energy systems. - Highlights: ► The review of various thermal technologies for the utilisation of under exploited low grade heat. ► The analyses of the absorption and adsorption heat pumps possibly with performance enhancement additives. ► The analyses of thermal energy storage technologies (latent and sensible) for heat storage. ► The analyses of low temperature thermodynamic cycles to maximise power production.
Automated modelling of complex refrigeration cycles through topological structure analysis
Belman-Flores, J.M.; Riesco-Avila, J.M.; Gallegos-Munoz, A.; Navarro-Esbri, J.; Aceves, S.M.
2009-01-01
We have developed a computational method for analysis of refrigeration cycles. The method is well suited for automated analysis of complex refrigeration systems. The refrigerator is specified through a description of flows representing thermodynamic sates at system locations; components that modify the thermodynamic state of a flow; and controls that specify flow characteristics at selected points in the diagram. A system of equations is then established for the refrigerator, based on mass, energy and momentum balances for each of the system components. Controls specify the values of certain system variables, thereby reducing the number of unknowns. It is found that the system of equations for the refrigerator may contain a number of redundant or duplicate equations, and therefore further equations are necessary for a full characterization. The number of additional equations is related to the number of loops in the cycle, and this is calculated by a matrix-based topological method. The methodology is demonstrated through an analysis of a two-stage refrigeration cycle.
Invernizzi, Costante M.; Iora, Paolo
2016-01-01
The world trade in LNG (liquefied natural gas) has tripled in the last 15 years and the forecasts are for its further rapid expansion. Although the cryogenic exergy of the LNG could be used in many industrial processes, it is recognized also as a source for power cycles. When using the low temperature capacity of LNG for power production, several thermodynamic cycles can be considered. This paper reports the state-of-the art of the most relevant solutions based on conventional and non-conventional thermodynamic closed cycles. Moreover, a novel metrics framework, suitable for a fairer comparison among the energy recovery performances of the different technologies is proposed. According to the defined indicators the compounds plants with gas turbine and closed Brayton cycles perform really better, with an almost full use of LNG available cold temperature and a fuel consumption with an efficiency better than that of the current combined cycles. The Rankine cycles with organic working fluids (pure fluids or non-azeotropic mixtures) using seawater or heat available at low temperature (for instance at 150 °C) also perform in a very satisfactory way. Real gas Brayton cycles and carbon dioxide condensation cycles work with very good thermal efficiency also at relatively low maximum temperatures (300 ÷ 600 °C) and could have peculiar applications. - Highlights: • A review of systems for the combined re-gasification of LNG and generation of power. • The considered systems are: closed Brayton cycles, condensation cycles, gas turbines. • Definition of new parameters for an energy assessment of the systems? performances. • A comparison among the various systems from the energy point of view.
Thermodynamic analysis on optimum performance of scramjet engine at high Mach numbers
Zhang, Duo; Yang, Shengbo; Zhang, Silong; Qin, Jiang; Bao, Wen
2015-01-01
In order to predict the maximum performance of scramjet engine at flight conditions with high freestream Mach numbers, a thermodynamic model of Brayton cycle was utilized to analyze the effects of inlet pressure ratio, fuel equivalence ratio and the upper limit of gas temperature to the specific thrust and the fuel impulse of the scramjet considering the characteristics of non-isentropic compression in the inlet. The results show that both the inlet efficiency and the temperature limit in the combustor have remarkable effects on the overall engine performances. Different with the ideal Brayton cycles assuming isentropic compression without upper limit of gas temperature, both the maximum specific thrust and the maximum fuel impulse of a scramjet present non-monotonic trends against the fuel equivalence ratio in this study. Considering the empirical design efficiencies of inlet, there is a wide range of fuel equivalence ratios in which the fuel impulses remain at high values. Moreover, the maximum specific thrust can also be achieved with a fuel equivalence ratio near this range. Therefore, it is possible to achieve an overall high performance in a scramjet at high Mach numbers. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis with Brayton cycle on overall performances of scramjet. • The compression loss in the inlet was considered in predicting scram-mode operation. • Non-monotonic trends of engine performances against fuel equivalence ratio.
Pissarra, P.D.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal
1997-01-01
This paper describes the thermodynamic analysis of pathways related to penicillin production in Penicillium chrysogenum. First a thermodynamic feasibility analysis is performed of the L-lysine pathway of which one of the precursors for penicillin biosynthesis (alpha-aminoadipic acid......) is an intermediate. It is found that the L-lysine pathway in P. chrysogenum is thermodynamically feasible and that the calculated standard Gibbs free energy values of the two enzymes controlling the pathway flux indicate that they operate far from equilibrium. It is therefore proposed that the regulation of alpha......-aminoadipate reductase by lysine is important to maintain a high concentration of alpha-aminoadipate in order to direct the carbon flux to penicillin production. Secondly the changes in Gibbs free energy in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway during fed-batch cultivation were studied. The analysis showed that all...
Exergy analysis of a combined power and cooling cycle
Fontalvo, Armando; Pinzon, Horacio; Duarte, Jorge; Bula, Antonio; Quiroga, Arturo Gonzalez; Padilla, Ricardo Vasquez
2013-01-01
This paper presents a comprehensive exergy analysis of a combined power and cooling cycle which combines a Rankine and absorption refrigeration cycle by using ammonia–water mixture as working fluid. A thermodynamic model was developed in Matlab ® to find out the effect of pressure ratio, ammonia mass fraction at the absorber and turbine efficiency on the total exergy destruction of the cycle. The contribution of each cycle component on the total exergy destruction was also determined. The results showed that total exergy destruction decreases when pressure ratio increases, and reaches a maximum at x ≈ 0.5, when ammonia mass fraction is varied at absorber. Also, it was found that the absorber, the boiler and the turbine had the major contribution to the total exergy destruction of the cycle, and the increase of the turbine efficiency reduces the total exergy destruction. The effect of rectification cooling source (external and internal) on the cycle output was investigated, and the results showed that internal rectification cooling reduces the total exergy destruction of the cycle. Finally, the effect of the presence or absence of the superheater after the rectification process was determined and it was obtained that the superheated condition reduces the exergy destruction of the cycle at high turbine efficiency values. Highlights: • A parametric exergy analysis of a combined power and cooling cycle is performed. • Two scenarios for rectifier cooling (internal and external) were studied. • Internal cooling source is more exergetic efficient than external cooling source. • The absorber and boiler have the largest total exergy destruction. • Our results show that the superheater reduces the exergy destruction of the cycle
Dai Yiping; Wang Jiangfeng; Gao Lin
2009-01-01
A new combined power and refrigeration cycle is proposed, which combines the Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle. This combined cycle produces both power output and refrigeration output simultaneously. It can be driven by the flue gas of gas turbine or engine, solar energy, geothermal energy and industrial waste heats. An exergy analysis is performed to guide the thermodynamic improvement for this cycle. And a parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the effects of the key thermodynamic parameters on the performance of the combined cycle. In addition, a parameter optimization is achieved by means of genetic algorithm to reach the maximum exergy efficiency. The results show that the biggest exergy loss due to the irreversibility occurs in heat addition processes, and the ejector causes the next largest exergy loss. It is also shown that the turbine inlet pressure, the turbine back pressure, the condenser temperature and the evaporator temperature have significant effects on the turbine power output, refrigeration output and exergy efficiency of the combined cycle. The optimized exergy efficiency is 27.10% under the given condition.
Life-cycle cost analysis of adsorption cycles for desalination
Thu, Kyaw
2010-08-01
This paper presents the thermo-economic analysis of the adsorption desalination (AD) cycle that is driven by low-temperature waste heat from exhaust of industrial processes or renewable sources. The AD cycle uses an adsorbent such as the silica gel to desalt the sea or brackish water. Based on an experimental prototype AD plant, the life-cycle cost analysis of AD plants of assorted water production capacities has been simulated and these predictions are translated into unit cost of water production. Our results show that the specific energy consumption of the AD cycle is 1.38 kWh/m3 which is the lowest ever reported. For a plant capacity of 1000 m3/d, the AD cycle offers a unit cost of $0.457/m3 as compared to more than $0.9 for the average RO plants. Besides being cost-effective, the AD cycle is also environment-friendly as it emits less CO2 emission per m3 generated, typically 85% less, by comparison to an RO process. © 2010 Desalination Publications.
Second law analysis of the transcritical CO2 refrigeration cycle
Fartaj, Amir; Ting, David S.-K.; Yang, Wendy W.
2004-01-01
Because of the global warming impact of HFCs, the use of natural refrigerants has received worldwide attention. Efficient use of refrigerants is of pressing concern to the present automotive and HVAC industries. The natural refrigerant, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), exhibits promise for use in automotive air conditioning systems, in particular the transcritical CO 2 refrigeration cycle. The objective of this work is to identify the main factors that affect CO 2 system performance. A second law of thermodynamic analysis on the entire CO 2 refrigeration cycle is conducted so that the effectiveness of the components of the system can be deduced and ranked, allowing future efforts to focus on improving the components that have the highest potential for advancement. The analysis reveals that the compressor and the gas cooler exhibit the largest non-idealities within the system, and hence, efforts should be focused on improving these components
Thermodynamic analysis of advanced fuels for fast breeder reactors
Srivastava, D.; Garg, S.P.; Goswami, G.L.
1990-01-01
Six phase fields of interest in the M-C-N system (M= mixed U/Pu) with oxygen as impurity are i) U 1-x3 Pu x3 (=M)+ U 1-x1 Pu x1 C 1-y-z N y O z (= MCN O), ii)C+ U 1 x2 Pu x2 Csub(1.5) (=MCsub(1.5)), iii) MCsub(1.5) + MCNO, iv) C+MCNO, v) UN (1.5) + MCNO and vi) C + UNsub(1.5) + MCNO. In the present work a detailed thermodynamic analysis has been carried out for all the six phase fields existing in the system with x 1 , 1-y-z and y are varying from 0.0 to 1.0 and z as impurity from 0.0 to 0.15 at temperature between 1500K to 2000K. In the first part, composition of the phases in the different phase fields have been calculated as a function of overall composition of the fuel and temperature. In the second part, thermodynamic properties such as partial pressures of N 2 (g), O 2 (g), CO(g), Pu(g), U(g), PuO(g), UO(g), UC 2 (g) and PuC 2 (g) species and carbon potential of the fuel have been calculated as a function of compositions x 1 , y and z at different temperatures. Results obtained are discus sed in detail and compared with the reported measured data. Hitherto, thermodynamic properties for all the phase fields of M-C-N-O system have not been reported. (a uthor). 54 tabs., 13 figs., 24 refs
Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis
David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore
2006-12-01
A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.
Thermodynamic analysis applied to a food-processing plant
Ho, J C; Chandratilleke, T T
1987-01-01
Two production lines of a multi-product, food-processing plant are selected for energy auditing and analysis. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the first-law and second-law efficiencies are 81.5% and 26.1% for the instant-noodles line and 23.6% and 7.9% for the malt-beverage line. These efficiency values are dictated primarily by the major energy-consuming sub-processes of each production line. Improvements in both first-law and second-law efficiencies are possible for the plants if the use of steam for heating is replaced by gaseous or liquid fuels, the steam ejectors for creating vacuum are replaced by a mechanical pump, and employing the cooler surroundings to assist in the cooling process.
Thermodynamic analysis of salt corrosion of titanium alloys
Travkin, V.V.; Pshirkov, V.F.; Kolachev, B.A.
1979-01-01
About 200 possible chemical reactions of metals, salts and oxides (in a solid state) with water (in a vapour state), and with gases (O 2 , Cl 2 , HCl) were studied by the thermodynamic analysis to elucidate a chemical nature of processes taking place at salt corrosion of titanium alloys (VT22, VT6 and VT16). Temperature dependences of isobaric-isothermic potential were considered to reveal a possibility of spontaneous course and direction of reactions as well as to obtain a comparative estimate of the probability of their pro-cedure. Thermodynamically possible schemes of the chemism of titanium alloy salt corrosion are proposed. Complex che-mical reactions take place in the presence of salt, moisture and oxygen of air on the surface of the alloys. The reactions proceed with the formation of titanium and alloying component chlorides, free chlorine and hydrogen. The free chlorine or HCl are released during pyrohydrolysis and oxidation of chlo-rides. The former ones interact with the alloy with the formation of salts, and hydrogen may be absorbed by the metal and cause embrittlement. Chlorides on the metal surface accelerate the chlorination process. NaCl acts as a cata-lyst. The determination of salt corrosion products has confirmed the process mechanism proposed
THERMODYNAMICS OF PROTEIN-LIGAND INTERACTIONS AND THEIR ANALYSIS
Rummi Devi Saini
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Physiological processes are controlled mainly by intermolecular recognition mechanisms which involve protein–protein and protein–ligand interactions with a high specificity and affinity to form a specific complex. Proteins being an important class of macromolecules in biological systems, it is important to understand their actions through binding to other molecules of proteins or ligands. In fact, the binding of low molecular weight ligands to proteins plays a significant role in regulating biological processes such as cellular metabolism and signal transmission. Therefore knowledge of the protein–ligand interactions and the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the protein-ligand recognition and binding are key in understanding biology at molecular level which will facilitate the discovery, design, and development of drugs. In this review, the mechanisms involved in protein–ligand binding, the binding kinetics, thermodynamic concepts and binding driving forces are discussed. Thermodynamic mechanisms involved in a few important protein-ligand binding are described. Various spectroscopic, non-spectroscopic and computational method for analysis of protein–ligand binding are also discussed.
Wang, Xing; Liu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Chuhua
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Optimal level constitution of parameters for ORC system was obtained. • Order of system parameters’ sensitivity to the performance of ORC was revealed. • Evaporating temperature had significant effect on performance of ORC system. • Superheater had little effect on performance of ORC system. - Abstract: In this study, a thermodynamic model of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system combined with orthogonal design is proposed. The comprehensive scoring method was adopted to obtain a comprehensive index to evaluate both of the thermodynamic performance and economic performance. The optimal level constitution of system parameters which improves the thermodynamic and economic performance of ORC system is provided by analyzing the result of orthogonal design. The range analysis based on orthogonal design is adopted to determine the sensitivity of system parameters to the net power output of ORC system, thermal efficiency, the SP factor of radial inflow turbine, the power decrease factor of the pump and the total heat transfer capacity. The results show that the optimal level constitution of system parameters is determined as the working fluid of R245fa, the super heating temperature of 10 °C, the pinch temperature difference in evaporator and condenser of 5 °C, the evaporating temperature of 65 °C, the isentropic efficiency for the pump of 0.75 and the isentropic efficiency of radial inflow turbine of 0.85. The order of system parameters’ sensitivity to the comprehensive index of orthogonal design is evaporating temperature > isentropic efficiency of radial inflow turbine > the working fluid > the pinch temperature difference of the evaporator and the condenser > isentropic efficiency of cycle pump > the super heating temperature. This study provides useful references for selecting main controlled parameters in the optimal design of ORC system
Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Power Plant with Double Reheat and Feed Water Heaters
M. M. Rashidi
2014-03-01
Full Text Available A steam cycle with double reheat and turbine extraction is presented. Six heaters are used, three of them at high pressure and the other three at low pressure with deaerator. The first and second law analysis for the cycle and optimization of the thermal and exergy efficiencies are investigated. An exergy analysis is performed to guide the thermodynamic improvement for this cycle. The exergy and irreversibility analyses of each component of the cycle are determined. Effects of turbine inlet pressure, boiler exit steam temperature, and condenser pressure on the first and second laws' efficiencies are investigated. Also the best turbine extraction pressure on the first law efficiency is obtained. The results show that the biggest exergy loss occurs in the boiler followed by the turbine. The results also show that the overall thermal efficiency and the second law efficiency decrease as the condenser pressure increases for any fixed outlet boiler temperature, however, they increase as the boiler temperature increases for any condenser pressure. Furthermore, the best values of extraction pressure from high, intermediate, and low pressure turbine which give the maximum first law efficiencies are obtained based on the required heat load corresponding to each exit boiler temperature.
Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Ataei, Abtin; Yoo, Chang Kyoo
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Proposing two new power and cooling cogeneration systems based on absorption chillers and Kalina cycles. • Model-based comparison through thermodynamic and economic standpoints. • Investigating sensitivity of system performance and costs to the key parameters. • Reducing total annual costs of the base system up to 8% by cogeneration. • Increasing thermal efficiency up to 4.9% despite of cooling generation. - Abstract: Two new power and cooling cogeneration systems based on Kalina cycle (KC) and absorption refrigeration cycle (AC) are proposed and studied from thermodynamic and economic viewpoints. The first proposed system, Kalina power-cooling cycle (KPCC), combines the refrigerant loop of the water-ammonia absorption chiller, consisting of an evaporator and two throttling valves with the KC. A portion of the KC mass flow enters the evaporator to generate cooling after being condensed in the KPCC system. KPCC is a flexible system adapting power and cooling cogeneration to the demand. The second proposed system, Kalina lithium bromide absorption chiller cycle (KLACC), consists of the KC and a single effect lithium bromide-water absorption chiller (AC_L_i_B_r_-_w_a_t_e_r). The KC subsystem discharges heat to the AC_L_i_B_r_-_w_a_t_e_r desorber before condensing in the condenser. The performance and economic aspects of both proposed systems are analyzed and compared with the stand alone KC. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of efficiencies and the generated power and cooling quantities to the key operating variables. The results showed that, thermal efficiency and total annual costs decreased by 5.6% and 8% for KPCC system but increased 4.9% and 58% for KLACC system, respectively. Since the power-cooling efficiency of KLACC is 42% higher than KPCC it can be applied where the aim is cooling generation without considering economic aspects.
Study on thermodynamic cycle of high temperature gas-cooled reactor
Qu Xinhe; Yang Xiaoyong; Wang Jie
2017-01-01
The development trend of the (very) High temperature gas-cooled reactor is to gradually increase the reactor outlet temperature. The different power conversion units are required at the different reactor outlet temperature. In this paper, for the helium turbine direct cycle and the combined cycle of the power conversion unit of the High temperature gas-cooled reactor, the mathematic models are established, and three cycle plans are designed. The helium turbine direct cycle is a Brayton cycle with recuperator, precooler and intercooler. In the combined cycle plan 1, the topping cycle is a simple Brayton cycle without recuperator, precooler and intercooler, and the bottoming cycle is based on the steam parameters (540deg, 6 MPa) recommended by Siemens. In the combined cycle plan 2, the topping cycle also is a simple Brayton cycle, and the bottoming cycle which is a Rankine cycle with reheating cycle is based on the steam parameters of conventional subcritical thermal power generation (540degC, 18 MPa). The optimization results showed that the cycle efficiency of the combined cycle plan 2 is the highest, the second is the helium turbine direct cycle, and the combined cycle plan 2 is the lowest. When the reactor outlet temperature is 900degC and the pressure ratio is 2.02, the cycle efficiency of the combined cycle plan 2 can reach 49.7%. The helium turbine direct cycle has a reactor inlet temperature above 500degC due to the regenerating cycle, so it requires a cooling circuit for the internal wall of the reactor pressure vessel. When the reactor outlet temperature increases, the increase of the pressure ratio required by the helium turbine direct cycle increases may bring some difficulties to the design and manufacture of the magnetic bearings. For the combined cycle, the reactor inlet temperature can be controlled below than 370degC, so the reactor pressure vessel can use SA533 steel without cooling the internal wall of the reactor pressure vessel. The pressure
Thomas, Dennis G.; Jaramillo Riveri, Sebastian I.; Baxter, Douglas J.; Cannon, William R.
2014-12-15
We have applied a new stochastic simulation approach to predict the metabolite levels, energy flow, and material flux in the different oxidative TCA cycles found in E. coli and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and in the reductive TCA cycle typical of chemolithoautotrophs and phototrophic green sulfur bacteria such as Chlorobaculum tepidum. The simulation approach is based on equations of state and employs an assumption similar to that used in transition state theory. The ability to evaluate the thermodynamics of metabolic pathways allows one to understand the relationship between coupling of energy and material gradients in the environment and the selforganization of stable biological systems, and it is shown that each cycle operates in the direction expected due to its environmental niche. The simulations predict changes in metabolite levels and flux in response to changes in cofactor concentrations that would be hard to predict without an elaborate model based on the law of mass action. In fact, we show that a thermodynamically unfavorable reaction can still have flux in the forward direction when it is part of a reaction network. The ability to predict metabolite levels, energy flow and material flux should be significant for understanding the dynamics of natural systems and for understanding principles for engineering organisms for production of specialty chemicals, such as biofuels.
Alexandre Sordi
2006-01-01
Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi realizar a análise termodinâmica de um sistema híbrido, SOFC / ST (célula a combustível tipo SOFC e turbina a vapor ST. O combustível considerado para a análise foi o gás metano (biogás produzido por meio da digestão anaeróbica de resíduos orgânicos. A metodologia utilizada foi o balanço de energia dosistema SOFC / ST, considerando a reforma interna do metano na célula a combustível, de forma a obter a sua eficiência elétrica. O resultado foi comparado a um ciclo combinado convencional de turbina a gás e turbina a vapor (GT / ST para potências entre 10 MW e 30MW. A eficiência do sistema híbrido SOFC / ST variou de 61% a 66% em relação ao poder calorífico do metano; e a eficiência do ciclo combinado GT / ST variou de 41% a 55% para o mesmo intervalo de potência. Para geração distribuída a célula a combustível SOFC é atecnologia mais eficiente.The objective of this article was to analyze the thermodynamic of ahybrid system, SOFC / ST (SOFC fuel cell and ST steam turbine. The fuel for the analysis was the gas methane (biogas produced through the anaerobic digestion of the organic residues. The utilized methodology was the energy balance of the system SOFC / ST,considering the internal reforming of methane in the fuel cell, in a way to obtain its electric effectiveness. The result was compared to a conventional combined cycle of gas turbine and steam turbine (GT / ST for powers between 10 MW and 30 MW. The efficiency of the hybrid system SOFC / ST varied from 61 to 66% in relation to the lower heating value of methane; and the efficiency of the combined cycle GT / ST varied from 41 to 55% within the same power interval. For distributed generation, the SOFC fuel cell is the most efficienttechnology.
Thermodynamic analysis of transcritical CO{sub 2} booster refrigeration systems in supermarket
Ge, Y.T., E-mail: yunting.ge@brunel.ac.u [Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Tassou, S.A. [Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)
2011-04-15
Research highlights: {yields} The CO{sub 2} booster systems are widely applied in supermarket refrigeration. {yields} Control optimisation can improve the performance of the CO{sub 2} refrigeration systems. {yields} The effects of some important parameters on the system performance are examined. {yields} The optimal high-side pressure in the transcritical cycles is established and derived. -- Abstract: Due to less environmental impact, the CO{sub 2} booster refrigeration system has been widely applied in the modern supermarket as a substitute for the conventional R404A multiplex system. However, the performance efficiency of the CO{sub 2} system still requires further improvement in order to save energy; thus, one of the most efficient techniques would be to investigate and employ the optimal controls for refrigerant high side pressures at various operating states. In this paper, the possible parameters affecting system efficiency of the CO{sub 2} system in the transcritical cycle at a higher ambient air temperature are identified through thermodynamic analysis, but cannot be quantified mathematically because of the high non-linearity involved. Instead, sensitive analysis of the system by means of the thermodynamic model is used to examine the effects of parameters including high side refrigerant pressure, ambient air temperature, refrigerant intermediate pressure, and medium and low evaporating temperatures, superheating, effectiveness of suction line heat exchanger, and compressor efficiency on system performance. Consequently, the optimal high side pressure in the transcritical cycle is established and derived as a function of three important parameters consisting of ambient air temperature, the effectiveness of suction line heat exchanger and compressor efficiency. In addition, optimal operating parameters such as the intermediate pressure are also proposed to improve the system performance.
Thermodynamic analysis of transcritical CO2 booster refrigeration systems in supermarket
Ge, Y.T.; Tassou, S.A.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → The CO 2 booster systems are widely applied in supermarket refrigeration. → Control optimisation can improve the performance of the CO 2 refrigeration systems. → The effects of some important parameters on the system performance are examined. → The optimal high-side pressure in the transcritical cycles is established and derived. -- Abstract: Due to less environmental impact, the CO 2 booster refrigeration system has been widely applied in the modern supermarket as a substitute for the conventional R404A multiplex system. However, the performance efficiency of the CO 2 system still requires further improvement in order to save energy; thus, one of the most efficient techniques would be to investigate and employ the optimal controls for refrigerant high side pressures at various operating states. In this paper, the possible parameters affecting system efficiency of the CO 2 system in the transcritical cycle at a higher ambient air temperature are identified through thermodynamic analysis, but cannot be quantified mathematically because of the high non-linearity involved. Instead, sensitive analysis of the system by means of the thermodynamic model is used to examine the effects of parameters including high side refrigerant pressure, ambient air temperature, refrigerant intermediate pressure, and medium and low evaporating temperatures, superheating, effectiveness of suction line heat exchanger, and compressor efficiency on system performance. Consequently, the optimal high side pressure in the transcritical cycle is established and derived as a function of three important parameters consisting of ambient air temperature, the effectiveness of suction line heat exchanger and compressor efficiency. In addition, optimal operating parameters such as the intermediate pressure are also proposed to improve the system performance.
Muthukumar, P.; Lakshmi, D.V.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati – 781039 (India)
2013-07-01
In this paper, the thermodynamic analysis of a cascade sorption system consists of a two-stage metal hydride heat pump as topping cycle and a single-stage lithium bromide water system as bottom cycle is presented. The effects of various operating temperatures such as driving heat, heat release and refrigeration temperatures, and design parameters such as ratio of metal hydride mass to reactor mass and sensible heat exchange factor on the combined coefficient of performance (COP) of the cascade cycle, and specific cooling power (SCP) and total cold output of the metal hydride heat pump cycle are presented. It is observed that the combined COP is found to increase with heat release and refrigeration temperatures and however, decreases with driving heat temperature. Increase of sensible heat exchange factor improves the system performances significantly. Reduction in mass ratio from 0.5 to 0.1 improves the combined COP of the cascade system by about 10 %. The maximum predicted combined COP of the system is about 1.66 at the driving heat, heat release and refrigeration temperatures of 270 deg C, 125 deg C and 12deg C, respectively.
Godoy, E.; Benz, S.J.; Scenna, N.J.
2011-01-01
Optimal combined cycle gas turbine power plants characterized by minimum specific annual cost values are here determined for wide ranges of market conditions as given by the relative weights of capital investment and operative costs, by means of a non-linear mathematical programming model. On the other hand, as the technical optimization allows identifying trends in the system behavior and unveiling optimization opportunities, selected functional relationships are obtained as the thermodynamic optimal values of the decision variables are systematically linked to the ratio between the total heat transfer area and the net power production (here named as specific transfer area). A strategy for simplifying the resolution of the rigorous economic optimization problem of power plants is proposed based on the economic optima distinctive characteristics which describe the behavior of the decision variables of the power plant on its optima. Such approach results in a novel mathematical formulation shaped as a system of non-linear equations and additional constraints that is able to easily provide accurate estimations of the optimal values of the power plant design and operative variables. Research highlights: → We achieve relationships between power plants' economic and thermodynamic optima. → We achieve functionalities among thermodynamic optimal values of decision variables. → The rigorous optimization problem is reduced to a non-linear equations system. → Accurate estimations of power plants' design and operative variables are obtained.
Parametric analysis for a new combined power and ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle
Wang Jiangfeng; Dai Yiping; Zhang Taiyong; Ma Shaolin
2009-01-01
A new combined power and ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle is proposed, which combines the Rankine cycle and the ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle, and could produce both power output and refrigeration output simultaneously. This combined cycle, which originates from the cycle proposed by authors previously, introduces an ejector between the rectifier and the condenser, and provides a performance improvement without greatly increasing the complexity of the system. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the effects of the key thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance. It is shown that heat source temperature, condenser temperature, evaporator temperature, turbine inlet pressure, turbine inlet temperature, and basic solution ammonia concentration have significant effects on the net power output, refrigeration output and exergy efficiency of the combined cycle. It is evident that the ejector can improve the performance of the combined cycle proposed by authors previously.
Rokni, Masoud
2012-01-01
A gasification plant is integrated on the top of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cycle, while a steam turbine (ST) cycle is used as a bottoming cycle for the SOFC plant. The gasification plant was fueled by woodchips to produce biogas and the SOFC stacks were fired with biogas. The produced gas...... generator (HRSG). The steam cycle was modeled with a simple single pressure level. In addition, a hybrid recuperator was used to recover more energy from the HRSG and send it back to the SOFC cycle. Thus two different configurations were investigated to study the plants characteristic. Such system...
Umberto Lucia
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The interest in designing nanosystems is continuously growing. Engineers apply a great number of optimization methods to design macroscopic systems. If these methods could be introduced into the design of small systems, a great improvement in nanotechnologies could be achieved. To do so, however, it is necessary to extend classical thermodynamic analysis to small systems, but irreversibility is also present in small systems, as the Loschmidt paradox highlighted. Here, the use of the recent improvement of the Gouy-Stodola theorem to complex systems (GSGL approach, based on the use of entropy generation, is suggested to obtain the extension of classical thermodynamics to nanothermodynamics. The result is a new approach to nanosystems which avoids the difficulties highlighted in the usual analysis of the small systems, such as the definition of temperature for nanosystems.
Entropy Analysis of Solar Two-Step Thermochemical Cycles for Water and Carbon Dioxide Splitting
Matthias Lange
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The present study provides a thermodynamic analysis of solar thermochemical cycles for splitting of H2O or CO2. Such cycles, powered by concentrated solar energy, have the potential to produce fuels in a sustainable way. We extend a previous study on the thermodynamics of water splitting by also taking into account CO2 splitting and the influence of the solar absorption efficiency. Based on this purely thermodynamic approach, efficiency trends are discussed. The comprehensive and vivid representation in T-S diagrams provides researchers in this field with the required theoretical background to improve process development. Furthermore, results about the required entropy change in the used redox materials can be used as a guideline for material developers. The results show that CO2 splitting is advantageous at higher temperature levels, while water splitting is more feasible at lower temperature levels, as it benefits from a great entropy change during the splitting step.
Cycle kinetics, steady state thermodynamics and motors-a paradigm for living matter physics
Qian, Hong
2005-01-01
An integration of the stochastic mathematical models for motor proteins with Hill's steady state thermodynamics yields a rather comprehensive theory for molecular motors as open systems in the nonequilibrium steady state. This theory, a natural extension of Gibbs' approach to isothermal molecular systems in equilibrium, is compared with other existing theories with dissipative structures and dynamics. The theory of molecular motors might be considered as an archetype for studying more complex open biological systems such as biochemical reaction networks inside living cells
Thermodynamic analysis of CO2 capture processes for power plants
Biyouki, Zeinab Amrollahi
2014-01-01
This thesis work presents an evaluation of various processes for reducing CO2 emissions from natural-gas-fired combined cycle (NGCC) power plants. The scope of the thesis is to focus mainly on post-combustion chemical absorption for NGCC. For the post-combustion capture plant, an important interface is the steam extraction from the steam turbine in order to supply the heat for solvent regeneration. The steam extraction imposes a power production penalty. The thesis includes analysis and compa...
Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis
Thoft-Christensen, Palle
2010-01-01
The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future.......The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future....
Cignitti, Stefano; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Haglind, Fredrik
2017-01-01
recovery. Inthis paper, an organic Rankine cycle process and its pure working fluid are designed simultaneously forwaste heat recovery of the exhaust gas from a marine diesel engine. This approach can overcome designissues caused by the high sensitivity between the fluid and cycle design variables......Today, some established working fluids are being phased out due to new international regulations on theuse of environmentally harmful substances. With an ever-increasing cost to resources, industry wants toconverge on improved sustainability through resource recovery, and in particular waste heat...
Upgrading of syngas derived from biomass gasification: A thermodynamic analysis
Haryanto, Agus; Fernando, Sandun D.; Pordesimo, Lester O.; Adhikari, Sushil
2009-01-01
Hydrogen yields in the syngas produced from non-catalytic biomass gasification are generally low. The hydrogen fraction, however, can be increased by converting CO, CH 4 , higher hydrocarbons, and tar in a secondary reactor downstream. This paper discusses thermodynamic limits of the synthesis gas upgrading process. The method used in this process is minimization of Gibbs free energy function. The analysis is performed for temperature ranges from 400 to 1300 K, pressure of 1-10 atm (0.1-1 MPa), and different carbon to steam ratios. The study concludes that to get optimum H 2 yields, with negligible CH 4 and coke formation, upgrading syngas is best practiced at a temperature range of 900-1100 K. At these temperatures, H 2 could be possibly increased by 43-124% of its generally observed values at the gasifier exit. The analysis revealed that increasing steam resulted in a positive effect. The study also concluded that increasing pressure from 1 to 3 atm can be applied at a temperature >1000 K to further increase H 2 yields.
Upgrading of syngas derived from biomass gasification: A thermodynamic analysis
Haryanto, Agus [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Mississippi State University, 130 Creelman St., Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Agricultural Engineering Department, University of Lampung, Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1, Bandar Lampung 35145 (Indonesia); Fernando, Sandun D. [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, 2117 TAMU College Station, TX 77843-2117 (United States); Pordesimo, Lester O. [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Mississippi State University, 130 Creelman St., Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Adhikari, Sushil [Biosystems Engineering Department, Auburn University, 215 Tom Corley Building, Auburn, AL 36849-5417 (United States)
2009-05-15
Hydrogen yields in the syngas produced from non-catalytic biomass gasification are generally low. The hydrogen fraction, however, can be increased by converting CO, CH{sub 4}, higher hydrocarbons, and tar in a secondary reactor downstream. This paper discusses thermodynamic limits of the synthesis gas upgrading process. The method used in this process is minimization of Gibbs free energy function. The analysis is performed for temperature ranges from 400 to 1300 K, pressure of 1-10 atm (0.1-1 MPa), and different carbon to steam ratios. The study concludes that to get optimum H{sub 2} yields, with negligible CH{sub 4} and coke formation, upgrading syngas is best practiced at a temperature range of 900-1100 K. At these temperatures, H{sub 2} could be possibly increased by 43-124% of its generally observed values at the gasifier exit. The analysis revealed that increasing steam resulted in a positive effect. The study also concluded that increasing pressure from 1 to 3 atm can be applied at a temperature >1000 K to further increase H{sub 2} yields. (author)
Thermodynamic analysis of Direct Urea Solid Oxide Fuel Cell in combined heat and power applications
Abraham, F.; Dincer, I.
2015-12-01
This paper presents a comprehensive steady state modelling and thermodynamic analysis of Direct Urea Solid Oxide Fuel Cell integrated with Gas Turbine power cycle (DU-SOFC/GT). The use of urea as direct fuel mitigates public health and safety risks associated with the use of hydrogen and ammonia. The integration scheme in this study covers both oxygen ion-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC-O) and hydrogen proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC-H). Parametric case studies are carried out to investigate the effects of design and operating parameters on the overall performance of the system. The results reveal that the fuel cell exhibited the highest level of exergy destruction among other system components. Furthermore, the SOFC-O based system offers better overall performance than that with the SOFC-H option mainly due to the detrimental reverse water-gas shift reaction at the SOFC anode as well as the unique configuration of the system.
Guichard, F.; Kergoat, L.; Mougin, E.; Timouk, F.; Bock, O.; Hiernaux, P.
2009-04-01
A good knowledge of surface fluxes and atmospheric low levels is central to improving our understanding of the West African monsoon. This study provides a quantitative analysis of the peculiar seasonal and diurnal cycles of surface thermodynamics and radiative fluxes encountered in Central Sahel. It is based on a multi-year dataset collected in the Malian Gourma over a sandy soil at 1.5°W-15.3°N (a site referred to as Agoufou) with an automated weather station and a sunphotometer (AERONET), complemented by observations from the AMMA field campaign. The seasonal cycle of this Tropical region is characterized by a broad maximum of temperature in May, following the first minimum of the solar zenith angle by a few weeks, when Agoufou lies within the West African Heat-Low, and a late summer maximum of equivalent potential temperature within the core of the monsoon season, around the second yearly maximum of solar zenith angle, as the temperature reaches its Summer minimum. More broadly, subtle balances between surface air temperature and moisture fields are found on a range of scales. For instance, during the monsoon, apart from August, their opposite daytime fluctuations (warming, drying) lead to an almost flat diurnal cycle of the equivalent potential temperature at the surface. This feature stands out in contrast to other more humid continental regions. Here, the strong dynamics associated with the transition from a drier hot Spring to a brief cooler wet tropical Summer climate involves very large transformations of the diurnal cycles. The Summer increase of surface net radiation, Rnet, is also strong; typically 10-day mean Rnet reaches about 5 times its Winter minimum (~30 W.m-2) in August (~150 W.m-2). A major feature revealed by observations is that this increase is mostly driven by modifications of the surface upwelling fluxes shaped by rainfall events and vegetation phenology (surface cooling and darkening), while the direct impact of atmospheric changes on
Fuel Cycle System Analysis Handbook
Piet, Steven J.; Dixon, Brent W.; Gombert, Dirk; Hoffman, Edward A.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Williams, Kent A.
2009-01-01
This Handbook aims to improve understanding and communication regarding nuclear fuel cycle options. It is intended to assist DOE, Campaign Managers, and other presenters prepare presentations and reports. When looking for information, check here. The Handbook generally includes few details of how calculations were performed, which can be found by consulting references provided to the reader. The Handbook emphasizes results in the form of graphics and diagrams, with only enough text to explain the graphic, to ensure that the messages associated with the graphic is clear, and to explain key assumptions and methods that cause the graphed results. Some of the material is new and is not found in previous reports, for example: (1) Section 3 has system-level mass flow diagrams for 0-tier (once-through), 1-tier (UOX to CR=0.50 fast reactor), and 2-tier (UOX to MOX-Pu to CR=0.50 fast reactor) scenarios - at both static and dynamic equilibrium. (2) To help inform fast reactor transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio and uranium supply behavior, section 5 provides the sustainable fast reactor growth rate as a function of TRU conversion ratio. (3) To help clarify the difference in recycling Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, and all-TRU, section 5 provides mass fraction, gamma, and neutron emission for those four cases for MOX, heterogeneous LWR IMF (assemblies mixing IMF and UOX pins), and a CR=0.50 fast reactor. There are data for the first 10 LWR recycle passes and equilibrium. (4) Section 6 provides information on the cycle length, planned and unplanned outages, and TRU enrichment as a function of fast reactor TRU conversion ratio, as well as the dilution of TRU feedstock by uranium in making fast reactor fuel. (The recovered uranium is considered to be more pure than recovered TRU.) The latter parameter impacts the required TRU impurity limits specified by the Fuels Campaign. (5) Section 7 provides flows for an 800-tonne UOX separation plant. (6) To complement 'tornado' economic uncertainty
Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio
2015-01-01
A thermodynamic analysis of cogeneration of power and refrigeration activated by low-grade sensible energy is presented in this work. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for power production and a vapor compression cycle (VCC) for refrigeration using the same working fluid are linked in the analysis, including the limiting case of cold production without net electricity production. We investigate the effects of key parameters on system performance such as net power production, refrigeration, and thermal and exergy efficiencies. Characteristic indexes proportional to the cost of heat exchangers or of turbines, such as total number of transfer units (NTU tot ), size parameter (SP) and isentropic volumetric flow ratio (VFR) are also examined. Three important system parameters are selected, namely turbine inlet temperature, turbine inlet pressure, and the flow division ratio. The analysis is conducted for several different working fluids. For a few special cases, isobutane is used for a sensitivity analysis due to its relatively high efficiencies. Our results show that the system has the potential to effectively use low grade thermal sources. System performance depends both on the adopted parameters and working fluid. - Highlights: • Waste heat utilization can reduce emissions of carbon dioxide. • The ORC/VCC cycle can deliver power and/or refrigeration using waste heat. • Efficiencies and size parameters are used for cycle evaluation. • The cycle performance is studied for eight suitable refrigerants. Isobutane is used for a sensitivity analysis. • The work shows that the isobutene cycle is quite promising.
Entropy generation analysis of an adsorption cooling cycle
Thu, Kyaw
2013-05-01
This paper discusses the analysis of an adsorption (AD) chiller using system entropy generation as a thermodynamic framework for evaluating total dissipative losses that occurred in a batch-operated AD cycle. The study focuses on an adsorption cycle operating at heat source temperatures ranging from 60 to 85 °C, whilst the chilled water inlet temperature is fixed at 12.5 °C,-a temperature of chilled water deemed useful for dehumidification and cooling. The total entropy generation model examines the processes of key components of the AD chiller such as the heat and mass transfer, flushing and de-superheating of liquid refrigerant. The following key findings are observed: (i) The cycle entropy generation increases with the increase in the heat source temperature (10.8 to 46.2 W/K) and the largest share of entropy generation or rate of energy dissipation occurs at the adsorption process, (ii) the second highest energy rate dissipation is the desorption process, (iii) the remaining energy dissipation rates are the evaporation and condensation processes, respectively. Some of the noteworthy highlights from the study are the inevitable but significant dissipative losses found in switching processes of adsorption-desorption and vice versa, as well as the de-superheating of warm condensate that is refluxed at non-thermal equilibrium conditions from the condenser to the evaporator for the completion of the refrigeration cycle. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes; Janasch, Markus; Hudson, Elton P
2018-01-01
Introducing biosynthetic pathways into an organism is both reliant on and challenged by endogenous biochemistry. Here we compared the expansion potential of the metabolic network in the photoautotroph Synechocystis with that of the heterotroph E. coli using the novel workflow POPPY (Prospecting Optimal Pathways with PYthon). First, E. coli and Synechocystis metabolomic and fluxomic data were combined with metabolic models to identify thermodynamic constraints on metabolite concentrations (NET analysis). Then, thousands of automatically constructed pathways were placed within each network and subjected to a network-embedded variant of the max-min driving force analysis (NEM). We found that the networks had different capabilities for imparting thermodynamic driving forces toward certain compounds. Key metabolites were constrained differently in Synechocystis due to opposing flux directions in glycolysis and carbon fixation, the forked tri-carboxylic acid cycle, and photorespiration. Furthermore, the lysine biosynthesis pathway in Synechocystis was identified as thermodynamically constrained, impacting both endogenous and heterologous reactions through low 2-oxoglutarate levels. Our study also identified important yet poorly covered areas in existing metabolomics data and provides a reference for future thermodynamics-based engineering in Synechocystis and beyond. The POPPY methodology represents a step in making optimal pathway-host matches, which is likely to become important as the practical range of host organisms is diversified. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis
Bott, T.F.
1996-01-01
This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multistep approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage
Thermodynamic principles governing metabolic operation : inference, analysis, and prediction
Niebel, Bastian
2015-01-01
The principles governing metabolic flux are poorly understood. Because diverse organisms show similar metabolic flux patterns, we hypothesized that fundamental thermodynamic constraints might shape cellular metabolism. We developed a constraint-based model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae that included
Calculation and analysis of thermodynamic relations for superconductors
Nazarenko, A.B.
1989-01-01
The absorption coefficients of high-frequency and low-frequency sound have been calculated on the basis of the Ginzburg-Landau theory. This sound is a wave of periodic adiabatic bulk compressions and rarefactions of the frequency ω in an isotropic superconductor near the transition temperature. Thermodynamic relations have been obtained for abrupt changes in the physical quantities produced as a result of a transition from the normal state to the superconducting state. These relations are similar to the Ehrenfest relations. The above--mentioned thermodynamic quantities are compared with the published experimental results on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ . The experiments on the absorption of ultrasound in recently discovered superconductors mainformation on the phase transition type and thermodynamic relations for these superconductors, in particular, the T c -vs-dp curve. Similar calculations have been carried out for 2 He-transition experiments with ferromagnetic materials. The order parameter in the thermodynamic potential was assumed to be isotropic
Thermodynamic analysis of hydrocarbon refrigerants-based ethylene BOG re-liquefaction system
Beladjine, Boumedienne M.; Ouadha, Ahmed; Addad, Yacine
2016-09-01
The present study aims to make a thermodynamic analysis of an ethylene cascade re-liquefaction system that consists of the following two subsystems: a liquefaction cycle using ethylene as the working fluid and a refrigeration cycle operating with a hydrocarbon refrigerant. The hydrocarbon refrigerants considered are propane (R290), butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), and propylene (R1270). A computer program written in FORTRAN is developed to compute parameters for characteristic points of the cycles and the system's performance, which is determined and analyzed using numerical solutions for the refrigerant condensation temperature, temperature in tank, and temperature difference in the cascade condenser. Results show that R600a gives the best performance, followed by (in order) R600, R290, and R1270. Furthermore, it is found that an increase in tank temperature improves system performance but that an increase in refrigerant condensation temperature causes deterioration. In addition, it is found that running the system at a low temperature difference in the cascade condenser is advantageous.
Thermodynamic Activity-Based Progress Curve Analysis in Enzyme Kinetics.
Pleiss, Jürgen
2018-03-01
Macrokinetic Michaelis-Menten models based on thermodynamic activity provide insights into enzyme kinetics because they separate substrate-enzyme from substrate-solvent interactions. Kinetic parameters are estimated from experimental progress curves of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Three pitfalls are discussed: deviations between thermodynamic and concentration-based models, product effects on the substrate activity coefficient, and product inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thermodynamic analysis of separating lead and antimony in chloride system
CHEN Jin-zhong; CAO Hua-zhen; LI Bo; YUAN Hai-jun; ZHENG Guo-qu; YANG Tian-zu
2009-01-01
In chloride system, thermodynamic analysis is a useful guide to separate lead and antimony as well as to understand the separation mechanism. An efficient and feasible way for separating lead and antimony was discussed. The relationships of [Pb2+][Cl-]2-lg[Cl]T and E-lg[Cl]T in Pb-Sb-Cl-H2O system were studied, and the solubilities of lead chloride at different antimony concentrations were calculated based on principle of simultaneous equilibrium. The results show that insoluble salt PbCl2 will only exist stably in a certain concentration range of chlorine ion. This concentration range of chlorine ion expands a little with increasing the concentration of antimony in the system while narrows as the system acidity increases. The solubility of Pb2+ in solution decreases with increasing the concentration of antimony in the system, whereas increases with increasing the concentration of total chlorine. The concentration range of total chlorine causing lead solubility less than 0.005 mol/L increases monotonically.
Thermodynamic analysis of a liquid air energy storage system
Guizzi, Giuseppe Leo; Manno, Michele; Tolomei, Ludovica Maria; Vitali, Ruggero Maria
2015-01-01
The rapid increase in the share of electricity generation from renewable energy sources is having a profound impact on the power sector; one of the most relevant effects of this trend is the increased importance of energy storage systems, which can be used to smooth out peaks and troughs of production from renewable energy sources. Besides their role in balancing the electric grid, energy storage systems may provide also several other useful services, such as price arbitrage, stabilizing conventional generation, etc.; therefore, it is not surprising that many research projects are under way in order to explore the potentials of new technologies for electric energy storage. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of a cryogenic energy storage system, based on air liquefaction and storage in an insulated vessel. This technology is attractive thanks to its independence from geographical constraints and because it can be scaled up easily to grid-scale ratings, but it is affected by a low round-trip efficiency due to the energy intensive process of air liquefaction. The present work aims to assess the efficiency of such a system and to identify if and how it can achieve an acceptable round-trip efficiency (in the order of 50–60%).
Thermodynamic analysis of cooling systems for nuclear power stations condenser
Beck, A.
1985-06-01
This work is an attempt to concentrate on the thermodynamic theory, the engineering solution and the quantities of water needed for the operation of a wet as well as a wet/dry cooling towers coupled to a nuclear turbine condenser,. About two hundred variables are needed for the design of a condenser - cooling tower system. In order to make the solution fast and handy, a computer model was developed. The amount of water evaporation from cooling towers is a function of the climate conditions prevailing around the site. To achieve an authentic analysis, the meteorological data of the northern Negev was used. The total amount of water necessary to add to the system in a year time of operation is large and is a function of both the blow-down rate and the evaporation. First estimations show that the use of a combined system, wet/dry cooling tower, is beneficial in the northern Negev area. Such a system can reduce significantly the amount of wasted fresh water. Lack of international experience is the major problem in the acceptability of wet/dry cooling towers. The technology of a wet cooling tower using sea water is also discussed where no technical or engineering limitations were found. This work is an attempt to give some handy tools for making the choice of cooling systems for nuclear power plants easier
Thermodynamics and process analysis for future economic scenarios
Ayres, R.U.
1995-01-01
Economists are increasingly interested in forecasting future costs and benefits of policies for dealing with materials/energy fluxes, polluting emissions and environmental impacts on various scales, from sectoral to global. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are currently popular because they project demand and industrial structure into the future, along an equilibrium path. But they are applicable only to the extent that structural changes occur in or near equilibrium, independent of radical technological (or social) change. The alternative tool for analyzing economic implications of scenario assumptions is to use Leontief-type Input-Output (I-O) models. I-O models are unable to endogenize structural shifts (changing I-O coefficients). However, this can be a virtue when considering radical rather than incremental shifts. Postulated I-O tables can be used independently to check the internal consistency of scenarios. Or I-O models can be used to generate scenarios by linking them to econometric 'macro-drivers' (which can, in principle, be CGE models). Explicit process analysis can be integrated, in principle, with I-O models. This hybrid scheme provides a natural means of satisfying physical constraints, especially the first and second laws of thermodynamics. This is important, to avoid constructing scenarios based on physically impossible processes. Process analysis is really the only available tool for constructing physically plausible alternative future I-O tables, and generating materials/energy and waste emissions coefficients. Explicit process analysis also helps avoid several problems characteristic of 'pure' CGE or I-O models, viz. (1) aggregation errors (2) inability to handle arbitrary combinations of co-product and co-input relationships and (3) inability to reflect certain non-linearities such as internal feedback loops. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs
Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis
Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)
2011-09-15
A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.
Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis
Baptista, Patricia; Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla; Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley
2011-01-01
A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO 2 emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: → A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. → The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO 2 emissions results. → A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.
Rokni, Masoud [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Thermal Energy System
2012-07-01
A gasification plant is integrated on the top of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cycle, while a steam turbine (ST) cycle is used as a bottoming cycle for the SOFC plant. The gasification plant was fueled by woodchips to produce biogas and the SOFC stacks were fired with biogas. The produced gas was rather clean for feeding to the SOFC stacks after a simple cleaning step. Because all the fuel cannot be burned in the SOFC stacks, a burner was used to combust the remaining fuel. The off-gases from the burner were then used to produce steam for the bottoming steam cycle in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The steam cycle was modeled with a simple single pressure level. In addition, a hybrid recuperator was used to recover more energy from the HRSG and send it back to the SOFC cycle. Thus two different configurations were investigated to study the plants characteristic. Such system integration configurations are completely novel and have not been studied elsewhere. Plant efficiencies of 56% were achieved under normal operation which was considerably higher than the IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) in which a gasification plant is integrated with a gas turbine and a steam turbine. Furthermore, it is shown that under certain operating conditions, plant efficiency of about 62 is also possible to achieve. (orig.)
Exergy analysis and parameter study on a novel auto-cascade Rankine cycle
Bao, Junjiang; Zhao, Li
2012-01-01
A novel auto-cascade Rankine cycle (ARC) is proposed to reduce thermodynamics irreversibility and improve energy utilization. Like the Kalina cycle, the working fluid for the ARC is zeotropic mixture, which can improve the system efficiency due to the temperature slip that zeotropic mixtures exhibit during phase change. Unlike the Kalina cycle, two expanders are included in the ARC rather than a expander and a throttling valve in the Kalina cycle, which means more work can be obtained. Using the exhaust gas as the heat source and water as the heat sink, a program is written by Matlab 2010a to carry out exergy analysis and parameter study on the ARC. Results show that the R245fa mass fraction in the primary circuit exists an optimum value with respect to the minimum total cycle irreversibility. The largest exergy loss occurs in evaporator, followed by the superheater, condenser, regenerator and IHE (Internal heat exchanger). As the R245fa mass fraction increases, the exergy losses of different components vary diversely. With the evaporation pressure rises, the total cycle irreversibility decreases and work output increases. Separator temperature has a greater influence on the system performance than superheating temperature. Compared with ORC (organic Rankine cycle) and Kalina cycle in the literature, the ARC has proven to be thermodynamically better. -- Highlights: ► We have proposed a novel auto-cascade Rankine cycle (ARC) system. ► The zeotropic mixture Isopentane/R245fa is employed in this system. ► Exergy analysis and parameter study on the ARC are presented. ► Compared with ORC and Kalina cycle in the literature, the ARC has proven to be thermodynamically better.
Optimum operating conditions for a combined power and cooling thermodynamic cycle
Sadrameli, S.M.; Goswami, D.Y.
2007-01-01
The combined production of thermal power and cooling with an ammonia-water based cycle proposed by Goswami is under intensive investigation. In the cycle under consideration, simultaneous cooling output is produced by expanding an ammonia-rich vapor in an expander to sub-ambient temperatures and subsequently heating the cool exhaust. When this mechanism for cooling production is considered in detail, it is apparent that the cooling comes at some expense to work production. To optimize this trade-off, a very specific coefficient-of-performance has been defined. In this paper, the simulation of the cycle was carried out in the process simulator ASPEN Plus. The optimum operating conditions have been found by using the Equation Oriented mode of the simulator and some of the results have been compared with the experimental data obtained from the cycle. The agreement between the two sets proves the accuracy of the optimization results
Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander
Yang Junlan; Ma Yitai; Li Minxia; Guan Haiqing
2005-01-01
In this paper, a comparative study is performed for the transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycles with a throttling valve and with an expander, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The effects of evaporating temperature and outlet temperature of gas cooler on the optimal heat rejection pressure, the coefficients of performance (COP), the exergy losses, and the exergy efficiencies are investigated. In order to identify the amounts and locations of irreversibility within the two cycles, exergy analysis is employed to study the thermodynamics process in each component. It is found that in the throttling valve cycle, the largest exergy loss occurs in the throttling valve, about 38% of the total cycle irreversibility. In the expander cycle, the irreversibility mainly comes from the gas cooler and the compressor, approximately 38% and 35%, respectively. The COP and exergy efficiency of the expander cycle are on average 33% and 30% higher than those of the throttling valve cycle, respectively. It is also concluded that an optimal heat rejection pressure can be obtained for all the operating conditions to maximize the COP. The analysis results are of significance to provide theoretical basis for optimization design and operation control of the transcritical carbon dioxide cycle with an expander
Roskosch, Dennis; Atakan, Burak
2015-01-01
Fluid selection for thermodynamic cycles like refrigeration cycles, heat pumps or organic Rankine cycles remains an actual topic. Generally the search for a working fluid is based on experimental approaches or on a not very systematic trial and error approach, far from being elegant. An alternative method may be a theory based reverse engineering approach, proposed and investigated here: The design process should start with an optimal process and with (abstract) properties of the fluid needed to fit into this optimal process, best described by some general equation of state and the corresponding fluid-describing parameters. These should be analyzed and optimized with respect to the defined model process, which also has to be optimized simultaneously. From this information real fluids can be selected or even synthesized which have fluid defining properties in the optimum regime like critical temperature or ideal gas capacities of heat, allowing to find new working fluids, not considered so far. The number and kind of the fluid-defining parameters is mainly based on the choice of the used EOS (equation of state). The property model used in the present work is based on the cubic Peng–Robinson equation, chosen due to its moderate numerical expense, sufficient accuracy as well as a general availability of the fluid-defining parameters for many compounds. The considered model-process works between the temperature levels of 273.15 and 333.15 K and can be used as heat pump for supplying buildings with heat, typically. The objective functions are the COP (coefficient of performance) and the VHC (volumetric heating capacity) as a function of critical pressure, critical temperature, acentric factor and two coefficients for the temperature-dependent isobaric ideal gas heat capacity. Also, the steam quality at the compressor entrance has to be regarded as a problem variable. The results give clear hints regarding optimal fluid parameters of the analyzed process and deepen
Economic Analysis of Several Nuclear Fuel Cycles
Ko, Won Il; Gao, Fanxing; Kim, Sung Ki
2012-01-01
Economics is one of the essential criteria to be considered for the future deployment of the nuclear power. With regard to the competitive power market, the cost of electricity from nuclear power plants is somewhat highly competitive with those from the other electricity generations, averaging lower in cost than fossil fuels, wind, or solar. However, a closer look at the nuclear power production brings an insight that the cost varies within a wide range, highly depending on a nuclear fuel cycle option. The option of nuclear fuel cycle is a key determinant in the economics, and therefrom, a comprehensive comparison among the proposed fuel cycle options necessitates an economic analysis for thirteen promising options based on the material flow analysis obtained by an equilibrium model as specified in the first article (Modeling and System Analysis of Different Fuel Cycle Options for Nuclear Power Sustainability (I): Uranium Consumption and Waste Generation). The objective of the article is to provide a systematic cost comparison among these nuclear fuel cycles. The generation cost (GC) generally consists of a capital cost, an operation and maintenance cost (O and M cost), a fuel cycle cost (FCC), and a decontaminating and decommissioning (D and D) cost. FCC includes a frontend cost and a back-end cost, as well as costs associated with fuel recycling in the cases of semi-closed and closed cycle options. As a part of GC, the economic analysis on FCC mainly focuses on the cost differences among fuel cycle options considered and therefore efficiently avoids the large uncertainties of the Generation-IV reactor capital costs and the advanced reprocessing costs. However, the GC provides a more comprehensive result covering all the associated costs, and therefrom, both GC and FCC have been analyzed, respectively. As a widely applied tool, the levelized cost (mills/KWh) proves to be a fundamental calculation principle in the energy and power industry, which is particularly
Cakici, Duygu Melek; Erdogan, Anil; Colpan, Can Ozgur
2017-01-01
In this study, the thermodynamic performance of an integrated geothermal powered supercritical regenerative organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and parabolic trough solar collectors (PTSC) is assessed. A thermal model based on the principles of thermodynamics (mass, energy, and exergy balances) and heat transfer is first developed for the components of this integrated system. This model gives the performance assessment parameters of the system such as the electrical and exergetic efficiencies, total exergy destruction and loss, productivity lack, fuel depletion ratio, and improvement potential rate. To validate this model, the data of an existing geothermal power plant based on a supercritical ORC and literature data for the PTSC are used. After validation, parametric studies are conducted to assess the effect of some of the important design and operating parameters on the performance of the system. As a result of these studies, it is found that the integration of ORC and PTSC systems increases the net power output but decreases the electrical and exergetic efficiencies of the integrated system. It is also shown that R134a is the most suitable working fluid type for this system; and the PTSCs and air cooled condenser are the main sources of the exergy destructions. - Highlights: • A geothermal power plant integrated with PTSC is investigated. • Different approaches for defining the exergetic efficiency are used. • The PTSCs and ACC are the main sources of the exergy destructions. • R134a gives the highest performance for any number of collectors studied.
Wang, Xurong; Dai, Yiping
2016-01-01
Highlights: • An exergoeconomic analysis is performed for sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle. • Performance of the sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle and sCO_2/ORC cycle are presented and compared. • The sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle performs better than the sCO_2/ORC cycle at lower PRc. • The sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle has comparable total product unit cost with the sCO_2/ORC cycle. - Abstract: Two combined cogeneration cycles are examined in which the waste heat from a recompression supercritical CO_2 Brayton cycle (sCO_2) is recovered by either a transcritical CO_2 cycle (tCO_2) or an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for generating electricity. An exergoeconomic analysis is performed for sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle performance and its comparison to the sCO_2/ORC cycle. The following organic fluids are considered as the working fluids in the ORC: R123, R245fa, toluene, isobutane, isopentane and cyclohexane. Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic models are developed for the cycles on the basis of mass and energy conservations, exergy balance and exergy cost equations. Parametric investigations are conducted to evaluate the influence of decision variables on the performance of sCO_2/tCO_2 and sCO_2/ORC cycles. The performance of these cycles is optimized and then compared. The results show that the sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle is preferable and performs better than the sCO_2/ORC cycle at lower PRc. When the sCO_2 cycle operates at a cycle maximum pressure of around 20 MPa (∼2.8 of PRc), the tCO_2 cycle is preferable to be integrated with the recompression sCO_2 cycle considering the off-design conditions. Moreover, contrary to the sCO_2/ORC system, a higher tCO_2 turbine inlet temperature improves exergoeconomic performance of the sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle. The thermodynamic optimization study reveals that the sCO_2/tCO_2 cycle has comparable second law efficiency with the sCO_2/ORC cycle. When the optimization is conducted based on the exergoeconomics, the total product unit cost of the sCO_2/ORC is slightly lower than that of the sCO_2/tCO_2
Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of heterogeneous photocatalysis for semiconductor systems.
Liu, Baoshun; Zhao, Xiujian; Terashima, Chiaki; Fujishima, Akira; Nakata, Kazuya
2014-05-21
Since the report of the Honda-Fujishima effect, heterogeneous photocatalysis has attracted much attention around the world because of its potential energy and environmental applications. Although great progresses have been made in recent years, most were focused on preparing highly-active photocatalysts and investigating visible light utilization. In fact, we are still unclear on the thermodynamic and kinetic nature of photocatalysis to date, which sometimes leads to misunderstandings for experimental results. It is timely to give a review and discussion on the thermodynamics and kinetics of photocatalysis, so as to direct future researches. However, there is an absence of a detailed review on this topic until now. In this article, we tried to review and discuss the thermodynamics and kinetics of photocatalysis. We explained the thermodynamic driving force of photocatalysis, and distinguished the functions of light and heat in photocatalysis. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model, the ˙OH oxidation mechanism, and the direct-indirect (D-I) kinetic model were reviewed and compared. Some applications of the D-I model to study photocatalytic kinetics were also discussed. The electron transport mode and its importance in photocatalysis were investigated. Finally, the intrinsic relation between the kinetics and the thermodynamics of photocatalytic reactions was discussed.
Mohapatra, Alok Ku; Sanjay
2014-01-01
The article is focused on the comparison of impact of two different methods of inlet air cooling (vapor compression and vapor absorption cooling) integrated to a cooled gas turbine based combined cycle plant. Air-film cooling has been adopted as the cooling technique for gas turbine blades. A parametric study of the effect of compressor pressure ratio, compressor inlet temperature (T i , C ), turbine inlet temperature (T i , T ), ambient relative humidity and ambient temperature on performance parameters of plant has been carried out. Optimum T i , T corresponding to maximum plant efficiency of combined cycle increases by 100 °C due to the integration of inlet air cooling. It has been observed that vapor compression cooling improves the efficiency of gas turbine cycle by 4.88% and work output by 14.77%. In case of vapor absorption cooling an improvement of 17.2% in gas cycle work output and 9.47% in gas cycle efficiency has been observed. For combined cycle configuration, however, vapor compression cooling should be preferred over absorption cooling in terms of higher plant performance. The optimum value of compressor inlet temperature has been observed to be 20 °C for the chosen set of conditions for both the inlet air cooling schemes. - Highlights: • Inlet air cooling improves performance of cooled gas turbine based combined cycle. • Vapor compression inlet air cooling is superior to vapor absorption inlet cooling. • For every turbine inlet temperature, there exists an optimum pressure ratio. • The optimum compressor inlet temperature is found to be 293 K
Heading in the right direction: thermodynamics-based network analysis and pathway engineering.
Ataman, Meric; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily
2015-12-01
Thermodynamics-based network analysis through the introduction of thermodynamic constraints in metabolic models allows a deeper analysis of metabolism and guides pathway engineering. The number and the areas of applications of thermodynamics-based network analysis methods have been increasing in the last ten years. We review recent applications of these methods and we identify the areas that such analysis can contribute significantly, and the needs for future developments. We find that organisms with multiple compartments and extremophiles present challenges for modeling and thermodynamics-based flux analysis. The evolution of current and new methods must also address the issues of the multiple alternatives in flux directionalities and the uncertainties and partial information from analytical methods. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Families of optimal thermodynamic solutions for combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plants
Godoy, E.; Scenna, N.J.; Benz, S.J.
2010-01-01
Optimal designs of a CCGT power plant characterized by maximum second law efficiency values are determined for a wide range of power demands and different values of the available heat transfer area. These thermodynamic optimal solutions are found within a feasible operation region by means of a non-linear mathematical programming (NLP) model, where decision variables (i.e. transfer areas, power production, mass flow rates, temperatures and pressures) can vary freely. Technical relationships among them are used to systematize optimal values of design and operative variables of a CCGT power plant into optimal solution sets, named here as optimal solution families. From an operative and design point of view, the families of optimal solutions let knowing in advance optimal values of the CCGT variables when facing changes of power demand or adjusting the design to an available heat transfer area.
Thermodynamic study of ibuprofen by adiabatic calorimetry and thermal analysis
Xu Fen; Sun Lixian; Tan Zhicheng; Liang Jianguo; Li Ruilian
2004-01-01
Molar heat capacities of ibuprofen were precisely measured with a small sample precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 80 to 400 K. The polynomial functions of C p,m (J K -1 mol -1 ) versus T were established on the heat capacity measurements by means of the least fitting square method. The functions are as follows: for solid ibuprofen, at the temperature range of 79.105 K≤T≤333.297 K, C p,m =144.27+77.046X+3.5171X 2 +10.925X 3 +11.224X 4 , where X=(T-206.201)/127.096; for liquid ibuprofen, at the temperature range of 353.406 K≤T≤378.785 K, C p,m =325.79+8.9696X-1.6073X 2 -1.5145X 3 , where X=(T-366.095)/12.690. A fusion transition at T=348.02 K was found from the C p -T curve. The molar enthalpy and entropy of the fusion transition were determined to be 26.65 kJ mol -1 and 76.58 J mol -1 K -1 , respectively. The thermodynamic functions on the base of the reference temperature of 298.15 K, (H T -H 298.15 ) and (S T -S 298.15 ), were derived. Thermal characteristic of ibuprofen was studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG-DTG) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The temperature of fusion, the molar enthalpy and entropy of fusion obtained by DSC were well consistent with those obtained by adiabatic calorimeter. The evaporation process of ibuprofen was investigated further by TG and DTG, and the activation energy of the evaporation process was determined to be 80.3±1.4 kJ mol -1
Parametric analysis and optimization for a combined power and refrigeration cycle
Wang Jiangfeng; Dai Yiping; Gao Lin
2008-01-01
A combined power and refrigeration cycle is proposed, which combines the Rankine cycle and the absorption refrigeration cycle. This combined cycle uses a binary ammonia-water mixture as the working fluid and produces both power output and refrigeration output simultaneously with only one heat source. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the effects of thermodynamic parameters on the performance of the combined cycle. It is shown that heat source temperature, environment temperature, refrigeration temperature, turbine inlet pressure, turbine inlet temperature, and basic solution ammonia concentration have significant effects on the net power output, refrigeration output and exergy efficiency of the combined cycle. A parameter optimization is achieved by means of genetic algorithm to reach the maximum exergy efficiency. The optimized exergy efficiency is 43.06% under the given condition
Thermodynamic analysis of growth of iron oxide films by MOCVD ...
Abstract. Thermodynamic calculations, using the criterion of minimization of total Gibbs free energy of the system, have been carried out for the metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) process involving the -ketoesterate complex of iron [tris(-butyl-3-oxo-butanoato)iron(III) or Fe(tbob)3] and molecular oxygen.
Thermodynamic analysis of a solar-based multi-generation system with hydrogen production
Ozturk, Murat; Dincer, Ibrahim
2013-01-01
Thermodynamic analysis of a renewable-based multi-generation energy production system which produces a number of outputs, such as power, heating, cooling, hot water, hydrogen and oxygen is conducted. This solar-based multi-generation system consists of four main sub-systems: Rankine cycle, organic Rankine cycle, absorption cooling and heating, and hydrogen production and utilization. Exergy destruction ratios and rates, power or heat transfer rates, energy and exergy efficiencies of the system components are carried out. Some parametric studies are performed in order to examine the effects of varying operating conditions (e.g., reference temperature, direct solar radiation and receiver temperature) on the exergy efficiencies of the sub-systems as well as the whole system. The solar-based multi-generation system which has an exergy efficiency of 57.35%, is obtained to be higher than using these sub-systems separately. The evaluation of the exergy efficiency and exergy destruction for the sub-systems and the overall system show that the parabolic dish collectors have the highest exergy destruction rate among constituent parts of the solar-based multi-generation system, due to high temperature difference between the working fluid and collector receivers. -- Highlights: ► Development of a new multi-generation system for solar-based hydrogen production. ► Investigation of exergy efficiencies and destructions in each process of the system. ► Evaluation of varying operating conditions on the exergy destruction and efficiency
Ambrosino J. L.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available L'utilisation de mélanges non-azéotropiques comme fluides frigorigènes présente différents avantages en ce qui concerne le fonctionnement des installations de réfrigération / conditionnement / chauffage mettant en oeuvre des cycles thermodynamiques à compression avec changement de phase. En outre, de tels mélanges représentent une alternative intéressante aux corps purs actuellement recherchés pour résoudre les problèmes d'environnement liés à la destruction de la couche d'ozone. Cet article analyse les connaissances acquises concernant la mise en oeuvre d'une telle solution. The use of non-azeotropic mixtures as refrigerants has various advantages concerning the operating of refrigeration / air-conditioning / heating installations implementing thermodynamic compression cycles with a phase change. Likewise, such mixtures represent an interesting alternative to pure components which are now being looked to as a solution to environmental problems linked to the destruction of the ozone layer. This article analyzes what is known about the implementation of such a solution.
ORCENT-2, Full Load Steam Turbine Cycle Thermodynamics for LWR Power Plant
Fuller, L.C.
1979-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: ORCENT-2 performs heat and mass balance calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam, characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. The program handles both condensing and back-pressure turbine exhaust arrangements. Turbine performance calculations are based on the General Electric Company method for 1800-rpm large steam turbine- generators operating with light-water-cooled nuclear reactors. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram. 2 - Method of solution: The turbine performance calculations follow the procedures outlined in General Electric report GET-6020. ORCENT-2 utilizes the 1967 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) formulations and procedures for calculating the properties of steam, adapted for ORNL use by D.W. Altom. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 12 feed-water heaters, 5 moisture removal stages in the low-pressure turbine section. ORCENT-2 is limited to 1800-rpm tandem-compound turbine-generators with single- or double-flow high pressure sections and one, two, or three double-flow low-pressure turbine sections. Steam supply for LWR cycles should be between 900 and 1100 psia and slightly wet to 100 degrees F of initial superheat. Generator rating should be greater than 100 MVA
Changes of the thermodynamic parameters in failure conditions of the micro-CHP cycle
Matysko, Robert; Mikielewicz, Jarosław; Ihnatowicz, Eugeniusz
2014-03-01
The paper presents the calculations for the failure conditions of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) cycle in the electrical power system. It analyses the possible reasons of breakdown, such as the electrical power loss or the automatic safety valve failure. The micro-CHP (combined heat and power) system should have maintenance-free configuration, which means that the user does not have to be acquainted with all the details of the ORC system operation. However, the system should always be equipped with the safety control systems allowing for the immediate turn off of the ORC cycle in case of any failure. In case of emergency, the control system should take over the safety tasks and protect the micro-CHP system from damaging. Although, the control systems are able to respond quickly to the CHP system equipped with the inertial systems, the negative effects of failure are unavoidable and always remain for some time. Moreover, the paper presents the results of calculations determining the inertia for the micro-CHP system of the circulating ORC pump, heat removal pump (cooling condenser) and the heat supply pump in failure conditions.
Changes of the thermodynamic parameters in failure conditions of the micro-CHP cycle
Matysko Robert
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the calculations for the failure conditions of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle cycle in the electrical power system. It analyses the possible reasons of breakdown, such as the electrical power loss or the automatic safety valve failure. The micro-CHP (combined heat and power system should have maintenance-free configuration, which means that the user does not have to be acquainted with all the details of the ORC system operation. However, the system should always be equipped with the safety control systems allowing for the immediate turn off of the ORC cycle in case of any failure. In case of emergency, the control system should take over the safety tasks and protect the micro-CHP system from damaging. Although, the control systems are able to respond quickly to the CHP system equipped with the inertial systems, the negative effects of failure are unavoidable and always remain for some time. Moreover, the paper presents the results of calculations determining the inertia for the micro-CHP system of the circulating ORC pump, heat removal pump (cooling condenser and the heat supply pump in failure conditions.
Shi, Chunhua; Gao, Yannan; Cai, Juan; Guo, Dong; Lu, Yan
2018-04-01
The response of the dynamic and thermodynamic structure of the stratosphere to the solar cycle in the boreal winter is investigated based on measurements of the solar cycle by the Spectral Irradiance Monitor onboard the SORCE satellite, monthly ERA-Interim Reanalysis data from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, the radiative transfer scheme of the Beijing Climate Center (BCC-RAD) and a multiple linear regression model. The results show that during periods of strong solar activity, the solar shortwave heating anomaly from the climatology in the tropical upper stratosphere triggers a local warm anomaly and strong westerly winds in mid-latitudes, which strengthens the upward propagation of planetary wave 1 but prevents that of wave 2. The enhanced westerly jet makes a slight adjustment to the propagation path of wave 1, but prevents wave 2 from propagating upward, decreases the dissipation of wave 2 in the extratropical upper stratosphere and hence weakens the Brewer-Dobson circulation. The adiabatic heating term in relation to the Brewer-Dobson circulation shows anomalous warming in the tropical lower stratosphere and anomalous cooling in the mid-latitude upper stratosphere.
Oluleye, Gbemi; Smith, Robin
2016-01-01
Highlights: • MILP model developed for integration of waste heat recovery technologies in process sites. • Five thermodynamic cycles considered for exploitation of industrial waste heat. • Temperature and quantity of multiple waste heat sources considered. • Interactions with the site utility system considered. • Industrial case study presented to illustrate application of the proposed methodology. - Abstract: Thermodynamic cycles such as organic Rankine cycles, absorption chillers, absorption heat pumps, absorption heat transformers, and mechanical heat pumps are able to utilize wasted thermal energy in process sites for the generation of electrical power, chilling and heat at a higher temperature. In this work, a novel systematic framework is presented for optimal integration of these technologies in process sites. The framework is also used to assess the best design approach for integrating waste heat recovery technologies in process sites, i.e. stand-alone integration or a systems-oriented integration. The developed framework allows for: (1) selection of one or more waste heat sources (taking into account the temperatures and thermal energy content), (2) selection of one or more technology options and working fluids, (3) selection of end-uses of recovered energy, (4) exploitation of interactions with the existing site utility system and (5) the potential for heat recovery via heat exchange is also explored. The methodology is applied to an industrial case study. Results indicate a systems-oriented design approach reduces waste heat by 24%; fuel consumption by 54% and CO_2 emissions by 53% with a 2 year payback, and stand-alone design approach reduces waste heat by 12%; fuel consumption by 29% and CO_2 emissions by 20.5% with a 4 year payback. Therefore, benefits from waste heat utilization increase when interactions between the existing site utility system and the waste heat recovery technologies are explored simultaneously. The case study also shows
Thermodynamic study of ibuprofen by adiabatic calorimetry and thermal analysis
Xu Fen; Sun Lixian; Tan Zhicheng; Liang Jianguo; Li Ruilian
2004-03-23
Molar heat capacities of ibuprofen were precisely measured with a small sample precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 80 to 400 K. The polynomial functions of C{sub p,m} (J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}) versus T were established on the heat capacity measurements by means of the least fitting square method. The functions are as follows: for solid ibuprofen, at the temperature range of 79.105 K{<=}T{<=}333.297 K, C{sub p,m}=144.27+77.046X+3.5171X{sup 2}+10.925X{sup 3}+11.224X{sup 4}, where X=(T-206.201)/127.096; for liquid ibuprofen, at the temperature range of 353.406 K{<=}T{<=}378.785 K, C{sub p,m}=325.79+8.9696X-1.6073X{sup 2}-1.5145X{sup 3}, where X=(T-366.095)/12.690. A fusion transition at T=348.02 K was found from the C{sub p}-T curve. The molar enthalpy and entropy of the fusion transition were determined to be 26.65 kJ mol{sup -1} and 76.58 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}, respectively. The thermodynamic functions on the base of the reference temperature of 298.15 K, (H{sub T}-H{sub 298.15}) and (S{sub T}-S{sub 298.15}), were derived. Thermal characteristic of ibuprofen was studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG-DTG) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The temperature of fusion, the molar enthalpy and entropy of fusion obtained by DSC were well consistent with those obtained by adiabatic calorimeter. The evaporation process of ibuprofen was investigated further by TG and DTG, and the activation energy of the evaporation process was determined to be 80.3{+-}1.4 kJ mol{sup -1}.
EMERGY ANALYSIS OF THE PREHISTORIC NITROGEN CYCLE
Several relationships between the specific emergy or the emergy per unit mass and the mass concentration of nitrogen were shown to exist through an analysis of the global nitrogen cycle. These observed relationships were interpreted by examining the nature of the underlying ener...
Sensitivity analysis in life cycle assessment
Groen, E.A.; Heijungs, R.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.
2014-01-01
Life cycle assessments require many input parameters and many of these parameters are uncertain; therefore, a sensitivity analysis is an essential part of the final interpretation. The aim of this study is to compare seven sensitivity methods applied to three types of case stud-ies. Two
Analysis of thermodynamics of two-fuel power unit integrated with a carbon dioxide separation plant
Kotowicz Janusz
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The article presents the results of thermodynamic analysis of the supercritical coal-fired power plant with gross electrical output of 900 MW and a pulverized coal boiler. This unit is integrated with the absorption-based CO2 separation installation. The heat required for carrying out the desorption process, is supplied by the system with the gas turbine. Analyses were performed for two variants of the system. In the first case, in addition to the gas turbine there is an evaporator powered by exhaust gases from the gas turbine expander. The second expanded variant assumes the application of gas turbine combined cycle with heat recovery steam generator and backpressure steam turbine. The way of determining the efficiency of electricity generation and other defined indicators to assess the energy performance of the test block was showed. The size of the gas turbine system was chosen because of the need for heat for the desorption unit, taking the value of the heat demand 4 MJ/kg CO2. The analysis results obtained for the both variants of the installation with integrated CO2 separation plant were compared with the results of the analysis of the block where the separation is not conducted.
Communication: Thermodynamic analysis of critical conditions of polymer adsorption
Cimino, R.; Neimark, A. V.; Rasmussen, C. J.
2013-01-01
Polymer adsorption to solid surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon, which has attracted long-lasting attention. Dependent on the competition between the polymer-solid adsorption and polymer-solvent solvation interactions, a chain may assume either 3d solvated conformation when adsorption is weak or 2d adsorbed conformation when adsorption is strong. The transition between these conformations occurring upon variation of adsorption strength is quite sharp, and in the limit of “infinite” chain length, can be treated as a critical phenomenon. We suggest a novel thermodynamic definition of the critical conditions of polymer adsorption from the equality of incremental chemical potentials of adsorbed and free chains. We show with the example of freely jointed Lennard-Jones chains tethered to an adsorbing surface that this new definition provides a link between thermodynamic and geometrical features of adsorbed chains and is in line with classical scaling relationships for the fraction of adsorbed monomers, chain radii of gyration, and free energy
Communication: Thermodynamic analysis of critical conditions of polymer adsorption
Cimino, R.; Neimark, A. V., E-mail: aneimark@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Rasmussen, C. J. [DuPont Central Research and Development, Corporate Center for Analytical Sciences, Macromolecular Characterization, Route 141 and Henry Clay, Wilmington, Delaware 19803 (United States)
2013-11-28
Polymer adsorption to solid surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon, which has attracted long-lasting attention. Dependent on the competition between the polymer-solid adsorption and polymer-solvent solvation interactions, a chain may assume either 3d solvated conformation when adsorption is weak or 2d adsorbed conformation when adsorption is strong. The transition between these conformations occurring upon variation of adsorption strength is quite sharp, and in the limit of “infinite” chain length, can be treated as a critical phenomenon. We suggest a novel thermodynamic definition of the critical conditions of polymer adsorption from the equality of incremental chemical potentials of adsorbed and free chains. We show with the example of freely jointed Lennard-Jones chains tethered to an adsorbing surface that this new definition provides a link between thermodynamic and geometrical features of adsorbed chains and is in line with classical scaling relationships for the fraction of adsorbed monomers, chain radii of gyration, and free energy.
Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production
Voll, Fernando A.P.; Silva, Camila da; Rossi, Carla C.R.S.; Guirardello, Reginaldo; Castilhos, Fernanda de; Oliveira, J. Vladimir; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio
2011-01-01
The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis.
Reducing treatment of coppersmelting slag: Thermodynamic analysis of impurities behavior
Komkov, Alexey; Kamkin, Rostislav
2011-01-01
A thermodynamic mathematical model, describing behavior of Pb, Zn, and As during reducing slag cleaning in the Vanyukov furnace has been developed. Using a developed model, the influence of different factors, such as temperature, oxygen partial pressure, the ratio of the formed phases on the behavior of impurities, was analyzed. It was found that arsenic can significantly move to the bottom phase, and zinc can be significantly vaporized under conditions in the Vanyukov furnace.
Dry/Wet Cycling and the Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Prebiotic Polymer Synthesis
David S. Ross
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The endoergic nature of protein and nucleic acid assembly in aqueous media presents two questions that are fundamental to the understanding of life’s origins: (i how did the polymers arise in an aqueous prebiotic world; and (ii once formed in some manner, how were they sufficiently persistent to engage in further chemistry. We propose here a quantitative resolution of these issues that evolved from recent accounts in which RNA-like polymers were produced in evaporation/rehydration cycles. The equilibrium Nm + Nn ↔ Nm+n + H2O is endoergic by about 3.3 kcal/mol for polynucleotide formation, and the system thus lies far to the left in the starting solutions. Kinetic simulations of the evaporation showed that simple Le Châtelier’s principle shifts were insufficient, but the introduction of oligomer-stabilizing factors of 5–10 kcal/mol both moved the process to the right and respectively boosted and retarded the elongation and hydrolysis rates. Molecular crowding and excluded volume effects in present-day cells yield stabilizing factors of that order, and we argue here that the crowded conditions in the evaporites generate similar effects. Oligomer formation is thus energetically preferred in those settings, but the process is thwarted in each evaporation step as diffusion becomes rate limiting. Rehydration dissipates disordered oligomer clusters in the evaporites, however, and subsequent dry/wet cycling accordingly “ratchets up” the system to an ultimate population of kinetically trappedthermodynamically preferred biopolymers.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Chemically Reacting Mixtures-Comparison of First and Second Order Models.
Pekař, Miloslav
2018-01-01
Recently, a method based on non-equilibrium continuum thermodynamics which derives thermodynamically consistent reaction rate models together with thermodynamic constraints on their parameters was analyzed using a triangular reaction scheme. The scheme was kinetically of the first order. Here, the analysis is further developed for several first and second order schemes to gain a deeper insight into the thermodynamic consistency of rate equations and relationships between chemical thermodynamic and kinetics. It is shown that the thermodynamic constraints on the so-called proper rate coefficient are usually simple sign restrictions consistent with the supposed reaction directions. Constraints on the so-called coupling rate coefficients are more complex and weaker. This means more freedom in kinetic coupling between reaction steps in a scheme, i.e., in the kinetic effects of other reactions on the rate of some reaction in a reacting system. When compared with traditional mass-action rate equations, the method allows a reduction in the number of traditional rate constants to be evaluated from data, i.e., a reduction in the dimensionality of the parameter estimation problem. This is due to identifying relationships between mass-action rate constants (relationships which also include thermodynamic equilibrium constants) which have so far been unknown.
Ferraro, Vittorio; Imineo, Francesco; Marinelli, Valerio
2013-01-01
An improved model to analyze the performance of solar plants operating with cylindrical parabolic collectors and atmospheric air as heat transfer fluid in an open Joule–Brayton cycle is presented. In the new model, the effect of the incident angle modifier is included, to take into account the variation of the optical efficiency with the incidence angle of the irradiance, and the effect of the reheating of the fluid also has been studied. The analysis was made for two operating modes of the plants: with variable air flow rate and constant inlet temperature to the turbine and with constant flow rate and variable inlet temperature to the turbine, with and without reheating of the fluid in the solar field. When reheating is used, the efficiency of the plant is increased. The obtained results show a good performance of this type of solar plant, in spite of its simplicity; it is able to compete well with other more complex plants operating with different heat transfer fluids. - Highlights: ► An improved model to calculate an innovative CPS solar plant is presented. ► The plant works with air in an open Joule–Brayton cycle. ► The reheating of the air increases the thermodynamic efficiency. ► The plant is very simple and competes well with other more complex solar plants
Nuclear Fuel Cycle System Analysis (I)
Ko, Won Il; Kwon, Eun Ha; Kim, Ho Dong; Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, Seong Won
2006-12-15
As a nation develops strategies that provide nuclear energy while meeting its various objectives, it must begin with identification of a fuel cycle option that can be best suitable for the country. For such a purpose, this paper takes four different fuel cycle options - Once-through Cycle, DUPIC Recycle, Thermal Reactor Recycle and GEN-IV Recycle, and evaluates each option in terms of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance and economics. The analysis shows that the GEN-IV Recycle appears to have an advantage in terms of sustainability, environment-friendliness and long-term proliferation-resistance, while it is expected to be more economically competitive, if uranium ore prices increase or costs of pyroprocessing and fuel fabrication decrease.
Preliminary analysis of combined cycle of modular high-temperature gas cooled reactor
Baogang, Z.; Xiaoyong, Y.; Jie, W.; Gang, Z.; Qian, S.
2015-01-01
Modular high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is known as one of the most advanced nuclear reactors because of its inherent safety and high efficiency. The power conversion system of HTGR can be steam turbine based on Rankine cycle or gas turbine based on Brayton cycle respectively. The steam turbine system is mature and the gas turbine system has high efficiency but under development. The Brayton-Rankine combined cycle is an effective way to further promote the efficiency. This paper investigated the performance of combined cycle from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. The effect of non-dimensional parameters on combined cycle’s efficiency, such as temperature ratio, compression ratio, efficiency of compressor, efficiency of turbine, was analyzed. Furthermore, the optimal parameters to achieve highest efficiency was also given by this analysis under engineering constraints. The conclusions could be helpful to the design and development of combined cycle of HTGR. (author)
Akiba, Hiroki; Tsumoto, Kouhei
2015-07-01
Antibodies (immunoglobulins) bind specific molecules (i.e. antigens) with high affinity and specificity. In order to understand their mechanisms of recognition, interaction analysis based on thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, as well as structure determination is crucial. In this review, we focus on mutational analysis which gives information about the role of each amino acid residue in antibody-antigen interaction. Taking anti-hen egg lysozyme antibodies and several anti-small molecule antibodies, the energetic contribution of hot-spot and non-hot-spot residues is discussed in terms of thermodynamics. Here, thermodynamics of the contribution from aromatic, charged and hydrogen bond-forming amino acids are discussed, and their different characteristics have been elucidated. The information gives fundamental understanding of the antibody-antigen interaction. Furthermore, the consequences of antibody engineering are analysed from thermodynamic viewpoints: humanization to reduce immunogenicity and rational design to improve affinity. Amino acid residues outside hot-spots in the interface play important roles in these cases, and thus thermodynamic and kinetic parameters give much information about the antigen recognition. Thermodynamic analysis of mutant antibodies thus should lead to advanced strategies to design and select antibodies with high affinity. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.
Nuclear Fuel Cycle System Analysis (II)
Ko, Won Il; Kwon, Eun Ha; Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, Seong Won
2007-04-15
As a nation develops strategies that provide nuclear energy while meeting its various objectives, it must begin with identification of a fuel cycle option that can be best suitable for the country. For such a purpose, this paper takes four different fuel cycle options that are likely adopted by the Korean government, considering the current status of nuclear power generation and the 2nd Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan (CNEPP) - Once-through Cycle, DUPIC Recycle, Thermal Reactor Recycle and GEN-IV Recycle. The paper then evaluates each option in terms of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics and technologies. Like all the policy decision, however, a nuclear fuel cycle option can not be superior in all aspects of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics, technologies and so on, which makes the comparison of the options extremely complicated. Taking this into consideration, the paper analyzes all the four fuel cycle options using the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), methods of Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM), that support systematical evaluation of the cases with multi- goals or criteria and that such goals are incompatible with each other. The analysis shows that the GEN-IV Recycle appears to be most competitive.
Mulyana, Cukup; Adiprana, Reza; Saad, Aswad H.; M. Ridwan, H.; Muhammad, Fajar
2016-02-01
The scarcity of fossil energy accelerates the development of geothermal power plant in Indonesia. The main issue is how to minimize the energy loss from the geothermal working fluid so that the power generated can be increased. In some of geothermal power plant, the hot water which is resulted from flashing is flown to injection well, and steam out from turbine is condensed in condenser, while the temperature and pressure of the working fluid is still high. The aim of this research is how the waste energy can be re-used as energy source to generate electric power. The step of the research is started by studying the characteristics of geothermal fluid out from the well head. The temperature of fluid varies from 140°C - 250°C, the pressure is more than 7 bar and the fluid phase are liquid, gas, or mixing phase. Dry steam power plant is selected for vapor dominated source, single or multiple flash power plant is used for dominated water with temperature > 225°C, while the binary power plant is used for low temperature of fluid enthalpy, the calculated power of these double and triple flash power plant are 50% of W1+W2. At the last step, the steam out from the turbine of unit 3 with the temperature 150°C is used as a heat source for binary cycle power plant named unit 4, while the hot water from the flasher is used as a heat source for the other binary cycle named unit 5 resulted power W5+W6 or 15% of W1+W2. Using this integrated model the power increased 75% from the original one.
Montero Carrero, Marina; De Paepe, Ward; Bram, Svend; Parente, Alessandro; Contino, Francesco
2017-01-01
Highlights: •The Sankey and Grassmann diagrams of an mGT and an mHAT are drawn and presented. •Water injection leads to a 1.4% mGT electrical efficiency increase. •The saturator acts as an aftercooler enabling greater heat recovery in the recuperator. •In the saturator there is an enthalpy gain but a net exergy loss due to evaporation. •The total exergy efficiency of the mGT and mHAT are 35.7% and 30.6% respectively. -- Abstract: Despite appearing as a promising technology for decentralised Combined Heat and Power (CHP), the rather low electrical efficiency of micro Gas Turbines (mGTs) prevents them from being attractive for users with a variable heat demand. Hot water injection in mGTs, achieved by transforming the cycle into a micro Humid Air Turbine (mHAT), allows increasing the electrical efficiency of these units in moments of low heat demand—therefore decoupling heat and electricity production. This paper introduces and compares the Sankey (enthalpy flow) and Grassmann (exergy flow) diagrams of an mGT based on the Turbec T100 and the corresponding mHAT cycle. Results show that the electrical efficiency of the T100 increases by 1.4% absolute points with water injection, while the total exergy efficiency decreases by 5.1%. Although in the saturation tower there is an enthalpy gain, exergy actually decreases in this component due to the increase in entropy related to the evaporation of water. The benefits of water injection mostly rely on the increased heat capacity of the air-vapour mixture, the lower fuel consumption, the larger amount of heat recovered in the recuperator and the reduced power required in the compressor.
Li, Guanchen; Spakovsky, Michael R. von
2016-01-01
Conventional first principle approaches for studying nonequilibrium or far-from-equilibrium processes depend on the mechanics of individual particles or quantum states. They also require many details of the mechanical features of a system to arrive at a macroscopic property. In contrast, thermodynamics provides an approach for determining macroscopic property values without going into these details, because the overall effect of particle dynamics results, for example, at stable equilibrium in an invariant pattern of the “Maxwellian distribution”, which in turn leads to macroscopic properties. However, such an approach is not generally applicable to a nonequilibrium process except in the near-equilibrium realm. To adequately address these drawbacks, steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamics (SEAQT) provides a first principle, thermodynamic-ensemble approach applicable to the entire nonequilibrium realm. Based on prior developments by the authors, this paper applies the SEAQT framework to modeling the nonquasi-equilibrium cycle, which a system with variable volume undergoes. Using the concept of hypoequilibrium state and nonequilibrium intensive properties, this framework provides a complete description of the nonequilibrium evolution in state of the system. Results presented here reveal how nonequilibrium effects influence the performance of the cycle. - Highlights: • First-principles nonequilibrium model of thermodynamic cycles. • Study of thermal efficiency losses due to nonequilibrium effects. • Study of systems undergoing nonquasi-equilibrium processes. • Study of the coupling of system relaxation and interaction with a reservoir.
Rajesh Kumar
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Brayton heat engine model is developed in MATLAB simulink environment and thermodynamic optimization based on finite time thermodynamic analysis along with multiple criteria is implemented. The proposed work investigates optimal values of various decision variables that simultaneously optimize power output, thermal efficiency and ecological function using evolutionary algorithm based on NSGA-II. Pareto optimal frontier between triple and dual objectives is obtained and best optimal value is selected using Fuzzy, TOPSIS, LINMAP and Shannon’s entropy decision making methods. Triple objective evolutionary approach applied to the proposed model gives power output, thermal efficiency, ecological function as (53.89 kW, 0.1611, −142 kW which are 29.78%, 25.86% and 21.13% lower in comparison with reversible system. Furthermore, the present study reflects the effect of various heat capacitance rates and component efficiencies on triple objectives in graphical custom. Finally, with the aim of error investigation, average and maximum errors of obtained results are computed.
Analysis of the Glass-Forming Ability of Fe-Er Alloys, Based on Thermodynamic Modeling
Arutyunyan, N. A.; Zaitsev, A. I.; Dunaev, S. F.; Kalmykov, K. B.; El'nyakov, D. D.; Shaposhnikov, N. G.
2018-05-01
The Fe-Er phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of all its phases are assessed by means of self-consistent analysis. To refine the data on phase equilibria in the Fe-Er system, an investigation is performed in the 10-40 at % range of Er concentrations. The temperature-concentration dependences of the thermodynamic properties of a melt are presented using the model of ideal associated solutions. Thermodynamic parameters of each phase are obtained, and the calculated results are in agreement with available experimental data. The correlation between the thermodynamic properties of liquid Fe-Er alloys and their tendency toward amorphization are studied. It is shown that compositions of amorphous alloys prepared by melt quenching coincide with the ranges of concentration with the predominance of Fe3Er and FeEr2 associative groups that have large negative entropies of formation.
Cantera Integration with the Toolbox for Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS)
Lavelle, Thomas M.; Chapman, Jeffryes W.; May, Ryan D.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei
2014-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently developed a software package for modeling generic thermodynamic systems called the Toolbox for the Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS). T-MATS is a library of building blocks that can be assembled to represent any thermodynamic system in the Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc.) environment. These elements, along with a Newton Raphson solver (also provided as part of the T-MATS package), enable users to create models of a wide variety of systems. The current version of T-MATS (v1.0.1) uses tabular data for providing information about a specific mixture of air, water (humidity), and hydrocarbon fuel in calculations of thermodynamic properties. The capabilities of T-MATS can be expanded by integrating it with the Cantera thermodynamic package. Cantera is an object-oriented analysis package that calculates thermodynamic solutions for any mixture defined by the user. Integration of Cantera with T-MATS extends the range of systems that may be modeled using the toolbox. In addition, the library of elements released with Cantera were developed using MATLAB native M-files, allowing for quicker prototyping of elements. This paper discusses how the new Cantera-based elements are created and provides examples for using T-MATS integrated with Cantera.
The thermodynamic evolution of the hurricane boundary layer during eyewall replacement cycles
Williams, Gabriel J.
2017-12-01
Eyewall replacement cycles (ERCs) are frequently observed during the lifecycle of mature tropical cyclones. Although the kinematic structure and intensity changes during an ERC have been well-documented, comparatively little research has been done to examine the evolution of the tropical cyclone boundary layer (TCBL) during an ERC. This study will examine how the inner core thermal structure of the TCBL is affected by the presence of multiple concentric eyewalls using a high-resolution moist, hydrostatic, multilayer diagnostic boundary layer model. Within the concentric eyewalls above the cloud base, latent heat release and vertical advection (due to the eyewall updrafts) dominate the heat and moisture budgets, whereas vertical advection (due to subsidence) and vertical diffusion dominate the heat and moisture budgets for the moat region. Furthermore, it is shown that the development of a moat region within the TCBL depends sensitively on the moat width in the overlying atmosphere and the relative strength of the gradient wind field in the overlying atmosphere. These results further indicate that the TCBL contributes to outer eyewall formation through a positive feedback process between the vorticity in the nascent outer eyewall, boundary layer convergence, and boundary layer moist convection.
She, Xiaohui; Yin, Yonggao; Zhang, Xiaosong
2014-01-01
Highlights: • An energy-efficient refrigeration system with a novel subcooling method is proposed. • Thermodynamic analysis is conducted to discuss the effects of operation parameters. • Two different utilization ways of condensation heat are compared. • The system achieves much higher COP, even higher than reverse Carnot cycle. • Suggested mass concentration for LiCl–H 2 O is around 32% at a typical case. - Abstract: A new energy-efficient refrigeration system subcooled by liquid desiccant dehumidification and evaporation was proposed in this paper. In the system, liquid desiccant system could produce very dry air for an indirect evaporative cooler, which would subcool the vapor compression refrigeration system to get higher COP than conventional refrigeration system. The desiccant cooling system can use the condensation heat for the desiccant regeneration. Thermodynamic analysis is made to discuss the effects of operation parameters (condensing temperature, liquid desiccant concentration, ambient air temperature and relative humidity) on the system performance. Results show that the proposed hybrid vapor compression refrigeration system achieves significantly higher COP than conventional vapor compression refrigeration system, and even higher than the reverse Carnot cycle at the same operation conditions. The maximum COPs of the hybrid systems using hot air and ambient air are 18.8% and 16.3% higher than that of the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system under varied conditions, respectively
Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization of a High Temperature Triple Absorption Heat Transformer
Khamooshi, Mehrdad; Yari, Mortaza; Egelioglu, Fuat; Salati, Hana
2014-01-01
First law of thermodynamics has been used to analyze and optimize inclusively the performance of a triple absorption heat transformer operating with LiBr/H2O as the working pair. A thermodynamic model was developed in EES (engineering equation solver) to estimate the performance of the system in terms of the most essential parameters. The assumed parameters are the temperature of the main components, weak and strong solutions, economizers' efficiencies, and bypass ratios. The whole cycle is optimized by EES software from the viewpoint of maximizing the COP via applying the direct search method. The optimization results showed that the COP of 0.2491 is reachable by the proposed cycle. PMID:25136702
Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization of a High Temperature Triple Absorption Heat Transformer
Mehrdad Khamooshi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available First law of thermodynamics has been used to analyze and optimize inclusively the performance of a triple absorption heat transformer operating with LiBr/H2O as the working pair. A thermodynamic model was developed in EES (engineering equation solver to estimate the performance of the system in terms of the most essential parameters. The assumed parameters are the temperature of the main components, weak and strong solutions, economizers’ efficiencies, and bypass ratios. The whole cycle is optimized by EES software from the viewpoint of maximizing the COP via applying the direct search method. The optimization results showed that the COP of 0.2491 is reachable by the proposed cycle.
Gonca, Guven; Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Parlak, Adnan
2015-01-01
This paper presents comprehensive performance analyses and comparisons for air-standard irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines (TCE) based on the power output, power density, thermal efficiency, maximum dimensionless power output (MP), maximum dimensionless power density (MPD) and maximum thermal efficiency (MEF) criteria. Internal irreversibility of the cycles occurred during the irreversible-adiabatic processes is considered by using isentropic efficiencies of compression and expansion processes. The performances of the cycles are obtained by using engine design parameters such as isentropic temperature ratio of the compression process, pressure ratio, stroke ratio, cut-off ratio, Miller cycle ratio, exhaust temperature ratio, cycle temperature ratio and cycle pressure ratio. The effects of engine design parameters on the maximum and optimal performances are investigated. - Highlights: • Performance analyses are conducted for irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines. • Comprehensive computations are performed. • Maximum and optimum performances of the engines are shown. • The effects of design parameters on performance and power density are examined. • The results obtained may be guidelines to the engine designers
Fraas, A.P.
1975-01-01
The many possible combinations of blanket materials, tritium generation and recovery systems, and power conversion systems were surveyed and a comprehensive set of designs were generated by using a common set of ground rules that include all of the boundary conditions that could be envisioned for a full-scale commercial fusion power plant. Particular attention was given to the effects of blanket temperature on power plant cycle efficiency and economics, the interdependence of the thermodynamic cycle and the tritium recovery system, and to thermal and pressure stresses in the blanket structure. The results indicate that, of the wide variety of systems that have been considered, the most promising employs lithium recirculated in a closed loop within a niobium blanket structure and cooled with boiling potassium or cesium. This approach gives the simplest and lowest cost tritium recovery system, the lowest pressure and thermal stresses, the simplest structure with the lowest probability of a leak, the greatest resistance to damage from a plasma energy dump, and the lowest rate of plasma contamination by either outgassing or sputtering. The only other blanket materials combination that appears fairly likely to give a satisfactory tritium generation and recovery system is a lithium-beryllium fluoride-Incoloy blanket, and even this system involves major uncertainties in the effectiveness, size, and cost of the tritium recovery system. Further, the Li 2 BeF 4 blanket system has the disadvantage that the world reserves of beryllium are too limited to support a full-blown fusion reactor economy, its poor thermal conductivity leads to cooling difficulties and a requirement for a complex structure with intricate cooling passages, and this inherently leads to an expansive blanket with a relatively high probability of leaks. The other blanket materials combinations yield even less attractive systems
Vinyard, David J; Zachary, Chase E; Ananyev, Gennady; Dismukes, G Charles
2013-07-01
Forty-three years ago, Kok and coworkers introduced a phenomenological model describing period-four oscillations in O2 flash yields during photosynthetic water oxidation (WOC), which had been first reported by Joliot and coworkers. The original two-parameter Kok model was subsequently extended in its level of complexity to better simulate diverse data sets, including intact cells and isolated PSII-WOCs, but at the expense of introducing physically unrealistic assumptions necessary to enable numerical solutions. To date, analytical solutions have been found only for symmetric Kok models (inefficiencies are equally probable for all intermediates, called "S-states"). However, it is widely accepted that S-state reaction steps are not identical and some are not reversible (by thermodynamic restraints) thereby causing asymmetric cycles. We have developed a mathematically more rigorous foundation that eliminates unphysical assumptions known to be in conflict with experiments and adopts a new experimental constraint on solutions. This new algorithm termed STEAMM for S-state Transition Eigenvalues of Asymmetric Markov Models enables solutions to models having fewer adjustable parameters and uses automated fitting to experimental data sets, yielding higher accuracy and precision than the classic Kok or extended Kok models. This new tool provides a general mathematical framework for analyzing damped oscillations arising from any cycle period using any appropriate Markov model, regardless of symmetry. We illustrate applications of STEAMM that better describe the intrinsic inefficiencies for photon-to-charge conversion within PSII-WOCs that are responsible for damped period-four and period-two oscillations of flash O2 yields across diverse species, while using simpler Markov models free from unrealistic assumptions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Chalk–Brine–Oil Interactions
Eftekhari, Ali Akbar; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2017-01-01
The surface complexation models (SCMs) are used successfully for describing the thermodynamic equilibrium between the pure calcite surface (carbonate and calcium sites) and brine solutions. In this work, we show that the model parameters that are reported for the calcite–brine system are not appl......The surface complexation models (SCMs) are used successfully for describing the thermodynamic equilibrium between the pure calcite surface (carbonate and calcium sites) and brine solutions. In this work, we show that the model parameters that are reported for the calcite–brine system...... are not applicable to the natural carbonates. We adjust the SCM reaction equilibrium constants by fitting the model to the ζ potential data that are reported for the pulverized Stevns Klint chalk. Then, we use the model, implemented in the PhreeqcRM geochemistry package coupled with a finite volume solver...... parameters for the reactive transport applications .We propose an optimization procedure that fits the coupled SCM–transport model parameters to the chromatographic (single-phase core flooding)data. The ζ potential measurements are implemented in the optimization scheme as nonlinear constraints. We then use...
Thermodynamic analysis of allosamidin binding to the human chitotriosidase
Eide, Kristine Bistrup; Lundmark, Silje Thoresen [Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Sakuda, Shohei [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113 (Japan); Sørlie, Morten, E-mail: morten.sorlie@umb.no [Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway)
2013-08-10
Highlights: • Large differences in thermodynamic signatures for family 18 chitinase inhibition. • Allosamidin binds tight to HCHT. • Binding driven by enthalpy change and desolvation. - Abstract: Human chitotriosidase (HCHT) is one of two active family 18 chitinases produced by humans, the other being acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase). The enzyme is thought to be part of the innate human defense mechanism against fungal parasites. Recently, it has been shown that levels of HCHT bioactivity and protein are significantly increased in the circulation and lungs of systemic sclerosis patients and for this reason is a suggested therapeutic target. For this reason, we have undertaken a detailed thermodynamic investigation using isothermal titration calorimetry of the binding interaction of HCHT with the well-known family 18 chitinase inhibitor allosamidin. The binding is shown to be strong (K{sub d} = 0.20 ± 0.03 μM and ΔG{sub r}° = −38.9 ± 0.4 kJ/mol) and driven by favorable changes in enthalpy (ΔH{sub r}° = −50.2 ± 1.2 kJ/mol) and solvation entropy (−TΔS{sub solv}° = −41.8 ± 4.4 kJ/mol). It is accompanied with a large penalty in conformational entropy change (−TΔS{sub conf}° = 43.1 ± 4.2 kJ/mol)
Thermodynamic analysis of a new Marnoch Heat Engine
Saneipoor, P.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G.F.
2013-01-01
In this paper, recovery of waste heat from an industrial facility with a new Marnoch Heat Engine (MHE) is examined. The MHE can be operated with temperature differentials below 100 K. A flowing liquid transfers heat from the heat source into heat exchangers and then removes heat from cold heat exchangers. Compressed dry air is used as a working medium in the heat engine. In this paper, the mechanical configuration of the heat engine is presented and analyzed. A thermodynamic model is developed to study the performance of the heat engine under various operating conditions. The results show that the exergy efficiency of the MHE reaches up to 17%. The major sources of exergy loss are presented and discussed, in order to optimize the system performance. -- Highlights: ► To develop a thermodynamic model to study the performance of a Marnoch Heat Engine (MHE). ► To investigate the effects of changing operational conditions on the MHE's efficiency. ► To assess the application of the MHE's commercial viability
S. Watanabe
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Vapor production in cavitation extracts the latent heat of evaporation from the surrounding liquid, which decreases the local temperature, and hence the local vapor pressure in the vicinity of cavity. This is called thermodynamic/thermal effect of cavitation and leads to the good suction performance of cryogenic turbopumps. We have already established the simple analysis of partially cavitating flow with the thermodynamic effect, where the latent heat extraction and the heat transfer between the cavity and the ambient fluid are taken into account. In the present study, we carry out the analysis for cavitating inducer and compare it with the experimental data available from literatures using Freon R-114 and liquid nitrogen. It is found that the present analysis can simulate fairly well the thermodynamic effect of cavitation and some modification of the analysis considering the real fluid properties, that is, saturation characteristic, is favorable for more qualitative agreement.
Thermodynamic and aerodynamic meanline analysis of wet compression in a centrifugal compressor
Kang, Jeong Seek; Cha, Bong Jun; Yang, Soo Seok
2006-01-01
Wet compression means the injection of water droplets into the compressor of gas turbines. This method decreases the compression work and increases the turbine output by decreasing the compressor exit temperature through the evaporation of water droplets inside the compressor. Researches on wet compression, up to now, have been focused on the thermodynamic analysis of wet compression where the decrease in exit flow temperature and compression work is demonstrated. This paper provides thermodynamic and aerodynamic analysis on wet compression in a centrifugal compressor for a microturbine. The meanline dry compression performance analysis of centrifugal compressor is coupled with the thermodynamic equation of wet compression to get the meanline performance of wet compression. The most influencing parameter in the analysis is the evaporative rate of water droplets. It is found that the impeller exit flow temperature and compression work decreases as the evaporative rate increases. And the exit flow angle decreases as the evaporative rate increases
Novella, R.; Dolz, V.; Martín, J.; Royo-Pascual, L.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Enough power in the exhaust gases is available to operate the absorption cycle. • Three engine operating points are presented in the article. • Improvement potential up to 4% is possible in the engine indicated efficiency. • Engine indicated efficiency benefit was experimentally confirmed by direct testing. - Abstract: This paper deals with the thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration cycle used to cool down the temperature of the intake air in an Internal Combustion Engine using as a heat source the exhaust gas of the engine. The solution of ammonia-water has been selected due to the stability for a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures and the low freezing point. The effects of operating temperatures, pressures, concentrations of strong and weak solutions in the absorption refrigeration cycle were examined to achieve proper heat rejection to the ambient. Potential of increasing Internal Combustion Engine efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions was estimated by means of theoretical models and experimental tests. In order to provide boundary conditions for the absorption refrigeration cycle and to simulate its effect on engine performance, a 0D thermodynamic model was used to reproduce the engine performance when the intake air is cooled. Furthermore, a detailed experimental work was carried out to validate the results in real engine operation. Theoretical results show how the absorption refrigeration system decreases the intake air flow temperature down to a temperature around 5 °C and even lower by using the bottoming waste heat energy available in the exhaust gases in a wide range of engine operating conditions. In addition, the theoretical analysis estimates the potential of the strategy for increasing the engine indicated efficiency in levels up to 4% also at the operating conditions under evaluation. Finally, this predicted benefit in engine indicated efficiency has been experimentally confirmed by direct
Exergoeconomic multi objective optimization and sensitivity analysis of a regenerative Brayton cycle
Naserian, Mohammad Mahdi; Farahat, Said; Sarhaddi, Faramarz
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Finite time exergoeconomic multi objective optimization of a Brayton cycle. • Comparing the exergoeconomic and the ecological function optimization results. • Inserting the cost of fluid streams concept into finite-time thermodynamics. • Exergoeconomic sensitivity analysis of a regenerative Brayton cycle. • Suggesting the cycle performance curve drawing and utilization. - Abstract: In this study, the optimal performance of a regenerative Brayton cycle is sought through power maximization and then exergoeconomic optimization using finite-time thermodynamic concept and finite-size components. Optimizations are performed using genetic algorithm. In order to take into account the finite-time and finite-size concepts in current problem, a dimensionless mass-flow parameter is used deploying time variations. The decision variables for the optimum state (of multi objective exergoeconomic optimization) are compared to the maximum power state. One can see that the multi objective exergoeconomic optimization results in a better performance than that obtained with the maximum power state. The results demonstrate that system performance at optimum point of multi objective optimization yields 71% of the maximum power, but only with exergy destruction as 24% of the amount that is produced at the maximum power state and 67% lower total cost rate than that of the maximum power state. In order to assess the impact of the variation of the decision variables on the objective functions, sensitivity analysis is conducted. Finally, the cycle performance curve drawing according to exergoeconomic multi objective optimization results and its utilization, are suggested.
Dubovitskii, V.A.; Pavlov, G.A.; Krasnikov, Yu.G.
1996-01-01
Thermodynamic analysis of media with strong interparticle (Coulomb) interaction is presented. A method for constructing isotherms is proposed for a medium described by a closed multicomponent thermodynamic model. The method is based on choosing an appropriate nondegenerate frame of reference in the extended space of thermodynamic variables and provides efficient thermodynamic calculations in a wide range of parameters, for an investigation of phase transitions of the first kind, and for determining both the number of phases and coexistence curves. A number of approximate thermodynamic models of hydrogen plasma are discussed. The approximation corresponding to the n5/2 law, in which the effects of particle attraction and repulsion are taken into account qualitatively, is studied. This approximation allows studies of thermodynamic properties of a substance for a wide range of parameters. In this approximation, for hydrogen at a constant temperature, various properties of the degree of ionization are revealed. In addition, the parameters of the second critical point are found under conditions corresponding to the Jovian interior
Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook
Ayer, J.E.; Clark, A.T.; Loysen, P.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Mishima, J.; Owczarski, P.C.; Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.
1988-05-01
The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH
Exergy analysis of gas turbine with air bottoming cycle
Ghazikhani, M.; Khazaee, I.; Abdekhodaie, E.
2014-01-01
In this paper, the exergy analysis of a conventional gas turbine and a gas turbine with air bottoming cycle (ABC) is presented in order to study the important parameters involved in improving the performance characteristics of the ABC based on the Second Law of thermodynamics. In this study, work output, specific fuel consumption (SFC) and the exergy destruction of the components are investigated using a computer model. The variations of the ABC cycle exergy parameters are comprehensively discussed and compared with those of the simple gas turbine. The results indicate that the amount of the exhaust exergy recovery in different operating conditions varies between 8.6 and 14.1% of the fuel exergy, while the exergy destruction due to the extra components in the ABC makes up only 4.7–7.4% of the fuel exergy. This is the reason why the SFC of the ABC is averagely 13.3% less and the specific work 15.4% more than those of the simple gas turbine. The results also reveal that in the ABC cycle, at a small value of pressure ratio, a higher specific work with lower SFC can be achieved in comparison with those of the simple gas turbine. - Highlights: • Exhaust exergy recovery in ABC gas turbine varies with 8.6–14.1% of the fuel exergy. • Irreversibility of the extra devices in ABC makes up 4.7–7.4% of the fuel exergy. • SFC in ABC is poor due to exergy recovery more than extra devices irreversibility. • At the same TIT and R c , specific work in the ABC is more than simple gas turbine. • The recuperator has the largest contribution in the irreversibility of the ABC
Sharma Arjun
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The present study investigates the performance of the solar-driven Stirling engine system to maximize the power output and thermal efficiency using the non-linearized heat loss model of the solar dish collector and the irreversible cycle model of the Stirling engine. Finite time thermodynamic analysis has been done for combined system to calculate the finite-rate heat transfer, internal heat losses in the regenerator, conductive thermal bridging losses and finite regeneration process time. The results indicate that exergy efficiency of dish system increases as the effectiveness of regenerator increases but decreases with increase in regenerative time coefficient. It is also found that optimal range of collector temperature and corresponding concentrating ratio are 1000 K~1400 K and 1100~1400, respectively in order to get maximum value of exergy efficiency. It is reported that the exergy efficiency of this dish system can reach the maximum value when operating temperature and concentrating ratio are 1150 K and 1300, respectively.
Rokni, Masoud
2013-01-01
A novel hybrid power system (∼10 kW) for an average family home is proposed. The system investigated contains a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) on top of a Stirling engine. The off-gases produced in the SOFC cycle are fed to a bottoming Stirling engine, at which additional power is generated. Simulations of the proposed system were conducted using different fuels, which should facilitate the use of a variety of fuels depending on availability. Here, the results for natural gas (NG), ammonia, di-methyl ether (DME), methanol and ethanol are presented and analyzed. The system behavior is further investigated by comparing the effects of key factors, such as the utilization factor and the operating conditions under which these fuels are used. Moreover, the effect of using a methanator on the plant efficiency is also studied. The combined system improves the overall electrical efficiency relative to that of a stand-alone Stirling engine or SOFC plant. For the combined SOFC and Stirling configuration, the overall power production was increased by approximately 10% compared to that of a stand-alone SOFC plant. System efficiencies of approximately 60% are achieved, which is remarkable for such small plant sizes. Additionally, heat is also produced to heat the family home when necessary. - Highlights: • Integrating a solid oxide fuel with a Stirling engine • Design of multi-fuel hybrid plants • Plants running on alternative fuels; natural gas, methanol, ethanol, DME and ammonia • Thermodynamic analysis of hybrid SOFC–Stirling engine plants
Liquid Nitrogen (Oxygen Simulant) Thermodynamic Vent System Test Data Analysis
Hedayat, A.; Nelson, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Tucker, S. P.
2005-01-01
In designing systems for the long-term storage of cryogens in low-gravity (space) environments, one must consider the effects of thermal stratification on tank pressure that will occur due to environmental heat leaks. During low-gravity operations, a Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure without propellant resettling. A series of TVS tests was conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using liquid nitrogen (LN2) as a liquid oxygen (LO2) simulant. The tests were performed at tank til1 levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%, and with a specified tank pressure control band. A transient one-dimensional TVS performance program is used to analyze and correlate the test data for all three fill levels. Predictions and comparisons of ullage pressure and temperature and bulk liquid saturation pressure and temperature with test data are presented.
Thermodynamic analysis of an HCCI engine based system running on natural gas
Djermouni, Mohamed; Ouadha, Ahmed
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis of an HCCI based system has been carried out. • A thermodynamic model has been developed taking into account the gas composition resulting from the combustion process. • The specific heat of the working fluid is temperature dependent. - Abstract: This paper attempts to carry out a thermodynamic analysis of a system composed of a turbocharged HCCI engine, a mixer, a regenerator and a catalytic converter within the meaning of the first and the second law of thermodynamics. For this purpose, a thermodynamic model has been developed taking into account the gas composition resulting from the combustion process and the specific heat temperature dependency of the working fluid. The analysis aims in particular to examine the influence of the compressor pressure ratio, ambient temperature, equivalence ratio, engine speed and the compressor isentropic efficiency on the performance of the HCCI engine. Results show that thermal and exergetic efficiencies increase with increasing the compressor pressure ratio. However, the increase of the ambient temperature involves a decrease of the engine efficiencies. Furthermore, the variation of the equivalence ratio improves considerably both thermal and exergetic efficiencies. As expected, the increase of the engine speed enhances the engine performances. Finally, an exergy losses mapping of the system show that the maximum exergy losses occurs in the HCCI engine
Westerhold, Lauren E; Bridges, Lance C; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Zeczycki, Tonya N
2017-07-11
Allosteric regulation of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) activity is pivotal to maintaining metabolic homeostasis. In contrast, dysregulated PC activity contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, rendering PC a possible target for allosteric therapeutic development. Recent research efforts have focused on demarcating the role of acetyl-CoA, one of the most potent activators of PC, in coordinating catalytic events within the multifunctional enzyme. Herein, we report a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of acetyl-CoA activation of the Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC)-catalyzed carboxylation of pyruvate to identify novel means by which acetyl-CoA synchronizes catalytic events within the PC tetramer. Kinetic and linked-function analysis, or thermodynamic linkage analysis, indicates that the substrates of the biotin carboxylase and carboxyl transferase domain are energetically coupled in the presence of acetyl-CoA. In contrast, both kinetic and energetic coupling between the two domains is lost in the absence of acetyl-CoA, suggesting a functional role for acetyl-CoA in facilitating the long-range transmission of substrate-induced conformational changes within the PC tetramer. Interestingly, thermodynamic activation parameters for the SaPC-catalyzed carboxylation of pyruvate are largely independent of acetyl-CoA. Our results also reveal the possibility that global conformational changes give rise to observed species-specific thermodynamic activation parameters. Taken together, our kinetic and thermodynamic results provide a possible allosteric mechanism by which acetyl-CoA coordinates catalysis within the PC tetramer.
Thermodynamic analysis of (Ni, Fe)3Al formation by mechanical alloying
Adabavazeh, Z.; Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M.H.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► (Ni, Fe) 3 Al intermetallic compound was synthesized by mechanical alloying. ► We use a thermodynamic analysis to predict the more stable phase. ► We calculate the Gibbs free-energy changes by using extended Miedema model. ► The results of MA compared with thermodynamic analysis and showed a good agreement with it. - Abstract: (Ni, Fe) 3 Al intermetallic compound was synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) of Ni, Fe and Al elemental powder mixtures of composition Ni 50 Fe 25 Al 25 . Phase transformation and microstructure characteristics of the alloy powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that mechanical alloying resulted in a Ni (Al, Fe) solid solution. By continued milling, this structure transformed to the disordered (Ni, Fe) 3 Al intermetallic compound. A thermodynamic model developed on the basis of extended theory of Miedema is used to calculate the Gibbs free-energy changes. Final product of MA is a phase having minimal Gibbs free energy compared with other competing phases in Ni–Fe–Al system. However in Ni–Fe–Al system, the most stable phase at all compositions is intermetallic compound (not amorphous phase or solid solution). The results of MA were compared with thermodynamic analysis and revealed the leading role of thermodynamic on the formation of MA product prediction.
Development of a computer code for a regenerative Rankine cycle analysis
Wi, Myung Hwan; Kim, Seong O; Choi, Seok Ki; Kim, Jin Hwan
2005-01-01
A regenerative Rankine cycle can increase the thermal efficiency of a steam system without increasing the steam pressure and temperature. The regenerative process involves heating the feedwater on its return trip to the steam generator by extracting steam at various stages of the turbine and transferring the energy to the feedwater via a feedwater heater. Some real plants use more than five feedwater heaters to enhance the cycle efficiency. However, the optimum number of feedwater heaters required is determined by balancing the efficiency improvement against the capital investment for a given cycle. In the present study, the computer code, TAOPCS, for the thermodynamic analysis of a regenerative steam cycle was developed to optimally design and accurately analyze the behavior of the power conversion system of Korea Advance Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER). In order to understand the functions and the characteristics of the code, the main features of the TAPCS were described and the example results are presented in this paper
Thermo-economic analysis and selection of working fluid for solar organic Rankine cycle
Desai, Nishith B.; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Concentrating solar power plant with organic Rankine cycle. • Thermo-economic analysis of solar organic Rankine cycle. • Performance evaluation for different working fluids. • Comparison diagram to select appropriate working fluid. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC), powered by line-focusing concentrating solar collectors (parabolic trough collector and linear Fresnel reflector), is a promising option for modular scale. ORC based power block, with dry working fluids, offers higher design and part-load efficiencies compared to steam Rankine cycle (SRC) in small-medium scale, with temperature sources up to 400 °C. However, the cost of ORC power block is higher compared to the SRC power block. Similarly, parabolic trough collector (PTC) system has higher optical efficiency and higher cost compared to linear Fresnel reflector (LFR) system. The thermodynamic efficiencies and power block costs also vary with working fluids of the Rankine cycle. In this paper, thermo-economic comparisons of organic Rankine and steam Rankine cycles powered by line-focusing concentrating solar collectors are reported. A simple selection methodology, based on thermo-economic analysis, and a comparison diagram for working fluids of power generating cycles are also proposed. Concentrating solar power plants with any collector technology and any power generating cycle can be compared using the proposed methodology.
A thermodynamical analysis of rf current drive with fast electrons
Bizarro, João P. S., E-mail: bizarro@ipfn.tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2015-08-15
The problem of rf current drive (CD) by pushing fast electrons with high-parallel-phase-velocity waves, such as lower-hybrid (LH) or electron-cyclotron (EC) waves, is revisited using the first and second laws, the former to retrieve the well-known one-dimensional (1D) steady-state CD efficiency, and the latter to calculate a lower bound for the rate of entropy production when approaching steady state. The laws of thermodynamics are written in a form that explicitly takes care of frictional dissipation and are thus applied to a population of fast electrons evolving under the influence of a dc electric field, rf waves, and collisions while in contact with a thermal, Maxwellian reservoir with a well-defined temperature. Besides the laws of macroscopic thermodynamics, there is recourse to basic elements of kinetic theory only, being assumed a residual dc electric field and a strong rf drive, capable of sustaining in the resonant region, where waves interact with electrons, a raised fast-electron tail distribution, which becomes an essentially flat plateau in the case of the 1D theory for LHCD. Within the 1D model, particularly suited for LHCD as it solely retains fast-electron dynamics in velocity space parallel to the ambient magnetic field, an H theorem for rf CD is also derived, which is written in different forms, and additional physics is recovered, such as the synergy between the dc and rf power sources, including the rf-induced hot conductivity, as well as the equation for electron-bulk heating. As much as possible 1D results are extended to 2D, to account for ECCD by also considering fast-electron velocity-space dynamics in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, which leads to a detailed discussion on how the definition of an rf-induced conductivity may depend on whether one works at constant rf current or power. Moreover, working out the collisional dissipated power and entropy-production rate written in terms of the fast-electron distribution, it
Cardemil, José M.; Silva, Alexandre K. da
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Thermodynamic modeling of CO_2-based power cycles. • A multi-parameter analysis for different cycle configurations. • Performance comparison between CO_2 and four other fluids. • Detailed discussion considering optimized operational parameters (i.e., pressure, HX size). • Overview of the technical applicability of the CO_2. - Abstract: This thermodynamically based study focuses on the thermal performance of power cycles using CO_2 as the working fluid. The work considers numerous aspects that can influence the cycle's performance, such as the type of cycle (i.e., Rankine or Brayton), its configuration (i.e., with and without a recuperator), and different operational conditions (i.e., heat source temperature and the upper and lower operating pressures of the CO_2). To account for all possible scenarios, a thermodynamic routine was especially implemented and linked to a library that contained all the thermodynamics properties of CO_2. The results are mostly presented in terms of the absolute and relative 1st and 2nd Law efficiencies of CO_2 as well as the cycle's scale, here represented by the global conductance (UA) of the heat exchangers used within the cycle. For the relative performance assessment, four other working fluids, commonly used in energy conversion cycles, were considered (i.e., ethane, toluene, D4 siloxane and water). As expected, the absolute performance results indicate a strong dependence of the cycle's efficiencies on the operational conditions. As for the relative performance, the results suggest that while the CO_2's 1st Law efficiency might be lower than other fluids, its exergetic efficiency can be significantly higher. Furthermore, the calculations also indicate that the CO_2's needed global conductance is potentially lower than competing fluids (e.g., toluene) for certain operational conditions, which suggests that CO_2-based power plants can be more compact, since they might require smaller heat exchangers to produce
NONE
2004-07-01
This progress report takes stock on the CARNOT project. This project aims to standardize the different approaches or identify the application fields of each thermodynamical methodology. The cycles analysis and more generally thermodynamical machines (design, energy efficiency, new energy utilization concepts). The environmental impact is also an important topic of the project. (A.L.B.)
Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report
Lewandowski, G.A.
1980-02-01
Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.
Development of computer software for pavement life cycle cost analysis.
1988-01-01
The life cycle cost analysis program (LCCA) is designed to automate and standardize life cycle costing in Virginia. It allows the user to input information necessary for the analysis, and it then completes the calculations and produces a printed copy...
Ferraro, Vittorio; Marinelli, Valerio
2012-01-01
A performance analysis of innovative solar plants operating with cylindrical parabolic collectors and atmospheric air as heat transfer fluid in an open Joule–Brayton cycle, with and without intercooling and regeneration, is presented. The analysis was made for two operating modes of the plants: with variable air flow rate and constant inlet temperature to the turbine and with constant flow rate and variable inlet temperature to the turbine. The obtained results show a good performance of this type of solar plant, in spite of its simplicity; it seems able to compete well with other more complex plants operating with different heat transfer fluids. -- Highlights: ► Innovative CPS solar plants, operating with air in open Joule–Brayton cycle, are proposed. ► They are attractive for their simplicity and present interesting values of global efficiency. ► They seem able to compete well with other more complex solar plants.
Thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production from biomass gasification
Cohce, M.K.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.
2009-01-01
'Full Text': Biomass resources have the advantage of being renewable and can therefore contribute to renewable hydrogen production. In this study, an overview is presented of hydrogen production methods in general, and biomass-based hydrogen production in particular. For two methods in the latter category (direct gasification and pyrolysis), assessments are carried out, with the aim of investigating the feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass and better understanding the potential of biomass as a renewable energy source. A simplified model is presented here for biomass gasification based on chemical equilibrium considerations, and the effects of temperature, pressure and the Gibbs free energy on the equilibrium hydrogen yield are studied. Palm oil (designated C 6 H 10 O 5 ), one of the most common biomass resources in the world, is considered in the analyses. The gasifier is observed to be one of the most critical components of a biomass gasification system, and is modeled using stoichiometric reactions. Various thermodynamic efficiencies are evaluated, and both methods are observed to have reasonably high efficiencies. (author)
Liquid Nitrogen (Oxygen Simulent) Thermodynamic Venting System Test Data Analysis
Hedayat, A.; Nelson, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Tucker, S. P.
2005-01-01
In designing systems for the long-term storage of cryogens in low gravity space environments, one must consider the effects of thermal stratification on excessive tank pressure that will occur due to environmental heat leakage. During low gravity operations, a Thermodynamic Venting System (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure without propellant resettling. The TVS consists of a recirculation pump, Joule-Thomson (J-T) expansion valve, and a parallel flow concentric tube heat exchanger combined with a longitudinal spray bar. Using a small amount of liquid extracted by the pump and passing it though the J-T valve, then through the heat exchanger, the bulk liquid and ullage are cooled, resulting in lower tank pressure. A series of TVS tests were conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center using liquid nitrogen as a liquid oxygen simulant. The tests were performed at fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25% with gaseous nitrogen and helium pressurants, and with a tank pressure control band of 7 kPa. A transient one-dimensional model of the TVS is used to analyze the data. The code is comprised of four models for the heat exchanger, the spray manifold and injector tubes, the recirculation pump, and the tank. The TVS model predicted ullage pressure and temperature and bulk liquid saturation pressure and temperature are compared with data. Details of predictions and comparisons with test data regarding pressure rise and collapse rates will be presented in the final paper.
Analysis of radioactive-matter interaction near thermodynamical equilibrium states
Damamme, G.
1993-01-01
We study the absorption/emission process of photon by matter in the framework of a radiativo-collisionnal model of atom, a thermodynamical approach being used. The considered matter description is the atomic sphere one. First we give the expression of the balance equation around an equilibrium state. Then we express the atomic populations in function of the characteristics of the radiation and of the free electrons and of their time history. This permit us to interpret the photon balance as being due to true emission/absorption process of photons as well as fluorescence terms, all these processes being affected by relaxation effects. The total energy balance between matter and radiation can also be analyzed in the same way and conduct to introduce one photon effective interactions terms for each radiative proper mode, terms also affected by retardation effects. Such a taking into account of atom populations has no consequence on the radiative flux equation (i.e. the transfer opacity) but can considerably modify the energy balance between matter and radiation. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs
A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Soybean
Patzek, Tad W.
2009-01-01
A proper First Law energy balance of the soybean biodiesel cycle shows that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy sequestered as soya beans, plus the fossil energy inputs, becomes biodiesel. Soybean meal is produced with an overall energetic efficiency of 0.38, but it is not a fossil…
Fuel reprocessing: safety analysis of extraction cycles
Dinh, B.; Mauborgne, B.; Baron, P.; Mercier, J.P.
1991-01-01
An essential part of the safety analysis related to the extraction cycles of reprocessing plants, is the analysis of their behaviour during steady-state and transient operations, by means of simulation codes. These codes are based on the chemical properties of the main species involved (distribution coefficient and kinetics) and the hydrodynamics inside the contactors (mixer-settlers and pulsed columns). These codes have been consolidated by comparison of calculations with experimental results. The safety analysis is essentially performed in two steps. The first step is a parametric sensitivity analysis of the chemical flowsheet operated: the effect of a misadjustment (flowrate of feed, solvent, etc) is evaluated by successive steady-state calculations. These calculations help the identification of the sensitive parameters for the risk of plutonium accumulation, while indicating the permissible level of misadjustment. These calculations also serve to identify the parameters which should be measured during plant operation. The second step is the study of transient regimes, for the most sensitive parameters related to plutonium accumulation risk. The aim is to confirm the conclusions of the first step and to check that the characteristic process parameters chosen effectively allow, the early and reliable detection of any drift towards a plutonium accumulating regime. The procedures to drive the process backwards to a specified convenient steady-state regime from a drifting-state are also verified. The identification of the sensitive parameters, the process status parameters and the process transient analysis, allow a good control of process operation. This procedure, applied to the first purification cycle of COGEMA's UP3-A La Hague plant has demonstrated the total safety of facility operations
Czaja, Daniel; Chmielnak, Tadeusz; Lepszy, Sebastian
2014-12-01
A thermodynamic and economic analysis of a GT10 gas turbine integrated with the air bottoming cycle is presented. The results are compared to commercially available combined cycle power plants based on the same gas turbine. The systems under analysis have a better chance of competing with steam bottoming cycle configurations in a small range of the power output capacity. The aim of the calculations is to determine the final cost of electricity generated by the gas turbine air bottoming cycle based on a 25 MW GT10 gas turbine with the exhaust gas mass flow rate of about 80 kg/s. The article shows the results of thermodynamic optimization of the selection of the technological structure of gas turbine air bottoming cycle and of a comparative economic analysis. Quantities are determined that have a decisive impact on the considered units profitability and competitiveness compared to the popular technology based on the steam bottoming cycle. The ultimate quantity that can be compared in the calculations is the cost of 1 MWh of electricity. It should be noted that the systems analyzed herein are power plants where electricity is the only generated product. The performed calculations do not take account of any other (potential) revenues from the sale of energy origin certificates. Keywords: Gas turbine air bottoming cycle, Air bottoming cycle, Gas turbine, GT10
Thermodynamic analysis of regulation in metabolic networks using constraint-based modeling
Mahadevan Radhakrishnan
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Geobacter sulfurreducens is a member of the Geobacter species, which are capable of oxidation of organic waste coupled to the reduction of heavy metals and electrode with applications in bioremediation and bioenergy generation. While the metabolism of this organism has been studied through the development of a stoichiometry based genome-scale metabolic model, the associated regulatory network has not yet been well studied. In this manuscript, we report on the implementation of a thermodynamics based metabolic flux model for Geobacter sulfurreducens. We use this updated model to identify reactions that are subject to regulatory control in the metabolic network of G. sulfurreducens using thermodynamic variability analysis. Findings As a first step, we have validated the regulatory sites and bottleneck reactions predicted by the thermodynamic flux analysis in E. coli by evaluating the expression ranges of the corresponding genes. We then identified ten reactions in the metabolic network of G. sulfurreducens that are predicted to be candidates for regulation. We then compared the free energy ranges for these reactions with the corresponding gene expression fold changes under conditions of different environmental and genetic perturbations and show that the model predictions of regulation are consistent with data. In addition, we also identify reactions that operate close to equilibrium and show that the experimentally determined exchange coefficient (a measure of reversibility is significant for these reactions. Conclusions Application of the thermodynamic constraints resulted in identification of potential bottleneck reactions not only from the central metabolism but also from the nucleotide and amino acid subsystems, thereby showing the highly coupled nature of the thermodynamic constraints. In addition, thermodynamic variability analysis serves as a valuable tool in estimating the ranges of ΔrG' of every reaction in the model
Analysis of a combined Rankine-vapour-compression refrigeration cycle
Aphornratana, Satha; Sriveerakul, Thanarath
2010-01-01
This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a heat-powered refrigeration cycle, a combined Rankine-vapour-compression refrigeration cycle. This refrigeration cycle combines an Organic Rankine Cycle and a vapour-compression cycle. The cycle can be powered by low grade thermal energy as low as 60 deg. C and can produce cooling temperature as low as -10 deg. C. In the analysis, two combined Rankine-vapour-compression refrigeration cycles were investigated: the system with R22 and the system with R134a. Calculated COP values between 0.1 and 0.6 of both the systems were found.
The quantitative analysis of data for magnetization of ferromagnet. Extended thermodynamic approach
Bodryakov, V.Yu.; Bashkatov, A.N.
2005-01-01
A quantitative analysis of M(H,T) data on magnetization of a gadolinium single crystal in the vicinity of Curie point is accomplished within the frameworks of extended thermodynamic approach. It is established that actually observed behavior of temperature dependences of thermodynamic coefficients for gadolinium even near Curie point is sharply different from that in Landau theory. A discrepancy revealed leads to conclusion that traditional concepts should be revised. The solution of extended equation of a ferromagnet magnetic state is found and criteria of its stability are shown [ru
Fe-solubility of Ni7S6 and Ni9S8: Thermodynamic analysis
Waldner, P.
2011-01-01
Experimental data on phase equilibria have been used for thermodynamic analysis of the iron solubility of the nickel sulfides Ni 7 S 6 and Ni 9 S 8 . For both compounds, a two-sublattice approach within the framework of the compound energy formalism has been applied to perform Gibbs free energy modelling at 0.1 MPa total pressure consistently embedded in recent thermodynamic assessment studies of other iron-nickel-sulfides. The predicted maxima of iron solubility around 3 at% of Ni 7 S 6 and 5.5 at% of Ni 9 S 8 are confirmed by experimental data. The calculations of complex ternary phase relations with Fe-bearing Ni 7 S 6 and Ni 9 S 8 gain further improvement. The first internally consistent description of all thermodynamically stable phases known in the literature for the iron-nickel-sulfur system is completed.
Putative regulatory sites unraveled by network-embedded thermodynamic analysis of metabolome data
Kümmel, Anne; Panke, Sven; Heinemann, Matthias
2006-01-01
As one of the most recent members of the omics family, large-scale quantitative metabolomics data are currently complementing our systems biology data pool and offer the chance to integrate the metabolite level into the functional analysis of cellular networks. Network-embedded thermodynamic
Yip, N.Y.; Vermaas, D.A.; Nijmeijer, K.; Elimelech, M.
2014-01-01
Reverse electrodialysis (RED) can harness the Gibbs free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for sustainable power generation. In this study, we carry out a thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of RED power generation, and assess the membrane power density. First, we
Hostrup, Martin; Gani, Rafiqul; Kravanja, Zdravko
1999-01-01
This paper presents an integrated approach to the solution of process synthesis, design and analysis problems. Integration is achieved by combining two different techniques, synthesis based on thermodynamic insights and structural optimization together with a simulation engine and a properties pr...
Sega, Marcello; Fábián, Balázs; Jedlovszky, Pál
2015-01-01
Interfaces are ubiquitous objects, whose thermodynamic behavior we only recently started to understand at the microscopic detail. Here, we borrow concepts from the techniques of surface identification and intrinsic analysis, to provide a complementary point of view on the density, stress, energy, and free energy distribution across liquid (“soft”) interfaces by analyzing the respective contributions coming from successive layers
Sega, Marcello [Computational Physics Group, University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8/9, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Fábián, Balázs [Institut UTINAM (CNRS UMR 6213), Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon (France); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Szt. Gellért tér 4, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Jedlovszky, Pál [Laboratory of Interfaces and Nanosize Systems, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány P. Stny 1/A, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); MTA-BME Research Group of Technical Analytical Chemistry, Szt. Gellért tér 4, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Chemistry, EKF, Leányka u. 6, H-3300 Eger (Hungary)
2015-09-21
Interfaces are ubiquitous objects, whose thermodynamic behavior we only recently started to understand at the microscopic detail. Here, we borrow concepts from the techniques of surface identification and intrinsic analysis, to provide a complementary point of view on the density, stress, energy, and free energy distribution across liquid (“soft”) interfaces by analyzing the respective contributions coming from successive layers.
Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; Carril, Jose Carbia; Romero Gomez, Javier; Romero Gomez, Manuel
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Efficient polytropic expansion based Otto cycle. • Thermal efficiency is due to the inherent regeneration. • Low temperature combustion with zero NOx emissions. - Abstract: The aim of the paper is to demonstrate that a regenerative Otto cycle with adiabatic or polytropic expansion can achieve improved performance over traditional Otto engines, even exceeding the Carnot factor. Thus, the work deals with a novel regenerative Otto based internal combustion engine which differs from the conventional Otto thermal cycles in that the process of heat conversion into mechanical work is performed obeying a polytropic path function instead of the conventional adiabatic expansion without regeneration. Design characteristics concern the fact that combustion at constant volume is carried out undergoing large air excess so that the top combustion temperature is significantly lower than in conventional Otto cycles and consequently NOx emissions are neglected. Furthermore, during the polytropic expansion based path function, heat is absorbed by being submitted to a controlled heat flow rate, to achieve the desired polytropic expansion. The analysis of the regenerative Otto based on polytropic expansion is presented and results are compared with a regenerative Otto based on the adiabatic expansion and CF. The results show that a relevant advantage of the proposed regenerative Otto with polytropic expansion over the regenerative Otto cycle with adiabatic expansion involves performance enhancement within a wide range of combustion pressures, temperatures and regeneration capacities. Thus, thermal efficiency and specific work as function of the top combustion pressure ranges are of 71.95–58.43% and 143.5–173.6 kJ/kg respectively, when combustion pressures vary between 105 kPa and 200 kPa and CF is 60.8% (lower than the thermal efficiency). The successful results involving a compact engine structure, technically and economically viable, promises a new generation
Watanabe, K; Sato, H [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology
1997-02-01
This paper describes thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures for Lorentz-cycled new generation air-conditioning equipment. Equipment has been completed for simultaneous measurement of density and vapor-liquid equilibrium property, accurate measurement of latent heat of vaporization, and accurate measurement of specific heat at constant pressure in liquid phase. Final adjustment and preliminary measurements are currently conducted. Through analytical investigation using actually measured data of thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures, five state equations were obtained, i.e., modified Peng-Robinson state equation which can reproduce the vapor-liquid equilibrium property of refrigerant mixtures, modified Patel-Teja state equation, Helmholtz function type state equation which is applicable in the whole fluid region of refrigerant mixtures, and so on. An evaluation test equipment has been fabricated as a trial for Lorentz-cycled air-conditioning equipments using HFC refrigerant mixtures, and demonstration test is conducted to confirm the validity. 9 refs., 5 figs.
Evaluation of pavement life cycle cost analysis: Review and analysis
Peyman Babashamsi
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The cost of road construction consists of design expenses, material extraction, construction equipment, maintenance and rehabilitation strategies, and operations over the entire service life. An economic analysis process known as Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA is used to evaluate the cost-efficiency of alternatives based on the Net Present Value (NPV concept. It is essential to evaluate the above-mentioned cost aspects in order to obtain optimum pavement life-cycle costs. However, pavement managers are often unable to consider each important element that may be required for performing future maintenance tasks. Over the last few decades, several approaches have been developed by agencies and institutions for pavement Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA. While the transportation community has increasingly been utilising LCCA as an essential practice, several organisations have even designed computer programs for their LCCA approaches in order to assist with the analysis. Current LCCA methods are analysed and LCCA software is introduced in this article. Subsequently, a list of economic indicators is provided along with their substantial components. Collecting previous literature will help highlight and study the weakest aspects so as to mitigate the shortcomings of existing LCCA methods and processes. LCCA research will become more robust if improvements are made, facilitating private industries and government agencies to accomplish their economic aims. Keywords: Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA, Pavement management, LCCA software, Net Present Value (NPV
Sarr, Joachim-André Raymond; Mathieu-Potvin, François
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A new stratagem is proposed to improve thermal efficiency of Rankine cycles. • Three new configurations are optimized by means of numerical simulations. • The Rankine-1SCR design is advantageous for 1338 different fluid combinations. • The Rankine-2SCR design is advantageous for 772 different fluid combinations. • The Rankine-3SCR design is advantageous for 768 different fluid combinations. - Abstract: In this paper, three different modifications of the basic Rankine thermodynamic cycle are proposed. The objective is to increase the thermal efficiency of power systems based on Rankine cycles. The three new systems are named “Rankine-1SCR”, “Rankine-2SCR”, and “Rankine-3SCR” cycles, and they consist of linking a refrigeration cycle to the basic Rankine cycle. The idea is to use the refrigeration cycle to create a low temperature heat sink for the Rankine cycle. These three new power plant configurations are modeled and optimized with numerical tools, and then they are compared with the basic Rankine cycle. The objective function is the thermal efficiency of the systems (i.e., net power output (kW) divided by heat rate (kW) entering the system), and the design variables are the operating temperatures within the systems. Among the 84 × 84 (i.e., 7056) possible combinations of working and cooling fluids investigated in this paper, it is shown that: (i) the Rankine-1SCR system is advantageous for 1338 different fluid combinations, (ii) the Rankine-2SCR system is advantageous for 772 different fluid combinations, and (iii) the Rankine-3SCR system is advantageous for 768 different fluid combinations.
Theoretical analysis of a combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle using zeotropic mixture
Yang, Xingyang; Zhao, Li; Li, Hailong; Yu, Zhixin
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A combined power and refrigeration cycle using zeotropic mixture is analyzed. • The cycle performances with different mixture compositions are compared. • Both exergy and parametric analysis of the combined cycle are conducted. - Abstract: A theoretical study on a combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle using zeotropic mixture isobutane/pentane is carried out. The performances of different mixture compositions are compared. An exergy analysis is conducted for the cycle. The result reveals that most exergy destruction happens in the ejector, where more than 40% exergy is lost. The heat exchange in generator causes the second largest exergy loss, larger than 28%. As the mass fraction of isobutane changes ranges from 100% to 0%, the relative exergy destruction of each component is also changing. And mixture isobutane/pentane (50/50) has the maximum exergy efficiency of 7.83%. The parametric analysis of generator temperature, condenser temperature and evaporator temperature for all the mixtures shows that, all these three thermodynamic parameters have a strong effect on the cycle performance.
sensitivity analysis on flexible road pavement life cycle cost model
user
of sensitivity analysis on a developed flexible pavement life cycle cost model using varying discount rate. The study .... organizations and specific projects needs based. Life-cycle ... developed and completed urban road infrastructure corridor ...
Bezborodov, Yu.A.; Bubnov, V.P.; Nesterenko, V.B.
1982-01-01
The cycle maximum temperature effect on the properties of individual apparatuses and total NPP energy blocks characteristics has been investigated. Air, nitrogen, helium and chemically reacting system N 2 O 4 +2NO+O 2 have been considered as coolants. The conducted investigations have shown that maximum temperature of thermodynamical cycle affects considerably both the weight-dimensional characteristics of individual elements of NPP and total characteristics of NPP energy block. Energy blocks of NPP with air cooling wherein dissociating nitrogen tetroxide is used as working body, have better indexes on the majority of characteristics in comparison with blocks with air, nitrogen and helium cooling. If technical restrictions are to be taken into account (thermal resistance of metals, coolant decomposition under high temperatures, etc.) then dissociating nitrogen tetroxide should be recommended as working body and maximum cycle temperature in the range from 500 up to 600 deg C
Introduction to applied thermodynamics
Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E
1965-01-01
Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o
The status of nuclear fuel cycle system analysis for the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles
Ko, Won Il; Kim, Seong Ki; Lee, Hyo Jik; Chang, Hong Rae; Kwon, Eun Ha; Lee, Yoon Hee; Gao, Fanxing [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2011-11-15
The system analysis has been used with different system and objectives in various fields. In the nuclear field, the system can be applied from uranium mining to spent fuel reprocessing or disposal which is called the nuclear fuel cycle. The analysis of nuclear fuel cycle can be guideline for development of advanced fuel cycle through integrating and evaluating the technologies. For this purpose, objective approach is essential and modeling and simulation can be useful. In this report, several methods which can be applicable for development of advanced nuclear fuel cycle, such as TRL, simulation and trade analysis were explained with case study
Thermodynamic analysis of the two-phase ejector air-conditioning system for buses
Ünal, Şaban; Yilmaz, Tuncay
2015-01-01
Air-conditioning compressors of the buses are usually operated with the power taken from the engine of the buses. Therefore, an improvement in the air-conditioning system will reduce the fuel consumption of the buses. The improvement in the coefficient of performance (COP) of the air-conditioning system can be provided by using the two-phase ejector as an expansion valve in the air-conditioning system. In this study, the thermodynamic analysis of bus air-conditioning system enhanced with a two-phase ejector and two evaporators is performed. Thermodynamic analysis is made assuming that the mixing process in ejector occurs at constant cross-sectional area and constant pressure. The increase rate in the COP with respect to conventional system is analyzed in terms of the subcooling, condenser and evaporator temperatures. The analysis shows that COP improvement of the system by using the two phase ejector as an expansion device is 15% depending on design parameters of the existing bus air-conditioning system. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of the two-phase ejector refrigeration system. • Analysis of the COP increase rate of bus air-conditioning system. • Analysis of the entrainment ratio of the two-phase ejector refrigeration system
Liquid air fueled open-closed cycle Stirling engine and its exergy analysis
Wang, Jia; Xu, Weiqing; Ding, Shuiting; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin; Rehman, Ali
2015-01-01
An unconventional Stirling engine is proposed and its theoretical analysis is performed. The engine belongs to a “cryogenic heat engine” that is fueled by cryogenic medium. Conventional “cryogenic heat engine” employs liquid air as a pressure source, but disregards its heat-absorbing ability. Therefore, its efficiency can only be improved by increasing vapor pressure, accordingly increasing the demand on pressure resistance and sealing. In the proposed engine, a closed cycle structure of Stirling engine is added to combine with the open cycle structure of a conventional cryogenic heat engine to achieve high efficiency and simplicity by utilizing the heat-absorbing ability of liquid air. Besides, the theoretical analysis of the proposed engine is performed. The Schmidt theory is modified to model temperature variation in the cold space of the engine, and irreversible characteristic of regenerator is incorporated in the thermodynamic model. The modeling results show that under the same working pressure, the efficiency of the proposed engine is potentially higher than that of conventional ones and to achieve the same efficiency, the working pressure could be lower with the new mechanism. Composition of exergy loss in the proposed engine is analyzed. - Highlights: • Cryogenic energy is better exploited by the open-closed cycle Stirling mechanism. • The Schmidt theory is modified to model temperature variation. • Irreversible characteristics are incorporated in the thermodynamic model. • Composition of exergy loss in proposed engine is analyzed.
Dynamic analysis of stochastic transcription cycles.
Claire V Harper
2011-04-01
Full Text Available In individual mammalian cells the expression of some genes such as prolactin is highly variable over time and has been suggested to occur in stochastic pulses. To investigate the origins of this behavior and to understand its functional relevance, we quantitatively analyzed this variability using new mathematical tools that allowed us to reconstruct dynamic transcription rates of different reporter genes controlled by identical promoters in the same living cell. Quantitative microscopic analysis of two reporter genes, firefly luciferase and destabilized EGFP, was used to analyze the dynamics of prolactin promoter-directed gene expression in living individual clonal and primary pituitary cells over periods of up to 25 h. We quantified the time-dependence and cyclicity of the transcription pulses and estimated the length and variation of active and inactive transcription phases. We showed an average cycle period of approximately 11 h and demonstrated that while the measured time distribution of active phases agreed with commonly accepted models of transcription, the inactive phases were differently distributed and showed strong memory, with a refractory period of transcriptional inactivation close to 3 h. Cycles in transcription occurred at two distinct prolactin-promoter controlled reporter genes in the same individual clonal or primary cells. However, the timing of the cycles was independent and out-of-phase. For the first time, we have analyzed transcription dynamics from two equivalent loci in real-time in single cells. In unstimulated conditions, cells showed independent transcription dynamics at each locus. A key result from these analyses was the evidence for a minimum refractory period in the inactive-phase of transcription. The response to acute signals and the result of manipulation of histone acetylation was consistent with the hypothesis that this refractory period corresponded to a phase of chromatin remodeling which significantly
Analysis of Low Temperature Organic Rankine Cycles for Solar Applications
Li, Yunfei
The present work focuses on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems and their application to low temperature waste heat recovery, combined heat and power as well as off-grid solar power generation applications. As CO_2 issues come to the fore front and fossil fuels become more expensive, interest in low grade heat recovery has grown dramatically in the past few years. Solar energy, as a clean, renewable, pollution-free and sustainable energy has great potential for the use of ORC systems. Several ORC solutions have been proposed to generate electricity from low temperature sources. The ORC systems discussed here can be applied to fields such as solar thermal, biological waste heat, engine exhaust gases, small-scale cogeneration, domestic boilers, etc. The current work presents a thermodynamic and economic analysis for the use of ORC systems to convert solar energy or low exergy energy to generate electrical power. The organic working fluids investigated here were selected to investigate the effect of the fluid saturation temperature on the performance of ORCs. The working fluids under investigation are R113, R245fa, R123, with boiling points between 40°C and 200°C at pressures from 10 kPa to 10 MPa. Ambient temperature air at 20oC to 30oC is utilized as cooling resource, and allowing for a temperature difference 10°C for effective heat transfer. Consequently, the working fluids are condensed at 40°C. A combined first- and second-law analysis is performed by varying some system independent parameters at various reference temperatures. The present work shows that ORC systems can be viable and economical for the applications such as waste heat use and off-grid power generation even though they are likely to be more expensive than grid power.
Yang, Min-Hsiung; Yeh, Rong-Hua
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A new parameter is proposed for optimizing economic performance of the ORC system. • Maximal thermodynamic and economic performances of an ORC system are presented. • The corresponding operating pressures in turbine of optimum thermodynamic and economic performances are investigated. • An optimal effectiveness of pre-heater is obtained for the ORC system. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the thermodynamic and economic performances optimization for an ORC system recovering the waste heat of exhaust gas from a large marine diesel engine of the merchant ship. Parameters of net power output index and thermal efficiency are used to represent the economic and thermodynamic performances, respectively. The maximum net power output index and thermal efficiency are obtained and the corresponding turbine inlet pressure, turbine outlet pressure, and effectiveness of pre-heater of the ORC system are also evaluated using R1234ze, R245fa, R600, and R600a. Furthermore, the analyses of the effects of turbine inlet temperature and cooling water temperature on the optimal economic and thermodynamic performances of the ORC system are carried out. The results show that R245fa performs the most satisfactorily followed by R600, R600a, and R1234ze under optimal economic performance. However, in the optimal thermodynamic performance evaluations, R1234ze has the largest thermal efficiency followed by R600a, R245fa, and R600. The payback periods will decrease from 0.5 year for R245fa to 0.65 year for R1234ze respectively as the system is equipped with a pre-heater. In addition, compared with conventional diesel oil feeding, the proposed ORC system can reduce 76% CO 2 emission per kilowatt-hour
Second law-based thermodynamic analysis of water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system
Kilic, Muhsin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Uludag University, TR 16059, Bursa (Turkey)]. E-mail: mkilic@uludag.edu.tr; Kaynakli, Omer [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Uludag University, TR 16059, Bursa (Turkey)
2007-08-15
In this study, the first and the second law of thermodynamics are used to analyze the performance of a single-stage water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system (ARS) when some working parameters are varied. A mathematical model based on the exergy method is introduced to evaluate the system performance, exergy loss of each component and total exergy loss of all the system components. Parameters connected with performance of the cycle-circulation ratio (CR), coefficient of performance (COP), Carnot coefficient of performance (COP{sub c} ), exergetic efficiency ({xi}) and efficiency ratio ({tau})-are calculated from the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at various operating conditions. Using the developed model, the effect of main system temperatures on the performance parameters of the system, irreversibilities in the thermal process and non-dimensional exergy loss of each component are analyzed in detail. The results show that the performance of the ARS increases with increasing generator and evaporator temperatures, but decreases with increasing condenser and absorber temperatures. Exergy losses in the expansion valves, pump and heat exchangers, especially refrigerant heat exchanger, are small compared to other components. The highest exergy loss occurs in the generator regardless of operating conditions, which therefore makes the generator the most important component of the cycle.
Second law-based thermodynamic analysis of water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system
Kilic, Muhsin; Kaynakli, Omer
2007-01-01
In this study, the first and the second law of thermodynamics are used to analyze the performance of a single-stage water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system (ARS) when some working parameters are varied. A mathematical model based on the exergy method is introduced to evaluate the system performance, exergy loss of each component and total exergy loss of all the system components. Parameters connected with performance of the cycle-circulation ratio (CR), coefficient of performance (COP), Carnot coefficient of performance (COP c ), exergetic efficiency (ξ) and efficiency ratio (τ)-are calculated from the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at various operating conditions. Using the developed model, the effect of main system temperatures on the performance parameters of the system, irreversibilities in the thermal process and non-dimensional exergy loss of each component are analyzed in detail. The results show that the performance of the ARS increases with increasing generator and evaporator temperatures, but decreases with increasing condenser and absorber temperatures. Exergy losses in the expansion valves, pump and heat exchangers, especially refrigerant heat exchanger, are small compared to other components. The highest exergy loss occurs in the generator regardless of operating conditions, which therefore makes the generator the most important component of the cycle
NONE
1997-03-01
A hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerant, R-22, is currently being used almost exclusively as a refrigerant for conventional air-conditioning equipments. Since HCFCs are expected to be banned shortly, it is considered a crucial issue to support R and D of the air-conditioning system Lorentz-cycled with hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants mixtures. In the present research project, therefore, it is aimed to reveal some of the essential thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures systematically. On the basis of a series of achievements for the last several years by the present research coordinator and his group regarding thermodynamic properties of single-component and blended HFC refrigerants, we have conducted following three major research programs rather systematically on which no challenges have ever been reported worldwide. Throughout a series of experimental as well as analytical researches performed so as to meet the objectives mentioned above, some novel knowledge and valuable outcomes could be obtained in the present study. (1) Precise measurements of vapor-liquid equilibrium properties with simultaneous determination of densities, latent heats of vaporization, and isobaric specific heat capacities in liquid phase. (2) Analytical studies to establish thermodynamic property modeling. (3) Feasibility study of evaluating the Lorentz-cycled performance. (NEDO)
Mitchell Schulte
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The citric acid cycle (CAC is the central pathway of energy transfer for many organisms, and understanding the origin of this pathway may provide insight into the origins of metabolism. In order to assess the thermodynamics of this key pathway for microorganisms that inhabit a wide variety of environments, especially those found in high temperature environments, we have calculated the properties and parameters for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state for the major components of the CAC. While a significant amount of data is not available for many of the constituents of this fundamental pathway, methods exist that allow estimation of these missing data.
Thermodynamic analysis and experimental investigation of a Solo V161 Stirling cogeneration unit
Rogdakis, E.D.; Antonakos, G.D.; Koronaki, I.P.
2012-01-01
In order to investigate the Stirling engine implementation technology, a Solo Stirling Engine V161 cogeneration module has been installed at the Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics of National Technical University of Athens. A special thermodynamic analysis of the engine's performance has been conducted introducing and utilizing specially designed computing codes along with the thermal balance study of the unit. Measurements were conducted under different operational conditions concerning various heat load stages of the engine, working pressure, as well as electric power production. Analysis of the experimental results has shown that the overall performance of the Stirling unit proved very promising and quite adequate for various areal applications, equally competing with other CHP systems. The performance of the unit experienced significant stability all over the operating range. The power stand ratio 0.35 differentiates Stirling cogeneration units from others that use diverging technologies significantly. The energy savings using a Stirling CHP unit, in respect to the concurrent use of a thermal and an electrical system at the same equivalent power has revealed 36.8%. -- Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analysis of an a-type Stirling engine. ► Development of generated electrical and thermal power of the m-CHP Solo Stirling Unit to engine's load comparison. ► Stirling m-CHP until heat balance analysis. ► Evaluation of the Solo Stirling V161 unit efficiency.
Chloride corrosion in biomass-fired boilers – Fe-O-Cl system thermodynamic analysis
Kaczmarczyk Robert
2016-01-01
The paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of chloride-induced corrosion in the Fe-O-Cl system. The ranges of the metallic, oxide and chloride phase stability are determined within the temperature range T = 750-1000 K. Based on the parametric equations the equilibrium concentration of gaseous phase determined by Deacon reaction are presented. The effect of H2O concentration in the gaseous phase on high-temperature corrosion process and gaseous NaCl influence on NaFeO2 formation in the passive oxide scale layer (FeO/Fe3O4/Fe2O3 are discussed as well. The results are correlated with available in the literature laboratory experimental data and industrial corrosion process observations. Presented thermodynamic analysis is compared with assumptions of “active oxidation” model. The results may be used for experimental research prediction and a corrosion prevention in the industry.
An economic analysis code used for PWR fuel cycle
Liu Dingqin
1989-01-01
An economic analysis code used for PWR fuel cycle is developed. This economic code includes 12 subroutines representing vavious processes for entire PWR fuel cycle, and indicates the influence of the fuel cost on the cost of the electricity generation and the influence of individual process on the sensitivity of the fuel cycle cost
Dynamic stability and bifurcation analysis in fractional thermodynamics
Béda, Péter B.
2018-02-01
In mechanics, viscoelasticity was the first field of applications in studying geomaterials. Further possibilities arise in spatial non-locality. Non-local materials were already studied in the 1960s by several authors as a part of continuum mechanics and are still in focus of interest because of the rising importance of materials with internal micro- and nano-structure. When material instability gained more interest, non-local behavior appeared in a different aspect. The problem was concerned to numerical analysis, because then instability zones exhibited singular properties for local constitutive equations. In dynamic stability analysis, mathematical aspects of non-locality were studied by using the theory of dynamic systems. There the basic set of equations describing the behavior of continua was transformed to an abstract dynamic system consisting of differential operators acting on the perturbation field variables. Such functions should satisfy homogeneous boundary conditions and act as indicators of stability of a selected state of the body under consideration. Dynamic systems approach results in conditions for cases, when the differential operators have critical eigenvalues of zero real parts (dynamic stability or instability conditions). When the critical eigenvalues have non-trivial eigenspace, the way of loss of stability is classified as a typical (or generic) bifurcation. Our experiences show that material non-locality and the generic nature of bifurcation at instability are connected, and the basic functions of the non-trivial eigenspace can be used to determine internal length quantities of non-local mechanics. Fractional calculus is already successfully used in thermo-elasticity. In the paper, non-locality is introduced via fractional strain into the constitutive relations of various conventional types. Then, by defining dynamic systems, stability and bifurcation are studied for states of thermo-mechanical solids. Stability conditions and genericity
A BWR 24-month cycle analysis using multicycle techniques
Hartley, K.D.
1993-01-01
Boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel cycle design analyses have become increasingly challenging in the past several years. As utilities continue to seek improved capacity factors, reduced power generation costs, and reduced outage costs, longer cycle lengths and fuel design optimization become important considerations. Accurate multicycle analysis techniques are necessary to determine the viability of fuel designs and cycle operating strategies to meet reactor operating requirements, e.g., meet thermal and reactivity margin constraints, while minimizing overall fuel cycle costs. Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), Nuclear Division, has successfully employed multi-cycle analysis techniques with realistic rodded cycle depletions to demonstrate equilibrium fuel cycle performance in 24-month cycles. Analyses have been performed by a BWR/5 reactor, at both rated and uprated power conditions
Orbaiz, Pedro Jose; Brear, Michael J.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis of two recuperated ICE plants is undertaken. • The overall plant efficiency and CO 2 emissions are analysed. • Chemical recuperation without a secondary heat source is unlikely. • Using a renewable secondary heat source reduces the CO 2 emission of the plant. - Abstract: This paper is the first of a two part study that analyses the technical and financial performance of particular, recuperated engine systems. This first paper presents a thermodynamic study of two systems. The first system involves the chemical recuperation of a reciprocating, spark ignited, internal combustion engine using only the waste heat of the engine to power a steam–methane reformer. The performance of this system is evaluated for different coolant loads and steam–methane ratios. The second system is a so-called ’hybrid’ in which not only the waste heat of the engine is used, but also a secondary heat source – the combustion of biomass. The effects of the reformer’s temperature and the steam–methane ratio on the system performance are analysed. These analyses show that the potential efficiency improvement obtained when using only the engine waste heat to power the recuperation is marginal. However, results for the hybrid show that although the overall efficiency of the plant, defined in terms of the energy from both the methane and biomass, is similar to that of the conventional, methane fuelled engine, the efficiency of the conversion of the biomass fuel energy to work output appears to be higher than for other biomass fuelled technologies currently in use. Further, in the ideal limit of a fully renewable biomass fuel, the burning of biomass does not contribute to the net CO 2 emissions, and the CO 2 emission reduction for this second plant can be considerable. Indeed, its implementation on larger internal combustion engine power plants, which have efficiencies of around 45–50%, could result in CO 2 emissions that are as much as
Thermodynamic Analysis of ORC and Its Application for Waste Heat Recovery
Alireza Javanshir
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The analysis and optimization of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC used as a bottoming cycle in the Brayton/ORC and steam Rankine/ORC combined cycle configurations is the main focus of this study. The results show that CO2 and air are the best working fluids for the topping (Brayton cycle. Depending on the exhaust temperature of the topping cycle, Iso-butane, R11 and ethanol are the preferred working fluids for the bottoming (ORC cycle, resulting in the highest efficiency of the combined cycle. Results of the techno-economic study show that combined Brayton/ORC cycle has significantly lower total capital investment and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE compared to the regenerative Brayton cycle. An analysis of a combined steam Rankine/ORC cycle was performed to determine the increase in power output that would be achieved by adding a bottoming ORC to the utility-scale steam Rankine cycle, and determine the effect of ambient conditions (heat sink temperature on power increase. For the selected power plant location, the large difference between the winter and summer temperatures has a considerable effect on the ORC power output, which varies by more than 60% from winter to summer.
Litt, Jonathan S. (Compiler)
2018-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center hosted a Users' Workshop on the Toolbox for the Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS) on August 21, 2017. The objective of this workshop was to update the user community on the latest features of T-MATS, and to provide a forum to present work performed using T-MATS. Presentations highlighted creative applications and the development of new features and libraries, and emphasized the flexibility and simulation power of T-MATS.
Spectral Analysis Of Business Cycles In The Visegrad Group Countries
Kijek Arkadiusz
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the business cycle properties of Visegrad group countries. The main objective is to identify business cycles in these countries and to study the relationships between them. The author applies a modification of the Fourier analysis to estimate cycle amplitudes and frequencies. This allows for a more precise estimation of cycle characteristics than the traditional approach. The cross-spectral analysis of GDP cyclical components for the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia makes it possible to assess the degree of business cycle synchronization between the countries.
Thermodynamic analysis of thermal efficiency and power of Minto engine
He, Wei; Hou, Jingxin; Zhang, Yang; Ji, Jie
2011-01-01
Minto engine is a kind of liquid piston heat engine that operates on a small temperature gradient. But there is no power formula for it yet. And its thermal efficiency is low and formula sometimes is misused. In this paper, deriving the power formula and simplifying the thermal efficiency formula of Minto engine based on energy distribution analysis will be discussed. To improve the original Minto engine, a new design of improved Minto engine is proposed and thermal efficiency formula and power formula are also given. A computer program was developed to analyze thermal efficiency and power of original and improved Minto engines operating between low and high-temperature heat sources. The simulation results show that thermal efficiency of improved Minto engine can reach over 7% between 293.15 K and 353.15 K which is much higher than that of original one; the temperature difference between upper and lower containers is lower than half of that between low and high temperature of heat sources when the original Minto engines output the maximum power; on the contrary, it is higher in the improved Minto engines. -- Highlights: ► The thermal efficiency formula of Minto engine is simplified and the power formula is established. ► A high-powered design of improved Minto engine is proposed. ► A computer simulation program based on real operating environment is developed.
A New Dynamic Model for Nuclear Fuel Cycle System Analysis
Choi, Sungyeol; Ko, Won Il
2014-01-01
The evaluation of mass flow is a complex process where numerous parameters and their complex interaction are involved. Given that many nuclear power countries have light and heavy water reactors and associated fuel cycle technologies, the mass flow analysis has to consider a dynamic transition from the open fuel cycle to other cycles over decades or a century. Although an equilibrium analysis provides insight concerning the end-states of fuel cycle transitions, it cannot answer when we need specific management options, whether the current plan can deliver these options when needed, and how fast the equilibrium can be achieved. As a pilot application, the government brought several experts together to conduct preliminary evaluations for nuclear fuel cycle options in 2010. According to Table 1, they concluded that the closed nuclear fuel cycle has long-term advantages over the open fuel cycle. However, it is still necessary to assess these options in depth and to optimize transition paths of these long-term options with advanced dynamic fuel cycle models. A dynamic simulation model for nuclear fuel cycle systems was developed and its dynamic mass flow analysis capability was validated against the results of existing models. This model can reflects a complex combination of various fuel cycle processes and reactor types, from once-through to multiple recycling, within a single nuclear fuel cycle system. For the open fuel cycle, the results of the developed model are well matched with the results of other models
Saeed Soltani
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.
Rokni, Masoud
2013-01-01
Integrated gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analysed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas which is utilized for feeding the SOFC stacks for electricity...... and suggested. Thermodynamic analysis shows that a thermal efficiency of 42.4% based on LHV (lower heating value) can be achieved. Different parameter studies are performed to analysis system behaviour under different conditions. The analysis show that increasing fuel mass flow from the design point results...
Environmental analysis of natural gas life cycle
Riva, A.; D'Angelosante, S.; Trebeschi, C.
2000-01-01
Life Cycle Assessment is a method aimed at identifying the environmental effects connected with a given product, process or activity during its whole life cycle. The evaluation of published studies and the application of the method to electricity production with fossil fuels, by using data from published databases and data collected by the gas industry, demonstrate the importance and difficulties to have reliable and updated data required for a significant life cycle assessment. The results show that the environmental advantages of natural gas over the other fossil fuels in the final use stage increase still further if the whole life cycle of the fuels, from production to final consumption, is taken into account [it
Wang, Zidong; Chen, Hanping; Weng, Shilie
2013-01-01
The article proposes a new calculation method for thermodynamic properties (i.e. specific enthalpy, specific entropy and specific volume) of humid air in humid air turbine cycle. The research pressure range is from 0.1 MPa to 5 MPa. The fundamental behaviors of dry air and water vapor in saturated humid air are explored in depth. The new model proposes and verifies the relationship between total gas mixture pressure and gas component pressures. This provides a good explanation of the fundamental behaviors of gas components in gas mixture from a new perspective. Another discovery is that the water vapor component pressure of saturated humid air equals P S , always smaller than its partial pressure (f·P S ) which was believed in the past researches. In the new model, “Local Gas Constant” describes the interaction between similar molecules. “Improvement Factor” is proposed for the first time by this article, and it quantitatively describes the magnitude of interaction between dissimilar molecules. They are combined to fully describe the real thermodynamic properties of humid air. The average error of Revised Dalton's Method is within 0.1% compared to experimentally-based data. - Highlights: • Our new model is suitable to calculate thermodynamic properties of humid air in HAT cycle. • Fundamental behaviors of dry air and water vapor in saturated humid air are explored in depth. • Local-Gas-Constant describes existing alone component and Improvement Factor describes interaction between different components. • The new model proposes and verifies the relationship between total gas mixture pressure and component pressures. • It solves saturated humid air thoroughly and deviates from experimental data less than 0.1%
Birkenmeier, Markus; Mack, Matthias; Röder, Thorsten
2015-10-01
In this study, we applied a coupled in silico thermodynamic and probabilistic metabolic control analysis methodology to investigate the control mechanisms of the commercially relevant riboflavin biosynthetic pathway in bacteria. Under the investigated steady-state conditions, we found that several enzyme reactions of the pathway operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium (transformed Gibbs energies of reaction below about -17 kJ mol(-1)). Using the obtained thermodynamic information and applying enzyme elasticity sampling, we calculated the distributions of the scaled concentration control coefficients (CCCs) and scaled flux control coefficients (FCCs). From the statistical analysis of the calculated distributions, we inferred that the control over the riboflavin producing flux is shared among several enzyme activities and mostly resides in the initial reactions of the pathway. More precisely, the guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cyclohydrolase II activity, and therefore the bifunctional RibA protein of Bacillus subtilis because it catalyzes this activity, appears to mainly control the riboflavin producing flux (mean FCCs = 0.45 and 0.55, respectively). The GTP cyclohydrolase II activity and RibA also exert a high positive control over the riboflavin concentration (mean CCCs = 2.43 and 2.91, respectively). This prediction is consistent with previous findings for microbial riboflavin overproducing strains.
Wang, Jiangjiang; Lu, Yanchao; Yang, Ying; Mao, Tianzhi
2016-01-01
This study aims to present a thermodynamic performance analysis and to optimize the configurations of a hybrid combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system incorporating solar energy and natural gas. A basic natural gas CCHP system containing a power generation unit, a heat recovery system, an absorption cooling system and a storage tank is integrated with solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and/or a heat collector. Based on thermodynamic modeling, the thermodynamic performance, including energy and exergy efficiencies, under variable work conditions, such as electric load factor, solar irradiance and installation ratio, of the solar PV panels and heat collector is investigated and analyzed. The results of the energy supply side analysis indicate that the integration of solar PV into the CCHP system more efficiently improves the exergy efficiency, whereas the integration of a solar heat collector improves the energy efficiency. To match the building loads, the optimization method combined with the operation strategy is employed to optimize the system configurations to maximize the integrated benefits of energy and economic costs. The optimization results of demand–supply matching demonstrate that the integration of a solar heat collector achieves a better integrated performance than the solar PV integration in the specific case study. - Highlights: • Design a CCHP system integrated with solar PV and heat collector. • Present the energy and exergy analyses under variable work conditions. • Propose an optimization method of CCHP system for demand-supply matching.
Piekarczyk, W.; Prawer, S.
1992-01-01
Chemically vapour deposited diamond is commonly synthesized from activated hydrogen-rich, carbon/hydrogen gas mixtures under conditions which should, from a thermodynamic equilibrium point of view, favour the production of graphite. Much remains to be understood about why diamond, and not graphite, forms under these conditions. However, it is well known that the presence of atomic hydrogen, is crucial to the success of diamond deposition. As part of an attempt to better understand the deposition process, a thermodynamic analysis of the process was performed on diamond (111) faces in hydrogen rich environments. It is shown that the key role of atomic hydrogen is to inhibit the reconstruction of the (111) face to an sp 2 -bonded structure, which would provide a template for graphite, rather than diamond formation. The model correctly predicts experimentally determined trends in growth rate and diamond film quality as a function of methane concentration in the stating gas mixture. 17 refs., 4 figs
Garvie, R.C.
1985-01-01
A thermodynamic analysis was made of a simple model comprising a transforming t-ZrO 2 microcrystal of size d constrained in a matrix subjected to a hydrostatic tensile stress field. The field generated a critical size range such that a t-particle transformed if dsub(cl) < d < dsub(cu). The lower limit dsub(cl) exists because at this point the maximum energy (supplied by the applied stress) which can be taken up by the crystal is insufficient to drive the transformation. The upper limit dsub(cu) is a consequence of the microcrystal being so large that it transforms spontaneously when the material is cooled to room temperature. Using the thermodynamic (Griffith) approach and assuming that transformation toughening is due to the dilational strain energy, this mechanism accounted for about one-third of the total observed effective surface energy in a peak-aged Ca-PSZ alloy. (author)
The thermodynamic solar energy
Rivoire, B.
2002-04-01
The thermodynamic solar energy is the technic in the whole aiming to transform the solar radiation energy in high temperature heat and then in mechanical energy by a thermodynamic cycle. These technic are most often at an experimental scale. This paper describes and analyzes the research programs developed in the advanced countries, since 1980. (A.L.B.)
Vlassov, D.; Vargas, J.V.C. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: vlassov@demec.ufpr.br; jvargas@demec.ufpr.br
2002-07-01
This paper analyses various thermal schemes of the world wide most used cycles in gas-steam thermoelectric power plants. The combination of gas turbine cycle with the steam-gas cycle in thermoelectric power plants is performed in several ways, resulting in different thermal schemes, used equipment and operation plant basic characteristics. The thermal scheme of a gas-steam power plant is a determinant factor for the definition of energetic, economic and ecological characteristics. For the comparative analysis various quantitative indexes are presented, as for example: the heat fraction supplied to the gas turbine cycle and the cycle binary rate.
Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem
2012-05-01
The Gibbs free energy of mixing dissipated when fresh river water flows into the sea can be harnessed for sustainable power generation. Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is one of the methods proposed to generate power from natural salinity gradients. In this study, we carry out a thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of PRO work extraction. First, we present a reversible thermodynamic model for PRO and verify that the theoretical maximum extractable work in a reversible PRO process is identical to the Gibbs free energy of mixing. Work extraction in an irreversible constant-pressure PRO process is then examined. We derive an expression for the maximum extractable work in a constant-pressure PRO process and show that it is less than the ideal work (i.e., Gibbs free energy of mixing) due to inefficiencies intrinsic to the process. These inherent inefficiencies are attributed to (i) frictional losses required to overcome hydraulic resistance and drive water permeation and (ii) unutilized energy due to the discontinuation of water permeation when the osmotic pressure difference becomes equal to the applied hydraulic pressure. The highest extractable work in constant-pressure PRO with a seawater draw solution and river water feed solution is 0.75 kWh/m(3) while the free energy of mixing is 0.81 kWh/m(3)-a thermodynamic extraction efficiency of 91.1%. Our analysis further reveals that the operational objective to achieve high power density in a practical PRO process is inconsistent with the goal of maximum energy extraction. This study demonstrates thermodynamic and energetic approaches for PRO and offers insights on actual energy accessible for utilization in PRO power generation through salinity gradients. © 2012 American Chemical Society
Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Six thermodynamic models used for evaluating gas liquefaction systems are compared. • Three gas liquefaction systems are modelled, assessed and optimised for each equation of state. • The predictions of thermophysical properties and energy flows are significantly different. • The GERG-2008 model is the only consistent one, while cubic, virial and statistical equations are unsatisfying. - Abstract: Natural gas liquefaction systems are based on refrigeration cycles – they consist of the same operations such as heat exchange, compression and expansion, but they have different layouts, components and working fluids. The design of these systems requires a preliminary simulation and evaluation of their performance. However, the thermodynamic models used for this purpose are characterised by different mathematical formulations, ranges of application and levels of accuracy. This may lead to inconsistent results when estimating hydrocarbon properties and assessing the efficiency of a given process. This paper presents a thorough comparison of six equations of state widely used in the academia and industry, including the GERG-2008 model, which has recently been adopted as an ISO standard for natural gases. These models are used to (i) estimate the thermophysical properties of a Danish natural gas, (ii) simulate, and (iii) optimise liquefaction systems. Three case studies are considered: a cascade layout with three pure refrigerants, a single mixed-refrigerant unit, and an expander-based configuration. Significant deviations are found between all property models, and in all case studies. The main discrepancies are related to the prediction of the energy flows (up to 7%) and to the heat exchanger conductances (up to 11%), and they are not systematic errors. The results illustrate the superiority of using the GERG-2008 model for designing gas processes in real applications, with the aim of reducing their energy use. They demonstrate as well that
Ideal cycle analysis of a regenerative pulse detonation engine for power production
Bellini, Rafaela
Over the last few decades, considerable research has been focused on pulse detonation engines (PDEs) as a promising replacement for existing propulsion systems with potential applications in aircraft ranging from the subsonic to the lower hypersonic regimes. On the other hand, very little attention has been given to applying detonation for electric power production. One method for assessing the performance of a PDE is through thermodynamic cycle analysis. Earlier works have adopted a thermodynamic cycle for the PDE that was based on the assumption that the detonation process could be approximated by a constant volume process, called the Humphrey cycle. The Fickett-Jacob cycle, which uses the one--dimensional Chapman--Jouguet (CJ) theory of detonation, has also been used to model the PDE cycle. However, an ideal PDE cycle must include a detonation based compression and heat release processes with a finite chemical reaction rate that is accounted for in the Zeldovich -- von Neumann -- Doring model of detonation where the shock is considered a discontinuous jump and is followed by a finite exothermic reaction zone. This work presents a thermodynamic cycle analysis for an ideal PDE cycle for power production. A code has been written that takes only one input value, namely the heat of reaction of a fuel-oxidizer mixture, based on which the program computes all the points on the ZND cycle (both p--v and T--s plots), including the von Neumann spike and the CJ point along with all the non-dimensionalized state properties at each point. In addition, the program computes the points on the Humphrey and Brayton cycles for the same input value. Thus, the thermal efficiencies of the various cycles can be calculated and compared. The heat release of combustion is presented in a generic form to make the program usable with a wide variety of fuels and oxidizers and also allows for its use in a system for the real time monitoring and control of a PDE in which the heat of reaction
Analysis of vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery potential using a Rankine cycle
Domingues, António; Santos, Helder; Costa, Mário
2013-01-01
This study evaluates the vehicle exhaust WHR (waste heat recovery) potential using a RC (Rankine cycle ). To this end, both a RC thermodynamic model and a heat exchanger model have been developed. Both models use as input, experimental data obtained from a vehicle tested on a chassis dynamometer. The thermodynamic analysis was performed for water, R123 and R245fa and revealed the advantage of using water as the working fluid in applications of thermal recovery from exhaust gases of vehicles equipped with a spark-ignition engine. Moreover, the heat exchanger effectiveness for the organic working fluids R123 and R245fa is higher than that for the water and, consequently, they can also be considered appropriate for use in vehicle WHR applications through RCs when the exhaust gas temperatures are relatively low. For an ideal heat exchanger, the simulations revealed increases in the internal combustion engine thermal and vehicle mechanical efficiencies of 1.4%–3.52% and 10.16%–15.95%, respectively, while for a shell and tube heat exchanger, the simulations showed an increase of 0.85%–1.2% in the thermal efficiency and an increase of 2.64%–6.96% in the mechanical efficiency for an evaporating pressure of 2 MPa. The results confirm the advantages of using the thermal energy contained in the vehicle exhaust gases through RCs. Furthermore, the present analysis demonstrates that improved evaporator designs and appropriate expander devices allowing for higher evaporating pressures are required to obtain the maximum WHR potential from vehicle RC systems. -- Highlights: ► This study evaluates the vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery potential using Rankine cycle systems. ► A thermodynamic model and a heat exchanger model were developed. ► Experimental data obtained in a vehicle tested on a chassis dynamometer was used as models input. ► Thermodynamic analysis was performed for water, R123 and R245fa. ► Results confirm advantages of using the thermal energy
Analysis within the systems development life-cycle
Rock-Evans, Rosemary
1987-01-01
Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 1, Data Analysis-The Deliverables provides a comprehensive treatment of data analysis within the systems development life-cycle and all the deliverables that need to be collected in analysis. The purpose of deliverables is explained and a number of alternative ways of collecting them are discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of what """"analysis"""" actually means, with particular reference to tasks such as hardware planning and software evaluation and where they fit into the overall cycle. The ne
Thermodynamic analysis into a heat exchanger for absorption at high temperatures
Márquez-Nolasco, A.; Huicochea, A.; Torres-Merino, J.; Siqueiros, J.; Hernández, J.A.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Energy and exergy analyses for split absorber inside an AHT were developed. • The coefficient of operation for energy and exergy were improved above 30%. • A split absorber can reduce the irreversibility up to 28%. - Abstract: The residual heat or renewable energy can be used to activate a thermodynamic cycle inside a heat transformer by absorption (AHT), in order to obtain heat with a higher temperature in whole equipment. The performance of the AHT is mainly influenced by the absorber, since the useful heat is obtained here at different operating conditions. According to this study, a split absorber can improve the performance of the AHT because of the existing absorption processes in accordance with the first and second law of thermodynamics. The proposal is to divide the heat transfer area in equal sections, where the steam supplied is equal and the strong working solution is increased for all sections, in order to diminish the irreversibility in the absorber. With respect to the basic absorber, the best results are found when the absorber has two sections, because COP can be improved from 0.307 to 0.415, while the ECOP from 0.118 to 0.160, besides the irreversibility can reduce up to almost 28%.
Magda Waldemar
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with mathematical modelling of a seabed layer in the thermodynamic analysis of a submarine pipeline buried in seabed sediments. The existing seabed soil models: a “soil ring” and a semi-infinite soil layer are discussed in a comparative analysis of the shape factor of a surrounding soil layer. The meaning of differences in the heat transfer coefficient of a soil layer is illustrated based on a computational example of the longitudinal temperaturę profile of a -kilometer long crude oil pipeline buried in seabed sediments.
Life cycle analysis of transportation fuel pathways
NONE
2012-02-24
The purpose of this work is to improve the understanding of the concept of life cycle analysis (LCA) of transportation fuels and some of its pertinent issues among non-technical people, senior managers, and policy makers. This work should provide some guidance to nations considering LCA-based policies and to people who are affected by existing policies or those being developed. While the concept of employing LCA to evaluate fuel options is simple and straightforward, the act of putting the concept into practice is complex and fraught with issues. Policy makers need to understand the limitations inherent in carrying out LCA work for transportation fuel systems. For many systems, even those that have been employed for a 100 years, there is a lack of sound data on the performance of those systems. Comparisons between systems should ideally be made using the same tool, so that differences caused by system boundaries, allocation processes, and temporal issues can be minimized (although probably not eliminated). Comparing the results for fuel pathway 1 from tool A to those of fuel system 2 from tool B introduces significant uncertainty into the results. There is also the question of the scale of system changes. LCA will give more reliable estimates when it is used to examine small changes in transportation fuel pathways than when used to estimate large scale changes that replace current pathways with completely new pathways. Some LCA tools have been developed recently primarily for regulatory purposes. These tools may deviate from ISO principles in order to facilitate simplicity and ease of use. In a regulatory environment, simplicity and ease of use are worthy objectives and in most cases there is nothing inherently wrong with this approach, particularly for assessing relative performance. However, the results of these tools should not be confused with, or compared to, the results that are obtained from a more complex and rigorous ISO compliant LCA. It should be
Hwang, Jeong Ui; Jang, Jong Jae; Jee, Jong Gi
1987-01-01
The contents of this book are thermodynamics on the law of thermodynamics, classical thermodynamics and molecule thermodynamics, basics of molecule thermodynamics, molecule and assembly partition function, molecule partition function, classical molecule partition function, thermodynamics function for ideal assembly in fixed system, thermodynamics function for ideal assembly in running system, Maxwell-Boltzmann's law of distribution, chemical equilibrium like calculation of equilibrium constant and theory of absolute reaction rate.
Domenichini, R.; Gallio, M. [Foster Wheeler Italiana Spa, via Caboto 1, 20094 Corsico (Milano) (Italy); Lazzaretto, A. [University of Padova, Department of Mechanical Engineering, via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)
2010-05-15
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) represents a commercially proven technology available for the combined production of hydrogen and electricity power from coal and heavy residue oils. When associated with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration facilities, the IGCC plant gives an answer to the search for a clean and environmentally compatible use of high sulphur and heavy metal contents fuels, the possibility of installing large size plants for competitive electric power and hydrogen production, and a low cost of CO{sub 2} avoidance. The paper describes two new and realistic configurations of IGCC plant fed by refinery heavy residues and including a CO{sub 2} capture section, which are proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the construction of similar plants. They are based on oxygen blown entrained bed gasification and sized to produce a large amount of hydrogen and to feed one or two gas turbines of the combined cycle unit. The main thermodynamic and technological characteristics of the total plants are evaluated focusing on the heat integration between syngas cooling and combined cycle sections. Moreover, the overall performance characteristics and investment cost are estimated to supply a reliable estimate for the cost of electricity, given a value for the hydrogen selling price. (author)
Domenichini, R.; Gallio, M.; Lazzaretto, A.
2010-01-01
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) represents a commercially proven technology available for the combined production of hydrogen and electricity power from coal and heavy residue oils. When associated with CO 2 capture and sequestration facilities, the IGCC plant gives an answer to the search for a clean and environmentally compatible use of high sulphur and heavy metal contents fuels, the possibility of installing large size plants for competitive electric power and hydrogen production, and a low cost of CO 2 avoidance. The paper describes two new and realistic configurations of IGCC plant fed by refinery heavy residues and including a CO 2 capture section, which are proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the construction of similar plants. They are based on oxygen blown entrained bed gasification and sized to produce a large amount of hydrogen and to feed one or two gas turbines of the combined cycle unit. The main thermodynamic and technological characteristics of the total plants are evaluated focusing on the heat integration between syngas cooling and combined cycle sections. Moreover, the overall performance characteristics and investment cost are estimated to supply a reliable estimate for the cost of electricity, given a value for the hydrogen selling price.
Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T
2015-10-01
This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase.
Hendi, S.H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.
2017-01-01
Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.
S.H. Hendi
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.
Seldeen, Kenneth L.; McDonald, Caleb B.; Deegan, Brian J.; Farooq, Amjad
2008-01-01
Jun and Fos are components of the AP1 family of transcription factors and bind to the promoters of a diverse multitude of genes involved in critical cellular responses such as cell growth and proliferation, cell cycle regulation, embryonic development and cancer. Here, using the powerful technique of isothermal titration calorimetry, we characterize the thermodynamics of heterodimerization of leucine zippers of Jun and Fos. Our data suggest that the heterodimerization of leucine zippers is driven by enthalpic forces with unfavorable entropy change at physiological temperatures. Furthermore, the basic regions appear to modulate the heterodimerization of leucine zippers and may undergo at least partial folding upon heterodimerization. Large negative heat capacity changes accompanying the heterodimerization of leucine zippers are consistent with the view that leucine zippers do not retain α-helical conformations in isolation and that the formation of the native coiled-coil α-helical dimer is attained through a coupled folding-dimerization mechanism
Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik
2014-04-01
theory for small deviations from equilibrium, in which a general framework is constructed from the analysis of non-equilibrium states close to equilibrium. In a next step, Prigogine and others developed linear irreversible thermodynamics, which establishes relations between transport coefficients and entropy production on a phenomenological level in terms of thermodynamic forces and fluxes. However, beyond the realm of linear response no general theoretical results were available for quite a long time. This situation has changed drastically over the last 20 years with the development of stochastic thermodynamics, revealing that the range of validity of thermodynamic statements can indeed be extended deep into the non-equilibrium regime. Early developments in that direction trace back to the observations of symmetry relations between the probabilities for entropy production and entropy annihilation in non-equilibrium steady states [5-8] (nowadays categorized in the class of so-called detailed fluctuation theorems), and the derivations of the Bochkov-Kuzovlev [9, 10] and Jarzynski relations [11] (which are now classified as so-called integral fluctuation theorems). Apart from its fundamental theoretical interest, the developments in stochastic thermodynamics have experienced an additional boost from the recent experimental progress in fabricating, manipulating, controlling and observing systems on the micro- and nano-scale. These advances are not only of formidable use for probing and monitoring biological processes on the cellular, sub-cellular and molecular level, but even include the realization of a microscopic thermodynamic heat engine [12] or the experimental verification of Landauer's principle in a colloidal system [13]. The scientific program Stochastic Thermodynamics held between 4 and 15 March 2013, and hosted by The Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita), was attended by more than 50 scientists from the Nordic countries and elsewhere, amongst them
Thermodynamic analysis and phase equilibria investigation in Pb−Zn−Ag system
Mitovski Aleksandra M.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Physico-chemical processes that take place during the refining process in the extractive metallurgy of lead, are connected with ternary Pb−Zn−Ag system, which is necessary to study from the theoretical practical and aspects. Such investigation is important from production point of view, because of the phenomena that occur during desilvering of lead which is one of the important stages during lead refining process. Process of lead desilvering binds to ternary system Pb−Zn−Ag, which was the reason for numerous investigations, both from thermodynamic point of view and in terms of testing and determining the phase diagram, bearing in mind the theoretical, and practical importance of knowledge about the processes which are going in investigated system. The paper presents the results of thermodynamic analysis and investigation of phase equilibria of the Pb−Zn−Ag ternary system using the method of thermodynamic predictions and phase diagrams calculations, respectively, and the experimental results of metalography obtained by optical microscopy. Phase diagram of the vertical section Pb−Zn80Ag20 is presented, obtained by CALPHAD calculation methodology, and using PANDAT thermodynamic software, compared to experimental results obtained by DTA analysis. The results show a pronounced break in solubility, which is characteristic for the whole ternary Pb−Zn−Ag system. Also, it can be noticed that the thermodynamic properties follow the behavior of this system, which is expressed through positive deviation of Raoult’s law, pointing to the lack of lead affinity compared to the other two components in the system. The optical microscopy results of the investigated system show the following: - Sample L1 (weight% Pb = 98: the structure of the observed section shows double eutectic (Pbsol+Zn−Agsol which lies in the base of the primary crystals of lead (Pbsol - Samples L2−L5: the structure consists of a dual eutectic (Pbsol+Zn−Agsol and
Advanced exergy analysis on a modified auto-cascade freezer cycle with an ejector
Bai, Tao; Yu, Jianlin; Yan, Gang
2016-01-01
This paper presents a study on a modified ejector enhanced auto-cascade freezer cycle with conventional thermodynamic and advanced exergy analysis methods. The energetic analysis shows that the modified cycle exhibits better performance than the conventional auto-cascade freezer cycle, and the system COP and volumetric refrigeration capacity could be improved by 19.93% and 28.42%. Furthermore, advanced exergy analysis is adopted to better evaluate the performance of the proposed cycle. The exergy destruction within a system component is split into endogenous/exogenous and unavoidable/avoidable parts in the advanced exergy analysis. The results show that the compressor with the largest avoidable endogenous exergy destruction has highest improvement priority, followed by the condenser, evaporator and ejector, which is different from the conclusion obtained from the conventional exergy analysis. The evaporator/condenser greatly affects the exogenous exergy destruction within the system components, and the compressor has large impact on the exergy destruction within the condenser. Improving the efficiencies of the compressor efficiency and the ejector could effectively reduce the corresponding avoidable endogenous exergy destruction. The exergy destruction within the evaporator almost entirely belongs to the endogenous part, and reducing the temperature difference at the evaporator is the main approach of reducing its exergy destruction. - Highlights: • A modified ejector enhanced auto-cascade freezer cycle is proposed. • Conventional and advanced exergy analyses are performed in this study. • Compressor should be firstly improved first, followed by condenser and evaporator. • Interactions among the system components are assessed with advanced exergy analysis.
Life cycle analysis in preliminary design stages
Agudelo , Lina-Maria; Mejía-Gutiérrez , Ricardo; Nadeau , Jean-Pierre; PAILHES , Jérôme
2014-01-01
International audience; In a design process the product is decomposed into systems along the disciplinary lines. Each stage has its own goals and constraints that must be satisfied and has control over a subset of design variables that describe the overall system. When using different tools to initiate a product life cycle, including the environment and impacts, its noticeable that there is a gap in tools that linked the stages of preliminary design and the stages of materialization. Differen...
Off-design performance analysis of Kalina cycle for low temperature geothermal source
Li, Hang; Hu, Dongshuai; Wang, Mingkun; Dai, Yiping
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The off-design performance analysis of Kalina cycle is conducted. • The off-design models are established. • The genetic algorithm is used in the design phase. • The sliding pressure control strategy is applied. - Abstract: Low temperature geothermal sources with brilliant prospects have attracted more and more people’s attention. Kalina cycle system using ammonia water as working fluid could exploit geothermal energy effectively. In this paper, the quantitative analysis of off-design performance of Kalina cycle for the low temperature geothermal source is conducted. The off-design models including turbine, pump and heat exchangers are established preliminarily. Genetic algorithm is used to maximize the net power output and determine the thermodynamic parameters in the design phase. The sliding pressure control strategy applied widely in existing Rankine cycle power plants is adopted to response to the variations of geothermal source mass flow rate ratio (70–120%), geothermal source temperature (116–128 °C) and heat sink temperature (0–35 °C). In the off-design research scopes, the guidance for pump rotational speed adjustment is listed to provide some reference for off-design operation of geothermal power plants. The required adjustment rate of pump rotational speed is more sensitive to per unit geothermal source temperature than per unit heat sink temperature. Influence of the heat sink variation is greater than that of the geothermal source variation on the ranges of net power output and thermal efficiency.
Wang Dongxiang; Ling Xiang; Peng Hao
2012-01-01
This research proposes a double organic Rankine cycle for discontinuous waste heat recovery. The optimal operation conditions of several working fluids have been calculated by a procedure employing MATLAB and REFPROP. The influence of outlet temperature of heat source on the net power output, thermal efficiency, power consumption, mass flow rate, expander outlet temperature, cycle irreversibility and exergy efficiency at a given pinch point temperature difference (PPTD) has been analyzed. Pinch point analysis has also been employed to obtain a thermodynamic understanding of the ORC performance. Of all the working fluids investigated, some performances between each working fluid are rather similar. For a fixed low temperature heat source, the optimal operation condition should be mainly determined by the heat carrier of the heat source, and working fluids have limited influence. Lower outlet temperature of heat source does not always mean more efficient energy use. Acetone exhibits the least exergy destruction, while R245fa possesses the maximal exergy efficiency at a fixed PPTD. Wet fluids exhibit lower thermal efficiency than the others with the increasing of PPTD at a fixed outlet temperature of heat source. Dry and isentropic fluids offer attractive performance. - Highlights: ► We propose a double organic Rankine cycle for discontinuous waste heat recovery. ► Performance of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is analyzed by pinch point analysis. ► The heat carrier of the heat source determines ORC optimal operation condition. ► Design of ORC heat exchangers prefers lower pinch point temperature difference.
Thermodynamic analysis of a beta-type Stirling engine with rhombic drive mechanism
Aksoy, Fatih; Cinar, Can
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of Stirling engine with rhombic-drive mechanism was performed. • The analysis was performed for smooth and grooved displacer cylinders. • The convective heat transfer coefficient was predicted using the experimental results. • The experimental results was compared with the theoretical results. - Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical investigation on kinematic and thermodynamic analysis of a beta type Stirling engine with rhombic-drive mechanism. Variations in the hot and cold volumes of the engine were calculated using kinematic relations. Two different displacer cylinders were investigated: one of them had smooth inner surface and the other had axial slots grooved into the cylinder to increase the heat transfer area. The effects of the slots grooved into the displacer cylinder inner surface on the performance were calculated using nodal analysis in Fortran. The effects of working fluid mass on cyclic work were investigated using 200, 300 and 400 W/m 2 K convective heat transfer coefficients for smooth and grooved displacer cylinders. The variation of engine power with engine speed was obtained by using the same convective heat transfer coefficients and isothermal conditions. The convective heat transfer coefficient was predicted as 104 W/m 2 K using the experimental results measured from the prototype engine under atmospheric conditions. The variation in cyclic work determined by the experimental study was also compared with the theoretical results obtained for different convective heat transfer coefficients and isothermal conditions
Ma, Weiwu; Fang, Song; Su, Bo; Xue, Xinpei; Li, Min
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Second-law analysis leads to analytical COP formulas for refrigeration cycles. • Relative errors of the analytical equations are smaller than ±5.0%. • The analytical expressions characterize the influence of refrigerants. • Global entropy analysis elucidates the impact of cycle processes on COP. - Abstract: This article reports a second-law-based analysis of the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, which leads to a set of explicit theoretical formulas for the coefficient of performance (COP). These analytical expressions provide a fast and accurate approach to computer simulations of the vapor-compression cycle without recourse to thermodynamic diagrams or equations of state. The second-law-based analysis yields specific expressions for the entropy generations of irreversible processes, enabling us to evaluate the thermodynamic features of the refrigerant and to elucidate the thermodynamic mechanisms behind the effects of the cycle processes, including superheat, subcooling, and throttling processes. In particular, these processes can interact, therefore this paper presents a global entropy generation analysis for evaluating the impact of the interacted processes on COP.
The Thermodynamics of Internal Combustion Engines: Examples of Insights
Jerald A. Caton
2018-05-01
Full Text Available A major goal of the development of internal combustion (IC engines continues to be higher performance and efficiencies. A major aspect of achieving higher performance and efficiencies is based on fundamental thermodynamics. Both the first and second laws of thermodynamics provide strategies for and limits to the thermal efficiencies of engines. The current work provides three examples of the insights that thermodynamics provides to the performance and efficiencies of an IC engine. The first example evaluates low heat rejection engine concepts, and, based on thermodynamics, demonstrates the difficulty of this concept for increasing efficiencies. The second example compares and contrasts the thermodynamics associated with external and internal exhaust gas dilution. Finally, the third example starts with a discussion of the Otto cycle analysis and explains why this is an incorrect model for the IC engine. An important thermodynamic property that is responsible for many of the observed effects is specific heat.
Dynamic Analysis of the Thorium Fuel Cycle in CANDU Reactors
Jeong, Chang Joon; Park, Chang Je
2006-02-01
The thorium fuel recycle scenarios through the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor have been analyzed for two types of thorium fuel: homogeneous ThO 2 UO 2 and ThO 2 UO 2 -DUPIC fuels. The recycling is performed through the dry process fuel technology which has a proliferation resistance. For the once-through fuel cycle model, the existing nuclear power plant construction plan was considered up to 2016, while the nuclear demand growth rate from the year 2016 was assumed to be 0%. After setting up the once-through fuel cycle model, the thorium fuel CANDU reactor was modeled to investigate the fuel cycle parameters. In this analysis, the spent fuel inventory as well as the amount of plutonium, minor actinides and fission products of the multiple recycling fuel cycle were estimated and compared to those of the once-through fuel cycle. From the analysis results, it was found that the closed or partially closed thorium fuel cycle can be constructed through the dry process technology. Also, it is known that both the homogeneous and heterogeneous thorium fuel cycles can reduce the SF accumulation and save the natural uranium resource compared with the once-through cycle. From the material balance view point, the heterogeneous thorium fuel cycle seems to be more feasible. It is recommended, however, the economic analysis should be performed in future
Dynamic Analysis of the Thorium Fuel Cycle in CANDU Reactors
Jeong, Chang Joon; Park, Chang Je
2006-02-15
The thorium fuel recycle scenarios through the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor have been analyzed for two types of thorium fuel: homogeneous ThO{sub 2}UO{sub 2} and ThO{sub 2}UO{sub 2}-DUPIC fuels. The recycling is performed through the dry process fuel technology which has a proliferation resistance. For the once-through fuel cycle model, the existing nuclear power plant construction plan was considered up to 2016, while the nuclear demand growth rate from the year 2016 was assumed to be 0%. After setting up the once-through fuel cycle model, the thorium fuel CANDU reactor was modeled to investigate the fuel cycle parameters. In this analysis, the spent fuel inventory as well as the amount of plutonium, minor actinides and fission products of the multiple recycling fuel cycle were estimated and compared to those of the once-through fuel cycle. From the analysis results, it was found that the closed or partially closed thorium fuel cycle can be constructed through the dry process technology. Also, it is known that both the homogeneous and heterogeneous thorium fuel cycles can reduce the SF accumulation and save the natural uranium resource compared with the once-through cycle. From the material balance view point, the heterogeneous thorium fuel cycle seems to be more feasible. It is recommended, however, the economic analysis should be performed in future.
Vibrational analysis and thermodynamic properties of C120 nanotorus: a DFT study
López-Chávez, Ernesto; Cruz-Torres, Armando; Landa Castillo-Alvarado, Fray de; Ortíz-López, Jaime; Peña-Castañeda, Yésica A.; Martínez-Magadán, José Manuel
2011-01-01
Density functional theory (DFT) computational methods are applied to a C 120 carbon nanotorus studied as an isolated molecular species, using the functional GGA PW91. This toroidal form of carbon contains five fold, six fold, and sevenfold rings. The calculated cohesive energy of the nanotorus, indicates that the ground state of this structure is energetically more stable than that of fullerene C 60 . Geometry and stability, Raman and IR vibrational analysis and thermodynamic properties have been reported and compared to the values obtained by other authors.
Thermodynamic Equilibria and Extrema Analysis of Attainability Regions and Partial Equilibria
Gorban, Alexander N; Kaganovich, Boris M; Keiko, Alexandre V; Shamansky, Vitaly A; Shirkalin, Igor A
2006-01-01
This book discusses mathematical models that are based on the concepts of classical equilibrium thermodynamics. They are intended for the analysis of possible results of diverse natural and production processes. Unlike the traditional models, these allow one to view the achievable set of partial equilibria with regards to constraints on kinetics, energy and mass exchange and to determine states of the studied systems of interest for the researcher. Application of the suggested models in chemical technology, energy and ecology is illustrated in the examples.
Analysis of a carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle using a low temperature source
Cayer, Emmanuel; Galanis, Nicolas; Desilets, Martin; Nesreddine, Hakim; Roy, Philippe
2009-01-01
A detailed analysis of a carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle using an industrial low-grade stream of process gases as its heat source is presented. The methodology is divided in four steps: energy analysis, exergy analysis, finite size thermodynamics and calculation of the heat exchangers' surface. The results have been calculated for fixed temperature and mass flow rate of the heat source, fixed maximum and minimum temperatures in the cycle and a fixed sink temperature by varying the high pressure of the cycle and its net power output. The main results show the existence of an optimum high pressure for each of the four steps; in the first two steps, the optimum pressure maximises the thermal or exergetic efficiency while in the last two steps it minimises the product UA or the heat exchangers' surface. These high pressures are very similar for the energy and exergy analyses. The last two steps also have nearly identical optimizing high pressures that are significantly lower that the ones for the first two steps. In addition, the results show that the augmentation of the net power output produced from the limited energy source has no influence on the results of the energy analysis, decreases the exergetic efficiency and increases the heat exchangers' surface. Changing the net power output has no significant impact on the high pressures optimizing each of the four steps
Zare, V.; Hasanzadeh, M.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A novel combined cycle is proposed for solar power tower plants. • The effects of solar subsystem and power cycle parameters are examined. • The proposed combined cycle yields exergy efficiencies of higher than 70%. • For the overall power plant exergy efficiencies of higher than 30% is achievable. - Abstract: Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology offers an interesting potential for future power generation and research on CSP systems of all types, particularly those with central receiver system (CRS) has been attracting a lot of attention recently. Today, these power plants cannot compete with the conventional power generation systems in terms of Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) and if a competitive LCOE is to be reached, employing an efficient thermodynamic power cycle is deemed essential. In the present work, a novel combined cycle is proposed for power generation from solar power towers. The proposed system consists of a closed Brayton cycle, which uses helium as the working fluid, and two organic Rankine cycles which are employed to recover the waste heat of the Brayton cycle. The system is thermodynamically assessed from both the first and second law viewpoints. A parametric study is conducted to examine the effects of key operating parameters (including solar subsystem and power cycle parameters) on the overall power plant performance. The results indicate that exergy efficiencies of higher than 30% are achieved for the overall power plant. Also, according to the results, the power cycle proposed in this work has a better performance than the other investigated Rankine and supercritical CO_2 systems operating under similar conditions, for these types of solar power plants.
Aghahosseini, S.; Dincer, I.
2013-01-01
In this paper, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of the low-grade heat source Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is conducted and the cycle performance is analyzed and compared for different pure and zeotropic-mixture working fluids. The comparative performance evaluation of the cycle using a combined energy and exergy analysis is carried out by sensitivity assessment of the cycle certain operating parameters such as efficiency, flow rate, irreversibility, and heat input requirement at various temperatures and pressures. The environmental characteristics of the working fluids such as toxicity, flammability, ODP and GWP are studied and the cycle CO 2 emission is compared with different fuel combustion systems. R123, R245fa, R600a, R134a, R407c, and R404a are considered as the potential working fluids. Results from this analysis provide valuable insight into selection of the most suitable working fluids for power generating application at different operating conditions with a minimal environmental impact. -- Highlights: ► Combined energy and exergy analysis is conducted for Organic Rankine Cycle. ► Comparative assessment is performed for different pure and zeotropic working fluids. ► Exergy and energy efficiency, cycle irreversibility, and required external heat are analyzed. ► Toxicity, flammability, ODP and GWP of considered working fluids are studied. ► Environmental benefits of the renewable/waste heat-based ORC are investigated
Thermodynamic exergy analysis for small modular reactor in nuclear hybrid energy system - 15110
Boldon, L.; Liu, L.; Sabharwall, P.; Rabiti, C.; Bragg-Sitton, S.M.
2015-01-01
To assess the inherent value of energy in a thermal system, it is necessary to understand both the quantity and quality of energy available or the exergy. We study the case where nuclear energy through a small modular reactor (SMR) is supplementing the available wind energy through storage to meet the needs of the electrical grid. Nuclear power is also being used for the production of hydrogen via high temperature steam electrolysis. For a SMR exergy analysis, both the physical and economic environments must be considered. The physical environment incorporates the energy, raw materials, and reference environment, where the reference environment refers to natural resources available without limit and without cost. This paper aims to explore the use of exergy analysis methods to estimate and optimize SMR resources and costs for individual subsystems, based on thermodynamic principles-resource utilization and efficiency. The paper will present background information on exergy theory; identify the core subsystems in an SMR plant coupled with storage systems in support of renewable energy and hydrogen production; perform a thermodynamic exergy analysis; determine the cost allocation among these subsystems; and calculate unit 'exergetic' costs, unit 'exergo-economic' costs, and first and second law efficiencies. Exergetic and 'exergo-economic' costs ultimately determine how individual subsystems contribute to overall profitability and how efficiencies and consumption may be optimized to improve profitability, making SMRs more competitive with other generation technologies
Franco, Alessandro; Casarosa, Claudio
2015-01-01
In the present paper, after a brief review of the perspectives of the various schemes proposed for electricity generation from the regasification of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), a detailed analysis of two particular direct expansion solutions is proposed. The purpose is to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered with the aim of electricity production, using configurations with direct expansion. The analysis developed resorting to a simplified thermodynamic model, shows that using a direct expansion configurations with multistage turbine, values of power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ for each kg of natural gas that flows through the plant) can be obtained. The development of a direct expansion plant with multistage turbine and internal heat recovery systems could permit to approach the production of more than 160 kJ for each kg of flowing liquefied natural gas. Considering values of the mass flow rate typical of LNG gas stations (e.g. 70 kg/s); this corresponds to an output power ranging between 8.3 MW and 11.4 MW. - Highlights: • Recovery of the cold energy contained in Liquefied Natural Gas. • Thermodynamic analysis of systems for electricity generation in regasification. • Direct expansion solutions with multistage expansion. • Comparison of direct expansion solutions with conventional ORC systems. • Power output in conditions typical of existing LNG regasification terminals
Wang, Jiangjiang; Wu, Jing; Xu, Zilong; Li, Meng
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Propose a fuel cell trigeneration system integrated with solar-assisted methanol reforming. • Optimize the reaction parameters of methanol steam reforming. • Present the energy and exergy analysis under design and off-design work conditions. • Analyze the contributions of solar energy to the trigeneration system. - Abstract: A solar-assisted trigeneration system for producing electricity, cooling, and heating simultaneously is an alternative scheme to improve energy efficiency and boost renewable energy. This paper proposes a phosphoric acid fuel cell trigeneration system integrated with methanol and steam reforming assisted by solar thermal energy. The trigeneration system consists of a solar heat collection subsystem, methanol steam reforming subsystem, fuel cell power generation subsystem, and recovered heat utilization subsystem. Their respective thermodynamic models are constructed to simulate the system input/output characteristics, and energy and exergy efficiencies are employed to evaluate the system thermodynamic performances. The contribution of solar energy to the system is analyzed using solar energy/exergy share. Through the simulation and analysis of methanol and steam reforming reactions, the optimal reaction pressure, temperature, and methanol to water ratio are obtained to improve the flow rate and content of produced hydrogen. The thermodynamic simulations of the trigeneration system show that the system energy efficiencies at the summer and winter design work conditions are 73.7% and 51.7%, while its exergy efficiencies are 18.8% and 26.1%, respectively. When the solar radiation intensity is different from the design work condition, the total energy and exergy efficiencies in winter decrease approximately by 4.7% and 2.2%, respectively, due to the decrease in solar heat collection efficiency. This proposed novel trigeneration system complemented by solar heat energy and methanol chemical energy is favorable for improving the
Thermodynamic exergy analysis for small modular reactor in nuclear hybrid energy system
Boldon Lauren
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Small modular reactors (SMRs provide a unique opportunity for future nuclear development with reduced financial risks, allowing the United States to meet growing energy demands through safe, reliable, clean air electricity generation while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the reliance on unstable fossil fuel prices. A nuclear power plant is comprised of several complex subsystems which utilize materials from other subsystems and their surroundings. The economic utility of resources, or thermoeconomics, is extremely difficult to analyze, particularly when trying to optimize resources and costs among individual subsystems and determine prices for products. Economics and thermodynamics cannot provide this information individually. Thermoeconomics, however, provides a method of coupling the quality of energy available based on exergy and the value of this available energy – “exergetic costs”. For an SMR exergy analysis, both the physical and economic environments must be considered. The physical environment incorporates the energy, raw materials, and reference environment, where the reference environment refers to natural resources available without limit and without cost, such as air input to a boiler. The economic environment includes market influences and prices in addition to installation, operation, and maintenance costs required for production to occur. The exergetic cost or the required exergy for production may be determined by analyzing the physical environment alone. However, to optimize the system economics, this environment must be coupled with the economic environment. A balance exists between enhancing systems to improve efficiency and optimizing costs. Prior research into SMR thermodynamics has not detailed methods on improving exergetic costs for an SMR coupled with storage technologies and renewable energy such as wind or solar in a hybrid energy system. This process requires balancing technological efficiencies and
Analysis within the systems development life-cycle
Rock-Evans, Rosemary
1987-01-01
Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 2, Data Analysis-The Methods describes the methods for carrying out data analysis within the systems development life-cycle and demonstrates how the results of fact gathering can be used to produce and verify the analysis deliverables. A number of alternative methods of analysis other than normalization are suggested. Comprised of seven chapters, this book shows the tasks to be carried out in the logical order of progression-preparation, collection, analysis of the existing system (which comprises the tasks of synthesis, verification, an
Synthesis and analysis of a closed cycle methane-fueled marine energy process
Teich, C.I.
1983-01-01
A marine energy system has been synthesized from state-of-the-art technology to convert nuclear derived electricity into liquefied methane. In the first part of the process, the on-board process, liquid methane is burned in a combined gas turbine-steam turbine system to provide propulsion power and the carbon dioxide created during combustion recovered. In the second part of the process, the fuel regeneration process, the methane is regenerated in a centralized land-based facility by the reaction of the recovered carbon dioxide with hydrogen obtained from nuclear-powered electrolysis of water. The system was analyzed by combining thermodynamic available energy analysis and an approximate preliminary design. The available energy analysis of the combined system established the thermodynamic feasibility of the methane-carbon dioxide cycle and resulted in various process improvements because of the inefficiencies disclosed by the analysis. The more critical on-board process was analyzed and developed further by a capital cost optimization and ranking alternate process options by their available energy consumptions. The optimal on-board process, whose capital cost is 16% less than the preliminary design, has an effectiveness of 47% and the fuel regeneration process an effectiveness of 56%. It was also found that the process cost was proportional to the horsepower raised to the seven-tenths power
Energy and exergy analysis of integrated system of ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle
Chen, Yaping; Guo, Zhanwei; Wu, Jiafeng; Zhang, Zhi; Hua, Junye
2015-01-01
The integrated system of AWKRC (ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle) is a novel cycle operated on KC (Kalina cycle) for power generation in non-heating seasons and on AWRC (ammonia–water Rankine cycle) for cogeneration of power and heating water in winter. The influences of inlet temperatures of both heat resource and cooling water on system efficiencies were analyzed based on the first law and the second law of thermodynamics. The calculation is based on following conditions that the heat resource temperature keeps 300 °C, the cooling water temperature for the KC or AWRC is respectively 25 °C or 15 °C; and the temperatures of heating water and backwater are respectively 90 °C and 40 °C. The results show that the evaluation indexes of the power recovery efficiency and the exergy efficiency of KC were respectively 18.2% and 41.9%, while the composite power recovery efficiency and the composite exergy efficiency of AWRC are respectively 21.1% and 43.0% accounting both power and equivalent power of cogenerated heating capacity, including 54.5% heating recovery ratio or 12.4% heating water exergy efficiency. The inventory flow diagrams of both energy and exergy gains and losses of the components operating on KC or AWRC are also demonstrated. - Highlights: • An integrated system of AWKRC (ammonia–water Kalina–Rankine cycle) is investigated. • NH_3–H_2O Rankine cycle is operated for cogenerating power and heating-water in winter. • Heating water with 90 °C and capacity of 54% total reclaimed heat load is cogenerated. • Kalina cycle is operated for power generation in other seasons with high efficiency. • Energy and exergy analysis draw similar results in optimizing the system parameters.
Economic analysis of fast reactor fuel cycle with different modes
Ding Xiaoming
2014-01-01
Because of limitations on the access to technical and economic data and the lack of effective verification, the lack of in-depth study on the economy of fast reactor fuel cycle in China. This paper introduces the analysis and calculation results of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) under three different fuel cycle modes including fast reactor fuel cycle carried out by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The author used the evaluation method and hypothesis parameters provided by the MIT to carry out the sensitivity analysis for the impact of the overnight cost, the discount rate and changes of uranium price on the LCOE under three fuel cycle modes. Finally, some suggestions are proposed on the study of economy in China's fast reactor fuel cycle. (authors)
Electric vehicle life cycle cost analysis : final research project report.
2017-02-01
This project compared total life cycle costs of battery electric vehicles (BEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE). The analysis considered capital and operati...
Combined-cycle steam section parametric analysis by thermo-economic simulation
Macor, A.; Reini, M.
1991-01-01
In the case of industrial cogeneration plants, thermal power production is, in general, strictly dependent on the technological requirements of the production cycle, whereas, the electrical power which is produced can be auto- consumed or ceded to the utility grid. In both cases, an economic worth is given to this energy which influences the overall economic feasibility of the plant. The purpose of this paper is to examine parametric inter-relationships between economic and thermodynamic performance optimization techniques. Comparisons are then made of the results obtained with the use of the thermo- economic analysis technique suggested in this paper with those obtained with the use of indicators in other exergo-economic analysis techniques
Thermodynamic analysis of onset characteristics in a miniature thermoacoustic Stirling engine
Huang, Xin; Zhou, Gang; Li, Qing
2013-06-01
This paper analyzes the onset characteristics of a miniature thermoacoustic Stirling heat engine using the thermodynamic analysis method. The governing equations of components are reduced from the basic thermodynamic relations and the linear thermoacoustic theory. By solving the governing equation group numerically, the oscillation frequencies and onset temperatures are obtained. The dependences of the kinds of working gas, the length of resonator tube, the diameter of resonator tube, on the oscillation frequency are calculated. Meanwhile, the influences of hydraulic radius and mean pressure on the onset temperature for different working gas are also presented. The calculation results indicate that there exists an optimal dimensionless hydraulic radius to obtain the lowest onset temperature, whose value lies in the range of 0.30-0.35 for different working gases. Furthermore, the amplitude and phase relationship of pressures and volume flows are analyzed in the time-domain. Some experiments have been performed to validate the calculations. The calculation results agree well with the experimental values. Finally, an error analysis is made, giving the reasons that cause the errors of theoretical calculations.
Thermodynamic analysis of tar reforming through auto-thermal reforming process
Nurhadi, N., E-mail: nurhadi@tekmira.esdm.go.id; Diniyati, Dahlia; Efendi, M. Ade Andriansyah [R& D Centre for Mineral and Coal Technology, Jln. Jend.Sudirman no. 623, Bandung. Telp. 022-6030483 (Malaysia); Istadi, I. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jln. Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Semarang (Malaysia)
2015-12-29
Fixed bed gasification is a simple and suitable technology for small scale power generation. One of the disadvantages of this technology is producing tar. So far, tar is not utilized yet and being waste that should be treated into a more useful product. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of tar conversion into gas producer through non-catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology. Tar was converted into components, C, H, O, N and S, and then reacted with oxidant such as mixture of air or pure oxygen. Thus, this reaction occurred auto-thermally and reached chemical equilibrium. The sensitivity analysis resulted that the most promising process performance occurred at flow rate of air was reached 43% of stoichiometry while temperature of process is 1100°C, the addition of pure oxygen is 40% and preheating of oxidant flow is 250°C. The yield of the most promising process performance between 11.15-11.17 kmol/h and cold gas efficiency was between 73.8-73.9%.The results of this study indicated that thermodynamically the conversion of tar into producer gas through non-catalytic auto-thermal reformingis more promising.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Oxygen-Enriched Direct Smelting of Jamesonite Concentrate
Zhang, Zhong-Tang; Dai, Xi; Zhang, Wen-Hai
2017-12-01
Thermodynamic analysis of oxygen-enriched direct smelting of jamesonite concentrate is reported in this article. First, the occurrence state of lead, antimony and other metallic elements in the smelting process was investigated theoretically. Then, the verification test was carried out. The results indicate that lead and antimony mainly exist in the alloy in the form of metallic lead and metallic antimony. Simultaneously, lead and antimony were also oxidized into the slag in the form of lead-antimony oxide. Iron and copper could be oxidized into the slag in the form of oxides in addition to combining with antimony in the alloy, while zinc was mainly oxidized into the slag in the form of zinc oxide. The verification test indicates that the main phases in the alloy contain metallic lead, metallic antimony and a small amount of Cu2Sb, FeSb2 intermetallic compounds, and the slag is mainly composed of kirschsteinite, fayalite and zinc oxide, in agreement with the thermodynamic analysis.
Clausen, Lasse R.
2014-01-01
Integrated and external torrefaction is analyzed and compared via thermodynamic modeling. In this paper, integrated torrefaction is defined as torrefaction integrated with entrained flow gasification. External torrefaction is defined as the decentralized production of torrefied wood pellets and centralized conversion of the pellets by entrained flow gasification. First, the syngas production of the two methods was compared. Second, the two methods were compared by considering complete biorefineries with either integrated torrefaction or external torrefaction. The first part of the analysis showed that the biomass to syngas efficiency can be increased from 63% to 86% (LHV-dry) when switching from external torrefaction to integrated torrefaction. The second part of the analysis showed that the total energy efficiency (biomass to methanol + net electricity) could be increased from 53% to 63% when switching from external torrefaction to integrated torrefaction. The costs of this increase in energy efficiency are as follows: 1) more difficult transport, storage and handling of the biomass feedstock (wood chips vs. torrefied wood pellets); 2) reduced plant size; 3) no net electricity production; and 4) a more complex plant design. - Highlights: • Integrated torrefaction is compared with external torrefaction. • Biomass to syngas energy efficiencies of 63–86% are achieved. • Two thermochemical biorefinery are designed and analysed by thermodynamic modeling. • Biomass to fuel + electricity energy efficiencies of 53–63% are achieved. • The pros and cons of integrated torrefaction are described
Comparative analysis of Goodwin's business cycle models
Antonova, A. O.; Reznik, S.; Todorov, M. D.
2016-10-01
We compare the behavior of solutions of Goodwin's business cycle equation in the form of neutral delay differential equation with fixed delay (NDDE model) and in the form of the differential equations of 3rd, 4th and 5th orders (ODE model's). Such ODE model's (Taylor series expansion of NDDE in powers of θ) are proposed in N. Dharmaraj and K. Vela Velupillai [6] for investigation of the short periodic sawthooth oscillations in NDDE. We show that the ODE's of 3rd, 4th and 5th order may approximate the asymptotic behavior of only main Goodwin's mode, but not the sawthooth modes. If the order of the Taylor series expansion exceeds 5, then the approximate ODE becomes unstable independently of time lag θ.
Energy analysis of a trigeneration plant based on solid oxide fuel cell and organic Rankine cycle
Al-Sulaiman, F.A.; Dincer, I.; Hamdullahpur, F.
2009-01-01
In this paper, energy analysis of a trigeneration plant based on Solid Oxide Fuel cell (SOFC) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is carried out. The physical and thermodynamic elements of the plant include a SOFC, ORC, a heating process and a single-effect absorption chiller. The waste heat from the SOFC is used as an input heat to the ORC. In turn, the waste heat from the ORC is used to heat the inlet water, and to provide the heat needed for the single-effect absorption chiller. The results obtained from this study show that the highest cycle efficiency that can be attained under the proposed scheme is 48% and the highest SOFC efficiency is 43%. Furthermore, it is found that the highest net work rate is 435 kW and the highest SOFC-AC work rate is 337 kW. At a current density higher than 0.87 A/cm 2 , the SOFC and cycle efficiencies drop abruptly because of the sharp increase in the voltage losses of the SOFC. At a current density of 0.75 A/cm 2 , the highest SOFC efficiency of 41% is obtained at the inlet fuel cell temperature of 890 K. The change in the inlet pressure of the turbine has insignificant effect on the efficiencies of the ORC and overall cycle. The study shows the effect of both the current density and the inlet fuel cell temperature on the cell voltage and voltage loss. (author)
Thermodynamics of a closed-cycle gas flow system for cooling a HTc dc-SQUID magnetometer
van den Bosch, P.J.; van den Bosch, P.J.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; van den Eijkel, G.C.; Boelens, J.P.; Holland, Herman J.; Verberne, J.F.C.; Rogalla, Horst
1994-01-01
A multichannel high-Tc dc-SQUID based heart-magnetometer is currently under development in our laboratory. The system is cooled by a cooler that, due to its magnetic interference, has to be separated from the SQUID unit. In the present prototype system a closed-cycle gas flow was chosen as the
Life-cycle analysis of renewable energy systems
Sørensen, Bent
1994-01-01
An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants......An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants...
Analysis within the systems development life-cycle
Rock-Evans, Rosemary
1987-01-01
Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 4, Activity Analysis-The Methods describes the techniques and concepts for carrying out activity analysis within the systems development life-cycle. Reference is made to the deliverables of data analysis and more than one method of analysis, each a viable alternative to the other, are discussed. The """"bottom-up"""" and """"top-down"""" methods are highlighted. Comprised of seven chapters, this book illustrates how dependent data and activities are on each other. This point is especially brought home when the task of inventing new busin
Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the polymerization of polyurethanes by a rheological method
Lucio, Beatriz; Fuente, José Luis de la, E-mail: fuentegj@inta.es
2016-02-10
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis