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Sample records for thermobifida fusca kw3

  1. Characterization of a chitinase from the cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaber, Yasser; Mekasha, Sophanit; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Fraaije, Marco W

    Thermobifida fusca is a well-known cellulose-degrading actinomycete, which produces various glycoside hydrolases for this purpose. However, despite the presence of putative chitinase genes in its genome, T. fusca has not been reported to grow on chitin as sole carbon source. In this study, a gene

  2. Characterization of a chitinase from the cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Yasser; Mekasha, Sophanit; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-09-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a well-known cellulose-degrading actinomycete, which produces various glycoside hydrolases for this purpose. However, despite the presence of putative chitinase genes in its genome, T. fusca has not been reported to grow on chitin as sole carbon source. In this study, a gene encoding a putative membrane-anchored GH18 chitinase (Tfu0868) from T. fusca has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was produced as SUMO fusion protein and, upon removal of the SUMO domain, soluble pure TfChi18A was obtained with yields typically amounting to 150mg per litre of culture. The enzyme was found to be relatively thermostable (apparent Tm=57.5°C) but not particularly thermoactive, the optimum temperature being 40-45°C. TfChi18A bound to α- and β-chitin and degraded both these substrates. Interestingly, activity towards colloidal chitin was minimal and in this case, substrate inhibition was observed. TfChi18A also cleaved soluble chito-oligosaccharides and showed a clear preference for substrates having five sugars or more. While these results show that TfChi18A is a catalytically competent GH18 chitinase, the observed catalytic rates were low compared to those of well-studied GH18 chitinases. This suggests that TfChi18A is not a true chitinase and not likely to endow T. fusca with the ability to grow on chitin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Not so monofunctional-a case of thermostable Thermobifida fusca catalase with peroxidase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lončar, Nikola; Fraaije, Marco W

    Thermobifida fusca is a mesothermophilic organism known for its ability to degrade plant biomass and other organics, and it was demonstrated that it represents a rich resource of genes encoding for potent enzymes for biocatalysis. The thermostable catalase from T. fusca has been cloned and

  4. Characterization of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP154H1 from the thermophilic soil bacterium Thermobifida fusca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallmey, Anett; den Besten, Gijs; Teune, Ite G. P.; Kembaren, Roga F.; Janssen, Dick B.

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are valuable biocatalysts due to their ability to hydroxylate unactivated carbon atoms using molecular oxygen. We have cloned the gene for a new cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, named CYP154H1, from the moderately thermophilic soil bacterium Thermobifida fusca. The

  5. Genome Sequence and Analysis of the Soil Cellulolytic ActinomyceteThermobifida fusca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Anderson, Iain; Land, Miriam; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Martinez, Michele; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Richardson, Paul; Wilson,David B.; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2007-02-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic soilbacterium that belongs to Actinobacteria. 3 It is a major degrader ofplant cell walls and has been used as a model organism for the study of 4secreted, thermostable cellulases. The complete genome sequence showedthat T. fusca has a 5 single circular chromosome of 3642249 bp predictedto encode 3117 proteins and 65 RNA6 species with a coding densityof 85percent. Genome analysis revealed the existence of 29 putative 7glycoside hydrolases in addition to the previously identified cellulasesand xylanases. The 8 glycosyl hydrolases include enzymes predicted toexhibit mainly dextran/starch and xylan 9 degrading functions. T. fuscapossesses two protein secretion systems: the sec general secretion 10system and the twin-arginine translocation system. Several of thesecreted cellulases have 11 sequence signatures indicating theirsecretion may be mediated by the twin-arginine12 translocation system. T.fusca has extensive transport systems for import of carbohydrates 13coupled to transcriptional regulators controlling the expression of thetransporters and14 glycosylhydrolases. In addition to providing anoverview of the physiology of a soil 15 actinomycete, this study presentsinsights on the transcriptional regulation and secretion of16 cellulaseswhich may facilitate the industrial exploitation of thesesystems.

  6. Not so monofunctional--a case of thermostable Thermobifida fusca catalase with peroxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lončar, Nikola; Fraaije, Marco W

    2015-03-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a mesothermophilic organism known for its ability to degrade plant biomass and other organics, and it was demonstrated that it represents a rich resource of genes encoding for potent enzymes for biocatalysis. The thermostable catalase from T. fusca has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli with a yield of 400 mg/L. Heat treatment of disrupted cells at 60 °C for 1 h resulted in enzyme preparation of high purity; hence, no chromatography steps are needed for large-scale production. Except for catalyzing the dismutation of hydrogen peroxide, TfuCat was also found to catalyze oxidations of phenolic compounds. The catalase activity was comparable to other described catalases while peroxidase activity was quite remarkable with a k obs of nearly 1000 s(-1) for catechol. Site directed mutagenesis was used to alter the ratio of peroxidase/catalase activity. Resistance to inhibition by classic catalase inhibitors and an apparent melting temperature of 74 °C classifies this enzyme as a robust biocatalyst. As such, it could compete with other commercially available catalases while the relatively high peroxidase activity also offers new biocatalytic possibilities.

  7. Extracellular overexpression of recombinant Thermobifida fusca cutinase by alpha-hemolysin secretion system in E. coli BL21(DE3

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    Su Lingqia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular expression of proteins has an absolute advantage in a large-scale industrial production. In our previous study, Thermobifida fusca cutinase, an enzyme mainly utilized in textile industry, was expressed via type II secretory system in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3, and it was found that parts of the expressed protein was accumulated in the periplasmic space. Due to the fact that alpha-hemolysin secretion system can export target proteins directly from cytoplasm across both cell membrane of E. coli to the culture medium, thus in the present study we investigated the expression of cutinase using this alpha-hemolysin secretion system. Results T. fusca cutinase was fused with the specific signal peptide of alpha-hemolysin scretion system and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3. In addition, HlyB and HlyD, strain-specific translocation components of alpha-hemolysin secretion system, were coexpressed to facilitate the enzyme expression. The cultivation of this engineered cell showed that cutinase activity in the culture medium reached 334 U/ml, which is 2.5 times that from type II secretion pathway under the same culture condition. The recombinant cutinase was further purified. Biochemical characterization of purified enzyme, which had an α-hemolysin secretion pathway signal peptide attached, had substrate specificity, pH and temperature profile, as well as application capability in bioscouring similar to that of wild-type cutinase. Conclusions In the present study, T. fusca cutinase was successfully secreted to the culture media by α-hemolysin secretion system. This is the first report of cutinase being efficiently secreted by this pathway. Due to the limited cases of successful expression of industrial enzyme by E. coli α-hemolysin secretion system, our study further explored the utilization of this pathway in industrial enzymes.

  8. Structure of Thermobifida fusca DyP-type peroxidase and activity towards Kraft lignin and lignin model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanpour, Rahman; Rea, Dean; Jamshidi, Shirin; Fülöp, Vilmos; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2016-03-15

    A Dyp-type peroxidase enzyme from thermophilic cellulose degrader Thermobifida fusca (TfuDyP) was investigated for catalytic ability towards lignin oxidation. TfuDyP was characterised kinetically against a range of phenolic substrates, and a compound I reaction intermediate was observed via pre-steady state kinetic analysis at λmax 404 nm. TfuDyP showed reactivity towards Kraft lignin, and was found to oxidise a β-aryl ether lignin model compound, forming an oxidised dimer. A crystal structure of TfuDyP was determined, to 1.8 Å resolution, which was found to contain a diatomic oxygen ligand bound to the heme centre, positioned close to active site residues Asp-203 and Arg-315. The structure contains two channels providing access to the heme cofactor for organic substrates and hydrogen peroxide. Site-directed mutant D203A showed no activity towards phenolic substrates, but reduced activity towards ABTS, while mutant R315Q showed no activity towards phenolic substrates, nor ABTS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bridging Theory and Experiment to Address Structural Properties of Truncated Haemoglobins: Insights from Thermobifida fusca HbO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Barry D; Boechi, Leonardo; Boffi, Alberto; Estrin, Dario E; Smulevich, Giulietta

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we will discuss the paradigmatic case of Thermobifida fusca (Tf-trHb) HbO in its ferrous and ferric states and its behaviour towards a battery of possible ligands. This choice was dictated by the fact that it has been one of the most extensively studied truncated haemoglobins, both in terms of spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies. Tf-trHb typifies the structural properties of group II trHbs, as the active site is characterized by a highly polar distal environment in which TrpG8, TyrCD1, and TyrB10 provide three potential H-bond donors in the distal cavity capable of stabilizing the incoming ligands. The role of these residues in key topological positions, and their interplay with the iron-bound ligands, has been addressed in studies carried out on the CO, F(-), OH(-), CN(-), and HS(-) adducts formed with the wild-type protein and a combinatorial set of mutants, in which the distal polar residues, TrpG8, TyrCD1, and TyrB10, have been singly, doubly, or triply replaced by a Phe residue. In this context, such a complete analysis provides an excellent benchmark for the investigation of the relationship between protein structure and function, allowing one to translate physicochemical properties of the active site into the observed functional behaviour. Tf-trHb will be compared with other members of the group II trHbs and, more generally, with members of the other trHb subgroups. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cloning, Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Endomannanases from Thermobifida Species Isolated from Different Niches.

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    Ákos Tóth

    Full Text Available Thermobifidas are thermotolerant, compost inhabiting actinomycetes which have complex polysaccharide hydrolyzing enzyme systems. The best characterized enzymes of these hydrolases are cellulases from T. fusca, while other important enzymes especially hemicellulases are not deeply explored. To fill this gap we cloned and investigated endomannanases from those reference strains of the Thermobifida genus, which have published data on other hydrolases (T. fusca TM51, T. alba CECT3323, T. cellulosilytica TB100T and T. halotolerans YIM90462T. Our phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA and endomannanase sequences revealed that T. alba CECT3323 is miss-classified; it belongs to the T. fusca species. The cloned and investigated endomannanases belong to the family of glycosyl hydrolases 5 (GH5, their size is around 50 kDa and they are modular enzymes. Their catalytic domains are extended by a C-terminal carbohydrate binding module (CBM of type 2 with a 23-25 residues long interdomain linker region consisting of Pro, Thr and Glu/Asp rich repetitive tetrapeptide motifs. Their polypeptide chains exhibit high homology, interdomain sequence, which don't show homology to each other, but all of them are built up from 3-6 times repeated tetrapeptide motifs (PTDP-Tc, TEEP-Tf, DPGT-Th. All of the heterologously expressed Man5A enzymes exhibited activity only on mannan. The pH optima of Man5A enzymes from T. halotolerans, T. cellulosilytica and T. fusca are slightly different (7.0, 7.5 and 8.0, respectively while their temperature optima span within the range of 70-75°C. The three endomannanases exhibited very similar kinetic performances on LBG-mannan substrate: 0.9-1.7mM of KM and 80-120 1/sec of turnover number. We detected great variability in heat stability at 70°C, which was influenced by the presence of Ca2+. The investigated endomannanases might be important subjects for studying the structure/function relation behind the heat stability and for industrial

  11. A New Esterase from Thermobifida halotolerans Hydrolyses Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET and Polylactic Acid (PLA

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    Georg Steinkellner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new esterase from Thermobifida halotolerans (Thh_Est was cloned and expressed in E. coli and investigated for surface hydrolysis of polylactic acid (PLA and polyethylene terephthalate (PET. Thh_Est is a member of the serine hydrolases superfamily containing the -GxSxG- motif with 85–87% homology to an esterase from T. alba, to an acetylxylan esterase from T. fusca and to various Thermobifida cutinases. Thh_Est hydrolyzed the PET model substrate bis(benzoyloxyethylterephthalate and PET releasing terephthalic acid and mono-(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate in comparable amounts (19.8 and 21.5 mmol/mol of enzyme while no higher oligomers like bis-(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate were detected. Similarly, PLA was hydrolyzed as indicated by the release of lactic acid. Enzymatic surface hydrolysis of PET and PLA led to a strong hydrophilicity increase, as quantified with a WCA decrease from 90.8° and 75.5° to 50.4° and to a complete spread of the water drop on the surface, respectively.

  12. [Gohieria fusca found in dust of air-conditioner filters].

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    Qiang, Chai; Xiao-Dong, Zhan; Wei, Guo; Chao-Pin, Li

    2017-09-25

    To investigate the pollution status of Gohieria fusca in the air conditioner-filters of different places in Wuhu City. The dust samples were collected from the filters of air-conditioners in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households between June and September, 2013, and G. fusca was detected in the dust samples. There were 430 dust samples collected and 98 were G. fusca positive with the breeding rate of 22.79%. The difference of breeding rates of G. fusca were statistically significant among the different places ( χ 2 =18.294, P air-conditioner filters in Wuhu City gravely.

  13. Characterization of CYP154F1 from Thermobifida fusca YX and Extension of Its Substrate Spectrum by Site-Directed Mutagenesis.

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    Rühlmann, Ansgar; Groth, Georg; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2018-03-02

    Previous studies on cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) from family 154 reported their substrate promiscuity and high activity. Hence, herein, the uncharacterized family member CYP154F1 is described. Screening of more than 100 organic compounds revealed that CYP154F1 preferably accepts small linear molecules with a carbon chain length of 8-10 atoms. In contrast to thoroughly characterized CYP154E1, CYP154F1 has a much narrower substrate spectrum and lower activity. A structural alignment of homology models of CYP154F1 and CYP154E1 revealed few differences in the active sites of both family members. By gradual mutagenesis of the CYP154F1 active site towards those of CYP154E1, a key residue accounting for the different activities of both enzymes was identified at position 234. Substitution of T234 for large hydrophobic amino acids led to up to tenfold higher conversion rates of small substrates, such as geraniol. Replacement of T234 by small hydrophobic amino acids, valine or alanine, resulted in mutants with extended substrate spectra. These mutants are able to convert some of the larger substrates of CYP154E1, such as (E)-stilbene and (+)-nootkatone. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Control of Busseola fusca and Chilo partellus stem borers by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous testing of several public Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-maize events did not show control of the African stem borer (Busseola fusca Fuller), an important stem borer species, without which stewardship would be compromised by the possibility of rapid development of resistance to Bt deltaendotoxins. This study was ...

  15. Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) for the production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chughtai, F.A.; Shah, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) was carried of with various concentrations of sulphuric acid, ortho phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid to produce furfural. The study revealed that activity of various hydrolysing acids to produce furfural from kallar grass was of the following order H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ > H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ > HCl. Optimum yield (4.78%) of the produce was obtained when the material was digested with 19% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ for a period of 20 minutes. (author)

  16. Bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of Erythrina fusca leaves aquadest extract

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    Janti Sudiono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirically, Erythrina fusca has been used as traditional herb for its antibacterial and antiinflammation properties. Periodontal disease is one of the most oral infectious diseases with microorganism predominated as the contributing factors. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis is one of the main bacteria pathogen found in periodontal diseases. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the bactericidal effect of Erythrina fusca Leaves Aquadest Extract (EFLAE at various concentrations on P. gingivalis and cytotoxic effect on fibroblast. Methods: Pure P. gingivalis was cultured in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI medium for 24 hours with or without various concentrations of treatment of EFLAE. Calculation and statistical analysis of remaining bacteria were performed by inhibitory zone method to evaluate the EFLAE bactericidal effect and compared to chlorhexidine as positive control. To evaluate the cytotoxic effect, NIH 3T3 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modification of Eagle’s Medium (DMEM containing of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and 1% penicillin-streptomycin, pH 7.2, in 5% CO2, and stored in humidified incubator under temperature 370 C. Cells were treated with/without various concentrations of EFLAE for 48 hours. The viable cells were then counted using 3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyl tetrazodium bromide (MTT method. Results: EFLAE have bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis in a concentration dependent manner starting from 78%. The concentration of 90% EFLAE had stronger bactericidal effect (35.004 ± 1.546 than those of chlorhexidine as positive control (32.313 ± 1.619. One-way ANOVA showed significant bactericidal effect differences among concentrations of EFLAE and chlorhexidine (p<0.05 while Tuckey HSD test showed significant difference only between lower concentration of EFLAE (78%, 79% and chlorhexidine. With the highest concentration of EFLAE (100% applied in the bactericidal test, no cytotoxic effect

  17. Biological CO2 mitigation from coal power plant by Chlorella fusca and Spirulina sp.

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    Duarte, Jessica Hartwig; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Radmann, Elisângela Martha; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2017-06-01

    CO 2 biofixation by microalgae and cyanobacteria is an environmentally sustainable way to mitigate coal burn gas emissions. In this work the microalga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and the cyanobacteria Spirulina sp. LEB 18 were cultivated using CO 2 from coal flue gas as a carbon source. The intermittent flue gas injection in the cultures enable the cells growth and CO 2 biofixation by these microorganisms. The Chlorella fusca isolated from a coal power plant could fix 2.6 times more CO 2 than Spirulina sp. The maximum daily CO 2 from coal flue gas biofixation was obtained with Chlorella fusca (360.12±0.27mgL -1 d -1 ), showing a specific growth rate of 0.17±<0.01d -1 . The results demonstrated the Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and Spirulina sp. LEB 18 potential to fix CO 2 from coal flue gas, and sequential biomass production with different biotechnological destinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thalassotalea ponticola sp. nov., isolated from seawater, reclassification of Thalassomonas fusca as Thalassotalea fusca comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Thalassotalea.

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    Park, Sooyeon; Jung, Yong-Taek; Kang, Chul-Hyung; Park, Ja-Min; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2014-11-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated and rod-shaped or ovoid bacterial strain, designated GJSW-36(T), was isolated from seawater at Geoje island in the South Sea, South Korea. Strain GJSW-36(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 25 °C and in the presence of 2% (w/v) NaCl. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain GJSW-36(T) fell within the clade comprising the type strains of species of the genus Thalassotalea and Thalassomonas fusca. Strain GJSW-36(T) exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 94.2-96.0% to the type strains of species of the genus Thalassotalea and Thalassomonas fusca and of 93.8-94.5% to the type strains of the other species of the genus Thalassomonas. Strain GJSW-36(T) contained ubiquinone-8 (Q-8) as the predominant ubiquinone and summed feature 3 (C(16:1)ω7c and/or C(16:1)ω6c), C(1:1)ω8c and C(16:0) as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids of strain GJSW-36(T) were phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content of strain GJSW-36(T) was 45.1 mol%. Differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic distinctiveness, demonstrated that strain GJSW-36(T) is separated from species of the genus Thalassotalea and Thalassomonas fusca. On the basis of the data presented, strain GJSW-36(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Thalassotalea, for which the name Thalassotalea ponticola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GJSW-36(T) ( =KCTC 42155(T) =CECT 8656(T)). From this study, it is also proposed that Thalassomonas fusca should be reclassified as a member of the genus Thalassotalea and the description of the genus Thalassotalea is emended. © 2014 IUMS.

  19. Effects of pine pollen supplementation in an onion diet on Frankliniella fusca reproduction.

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    Angelella, G M; Riley, D G

    2010-04-01

    A micro-cage bioassay was developed to test the effect of slash pine pollen (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) supplementation to a whole onion plant (Allium cepa L. variety Pegasus) diet on thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) reproductive parameters. Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) females were placed on two to three-leaf stage onion seedling under a treatment of either slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) pollen dusting (a pollen supplement) or no pollen treatment. Adult survival, net oviposition, and offspring produced over a series of ten 2-d intervals were recorded. From these values, l(x), l(x)m(x), and R(0) values were constructed. A trimodal distribution of oviposition was observed with the pollen supplement. Increased oviposition rates led to higher female offspring production per female and to a four-fold increase in F. fusca net reproduction on pollen-treated onions.

  20. Bioaccumulation and Depuration of Copper in the Kidney and Liver of a Freshwater Fish, Capoeta fusca

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    Borhan Mansouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to investigate the patterns of bioaccumulation and depuration of copper in the selected kidney and liver of Capoeta fusca. Methods: The fish were collected between September and November 2010 from a qanat in Birjand. They were exposed to two types treatments with copper (0.25 and 0.75 mg/L for a period of 41 days. The fish under study were exposed to the above-mentioned sub-lethal concentrations separately for 14 and 21 days (accumulation period. At the end of this period, the remaining fish were kept in tap water (elimination period for 31 and 41 days. Results: The findings showed that the accumulation of copper in lower and higher sub-lethal concentrations was higher in kidney as the mean accumulation of copper on day 21 was 1.9±0.1 μg/g and 2.93±0.47 μg/g respectively, in 0.25 μg/g and 0.75 μg/g concentrations. On the other hand, the results also showed that the depuration level of copper in the given concentrations was higher in liver than kidney. The bioaccumulation and depuration of copper significantly increased in the kidney and liver of C. fusca (P<0.01. Conclusion: Based on the present work, it is concluded that C. fusca has a potential for the rapid accumulation and depuration of copper in freshwater. Also, the results indicate that the fish C. fusca, as representative fish species in the East of Iran, can be a useful bioindicator organism of water contamination with copper.

  1. Elucidating the formation of terra fuscas using Sr–Nd–Pb isotopes and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter; Juilleret, Jérôme; Iffly, Jean François; Perrone, Thierry; Morvan, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Geochemical evidences on stabile phase confirm Bajocian marl as terra fusca parent material. • Precipitation/Dissolution of secondary carbonates controls geochemistry of labile phases. • This terra fusca sequence record at least four geological and environmental events. - Abstract: Carbonate weathering mantles, like terra fusca, are common in Europe but their formation and evolution is still badly understood. We propose to combine geological, mineralogical and pedological knowledge with trace element and isotope data of a weathering mantle as a novel approach to understand the evolution of terra fuscas. Sr–Nd–Pb isotopes and rare earth element (REE) contents were analyzed in a cambisol developing on a typical terra fusca on top of a condensed Bajocian limestone-marl succession from the eastern side of the Paris Basin. The isotope data, REE distribution patterns and mass balance calculations suggest that the cambisol mirrors the trace element enrichments present in this carbonate lithology, which are exceptionally high compared to global average carbonate. The deeper soil horizons are strongly enriched not only in REE (ΣREE: 2640 ppm) but also in redox-sensitive elements such as Fe (44 wt.%), V (1000 ppm), Cr (700 ppm), Zn (550 ppm), As (260 ppm), Co (45 ppm) and Cd (2.4 ppm). The trace element distribution patterns of the carbonate bedrock are similar to those of the soil suggesting their close genetic relationships. Sr–Nd–Pb isotope data allow to identify four principal components in the soil: a silicate-rich pool close to the surface, a leachable REE enriched pool at the bottom of the soil profile, the limestone on which the weathering profile developed and an anthropogenic, atmosphere-derived component detected in the soil leachates of the uppermost soil horizon. The leachable phases are mainly secondary carbonate-bearing REE phases such as bastnaesite ((X) Ca(CO 3 ) 2 F) (for X: Ce, La and Nd). The isotope data and trace element

  2. Responses of the tropical gorgonian coral Eunicea fusca to ocean acidification conditions

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    Gómez, C. E.; Paul, V. J.; Ritson-Williams, R.; Muehllehner, N.; Langdon, C.; Sánchez, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    Ocean acidification can have negative repercussions from the organism to ecosystem levels. Octocorals deposit high-magnesium calcite in their skeletons, and according to different models, they could be more susceptible to the depletion of carbonate ions than either calcite or aragonite-depositing organisms. This study investigated the response of the gorgonian coral Eunicea fusca to a range of CO2 concentrations from 285 to 4,568 ppm (pH range 8.1-7.1) over a 4-week period. Gorgonian growth and calcification were measured at each level of CO2 as linear extension rate and percent change in buoyant weight and calcein incorporation in individual sclerites, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship for calcification and CO2 concentration that was well explained by a linear model regression analysis for both buoyant weight and calcein staining. In general, growth and calcification did not stop in any of the concentrations of pCO2; however, some of the octocoral fragments experienced negative calcification at undersaturated levels of calcium carbonate (>4,500 ppm) suggesting possible dissolution effects. These results highlight the susceptibility of the gorgonian coral E. fusca to elevated levels of carbon dioxide but suggest that E. fusca could still survive well in mid-term ocean acidification conditions expected by the end of this century, which provides important information on the effects of ocean acidification on the dynamics of coral reef communities. Gorgonian corals can be expected to diversify and thrive in the Atlantic-Eastern Pacific; as scleractinian corals decline, it is likely to expect a shift in these reef communities from scleractinian coral dominated to octocoral/soft coral dominated under a "business as usual" scenario of CO2 emissions.

  3. Gas exchange patterns and water loss rates in the Table Mountain cockroach, Aptera fusca (Blattodea: Blaberidae).

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    Groenewald, Berlizé; Bazelet, Corinna S; Potter, C Paige; Terblanche, John S

    2013-10-15

    The importance of metabolic rate and/or spiracle modulation for saving respiratory water is contentious. One major explanation for gas exchange pattern variation in terrestrial insects is to effect a respiratory water loss (RWL) saving. To test this, we measured the rates of CO2 and H2O release ( and , respectively) in a previously unstudied, mesic cockroach, Aptera fusca, and compared gas exchange and water loss parameters among the major gas exchange patterns (continuous, cyclic, discontinuous gas exchange) at a range of temperatures. Mean , and per unit did not differ among the gas exchange patterns at all temperatures (P>0.09). There was no significant association between temperature and gas exchange pattern type (P=0.63). Percentage of RWL (relative to total water loss) was typically low (9.79±1.84%) and did not differ significantly among gas exchange patterns at 15°C (P=0.26). The method of estimation had a large impact on the percentage of RWL, and of the three techniques investigated (traditional, regression and hyperoxic switch), the traditional method generally performed best. In many respects, A. fusca has typical gas exchange for what might be expected from other insects studied to date (e.g. , , RWL and cuticular water loss). However, we found for A. fusca that expressed as a function of metabolic rate was significantly higher than the expected consensus relationship for insects, suggesting it is under considerable pressure to save water. Despite this, we found no consistent evidence supporting the conclusion that transitions in pattern type yield reductions in RWL in this mesic cockroach.

  4. Karyological observations on Turbellaria Proseriata: karyometric analysis of Monocelis fusca, M. lineata (Monocelididae) and Parotoplana macrostyla (Otoplanidae)

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    Curini-Galletti, M.; Galleni, L.; Puccinelli, I.

    1984-03-01

    A karyometric analysis of the chromosome set of the marine turbellarians Monocelis fusca, M. lineata and Parotoplana macrostyla has been carried out. The karyotype of the two Monocelis species investigated (2n=6) is formed by three pairs of small and similarly sized chromosomes: In M. fusca, chromosome 1 is metacentric, chromosome 2 acrocentric and chromosome 3 is subtelocentric. M. lineata also presents one pair of metacentric chromosomes (chromosome 2), while chromosomes 1 and 3 are submetacentric. P. macrostyla (2n=12) reveals two pairs of large metacentric and four pairs of small chromosomes, three of which are metacentric, whereas the last is subtelocentric.

  5. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-André Calatayud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species. This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  6. Cuticular chemistry of males and females in the ant Formica fusca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernenko, Anton; Holman, Luke; Helanterä, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    in mediating recognition of society members and, thereby, allowing kin selection to operate. Here, we examined whether cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are sex-specific and whether males and young queens of the ant Formica fusca have colony-specific profiles. We also investigated whether there is a relationship...... between genetic relatedness and chemical diversity within colonies. We demonstrated that female and male sexuals do not have unique sex-specific compounds, but that there are quantitative chemical differences between the sexes. Out of the 51 cuticular hydrocarbon compounds identified, 10 showed...

  7. Formation of elemental sulfur by Chlorella fusca during growth on L-cysteine ethylester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, F.; Schafer, W.; Schmidt, A.

    1984-01-01

    During growth on L-cysteine ethylester, Chlorella fusca (211-8b) accumulated a substance which contained bound sulfide, which could be liberated by reduction with dithioerythritol (DTE) as inorganic sulfide. This substance was extracted with hot methanol and purified by thin layer chromatography. This substance liberated free sulfide when incubated with mono- and dithiols, and thiocyanate was formed after heating with KCN. The isolated substance cochromatographed with authentic sulfur flower using different solvent systems for thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, and the identical spectrum with a relative ..beta..max at 263 nm was found. The chemical structure was confirmed by mass spectrometry showing a molecular weight of 256 m/e for the S/sub 8/ configuration. No labeled elemental sulfur was detected when the cells were grown on (/sup 35/S)sulfate and L-cysteine ethylester. C. fusca seems to have enzymes for the metabolism of elemental sulfur, since it disappeared after prolonged growth into the stationary phase. Cysteine was formed from O-acetyl-L-serine and elemental sulfur in the presence of thiol groups and purified cysteine synthase from spinach or Chlorella.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Porzana fusca and Porzana pusilla and phylogenetic relationship of 16 Rallidae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Han, Yuqing; Zhu, Chaoying; Gao, Bin; Ruan, Luzhang

    2017-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Porzana fusca and Porzana pusilla were determined. The two avian species share a high degree of homology in terms of mitochondrial genome organization and gene arrangement. Their corresponding mitochondrial genomes are 16,935 and 16,978 bp and consist of 37 genes and a control region. Their PCGs were both 11,365 bp long and have similar structure. Their tRNA gene sequences could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for tRNA Ser (AGY) , which lost its "DHU" arm. Based on the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial DNA genes of 16 Rallidae species, reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and analysis of the molecular clock of P. fusca and P. pusilla indicated that these species from a sister group, which in turn are sister group to Rallina eurizonoides. The genus Gallirallus is a sister group to genus Lewinia, and these groups in turn are sister groups to genus Porphyrio. Moreover, molecular clock analyses suggested that the basal divergence of Rallidae could be traced back to 40.47 (41.46‒39.45) million years ago (Mya), and the divergence of Porzana occurred approximately 5.80 (15.16‒0.79) Mya.

  9. The iturin and fengycin families of lipopeptides are key factors in antagonism of Bacillus subtilis toward Podosphaera fusca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, Diego; de Vicente, Antonio; Rakotoaly, Rivo H.; Dufour, Samuel E.; Veening, Jan-Willem; Arrebola, Eva; Cazorla, Francisco M.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Paquot, Michel; Perez-Garcia, Alejandro; Stacey, Gary

    Podosphaera fusca is the main causal agent of cucurbit powdery mildew in Spain. Four Bacillus subtilis strains, UMAF6614, UMAF6619, UMAF6639, and UMAF8561, with proven ability to suppress the disease on melon in detached leaf and seedling assays, were subjected to further analyses to elucidate the

  10. Isolation and characterization of two different flavodoxins from the eukaryote Chlorella fusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleato, M L; Ayora, S; Inda, L A; Gómez-Moreno, C

    1994-01-01

    Two different molecular forms of flavodoxin from the green alga Chlorella fusca have been purified to homogeneity and their properties compared. The molecular masses are 22 kDa (flavodoxin I) and 20 kDa (flavodoxin II). Western blots of axenic crude extract show the two bands. Both are single polypeptide chains and their N-terminal sequences differ but are very similar. Each form contains 1 mol of FMN/mol of apoprotein, exhibits a typical flavodoxin u.v.-visible absorption spectrum and does not contain covalently bound phosphate. The oxidation-reduction properties of the FMN in the flavodoxins differ considerably. Redox potentials of flavodoxin I at pH8 are -240 mV for the oxidized/semiquinone couple and -350 mV for the semiquinone/hydroquinone couple. Flavodoxin II gives more electronegative values: -278 mV and -458 mV respectively. Flavodoxin II fulfils better the redox requirements for photosynthetic electron transport and, as expected, it is more efficient at mediating NADP+ photoreduction in the photosynthetic electron flow. A new h.p.l.c. method for flavodoxin purification is described, which is useful for the isolation of very similar anionic proteins. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7945206

  11. Aves explorando flores de Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae durante a estação seca no Pantanal de Mato Grosso Exploitation of Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae flowers by birds during the dry season in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Parrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes têm evidenciado a importância de flores como recurso alimentar de diversas espécies de aves neotropicais. Este estudo teve o objetivo de listar espécies e descrever o comportamento das aves que se alimentaram de recursos florais de Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae no Pantanal Mato-Grossense. Para isso, foram acompanhadas aves que se alimentaram em 14 árvores floridas dessa espécie em um total de cerca de 25 horas de observação. Como resultados, 20 espécies de aves pertencentes a sete famílias taxonômicas foram observadas alimentando-se de recursos florais de E. fusca. Apesar de várias espécies de aves terem apresentado comportamentos destrutivos em maior proporção, algumas espécies, sobretudo das famílias Trochilidae e Icteridae, apresentaram estratégias alimentares compatíveis com o transporte de pólen. O cruzamento dos dados obtidos neste estudo com os da literatura indicam que a família Icteridae pode ter relevante papel na polinização dessa espécie vegetal.Recent studies reported the importance of flowers in the diet of many Neotropical bird species. In this paper we identify and describe the feeding behaviour of bird species that feed on flower resources of Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae in the Pantanal Mato-Grossense, Brazil. We recorded birds foraging in 14 flowered individuals of E. fusca during 25 hours of observation. We recorded 20 bird species belonging to seven families feeding on the flowers. Several of the observed behaviours were destructive, despite some species, especially the Trochilidae and Icteridae, showed feeding strategies that preserve the integrity of the flowers and are compatible with pollen transportation. The comparison of the data gathered in this study with the available literature indicates that the Icteridae may play an important role in pollination of this tree species.

  12. Overlapping and distinct roles of AKIN10 and FUSCA3 in ABA and sugar signaling during seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Allen Yi-Lun; Gazzarrini, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis B3-domain transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3) is a master regulator of seed maturation and also a central modulator of hormonal responses during late embryogenesis and germination. Recently, we have identified AKIN10, the Arabidopsis ortholog of Snf1 (Sucrose Non-Fermenting-1)–Related Kinase1 (SnRK1), as a FUS3-interacting protein. We demonstrated that AKIN10 physically interacts with and phosphorylates FUS3 at its N-terminal region, and genetically interacts with FUS3 to regul...

  13. Hydrodynamics and photosynthesis performance of Chlorella fusca (Chlorophyta) grown in a thin-layer cascade (TLC) system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jerez, Celia G.; Navarro, E.; Rico, Rosa M.; Malpartida, I.; Masojídek, Jiří; Abdala, R.; Figueroa, Félix L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2014), s. 111-122 ISSN 1864-7790 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110 Grant - others:Government of Spain (ES) Project Ecolife CGL08-05407-C03-01; Junta de Andalucía(ES) RNM-295; Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness(ES) CTM2011-15659-E Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chlorella fusca * TLC * cultivation * photosynthesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2014

  14. Baseline hematology and serum biochemistry results for Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Muliya, Sanath Krishna; Deshmukh, Ajay; Suresh, Sujay; Nath, Anukul; Kalaignan, Pa; Venkataravanappa, Manjunath; Jose, Lyju

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to establish the baseline hematology and serum biochemistry values for Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca), and to assess the possible variations in these parameters based on age and gender. Materials and Methods: Hemato-biochemical test reports from a total of 83 healthy leopards, carried out as part of routine health evaluation in Bannerghatta Biological Park and Manikdoh Leopard Rescue Center, were used to establish baseline hematology and serum biochemistry parameters for the subspecies. The hematological parameters considered for the analysis included hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), and MCH concentration. The serum biochemistry parameters considered included total protein (TP), albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglycerides, calcium, and phosphorus. Results: Even though few differences were observed in hematologic and biochemistry values between male and female Indian leopards, the differences were statistically not significant. Effects of age, however, were evident in relation to many hematologic and biochemical parameters. Sub-adults had significantly greater values for Hb, TEC, and TLC compared to adults and geriatric group, whereas they had significantly lower MCV and MCH compared to adults and geriatric group. Among, serum biochemistry parameters the sub-adult age group was observed to have significantly lower values for TP and ALT than adult and geriatric leopards. Conclusion: The study provides a comprehensive analysis of hematologic and biochemical parameters for Indian leopards. Baselines established here will permit better captive management of the subspecies, serve as a guide to assess the health and physiological status of the free ranging leopards, and may contribute valuable information for making effective

  15. Baseline hematology and serum biochemistry results for Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Attur Shanmugam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to establish the baseline hematology and serum biochemistry values for Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca, and to assess the possible variations in these parameters based on age and gender. Materials and Methods: Hemato-biochemical test reports from a total of 83 healthy leopards, carried out as part of routine health evaluation in Bannerghatta Biological Park and Manikdoh Leopard Rescue Center, were used to establish baseline hematology and serum biochemistry parameters for the subspecies. The hematological parameters considered for the analysis included hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count (TEC, total leukocyte count (TLC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and MCH concentration. The serum biochemistry parameters considered included total protein (TP, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglycerides, calcium, and phosphorus. Results: Even though few differences were observed in hematologic and biochemistry values between male and female Indian leopards, the differences were statistically not significant. Effects of age, however, were evident in relation to many hematologic and biochemical parameters. Sub-adults had significantly greater values for Hb, TEC, and TLC compared to adults and geriatric group, whereas they had significantly lower MCV and MCH compared to adults and geriatric group. Among, serum biochemistry parameters the sub-adult age group was observed to have significantly lower values for TP and ALT than adult and geriatric leopards. Conclusion: The study provides a comprehensive analysis of hematologic and biochemical parameters for Indian leopards. Baselines established here will permit better captive management of the subspecies, serve as a guide to assess the health and physiological status of the free ranging leopards, and may contribute valuable information for making

  16. The impact of a parasitic nematode Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the feeding behavior and vector competence of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is the predominant thrips species found inhabiting and reproducing in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and is one of at least seven thrips species reported to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The entomogenous nematode Thripinema fuscum Tipp...

  17. AtGA3ox2, a key gene responsible for bioactive gibberellin biosynthesis, is regulated during embryogenesis by LEAFY COTYLEDON2 and FUSCA3 in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curaba, J.; Moritz, T.; Blervaque, R.; Parcy, F.; Raz, V.; Herzog, M.; Vachon, G.

    2004-01-01

    Embryonic regulators LEC2 (LEAFY COTYLEDON2) and FUS3 (FUSCA3) are involved in multiple aspects of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development, including repression of leaf traits and premature germination and activation of seed storage protein genes. In this study, we show that gibberellin

  18. Use of xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride for immobilization of wild leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, Aniruddha V; Athreya, Vidya R

    2010-06-01

    In India, leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) inhabit human-dominated landscapes, resulting in encounters that require interventions to prevent harm to people, as well as the leopards. Immobilization is a prerequisite for any such intervention. Such emergency field immobilizations have to be carried out with limited tools, often amidst large uncontrollable crowds. An effective and practicable approach is discussed, based on 55 wild leopard immobilizations undertaken between January 2003 and April 2008. A xylazine hydrochloride (1.4 +/- 0.3 mg/kg)--ketamine hydrochloride (5 +/- 2 mg/kg) mixture was used for immobilization of leopards, based on estimated body weight. When weight could not be estimated, a standard initial dose of 50 mg of xylazine--150 mg of ketamine was used. Supplemental doses (50-75 mg) of only ketamine were used as required. No life-threatening adverse effects of immobilization were documented for at least 1 mo postimmobilization.

  19. Toxicity and antifeedant activity of essential oils from three aromatic plants grown in Colombia against Euprosterna elaeasa and Acharia fusca(Lepidoptera:Limacodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo; Hernández-Lambrao; Karina; Caballero-Gallardo; Jesus; Olivero-Verbel

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the biological effects of essential oils(EOs) isolated from Cymbopogon iiardus,Cymbopogon Jlexuosus and Cvrnbopogon marlinii grown in Colombia against two Lepidoptera larvae,common pests in the oil palm.Methods:Specimens were captured in the field and the antifeedant activity and dermal contact lethality of EOs were measured against Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa(Lepidoptera:I.imacodidae) at various concentrations 0.002-0.600 μL/cm~3 and 0.002-8 μL/g,respectively.Results:All EOs exhibited strong antifeedant and toxicity activity toward Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa larvae.Cymbopogon marlinii oil was llie most active againsl both pest insect species,although all tested EOs were better than the synthetic;repellent IR535 on both insects.Conclusions:Colombian EOs have potential for integrated pest management programs in the oil palm industry.

  20. Toxicity and antifeedant activity of essential oils from three aromatic plants grown in Colombia against Euprosterna elaeasa and Acharia fusca (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo Hernández-Lambraño; Karina Caballero-Gallardo; Jesus Olivero-Verbel

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the biological effects of essential oils (EOs) isolated from Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii grown in Colombia against two Lepidoptera larvae, common pests in the oil palm. Methods:Specimens were captured in the field and the antifeedant activity and dermal contact lethality of EOs were measured against Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) at various concentrations 0.002-0.600 μL/cm2 and 0.002-8 μL/g, respectively. Results: All EOs exhibited strong antifeedant and toxicity activity toward Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa larvae. Cymbopogon martinii oil was the most active against both pest insect species, although all tested EOs were better than the synthetic repellent IR3535 on both insects. Conclusions:Colombian EOs have potential for integrated pest management programs in the oil palm industry.

  1. Timing of births in sympatric brown howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca clamitans) and northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, K B; Mendes, S L; Santos, R R

    2001-10-01

    We monitored the birth patterns of sympatric brown howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca clamitans) and northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus) during a 4-yr period from October 1996 to August 2000 at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Brown howler monkey births (n = 34) occurred throughout the year, and birth frequencies did not differ between rainy and dry season months. The aseasonal birth patterns of the howler monkeys differed significantly from the dry season concentration and dry month peak in muriqui births (n = 23). We found no effects of infant sex or the number of females on interbirth intervals (IBIs) in our 10 howler monkey study troops. IBIs of brown howler monkeys averaged 21.2 +/- 2.5 mo (n = 8, median = 21.0 mo), and were significantly shorter following dry season births than rainy season births. Their IBIs and yearling survivorship (74%) were similar to those reported for other species of howler monkeys, but yearling survivorship was much lower than that of muriquis (94%), whose IBIs were more than 12 mo longer than those of the howler monkeys. Our study extends comparative knowledge of birth patterns in Alouatta to a poorly known species, and provides insights into the different ways in which diet and life history may affect the timing of births in large-bodied platyrrhines under the same seasonal ecological conditions. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Acute Toxicity and the Effects of Copper Sulphate (CuSO4.5H2O on the Behavior of the Black Fish (Capoeta Fusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Zarei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of toxicity tests regarding toxic responses of different fish species could be more effectively used in predictive toxicology and risk assessment. In this study lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h values of copper sulphate; an important toxic industrial pollutant, on Capoeta fusca were determined. Behavioral changes at different concentrations of CuSO4 were determined for the C.fusca. Methods: The sample fishes were collected from Qanat in Birjand and were transported to the laboratory in polythene bags. The exposure time of fish to CuSO4 was 96 hours. Mortalities were recorded at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of exposure, and the dead fish were removed regularly from the test aquariums. Physicochemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, pH and Total hardness of aquaria were monitored daily. Results: The LC50 values for CuSO4 at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, were 43.62, 12.6, 7.66, and 6.85 mg/L, respectively. The median LC50 value of CuSO4 for C.fusca was found to be 6.928 mg/L by EPA method and estimated to be 6.787 mg/L with SPSS statistical software. Conclusion: The mortality decreased with time, and most of the deaths occurred during the first 24 h. In addition, behavioural changes increased with increased concentration. This metal is an important constituent in industrial effluents discharged into freshwaters. The results obtained in this study clearly revealed the fact that it is necessary to control the use of a heavy metal such as copper.

  3. Overlapping and distinct roles of AKIN10 and FUSCA3 in ABA and sugar signaling during seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Allen Yi-Lun; Gazzarrini, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    The Arabidopsis B3-domain transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3) is a master regulator of seed maturation and also a central modulator of hormonal responses during late embryogenesis and germination. Recently, we have identified AKIN10, the Arabidopsis ortholog of Snf1 (Sucrose Non-Fermenting-1)-Related Kinase1 (SnRK1), as a FUS3-interacting protein. We demonstrated that AKIN10 physically interacts with and phosphorylates FUS3 at its N-terminal region, and genetically interacts with FUS3 to regulate developmental phase transition and lateral organ growth. Snf1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are important sensors of the cellular energy level, and they are activated in response to starvation and cellular stress. Here we present findings that indicate FUS3 and AKIN10 functionally overlap in ABA signaling, but play different roles in sugar responses during germination. Seeds overexpressing FUS3 and AKIN10 both display ABA-hypersensitivity and delayed germination. The latter is partly dependent on de novo ABA synthesis in both genotypes, as delayed germination can be partially rescued by the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, fluridone. However, seeds and seedlings overexpressing FUS3 and AKIN10 show different sugar responses. AKIN10-overexpressing seeds and seedlings are hypersensitive to glucose, while those overexpressing FUS3 display overall defects in osmotic stress, primarily during seedling growth, as they show increased sensitivity toward sorbitol and glucose. Hypersensitivity to sugar and/or osmotic stress during germination are partly dependent on de novo ABA synthesis for both genotypes, although are likely to act through distinct pathways. This data suggests that AKIN10 and FUS3 both act as positive regulators of seed responses to ABA, and that AKIN10 regulates sugar signaling while FUS3 mediates osmotic stress responses.

  4. Age estimation and growth pattern of the island grouper, Mycteroperca fusca (Serranidae in an island population on the northwest coast of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Bustos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycteroperca fusca is one of the main predators of the Canarian archipelago coastal marine ecosystem. Nothing is known on the life history or population dynamics of this predatory serranid fish. In this study, age and growth of M. fusca were investigated by annual growth increment counts from 214 fish collected between January 2004 and December 2005. A year’s growth is represented by one opaque and one translucent ring. The island grouper is a slow-growing and long-lived species, with ages up to twenty years recorded. Length at age was described by the von Bertalanffy growth model (L∞=898 mm; k=0.062 year-1; and t0= −3.83 year, the Schnute growth model (y1=262 mm; y2=707 mm; a=0.008; and b=1.98, and the seasonalised von Bertalanffy growth model (L∞=908 mm; k=0.061 year-1; t0= −3.83 year; C=2.58; and ts=0.542. Males and females show differences in growth.

  5. The role of the Arabidopsis FUSCA3 transcription factor during inhibition of seed germination at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Rex S; Nahal, Hardeep; Provart, Nicholas J; Gazzarrini, Sonia

    2012-01-27

    Imbibed seeds integrate environmental and endogenous signals to break dormancy and initiate growth under optimal conditions. Seed maturation plays an important role in determining the survival of germinating seeds, for example one of the roles of dormancy is to stagger germination to prevent mass growth under suboptimal conditions. The B3-domain transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3) is a master regulator of seed development and an important node in hormonal interaction networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. Its function has been mainly characterized during embryonic development, where FUS3 is highly expressed to promote seed maturation and dormancy by regulating ABA/GA levels. In this study, we present evidence for a role of FUS3 in delaying seed germination at supraoptimal temperatures that would be lethal for the developing seedlings. During seed imbibition at supraoptimal temperature, the FUS3 promoter is reactivated and induces de novo synthesis of FUS3 mRNA, followed by FUS3 protein accumulation. Genetic analysis shows that FUS3 contributes to the delay of seed germination at high temperature. Unlike WT, seeds overexpressing FUS3 (ML1:FUS3-GFP) during imbibition are hypersensitive to high temperature and do not germinate, however, they can fully germinate after recovery at control temperature reaching 90% seedling survival. ML1:FUS3-GFP hypersensitivity to high temperature can be partly recovered in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, suggesting this hypersensitivity is due in part to higher ABA level in this mutant. Transcriptomic analysis shows that WT seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature activate seed-specific genes and ABA biosynthetic and signaling genes, while inhibiting genes that promote germination and growth, such as GA biosynthetic and signaling genes. In this study, we have uncovered a novel function for the master regulator of seed maturation, FUS3, in delaying germination at supraoptimal temperature. Physiologically, this is

  6. The role of the Arabidopsis FUSCA3 transcription factor during inhibition of seed germination at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Rex S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imbibed seeds integrate environmental and endogenous signals to break dormancy and initiate growth under optimal conditions. Seed maturation plays an important role in determining the survival of germinating seeds, for example one of the roles of dormancy is to stagger germination to prevent mass growth under suboptimal conditions. The B3-domain transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3 is a master regulator of seed development and an important node in hormonal interaction networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. Its function has been mainly characterized during embryonic development, where FUS3 is highly expressed to promote seed maturation and dormancy by regulating ABA/GA levels. Results In this study, we present evidence for a role of FUS3 in delaying seed germination at supraoptimal temperatures that would be lethal for the developing seedlings. During seed imbibition at supraoptimal temperature, the FUS3 promoter is reactivated and induces de novo synthesis of FUS3 mRNA, followed by FUS3 protein accumulation. Genetic analysis shows that FUS3 contributes to the delay of seed germination at high temperature. Unlike WT, seeds overexpressing FUS3 (ML1:FUS3-GFP during imbibition are hypersensitive to high temperature and do not germinate, however, they can fully germinate after recovery at control temperature reaching 90% seedling survival. ML1:FUS3-GFP hypersensitivity to high temperature can be partly recovered in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, suggesting this hypersensitivity is due in part to higher ABA level in this mutant. Transcriptomic analysis shows that WT seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature activate seed-specific genes and ABA biosynthetic and signaling genes, while inhibiting genes that promote germination and growth, such as GA biosynthetic and signaling genes. Conclusion In this study, we have uncovered a novel function for the master regulator of seed maturation, FUS3, in delaying

  7. Nutritional Value And Yield of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa Fusca Linn) Hay and Its Effect on Reproductive Performance of Awassi Ewes Using Progesterone Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M R..; Zarkawi, M.; Khalifa, K.

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional value of Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca Linn) hay (whole plant), a salt-tolerant plant, was estimated by determinning its composition (ash, crude protein CP, crude fibre CF, ether extract EE, neutral-detergent fiber NDF, acid-detergent fiber ADF, acid-detergent lignin ADL); and the in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy of lactation (NEL) and gross energy (GE). Moreover, dry matter, energy and protein yields per hectar were also estimated. The effects of feeding Kallar grass hay to pregnant Awassi ewes on reproductive performance, serum progesterone changes using radioimmunoassay, and on birth and weaning weights of lambs born were also determined. Experimental ewes received daily 300 g of Kallar grass hay in addition to lentil straw and concentrates to cover their nutritional requirements. The results indicated that the nutritive components of Kallar grass were (g kg -1 dry matter): ash 96, CP 93, CF 290, EE 21, NDF 755, ADF 416 and ADL 94. IVOMD was 49.3%, and energy values (MJ kg -1 dry matter) were: GE 26.88, ME 6.41 and NEL 3.02. Dry matter and crude protein yields of Kallar grass hay were 7875 and 732 kg ha -1 , respectively, and the energy produced (MJ ha -1 ) was: GE 211680, ME 50479 and NEL 23783. Kallar grass had no effects on the reproductive performance of pregnant Awassi ewes duration, of pregnancy (150.1 ± 2.2 days), progesterone patterns, birth (4.7±1.0 kg) or on weaning weights (22.7 ± ≤ 5.5 kg) of lambs.

  8. Cellulase variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Robert; Toriello, Nicholas; Emrich, Charles; Cohen, Richard N.; Koppel, Nitzan

    2015-07-14

    This invention provides novel variant cellulolytic enzymes having improved activity and/or stability. In certain embodiments the variant cellulotyic enzymes comprise a glycoside hydrolase with or comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to one or more of residues F64, A226, and/or E246 in Thermobifida fusca Cel9A enzyme. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a family 9 glycoside hydrolase. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a theme B family 9 glycoside hydrolase.

  9. Operational tests of the BNL 24.8 kW, 3.80K helium refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.; Farah, Y.; Gibbs, R.J.; Schlafke, A.P.; Sondericker, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The BNL 24.8 kW refrigeration system is completely installed and major portions of the acceptance tests have been completed. So far, the equipment tested has performed at or above design levels. The room temperature helium compressor station has been completely tested and accepted. The two-stage oil injected screw compressor system exhibited an isothermal efficiency of 57% while delivering a helium flow in excess of 4400 g/s. Data on the performance of the make-up gas cryogenic purifier is also given. The refrigerator turbomachinery, 13 expanders and three cold compressors, has been tested at room temperature for mechanical integrity and control stability. The first cooldown to operating temperature will be attempted in late August, 1985

  10. Operational tests of the BNL 24.8 kW, 3.8 K helium refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.; Farah, Y.; Gibbs, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The BNL 24.8 kW refrigeration system is completely installed and major portions of the acceptance tests have been completed. So far, the equipment tested has performed at or above design levels. The room temperature helium compressor station has been completely tested and accepted. The two-stage oil injected screw compressor system exhibited an isothermal efficiency of 57% while delivering a helium flow in excess of 4400 g/s. Data on the performance of the make-up gas cryogenic purifier is given. The refrigerator turbomachinery, 13 expanders and three cold compressors, has been tested at room temperature for mechanical integrity and control stability. The first cooldown to operating temperature will be attempted in late August, 1985. 2 refs., 5 figs

  11. IMPACTS OF BIOFILM FORMATION ON CELLULOSE FERMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31

    This project addressed four major areas of investigation: i) characterization of formation of Cellulomonas uda biofilms on cellulose; ii) characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; iii) characterization of Thermobifida fusca biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; and iii) description of the architecture of mature C. uda, C. phytofermentans, and T. fusca biofilms. This research is aimed at advancing understanding of biofilm formation and other complex processes involved in the degradation of the abundant cellulosic biomass, and the biology of the microbes involved. Information obtained from these studies is invaluable in the development of practical applications, such as the single-step bioconversion of cellulose-containing residues to fuels and other bioproducts. Our results have clearly shown that cellulose-decomposing microbes rapidly colonize cellulose and form complex structures typical of biofilms. Furthermore, our observations suggest that, as cells multiply on nutritive surfaces during biofilms formation, dramatic cell morphological changes occur. We speculated that morphological changes, which involve a transition from rod-shaped cells to more rounded forms, might be more apparent in a filamentous microbe. In order to test this hypothesis, we included in our research a study of biofilm formation by T. fusca, a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete commonly found in compost. The cellulase system of T. fusca has been extensively detailed through the work of David Wilson and colleagues at Cornell, and also, genome sequence of a T. fusca strain has been determine by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. Thus, T. fusca is an excellent subject for studies of biofilm development and its potential impacts on cellulose degradation. We also completed a study of the chitinase system of C. uda. This work provided essential background information for understanding how C. uda

  12. Reproductive sharing among queens in the ant Formica fusca

    OpenAIRE

    Minttumaaria Hannonen; Liselotte Sundstro¨m

    2003-01-01

    Reproductive sharing among cobreeders, in which reproductive shares may vary from equal contribution (low reproductive skew) to reproductive dominance by one individual (high reproductive skew), is a fundamental feature of animal societies. Recent theoretical work, the reproductive skew models, has focused on factors affecting the degree to which reproduction is skewed within a society. We used the parameters provided by skew models as a guideline to study determinants of reproductive sharing...

  13. Control of Busseola fusca and Chilo partellus stem borers by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... 1International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, P.O. Box 1041 ... Key words: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize, cry1A (b) proteins, stem borers, transgenic. ... including conservation agriculture on insect pests, can only be ...

  14. Genomics of aerobic cellulose utilization systems in actinobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Anderson

    Full Text Available Cellulose degrading enzymes have important functions in the biotechnology industry, including the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobes including Clostridium species organize cellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases into large complexes known as cellulosomes. In contrast, aerobic actinobacteria utilize systems comprised of independently acting enzymes, often with carbohydrate binding domains. Numerous actinobacterial genomes have become available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA project. We identified putative cellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to families GH5, GH6, GH8, GH9, GH12, GH48, and GH51 in the genomes of eleven members of the actinobacteria. The eleven organisms were tested in several assays for cellulose degradation, and eight of the organisms showed evidence of cellulase activity. The three with the highest cellulase activity were Actinosynnema mirum, Cellulomonas flavigena, and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica. Cellobiose is known to induce cellulolytic enzymes in the model organism Thermobifida fusca, but only Nocardiopsis dassonvillei showed higher cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose. In T. fusca, cellulases and a putative cellobiose ABC transporter are regulated by the transcriptional regulator CelR. Nine organisms appear to use the CelR site or a closely related binding site to regulate an ABC transporter. In some, CelR also regulates cellulases, while cellulases are controlled by different regulatory sites in three organisms. Mining of genome data for cellulose degradative enzymes followed by experimental verification successfully identified several actinobacteria species which were not previously known to degrade cellulose as cellulolytic organisms.

  15. Effect of Nutrient Starvation under High Irradiance on Lipid and Starch Accumulation in Chlorella fusca (Chlorophyta)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jerez, C.G.; Malapascua, José R.; Sergejevová, Magda; Figueroa, Felix L.; Masojídek, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2016), s. 24-36 ISSN 1436-2228 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0059; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0203 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Microalgae * Chlorella * Lipid Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.748, year: 2016

  16. Unusual nocturnal feeding by Brown Rock-chat Cercomela fusca (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Singh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Brown Rock-chat is a diurnal insectivorous bird commonly associated with human habitations. I report here nocturnal foraging of the species in and around Bikaner in Rajasthan. The birds showed a marked bimodal activity during their nocturnal foraging which peaked in early morning and late evening hours. Bright sodium-vapour lights that attracted a horde of insects during monsoons offered ideal foraging opportunities for the birds. This behavior is explained here as an adaptation to maximize their food intake during the period when the birds breed and their nutritional requirements are naturally high.

  17. Microbial Production of Malic Acid from Biofuel-Related Coproducts and Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. West

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The dicarboxylic acid malic acid synthesized as part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle can be produced in excess by certain microorganisms. Although malic acid is produced industrially to a lesser extent than citric acid, malic acid has industrial applications in foods and pharmaceuticals as an acidulant among other uses. Only recently has the production of this organic acid from coproducts of industrial bioprocessing been investigated. It has been shown that malic acid can be synthesized by microbes from coproducts generated during biofuel production. More specifically, malic acid has been shown to be synthesized by species of the fungus Aspergillus on thin stillage, a coproduct from corn-based ethanol production, and on crude glycerol, a coproduct from biodiesel production. In addition, the fungus Ustilago trichophora has also been shown to produce malic acid from crude glycerol. With respect to bacteria, a strain of the thermophilic actinobacterium Thermobifida fusca has been shown to produce malic acid from cellulose and treated lignocellulosic biomass. An alternate method of producing malic acid is to use agricultural biomass converted to syngas or biooil as a substrate for fungal bioconversion. Production of poly(β-l-malic acid by strains of Aureobasidium pullulans from agricultural biomass has been reported where the polymalic acid is subsequently hydrolyzed to malic acid. This review examines applications of malic acid, metabolic pathways that synthesize malic acid and microbial malic acid production from biofuel-related coproducts, lignocellulosic biomass and poly(β-l-malic acid.

  18. Paradigmatic status of an endo- and exoglucanase and its effect on crystalline cellulose degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraïs Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms employ a multiplicity of enzymes to efficiently degrade the composite structure of plant cell wall cellulosic polysaccharides. These remarkable enzyme systems include glycoside hydrolases (cellulases, hemicellulases, polysaccharide lyases, and the carbohydrate esterases. To accomplish this challenging task, several strategies are commonly observed either separately or in combination. These include free enzyme systems, multifunctional enzymes, and multi-enzyme self-assembled designer cellulosome complexes. Results In order to compare these different paradigms, we employed a synthetic biology approach to convert two different cellulases from the free enzymatic system of the well-studied bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, into bifunctional enzymes with different modular architectures. We then examined their performance compared to those of the combined parental free-enzyme and equivalent designer-cellulosome systems. The results showed that the cellulolytic activity displayed by the different architectures of the bifunctional enzymes was somewhat inferior to that of the wild-type free enzyme system. Conclusions The activity exhibited by the designer cellulosome system was equal or superior to that of the free system, presumably reflecting the combined proximity of the enzymes and high flexibility of the designer cellulosome components, thus enabling efficient enzymatic activity of the catalytic modules.

  19. Structural and functional characterizations of SsgB, a conserved activator of developmental cell division in morphologically complex actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingping; Traag, Bjørn A; Willemse, Joost; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C; Grzechnik, Anna; Grzechnik, Slawomir K; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K; Klock, Heath E; Knuth, Mark W; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Minor, Wladek; Mommaas, A Mieke; Morse, Andrew T; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J; Trame, Christine B; van den Bedem, Henry; Wang, Shuren; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2009-09-11

    SsgA-like proteins (SALPs) are a family of homologous cell division-related proteins that occur exclusively in morphologically complex actinomycetes. We show that SsgB, a subfamily of SALPs, is the archetypal SALP that is functionally conserved in all sporulating actinomycetes. Sporulation-specific cell division of Streptomyces coelicolor ssgB mutants is restored by introduction of distant ssgB orthologues from other actinomycetes. Interestingly, the number of septa (and spores) of the complemented null mutants is dictated by the specific ssgB orthologue that is expressed. The crystal structure of the SsgB from Thermobifida fusca was determined at 2.6 A resolution and represents the first structure for this family. The structure revealed similarities to a class of eukaryotic "whirly" single-stranded DNA/RNA-binding proteins. However, the electro-negative surface of the SALPs suggests that neither SsgB nor any of the other SALPs are likely to interact with nucleotide substrates. Instead, we show that a conserved hydrophobic surface is likely to be important for SALP function and suggest that proteins are the likely binding partners.

  20. Structural and Functional Characterizations of SsgB, a Conserved Activator of Developmental Cell Division in Morphologically Complex Actinomycetes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingping; Traag, Bjørn A.; Willemse, Joost; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Minor, Wladek; Mommaas, A. Mieke; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Wang, Shuren; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2009-01-01

    SsgA-like proteins (SALPs) are a family of homologous cell division-related proteins that occur exclusively in morphologically complex actinomycetes. We show that SsgB, a subfamily of SALPs, is the archetypal SALP that is functionally conserved in all sporulating actinomycetes. Sporulation-specific cell division of Streptomyces coelicolor ssgB mutants is restored by introduction of distant ssgB orthologues from other actinomycetes. Interestingly, the number of septa (and spores) of the complemented null mutants is dictated by the specific ssgB orthologue that is expressed. The crystal structure of the SsgB from Thermobifida fusca was determined at 2.6 Å resolution and represents the first structure for this family. The structure revealed similarities to a class of eukaryotic “whirly” single-stranded DNA/RNA-binding proteins. However, the electro-negative surface of the SALPs suggests that neither SsgB nor any of the other SALPs are likely to interact with nucleotide substrates. Instead, we show that a conserved hydrophobic surface is likely to be important for SALP function and suggest that proteins are the likely binding partners. PMID:19567872

  1. Bacterial Community Structure and Biochemical Changes Associated With Composting of Lignocellulosic Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Huzairi Mohd Zainudin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial community structure and biochemical changes during the composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty bunch (EFB and palm oil mill effluent (POME anaerobic sludge were studied by examining the succession of the bacterial community and its association with changes in lignocellulosic components by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and the 16S rRNA gene clone library. During composting, a major reduction in cellulose after 10 days from 50% to 19% and the carbon content from 44% to 27% towards the end of the 40-day composting period were observed. The C/N ratio also decreased. A drastic change in the bacterial community structure and diversity throughout the composting process was clearly observed using PCR-DGGE banding patterns. The bacterial community drastically shifted between the thermophilic and maturing stages. 16s rRNA clones belonging to the genera Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Desemzia, and Planococcus were the dominant groups throughout composting. The species closely related to Solibacillus silvestris were found to be major contributors to changes in the lignocellulosic component. Clones identified as Thermobacillus xylanilyticus, Brachybacterium faecium, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, Cellulomonas sp., and Thermobifida fusca, which are known to be lignocellulosic-degrading bacteria, were also detected and are believed to support the lignocellulose degradation.

  2. Synergistic effect of UV radiation and nutrient limitation on Chlorella fusca (Chlorophyta) cultures grown in outdoor cylindrical photobioreactors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malpartida, I.; Jerez, C.G.; Morales, M.M.; Nascimento, E.; Freire, I.; Ezequiel, J.; Rico, R.M.; Peralta, E.; Malapascua, J.R.; Florez, Y.; Masojídek, Jiří; Abdala, R.; Figueroa, F.L.; Navarro, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2014), s. 141-158 ISSN 1864-7790 Grant - others:Univ. Málaga, Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spanish Government(ES) Acción Complementaria CTM2011-15659-E; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spanish Government(ES) BFU2010-22053 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : bio-optics * radiation * Chlorella * chlorophyll Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2014

  3. Temporal variation in macroinvertebrates associated with intertidal sponge Ircinia fusca (Carter 1880) from Ratnagiri, West coast, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.K.; Redij, A.G.S.; Sagare, P.; Thakur, N.L.; Ingole, B.S.

    : similarity profiles and biota-environment linkage, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 366 (2008) 56-69. 18 Villamizar, E., Laughlin, R.A., Fauna associated with the sponges Aplysina archeri and Aplysina etroit in a coral reef of the Archipiélago de Los Roques...

  4. Computational engineering of cellulase Cel9A-68 functional motions through mutations in its linker region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M G S; Silva, Y F; Batista, P R

    2018-03-14

    Microbial cellulosic degradation by cellulases has become a complementary approach for biofuel production. However, its efficiency is hindered by the recalcitrance of cellulose fibres. In this context, computational protein design methods may offer an efficient way to obtain variants with improved enzymatic activity. Cel9A-68 is a cellulase from Thermobifida fusca that is still active at high temperatures. In a previous work, we described a collective bending motion, which governs the overall cellulase dynamics. This movement promotes the approximation of its CBM and CD structural domains (that are connected by a flexible linker). We have identified two residues (G460 and P461) located at the linker that act as a hinge point. Herein, we applied a new level of protein design, focusing on the modulation of this collective motion to obtain cellulase variants with enhanced functional dynamics. We probed whether specific linker mutations would affect Cel9A-68 dynamics through computational simulations. We assumed that P461G and G460+ (with an extra glycine) constructs would present enhanced interdomain motions, while the G460P mutant would be rigid. From our results, the P461G mutation resulted in a broader exploration of the conformational space, as confirmed by clustering and free energy analyses. The WT enzyme was the most rigid system. However, G460P and P460+ explored distinct conformational states described by opposite directions of low-frequency normal modes; they sampled preferentially closed and open conformations, respectively. Overall, we highlight two significant findings: (i) all mutants explored larger conformational spaces than the WT; (ii) the selection of distinct conformational populations was intimately associated with the mutation considered. Thus, the engineering of Cel9A-68 motions through linker mutations may constitute an efficient way to improve cellulase activity, facilitating the disruption of cellulose fibres.

  5. Production of ethanol from lepthochloa fusca L. (kallar grass) and panicum maximum using cellulases from trichoderma SSP and cultures of saccharomyces carlsbergensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajoka, M.I.; Malik, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Saline sodic soils have been used for production of biomass using salt tolerant grass, kallar grass followed by lesser tolerant plants, namely, sasbania aculeata or Panicum maximum or to provide biomass throughout the year for it utilization for microbial conversion. These substrates have been utilized to produce single cell protein and cellases or hemicellulases. The enzyme titer obtained after growth of cellulomonas biazotea on kallar grass could saccharify wheat straw ad bagasse for subsequent conversion to ethanol but kallar grass itself was saccharified to lesser extent, however, enzyme titres from different fungi could saccherify the biomass produced on saline lands to monomeric sugars. In these studies, the enzyme titre from Trichoderma spp. were used for saccharification purpose. (author)

  6. Characterization of major histocompatibility complex class I, and class II DRB loci of captive and wild Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Drashti R; Mitra, Siuli; Bhadouriya, Snehalata; Rao, Tirupathi; Kunteepuram, Vaishnavi; Gaur, Ajay

    2017-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), in vertebrate animals, is a multi-genic protein complex that encodes various receptors. During a disease, MHC interacts with the antigen and triggers a cascade of adaptive immune responses to overcome a disease outbreak. The MHC is very important region from immunological point of view, but it is poorly characterized among Indian leopards. During this investigation, we examined genetic diversity for MHC class I (MHC-I) and MHC class II-DRB (MHC-II) among wild and captive Indian leopards. This study estimated a pool of 9 and 17 alleles for MHC-I and MHC-II, respectively. The wild group of individuals showed higher nucleotide diversity and amino acid polymorphism compared to the captive group. A phylogenetic comparison with other felids revealed a clustering in MHC-I and interspersed presence in MHC-II sequences. A test for selection also revealed a deviation from neutrality at MHC-II DRB loci and higher non-synonymous substitution rate (dN) among the individuals from wild group. Further, the wild individuals showed higher dN for both MHC I and II genes compared to the group that was bred under captive conditions. These findings suggest the role of micro-evolutionary forces, such as pathogen-mediated selection, to cause MHC variations among the two groups of Indian leopards, because the two groups have been bred in two different environments for a substantial period of time. Since, MHC diversity is often linked with the quality of immunological health; the results obtained from this study fill the gap of knowledge on disease predisposition among wild and captive Indian leopards.

  7. Culturable epibacteria of the marine sponge Ircinia fusca: Temporal variations and their possible role in the epibacterial defense of the host

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Anil, A.C.; Muller, W.E.G.

    during 5 different collection periods. These bacteria were assessed for antibacterial activity against fouling bacteria and for auto-inhibition with their extracts, using the ecologically relevant agar plug method. Morphological studies of all culturable...

  8. Chlorella fusca (Chlorophyta) grown in thin-layer cascades: Estimation of biomass productivity by in-vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence monitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jerez, C.G.; Malapascua, José R.F.; Sergejevová, M.; Masojídek, Jiří; Figueroa, F.L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, July 2016 (2016), s. 21-30 ISSN 2211-9264 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0059; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Biomass productivity * Chlorella * Electron transport rate (ETR) Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.994, year: 2016

  9. Substituting Both the N-Terminal and "Cord" Regions of a Xylanase from Aspergillus oryzae to Improve Its Temperature Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang; Li, Jianfang; Wang, Rui; Li, Xueqing; Li, Jinping; Deng, Chao; Wu, Minchen

    2018-02-06

    To improve the temperature characteristics of AoXyn11A, a mesophilic glycoside hydrolase family (GHF) 11 xylanase from Aspergillus oryzae CICC40186, its N-terminal and "cord" regions were selected to be substituted by means of the computer-aided analysis and calculation. In brief, one mutant, named ATX11A 41 , possessing the lowest root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) value was designed based on the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation by substituting the N-terminal 41 amino acids of AoXyn11A with the corresponding 42 ones of pXYL11, a thermophilic GHF11 xylanase from Thermobifida fusca. On the basis of the primary structure alignment of pXYL11 with ATX11A 41 (or AoXyn11A), another mutant, named ATX11A 41/cord , was designed by substituting the cord region ( 93 GTYNPGSGG 101 ) of ATX11A 41 with the corresponding one ( 93 GTYRPTG 99 ) of pXYL11. Both mutant-encoding genes, ATx11A 41 and ATx11A 41/cord , were constructed as designed theoretically by a megaprimer PCR technique and were expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The specific activities of recombinant (re) AoXyn11A, ATX11A 41 , and ATX11A 41/cord were 2916.7, 2667.6, and 2457.0 U/mg, respectively. The analysis of temperature characteristics displayed that the temperature optimum (T opt ) of reATX11A 41 or reATX11A 41/cord was 65 °C, which was 15 °C higher than that of reAoXyn11A. The thermal inactivation half-life (t 1/2 ) values of reATX11A 41 and reATX11A 41/cord at 60 °C were 55 and 83 min, respectively, whereas that of reAoXyn11A was only 18 min at 50 °C. The melting temperature (T m ) values of reAoXyn11A, reATX11A 41 , and reATX11A 41/cord were 54.2, 66.7, and 71.9 °C, respectively. In conclusion, the above findings indicated that the substitution of both the N-terminal and cord regions of a mesophilic AoXyn11A greatly contributed to its improved temperature characteristics.

  10. Effect of feeding Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) root as prebiotic on nutrient utilization, fecal characteristics and serum metabolite profile of captive Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) fed a meat-on-bone diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S K; Das, A; Kullu, S S; Saini, M; Pattanaik, A K; Dutta, N; Sharma, A K

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of incorporating Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a prebiotic in the diet of Indian leopards (n = 11 adults) fed a meat-on-bone diet. The trial consisted of three periods (A1 , B, and A2 ). Each period comprised 17 days of adaptation and four days of collection. During the control periods (A1 and A2 ), the leopards were fed their normal zoo diets of 2.5-3 kg of buffalo meat-on-bone six days a week without any supplement. During trial B, meat-on-bone diets of the leopards were supplemented with JA at 2% of dietary dry matter (DM). Meat consumption was similar among the treatments. Supplementation of JA decreased the digestibility of crude protein (P < 0.01). Digestibilities of organic matter and ether extract were similar among the treatments. Serum concentrations of urea and triglycerides were lower (P < 0.05) when JA was added to the diet. Incorporation of JA to the basal diet increased fecal concentrations of acetate (P < 0.01), butyrate (P < 0.01), lactate (P < 0.01), Lactobacillus spp., and Bifidobacterium spp. (P < 0.01) with a simultaneous decrease in the concentration of ammonia (P < 0.01), Clostridia spp. (P < 0.01), and fecal pH (P < 0.01). Fecal microbial profiles and hind gut fermentation were improved, without any adverse effects on feed consumption, nutrient utilization, and serum metabolite profiles. Results of this experiment showed that feeding JA at 2% DM in the whole diet could be potentially beneficial for captive Indian leopards fed meat-on-bone diets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Nepenthes Vogelii (Nepenthaceae): a new species from Sarawak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiteman, A.; Vogel, de E.F.

    2002-01-01

    Nepenthes vogelii Schuit. & de Vogel is described as a new species from Sarawak. It is compared with N. fusca Danser, from which it differs e.g. in the much smaller pitchers, of which the lid lacks appendages.

  12. Use of 15N-isotope dilution for quantification of nitrogen fixation in Saccharum SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Singh, G.B.; Joshi, B.B.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of present study were to quantify and compare the amount of nitrogen fixed by diazotrophes associated with roots of Saccharum spontaneum, S. barberi and S. sinense using Sclerotachya fusca as a non-fixing control. 5 refs

  13. Formalized classification of European fen vegetation at the alliance level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterka, Tomáš; Hájek, Michal; Jiroušek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aims Phytosociological classification of fen vegetation (Scheuchzerio palustris-Caricetea fuscae class) differs among European countries. Here we propose a unified vegetation classification of European fens at the alliance level, provide unequivocal assignment rules for individual vegetation plot...

  14. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of twig essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... The chemical composition of twig essential oils of Xylopia malayana, Xylopia elliptica and Xylopia fusca were analyzed ... brown or dark green in colors and fragrant. .... extraction used and geographic origin of plant studied.

  15. Marked hybridization and introgression in Ophrys sect. Pseudophrys in the western Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrim, Helena; Monteiro, Filipa; Sousa, Eva; Pinto, Manuel J; Fay, Michael F

    2016-04-01

    Orchids in the genus Ophrys represent extraordinary cases of tight coevolution between plants and their pollinators, and as a result, they present opportunities for studying hybridization, or a lack thereof, during speciation. However, few studies assess the real effect of hybridization in diversification. The three most representative species of section Pseudophrys in the western Iberian Peninsula-O. dyris, O. fusca, and O. lutea-were chosen to study evolutionary relationships and examine speciation. Using eight specific nuclear microsatellite loci, 357 individuals from 28 locations were studied; 142 of these samples were also studied with four plastid microsatellite loci. Data were analyzed using Bayesian cluster analysis, a median-joint network, and multivariate analysis. Many O. dyris and O. fusca specimens had three or four alleles and were therefore treated as tetraploid. Ophrys dyris is poorly genetically separated from O. fusca, and pure populations are rare. Ophrys fusca and O. lutea are distinct, but hybrids/introgressed individuals were detected in most of the populations and supported by plastid haplotypes. Ophrys fusca is subdivided into three well-delimited genetic lineages with a strict geographic correspondence confirmed by plastid haplotypes. Because postzygotic barriers are weak, leakage in this highly specialized orchid-pollinator system contributes to hybridization and introgression. These leakages may have occurred during periods of past climate change, promoting homogenization and the potential for generations of new biodiversity via production of novel genotypes/phenotypes interacting with pollinators. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Bacterial endophytes enhance phytostabilization in soils contaminated with uranium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Muhammad Tayyab; Najam-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Idrees, Muhammad; Ullah, Inayat; Afzal, Muhammad

    2017-10-03

    The combined use of plants and bacteria is a promising approach for the remediation of polluted soil. In the current study, the potential of bacterial endophytes in partnership with Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth was evaluated for the remediation of uranium (U)- and lead (Pb)-contaminated soil. L. fusca was vegetated in contaminated soil and inoculated with three different endophytic bacterial strains, Pantoea stewartii ASI11, Enterobacter sp. HU38, and Microbacterium arborescens HU33, individually as well as in combination. The results showed that the L. fusca can grow in the contaminated soil. Bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and phytoremediation capacity: this manifested in the form of a 22-51% increase in root length, 25-62% increase in shoot height, 10-21% increase in chlorophyll content, and 17-59% more plant biomass in U- and Pb-contaminated soils as compared to plants without bacterial inoculation. Although L. fusca plants showed potential to accumulate U and Pb in their root and shoot on their own, bacterial consortia further enhanced metal uptake capacity by 53-88% for U and 58-97% for Pb. Our results indicate that the combination of L. fusca and endophytic bacterial consortia can effectively be used for the phytostabilization of both U- and Pb-contaminated soils.

  17. Monograph of Diplachne (Poaceae, Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Neil; Peterson, Paul M; Romaschenko, Konstantin; Simon, Bryan K

    2018-01-01

    Diplachne P. Beauv. comprises two species with C 4 (NAD-ME) photosynthesis. Diplachne fusca has a nearly pantropical-pantemperate distribution with four subspecies: D. fusca subsp. fusca is Paleotropical with native distributions in Africa, southern Asia and Australia; the widespread Australian endemic D. f. subsp. muelleri; and D. f. subsp. fascicularis and D. f. subsp. uninervia occurring in the New World. Diplachne gigantea is known from a few widely scattered, older collections in east-central and southern Africa, and although Data Deficient clearly is of conservation concern. A discussion of previous taxonomic treatments is provided, including molecular data supporting Diplachne in its newer, restricted sense. Many populations of Diplachne fusca are highly tolerant of saline substrates and most prefer seasonally moist to saturated soils, often in disturbed areas. Some populations of Diplachne fusca in southern Asia combine nitrogen-fixation, high salinity tolerance and palatibilty to livestock, which should be pursued with further research for purposes of soil reclamation. Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia is the most invasive of the subspecies and is becoming weedy in some non-native areas, including in the Old World. This monograph provides detailed descriptions of all taxa, a key to the species and subspecies, geographic distributions and information on the anatomy of leaves, stems, lemmatal micromorphology and discussions of the chromosome numbers. Lectotypes are designated for: Atropis carinata Grisb.; Diplachne acuminata Nash; Diplachne capensis (Nees) Nees var. concinna Nees; Diplachne capensis (Nees) Nees var. obscura Nees, Diplachne capensis (Nees) Nees var. prolifera subvar. minor Nees, Diplachne halei Nash, Diplachne maritima E.P. Bicknel, Diplachne muelleri Benth., Diplachne reverchonii Vasey, Diplachne tectoneticola Backer, Leptochloa imbricata Thurb., Leptochloa neuroglossa Peter, Leptochloa uninervia var. typica fo. abbreviata Parodi, Triodia

  18. Thermostable cellulase from a thermomonospora gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D.B.; Walker, L.P.; Zhang, S.

    1997-10-14

    The invention relates to a gene isolated from Thermomonospora fusca, wherein the gene encodes a thermostable cellulase. Disclosed is the nucleotide sequence of the T. fusca gene; and nucleic acid molecules comprising the gene, or a fragment of the gene, that can be used to recombinantly express the cellulase or a catalytically active polypeptide thereof, respectively. The isolated and purified recombinant cellulase or catalytically active polypeptide may be used to hydrolyze substrate either by itself; or in combination with other cellulases, with the resultant combination having unexpected hydrolytic activity. 3 figs.

  19. A first note on foliicolous lichens of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A first note on foliicolous lichens of Assam enumerating 26 species belonging to 15 genera and eight families are provided.  Four species viz., Bacidina apiahica, Byssoloma chlorinum, Calopadia fusca and Strigula nitidula are reported for the first time from Assam.  A number of rare species are present, including Aulaxina uniseptata, Calenia aspidota and Psorotheciopsis patellarioides. 

  20. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Dark-mantled sooty albatross. 564. 1 000. 1 564 .... albatrosses (dark-mantled P. fusca and light-mantled .... Affairs and Tourism 2001, www.environment.gov.za); the decision to .... is of a nature that may negatively impact on the sur- vival of a ...

  1. Light acclimation and pH perturbations affect photosynthetic performance in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihnken, S.; Beardall, J.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Gómez Serrano, C.; Torres, M.A.; Masojídek, J.; Malpartida, I.; Abdala, R.; Gil Jerez, C.; Malapascua, J.R.; Navarro, E.; Rico, R.M.; Peralta, E.; Ferreira Ezequil, J.P.; Lopez Figueroa, F

    2014-01-01

    Chlorella spp. are robust chlorophyte microalgal species frequently used in mass culture. The pH optimum for growth is close to neutrality; at this pH, theoretically little energy is required to maintain homeostasis. In the present study, we grew Chlorella fusca cells in an open, outdoor, thin-layer

  2. 1023-IJBCS-Article-Dr Yonli Djibril

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    x x x x x. Schizachyrium sanguineum Alton x. Schoenepheldia gracilis Kunth. x x. Setaria pallide-fusca Stapf et C.E.. Hubbard. x x x. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench x x. Sporobolus festivus Hochst. x x x x. Sporobolus pyramidalis P. Beauv. x. Zea mays L. x x. Plantes hôtes de la famille des. Cyperacea. Bulbostylis barbata ...

  3. Biotransformation of mercury in pH-stat cultures of eukaryotic freshwater algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David J A; Budd, Kenneth; Lefebvre, Daniel D

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic algae were studied to determine their ability to biotransform Hg(II) under aerated and pH controlled conditions. All algae converted Hg(II) into beta-HgS and Hg(0) to varying degrees. When Hg(II) was administered as HgCl(2) to the algae, biotransformation by species of Chlorophyceae (Selenastrum minutum and Chlorella fusca var. fusca) was initiated with beta-HgS synthesis (K (1/2) of hours) and concomitant Hg degrees evolution occurred in the first hour. Hg degrees synthesis was impeded by the formation of beta-HgS and this inhibition was released in C. fusca var. fusca when cellular thiols were oxidized by the addition of dimethylfumarate (DMF). The diatom, Navicula pelliculosa (Bacillariophyceae), converted a substantially greater proportion of the applied Hg(II) into Hg(0), whereas the thermophilic alga, Galdieria sulphuraria (Cyanidiophyceae), rapidly biotransformed as much as 90% of applied Hg(II) into beta-HgS (K (1/2) approximately 20 min). This thermophile was also able to generate Hg(0) even after all exogenously applied HgCl(2) had been biotransformed. The results suggest that beta-HgS may be the major dietary mercurial for grazers of contaminated eukaryotic algae.

  4. Effect of laboratory rearing period to the quality of Chilo partellus as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Mutisya

    2013-07-26

    Jul 26, 2013 ... 74-76. Onyango FO, Ochieng-Odero (1994). Continuos rearing of the maize stemborer Busseola fusca on artificial diet. Entomologia. Experimentalis et Applicata. 73:139-144. Reddy SKV, Walker PT (1990). A review of the yield losses in graminaceous crops caused by Chilo spp. Insect Sci. Appl. 11:563-.

  5. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 23 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Control of Busseola fusca and Chilo partellus stem borers by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-δ-endotoxins from Cry1Ab gene Event MON810 in greenhouse containment trials · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Mugo, MG Murenga, H Karaya, R Tende, ...

  6. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of twig essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... The chemical composition of twig essential oils of Xylopia malayana, Xylopia elliptica and Xylopia fusca ... Volatile constituents and bioactivity studies are available in the literature on Xylopia aethiopica (Issakou et al., 2014;. Sylvain et al, 2014; Vyry et al, 2014), Xylopia longifolia. (Fourier et al, 1993), ...

  7. Notes on the genus Pirdana Distant, 1886 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Treadaway, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    In the Oriental genus Pirdana Distant, 1886, the new species P. fusca is described from Samar (E Philippines). The phylogeny of the genus is discussed and as a consequence the endemic Sulawesi taxon P. hyela ismene (Felder & Felder, [1867]) is given back its species rank, bringing the total number

  8. Phylogenetic relationships among Brazilian howler monkeys, genus Alouatta (Platyrrhini, Atelidae, based on g1-globin pseudogene sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Meireles

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alouatta (howler monkeys is the most widely distributed of New World primates, and has been arranged in three species groups: the Central American Alouatta palliata group and the South American Alouatta seniculus and Alouatta caraya groups. While the latter is monotypic, the A. seniculus group encompasses at least three species (A. seniculus, A. belzebul and A. fusca. In the present study, approximately 600 base pairs of the g1-globin pseudogene were sequenced in the four Brazilian species (A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca and A. caraya. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods yielded phylogenetic trees with the same arrangement: {A. caraya [A. seniculus (A. fusca, A. belzebul]}. The most parsimonious tree had bootstrap values greater than 82% for all groupings, and strength of grouping values of at least 2, supporting the sister clade of A. fusca and A. belzebul. The study also confirmed the presence of a 150-base pair Alu insertion element and a 1.8-kb deletion in the g1-globin pseudogene in A. fusca, features found previously in the remaining three species. The cladistic classification based on molecular data agrees with those of morphological studies, with the monospecific A. caraya group being clearly differentiated from the A. seniculus group.Os guaribas, do gênero Alouatta, que são os primatas do Novo Mundo com maior distribuição geográfica, têm sido colocados em três grupos de espécies: o grupo Alouatta palliata da América central, e os grupos sulamericanos Alouatta seniculus e Alouatta caraya. Este último é monotípico, mas o grupo A. seniculus inclui pelo menos três espécies (A. seniculus, A. belzebul e A. fusca. Neste estudo, foram seqüenciados aproximadamente 600 pares de base do pseudogene globina g1 nas quatro espécies brasileiras (A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca e A. caraya. Os métodos de máxima parcimônia e máxima verossimilhança produziram árvores filogenéticas com o mesmo arranjo

  9. Habitat, density and group size of primates in a Brazilian tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, L P; Costa, C M; Strier, K B; da Fonseca, G A

    1993-01-01

    Habitats, population densities and group sizes of 5 primate species (Callithrix flaviceps, Callicebus personatus personatus, Cebus apella nigritus, Alouatta fusca clamitans, and Brachyteles arachnoides) were estimated, using the method of repeated transect sampling, in an area of montane pluvial forest in eastern Brazil (Atlantic forest). A. fusca and C. apella had the highest densities in terms of groups and individuals per square kilometer, respectively, while B. arachnoides was least abundant. The highest primate densities were observed in areas of secondary vegetation. Both group sizes and population densities for the 5 species were generally lower at the Reserva Biologica Augusto Ruschi than those reported in other areas of Atlantic forest. Hunting pressure and the different carrying capacity of the habitat are suggested as possible causes for the low number of sightings registered for these species.

  10. Cianobacterias del embalse San Roque (Córdoba, Argentina Cyanobacteria of the San Roque reservoir (Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Claudia Daga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una contribución al conocimiento de las cianobacterias presentes en el embalse San Roque y forma parte de un estudio integral de la flora algal del mencionado embalse. Se citan 24 taxa correspondientes a los Ordenes Chroococcales (11, Nostocales (8 y Oscillatoriales (5. Synechocystis aquatilis, Gloeocapsa rupestris, Gomphosphaeria aponina, Chamaesiphon incrustans f. incrustans, Scytonema crispum, Tolypothrix distorta, Gloeotrichia pisum, Calothrix fusca, Trichodesmium lacustre, Geitlerinema splendidum, Lyngbya aestuarii y Borzia trilocularis son nuevas citas para la zona de estudio.This work is a contribution to the knowledge of the Cyanobacteria present in the San Roque reservoir and forms a part of an integral study of its algal flora. Twenty-four taxa are described and ilustrated: 11 Chroococcales, 8 Nostocales, and 5 Oscillatoriales. Synechocystis aquatilis, Gloeocapsa rupestris, Gomphosphaeria aponina, Chamaesiphon incrustans f. incrustans, Scytonema crispum, Tolypothrix distorta, Gloeotrichia pisum, Calothrix fusca, Trichodesmium lacustre, Geitlerinema splendidum, Lyngbya aestuarii and Borzia trilocularis.

  11. Estimation of nitrogen fixation in Saccharum spp. by 15N dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mohan

    1994-01-01

    The amount of nitrogen fixed by bacteria associated with the roots of Saccharum spontaneum, S. sinense, and S. barberi has been estimated by 15 N-isotope dilution method using Sclerotachya fusca as a non-fixing control. S. spontaneum produced highest shoot dry weight among the species tested but maximum nitrogen was accumulated by S. barberi. Highest dilution in the 15 N-enrichment was observed in S. spontaneum followed by S. sinense and S. barberi in comparison to the control plant of Sclerotchya fusca. S. spontaneum derived 60 per cent followed by S. sinense 54 per cent and S. barberi 35 per cent of their total nitrogen requirement through fixation of nitrogen by diazotrophic bacteria associated with their roots. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Wellington Quaternary palynology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.F.; Mildenhall, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Pollen samples from a profile at Taita indicate a grassland environment prior to and immediately after the deposition of the Aokautere Ash (Kawakawa Tephra) approximately 21,000 years B.P. This grassland gradually gave way to a Nothofagus menziesii montane forest followed by an abrupt change to a N. ''Fusca'' group dominant forest which continues to the top of the section. The top few centimetres of the profile may have been deposited in post-European time. The abrupt change in the species of beech represents an unconformity of unknown duration. Pollen samples from a number of profiles at Mangaroa (Wallaceville Swamp) indicate a change from a cool environment (Gramineae plus Phyllocladus) through successive phases of Nothofagus menziesii, Podocarpus species, Dacrydium cupressinum to Nothofagus ''fusca'' group close to the present day. These results are presented in an historical context based on notes left by Dr W.F. Harris, supplemented with additional data by the junior author

  13. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la flora de navarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALDA, Angel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuevos datos acerca de 58 táxones de plantas de interés, bien por su rareza en el terrirorio navarro o por la ampliación de área que suponen. De ellos, 12 se citan por primera vez para Navarra : Epilobium angustifolium, Fraxinus pennylvanica, Galinsoga quadriradiata, Gamochaeta falcata, Isatis tinctoria subsp. tinctoria, Ludwigia palustris, Lycopodeilla inundata, Pseudorchis albida, Ramonda myconi, Rynchospora alba, Rynchospora fusca y Spiranthes aestivalis

  14. ASPECTS CONCERNING THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN SEVERAL THERMOACTINOMYCETE STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Dunca

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In the thermoactinomycete strains subjected to examination the values of their recorded enzymatic activities (i.e. α-amy lase, protease, exo-β-1,4 – glucanase, endo -β-1,4 – glucanase and β-glucosidase were lower in the stationary cultures as compared to the stirred ones. The strain Thermomonospora fusca BB255 was found to be highly cellulase- producing and at the same time able to synthesize α-amy lases and proteases.

  15. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Derris scandens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Hussain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Different fractions of root and stem of Derris scandens demonstrated good antibacterial (Escherichia coli, and Bacillus megaterium, antialgal (Chlorella fusca, and antifungal (Microbotryum violaceum activities. Phytochemical investigation resulted in isolation of scandenin, scandenin A, betulinic acid, lupeol, β-amyran-3-one, β-amyrin, β-sitosterol and ß-sitosterol glucopyranoside. Study showed that scandenin has strong antibacterial activity against B. megaterium and good antifungal and antialgal properties. Scandenin A showed good antibacterial, antifungal and antialgal properties.

  16. Cameroonenoside A: A New Antialgal Phenolic Glycoside from Helichrysum cameroonense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakam Zanetsie Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Helichrysum cameroonense is known for its medicinal value . This paper deals with a phytochemical investigation of this species, from which cameroonenoside A (1, a new cinnamic acid glycoside ester has been isolated. Its structure was determined by comprehensive analyses of its 1H and 13C NMR, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC spectroscopic, and HREIMS mass spectrometric data. Preliminary studies showed that cameroonenoside A (1 showed algicidal activity against Chlorella fusca

  17. Dominant inheritance of field-evolved resistance to Bt corn in Busseolafusca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Campagne

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins have been adopted worldwide, notably in developing countries. In spite of their success in controlling target pests while allowing a substantial reduction of insecticide use, the sustainable control of these pest populations is threatened by the evolution of resistance. The implementation of the "high dose/refuge" strategy for managing insect resistance in transgenic crops aims at delaying the evolution of resistance to Bt crops in pest populations by promoting survival of susceptible insects. However, a crucial condition for the "high dose/refuge" strategy to be efficient is that the inheritance of resistance should be functionally recessive. Busseolafusca developed high levels of resistance to the Bt toxin Cry 1Ab expressed in Bt corn in South Africa. To test whether the inheritance of B. fusca resistance to the Bt toxin could be considered recessive we performed controlled crosses with this pest and evaluated its survival on Bt and non-Bt corn. Results show that resistance of B. fusca to Bt corn is dominant, which refutes the hypothesis of recessive inheritance. Survival on Bt corn was not lower than on non-Bt corn for both resistant larvae and the F1 progeny from resistant × susceptible parents. Hence, resistance management strategies of B. fusca to Bt corn must address non-recessive resistance.

  18. Facultative slave-making ants Formica sanguinea label their slaves with own recognition cues instead of employing the strategy of chemical mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Tomasz; Szczepaniak, Lech

    2017-01-01

    Slave-making ant species use the host workforce to ensure normal colony functioning. Slaves are robbed as pupae from their natal nest and after eclosion, assume the parasite colony as their own. A possible factor promoting the successful integration of slaves into a foreign colony is congruence with the slave-makers in terms of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are known to play the role of recognition cues in social insects. Such an adaptation is observed in the obligate slave-making ant species, which are chemically adjusted to their slaves. To date, however, no reports have been available on facultative slave-making species, which represent an earlier stage of the evolution of slavery. Such an example is Formica sanguinea, which exploit F. fusca colonies as their main source of a slave workforce. Our results show that F. sanguinea ants have a distinct cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which contains compounds not present in free-living F. fusca ants from potential target nests. Moreover, enslaved F. fusca ants acquire hydrocarbons from their slave-making nestmates to such an extent that they become chemically differentiated from free-living, conspecific ants. Our study shows that F. sanguinea ants promote their own recognition cues in their slaves, rather than employing the strategy of chemical mimicry. Possible reasons why F. sanguinea is not chemically well adjusted to its main host species are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Emission Standards for Stationary Pre-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal... Stationary Pre-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of 2,237 KW (3,000 HP) and With a Displacement of...

  20. Comparación de tres leguminosas arbóreas sembradas en un sustrato alcalino durante el período de aviveramiento. I. Variables morfoestructurales Comparison of three tree legumes planted on an alkaline substratum during the nursery stage. I. Morphostructural variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G Medina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo un ensayo en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento morfoestructural de Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (ecotipo Trujillo y Erythrina fusca en condiciones de vivero. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado para mediciones repetidas en el tiempo y diez réplicas por especie. Las variables estudiadas fueron: altura de la planta; diámetro del tallo y de las ramas; número de hojas, ramas, raíces y nódulos totales; y longitud de la rama y de la raíz. Al final de la evaluación (18 semanas no se observaron diferencias significativas entre L. leucocephala y E. fusca en la altura de la planta (45,2 y 51,0 cm, el diámetro del tallo (0,65 y 0,78 cm, el número de hojas (43 y 45 y de ramas (17 y 18 y la longitud de la raíz (32,1 y 36,5 cm. A. lebbeck sólo se destacó en el número de raíces (61 y de nódulos totales promedio (6. Los resultados permiten concluir que con la utilización de un sustrato alcalino en vivero, L. leucocephala y E. fusca exhibieron un comportamiento morfoestructural aéreo similar y superior que el de A. lebbeck; mientras que la albizia mostró mejores resultados en la morfoestructura radical.A trial was conducted in the Trujillo state, Venezuela, in order to evaluate the morphostructural performance of Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (Trujillo ecotype and Erythrina fusca under nursery conditions. A completely randomized design was used for repeated measurements in time and ten replications per species. The studied variables were: plant height; stem and branch diameter; number of leaves, branches, roots and total nodules; and branch and root length. At the end of the evaluation (18 weeks no significant differences were observed between L. leucocephala and E. fusca in plant height (45,2 and 51,0 cm, stem diameter (0,65 and 0,78 cm, number of leaves (43 and 45 and branches (17 and 18 and root length (32,1 and 36,5 cm. A. lebbeck only stood out for

  1. Influence of Temperature on Intra- and Interspecific Resource Utilization within a Community of Lepidopteran Maize Stemborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntiri, Eric Siaw; Calatayud, Paul-Andre; Van Den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Competition or facilitation characterises intra- and interspecific interactions within communities of species that utilize the same resources. Temperature is an important factor influencing those interactions and eventual outcomes. The noctuid stemborers, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis and the crambid Chilo partellus attack maize in sub-Saharan Africa. They often occur as a community of interacting species in the same field and plant at all elevations. The influence of temperature on the intra- and interspecific interactions among larvae of these species, was studied using potted maize plants exposed to varying temperatures in a greenhouse and artificial stems kept at different constant temperatures (15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C) in an incubator. The experiments involved single- and multi-species infestation treatments. Survival and relative growth rates of each species were assessed. Both intra- and interspecific competitions were observed among all three species. Interspecific competition was stronger between the noctuids and the crambid than between the two noctuids. Temperature affected both survival and relative growth rates of the three species. Particularly at high temperatures, C. partellus was superior in interspecific interactions shown by higher larval survival and relative growth rates. In contrast, low temperatures favoured survival of B. fusca and S. calamistis but affected the relative growth rates of all three species. Survival and relative growth rates of B. fusca and S. calamistis in interspecific interactions did not differ significantly across temperatures. Temperature increase caused by future climate change is likely to confer an advantage on C. partellus over the noctuids in the utilization of resources (crops).

  2. Influence of Temperature on Intra- and Interspecific Resource Utilization within a Community of Lepidopteran Maize Stemborers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Siaw Ntiri

    Full Text Available Competition or facilitation characterises intra- and interspecific interactions within communities of species that utilize the same resources. Temperature is an important factor influencing those interactions and eventual outcomes. The noctuid stemborers, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis and the crambid Chilo partellus attack maize in sub-Saharan Africa. They often occur as a community of interacting species in the same field and plant at all elevations. The influence of temperature on the intra- and interspecific interactions among larvae of these species, was studied using potted maize plants exposed to varying temperatures in a greenhouse and artificial stems kept at different constant temperatures (15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C in an incubator. The experiments involved single- and multi-species infestation treatments. Survival and relative growth rates of each species were assessed. Both intra- and interspecific competitions were observed among all three species. Interspecific competition was stronger between the noctuids and the crambid than between the two noctuids. Temperature affected both survival and relative growth rates of the three species. Particularly at high temperatures, C. partellus was superior in interspecific interactions shown by higher larval survival and relative growth rates. In contrast, low temperatures favoured survival of B. fusca and S. calamistis but affected the relative growth rates of all three species. Survival and relative growth rates of B. fusca and S. calamistis in interspecific interactions did not differ significantly across temperatures. Temperature increase caused by future climate change is likely to confer an advantage on C. partellus over the noctuids in the utilization of resources (crops.

  3. Novos táxons de Lamiinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae da América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Novos táxons descritos: Acanthoderini, Nesozineus osorioensis sp. nov., do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul; Calliini, Drycothaea clara sp. nov., do Brasil (Rondônia e Drycothaea hovorei sp. nov., do Equador (Napo; Forsteriini, Itacolomi gen. nov., espécie-tipo I. letiziae sp. nov., do Brasil (Minas Gerais; Yapyguara gen. nov., espécie-tipo Y. fusca sp. nov., da Bolívia (Santa Cruz; Xenofreini, Xenofrea zischkai sp. nov., do Equador (Napo e da Bolívia (Santa Cruz.

  4. Effect of OX-VIRIN versus phytoplankton; Eficacia de OX.VIRIN frente a fitoplancton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevilla Miguel, E.; Peleato Sanchez, M. L.; Gomez-Moreno Calera, C.; Oros Monje, J.; Vergara Larrayad, Y.

    2003-07-01

    The effect of the peroxide biocides OX-VIRIN has been tested on the survival of several representative phytoplankton species. Scenedesmus vacuolatus green algae, Anabaena sp. PCC7120 filamentous cyanobacteria and Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7005 unicellular cyanobacteria have been used. The parameters used to control the effectiveness of the biocide have been the chlorophyll determination and re culture. It has been shown that OX-VIRIN at dosages of 0.2, 0.5 and 1% is lethal against Microcystis, Anabaena, and Scenedesmus vacuolatus (formerly called Chlorella fusca), being the first mentioned organisms the most sensible to the biocide. (Author)

  5. Basic chromosome numbers and polyploid levels in some South African and Australian grasses (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Spies

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers of 46 specimens of grasses, involving 24 taxa from South Africa and Australia, have been determined during the present study. For the first time chromosome numbers are given for Eragrostis sarmentosa (Thunb. Trin. (n = 20. Panicum aequinerve Nees (n = 18,  Digitaria argyrograpta (Nees Stapf (n = 9 and D. maitlandii Stapf & C.E. Hubb. (n = 9. Additional polyploid levels are described for Diplachne fusca (L. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. (n = 10 and Digitaria diagonalis (Nees Stapf var.  diagonalis (n = 9. B-chromosomes were observed in several different specimens. The presence of B-chromosomes often results in abnormal chromosomal behaviour during meiosis.

  6. Use of Solid Waste from Thermoelectric Plants for the Cultivation of Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna da Silva Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of solid waste on the cultivation of the microalgae Spirulina sp. LEB 18 and Chlorella fusca LEB 111 with 0, 40, 80 and 120 ppm of mineral coal ash. The addition of the ash did not inhibit the cultivation of microalgae at the tested concentrations, showing that it could be used for the cultivation of these microalgae due to the minerals present in the ash, which might substitute the nutrients needed for their growth.

  7. Importance of prumycin produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SD-32 in biocontrol against cucumber powdery mildew disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keijitsu; Fukuda, Mutsumi; Amaki, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Takatoshi; Inai, Koji; Ishihara, Atsushi; Nakajima, Hiromitsu

    2017-12-01

    Powdery mildew disease of cucurbits is caused mainly by Podosphaera fusca, which is one of the most important limiting factors in cucurbit production worldwide. Previously we reported that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biocontrol strain SD-32 produces C 17 bacillomycin D and [Ile 2002]surfactin, and that these metabolites play important roles in SD-32's biocontrol over cucumber gray mold disease. Our further investigation demonstrated that the culture broth and its supernatant suppressed cucumber powdery mildew disease in greenhouse experiments. However, the active principle(s) remained unknown. The active compound was isolated from the culture supernatant after anti-powdery mildew disease activity-guided purification and identified as prumycin. Prumycin significantly suppressed the disease, whereas bacillomycin D and [Ile 2002]surfactin did not. Prumycin did not induce the expression of plant defense genes (PR1a and VSP1), suggesting that it does not act via plant defense response. Light microscopic observations of prumycin-treated cucumber cotyledon suggested that prumycin inhibits the conidial germination of P. fusca. This study demonstrates that prumycin is a major factor in SD-32's suppression of cucumber powdery mildew disease. Our findings shed light for the first time on prumycin's role in biocontrol by Bacillus against this disease. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF VARIOUS FEEDSTUFFS FOR LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION USING IN VITRO GAS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. KHANUM, T. YAQOOB1, S. SADAF1, M. HUSSAIN, M. A. JABBAR1, H. N. HUSSAIN, R. KAUSAR AND S. REHMAN1

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional quality of some conventional and non-conventional feed resources by using in vitro gas method. Samples of various feedstuffs were analyzed chemically, as well as by in vitro gas method. The feedstuffs having different digestibilities showed significant (P<0.05 differences in the rate and amount of gas production, metabolizable energy (ME and digestibility of organic matter. Predicted metabolizable energy values were very low in feedstuffs having high fiber and low protein contents. These feedstuffs included various grasses, crop residues and wheal straw. Lowest ME value of 4.7 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM was found in wheat straw. Many of the roughages (Sorghum vulgare, Kochia indica, Leptochloa fusca studied were found to be deficient in fermentable carbohydrates, resulting in low organic matter digestibility. Concentrate feed stuffs like cotton seed meal, sunflower meal, cotton seed cakes, rice polish, rapeseed meal and Zea mays (maize grains had higher ME values (9.27 – 12.44 MJ/kg DM. The difference of ME of various feedstuffs reflects different contents of fermentable carbohydrates and available nitrogen in cereals and protein supplements. Among the non-conventional feedstuffs, Acacia ampliceps, Acacia nilotica, Sesbania aculeata, Leptochloa fusca and Prosopis juliflora were found potential fodders. Extensive use of in vitro gas method proved its potential as a tool to evaluate various ruminant feeds for energy component.

  9. Comparación de tres leguminosas arbóreas sembradas en un sustrato alcalino durante el período de aviveramiento. II. Patrón de crecimiento y distribución de la biomasa Comparison of three tree legumes planted on an alkaline substratum during the nursery stage. II. Growth and biomass distribution pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G Medina¹

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un experimento en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de comparar el patrón de crecimiento y la distribución de biomasa de Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (ecotipo Trujillo y Erythrina fusca durante 18 semanas en vivero. Las variables estudiadas fueron: tasa de crecimiento en función de la altura (TCA y de la distribución de la MS (TCMS, así como el porcentaje de materia seca (MS y el peso seco por planta de las fracciones (hojas, tallo, raíz. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado para mediciones repetidas en el tiempo y diez réplicas por especie. Erythrina presentó la mayor TCA y TCMS promedio (3,7 mm/día y 94,8 mg/día, seguida por leucaena (3,1 y 81,3 y, por último, albizia (1,2 mm/día y 53,1 mg/día, respectivamente. Independientemente de la especie, el mayor porcentaje de MS promedio se observó en las raíces (31,9, seguido por el tallo (28,0 y las hojas (25,4. Se observó una mayor distribución de MS por planta en las hojas (3,9 g y la raíz (3,1 g, comparados con el tallo (2,9 g. Se concluye que, para estas condiciones de aviveramiento, E. fusca presentó los mejores resultados; mientras que A. lebbeck necesitaría más tiempo para alcanzar las características deseables para su trasplante a campo.A trial was conducted in the Trujillo state, Venezuela, in order to compare the growth and biomass distribution pattern of Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (Trujillo ecotype and Erythrina fusca for 18 weeks in nursery. The studied variables were: growth rate related to height (GRH and DM distribution (GRDM, as well as dry matter percentage (DM and dry weight per plant of the fractions (leaves, stem, root. A completely randomized design for measurements repeated in time and ten replications per species were used. E. fusca showed the highest average GRH and GRDM (3,7 mm/day and 94,8 mg/day, followed by L. leucocephala (3,1 and 81,3 and, lastly, A. lebbeck (1,2 mm/day and 53,1 mg

  10. Microbial communities and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the biodegradation of specified risk material in compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shanwei; Reuter, Tim; Gilroyed, Brandon H.; Tymensen, Lisa; Hao, Yongxin; Hao, Xiying; Belosevic, Miodrag; Leonard, Jerry J.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Addition of feathers altered bacterial and fungal communities in compost. ► Microbial communities degrading SRM and compost matrix were distinct. ► Addition of feathers may enrich for microbial communities that degrade SRM. ► Inclusion of feather in compost increased both CH 4 and N 2 O emissions from compost. ► Density of methanogens and methanotrophs were weakly associated with CH 4 emissions. - Abstract: Provided that infectious prions (PrP Sc ) are inactivated, composting of specified risk material (SRM) may be a viable alternative to rendering and landfilling. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities as well as greenhouse gas emissions associated with the degradation of SRM were examined in laboratory composters over two 14 day composting cycles. Chicken feathers were mixed into compost to enrich for microbial communities involved in the degradation of keratin and other recalcitrant proteins such as prions. Feathers altered the composition of bacterial and fungal communities primarily during the first cycle. The bacterial genera Saccharomonospora, Thermobifida, Thermoactinomycetaceae, Thiohalospira, Pseudomonas, Actinomadura, and Enterobacter, and the fungal genera Dothideomycetes, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and Trichaptum were identified as candidates involved in SRM degradation. Feathers increased (P 4 primarily during the early stages of the first cycle and N 2 O during the second. Although inclusion of feathers in compost increases greenhouse gas emissions, it may promote the establishment of microbial communities that are more adept at degrading SRM and recalcitrant proteins such as keratin and PrP Sc

  11. [New isolation methods and phylogenetic diversity of actinobacteria from hypersaline beach in Aksu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xia, Zhanfeng; Cao, Xinbo; Li, Jun; Zhang, Lili

    2013-08-04

    We explored 4 new methods to improve the isolation of actinobacterial resources from high salt areas. Optimized media based on 4 new strategies were used for isolating actinobacteria from hypersaline beaches. Glycerin-arginine, trehalose-creatine, glycerol-asparticacid, mannitol-casein, casein-mannitol, mannitol-alanine, chitosan-asparagineand GAUZE' No. 1 were used as basic media. New isolation strategy includes 4 methods: ten-fold dilution culture, simulation of the original environment, actinobacterial culture guided by uncultured molecular technology detected, and reference of actinobacterial media for brackish marine environment. The 16S rRNA genes of the isolates were amplified with bacterial universal primers. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequences were compared with sequences obtained from GenBank databases. We constructed phylogenetic tree with the neighbor-joining method. No actinobacterial strains were isolated by 8 media of control group, while 403 strains were isolated by new strategies. The isolates by new methods were members of 14 genera (Streptomyces, Streptomonospora, Saccharomonospora, Plantactinospora, Nocardia, Amycolatopsis, Glycomyces, Micromonospora, Nocardiopsis, Isoptericola, Nonomuraea, Thermobifida, Actinopolyspora, Actinomadura) of 10 families in 8 suborders. The most abundant and diverse isolates were the two suborders of Streptomycineae (69.96%) and Streptosporangineaesuborder (9.68%) within the phylum Actinobacteria, including 9 potential novel species. New isolation methods significantly improved the actinobacterial culturability of hypersaline areas, and obtained many potential novel species, which provided a new and more effective way to isolate actinobacteria resources in hypersaline environments.

  12. The Anabaena sensory rhodopsin transducer defines a novel superfamily of prokaryotic small-molecule binding domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Souza Robson F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Anabaena sensory rhodopsin transducer (ASRT is a small protein that has been claimed to function as a signaling molecule downstream of the cyanobacterial sensory rhodopsin. However, orthologs of ASRT have been detected in several bacteria that lack rhodopsin, raising questions about the generality of this function. Using sequence profile searches we show that ASRT defines a novel superfamily of β-sandwich fold domains. Through contextual inference based on domain architectures and predicted operons and structural analysis we present strong evidence that these domains bind small molecules, most probably sugars. We propose that the intracellular versions like ASRT probably participate as sensors that regulate a diverse range of sugar metabolism operons or even the light sensory behavior in Anabaena by binding sugars or related metabolites. We also show that one of the extracellular versions define a predicted sugar-binding structure in a novel cell-surface lipoprotein found across actinobacteria, including several pathogens such as Tropheryma, Actinomyces and Thermobifida. The analysis of this superfamily also provides new data to investigate the evolution of carbohydrate binding modes in β-sandwich domains with very different topologies. Reviewers: This article was reviewed by M. Madan Babu and Mark A. Ragan.

  13. Foraminiferal assemblages along the intertidal zone of Itapanhaú River, Bertioga (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Camila Cunha; Kukimodo, Isabela; Semensatto, Décio

    2017-11-01

    Foraminifera found in intertidal zones have been successfully used in studies examining relative sea level monitoring around the world. For this purpose, it is necessary to establish the typical foraminiferal assemblages of different salinity regimes and sediment sub aerial exposition. In the present work we collected 27 sediment samples from 5 transversal transects in the mangroves of the Itapanhaú River (Bertioga, SP, Brazil). Transects were distributed along salinity and altitudinal gradients in order to study the community structure of recent foraminifera in terms of diversity and species composition. We identified 35 species and described 5 groups of species in different environmental settings, from downstream to upstream and from margin to landward in the mangrove forest, associated with salinity regime and sediment proportional exposure time. These variables seem to primarily control species distribution and community structure in the intertidal zone, although dissolution of calcareous taxa cannot be ruled out. The first group is dominated by Ammonia spp. and Elphidium spp., colonizes the mouth of the river on an unvegetated tidal flat in the lowest portion of the intertidal zone, under a polyhaline regime. This group exhibits the smallest sub aerial exposition (19,3%) as well as comparatively high species diversity. The second group is formed by a sample dominated by Trochammina inflata and Arenoparrella mexicana, obtained in a polyhaline area on the margin of the mangrove. The third group is dominated by Miliammina fusca and Ammotium spp., and colonizes mesohaline mangrove forests, with proportional exposure time of between 50 and 75%, and high species diversity. The fourth group comprises communities dominated by M. fusca and T. inflata, and colonizes the intermediate level in the interior of the mangrove forest, exhibiting high species diversity. The fifth group comprises communities broadly dominated by M. fusca, colonizing oligohaline margins and the

  14. Successful phytoremediation of crude-oil contaminated soil at an oil exploration and production company by plants-bacterial synergism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Kaneez; Imran, Asma; Amin, Imran; Khan, Qaiser M; Afzal, Muhammad

    2018-06-07

    Phytoremediation is a promising approach for the cleanup of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. This study aimed to develop plant-bacterial synergism for the successful remediation of crude oil-contaminated soil. A consortia of three endophytic bacteria was augmented to two grasses, Leptochloa fusca and Brachiaria mutica, grown in oil-contaminated soil (46.8 g oil kg -1 soil) in the vicinity of an oil exploration and production company. Endophytes augmentation improved plant growth, crude oil degradation, and soil health. Maximum oil degradation (80%) was achieved with B. mutica plants augmented with the endophytes and it was significantly (P oil reduction indicates that catabolic gene expression is important for hydrocarbon mineralization. This investigation showed that the use of endophytes with appropriate plant is an effective strategy for the cleanup of oil-contaminated soil under field conditions.

  15. The role of nickel in urea assimilation by algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T A; Bekheet, I A

    1982-12-01

    Nickel is required for urease synthesis by Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Tetraselmis subcordiformis and for growth on urea by Phaeodactylum. There is no requirement for nickel for urea amidolyase synthesis by Chlorella fusca var. vacuolata. Neither copper nor palladium can substitute for nickel but cobalt partially restored urease activity in Phaeodactylum. The addition of nickel to nickel-deficient cultures of Phaeodactylum or Tetraselmis resulted in a rapid increase of urease activity to 7-30 times the normal level; this increase was not inhibited by cycloheximide. It is concluded that nickel-deficient cells over-produce a non-functional urease protein and that either nickel or the functional urease enzyme participates in the regulation of the production of urease protein.

  16. Diversity of plasmodial slime molds (myxomycetes in coastal, mountain, and community forests of Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Heherson A. Dagamac

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available No profiling of diversity of myxomycetes has ever been conducted in one of the biodiversity hotspot areas in the Philippine archipelago, and this necessitates a swift survey of myxomycetes in Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro. An assessment of diversity of myxomycetes collected from seven collecting points of three different forest types in the study area showed a total of 926 records of myxomycetes. Of which, 42 morphospecies belonging to 16 genera are reported in this study. Species richness of myxomycetes was higher in collecting points that were found in inland lowland mountain forests, but the most taxonomically diverse species was found in coastal forests. Myxomycete species, namely, Arcyria cinerea, Diderma hemisphaericum, Physarum echinosporum, Lamproderma scintillans, and Stemonitis fusca, were found in all the collecting points. Manmade disturbances and forest structure may affect the occurrence of myxomycetes.

  17. Mixobiota do Parque Nacional Serra de Itabaiana, SE, Brasil: Stemonitales Myxobiota from the Serra de Itabaiana National Park, Sergipe State, Brazil: Stemonitales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciara Gouveia Tenório

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Como parte do inventário da mixobiota do Parque Nacional Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Nordeste do Brasil (10º40'52''S e 37º25'15''W, 180-670 m.s.m., 7.966 ha, avaliou-se a riqueza, abundância e constância das Stemonitales presentes em diferentes microhabitats e níveis altitudinais. Esporocarpos foram coletados durante 20 meses consecutivos, desde abril/2002 até dezembro/2003; amostras de substratos foram também coletadas para cultivo em câmara-úmida. Coleções do material estudado foram depositadas no Herbário UFP. Foram identificadas 14 espécies de Stemonitidaceae, pertencentes aos gêneros Collaria, Comatricha, Lamproderma, Stemonitis e Stemonitopsis. As espécies foram organizadas em ordem alfabética em uma lista comentada e apresenta-se sua distribuição geográfica no Brasil. Representantes da ordem estiveram presentes em todos os microhabitats analisados, predominando as lignícolas, seguidas das foliícolas. Stemonitis flavogenita foi a única espécie areícola, comportando-se também como suculentícola. Nos cultivos em câmara-úmida, registrou-se uma espécie fimícola (Comatricha mirabilis e três suculentícolas (Collaria arcyrionema, Comatricha laxa e Stemonitis fusca. As espécies mais abundantes foram S. fusca (constante, Stemonitis smithii, Stemonitis axifera e Stemonitis splendens (acessórias, presentes nos diferentes níveis altitudinais. Exceto C. mirabilis, todos os gêneros e espécies constituem primeira referência para o estado de Sergipe.As part of a survey of the Myxomycetes biota of the Serra de Itabaiana National Park (Sergipe State, Northeast Brazil; 10º40'52''S and 37º25'15''W; 180-670 m.s.m. 7,966 ha, we evaluated the richness, abundance, and constancy of the Stemonitales found in different microhabitats and height levels. Sporocarps were collected through 20 consecutive months, from April/2002 to December/2003; substrate samples were also collected for moist-chambers cultures. Collections of the

  18. Cameroonemide A: a new ceramide from Helichrysum cameroonense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Kakam Zanetsie; Hussain, Hidayat; Dongo, Etienne; Kouam, Simeon F; Schulz, Barbara; Krohn, Karsten

    2010-07-01

    From the extracts of all parts of the plant Helichrysum cameroonense, five compounds were isolated and identified. One of them, a ceramide, named cameroonemide A (1), is reported for the first time as a new natural product. Its structure was determined by comprehensive analyses of their 1D and 2D NMR and HR-EI-MS spectral data. The remaining four known compounds were identified by comparing their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature as kaurenoic acid (2), 3-acetyloxykaurenoic acid (3), beta-sitosterol (4), and beta-sitosterol glucopyranoside (5). Preliminary studies showed that 3-acetyloxykaurenoic acid (3) inhibited the alga Chlorella fusca, while kaurenoic acid (2) showed strong antibacterial activity against Bacillus megaterium.

  19. Black Jacobin hummingbirds vocalize above the known hearing range of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christopher R; Fernández-Vargas, Marcela; Portfors, Christine V; Mello, Claudio V

    2018-03-05

    Hummingbirds are a fascinating group of birds, but some aspects of their biology are poorly understood, such as their highly diverse vocal behaviors. We show here that the predominant vocalization of black jacobins (Florisuga fusca), a hummingbird prevalent in the mountains of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, consists of a triplet of syllables with high fundamental frequency (mean F0 ∼11.8 kHz), rapid frequency oscillations and strong ultrasonic harmonics and no detectable elements below ∼10 kHz. These are the most common vocalizations of these birds, and their frequency range is above the known hearing range of any bird species recorded to date, including hearing specialists such as owls. These observations suggest that black jacobins either have an atypically high frequency hearing range, or alternatively their primary vocalization has a yet unknown function unrelated to vocal communication. Black jacobin vocalizations challenge current notions about vocal communication in birds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of lindane on a maize ecosystem at TPRI, Arusha, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minja, E.M.; Makusi, R.; Tesha, F.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of the organochlorine insecticide, lindane, on target and non-target organisms was studied in field plots of maize at Arusha, Tanzania for 4 growing seasons. A single application of 1 kg.ha -1 caused leaf scorch to the crop but two applications of 0.5 kg.ha -1 at an interval of 2 weeks were tolerated. The insecticide reduced damage by the stem borers Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis in all seasons and maize yields were higher on the treated plots although the differences were not always significant (P>0.05). Collembola and sometimes ant and spider numbers were lower in treated plots early in the season but the differences did not persist. Differences in rates of decomposition of buried leaf litter were not significant. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  1. Proctodrilus thaleri (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae auf einem Hang in Oltenien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höser, N.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The earthworm species Proctodrilus thaleri Höser & Zicsi, 2009, a Carpathian endemic, was found in the loess-like sediment of a slope in Oltenia region of Romania. On the basis of the pedological findings at the site it was concluded that there the species inhabits a pseudogley-lessived-terra fusca interference zone, characterized by recent clay translocation, and very rare in Central Europe. Consequently the species differs with respect to habitat from P. tuberculatus (Černosvitov, 1935, which was encountered on other slopes and is probably tied to soils with advanced, relict, or recent clay translocation, as is the case in interference-free lessived soils or pseudogley-lessived soils.

  2. Operational modal analysis on a VAWT in a large wind tunnel using stereo vision technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Najafi, Nadia; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    This paper is about development and use of a research based stereo vision system for vibration and operational modal analysis on a parked, 1-kW, 3-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT), tested in a wind tunnel at high wind. Vibrations were explored experimentally by tracking small deflections...... of the markers on the structure with two cameras, and also numerically, to study structural vibrations in an overall objective to investigate challenges and to prove the capability of using stereo vision. Two high speed cameras provided displacement measurements at no wind speed interference. The displacement...

  3. Definition of an arcjet propulsion sub-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    An engineering flight demonstration of a 100 kW3 Space Reactor Power System is planned for the mid to late 1990s. An arcjet based propulsion subsystem will be included on the flight demonstraction as a secondary experiment. Two studies, sponsored by the Kay Technologies Directorate of the SDI Organization and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are currently under way to define that propulsion subsystem. The principal tasks of those contracts and the plans for two later phases, an experimental verification of the concept and a flight qualification/delivery of a flight unit, are described. 9 refs

  4. Acid epimerization of 20-keto pregnane glycosides is determined by 2D-NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Victor P., E-mail: vpergarw@gobiernodecanarias.org [Instituto de Productos Naturales de Canarias, Departamento de Quimica de Productos Naturales y Biotecnologia (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Carbohydrates influence many essential biological events such as apoptosis, differentiation, tumor metastasis, cancer, neurobiology, immunology, development, host-pathogen interactions, diabetes, signal transduction, protein folding, and many other contexts. We now report on the structure determination of pregnane glycosides isolated from the aerial parts of Ceropegia fusca Bolle (Asclepiadaceae). The observation of cicatrizant, vulnerary and cytostatic activities in some humans and animals of Ceropegia fusca Bolle, a species endemic to the Canary Islands, encouraged us to begin a pharmacological study to determine their exact therapeutic properties. High resolution {sup 1}H-NMR spectra of pregnane glycosides very often display well-resolved signals that can be used as starting points in several selective NMR experiments to study scalar (J coupling), and dipolar (NOE) interactions. ROESY is especially suited for molecules such that {omega}{tau}{sub c} {approx} 1, where {tau}{sub c} are the motional correlation times and {omega} is the angular frequency. In these cases the NOE is nearly zero, while the rotating-frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY) is always positive and increases monotonically for increasing values of {tau}{sub c}. The ROESY shows dipolar interactions cross peaks even in medium-sized molecules which are helpful in unambiguous assignment of all the interglycosidic linkages. Selective excitation was carried out using a double pulsed-field gradient spin-echo sequence (DPFGSE) in which 180 Degree-Sign Gaussian pulses are sandwiched between sine shaped z-gradients. Scalar interactions were studied by homonuclear DPFGSE-COSY and DPFGSE-TOCSY experiments, while DPFGSE-ROESY was used to monitor the spatial environment of the selectively excited proton. Dipolar interactions between nuclei close in space can be detected by the 1D GROESY experiment, which is a one-dimensional counterpart of the 2D ROESY method. The C-12 and C-17 configurations were

  5. Annual and seasonal distribution of intertidal foraminifera and stable carbon isotope geochemistry, Bandon Marsh, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milker, Yvonne; Horton, Benjamin; Vane, Christopher; Engelhart, Simon; Nelson, Alan R.; Witter, Robert C.; Khan, Nicole S.; Bridgeland, William

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the influence of inter-annual and seasonal differences on the distribution of live and dead foraminifera, and the inter-annual variability of stable carbon isotopes (d13C), total organic carbon (TOC) values and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios in bulk sediments from intertidal environments of Bandon Marsh (Oregon, USA). Living and dead foraminiferal species from 10 stations were analyzed over two successive years in the summer (dry) and fall (wet) seasons. There were insignificant inter-annual and seasonal variations in the distribution of live and dead species. But there was a noticeable decrease in calcareous assemblages (Haynesina sp.) between live populations and dead assemblages, indicating that most of the calcareous tests were dissolved after burial; the agglutinated assemblages were comparable between constituents. The live populations and dead assemblages were dominated by Miliammina fusca in the tidal flat and low marsh, Jadammina macrescens, Trochammina inflata and M. fusca in the high marsh, and Trochamminita irregularis and Balticammina pseudomacrescens in the highest marsh to upland. Geochemical analyses (d13C, TOC and C/N of bulk sedimentary organic matter) show no significant influence of inter-annual variations but a significant correlation of d13C values (R = 20.820, p , 0.001), TOC values (R = 0.849, p , 0.001) and C/N ratios (R = 0.885, p , 0.001) to elevation with respect to the tidal frame. Our results suggest that foraminiferal assemblages and d13C and TOC values, as well as C/N ratios, in Bandon Marsh are useful in reconstructing paleosea-levels on the North American Pacific coast.

  6. Birds as potential pollinators of the Spathodea nilotica (Bignoniaceae in the urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM. Previatto

    Full Text Available Birds play crucial role on the pollination of many plants. However, little is known about the interactions between nectarivorous neotropical birds and exotic Angiosperms. S. nilotica is an exotic African plant widely used in Brazilian urban landscaping. However, it has been poorly studied in relation to its interactions with Neotropical birds. In this way, we studied the feeding nectar strategies and the interspecific antagonistic behaviours among nectarivorous Neotropical birds to verify the bird contributions to the S. nilotica pollination. The study was conducted from May 2008 to April 2011, but only in months of S. nilotica flowering (April to May. From 148 hours of sampling we identified 16 species feeding nectar on S. nilotica: 13 hummingbirds (Trochilidae, Aratinga aurea (Psittacidae, Tangara palmarum (Thraupidae and Coereba flaveola (Coerebidae. Eupetomena macroura was the most frequent (96.88%, followed by Chlorostilbon lucidus (78.13% and Coereba flaveola (59.38%. Most birds obtained nectar by punching at the base of the corolla, except for A. aurea that obtained the nectar by the upper opening of the petals in 100% of its visits, Heliomaster furcifer (95.65%, F. fusca (95% and A. nigricollis (70.27%. Despite E. macroura also obtains nectar only by punching at the base of the corolla, it showed the highest level of legitimate visits. Antagonistic events were more frequent in E. macroura (58.65%, Florisuga fusca (11.04% and Amazilia fimbriata (10.87%, being E. macroura dominant in all events. These results showed E. macroura plays an important role on this plant being the most important bird as a potential pollinator. Moreover, other birds contribute partially to the S. nilotica pollination. Most probably it is a result of recent Neotropical bird interactions with this African plant.

  7. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum

  8. Enzymatic Degradation of Poly(ethylene 2,5-furanoate Powders and Amorphous Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Weinberger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene 2,5-furanoate (PEF is arousing great interest as a biobased alternative to plastics like poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET due to its wide range of potential applications, such as food and beverage packaging, clothing, and in the car industry. In the present study, the hydrolysis of PEF powders of different molecular masses (Mn = 55, Mw = 104 kg/mol and Mn = 18, Mw = 29 kg/mol and various particle sizes (180 < d and 180 < d < 425 µm using cutinase 1 from Thermobifida cellulosilytica (Thc_cut1 was studied. Thereby, the effects of molecular mass, particle size and crystallinity on enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The results show that particles with lower molecular mass are hydrolyzed faster than those with higher masses, and that the higher the molecular mass, the lower the influence of the particle size on the hydrolysis. Furthermore, cutinases from Humicola insolens (HiC and Thc_cut1 were compared with regard to their hydrolytic activity on amorphous PEF films (measured as release of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA and weight loss in different reaction media (1 M KPO pH 8, 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 7 and at different temperatures (50 °C and 65 °C. A 100% hydrolysis of the PEF films was achieved after only 72 h of incubation with a HiC in 1 M KPO pH 8 at 65 °C. Moreover, the hydrolysis reaction was monitored by LC/TOF-MS analysis of the released reaction products and by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM examination of the polymer surfaces. Enzymatic hydrolysis of PEF with Thc_cut1 and HiC has potential for use in surface functionalization and recycling purposes.

  9. Microbial communities and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the biodegradation of specified risk material in compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shanwei [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Reuter, Tim [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Gilroyed, Brandon H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Tymensen, Lisa [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Hao, Yongxin; Hao, Xiying [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Belosevic, Miodrag [Department of Biological Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Leonard, Jerry J. [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); McAllister, Tim A., E-mail: tim.mcallister@agr.gc.ca [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Addition of feathers altered bacterial and fungal communities in compost. ► Microbial communities degrading SRM and compost matrix were distinct. ► Addition of feathers may enrich for microbial communities that degrade SRM. ► Inclusion of feather in compost increased both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from compost. ► Density of methanogens and methanotrophs were weakly associated with CH{sub 4} emissions. - Abstract: Provided that infectious prions (PrP{sup Sc}) are inactivated, composting of specified risk material (SRM) may be a viable alternative to rendering and landfilling. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities as well as greenhouse gas emissions associated with the degradation of SRM were examined in laboratory composters over two 14 day composting cycles. Chicken feathers were mixed into compost to enrich for microbial communities involved in the degradation of keratin and other recalcitrant proteins such as prions. Feathers altered the composition of bacterial and fungal communities primarily during the first cycle. The bacterial genera Saccharomonospora, Thermobifida, Thermoactinomycetaceae, Thiohalospira, Pseudomonas, Actinomadura, and Enterobacter, and the fungal genera Dothideomycetes, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and Trichaptum were identified as candidates involved in SRM degradation. Feathers increased (P < 0.05) headspace concentrations of CH{sub 4} primarily during the early stages of the first cycle and N{sub 2}O during the second. Although inclusion of feathers in compost increases greenhouse gas emissions, it may promote the establishment of microbial communities that are more adept at degrading SRM and recalcitrant proteins such as keratin and PrP{sup Sc}.

  10. Development of reliable diamond window for EC launcher on fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Illy, S.; Heidinger, R.; Kasugai, A.; Minami, R.; Sakamoto, K.; Thumm, M.; Imai, T.

    2005-01-01

    In order to avoid a possible accidental event of a diamond window, i.e. a leakage of cooling water into vacuum, a new diamond window with a copper (Cu)-coated edge was developed. The 0.5 mm thick Cu-coating completely covers the window disk edge and aluminum braze, between the diamond disk edge and the inconel cuffs cooled by water. Corrosion of the aluminum braze can also be prevented by the Cu-coating. A 170 GHz high power RF transmission experiment, which was indicative for a MW-level transmission, was carried out to investigate the cooling capability of the Cu-coated window. RF power/pulse length 55 kW/3.5 s and 120 kW/3 s, were transmitted through the window without any problem. Temperature increase of 50 and 100 o C were obtained, respectively. The results agree with thermal calculations with loss tangent 8.5 x 10 -4 and thermal conductivity 1.9 kW/(m K) of the diamond. Thermal and stress analysis show that no serious stress between the diamond disk and the Cu-coating is established. It concludes that a diamond window with Cu-coated edge water-cooling is capable of MW-level transmission and that the Cu-coating improves the reliability of the diamond window

  11. Myxomycetes de Florianópolis (Santa Catarina - Brasil Myxomycetes of Florianópolis (State of Santa Catarina - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a inexistência de registros de ocorrência de Myxomycetes em Florianópolis, realizou- se coletas nas matas da Lagoa do Peri e Lagoa da Conceição, em 1990, assinalando-se as seguintes espécies : Lycogala exiguum Morg. (Enteridiaceae ; Cribraria languescem Rex, C. vulgaris Sclir. (Cribrariaceae ; Arcyria cinerea ( Bull. Pers. , Hemitrichia serpula ( Scop. Rost., H. calyculata ( Speg. Farr e Hemitrichia sp (Trichiaceae ; Stemonitis fusca Roth. e S. smithii Macbr. (Stemonitaceae. Exsicatas encontram-se depositadas no herbário UFP. Lycogala exiguum é assinalada pela primeira vez para Santa Catarina, Cribraria languescens para a região Sul e Cribraria vulgaris para o Brasil. O levantamento eleva para 47 o número de espécies referidas para o Estado de Santa Catarina. Fornece-se um histórico do estudo deste qrupo de organismos em Santa Catarina bem como a área de ocorrência de cada espécie no Estado e nas diferentes regiões do Brasil.A survey on Myxomycetes was made in the woods of Lagoa do Peri and Lagoa da Conceição in 1990, considering the absence of reports of this kind for the city of Florianópolis, when the following species were registered: Lycogala exiguum Morg. (Enteridiaceae; Cribraria languescem Rex, C. vulgaris Schr. (Cribrariaceae; Arcyria cinerea (Bull. Pers. Hemitrichia serpula (Scop. Rost., H. calyculata (Speg. Fair and Hemitrichia sp (Trichiaceae; Stemonitis fusca Roth, and S. smithii Macbr. (Stemonitaceae. Exicates are deposited at the herbarium UFP. Lycogala exiguum is noted for the first time in the state of Santa Catarina, Cribraria languescem in the South and Cribraria vulgaris in Brazil. The survey raises up the number of registers refered to the state of Santa Catarina to 47 species. A review of the studies on this group of organisms in Santa Catarina is given as well as the area where each species occur in this state and in different regions of Brazil.

  12. Development of a solar powered residential air conditioner (General optimization)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowen, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A commercially available 3-ton residential Lithium Bromide (LiBr) absorption air conditioner was modified for use with lower temperature solar heated water. The modification included removal of components such as the generator, concentration control chamber, liquid trap, and separator; and the addition of a Chrysler designed generator, an off-the-shelf LiBr-solution pump. The design goal of the modified unit was to operate with water as the heat-transfer fluid at a target temperature of 85 C (185 F), 29.4 C (85 F) cooling water inlet, producing 10.5 kW (3 tons) of cooling. Tests were performed on the system before and after modification to provide comparative data. At elevated temperatures (96 C, 205 F), the test results show that Lithium Bromide was carried into the condenser due to the extremely violent boiling and degraded the evaporator performance.

  13. Predation rates, timing, and predator composition for Scoters (Melanitta spp.) in marine habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric J.; Esler, Daniel N.; Sean, Boyd W.; Evenson, Joseph; Nysewander, David R.; Ward, David H.; Dickson, Rian D.; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Vanstratt, C.S.; Hupp, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Studies of declining populations of sea ducks have focused mainly on bottom-up processes with little emphasis on the role of predation. We identified 11 potential predators of White-winged Scoters (Melanitta fusca (L., 1758)) and Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) in North American marine habitats. However, of 596 Scoters marked with VHF transmitters along the Pacific coast, mortalities were recovered in association with just two identifiable categories of predators: in southeast Alaska recoveries occurred mainly near mustelid feeding areas, while those in southern British Columbia and Washington occurred mainly near feeding areas of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)). Determining whether marked Scoters had been depredated versus scavenged was often not possible, but mortalities occurred more frequently during winter than during wing molt (13.1% versus 0.7% of both species combined, excluding Scoters that died within a postrelease adjustment period). In two sites heavily used by Scoters, diurnal observations revealed no predation attempts and low rates of predator disturbances that altered Scoter behavior (≤ 0.22/h). These and other results suggest that predation by Bald Eagles occurs mainly at sites and times where densities of Scoters are low, while most predation by mustelids probably occurs when Scoters are energetically compromised.

  14. New Metabolites and Bioactive Chlorinated Benzophenone Derivatives Produced by a Marine-Derived Fungus Pestalotiopsis heterocornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Lei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Four new compounds, including two isocoumarins, pestaloisocoumarins A and B (1, 2, one sesquiterpenoid degradation, isopolisin B (4, and one furan derivative, pestalotiol A (5, together with one known isocoumarin, gamahorin (3, and three chlorinated benzophenone derivatives, pestalachloride B (6, pestalachloride E (7 and a mixture of pestalalactone atropisomers (8a/8b, were isolated from a culture of the fungus Pestalotiopsis heterocornis associated with sponge Phakellia fusca. These new chemical structures were established using NMR and MS spectroscopic data, as well as single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis and CD Cotton effects. All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Isocoumarins 1–3, showed antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with MIC values ranging from 25 to 100 μg/mL and weak antifungal activities. Chlorinated benzophenone derivatives 6–8 exhibited antibacterial activities against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC values ranging from 3.0 to 50 μg/mL and cytotoxicities against four human cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 6.8–87.8 μM.

  15. Description of three new species of Ninoe and Cenogenus (Polychaeta: Lumbrineridae from the Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Hernández-Alcántara

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 169 lumbrinerids of the genera Ninoe and Cenogenus from the sublittoral zone of the Gulf of California and Gulf of Tehuantepec were analysed. Previous records in these regions of the Mexican Pacific included five species of Ninoe (N. chilensis, N. foliosa, N. gemmea, N. longibranchia and N. moorei and two of Cenogenus (originally identified as Ninoe fusca and N. fuscoides. Ninoe jessicae and N. marthae are newly described. They are characterized by the presence of multidentate hooded hooks from chaetiger 1 and at least 7 branchial filaments in the best developed branchiae. N. marthae n. sp. differs not only from N. jessicae n. sp. but also from the other species of the genus Ninoe, because only four teeth are present in maxilla II, while in all the other described species, 6-8 teeth are present there. The new species Cenogenus eliae is characterized by the presence of branchiae starting at chaetigers 32-51 and simple multidentate hooded hooks in all parapodia.

  16. Quantification of propagules of the laurel wilt fungus and other mycangial fungi from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, T C; Fraedrich, S W

    2010-10-01

    The laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, is a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, which is native to Asia and was believed to have brought R. lauricola with it to the southeastern United States. Individual X. glabratus beetles from six populations in South Carolina and Georgia were individually macerated in glass tissue grinders and serially diluted to quantify the CFU of fungal symbionts. Six species of Raffaelea were isolated, with up to four species from an individual adult beetle. The Raffaelea spp. were apparently within the protected, paired, mandibular mycangia because they were as numerous in heads as in whole beetles, and surface-sterilized heads or whole bodies yielded as many or more CFU as did nonsterilized heads or whole beetles. R. lauricola was isolated from 40 of the 41 beetles sampled, and it was isolated in the highest numbers, up to 30,000 CFU/beetle. Depending on the population sampled, R. subalba or R. ellipticospora was the next most frequently isolated species. R. arxii, R. fusca, and R. subfusca were only occasionally isolated. The laurel wilt pathogen apparently grows in a yeast phase within the mycangia in competition with other Raffaelea spp.

  17. The effect of chlorsulfurone and MCPB-Na on the enzymatic activity of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filimon Marioara Nicoleta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available herbicides, have a broad spectrum effect on weeds, in relatively low doses and with a much reduced toxicity on livestock. In this study were used two herbicides: dacsulfuron with the active substance chlorsulfuron (0.005 - 0.035 μg/g soil and butoxone with the active substance MCPB-Na (0.005 - 0.035 mg/L/g soil. The samples were collected from a depth of 0-20 cm from chernozem soil. The effect of herbicide was estimated by measuring the activity of catalase, actual and potential dehydrogenase, urease and cellulase activities. All samples being incubated for 10 days at 27°C using Sapp medium for isolation and study of cellulosolytic bacteria. The inhibitory effect of the tested herbicides was the most intense for the urease and dehydrogenase enzymatic activities. The most resistant cellulosolytic bacteria to the effects of dacsulfuron were Cellfalcicula fusca, Cellfalcicula viridis, Cellvibrio fulvus and Fuseaux veris and for butoxone Cellfalcicula mucosa, C. viridis and C. fulvus.

  18. Application of a high-speed breeding technology to apple (Malus × domestica) based on transgenic early flowering plants and marker-assisted selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Le Roux, Pierre-Marie; Peil, Andreas; Patocchi, Andrea; Richter, Klaus; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2011-10-01

    Breeding of apple (Malus × domestica) remains a slow process because of protracted generation cycles. Shortening the juvenile phase to achieve the introgression of traits from wild species into prebreeding material within a reasonable time frame is a great challenge. In this study, we evaluated early flowering transgenic apple lines overexpressing the BpMADS4 gene of silver birch with regard to tree morphology in glasshouse conditions. Based on the results obtained, line T1190 was selected for further analysis and application to fast breeding. The DNA sequences flanking the T-DNA were isolated and the T-DNA integration site was mapped on linkage group 4. The inheritance and correctness of the T-DNA integration were confirmed after meiosis. A crossbred breeding programme was initiated by crossing T1190 with the fire blight-resistant wild species Malus fusca. Transgenic early flowering F(1) seedlings were selected and backcrossed with 'Regia' and 98/6-10 in order to introgress the apple scab Rvi2, Rvi4 and powdery mildew Pl-1, Pl-2 resistance genes and the fire blight resistance quantitative trait locus FB-F7 present in 'Regia'. Three transgenic BC'1 seedlings pyramiding Rvi2, Rvi4 and FB-F7, as well as three other BC'1 seedlings combining Pl-1 and Pl-2, were identified. Thus, the first transgenic early flowering-based apple breeding programme combined with marker-assisted selection was established. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Diversity and abundance of water birds in a subarctic lake during three decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Klemetsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of divers, ducks, gulls, terns and waders in the 15 km2 oligotrophic lake Takvatn, North Norway were estimated six times during 1983-2012. Systematic mapping surveys were done by boat within the first week after ice-break in June. Twenty-one species were observed over the years and 12 were regarded as breeding on the lake. Red-breasted merganser Mergus serrator was the dominant diving bird, with estimated minimum number of pairs varying from 15 to 39 among years. Black-throated diver Gavia arctica (1-3 pairs, tufted duck Aythya fuligula (2-15 pairs and common scoter Melanitta nigra (1-5 pairs bred regularly, while velvet scoter Melanitta fusca (1-2 and goldeneye Bucephala clangula (2-4 were found in some years and mallard Anas platyrhynchos (1 pair and wigeon Anas penelope (1 pair in one year. Common gull Larus canus (6-30 pairs and arctic tern Sterna paradisaea (2-35 pairs bred in all years. Common sandpiper Tringa hypoleucos (3-9 pairs and redshank Tringa totanus (1-4 pairs were regular waders. Density variations of mergansers, gulls and terns are possibly related to density variations of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus, their dominant fish prey. The water birds are important links in the food web of the lake.

  20. Lichen communities as bioindicators of the Aburra Valley air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo C, Margarita M; Botero B, Liliana R

    2010-01-01

    Lichens have been used as bioindicators of air quality. They are sensitive to changes in air composition at any given site affecting their abundance, biomass and vitality.This study evaluated lichen affectation as a consequence of air pollution. Two study areas within the Aburra Valley and the RedAire network were selected: Miguel Aguinaga (high pollution station) and the Medellin University (low pollution station). Four phorophytic tree species were chosen at each site Terminalia catappa Linneaus, Eritrina fusca Loureiro, Mangifera indica Linneaus y Fraxinus chinensis Roxb. The lichen cover by species, the vitality and the fructification were used to analyze the effect of air pollution. Finally, the lichen cover information was used to calculate the index of atmospheric purity (IAP) and the Q factor determination. Total qualitative and quantitative information obtained made evident that Canoparmelia sp. and Parmotrema austrosinensis (Zahlbr) Hale. lichen species are the most sensitive, and therefore appropriate to assess air quality. Additionally, the statistical analysis carried out using the relative abundances by phorophytic trees, showed that Fraxinus chinensis Roxb is the most appropriate tree species for bioindicator lichens studies into the Aburra valley.

  1. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Tanasidis, Spartakos; Melidis, Paraschos

    2011-01-01

    Microfauna community structure was examined in the mixed liquor of a bench-scale bioreactor equipped with an intermittent aeration and feeding system. The reactor was operated under an intermittent aeration of 25 min in every 1 h and varying feeding conditions (0.264, 0.403 and 0.773 kg BOD 5 /m 3 d). A total of 14 protozoan and metazoan taxa were identified by microscopic examination. Sessile ciliates, followed by crawling ciliates, were the major protozoan groups under 0.403 kg BOD 5 /m 3 d organic loading conditions, while sessile ciliate population was remarkably increased under an organic loading of 0.773 kg BOD 5 /m 3 d. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were performed in order to reveal relationships between microfauna community and operational parameters. Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0.773 kg BOD 5 /m 3 d organic loading conditions. Ciliophora diversity consisted of members of Aspidiscidae, Epistylidae, Opisthonectidae and Vorticellidae, with the majority of the clones being associated with the species Vorticella fusca. At least one novel phylogenetic linkage among Ciliophora was identified. Comparisons made after molecular characterization and microscopic examination of Ciliophora community showed that the estimation of broad ciliate groups is useful for ecological considerations and evaluation of the operational conditions in wastewater treatment plants.

  2. Labelling of algae and inorganic sediments with neutron-activable indicator elements and fluorescence dyes. Markierung von Algen und anorganischen Sedimenten mit neutronenaktivierbaren Indikatorelementen und mit Fluoreszenzfarbstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, E.

    1986-04-15

    For an investigation of algae sinking characteristics in natural bodies of water, three different species (Chlorella fusca, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Nostoc variabilis) were labelled with neutron-activable elements. The rare earths Dy, Er, and Eu were preferred for their rare natural occurrence and favourable activation analysis characteristics. Growth and enrichment were monitored using a method of chlorophyll fluorescence measurement which enables measurements of the chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic activity. After sampling, the suspensions were filtered and activated with thermal neutrons in a research reactor. The indicator masses were determined by a quantitative evaluation of the ..gamma.. spectra. In parallel to these investigation, labelling with fluorescent dyes was investigated. The transport characteristics of phosphate-carrying aggregates of the coarse clay fraction, glasses containing Dy, Eu and Er were prepared and fractionated in a centrifugal ball mill to obtain an earth with near-natural grain size distribution. The applicability of the labelling and detection methods developed for the dissertation was tested in a natural environment. Limits of application and costs were assessed.

  3. The Palaearctic types of Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) deposited in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Paolo; Vas, Zoltán; Xu, Zai-Fu

    2017-04-11

    A critical and annotated catalogue of the Palaearctic types of chrysidid species, subspecies and varieties deposited in the Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum is given. The lectotype of Hedychrum luculentum Förster, 1853 and the neotype of Chrysis amasina Mocsáry, 1889 are designated. Six new synonyms are proposed: Chrysis varicornis Spinola, 1838 = Chrysis cyanocoelia Mocsáry, 1889, syn. nov.; Hedychridium adventicium Zimmermann, 1962 = Hedychridium jazygicum Móczár, 1964, syn. nov.; Hedychrum cribratum Mocsáry, 1909 = Hedychrum punctigerum Mocsáry, 1909, syn. nov.; Holopyga generosa (Förster, 1853) = Holopyga hortobagyensis Móczár, 1984, syn. nov.; Holopyga turkestanica Mocsáry, 1909 = Holopyga crassepuncta Semenov, 1954, syn. nov.; and Pseudomalus cupratus (Mocsáry, 1889) = Pseudomalus meridianus Strumia, 1996, syn. nov.. One species is revalidated: Holopyga turkestanica Mocsáry, 1909, stat. resurr.. New status is proposed for: Pseudomalus cupratus (Mocsáry, 1889), stat. nov.. New combination is proposed for: Hedychridium amoenum (Mocsáry, 1911), comb. nov.. The reversal of priority is proposed for: Ellampus biaccinctus du Buysson, 1893, nomen protectum, and E. auratus var. gasperinii Mocsáry, 1889, nomen oblitum. New name is proposed for: Chrysis fusca Rosa, nom. nov. pro Chrysis ignita var. infuscata Mocsáry, 1889 nec Brullé, 1846. Pictures of eighty-nine type specimens are also provided.

  4. Insectes ravageurs et propriétés biocides de Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae : synthèse bibliographique

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    Abdoul Habou, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect pests and biocidal properties of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae. A review. Jatropha curcas is a Euphorbiaceae shrub widely distributed in many tropical countries. Its seeds are rich in oil that can be used as biofuel in modified diesel engines. Several insect species, mainly belonging to Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Orthoptera, have been referenced as insect pests of J. curcas. These insects attack the plant and cause damage to fruits, inflorescences and leaves. The most frequently observed pests belong to the genus Pachycoris (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae, which are widely distributed in Mexico, Australia, United States of America, Brazil and Nicaragua. Pachycoris spp. cause significant damage to the fruits, leading to the malformation of seeds and a reduction in their oil content. Although Jatropha shrubs are subjected to insect infestations, the oil has been shown to demonstrate biocidal activity, including insecticidal effects against several insect pests, including Busseola fusca (Fuller (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae and Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. In the present paper, we summarize the work carried out on inventories of J. curcas insect pests as well as on the biocidal activity of its oil.

  5. Bioaccumulation of polonium 210Po in marine birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Fabisiak, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the 210 Po content in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the Polish part of the Baltic Sea. We chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic Sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The results show that the polonium is non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. The highest activities of 210 Po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver and the lowest in skin and skeleton. Species of birds that eat crustaceans, molluscs, fish and plants (long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis, white-winged scoter Melanitta fusca) accumulated more polonium than species that eat mainly fish (great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, common guillemot Uria aalge) or plants (tufted duck Aythya fuligula). Moreover, about 63% of the 210 Po that was located in feathers of razorbil (Alca torda) and long-tailed duck (C. hyemalis) was apparently adsorbed, suggesting an external source such as the air. It means that the adsorption of 210 Po on the feather surface may be an important transfer from air to water

  6. Revision of the camel spider genus Eremocosta Roewer and a description of the female Eremocosta gigas Roewer (Arachnida, Solifugae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Paula E; Channiago, Felix; Brookhart, Jack O

    2018-03-29

    A recent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the solifuge genus Eremocosta (Eremobatidae), although not monophyletic, formed a strongly supported group, rendered paraphyletic by the exclusion of E. acuitlapanensis, which we herein determine is misplaced in this genus. We revise the taxonomy of the genus Eremocosta. Nine species of the 13 currently placed in the genus are retained, E. bajaensis (Muma 1986), E. calexicensis (Muma 1951), E. formidabilus (Simon 1879), E. gigas Roewer 1934, E. gigasella (Muma 1970), E. spinipalpis (Kraepelin 1899), E. striata (Putnam 1883), and E. titania (Muma 1951). Eremocosta fusca (Muma 1986) and E. montezuma (Roewer 1934) are returned to the genus Eremorhax along with E. arenarum. Eremocosta hystrix and Eremocosta acuitlapanensis (Vázquez Gaviño-Rojas 2000) are transferred to Eremobates. We re-evaluated E. nigrimana (Pocock 1895) and determined that, since the type shows the ventrodistal concavity (VDC) diagnostic for the genus Eremocosta, it should be retained in that genus; however, because the type locality is identified as Afghanistan, far outside the range of any Eremobatidae, its status and placement remain uncertain. Eremocosta robusta (Roewer 1934) was designated nomen dubium by Muma and we maintain this designation. We provide a key to the species of Eremocosta and provide a description of the female of E. gigas.

  7. Impact of feed supplementation with different omega-3 rich microalgae species on enrichment of eggs of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemahieu, Charlotte; Bruneel, Charlotte; Termote-Verhalle, Romina; Muylaert, Koenraad; Buyse, Johan; Foubert, Imogen

    2013-12-15

    Four different omega-3 rich autotrophic microalgae, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nannochloropsis oculata, Isochrysis galbana and Chlorella fusca, were supplemented to the diet of laying hens in order to increase the level of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) in egg yolk. The microalgae were supplemented in two doses: 125 mg and 250 mg extra n-3 PUFA per 100g feed. Supplementing these microalgae resulted in increased but different n-3 LC-PUFA levels in egg yolk, mainly docosahexaenoic acid enrichment. Only supplementation of Chlorella gave rise to mainly α-linolenic acid enrichment. The highest efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA enrichment was obtained by supplementation of Phaeodactylum and Isochrysis. Furthermore, yolk colour shifted from yellow to a more intense red colour with supplementation of Phaeodactylum, Nannochloropsis and Isochrysis, due to transfer of carotenoids from microalgae to eggs. This study shows that besides Nannochloropsis other microalgae offer an alternative to current sources for enrichment of hen eggs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prey-induced changes in the accumulation of amino acids and phenolic metabolites in the leaves of Drosera capensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Effect of prey feeding (ants Formica fusca) on the quantitative changes in the accumulation of free amino acids, soluble proteins, phenolic metabolites and mineral nutrients in the leaves of carnivorous plant Drosera capensis was studied. Arginine was the most abundant compound in Drosera leaves, while proline was abundant in ants. The amount of the majority of amino acids and their sum were elevated in the fed leaves after 3 and 21 days, and the same, but with further enhancement after 21 days, was observed in ants. Accumulation of amino acids also increased in young non-fed leaves of fed plants. Soluble proteins decreased in ants, but were not enhanced in fed leaves. This confirms the effectiveness of sundew's enzymatic machinery in digestion of prey and suggests that amino acids are not in situ deposited, but rather are allocated within the plant. The content of total soluble phenols, flavonoids and two selected flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol) was not affected by feeding in Drosera leaves, indicating that their high basal level was sufficient for the plant's metabolism and prey-induced changes were mainly N based. The prey also showed to be an important source of other nutrients besides N, and a stimulation of root uptake of some mineral nutrients is assumed (Mg, Cu, Zn). Accumulation of Ca and Na was not affected by feeding.

  9. Increased saccharification of kallar grass using ultrafiltrated enzyme from sporrotrichum thermophile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, F.; Rajoka, M.I.; Malik, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The local wild type strain of sporotrichum thermophile when grown on untreated lingo cellulose was found to produce a greater level of B-glucosidase component along with other cellulase/xylanase components than most of the reported wild type potent strains. Culture filtrate obtained, when grown on 4% leptochloa fusca (kallar grass) was used as such and after concentration by ultrafiltration technique for saccharification purpose. Concentrated enzymes titre was increased to 1.2 and 4.0 U/ml for Fp-ase and B-glucosidase, respectively. There were losses in the enzyme titre obtained through ultrafiltration possibly due to adsorption on to the ultrafiltration membrane. Enzyme preparations used, saccharifide 5% kallar grass to 70, 55, 75 and 60% (theoretical basis) from cellulases of S. thermophile concentrate, dilute, T. reesei alone and in supplementation with B-glucosidase from A. niger, respectively. Analysis by HPLC revealed slightly higher glucose yield from S. thermophile enzyme preparations, whereas higher level of xylose was attained from T. reesei preparations. Rest of the sugars pooled as Oligo-sugars were found in almost similar concentrations. (author)

  10. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntougias, Spyridon, E-mail: sntougia@env.duth.gr [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Tanasidis, Spartakos; Melidis, Paraschos [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-02-28

    Microfauna community structure was examined in the mixed liquor of a bench-scale bioreactor equipped with an intermittent aeration and feeding system. The reactor was operated under an intermittent aeration of 25 min in every 1 h and varying feeding conditions (0.264, 0.403 and 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d). A total of 14 protozoan and metazoan taxa were identified by microscopic examination. Sessile ciliates, followed by crawling ciliates, were the major protozoan groups under 0.403 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions, while sessile ciliate population was remarkably increased under an organic loading of 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were performed in order to reveal relationships between microfauna community and operational parameters. Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions. Ciliophora diversity consisted of members of Aspidiscidae, Epistylidae, Opisthonectidae and Vorticellidae, with the majority of the clones being associated with the species Vorticella fusca. At least one novel phylogenetic linkage among Ciliophora was identified. Comparisons made after molecular characterization and microscopic examination of Ciliophora community showed that the estimation of broad ciliate groups is useful for ecological considerations and evaluation of the operational conditions in wastewater treatment plants.

  11. Relationships of Reproductive Traits with the Phylogeny of the African Noctuid Stem Borers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-André Calatayud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The display of the reproductive behavior in most noctuid Lepidoptera follows a diel periodicity and is limited to a precise period of either the day or the night. These behavioral traits and the sex pheromone chemistry can be species specific and thus might be linked to the phylogeny. The objective of this study was to test the relationship of these reproductive traits with phylogeny. The study was undertaken using eight closely related species of noctuid stem borers, which are easy to rear under artificial conditions, namely, Busseola fusca, B. nairobica, B . sp. nr. segeta, Manga melanodonta, M . sp. nr. nubifera, Pirateolea piscator, Sesamia calamistis , and S. nonagrioides . For each species, the adult emergence period, the mating time, and the oviposition period were estimated, referred as biological traits. The components of the sex pheromones emitted by the females of each species were also analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the biological traits measured, only those linked to the oviposition pattern (timing and egg loads per night were significantly correlated with the phylogeny of these species. For the sex pheromone components, among the 13 components identified in all species, only four, namely, Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-TDA, Z11-TDA, E11-TDA, and Z11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-HDA, showed the highest significant correlations with the phylogeny. These results suggest that among the different reproductive traits evaluated, only few are phylogenetically constrained. Their involvement in the reinforcement of ecological speciation in noctuid stem borers is discussed.

  12. Sampling techniques for thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in preflowering tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, P Houston; Riley, David G

    2004-08-01

    Sampling techniques for thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) were compared in preflowering tomato plants at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton, GA, in 2000 and 2003, to determine the most effective method of determining abundance of thrips on tomato foliage early in the growing season. Three relative sampling techniques, including a standard insect aspirator, a 946-ml beat cup, and an insect vacuum device, were compared for accuracy to an absolute method and to themselves for precision and efficiency of sampling thrips. Thrips counts of all relative sampling methods were highly correlated (R > 0.92) to the absolute method. The aspirator method was the most accurate compared with the absolute sample according to regression analysis in 2000. In 2003, all sampling methods were considered accurate according to Dunnett's test, but thrips numbers were lower and sample variation was greater than in 2000. In 2000, the beat cup method had the lowest relative variation (RV) or best precision, at 1 and 8 d after transplant (DAT). Only the beat cup method had RV values <25 for all sampling dates. In 2003, the beat cup method had the lowest RV value at 15 and 21 DAT. The beat cup method also was the most efficient method for all sample dates in both years. Frankliniella fusca (Pergande) was the most abundant thrips species on the foliage of preflowering tomato in both years of study at this location. Overall, the best thrips sampling technique tested was the beat cup method in terms of precision and sampling efficiency.

  13. Biofilm inhibition activity of compounds isolated from two Eunicea species collected at the Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Martínez Díaz

    Full Text Available Abstract Biofilm has a primary role in the pathogenesis of diseases and in the attachment of multicellular organisms to a fouled surface. Because of that, the control of bacterial biofilms has been identified as an important target. In the present study, five lipid compounds isolated from soft coral Eunicea sp. and three terpenoids together with a mixture of sterols from Eunicea fusca collected at the Colombian Caribbean Sea showed different effectiveness against biofilm formation by three marine bacteria associated with immersed fouled surfaces, Ochrobactrum pseudogringnonense,Alteromona macleodii and Vibrio harveyi, and against two known biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The pure compounds were characterized by NMR, HRESI-MS, HRGC-MS and optical rotation. The most effective compounds were batyl alcohol (1 and fuscoside E peracetate (6, acting against four strains without affecting their microbial growth. Compound 1 showed biofilm inhibition greater than 30% against A. macleodii, and up to 60% against O. pseudogringnonense,V. harveyi and S. aureus. Compound 6 inhibited O. pseudogringnonense and V. harveyi between 25 and 50%, and P. aeruginosa or S. aureus up to 60% at 0.5 mg/ml. The results suggest that these compounds exhibit specific biofilm inhibition with lower antimicrobial effect against the bacterial species assayed.

  14. Heterogeneity of Soil and Vegetation in the Urban Habitats of New Industrial Cities in the Desert Landscape of Egypt

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    Monier Abd EL-GHANI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vegetation and soil supporting the habitats in 4 new industrial cities were assessed. Five main habitats were distinguished from inner city toward outskirts: lawns, home gardens, public gardens, waste lands and desert outskirts. After application of Twinspan, 26 vegetation groups were identified in the 5 recognized habitats, demonstrating that some groups are chatracteristic of a certain city, e.g. Asphodelus aestivus - Deverra tortuosa - Thymelaea hirsuta group was confined to the desert habitat of Burg El-Arab city; Thymelaea hirsuta - Linaria albifrons and Atriplex halimus - Atriplex lindleyi subsp. inflata - Suaeda vermiculata - Typha domingensis groups were found in the waste lands of Burg El-Arab city; Conyza bonariensis - Cynodon dactylon - Sonchus oleraceus group in the home garden habitat of 10th Ranadan city; Cynodon dactylon group in the lawns of Burg El-Arab city; Bassia indica - Plantago major group in the public gardens of Burg El-Arab city; Oxalis corniculata - Plantago lagopus group in the public gardens of 10th Ramadan city; Sonchus oleraceus - Cynodon dactylon and Dactyloctenium aegyptium - Leptochloa fusca - Phragmites australis groups in the public gardens of 6th October city. Silt, clay, organic matter, carbonates and carbon contents showed significant diffrences among the 5 habitats.

  15. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) mitigation in seedling cotton using strip tillage and winter cover crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Michael D; Tubbs, R Scott; Wann, Dylan Q; Sullivan, Dana

    2010-10-01

    Thrips are the most consistent insect pests of seedling cotton in the southeastern United States, where symptoms can range from leaf curling to stand loss. In a 2 year study, thrips adults and immatures were sampled at 14, 21 and 28 days after planting on cotton planted with a thiamethoxam seed treatment in concert with crimson clover, wheat or rye winter cover crops and conventional or strip tillage to investigate potential differences in thrips infestations. Densities of adult thrips, primarily Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), peaked on the first sampling date, whereas immature densities peaked on the second sampling date. Regardless of winter cover crop, plots that received strip tillage experienced significantly fewer thrips at each sampling interval. In addition, assessment of percentage ground cover 42 days after planting showed that there was more than twice as much ground cover in the strip-tilled plots compared with conventionally tilled plots. Correlation analyses showed that increased ground cover was inversely related to thrips densities that occurred on all three sampling dates in 2008 and the final sampling date in 2009. Growers who utilize strip tillage and a winter cover crop can utilize seed treatments for mitigation of early-season thrips infestation.

  16. Leopard (Panthera pardus status, distribution, and the research efforts across its range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Jacobson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The leopard’s (Panthera pardus broad geographic range, remarkable adaptability, and secretive nature have contributed to a misconception that this species might not be severely threatened across its range. We find that not only are several subspecies and regional populations critically endangered but also the overall range loss is greater than the average for terrestrial large carnivores. To assess the leopard’s status, we compile 6,000 records at 2,500 locations from over 1,300 sources on its historic (post 1750 and current distribution. We map the species across Africa and Asia, delineating areas where the species is confirmed present, is possibly present, is possibly extinct or is almost certainly extinct. The leopard now occupies 25–37% of its historic range, but this obscures important differences between subspecies. Of the nine recognized subspecies, three (P. p. pardus, fusca, and saxicolor account for 97% of the leopard’s extant range while another three (P. p. orientalis, nimr, and japonensis have each lost as much as 98% of their historic range. Isolation, small patch sizes, and few remaining patches further threaten the six subspecies that each have less than 100,000 km2 of extant range. Approximately 17% of extant leopard range is protected, although some endangered subspecies have far less. We found that while leopard research was increasing, research effort was primarily on the subspecies with the most remaining range whereas subspecies that are most in need of urgent attention were neglected.

  17. White grubs (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae in the "Planalto Region", Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil: Key for identification, species richness and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Cherman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available White grubs (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae in the "Planalto Region", Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil: Key for identification, species richness and distribution. The objective of this study was to survey the occurrence and geographic distribution of white grub species (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae in cultivated and non-cultivated fields of the "Planalto Region", Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil and develop a key at genus-level. Twenty-eight species from 15 genera and three subfamilies were recorded: Dynastinae, Melolonthinae and Rutelinae. The species or genera recorded for the first time in the state are: Cyclocephala metrica, C. tucumana, Isonychus albicinctus, Liogenys bidenticeps, L. fusca, L. obesa and L. sinuaticeps, Paranomala violacea, as well as unidentified species of Amononyx, Dicrania, Leucothyreus, Macrodactylus, Plectris and Rhizogeniates. Among the species recorded, 23 were associated with winter crops. Only Cyclocephala metrica, Dyscinetus rugifrons, two species of Leucothyreus and one species of the tribe Sericini were not present in cultivated crop fields. Cyclocephala flavipennis and Diloboderus abderus occurred in most of the municipalities sampled, often associated with Plectris sp., C. modesta and C. putrida. The highest richness of melolonthids was concentrated in the northeast of the Planalto region.

  18. Maize Cob Rot in Kenya and Its Association with Stalk Borer Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanga, S.I.

    2002-01-01

    Cob rots are a major cause of crop loss in areas such as western Kenya that experience prolonged rainfall during the period of crop maturation. Cob rot fungi cause spoilage of the grain and some of them produce mycotoxins which can pose a health risk to humans and animals consuming foods prepared from contaminate grain. survey conducted in western Kenya in 1998 showed that cob rot incidence exceeded 20%. In the following year when rainfall was greater around the harvest period, cob rot fungi affected 68% of cobs. in 1998 stalk borer larvae (mainly Busseola fusca) damaged 20% of the cobs and there was a strong correlation (R= 0.87) between cob rot incidence and borer damage. In 1999 almost half of the cobs sampled showed evidence of borer damage. The result indicate that the high cob rot incidence in this pert of Kenya is due to stalk bore damage, which predisposes the cobs to fungal infection, and that management of the borer would greatly decrease cob rot incidence

  19. Influence of Dietary Experience on the Induction of Preference of Adult Moths and Larvae for a New Olfactory Cue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Christophe; Le Ru, Bruno; Dupas, Stéphane; Frérot, Brigitte; Ahuya, Peter; Kaiser-Arnauld, Laure; Harry, Myriam; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2015-01-01

    In Lepidoptera, host plant selection is first conditioned by oviposition site preference of adult females followed by feeding site preference of larvae. Dietary experience to plant volatile cues can induce larval and adult host plant preference. We investigated how the parent’s and self-experience induce host preference in adult females and larvae of three lepidopteran stem borer species with different host plant ranges, namely the polyphagous Sesamia nonagrioides, the oligophagous Busseola fusca and the monophagous Busseola nairobica, and whether this induction can be linked to a neurophysiological phenotypic plasticity. The three species were conditioned to artificial diet enriched with vanillin from the neonate larvae to the adult stage during two generations. Thereafter, two-choice tests on both larvae and adults using a Y-tube olfactometer and electrophysiological (electroantennography [EAG] recordings) experiments on adults were carried out. In the polyphagous species, the induction of preference for a new olfactory cue (vanillin) by females and 3rd instar larvae was determined by parents’ and self-experiences, without any modification of the sensitivity of the females antennae. No preference induction was found in the oligophagous and monophagous species. Our results suggest that lepidopteran stem borers may acquire preferences for new olfactory cues from the larval to the adult stage as described by Hopkins’ host selection principle (HHSP), neo-Hopkins’ principle, and the concept of ‘chemical legacy.’ PMID:26288070

  20. Bacterial rhizosphere and endosphere populations associated with grasses and trees to be used for phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Kaneez; Afzal, Muhammad; Imran, Asma; Khan, Qaiser M

    2015-03-01

    Different grasses and trees were tested for their growth in a crude oil contaminated soil. Three grasses, Lolium perenne, Leptochloa fusca, Brachiaria mutica, and two trees, Lecucaena leucocephala and Acacia ampliceps, were selected to investigate the diversity of hydrocarbon-degrading rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria. We found a higher number of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria associated with grasses than trees and that the endophytic bacteria were taxonomically different from rhizosphere associated bacteria showing their spatial distribution with reference to plant compartment as well as genotype. The rhizospheric soil yielded 22 (59.45 %), root interior yielded 9 (24.32 %) and shoot interior yielded 6 (16.21 %) hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. These bacteria possessed genes encoding alkane hydroxylase and showed multiple plant growth-promoting activities. Bacillus (48.64 %) and Acinetobacter (18.91 %) were dominant genera found in this study. At 2 % crude oil concentration, all bacterial isolates exhibited 25 %-78 % oil degradation and Acinetobacter sp. strain BRSI56 degraded maximum. Our study suggests that for practical application, support of potential bacteria combined with the grasses is more effective approach than trees to remediate oil contaminated soils.

  1. The hummingbird community and their floral resources in an urban forest remnant in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial resource use among hummingbirds was studied over 13 months in an urban forest remnant (Prosa State Park: PSP in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Hummingbird visitation was recorded at three ornithophilous and eleven non-ornithophilous species. Flower density was roughly constant during the study period, with the density of non-ornithophilous flowers being higher than that of ornithophilous ones. Mean values of nectar volume and concentration were similar between ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous species. Eight hummingbird species were observed at PSP: Amazilia fimbriata, Anthracothorax nigricollis, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura, Hylocharis chrysura, Florisuga fusca, Thalurania furcata and an unidentified species. Hummingbird visit frequencies to ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous flowers were similar. However, some non-ornithophilous species received a higher number of visits, which seems to be related to their large number of open flowers per plant per day. The number of feedings bouts of hummingbirds increased with the total number of flowers observed per focal plant. All recorded species of hummingbirds visited non-ornithophilous flowers, predominantly melittophilous and generalised entomophilous flowers. Hummingbird species recorded at PSP may be viewed as generalists, visiting a large number of non-ornithophilous species. Despite being an urban forest, PSP is relatively rich in hummingbird species, suggesting that it provides important shelter and foraging sites for hummingbirds in such an environment.

  2. A Network of Local and Redundant Gene Regulation Governs Arabidopsis Seed Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Alexandra; Valon, Christiane; Savino, Gil; Guilleminot, Jocelyne; Devic, Martine; Giraudat, Jérôme; Parcy, François

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, four major regulators (ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 [ABI3], FUSCA3 [FUS3], LEAFY COTYLEDON1 [LEC1], and LEC2) control most aspects of seed maturation, such as accumulation of storage compounds, cotyledon identity, acquisition of desiccation tolerance, and dormancy. The molecular basis for complex genetic interactions among these regulators is poorly understood. By analyzing ABI3 and FUS3 expression in various single, double, and triple maturation mutants, we have identified multiple regulatory links among all four genes. We found that one of the major roles of LEC2 was to upregulate FUS3 and ABI3. The lec2 mutation is responsible for a dramatic decrease in ABI3 and FUS3 expression, and most lec2 phenotypes can be rescued by ABI3 or FUS3 constitutive expression. In addition, ABI3 and FUS3 positively regulate themselves and each other, thereby forming feedback loops essential for their sustained and uniform expression in the embryo. Finally, LEC1 also positively regulates ABI3 and FUS3 in the cotyledons. Most of the genetic controls discovered were found to be local and redundant, explaining why they had previously been overlooked. This works establishes a genetic framework for seed maturation, organizing the key regulators of this process into a hierarchical network. In addition, it offers a molecular explanation for the puzzling variable features of lec2 mutant embryos. PMID:16731585

  3. The hummingbird community and their floral resources in an urban forest remnant in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L C; Araujo, A C

    2011-08-01

    The temporal and spatial resource use among hummingbirds was studied over 13 months in an urban forest remnant (Prosa State Park: PSP) in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Hummingbird visitation was recorded at three ornithophilous and eleven non-ornithophilous species. Flower density was roughly constant during the study period, with the density of non-ornithophilous flowers being higher than that of ornithophilous ones. Mean values of nectar volume and concentration were similar between ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous species. Eight hummingbird species were observed at PSP: Amazilia fimbriata, Anthracothorax nigricollis, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura, Hylocharis chrysura, Florisuga fusca, Thalurania furcata and an unidentified species. Hummingbird visit frequencies to ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous flowers were similar. However, some non-ornithophilous species received a higher number of visits, which seems to be related to their large number of open flowers per plant per day. The number of feedings bouts of hummingbirds increased with the total number of flowers observed per focal plant. All recorded species of hummingbirds visited non-ornithophilous flowers, predominantly melittophilous and generalised entomophilous flowers. Hummingbird species recorded at PSP may be viewed as generalists, visiting a large number of non-ornithophilous species. Despite being an urban forest, PSP is relatively rich in hummingbird species, suggesting that it provides important shelter and foraging sites for hummingbirds in such an environment.

  4. Palynostratigraphy and paleoenvironments of Wellington, New Zealand, during the last 80 ka, based on palynology of drillholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildenhall, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    About 20 pollen profiles from the Wellington area are correlated and zoned according to their pollen characteristics. Sequences from many of the larger sedimentary deposits are shown to contain little or no sediment of late Last Glacial and early Postglacial age, while late Postglacial sedimentation is restricted to a few localities. Sediments of middle and early Last Glacial age are well represented and widespread over the Wellington area. Pollen diagrams from Last Glacial and Postglacial sediments are zoned as follows: Zone A, 80,000-60,000 yr B.P. (lower end of range more likely) and provisionally correlated with oxygen isotope stages 5a and basal 4; Zone B, 70,000-50,000 yr B.P. (lower end of range more likely), provisionally correlated with upper oxygen isotope stages 4 and basal stage 3; Zone C, a short zone just beyond the range of radiocarbon dating at the top of Zone B of 60,000-50,000 yr B.P., correlated with the middle of oxygen isotope stage 3; Zone D, 50,000-10,000 yr B.P., with a major period of nondeposition or erosion between c. 18,000 and 10,000 yr B.P., correlated with the upper part of oxygen isotope stages 3 and all of 2; Zone E, 10,000-1000 yr B.P. (Postglacial); Zone F, last 1000 years (human occupation zone). During this time the vegetation changed from a beech forest (Zone A1) to a shrub/grassland, with pollen from the dominant tree taxa being Nothofagus fusca type (Zone A2), N. menziesii with Phyllocladus (Zones B, C), Phyllocladus with N. menziesii (Zone D), Dacrydium cupressinum (Zone E), and Nothofagus fusca with D. cupressinum (Zone F). Climatic conditions during the Last Glaciation were generally colder, drier, and stormier relative to the present day. The virtual absence of sediment of this age suggests widespread nondeposition or erosion under unstable conditions. Zones B-D represent the harshest conditions, with temperatures averaging up to 5 degrees C less than the present day. Basal Postglacial conditions were the reverse, with

  5. Landscape capability models as a tool to predict fine-scale forest bird occupancy and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Zachary G.; DeLuca, William; Harrison, Daniel J.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Rolek, Brian W.; Wood, Petra B.

    2018-01-01

    ContextSpecies-specific models of landscape capability (LC) can inform landscape conservation design. Landscape capability is “the ability of the landscape to provide the environment […] and the local resources […] needed for survival and reproduction […] in sufficient quantity, quality and accessibility to meet the life history requirements of individuals and local populations.” Landscape capability incorporates species’ life histories, ecologies, and distributions to model habitat for current and future landscapes and climates as a proactive strategy for conservation planning.ObjectivesWe tested the ability of a set of LC models to explain variation in point occupancy and abundance for seven bird species representative of spruce-fir, mixed conifer-hardwood, and riparian and wooded wetland macrohabitats.MethodsWe compiled point count data sets used for biological inventory, species monitoring, and field studies across the northeastern United States to create an independent validation data set. Our validation explicitly accounted for underestimation in validation data using joint distance and time removal sampling.ResultsBlackpoll warbler (Setophaga striata), wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and Louisiana (Parkesia motacilla) and northern waterthrush (P. noveboracensis) models were validated as predicting variation in abundance, although this varied from not biologically meaningful (1%) to strongly meaningful (59%). We verified all seven species models [including ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), blackburnian (Setophaga fusca) and cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea)], as all were positively related to occupancy data.ConclusionsLC models represent a useful tool for conservation planning owing to their predictive ability over a regional extent. As improved remote-sensed data become available, LC layers are updated, which will improve predictions.

  6. Notes on the Birds of Central Oaxaca, Part III: Hirundinidae to Fringillidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Forcey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Notas sobre las aves de Oaxaca central, parte II: Hirundinidae a Fringillidae Se reportan nuevos datos que amplían y clarifican nuestro conocimiento del estatus y distribución de 112 especies de aves en la región central del Estado de Oaxaca. Las observaciones se realizaron abarcando partes de los distritos de Centro, Etla, Ixtlan, Tlacolula, y Zaachila dentro de 35 km alrededor de la Ciudad de Oaxaca. El reporte se basa en observaciones tomadas durante 752 días, comprendidos entre diciembre 1996 y mayo 2002. Los principales hábitats del área son de pino-encino (incluyendo zonas pequeñas de pino-encino-oyamel y pino-encino mezclado con pastizales, matorral de encino, matorral subtropical, vegetación riparia, y vegetación secundaria, campos agrícolas y otros (incluyendo áreas urbanas, jardines, y parques. Las siguientes especies se reportan por primera vez en la zona: Progne sinaloae (registro nuevo en el estado de Oaxaca, Thryothorus felix, Hylocichla mustelina, Vermivora pinus, Vermivora chrysoptera, Dendroica pensylvanica, Dendroica magnolia, Dendroica fusca, Dendroica graciae, Oporornis philadelphia, Wilsonia canadensis, y Spiza americana.Además, las siguientes nueve especies se han reportado solamente en los Conteos Navideños o por registros únicos: Tachycineta bicolor, Dumetella carolinensis, Vermivora peregrina, Dendroica dominica, Dendroica discolor, y Piranga erythrocephala (en temporada de reproducción. Se reportan datos de la reproducción de 43 especies, 18 de los cuales no se habían registrado en estado reproductivo antes en esta zona. De estos 43, 39 se pueden agrupar como reproduciéndose en los meses de abril a julio.

  7. Effects of predation by sea ducks on clam abundance in soft-bottom intertidal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyler; Esler, Daniel N.; Boyd, W. Sean

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have documented strong, top-down predation effects of sea ducks on mussel populations in rocky intertidal communities. However, the impact of these gregarious predators in soft-bottom communities has been largely unexplored. We evaluated effects of predation by wintering surf scoters Melanitta perspicillata and white-winged scoters M. fusca on clam populations in soft-bottom intertidal habitats of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Specifically, we documented spatial and temporal variation in clam density (clams m–2), scoter diet composition, and the consequences of scoter predation on clam abundance. Of the 3 most numerous clams, Manila clams Venerupis philippinarum and varnish clams Nuttallia obscurata were the primary prey items of both scoter species, while clams of the genus Macoma were rarely consumed by scoters. Between scoter arrival in the fall and departure in the spring, Manila clams decreased in density at most sample sites, while varnish clam densities did not change or declined slightly. Our estimates of numbers of clams consumed by scoters accounted for most of the observed declines in combined abundance of Manila and varnish clams, despite the presence of numerous other vertebrate and invertebrate species known to consume clams. For Macoma spp., we detected an over-winter increase in density, presumably due to growth of clams too small to be retained by our sieve (<5 mm) during fall sampling, in addition to the lack of predation pressure by scoters. These results illustrate the strong predation potential of scoters in soft-bottom intertidal habitats, as well as their potentially important role in shaping community structure.

  8. Isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, originated in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Thomas C; Yun, Hye Young; Lu, Sheng-Shan; Goto, Hideaki; Aghayeva, Dilzara N; Fraedrich, Stephen W

    2011-01-01

    The laurel wilt pathogen Raffaelea lauricola was hypothesized to have been introduced to the southeastern USA in the mycangium of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, which is native to Asia. To test this hypothesis adult X. glabratus were trapped in Taiwan and on Kyushu Island, Japan, in 2009, and dead beetles were sent to USA for isolation of fungal symbionts. Individual X. glabratus were macerated in glass tissue grinders, and the slurry was serially diluted and plated onto malt agar medium amended with cycloheximide, a medium semiselective for Ophiostoma species and their anamorphs, including members of Raffaelea. R. lauricola was isolated from 56 of 85 beetles in Taiwan and 10 of 16 beetles in Japan at up to an estimated 10 000 CFUs per beetle. The next most commonly isolated species was R. ellipticospora, which also has been recovered from X. glabratus trapped in the USA, as were two other fungi isolated from beetles in Taiwan, R. fusca and R. subfusca. Three unidentified Raffaelea spp. and three unidentified Ophiostoma spp. were isolated rarely from X. glabratus collected in Taiwan. Isolations from beetles similarly trapped in Georgia, USA, yielded R. lauricola and R. ellipticospora in numbers similar to those from beetles trapped in Taiwan and Japan. The results support the hypothesis that R. lauricola was introduced into the USA in mycangia of X. glabratus shipped to USA in solid wood packing material from Asia. However differences in the mycangial mycoflora of X. glabratus in Taiwan, Japan and USA suggest that the X. glabratus population established in USA originated in another part of Asia.

  9. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennin, Holly; Berlin, Alicia; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass.

  10. Techno-economical evaluation of protein extraction for microalgae biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Y. W.; Sanders, J. P. M.; Bruins, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Due to scarcity of fossil feedstocks, there is an increasing demand for biobased fuels. Microalgae are considered as promising biobased feedstocks. However, microalgae based fuels are not yet produced at large scale at present. Applying biorefinery, not only for oil, but also for other components, such as carbohydrates and protein, may lead to the sustainable and economical microalgae-based fuels. This paper discusses two relatively mild conditions for microalgal protein extraction, based on alkali and enzymes. Green microalgae (Chlorella fusca) with and without prior lipid removal were used as feedstocks. Under mild conditions, more protein could be extracted using proteases, with the highest yields for microalgae meal (without lipids). The data on protein extraction yields were used to calculate the costs for producing 1 ton of microalgal protein. The processing cost for the alkaline method was € 2448 /ton protein. Enzymatic method performed better from an economic point of view with € 1367 /ton protein on processing costs. However, this is still far from industrially feasible. For both extraction methods, biomass cost per ton of produced product were high. A higher protein extraction yield can partially solve this problem, lowering processing cost to €620 and 1180 /ton protein product, using alkali and enzyme, respectively. Although alkaline method has lower processing cost, optimization appears to be better achievable using enzymes. If the enzymatic method can be optimized by lowering the amount of alkali added, leading to processing cost of € 633/ton protein product. Higher revenue can be generated when the residue after protein extraction can be sold as fuel, or better as a highly digestible feed for cattle.

  11. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, Mark D; Zimmerman, Guthrie S; Dwyer, Chris P; Fleming, Kathleen K; Padding, Paul I; Devers, Patrick K; Johnson, Fred A; Runge, Michael C; Roberts, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  12. Mechanical Vectors Enhance Fungal Entomopathogen Reduction of the Grasshopper Pest Camnula pellucida (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Erica J; Saums, Marielle; Belovsky, Gary E

    2015-02-01

    Mounting scientific evidence indicates that pathogens can regulate insect populations. However, limited dispersal and sensitivity to abiotic conditions often restricts pathogen regulation of host populations. While it is well established that arthropod biological vectors increase pathogen incidence in host populations, few studies have examined whether arthropod mechanical vectors (an organism that transmits pathogens but is not essential to the life cycle of the pathogen) influence host-pathogen dynamics. The importance of mechanical dispersal by ant scavengers, Formica fusca (L.), in a grasshopper-fungal entomopathogen system was investigated. We examined the ability of ants to mechanically disperse and transmit the pathogen, Entomophaga grylli (Fresenius) pathotype 1, to its host, the pest grasshopper Camnula pellucida (Scudder), in a series of laboratory experiments. Fungal spores were dispersed either externally on the ant's body surface or internally through fecal deposition. In addition, a third of all grasshoppers housed with fungal-inoculated ants became infected, indicating that ants can act as mechanical vectors of E. grylli. The effect of ant mechanical vectors on E. grylli incidence was also examined in a field experiment. Ant access to pathogen-exposed experimental grasshopper populations was restricted using organic ant repellent, thereby allowing us to directly compare mechanical and natural transmission. Ants increased grasshopper pathogen mortality by 58%, which led to greater pathogen reductions of grasshopper survival than natural transmission. Taken together, our results indicate that ants enhance E. grylli reduction of grasshopper pest numbers. Therefore, mechanical transmission of pathogens may be an important overlooking component of this grasshopper-fungal pathogen system. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Auxin and ABA act as central regulators of developmental networks associated with paradormancy in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, James V.

    2012-05-13

    Abstract Dormancy in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle, an herbaceous perennial weed, allows escape from current control methods and contributes to its invasive nature. In this study, ∼65 % of root sections obtained from greenhouse propagated Canada thistle produced new vegetative shoots by 14 days post-sectioning. RNA samples obtained from sectioned roots incubated 0, 24, 48, and 72 h at 25°C under 16:8 h light-dark conditions were used to construct four MID-tagged cDNA libraries. Analysis of in silico data obtained using Roche 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing technologies identified molecular networks associated with paradormancy release in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle. Sequencing of two replicate plates produced ∼2.5 million ESTs with an average read length of 362 bases. These ESTs assembled into 67358 unique sequences (21777 contigs and 45581 singlets) and annotation against the Arabidopsis database identified 15232 unigenes. Among the 15232 unigenes, we identified processes enriched with transcripts involved in plant hormone signaling networks. To follow-up on these results, we examined hormone profiles in roots, which identified changes in abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites, auxins, and cytokinins post-sectioning. Transcriptome and hormone profiling data suggest that interaction between auxin- and ABA-signaling regulate paradormancy maintenance and release in underground adventitious buds of Canada thistle. Our proposed model shows that sectioning-induced changes in polar auxin transport alters ABA metabolism and signaling, which further impacts gibberellic acid signaling involving interactions between ABA and FUSCA3. Here we report that reduced auxin and ABA-signaling, in conjunction with increased cytokinin biosynthesis post-sectioning supports a model where interactions among hormones drives molecular networks leading to cell division, differentiation, and vegetative outgrowth. ©Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2012.

  14. ABA-dependent inhibition of the ubiquitin proteasome system during germination at high temperature in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Rex Shun; Pan, Shiyue; Zhao, Rongmin; Gazzarrini, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    During germination, endogenous and environmental factors trigger changes in the transcriptome, translatome and proteome to break dormancy. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) degrades proteins that promote dormancy to allow germination. While research on the UPS has focused on the identification of proteasomal substrates, little information is known about the regulation of its activity. Here we characterized the activity of the UPS during dormancy release and maintenance by monitoring protein ubiquitination and degradation of two proteasomal substrates: Suc-LLVY-AMC, a well characterized synthetic substrate, and FUSCA3 (FUS3), a dormancy-promoting transcription factor degraded by the 26S proteasome. Our data indicate that proteasome activity and protein ubiquitination increase during imbibition at optimal temperature (21°C), and are required for seed germination. However, abscisic acid (ABA) and supraoptimal temperature (32°C) inhibit germination by dampening both protein ubiquitination and proteasome activity. Inhibition of UPS function by high temperature is reduced by the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, fluridone, and in ABA biosynthetic mutants, suggesting that it is ABA dependent. Accordingly, inhibition of FUS3 degradation at 32°C is also dependent on ABA. Native gels show that inhibition of proteasome activity is caused by interference with the 26S/30S ratio as well as free 19S and 20S levels, impacting the proteasome degradation cycle. Transfer experiments show that ABA-mediated inhibition of proteasome activity at 21°C is restricted to the first 2 days of germination, a time window corresponding to seed sensitivity to environmental and ABA-mediated growth inhibition. Our data show that ABA and high temperature inhibit germination under unfavourable growth conditions by repressing the UPS. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Feeding and stocking up: radio-labelled food reveals exchange patterns in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffin, Aurélie; Denis, Damien; Van Simaeys, Gaetan; Goldman, Serge; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2009-06-17

    Food sharing is vital for a large number of species, either solitary or social, and is of particular importance within highly integrated societies, such as in colonial organisms and in social insects. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that govern the distribution of food inside a complex organizational system remain unknown. Using scintigraphy, a method developed for medical imaging, we were able to describe the dynamics of food-flow inside an ant colony. We monitored the sharing process of a radio-labelled sucrose solution inside a nest of Formica fusca. Our results show that, from the very first load that enters the nest, food present within the colony acts as negative feedback to entering food. After one hour of the experiments, 70% of the final harvest has already entered the nest. The total foraged quantity is almost four times smaller than the expected storage capacity. A finer study of the spatial distribution of food shows that although all ants have been fed rapidly (within 30 minutes), a small area representing on average 8% of the radioactive surface holds more than 25% of the stored food. Even in rather homogeneous nests, we observed a strong concentration of food in few workers. Examining the position of these workers inside the nest, we found heavily loaded ants in the centre of the aggregate. The position of the centre of this high-intensity radioactive surface remained stable for the three consecutive hours of the experiments. We demonstrate that the colony simultaneously managed to rapidly feed all workers (200 ants fed within 30 minutes) and build up food stocks to prevent food shortage, something that occurs rather often in changing environments. Though we expected the colony to forage to its maximum capacity, the flow of food entering the colony is finely tuned to the colony's needs. Indeed the food-flow decreases proportionally to the food that has already been harvested, liberating the work-force for other tasks.

  16. Tsetse flies and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D J; Hendrickx, G; Slingenbergh, J H

    1994-12-01

    The authors use a quantitative modelling framework to describe and explore the features of the biology of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) which are important in determining the rate of transmission of the African trypanosomiases between hosts. Examples are presented of the contribution of previous research on tsetse to quantified epidemiological and epizootiological understanding, and areas of current ignorance are identified for future study. Spatial and temporal variations in risk are important (but rarely-studied) determinants of the impact of trypanosomiasis on humans, domestic animals and agricultural activities. Recent grid-based sampling surveys to Togo provide valuable data sets on tsetse, cattle and trypanosomiasis throughout the country. A combination of ground-based meterological and remotely-sensed satellite data, within linear discriminant analytical models, enables description of the observed distributions of the five species of tsetse occurring in Togo, with accuracies of between 72% (Glossina palpalis and G. tachinoides) and 98% (G. fusca). Abundance classes of the two most widespread species, G. palpalis and G. tachinoides, are described with accuracies of between 47% and 83%. This is especially remarkable given the relatively small differences between the average values of the predictor variables in areas of differing fly abundance. Similar analyses could be used to predict the occurrence and abundance of flies in other areas, which have not been surveyed to date, in order to plan tsetse control campaigns or explore development options. Finally, some recent tsetse control campaigns are briefly reviewed. The shift of emphasis from fly eradication to fly control is associated with a devolution of responsibility for control activities from central government to local areas, communities or even individuals. The future role of central governments will remain crucial, however, in determining the areas in which different control options are practised, in

  17. Comunidades liquénicas como bioindicadores de calidad del aire del Valle de Aburrá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo Ciro1 Margarita María

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Los líquenes han sido propuestos como bioindicadores de la calidad del aire por su alta sensibilidad a los cambios que afectan su abundancia, biomasa y vitalidad. Para evaluar las afectaciones que los líquenes manifiestan como consecuencia de la contaminación atmosférica, se seleccionaron dos áreas de muestreo en los alrededores de dos estaciones de la red de monitoreo de calidad del aire RedAire: el edificio Miguel de Aguinaga con alta contaminación y la Universidad de Medellín con baja contaminación. El monitoreo se realizó sobre las cortezas de 4 especies arbóreas como forofitos: Terminalia catappa Linneaus, Eritrina fusca Loureiro, Mangifera indica Linneaus y Fraxinus chinensis Roxb. Para los análisis se consideraron las variables cobertura liquénica por especie, vitalidad y fructificación del talo. Finalmente los datos de cobertura fueron utilizados para determinar el índice de pureza atmosférica (IPA y el factor Q. Los resultados evidenciaron que de las 8 especies de líquenes encontradas, Canoparmelia sp. y Parmotrema austrosinensis (Zahlbr Hale. son las más sensibles y apropiadas para estudios de calidad del aire en el Valle de Aburrá. Los análisis estadísticos realizados a los valores de abundancia relativa por forofito mostraron que Fraxinus chinensis Roxb es la especie vegetal portante más apropiada para estudios de líquenes bioindicadores en el Valle de Aburrá.

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genotypic Characteristic of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Free-Living Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Woźniak-Biel, Anna; Bednarski, Michał; Wieliczko, Alina

    2017-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6.14%) from the feces of 7 wild bird species: Mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos (29 positive/121 tested), great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo (5/77), velvet scoters Melanitta fusca (4/30), tawny owls Strix aluco (2/5), common buzzard Buteo buteo (1/3), rook Corvus frugilegus (1/6), and Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus (1/30). Thirty-eight (88.37%) of obtained strains belonged to C. jejuni and five (11.63%) to C. coli. Other 428 examined birds from different bird species were Campylobacter negative. The antimicrobial susceptibility to nine antimicrobials was also studied in investigated isolates of Campylobacter spp. Sixteen of the examined strains (37.21% of all positive samples) showed susceptibility to all of the nine antimicrobials. Moreover, the prevalence of selected virulence genes, such as flaA, cadF, ceuE, virB11, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC were all analyzed. The virulence gene that was found most frequently in total number of Campylobacter strains was ceuE (72.10%) and other genes, such as flaA, cadF, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, were found in over 60% of all examined strains. Variable antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of different virulence genes of examined strains, isolated from free-living birds, suggest that special attention should be given to wild birds and any potential approaches to the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter should be discussed.

  19. Delayed recolonization of foraminifera in a suddenly flooded tidal (former freshwater) marsh in Oregon (USA): Implications for relative sea-level reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milker, Yvonne; Horton, Benjamin P.; Khan, Nicole S.; Nelson, Alan R.; Witter, Robert C.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Ewald, Michael; Brophy, Laura; Bridgeland, William T.

    2016-04-01

    Stratigraphic sequences beneath salt marshes along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast preserve 7000 years of plate-boundary earthquakes at the Cascadia subduction zone. The sequences record rapid rises in relative sea level during regional coseismic subsidence caused by great earthquakes and gradual falls in relative sea level during interseismic uplift between earthquakes. These relative sea-level changes are commonly quantified using foraminiferal transfer functions with the assumption that foraminifera rapidly recolonize salt marshes and adjacent tidal flats following coseismic subsidence. The restoration of tidal inundation in the Ni-les'tun unit (NM unit) of the Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge (Oregon), following extensive dike removal in August 2011, allowed us to directly observe changes in foraminiferal assemblages that occur during rapid "coseismic" (simulated by dike removal with sudden tidal flooding) and "interseismic" (stabilization of the marsh following flooding) relative sea-level changes analogous to those of past earthquake cycles. We analyzed surface sediment samples from 10 tidal stations at the restoration site (NM unit) from mudflat to high marsh, and 10 unflooded stations in the Bandon Marsh control site. Samples were collected shortly before and at 1- to 6-month intervals for 3 years after tidal restoration of the NM unit. Although tide gauge and grain-size data show rapid restoration of tides during approximately the first 3 months after dike removal, recolonization of the NM unit by foraminifera was delayed at least 10 months. Re-establishment of typical tidal foraminiferal assemblages, as observed at the control site, required 31 months after tidal restoration, with Miliammina fusca being the dominant pioneering species. If typical of past recolonizations, this delayed foraminiferal recolonization affects the accuracy of coseismic subsidence estimates during past earthquakes because significant postseismic uplift may shortly follow

  20. Isolation and characterization of antifungal compound from Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-10 from forage silage with potential beneficial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valan Arasu, M; Jung, M-W; Ilavenil, S; Jane, M; Kim, D-H; Lee, K-D; Park, H-S; Hur, T-Y; Choi, G-J; Lim, Y-C; Al-Dhabi, N A; Choi, K-C

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate, identify and characterize an antifungal compound from Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-10 from forage silage with potential beneficial properties. The 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic affiliation was determined using bioinformatic tools and identified as Lactobacillus sp. KCC-10 with 100% sequence similarity to L. plantarum. The antifungal substances were extracted with ethyl acetate from spent medium in which Lactobacillus sp. KCC-10 was cultivated. Antifungal activity was assessed using the broth microdilution technique. The compounds were obtained by eluting the crude extract with various concentrations of solvents followed by chromatographic purification. Based on the infrared, (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (1) H NMR spectral data, the compound was identified as a phenolic-related antibiotic. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the compound against Aspergillus clavatus, A. oryzae, Botrytis elliptica and Scytalidium vaccinii was 2.5 mg ml(-1) and that against A. fumigatus, A. niger and S. fusca was 5.0 mg ml(-1) , respectively. In addition, Lactobacillus sp. KCC-10 was highly sensitive towards oxgall (0.3%) but grew well in the presence of sodium taurocholate (0.3%). An antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was an intrinsic feature of this strain; thus, consumption does not represent a health risk to humans or animals. Novel L. plantarum KCC-10 with antifungal and potential probiotic properties was characterized for use in animal food. This study revealed that L. plantarum KCC-10 exhibited good antifungal activity similar to that of probiotic Lactobacillus strains. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of two Brassica napus near-isogenic lines reveals a network of genes that influences seed oil accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxue Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world’s supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl lipid metabolism (ALM genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes. Genome collinearity analysis demonstrated that the majority of the ALM genes have arisen due to genome duplication or segmental duplication events. In addition, we profiled the expression patterns of the ALM genes in four different developmental stages. Furthermore, we developed two B. napus near isogenic lines (NILs. The high oil NIL, YC13-559, accumulates more than 10% of seed oil compared to the other, YC13-554. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of lipid biosynthesis-related regulatory genes in YC13-559, including SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 (LEC1, LEC2, FUSCA3, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, and WRINKLED1, as well as structural genes, such as ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE, ACYL-CoA DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-CoA SYNTHETASES. We observed that several genes related to the phytohormones, gibberellins, jasmonate, and indole acetic acid, were differentially expressed in the NILs. Our findings provide a broad account of the numbers, distribution, and expression profiles of acyl lipid metabolism genes, as well as gene networks that potentially control oil accumulation in B. napus seeds. The upregulation of key regulatory and structural genes related to lipid biosynthesis likely plays a major role for the increased seed oil in YC13-559.

  2. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennin, Holly L; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M; Love, Oliver P

    2016-03-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass.

  3. The fauna of the family Bombycidae sensu lato (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea) from Mainland China, Taiwan and Hainan Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Wang, Min; Zolotuhin, Vadim V; Hirowatari, Toshiya; Wu, Shipher; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2015-07-22

    Seventy-seven species of family Bombycidae s. lat., belonging to 25 genera in three subfamilies, that have been recorded from China are listed and described, with illustrations of the adults, preimaginal stages (if available), and their genitalia. Keys to subfamilies and genera are provided. Two new genera and four new species are described, two subgenera are raised to generic status, seven new combinations are made, and one genus and six species are newly recorded from China. The new taxa are as follows: Rotunda Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, gen. nov., Comparmustilia Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, gen. nov., Triuncina daii Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, sp. nov., Triuncina xiongi Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, sp. nov., Gnathocinara boi Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, sp. nov. and Promustilia yajiangensis Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, sp. nov. The taxa newly recorded for China are: Sesquiluna Forbes, 1955; Trilocha friedeli Dierl, 1978; Bivincula kalikotei Dierl, 1978; Sesquiluna forbesi Zolotuhin & Witt, 2009; Mustilizans lepusa Zolotuhin, 2007; Smerkata brechlini (Zolotuhin, 2007) and Mustilia castanea Moore, 1879. The seven new combinations are: Rotunda rotundapex (Miyata & Kishida, 1990), comb. nov., Triuncina nitida (Chu & Wang, L.Y., 1993), comb. nov., Gunda sesostris (Vuillot, 1893), comb. nov., Smerkata fusca (Kishida, 1993), comb. nov., Comparmustilia sphingiformis (Moore, 1879), comb. nov., Comparmustilia semiravida (Yang, 1995), comb. nov., Comparmustilia gerontica (West, 1932), comb. nov.. The two subgenera raised to generic level are: Promustilia Zolotuhin, 2007, stat. nov. and Smerkata Zolotuhin, 2007, stat. nov.. The distributions of the species in China were determined and distributional maps provided. All type specimens of the new species described here are deposited in the College of Plant Protection, Hunan Agricultural University, China (HUNAU); Department of Entomology, South China Agricultural University, China (SCAU); Kyushu University Museum, Kyushu University, Japan (KUM), and Entomological

  4. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Uk Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis, and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1, LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L, FUSCA3 (FUS3, and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3 transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1 transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1 and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11, in vegetative tissues.

  5. Distribution patterns of wintering sea ducks in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation and local environmental characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Gardner, Beth; Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Silverman, Emily D.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini) winter off the eastern coast of the United States and Canada. Yet, despite their seasonal proximity to urbanized areas in this region, there is limited information on patterns of wintering sea duck habitat use. It is difficult to gather information on sea ducks because of the relative inaccessibility of their offshore locations, their high degree of mobility, and their aggregated distributions. To characterize environmental conditions that affect wintering distributions, as well as their geographic ranges, we analyzed count data on five species of sea ducks (black scoters Melanitta nigra americana, surf scoters M. perspicillata, white-winged scoters M. fusca, common eiders Somateria mollissima, and long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that were collected during the Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey for ten years starting in the early 1990s. We modeled count data for each species within ten-nautical-mile linear survey segments using a zero-inflated negative binomial model that included four local-scale habitat covariates (sea surface temperature, mean bottom depth, maximum bottom slope, and a variable to indicate if the segment was in a bay or not), one broad-scale covariate (the North Atlantic Oscillation), and a temporal correlation component. Our results indicate that species distributions have strong latitudinal gradients and consistency in local habitat use. The North Atlantic Oscillation was the only environmental covariate that had a significant (but variable) effect on the expected count for all five species, suggesting that broad-scale climatic conditions may be directly or indirectly important to the distributions of wintering sea ducks. Our results provide critical information on species-habitat associations, elucidate the complicated relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation, sea surface temperature, and local sea duck abundances, and should be useful in assessing the impacts of climate

  6. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1(Δ11)), in vegetative tissues.

  7. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11), in vegetative tissues. PMID:24363987

  8. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Song

    Full Text Available Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1, BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development.

  9. Hardware in the loop platform development for hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, E. [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Fowler, E.; Stevens, M.B. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Fraser, M.W. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This paper described a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) validation simulation system designed to evaluate hybrid control strategies. The system was designed to reduce development costs and improve the safety of hybrid vehicle control systems. Model-based design processes for power trains typically include a series of processes to assess the real time and physical limitations of control systems prior to in-vehicle testing. The study used a 70 kW nickel metal hydride battery; a 67 kW 3-phase induction traction motor; and, a high voltage DC-DC converter within a fuel cell Chevrolet Equinox. Two physical vehicle controllers were used to interface with the virtual vehicle simulation in real time. System performance was monitored with a supervisory computer. A software in the loop (SIL) process was conducted to assess torque control and regenerative braking algorithm validation. An analysis of the controller code showed that a Simulink-native integrator block was updating too slowly. A custom integration term calculation was written. The charge control was then validated and tuned. It was concluded that use of the HIL system mitigated the risk of component damage through the identification and correction of unstable control logic. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. Reasearch and Evaluation of Electromagnetic Fields of Refrigerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranas Baltrėnas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of refrigerators causes the occurence of electromagnetic fields that are invisible and intangible, which therefore makes difficulties in protecting ourselves from them. A refrigerator is an irreplaceable item in domestic household and thus can be hardly ignored by a modern way of human life. In order to preserve the characteristics of products, the refrigerator must operate continuously (24 hrs a day, regardless of the time of the year. This results in a huge increase in electricity consumption, which leads to energy consumption related pollution of the environment emitting CO2 gas. On these grounds, it is necessary to assess electromagnetic fields created by the refrigerator. Studies on electromagnetic fields produced by refrigerators were conducted in domestic premises where people spent a significant part of the day. For comparison purposes, five different power refrigerators were chosen (1 – 0.20 kW; 2 – 0.25 kW; 3 – 0.30 kW; 4 – 0.35 kW; 5 – 0.40 kW. The obtained results, according to the parameters of their electromagnetic fields, were presented in graphs and charts and showed that the values of electric and magnetic intensity of refrigerators depended on the distance and the power of the refrigerator. The conducted research also disclosed that none of tested refrigerators exceeded the permissible limits of electromagnetic fields.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Performance enhancement of a subcooled cold storage air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, M.-J.; Cheng, C.-H.; Huang, M.-C.; Chen, S.-L.

    2009-01-01

    This article experimentally investigates the enhancement of thermal performance for an air conditioning system utilizing a cold storage unit as a subcooler. The cold storage unit is composed of an energy storage tank, liquid-side heat exchanger, suction-side heat exchanger and energy storage material (ESM), water. When the cooling load is lower than the nominal cooling capacity of the system, the cold storage unit can store extra cold energy of the system to subcool the condenser outlet refrigerant. Hence, both the cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of the system will be increased. This experiment tests the two operation modes: subcooled mode with energy storage and non-subcooled mode without energy storage. The results show that for fixed cooling loads at 3.05 kW, 3.5 kW and 3.95 kW, the COP of the subcooled mode are 16.0%, 15.6% and 14.1% higher than those of the non-subcooled mode, respectively. In the varied cooling load experiments, the COP of the subcooled cold storage air conditioning system is 15.3% higher than the conventional system.

  12. Speed control with torque ripple reduction of switched reluctance motor by Hybrid Many Optimizing Liaison Gravitational Search technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan Saha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control scheme for simultaneous control of the speed of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM and minimizing the torque ripple employing Hybrid Many Optimizing Liaison Gravitational Search Algorithm (Hybrid MOLGSA technique. The control mechanism includes two controlling loops, the outer loop is governed for speed control and a current controller for the inner loop, intelligent selection of turn on and turn off angle for a 60 KW, 3-phase 6/8 SRM. It is noticed that the torque ripple coefficient, ISE of speed & current are reduced by 12.81%, 38.60%, 16.74% respectively by Hybrid MOLGSA algorithm compared to Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA algorithm. It is also observed that the settling times for the controller using the parameter values for obtaining best values of torque ripple, Integral square error of speed and current are reduced by 51.25%, 58.04% and 59.375% by proposed Hybrid MOLGSA algorithm compared to the GSA algorithm.

  13. An innovative design of small low head hydropower units for low cost decentralized production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, E.; Dennehy, T.

    1991-01-01

    Design allowing turbine operation at heads as low as 1m and operating at a rotational speed of 500 RPM at a flow of 2.6m 3 /s and a runner diameter of 700 mm. This eliminates the need for a gear box and helps in achieving efficiency of 60% in the case of a 21 kW installation at a 1m head site and 85% with a 69 kW 3.2m head site. Present turbine designs for such low head sites are very expensive to produce and have a low efficiency. The design uses an all plastic waterway, guide vane assembly and reinforced plastic runner blades. There will be a short pay-back period, for example 4.5 years in the case of a 21 kW unit and 2.0 years in case of the 69 kW unit. These payback periods assume a cost per kW of 0.00 ECU. Design is attractive for decentralized production. 3 figs

  14. 100-KR-1 Operable Unit focused feasibility study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The standard Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Feasibility Study (FS) includes development and screening of alternatives and the detailed analysis of alternatives. This focused feasibility study (FFS) was conducted for the 100-KR-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The objective of this operable unit-specific FFS is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of interim remedial measures (IRM) for the five sites (116-K-1 crib, 116-K-2 trench, 116-KE-4 and 116-KW-3 retention basins, and process effluent pipelines) associated with the 100-KR-1 Operable Unit. The IRM candidate waste sites are determined in the limited field investigation. Site profiles are developed for each of these waste site. The site profiles are used in the application of the plug-in approach. The waste site either plugs into the analysis of the alternatives for the group, or deviations from the developed group alternatives are described and documented

  15. High sensitivity neutron activation analysis using coincidence counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    1999-01-01

    Four kinds of standard samples such as river sediment (NIES CRM No.16), Typical Japanese Diet, otoliths and river water were irradiated by TRIGA-II (100 kW, 3.7x10 12 n cm -2 s -1 ) for 6 h. After irradiation and cooling, they were analyzed by the coincidence counting method and a conventional γ-ray spectrometry. Se, Ba and Hf were determined by 75 Se 265 keV, 131 Ba 496 keV and 181 Hf 482 keV. On the river sediment sample, Ba and Hf showed the same values by two methods, but Se value contained Ta by the conventional method, although the coincidence counting method could analyze Se. On Typical Japanese Diet and otoliths, Se could be determined by two methods and Ba and Hf determined by the coincidence counting method but not determined by the conventional method. Se value in the river water agreed with the authorization value. (S.Y.)

  16. Present status of micro and mini-hydel power plants and biogas plants in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.

    1997-01-01

    The Government of Pakistan has high priority to develop indigenous energy resources and announced a policy framework and package of incentives to private sector in hydro electric power generation. Hydro electric power in Pakistan has been estimated to be nearly 35,000 MW, whereas only 3330 MW have so far been exploited which constitutes only 15.11% share of the total commercial energy fuel consumption in 1994-95 and 42.7% of total electricity generation. The Government Agency in Pakistan i.e. WAPDA which produced 85.4% electricity generation had found it difficult to implement and run small hydro projects. There are 200 MHP plants were installed with a total capacity of 3,000 KW (3 MW), out of which 160 plants are working with 80% success rate. The selling price is Rs. 3.00 against cost of production is Rs. 0.11 per unit. Biogas is a clean and cheap fuel in the form of gas. The total dung available per day in the rural areas of Pakistan works out between 250-300 million Kg and 1804 million cubic m. of biogas can be produced having economic value of 6.711 billions. During 70's several biogas plants were installed but they have some problems. As regards biogas the production has remained stagnant for the last 5 years or more. There is need for clear governmental priorities and effective use of form biogas. (A.B.)

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on research under Sunshine Program. Basic research on plasma-aided coal gasification technology; 1981 nendo sushine keikaku kenkyu seika hokokusho. Sekitan no plasma gas ka gijutsu no kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Researches are conducted for the development of a technology of producing useful gases such as acetylene, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, etc., from coal by the use of the high temperature and high-density energy of the plasma jet. In an experiment using a 100kW 3-port plasma-aided gasification unit, rapid quenching tests are conducted using hydrogen and helium, where the reaction furnace is changed, the specimen feed device is changed, and the plasma torch head is replaced by a high-power head. In a test of the coal specimen, it is found that rapid quenching exerts a great effect on the prevention of re-decomposition of the generated acetylene into hydrogen and carbon black and that a rise in the hydrogen partial pressure results in a great decrease in the quantity of acetylene generated. The said torch head replacement increases the rate of the coal specimen infiltrating into the plasma flame, which brings about an increase in the quantity of acetylene generated. It is found after all that the conventional acetylene yield of 34g/kWh increases to 59g/kWh in a rapid quenching test in which the specimen is dried Akabira coal and the plasma is an argon gas plasma containing 40% hydrogen. (NEDO)

  18. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of an indirect-fired GAX cycle cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, V.H.; Vidal, A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria, Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco Morelos (Mexico); Best, R.; Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco Morelos (Mexico); Velazquez, N. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Calle de la Normal S/N, Insurgentes Este, 21280 Mexicali, BC (Mexico)

    2008-06-15

    A theoretical and experimental evaluation of an indirect-fired GAX-Prototype Cooling System (GAX-PCS), using ammonia-water as the working fluid, is presented. The GAX-PCS was designed for a cooling capacity of 10.6 kW (3 tons). A simulation model was developed, calibrated and validated with experimental values in order to predict the performance of the system outside the design parameters. Experimental results were obtained using thermal oil, at temperatures from 180 to 195 C, as heating source. An internal heat recovery in the system of {proportional_to}55% with respect to the total heat supplied in the generator was obtained. Also the performance of the GAX absorption system, integrated to a micro gas turbine (MGT) as a cogeneration system was simulated. Overall efficiencies for the cogeneration system from 29% to 49% were obtained for cooling loads from 5 kW to 20 kW, respectively. With the theoretical and experimental study of the proposed cycle, it is concluded that the GAX-PCS presents potential to compete technically in the Mexican air conditioning market. (author)

  19. Thermal modeling of tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-104 with the TEMPEST code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Recknagle, K.P.

    1995-07-01

    The TEMPEST code was exercised in a preliminary study of double-shell Tanks 241 -AW-101 and 241-AN-104 thermal behavior. The two-dimensional model used is derived from our earlier studies on heat transfer from Tank 241-SY-101. Several changes were made to the model to simulate the waste and conditions in 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-104. The nonconvective waste layer was assumed to be 254 cm (100 in.) thick for Tank 241-AW-101, and 381 cm (150 in.) in Tank 241-AN-104. The remaining waste was assumed, for each tank, to consist of a convective layer with a 7.6-cm (3-inch) crust on top. The waste heat loads for 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-104 were taken to be 10 kW (3.4E4 Btu/hr) and 12 kW (4.0E4 Btu/hr), respectively. Present model predictions of maximum and convecting waste temperatures are within 1.7 degrees C (3 degrees F) of those measured in Tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-104. The difference between the predicted and measured temperature is comparable to the uncertainty of the measurement equipment. These models, therefore, are suitable for estimating the temperatures within the tanks in the event of changing air flows, waste levels, and/or waste configurations

  20. Economic analysis of photovoltaic systems for the residential market under China's new regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Sandy; Chen, Xiaoju; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2017-01-01

    China has recently changed its regulation for producing energy from photovoltaic solar panels in order to encourage the use of the solar resource. This new regulation started with offering subsidies at a national level and this was later followed by local subsidies in addition to the national one. Being a large country, China has regions with good solar exposure and others with poor exposure. Each region has a different electricity price and the energy is purchased based on the Grid Coal Power electricity price that also varies throughout the country. In this work we analyze the economic profitability of different regions considering the solar radiation levels, savings in self-consumption, cash flows from injecting power into the grid and local prices for installations to show that the best return is obtained in the places with better solar radiation or where the electricity price is higher. The regional Feed-In tariffs help to compensate for lower radiation levels but do not make these regions very attractive from an investment perspective. - Highlights: • Summarizes national and local feed in tariffs for China for the residential market. • Provides average local prices for 1 kW, 3 kW and 5 kW photovoltaic installations. • Selects city with best IRR, NPV and DPBP based on prices, subsidies and radiation. • Performs sensitivity analysis to check which parameter has more effect on results.

  1. Geophysical investigation of the 120-KE-3 and 118-K-2 sites, 100-KR-2 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, K.A.; Mitchell, T.H.; Bolin, B.J.

    1995-04-01

    Geophysical investigations using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) were conducted at two waste sites, 120-KE-3 and 118-K-2, in the 100-K Area (Figure 1). Both of the sites are located within Operable Unit 100-KR-2. The 120-KE-3 waste site (Figure 2), also known as the 183-Filter Water Facility Trench and 100-KE-3, received sulfuric acid sludge from sulfuric acid storage tanks that were contaminated with 700 kg of mercury. The trench is documented as 3 ft wide by 3 ft deep by 40 ft long. However, part or all of the trench was excavated when an outside contractor attempted to recover the mercury (Carpenter and Cote 1994). Therefore, the actual size of the ''disturbed area'' from the trench and subsequent excavation is unknown. The objective of the geophysical investigation was to locate the original or reworked trench. The 118- K-2 site (Figure 3) was reportedly used to dispose radioactive sludge from the 116-KE-4 and 116-KW-3 retention basins. The size of the ''trench'' is unknown and documentation shows it in two different locations. No other information si available on the site. The objective of the investigation was to locate the trench

  2. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program. Basic research on plasma-aided coal gasification technology; 1982 nendo sekitan no plasma gas ka gijutsu no kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    A technology is developed to produce useful gases such as acetylene, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide from coal and coal-related substances making use of the high-temperature high-density energy of plasma jets. Using the newly developed systems, the energy utilization rate is 50% or higher and the yields are 60-100g/kWh for acetylene and 100-160l/kWh for hydrogen. For the achievement of the goal, two types of plasma gasification systems have been developed. One is a '100kW 3-torch plasma gasification system' in which the specimen for gasification is fed to the center of the combined flame for improvement on the contact rate between the specimen and plasma flame. The other is a 'rotating plasma torch system' in which the flame is rotated, and expanded, by an externally provided magnetic field for improvement on the contact rate between the specimen and plasma flame and, simultaneously, for an increase in energy utilization efficiency by feeding the specimen into the discharge region. In this fiscal year, quenching tests are conducted using water and oil so as to establish the difference in quenching effect between quenching agents. What to improve in the systems are clarified. (NEDO)

  3. Test results and supporting analysis of a near-surface heater experiment in the Eleana argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Lappin, A.R.; Thomas, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the in-situ thermomechanical response of argillite to heating was obtained from a near-surface heater test in the Eleana Formation, at the United States Department of Energy, Nevada Test Site. The experiment consisted of a 3.8 kW, 3-m long x 0.3-m diameter electrical heater in a central hole surrounded by peripheral holes containing instrumentation to measure temperature, gas pressures, and vertical displacement. A thermal model of the experiment agreed well with experimental results; a comparison of measured and predicted temperatures indicates that some nonmodeled vertical transport of water and water vapor occurred near the heater, especially at early times. A mechanical model indicated that contraction of expandable clays in the argillite produced a region 1.5 - 2.0 m in radius, in which opening of preexisting joints occurred as a result of volumetric contraction. Results of thermal and mechanical modeling, laboratory property measurements, experimental temperature measurements, and post-test observations are all self-consistent and provide preliminary information on the in-situ response of argillaceous rocks to the emplacement of heat-producing nuclear waste

  4. Tsetse flies, biodiversity and the control of sleeping sickness. Structure of a Glossina guild in southwest Côte d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouteux, Jean-Paul; Jarry, Marc

    1998-10-01

    Tsetse fly guilds usually comprise two or three species. However, the presence of only one species often indicates that anthropic modifications have occurred in the habitat. On the other hand, more than three species are seldom observed in the same zone and the presence of five is extremely rare. Previous detailed studies have always focused on a single species, without taking into account interactions between species. The authors present the results of observations carried out in Côte d'Ivoire on a guild consisting of Glossina palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. longipalpis and G. fusca. Glossina have unusual physiological characteristics: both sexes feed exclusively on blood, they have a highly developed larviparity associated with a slow rhythm of reproduction (one larva about every ten days) and a long life expectancy (up to nine months). The authors report on the size of the flies, the hosts, feeding habits, ecodistribution, resting-places, flying heights, circadian activity and seasonal dynamics of tsetse fly populations in order to understand the organization of this guild. Each species feeds indiscriminately on a wide spectrum of hosts without a particular preference. Different species shared habitat (ecodistribution) and time (circadian and annual cycles). Thus, during an annual cycle, there is always a slight time-lag between the density peaks of G. palpalis and G. pallicera, the peak of the dominant species immediately preceding that of the dominated species. In a village area, 77% of the variations in density of G. pallicera were accounted for by the previous variations in density of the dominant species ( G. palpalis). Experiments show that G. pallicera and G. nigrofusca immediately invade anthropic areas from which G. palpalis has been partially removed by trapping. These species thus appear to confront each other in a global dynamic equilibrium. This suggests that there is a 'conflicting coexistence' between the cohabiting species. Whereas the

  5. Differential and Synergistic Functionality of Acylsugars in Suppressing Oviposition by Insect Herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M Leckie

    Full Text Available Acylsugars are secondary metabolites exuded from type IV glandular trichomes that provide broad-spectrum insect suppression for Solanum pennellii Correll, a wild relative of cultivated tomato. Acylsugars produced by different S. pennellii accessions vary by sugar moieties (glucose or sucrose and fatty acid side chains (lengths and branching patterns. Our objective was to determine which acylsugar compositions more effectively suppressed oviposition of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Middle East--Asia Minor 1 Group, tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds, and western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande. We extracted and characterized acylsugars from four S. pennellii accessions with different compositions, as well as from an acylsugar-producing tomato breeding line. We also fractionated the acylsugars of one S. pennellii accession to examine the effects of its components. Effects of acylsugars on oviposition were evaluated by administering a range of doses to oviposition sites of adult whiteflies and thrips in non-choice and choice bioassays, respectively. The acylsugars from S. pennellii accessions and the tomato breeding line demonstrated differential functionality in their ability to alter the distribution of whitefly oviposition and suppress oviposition on acylsugar treated substrates. Tobacco thrips were sensitive to all compositions while western flower thrips and whiteflies were more sensitive to acylsugars from a subset of S. pennellii accessions. It follows that acylsugars could thus mediate plant-enemy interactions in such a way as to affect evolution of host specialization, resistance specificity, and potentially host differentiation or local adaptation. The acylsugars from S. pennellii LA1376 were separated by polarity into two fractions that differed sharply for their sugar moieties and fatty acid side chains. These fractions had different efficacies, with neither having activity approaching that of the

  6. Phylogenetic reconstruction using secondary structures of Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, rDNA: finding the molecular and morphological gap in Caribbean gorgonian corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Juan A

    2007-06-01

    morphological characteristics (sclerites. Eunicea flexuosa, E. pallida, E. laxispica and E. mammosa formed a separate clade in the molecular phylogenies, and were reciprocally monophyletic with respect to other Eunicea (Euniceopsis subgenus, e.g. E. tourneforti and E. laciniata in the molecular morphometrics tree, with the exception of E. fusca. Moreover, we suggest a new diagnostic character for Eunicea, also present in E. flexuosa: middle layer sclerites > 1 mm in length. Conclusion ITS2 was a reliable sequence for intrageneric studies in gorgonian octocorals because of the amount of phylogenetic signal, and was corroborated against morphological characters separating Eunicea from Plexaura. The ITS2 RNA secondary structure approach to phylogeny presented here did not rely on alignment methods such as INDELS, but provided clearly homologous characters for partition analysis and RNA molecular morphometrics. These approaches support the divergence of Eunicea flexuosa comb. nov. from the outgroup Plexaura, although it has been considered part of this outgroup for nearly two centuries because of morphological resemblance.

  7. Caracterización de Typhlocybella maidica (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae y descripción del daño producido en plantas de maíz y gramíneas asociadas en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. BRENTASSI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los muestreos realizados en el área maicera centro de la Argentina durante las campañas 2006-2008, con el fin de identificar la composición específica de auquenorrincos presentes, permitieron detectar altas densidades de “chicharritas”, pertenecientes a la subfamilia Typhlocybinae, que causaban evidentes daños. Este hallazgo motivó la primera mención para la Argentina del género Typhlocybella Baker y la descripción de una nueva especie: Typhlocybella maidica Catalano. El objetivo fue describir los perjuicios ocasionados por la alimentación de T. maidica sobre sus hospederos naturales y dar a conocer las características más sobresalientes para su identificación. T. maidica se reconoce por su pequeño tamaño (3mm, coloración castaño-amarillenta con dos manchas fuscas a ambos lados de la corona, alas anteriores con manchas anaranjadas y castañas, y por su característico vuelo corto y rápido entre las plantas hospederas. El daño consiste en típicas áreas cloróticas alineadas en zig-zag sobre ambas epidermis foliares. El examen microscópico reveló la pérdida de cloroplastos de las c élulas del mesófilo y de la vaina parenquimática que rodea al haz vascular, así como una alteración morfológica de aquellos presentes en la vaina. D epósitos salivales, asociados particularmente con el floema, también fueron detectados. T. maidica se alimenta principalmente del contenido de las células del mesófilo, usando la estrategia de alimentación conocida como “ cell-rupturing ”. La alta frecuencia de lesiones observadas sobre el maíz, motiva a proseguir con los estudios de evaluación de perjuicios causados por esta especie y de su importancia en la sanidad del cultivo.

  8. Interacción planta-colibrí en Amacayacu (Amazonas, Colombia: una perspectiva palinológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Márquez Marisol

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se cuantificaron 232 cargas de polen tomadas de 11 especies de colibríes en el Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu, Amazonas, Colombia. Las especies más generalistas transportaron cargas de polen con mayor cantidad de granos. Las características palinológicas predominantes en los granos de polen sugieren una relación entre estructura reticulada y la polinización por colibríes. Se propone un Índice de Valor de Importancia de los Recursos (IVIR orientado a estimar la importancia de cada una de las plantas ornitófilas para la comunidad de colibríes. Las plantas más importantes para los colibríes fueron: una especie de Heliconia, una especie de Passiflora, Besleria aggregata, una especie de Costus, ombretum llewelynii y Erythrina fusca. Con base en un análisis de correspondencia binaria se describen tres asociaciones plantacolibrí a nivel de comunidad, en las cuales la morfología del pico de los colibríes emerge como el aspecto explicativo de las asociaciones. Se analizan las ventajas y desventajas de las metodologías usadas por la palinología y por la observación directa en el campo.From a palinological perspective was studied the plant-hummingbird relationship at community level, in the National Natural Park Amacayacu in the Colombian Amazonia. Our goal was to evaluate the utility ofthe palinological tool, to provided insight of the hummingbird-plant relationship organization, at community leve!. We get evidence about which plants were really using the hummingbirds as pollen vectors. A Resource Importance Value Index (RIVI is proposed here to evaluate the importance of each floral resource to the hummingbird community. A binary correspondence analysis perrnitted us to proposed three groups ofplant-hummingbird associations, according with the frequency of pollen registered on each hummingbird species. The Relación colibrí-flor en una comunidad amazónica hummingbirds culmen morphology emerged as the explicative factor ofthe

  9. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  10. Soil bio-engineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-07-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of such techniques. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of soil bio-engineering works in the humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the Central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Conclusions are reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a

  11. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2010-02-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one. Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro) and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo) are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme) resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress), using the EPP dollar exchange rate. Our conclusions with

  12. Stages of weathering mantle formation from carbonate rocks in the light of rare earth elements (REE) and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Weathering mantles are widespread and include lateritic, sandy and kaolinite-rich saprolites and residuals of partially dissolved rocks. These old regolith systems have a complex history of formation and may present a polycyclic evolution due to successive geological and pedogenetic processes that affected the profile. Until now, only few studies highlighted the unusual high content of associated trace elements in weathering mantles originating from carbonate rocks, which have been poorly studied, compared to those developing on magmatic bedrocks. For instance, these enrichments can be up to five times the content of the underlying carbonate rocks. However, these studies also showed that the carbonate bedrock content only partially explains the soil enrichment for all the considered major and trace elements. Up to now, neither soil, nor saprolite formation has to our knowledge been geochemically elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine more closely the soil forming dynamics and the relationship of the chemical soil composition to potential sources. REE distribution patterns and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios have been used because they are particularly well suited to identify trace element migration, to recognize origin and mixing processes and, in addition, to decipher possible anthropogenic and/or "natural" atmosphere-derived contributions to the soil. Moreover, leaching experiments have been applied to identify mobile phases in the soil system and to yield information on the stability of trace elements and especially on their behaviour in these Fe-enriched carbonate systems. All these geochemical informations indicate that the cambisol developing on such a typical weathering mantle ("terra fusca") has been formed through weathering of a condensed Bajocian limestone-marl facies. This facies shows compared to average world carbonates important trace element enrichments. Their trace element distribution patterns are similar to those of the soil

  13. Attaching transmitters to waterbirds using one versus two subcutaneous anchors: Retention and survival trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyler; Esler, Daniel N.; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Dickson, Rian D.; Anderson, Eric M.; Evenson, Joseph R.; Hupp, Jerry; Flint, Paul L.

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge of wildlife telemetry is choosing an attachment technique that maximizes transmitter retention while minimizing negative side effects. For waterbirds, attachment of transmitters with subcutaneous anchors has been an effective and well-established technique, having been used on >40 species. This method was recently modified to include a second subcutaneous anchor, presumably increasing transmitter retention beyond that of single-anchor attachments. This putative benefit may be offset, however, by increased health risks related to additional incisions and subcutaneous protrusions. To test this potential trade-off, we attached radiotransmitters to molting and wintering surf (Melanitta perspicillata) and white-winged scoters (M. fusca) during 2008 and 2009 in Washington State and southeast Alaska, USA, using single- (121 scoters) and double-anchor (128 scoters) attachment techniques. We estimated daily probabilities of survival and radio retention for each group, this being apparent retention for wintering scoters because we could not differentiate shed transmitters from flighted emigration. For scoters during the flightless remigial molt, we found that addition of a second anchor increased cumulative retention probability (±SE) over a 49-day period from 0.69 ± 0.11 for single-anchor to 0.88 ± 0.07 for double-anchor attachments, while having no effect on survival. However, during winter, scoters with double-anchor attachments experienced no improvement in apparent retention, while having significantly lower survival during their first 14 days following transmitter attachment; of 15 mortalities during this period, 11 had 2 subcutaneous anchors. From day 15 onward, winter survival rates were nearly identical for single- versus double-anchor attachments, indicating that adverse effects of subcutaneous anchors were mainly limited to the 14-day postattachment period. Overall, given that the survival cost of adding a second subcutaneous anchor

  14. Temporal variability of live (stained benthic foraminiferal faunas in a river-dominated shelf – Faunal response to rapid changes of the river influence (Rhône prodelta, NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Legrand

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the French research project CHACCRA (Climate and Human-induced Alterations in Carbon Cycling at the River-seA connection, living (rose Bengal-stained benthic foraminifera were investigated at two stations (24 and 67 m depth in the Rhône prodelta (NW Mediterranean, Gulf of Lions. The aim of this study was to precise the response of benthic foraminiferal faunas to temporal changes of the Rhône River inputs (e.g. organic and terrigeneous material. Each site was sampled in April 2007, September 2007, May 2008 and December 2008, permitting to observe foraminiferal faunas of the 63–150 and >150 μm size fractions under a wide range of environmental conditions. Obvious variations in foraminiferal faunal composition were observed during the four investigated periods at the shallowest Station A located in the close vicinity of the Rhône River mouth. After major Rhône River flood events, different colonisation stages were observed with foraminiferal faunas responding with an opportunistic strategy few days to weeks after the creation of a peculiar sedimentary environment (Leptohalysis scottii, May 2008 or high organic matter supplies (Ammonia tepida, December 2008. Under more stable conditions, relatively diverse and equilibrated faunas grew in the sediments. Species benefited from noticeable input of riverine phytodetritus to the sediment during spring bloom conditions (April 2007; e.g. Bolivina dilatata, Nonionella stella, Stainforthia fusiformis, or high amounts of still bio-available organic matter under more oligotrophic conditions (September 2007; e.g. Ammonia tepida, Psammosphaera fusca. The reduced influence of the Rhône River input at the farther Station N led to less contrasted environmental conditions during the four sampling periods, and so to less obvious variations in foraminiferal faunal composition. During reduced riverine influence (i.e. low Rhône discharge, species able to feed on fresh phytodetritus (e

  15. [A phylogenetic analysis of plant communities of Teberda Biosphere Reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulakov, A A; Egorov, A V; Onipchenko, V G

    2016-01-01

    develop under conditions of winter snow accumulation were more,even at the both.scale, i.e., contained more diverse and distantly related plant species compared with random samples. (Scheuchzerio-Caricetea fuscae) aquatic communities in cold (Montio-Cardaminetea), sedge meadows (Carici rupestris-Kobresietea bellardii), and communities, in which shrubs and predominated (juniper and rhododendron elfin woods, class Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea), have been studied only at the larger scale and showed significant evenness of species composition, i.e., were phylogenetically more diverse compared with random samples.

  16. Multiproxies (benthic foraminifera, ostracods and biopolymers approach applied to identify the environmental partitioning of the Guadiana River Estuary (Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Luiz Mattos Laut

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Guadiana River is the fourth longest river in Europe and is a natural frontier between southern Portugal and Spain. This river was historically used to transport minerals exploited in the region since the Roman Empire and therefore suffered human interventions that have been intensified after the industrial revolution. The Guadiana River has in its limits the Guadiana Valley Natural Park, which is of great value for the Conservation of Geobiodiversity. This study mainly aims to identify zones with the environmental characteristics in the estuarine area of the Guadiana River based on the distribution and ecology of microorganisms (ostracods and foraminifera associated with physicochemical parameters and sedimentological and geochemical (carbohydrate, lipid, protein, total organic carbon and total sulfur data. Fifty-five foraminifera taxa were identified along the estuary with dominance of Ammonia tepida and Miliammina fusca and 13 ostracods taxa with dominance Leptocythere lacertosa and Loxoconcha elliptica. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA performed using biotic and abiotic variables indicated that pH, grain size, total organic carbon (TOC and lipids were the most influent factors in the distribution of these organisms. Four zones were identified in the Guadiana River estuary: i Low estuary - region with the largest marine influence with sandy sediment, higher salinity and total sulfur and mainly represented by the dominance of estuarine species of foraminifera (Ammonia tepida and Cribroelphidium vadescens and by the ostracods (Darwinula stevensoni, Semicytherura sulcata and Urocythereis oblonga; ii Intermediate estuary - region characterized by neutral pH and sandy sediment enriched in carbohydrates; this region is characterized by the presence of the ostracods species Cytherois fischeri and Neocytherideis subulata and by calcareous and agglutinated species in foraminiferal assemblages; iii Upper estuary - silt, high TOC, proteins and

  17. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petrone

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua.

    In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one.

    Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection.

    In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress

  18. COMPOSITIONAL PROPERTIES OF THREE FRESHWATER CARP SPECIES GROWN IN BRACKISH WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ismail Chughtai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three freshwater fish species viz. Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Gibelion catla, grown in brackish water ponds were analyzed for compositional properties to assess the potential of this habitat to produce nutritionally adequate fish for human consumption. Overall, the unsaturated fatty acids were lower in L. rohita (46.6% than saturated fatty acids; while in C. mrigala and G. catla, the unsaturated fatty acids were 50.4% and 58.2%, respectively. The most abundant saturated fatty acid in examined species was palmitic acid (C16:0, 23.7 to 34.1%; mono-unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1 19.6 to 31.7% and poly-unsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (C18:2 9.46 to 13.3%. A reasonable amount of essential fatty acids ω-3 (5.80 to 9.26% and ω-6 (9.46 to 13.3% was also found in these species while growing in brackish water on salt tolerant forages like Leptochloa fusca, Brachiaria mutica and Kochia indica as supplemental feed. The ω-3/ω-6 ratio was calculated as 0.46, 0.80 and 0.69 in L. rohita, C. mrigala and G. catla, respectively. The maximum EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5 was observed in C. mrigala (2.23%, followed by G. catla (1.62% and L. rohita (0.98%. While the DHA (docosahexanenoic acids, C22:6 was found maximum in G. catla (1.97% and minimum in C. mrigala (0.95%. The results of body composition indicated that L. rohita found maximum protein contents (19.2% with minimum total fats (1.28% while C. mrigala found maximum total fats (2.11% but minimum protein contents (18.3%. Overall results indicated that the Indian carps grown in brackish water have comparable chemical composition and nutritive value with the same species grown in freshwater medium.

  19. Performance of large open-top chambers for long-term field investigations of tree response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, D.; Hogan, K.P.; Rogers, G.N.D.; Byers, J.N.; Hunt, J.E.; McSeveny, T.M.; Hollinger, D.Y.; Dungan, R.J.; Earl, W.B.; Bourke, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    In preparation for an investigation of the effects of elevated carbondioxide (CO 2 ) concentration on the two tree species Pinus radiata D. Don and Nothofagus fusca (Hook. f. ) Oerst, the environmental conditions inside sixteen open-top chambers, of the design described by Heagle et al. (1989), were measured and compared with those outside. During a period in late summer, both air temperature and air saturation deficit were greater inside the chambers, with mean increases of 0.3 degreesC and 0.1 kPa, respectively. The increases were closely related to solar irradiance, reaching maximum differences for temperature and air saturation deficit of 4.3 degrees C and 0.8 kPa, respectively, when solar irradiance was greater than 1600 mu mol m -2 s -1 . The mean (± standard deviation) CO 2 concentrations for the ambient and elevated treatments were 362 ± 37 and 654 ± 69 mu mol mol -1 , respectively. However, the CO 2 concentration in the elevated treatment decreased as wind speed increased, owing to incursions of ambient air into the chambers. Transmittance of visible solar irradiance (400-700 nm) through the plastic wall material decreased by 7% after 1 year of exposure at the site. In cloudy conditions the mean transmittance of solar irradiance into the chambers was 81% and on clear days this decreased from 80% to 74% with increasing solar zenith angle. The ratio of diffuse to total solar irradiance in the chambers was 13% and 21% greater than that outside for cloudy and clear conditions, respectively. The implications of these differences on water use efficiency for the trees growing inside and outside the chamber are discussed. A cost effective system, built to separate the CO 2 required for the experiment from waste biogas, is described. This project is contributing to the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCTE) Core Research Programme by providing data on the long-term effects of elevated CO 2 concentration on the above and below-ground carbon balance for

  20. Energy analysis of a solar advanced refrigeration system; Analisis energetico de un sistema de refrigeracion solar avanzado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Limon, Nicolas [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (Mexico); Best y Brown, Roberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this article is presented a solar refrigeration system that integrates the more recent and important technological advances of the training solar systems (SCS) and of the advanced absorption units. An analysis and evaluation is made of the energy behavior of the absorption system with heat exchanger absorber-generator (GAX), air cooled and assisted by a hybrid power plant natural gas-solar. Given the characteristic of high not-linearity of the resulting system of occupations, the proposed methodology contemplates a calculation sequence for the external currents and an iterative procedure for the internal currents. The unit was designed with a capacity of 10.6 kw (3 tons.) of cooling and uses ammonia-water as working fluid. Giving priority to internal energy integration, an arrangement of the GAX cycle is proposed, that allows 19% of solar contribution at full load, being able to be greater at partial loads. In spite of using as cooling means air at 40 Celsius degrees with a relative humidity of 24%, a COP of 0.86 in the cooling mode was obtained and 1.86 in the heating mode, with an internal energy integration of 1013 kJ/min, 37% more of the energy that is supplied in the generator. The massic flow rates of the GAX cycle were compared with those of a basic cycle, resulting 73% and 62% lower for the circulation rate and for the flow rate, respectively. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un sistema de refrigeracion solar que integra los avances tecnologicos mas recientes e importantes de los sistemas de capacitacion solar (SCS) y de las unidades de absorcion avanzadas. Se realiza un analisis y evaluacion del comportamiento energetico del sistema de absorcion con intercambio de calor absorbedor-generador (GAX), enfriado por aire y asistido por una fuente de energia hibrida gas natural-solar. Dada la caracteristica de alta no-linealidad del sistema de ocupaciones resultante, la metodologia propuesta contempla una secuencia de calculo para las corrientes externas

  1. Desenvolvimento de equipamento motorizado para aplicação líquida de produtos fitossanitários na cultura do café Development of a walk behind tractor for spraying coffee trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás K. Matuo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um protótipo aplicador de líquidos na superfície do solo para cafezais localizados em regiões de topografia acidentada ou cultivados em sistema de plantio adensado. O protótipo do aplicador construído é um trator de rabiças acionado por um motor de dois tempos a gasolina, de 2,61 kW (3,5 cv, com duas rodas motrizes com bitola de 0,60 m e uma terceira roda direcional, equipado com sistema de pulverização dotado de depósito de 40 L, bomba centrífuga, filtros de linha, regulador de pressão, manômetro, mangueiras, válvulas e suporte de bicos. Para avaliar a eficiência do protótipo, foram instalados dois experimentos de campo em São Sebastião do Paraíso - MG (2003 e 2004, onde foram aplicados inseticidas sistêmicos para o controle da cigarra. Os métodos de aplicação avaliados foram: aplicação em faixa, filete, "drench" contínuo e "drench" intermitente. O protótipo aplicador de líquidos à superfície do solo atendeu aos objetivos propostos, visto que conseguiu realizar o controle químico de cigarras com destaque para a aplicação em "drench" contínuo. O protótipo, se equipado para aplicar simultaneamente nos dois lados da planta, apresentará capacidade de campo operacional semelhante à do equipamento tratorizado.The present research aimed to develop a motorized sprayer for coffee plantations located in sloping areas or planted in a high density planting system. The equipment developed is a walk behind tractor powered by a 2.61 kW (3.5 cv two-stroke engine, clearance of 0.60 m between two driving wheels, having a third directional wheel, equipped with spray system composed by a 40 L hopper, centrifugal pump, line filters, pressure regulator and gauge, hoses, valves and nozzles. Evaluations of the prototype were made in two field tests in São Sebastião do Paraíso - MG, Brazil (2003 and 2004, applying systemic insecticides to control the coffee cicadas. The application technologies evaluated were: flat fan nozzle band application, solid stream nozzle application, continuous drench application and intermittent drench application. The walk behind tractor for spraying ground surface of coffee plantations reached the aim because it provided good chemical control of coffee cicadas. The continuous drench application was the most interesting method due to its simplicity. The prototype will present the overall work rate similar to the tractor powered equipment if equipped to spray both sides of the plant rows.

  2. Application of solar energy to the supply of industrial process hot water: preliminary design and performance report. Volume I. Technical report. Aerotherm report TR-76-219. [For can washing at Campbell Soup Plant in Sacramento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-10-14

    The design and performance of a solar hot water system for can washing at the Campbell Soup Plant in Sacramento, California, are presented. The collector field is located on the roof of the finished products warehouse of the Campbell Soup Sacramento plant. Water is supplied from a 3.8 cm (1/sup 1///sub 2/ in.) supply line which is located directly below an existing roof access hatch. A supply pipe will be brought up through that hatch. The water flow will then be split into two manifold lines which supply the dual rows of flat plate collectors. The preheated water from the flat plates is then passed into six sets of parallel connected concentrators. Each set consist of eight 1.83 x 3.05 m (6 x 10 foot) modules connected in series. The water from these units is gathered in a 3.8 cm (1/sup 1///sub 2/ in.) insulated pipe which transports it to the storage tank. This pipe will be attached to an existing pipe run until it reaches the can washing building. From there the pipe will follow the can washing building around to the storage tank. The storage tank is a 75,200 1 (20,000 gal) steel tank which is coated internally with a USDA approved phenolic liner. The outside of the tank is insulated. A 2.2 kw (3 hp) motor is used to pump the stored water for the tank into the can washing line. Detail drawings and descriptions of the collector field, installation, piping, controls, data acquisition equipment, and roof structure are included. Furthermore, a program schedule with equipment and manpower costs for successfully completing Phase II of this contract is included. Also included is an organization chart of the Phase II program personnel. (WHK)

  3. Demonstration of hydrogen society in Nakskov. Final report; Denmark; Demonstratorium - Brintsamfundet i Nakskov. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bech-Madsen, J. (IRD Fuel Cell Technology, Svendborg (DK)); Krogh Jensen, J. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Bass, Holeby (DK))

    2008-02-15

    This report summarizes results from the 'Demonstration of hydrogen in Nakskov' project. The project has established a demonstration of the Hydrogen Community in Nakskov. The demonstration facility is located at the entrance to Nakskov Genbrugsplads which has a lot of visitors. At this location information boards help visitors get acquainted with the technology and the function of the plant. It is likely that the majority of the citizens of West Lolland has visited the demonstration plant. The demonstration plant includes the following elements: 1) Container buildings for control and monitoring as well as housing of the process equipment. The containers are fully equipped with electricity, water and water treatment systems, drains, ventilation, cooling and heating systems and extensive safety systems. 2) Two fully automated PEM-CHP fuel cell units of 2 kW and 7.5 kW. 3) Two PEM-electrolysers for hydrogen and oxygen production for use in fuel cells and stimulation of aerobe processes in a waste water treatment system. 4) Low pressure storage steel tanks for oxygen and hydrogen. 5) Gas distribution grid for transporting oxygen and hydrogen from the electrolysers to the storage tanks and back to the fuel cells. 6) Official Authority approvals of the total demonstration facility comprising municipal building permission. Approval of zone classification and storage of hydrogen and oxygen, by the Lolland fire chief, February 1. 2007. Environmental evaluation and Environmental Impact assesment screening of the project performed by the regional county (Storstroms Amt), November 13. 2006. Project approval of hydrogen production and fuel cell plant by the Danish Safety Technology Authority, May 2. 2007. (au)

  4. Analisis Vegetasi Hutan Rawa Gambut Pascakebakaran di Wilayah Desa Sebangau dan Desa Taruna Jaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reri Yulianti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kebakaran  merupakan  salah  satu  penyebab  kerusakan  hutan  tropis  di Indonesia. Kerusakan yang berlangsung selama kebakaran hutan bersifat eksplosif artinya terjadi dalam waktu relatif cepat dan areal yang luas. Salah satu tipe dari ekosistem hutan hujan tropis adalah hutan rawa gambut. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah  (1  mengkaji  komposisi  jenis,  (2  mengkaji  keanekaragaman  jenis,  (3 mengkaji  distribusi  jenis,  (4  mengkaji  asosiasi  jenis  (5  mengkaji  persentase ketidaksamaan komunitas vegetasi di hutan rawa gambut bekas kebakaran tahun 1997, 2002, dan 2006.Penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Mei sampai Juni 2009 di wilayah Desa Kalampangan Kecamatan Sebangau dan Desa Taruna Jaya Kecamatan Jabiren Raya Kalimantan Tengah. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan membuat petak ukur dan kemudian melakukan identifikasi jenis. Titik-titik sampel ditentukan dengan metode random sampling dengan cara undian. Semua jenis dalam petak ukur dicatat nama, diukur   diameter   batang   serta   jumlahnya   dan   dikelompokkan   sesuai   tingkat pertumbuhannya. Hasil   penelitian   adalah   1   Ditemukan   8   jenis   vegetasi   antara   lain Cratoxylon  arborescens,  Combretocarpus  rotundatus,  Timmonius  wallichianum, Acroychia  porteri,  Acacia  auriculiformis,  Xylopia  fusca,  Ilex  macropylla,  dan Diospyros  hermaproditich.  2  Keanekaragaman  pada  hutan  rawa  gambut  bekas kebakaran  sangat  rendah.  3  Jenis  Cratoxylon  arborescens  dan  Combretocarpus rotundatus mempunyai kemampuan regenerasi yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan jenis yang lainnya. Hal ini terlihat dari INP kedua jenis vegetasi yang memiliki nilai INP tertinggi. 4 Asosiasi yang diperlihatkan oleh banyak jenis (tingkat pertumbuhan pohon, tiang, pancang, semai pada hutan rawa gambut bekas kebakaran adalah asosiasi  positif  yang  artinya  seluruh  spesies  lebih

  5. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, Mark D.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Dwyer, Chris P.; Fleming, Kathleen K.; Padding, Paul I.; Devers, Patrick K.; Johnson, Fred A.; Runge, Michael C.; Roberts, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  6. A Revision of Lasionycta Aurivillius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae for North America and notes on Eurasian species, with descriptions of 17 new species, 6 new subspecies, a new genus, and two new species of Tricholita Grote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Crabo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The North American species of Lasionycta Aurivillius are revised to include 43 species and 13 subspecies using traditional methods and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 DNA sequence (barcode analysis. Seven species-groups are recognized, and one group is further divided into seven sub-groups. Seventeen species and six subspecies of Lasionycta are described: L. anthracina Crabo & Lafontaine, L. benjamini medaminosa Crabo & Lafontaine, L. brunnea Crabo & Lafontaine, L. caesia Crabo & Lafontaine, L. carolynae Crabo, L. coracina Crabo & Lafontaine, L. fergusoni Crabo & Lafontaine, L. frigida Crabo & Lafontaine, L. gelida Crabo & Lafontaine, L. haida Crabo & Lafontaine, L. illima Crabo & Lafontaine, L. mono Crabo & Lafontaine, L. uniformis fusca Crabo & Lafontaine, L. uniformis handfieldi Crabo & Lafontaine, L. uniformis multicolor Crabo & Lafontaine, L. uniformis shasta Crabo & Lafontaine, L. perplexella Crabo & Lafontaine, L. pulverea Crabo & Lafontaine, L. sasquatch Crabo & Lafontaine, L. sierra Crabo & Lafontaine, L. silacea Crabo & Lafontaine, L. subalpina Crabo & Lafontaine, and L. subfuscula livida Crabo & Lafontaine. Lasionycta coloradensis (Richards, L. dolosaL. flanda (Barnes & Benjamin, (Smith, L. poca (Barnes & Benjamin, and L. subfumosa (Gibson are elevated to species. The following new synonyms are recognized: Scotogramma albinuda Smith (= Lasiestra phoca Möschler, Lasiestra klotsi Richards (= Scotogramma discolor Smith, Scotogramma infuscata Smith (= Mamestra promulsa Morrison, Lasionycta alberta Barnes & Benjamin and Anytus marloffi Smith (= Scotogramma perplexa Smith, Scotogramma sedilis Smith (= Scotogramma subfuscula Grote, Mamestra rainieri Smith (= Mamestra mutilata Smith, Anarta zemblica Hampson (= Anarta staudingeri Aurivillius, and Anarta etacta Smith (= Mamestra arietis Grote. The Eurasian species are reviewed resulting in the following changes: Lasionhada proxima (Hübner, comb. rev., Eriopygodes imbecilla

  7. Caracterización de Typhlocybella maidica (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae y descripción del daño producido en plantas de maíz y gramíneas asociadas en la Argentina Characterization of Typhlocybella maidica (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae and description of the damage caused in maize plants and associated gramineous in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Brentassi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los muestreos realizados en el área maicera centro de la Argentina durante las campañas 2006-2008, con el fin de identificar la composición específica de auquenorrincos presentes permitieron detectar altas densidades de "chicharritas", pertenecientes a la subfamilia Typhlocybinae, que causaban evidentes daños. Este hallazgo motivó la primera mención para la Argentina del género Typhlocybella Baker y la descripción de una nueva especie: Typhlocybella maidica Catalano. El objetivo fue describir los perjuicios ocasionados por la alimentación de T. maidica sobre sus hospederos naturales y dar a conocer las características más sobresalientes para su identificación. T. maidica se reconoce por su pequeño tamaño (3mm, coloración castaño-amarillenta con dos manchas fuscas a ambos lados de la corona, alas anteriores con manchas anaranjadas y castañas, y por su característico vuelo corto y rápido entre las plantas hospederas. El daño consiste en típicas áreas cloróticas alineadas en zig-zag sobre ambas epidermis foliares. El examen microscópico reveló la pérdida de cloroplastos de las células del mesófilo y de la vaina parenquimática que rodea al haz vascular, así como una alteración morfológica de aquellos presentes en la vaina. Depósitos salivales, asociados particularmente con el floema, también fueron detectados. T. maidica se alimenta principalmente del contenido de las células del mesófilo, usando la estrategia de alimentación conocida como "cell-rupturing". La alta frecuencia de lesiones observadas sobre el maíz motiva a proseguir con los estudios de evaluación de perjuicios causados por esta especie y de su importancia en la sanidad del cultivo.In surveys performed during 2006-2008 in order to identify the specific composition of auchenorrhynchous present in maize crops in the central area of Argentina, high densities of leafhoppers belonging to the Typhlocybinae subfamily were found in several sites

  8. Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Janice; Narayan, Edward J; Dileep Kumar, R; Thenmozhi, K; Thiyagesan, Krishnamoorthy; Baskaran, Nagarajan

    2017-01-01

    India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos. In this study, we assessed stereotypic behaviour and stress physiology employing standard behaviour scoring, non-invasive stress monitoring, and their contextual drivers in a sub-population of two large felid species managed in six Indian zoos. The prevalence and intensity of stereotypic behaviours and levels of faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) were ascertained among 41 Royal Bengal tigers Panthera tigris tigris and 21 Indian leopards Panthera pardus fusca between April 2014 and March 2015. Behavioural observations showed that tigers spent more time stereotyping (12%) than leopards (7%) during daylight hours. Stress levels assessed using FCM revealed that tigers (23.6 ± 1.62 ng/g) had marginally lower level of corticosterone metabolites than leopards (27.2 ±1.36 ng/g). Stereotypic behaviour increased significantly with FCM level when the effect of heath status was controlled in tigers, and the effects tree cover, stone, den and keeper attitude controlled in leopards. Comparison of stereotypes of tigers with various biological and environmental factors using binary logistic regression revealed that stereotypic prevalence decreased with increased enclosure size, and enclosure enrichments like presence of pools and stones, when managed socially with conspecifics, and with positive keeper attitude, these factors accounting for 43% of variations in stereotypic prevalence among tigers. Stereotype among leopards was significantly

  9. Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Vaz

    Full Text Available India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos. In this study, we assessed stereotypic behaviour and stress physiology employing standard behaviour scoring, non-invasive stress monitoring, and their contextual drivers in a sub-population of two large felid species managed in six Indian zoos. The prevalence and intensity of stereotypic behaviours and levels of faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM were ascertained among 41 Royal Bengal tigers Panthera tigris tigris and 21 Indian leopards Panthera pardus fusca between April 2014 and March 2015. Behavioural observations showed that tigers spent more time stereotyping (12% than leopards (7% during daylight hours. Stress levels assessed using FCM revealed that tigers (23.6 ± 1.62 ng/g had marginally lower level of corticosterone metabolites than leopards (27.2 ±1.36 ng/g. Stereotypic behaviour increased significantly with FCM level when the effect of heath status was controlled in tigers, and the effects tree cover, stone, den and keeper attitude controlled in leopards. Comparison of stereotypes of tigers with various biological and environmental factors using binary logistic regression revealed that stereotypic prevalence decreased with increased enclosure size, and enclosure enrichments like presence of pools and stones, when managed socially with conspecifics, and with positive keeper attitude, these factors accounting for 43% of variations in stereotypic prevalence among tigers. Stereotype among leopards was

  10. The effect of varying protein levels on blood chemistry, food consumption, and behavior of captive seaducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Perry, M.C.; Olsen, Glenn H.

    2005-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is a primary wintering area for scoters and the long-tailed ducks (Clangia hyemalis) that migrate along the Atlantic Flyway. Recently, the Chesapeake Bay had undergone an ecosystem shift and little is known about how this is affecting the seaduck populations. We are determining what are the preferred food sources of the seaducks wintering on the Bay and analyzing the factors influencing prey selection whether it is prey composition, energy assimilated, prey availability, or a combination of any or all of these factors. We have established a captive colony of surf (Melanitta perspicillata) and white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca) as well as long-tailed ducks at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to allow us to examine these factors in a more controlled environment. This project contains a multitude of experiments and the resultant data will be compiled into a compartmental model on the feeding ecology of seaducks wintering on the Bay. The first experiment entailed feeding groups of each species (four ducks per pen of equal sex ratio, if possible, and four pens per species) three diets varying in percent protein levels from November to February. Each diet was randomly assigned to each pen and the amount of food consumed was recorded each day. New feed was given when all existing food was consumed. Behavioral trials and blood profiles were completed on all study birds to determine the effects of the varying diets. There were no significant differences in food consumption, blood chemistry, and behavior detected at the 5% level among the diets for all three species of interest. There was a seasonal effect determined based on the food consumption data for white-winged scoters, but not for surf scoters or long-tailed ducks. The blood profiles of the surf scoters were compared to blood profiles of wild surf scoters and a there was no difference detected at the 5% level. As a health check of the ducks an aspergillosis test was run on the blood obtained

  11. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Koneff

    Full Text Available Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini. Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits, and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri, eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana and surf scoter (M. perspicillata, and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis. We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax, and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared

  12. Operational modal analysis on a VAWT in a large wind tunnel using stereo vision technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Nadia; Paulsen, Uwe Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    This paper is about development and use of a research based stereo vision system for vibration and operational modal analysis on a parked, 1-kW, 3-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT), tested in a wind tunnel at high wind. Vibrations were explored experimentally by tracking small deflections of the markers on the structure with two cameras, and also numerically, to study structural vibrations in an overall objective to investigate challenges and to prove the capability of using stereo vision. Two high speed cameras provided displacement measurements at no wind speed interference. The displacement time series were obtained using a robust image processing algorithm and analyzed with data-driven stochastic subspace identification (DD-SSI) method. In addition of exploring structural behaviour, the VAWT testing gave us the possibility to study aerodynamic effects at Reynolds number of approximately 2 × 10"5. VAWT dynamics were simulated using HAWC2. The stereo vision results and HAWC2 simulations agree within 4% except for mode 3 and 4. The high aerodynamic damping of one of the blades, in flatwise motion, would explain the gap between those two modes from simulation and stereo vision. A set of conventional sensors, such as accelerometers and strain gauges, are also measuring rotor vibration during the experiment. The spectral analysis of the output signals of the conventional sensors agrees the stereo vision results within 4% except for mode 4 which is due to the inaccuracy of spectral analysis in picking very closely spaced modes. Finally, the uncertainty of the 3D displacement measurement was evaluated by applying a generalized method based on the law of error propagation, for a linear camera model of the stereo vision system. - Highlights: • The stereo vision technique is used to track deflections on a VAWT in the wind tunnel. • OMA is applied on displacement time series to study the dynamic behaviour of the VAWT. • Stereo vision results enabled us to study the aerodynamic effects of wind flow on the VAWT. • VAWT was simulated using HAWC2 and the results agreed with the stereo vision test. • The accelerometers and strain gauges measurements also confirms the stereo vision results.

  13. Optimalisasi Desain Sistem Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Hybrid Diesel Generator  Photovoltaic Array Menggunakan Homer (Studi Kasus : Desa Sirilogui, Kabupaten Kepulauan Mentawai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Purnama Sari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Power Plant is one of the solutions to overcome the shortage of electricity in underdeveloped and isolated areas not covered by PLN electricity network, due to underdeveloped regions generally have the geography and topography that does not allow for expansion of PLN electricity network. Integration of the two power plants is a conventional power plant (diesel generator that comes from fuel oil (BBM with power plants sourced from renewable energy (photovoltaic arrays is an advantageous solution to meet the needs of daily electricity load in remote areas such as the Village Sirilogui located in the District of North Siberut Mentawai Islands, because the integration of photovoltaic arrays diesel generator can provide 24 hour lighting solution for 310 households (families in the village Sirilogui which at first only enjoy the lighting for 4 hours, and even then only at night days, from 06.00 to 10.00 pm o'clock sourced from 3 units of diesel generator. With the integration of these two power plants, diesel generator operation can be minimized so it saves fuel consumption and reduce CO2 emissions caused by the operation of the diesel generator. This study focuses the discussion on Design Optimization of Hybrid Power Plant System Diesel Generator-Photovoltaic Array by using HOMER as a tool for simulation. HOMER software is used to help simplify the task of the modeler in evaluating the design of hybrid power plant system that allows to sort based on the total net present cost (TNPC, the lowest for the most optimal system. In this study, the results of the design for the system with the daily electricity load of 479,280 kWh most optimal based on the simulation results using HOMER ie photovoltaic capacity of 65 kW, 3 units of diesel generators with a capacity of each 15 kW, 156 units of battery and bidirectional converter with a capacity of 78 kW TNPC amounted to $ 1.362.474 and the cost of energy (COE of $ 1,485/kWh. Hybrid Power Plant System Diesel Generator-Photovoltaic Array proposed can reduce CO2 emissions by 0,06% per year compared with the use of diesel generators only.

  14. Advanced Ultra-High Speed Motor for Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Impact Technologies LLC; University of Texas at Arlington

    2007-03-31

    Three (3) designs have been made for two sizes, 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) and 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) outer diameters, of a patented inverted configured Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) electric motor specifically for drilling at ultra-high rotational speeds (10,000 rpm) and that can utilize advanced drilling methods. Benefits of these motors are stackable power sections, full control (speed and direction) of downhole motors, flow hydraulics independent of motor operation, application of advanced drilling methods (water jetting and abrasive slurry jetting), and the ability of signal/power electric wires through motor(s). Key features of the final designed motors are: fixed non-rotating shaft with stator coils attached; rotating housing with permanent magnet (PM) rotor attached; bit attached to rotating housing; internal channel(s) in a nonrotating shaft; electric components that are hydrostatically isolated from high internal pressure circulating fluids ('muds') by static metal to metal seals; liquid filled motor with smoothed features for minimized turbulence in the motor during operation; and new inverted coated metal-metal hydrodynamic bearings and seals. PMSM, Induction and Switched Reluctance Machines (SRM), all pulse modulated, were considered, but PMSM were determined to provide the highest power density for the shortest motors. Both radial and axial electric PMSM driven motors were designed with axial designs deemed more rugged for ultra-high speed, drilling applications. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD axial inverted motor can generate 4.18KW (5.61 Hp) power at 10,000 rpm with a 4 Nm (2.95 ft-lbs) of torque for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 5.03 KW (6.74 Hp) with 4.8 Nm (3.54 ft-lb) torque at 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 2.56 KW (3.43 Hp) power with 2.44 Nm (1.8 ft-lb) torque at

  15. A revision of ant-mimicking spiders of the family Corinnidae (Araneae) in the Western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Robert J

    2015-05-20

    described from the Solomon Islands. Nucastia gen. nov., includes N. culburra sp. nov., N. eneabba sp. nov., N. muncoonie sp. nov., N. supunnoides sp. nov. and N. virewoods sp. nov.; Medmassa fusca Hogg, 1900 is transferred to Nucastia but is considered a nomen dubium. The genera Anchognatha and Supunna Simon, 1897 are junior synonyms of Nyssus, which includes Supunna albopunctatus (Hogg, 1896), Anchognatha avida Thorell, 1881, Nyssus coloripes Walckenaer, 1805, N. emu sp. nov., Agroeca insularis L. Koch, 1873 (from Fiji and the Solomon Islands), N. jaredwarden sp. nov., N. jonraveni sp. nov., N. loureedi sp. nov., N. luteofinis sp. nov., N. paradoxus sp. nov., N. pseudomaculatus sp. nov., N. robertsi sp. nov., N. semifuscus sp. nov., N. wendyae sp. nov. and N. yuggera sp. nov. Supunna funerea (Simon, 1896) and Supunna albomaculata (Rainbow, 1902) are junior synonyms of Nyssus albopunctatus; Supunna picta (L. Koch, 1873) and Storena auripes Rainbow, 1916 are junior synonyms of Nyssus coloripes Walckenaer, 1805. Ozcopa gen. nov. includes O. chiunei sp. nov., O. colloffi sp. nov., O. margotandersenae sp. nov., O. mcdonaldi sp. nov., O. monteithi sp. nov. and O. zborowskii sp. nov. Poecilipta includes P. carnarvon sp. nov., P. contorqua sp. nov., P. davidi sp. nov., P. elvis sp. nov., P. formiciforme (Rainbow, 1904) comb. nov. (transferred from Corinnomma), P. gloverae sp. nov., P. harveyi sp. nov., P. kgari sp. nov., P. samueli sp. nov., P. janthina Simon, 1896, P. kohouti sp. nov., P. lugubris sp. nov., P. marengo sp. nov., P. metallica sp. nov., P. micaelae sp. nov., P. qunats sp. nov., P. rawlinsonae sp. nov., P. ruthae Santana & Raven, sp. nov., P. smaragdinea (Simon, 1909) new combination (transferred from Supunna), P. tinda sp. nov., P. venusta Rainbow, 1904, P. waldockae sp. nov., P. wallacei sp. nov., P. yambuna sp. nov., and P. zbigniewi sp. nov. Ticopa gen. nov. includes T. australis sp. nov., T. carnarvon sp. nov., T. chinchilla sp. nov., T. dingo sp. nov., T

  16. Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): aerial seabird and marine mammal surveys off northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Felis, Jonathan J.; Mason, John W.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    counted (19,033) with Common Murres (Uria aalge) representing the majority of individuals counted (70.4% of total). The remaining six most abundant taxa included: Surf/White-winged Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata/M. fusca; 4.8% of total), Herring/Thayer’s Gulls (Larus argentatus/L. thayeri; 3.8% of total), Cassin’s Auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus; 3.8% of total), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens; 3.7% of total), Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla; 2.0% of total), and Western Gulls (Larus occidentalis; 1.9% of total). During summer, five species comprised >95% of the total number of birds counted (17,063) with the majority comprised of Common Murres (54.1% of total) and Sooty Shearwaters (Puffinus griseus; 34.4% of total). The remaining most abundant three taxa included: Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 3.3% of total), Western Gulls (2.1% of total), and Leach’s Storm-Petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa; 1.1% of total). During fall, nine species comprised >85% of the total number of birds counted (23,376) with the majority comprised of Common Murres (50.0% of total) and Sooty Shearwaters (10.5% of total). The remaining seven taxa included Cassin’s Auklets (5.2% of total), Surf/White-winged Scoters (5.1% of total), Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels (3.8% of total), Red/Red-necked Phalaropes (Phalaropus fulicarius/P. lobatus; 3.2% of total), California Gulls (Larus californicus; 3.1% of total), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis; 2.7% of total), and Sabine’s Gulls (Xema sabini; 2.2% of total). Throughout the entire PaCSEA survey area, average densities (± SE) at sea for all marine birds combined were similar between fall (23.7 ± 1.9 birds km-2) and winter (24.0 ± 1.9 birds km-2) and least during summer (16.3 ± 2.2 birds km-2). Marine bird densities at sea varied according to bathymetric domain and season. Throughout the entire PaCSEA study area average densities (± SE) for all marine birds combined were greatest over the inner-shelf domain

  17. 2002年召开的部分国际地学会议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎明

    2002-01-01

    @@时 间 会  议  名  称 地 点 网址(http://)或E-mail 3月4~7日 人为影响渗漏和地下水中的地球化学过程与长期 作用国际会议 不莱梅 (德国) www:geochemie.uni-bremen.del 3月4~8日 第33届月球与行星科学会议 休斯顿 (美国) perry@lpi.usra.edu 3月10~13日 4月7~10日 美国石油地质学家协会年会 休斯顿 (美国) www.aapg.org 3月11~13日 第4届中东地球科学展览会议 伦敦 (英国) pmckean@ montnet.com 3月19~22日 第19届非洲地质学讨论会 杰迪代 (摩洛哥) www.ucd.ac.ma/geologie/cag 19.html 3月20~23日 第6届石油与天然气勘探、生产与加工技术展览会 Pattaya (泰国) pmckean@ montnet.com 3月20~27日 国家地球科学教师协会年会与展览会 圣迭戈 (美国) fireton@kesmos.agu.org 3月23~27日 干旱区水资源管理国际会议 科威特 mrashed@kisr.ed.kw 3月24~27日 古代与现代海岸平原资源环境会议--含水层非均质性与环境含义 查尔斯顿 (美国) mary.harris@srs.gov 3月25~29日 国际地下水讨论会--非均质-介质中的测量与模拟 旧金山 (美国) anfindk@bechtel.com 4月14~16日 经济地质学家学会全球研究2000年会 --发现的综合方法会议 丹佛 (美国) www.seg2002.org 4月14~26日 第15届层理岩地质会议 圣克鲁斯 (阿根廷) www.Cenpat.edu.ary xvcga 4月24~26日 第3届管理信息系统、GIS 和遥感国际会议 南安普敦 www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2002/mis02 5月 培雷火山喷发100周年研讨会   www.iavcei.org/ 5月6~8日 第9届计算机技术在环境研究中的发展与应用 皋尔根 (挪威) www.wessex.ac.uu/conferency 2002/env02 5月5~10日 沉积与水文之间相互作用国际研讨会 班夫 (加拿大) iasws@unbc.ca 5月12~17日 平衡地下水预算国际研讨会 达尔文 (澳大利亚) www.1octa4.net.au/iahnt/conference.htm 5月12~17日 短期野外会议:德国中部的第四纪 魏 玛 (德国) www