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Sample records for thermite mixtures intermetallic

  1. A survey of combustible metals, thermites, and intermetallics for pyrotechnic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1996-08-01

    Thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnics. Advantages include high energy density, impact insensitivity, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability and possess insensitive ignition properties. This paper reviews the applications, benefits, and characteristics of thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels. 50 refs, tables.

  2. Theoretical energy release of thermites, intermetallics, and combustible metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1998-06-01

    Thermite (metal oxide) mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnic applications. Advantages of these systems typically include high energy density, impact insensitivity, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability, and possess insensitive ignition properties. In this paper, the authors review the applications, benefits, and characteristics of thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels. Calculated values for reactant density, heat of reaction (per unit mass and per unit volume), and reaction temperature (without and with consideration of phase changes and the variation of specific heat values) are tabulated. These data are ranked in several ways, according to density, heat of reaction, reaction temperature, and gas production.

  3. Theoretical Energy Release of Thermites, Intermetallics, and Combustible Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-05-14

    Thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnic applications. Advantages of these systems typically include high energy density, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability and possess insensitive ignition properties. For the specific applications of humanitarian demining and disposal of unexploded ordnance, these pyrotechnic formulations offer additional benefits. The combination of high thermal input with low brisance can be used to neutralize the energetic materials in mines and other ordnance without the "explosive" high-blast-pressure events that can cause extensive collateral damage to personnel, facilities, and the environment. In this paper, we review the applications, benefits, and characteristics of thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels. Calculated values for reactant density, heat of reaction (per unit mass and per unit volume), and reaction temperature (without and with consideration of phase changes and the variation of specific heat values) are tabulated. These data are ranked in several ways, according to density, heat of reaction, reaction temperature, and gas production.

  4. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer Elshenawy; Salah Soliman; Ahmed Hawass

    2017-01-01

    The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using col...

  5. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elshenawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using cold iso-static pressing technique, which exhibited relatively high density and high burning rate thermite mixture. The produced green product compacted powder mixture was tested against small caliber shaped charge bomblet for neutralization. Theoretical and experimental results showed that the prepared thermite mixture containing 33% of aluminum as a fuel with ferric oxide can be successfully used for shaped charge ordnance disposal.

  6. Deflagration of thermite - ammonium nitrate based propellant mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraes, Luisa; Morgado, Joel; Portugal, Antonio; Campos, Jose

    2001-06-01

    Reaction between iron oxide (Fe2O3) and aluminum (Al) is the reference of the classic thermite compositions. The efficency of the reaction, for a given initial composition of Fe2O3 and Al, is evaluated by the final temperature and by the mass ratio of Al2O3 /AlO in products of combustion (in condensed phase). In order to increase pressure in products of thermite reaction, the original composition is mixed, with an original twin screw extruder, with a propellant binder composed of ammonium and sodium nitrates, initialy solved in formamide (CH3NO) and mixed with a polyurethane solution. The products of combustion and pyrolysis of this binder, reacting with thermite products, generates high pressure and high temperature conditions. These experimental conditions are also predicted using THOR code. The study presents DSC and TGA results of components and mixtures, and correlates them to the ignition phenomena and reaction properties. The regression rate of combustion and final attained temperature and pressure, in a closed confinement, as a function of composition of thermite components/propellant binder, are presented and discussed. They show the influence of gaseous combustion and pyrolysis products of binder in final reaction.

  7. Gas-Solid Reaction Route toward the Production of Intermetallics from Their Corresponding Oxide Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Near-net shape forming of metallic components from metallic powders produced in situ from reduction of corresponding pure metal oxides has not been explored to a large extent. Such a process can be probably termed in short as the “Reduction-Sintering” process. This methodology can be especially effective in producing components containing refractory metals. Additionally, in situ production of metallic powder from complex oxides containing more than one metallic element may result in in situ alloying during reduction, possibly at lower temperatures. With this motivation, in situ reduction of complex oxides mixtures containing more than one metallic element has been investigated intensively over a period of years in the department of materials science, KTH, Sweden. This review highlights the most important features of that investigation. The investigation includes not only synthesis of intermetallics and refractory metals using the gas solid reaction route but also study the reaction kinetics and mechanism. Environmentally friendly gases like H2, CH4 and N2 were used for simultaneous reduction, carburization and nitridation, respectively. Different techniques have been utilized. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to accurately control the process conditions and obtain reaction kinetics. The fluidized bed technique has been utilized to study the possibility of bulk production of intermetallics compared to milligrams in TGA. Carburization and nitridation of nascent formed intermetallics were successfully carried out. A novel method based on material thermal property was explored to track the reaction progress and estimate the reaction kinetics. This method implies the dynamic measure of thermal diffusivity using laser flash method. These efforts end up with a successful preparation of nanograined intermetallics like Fe-Mo and Ni-W. In addition, it ends up with simultaneous reduction and synthesis of Ni-WN and Ni-WC from their oxide mixtures

  8. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules

    2015-07-14

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  9. Thermite welding of Cu-Nb microcomposite wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visniakov, Nikolaj; Mikalauskas, Gediminas; Lukauskaite, Raimonda; Cernasejus, Olegas; Rudzinskas, Vitalijus [Vilnius Gediminas Technical Univ. (Lithuania). Faculty of Mechanics; Skamat, Jelena; Boris, Renata [Vilnius Gediminas Technical Univ. (Lithuania). Inst. of Thermal Insulation

    2017-10-15

    Thermite welding of Cu-Nb microcomposite wires was investigated. Suitable compositions of thermite material and slag were determined from the equation of the exothermic combustion synthesis reaction. The phase compositions of the thermite mixture and slag determined by X-ray diffraction analysis correspond to those assessed from the equation. According to non-destructive radiographic testing, the joint structure does not have welding defects. Microstructural examination of the joint cross-section with scanning electron microscopy showed that the Cu-Nb wire retained its shape and microstructure and only a thin surface layer of wire was melted during welding. The difference in electrical resistances of the conductor and welded joint was below 20 %. The thermite joint can withstand a maximum load equal to 62.5 % of the load-bearing capacity of microcomposite conductor.

  10. Analysis of the consequences of 'thermite' reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorio, Daniel; Cincotta, Daniel O.; Camacho, Esteban F.; Bruno, Hernan R.; Boero, Norma L.

    1999-01-01

    The mixture of Al-U 3 O 8 is not in a state of chemical equilibrium, and at temperatures of between 850 degree C and 1000 degree C, it reacts exo thermally. This is known, in corresponding bibliography, as a 'Thermite reaction'. This mixture is used in the manufacturing of the plate-type fuel used in research reactors. It has been pointed out that the release of energy caused by this type of reactions might represent a risk in case of accidents in this type of reactor. Conclusions, in general, tend to indicate that no such risk exists, although no concrete assurance is given that this is the case, and this fact, therefore, leaves room for doubt. The objective of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of what happens to a fuel plate when it is subjected to thermite reaction. We will, furthermore, analyze the consequences of the release of energy generated by this type of reaction within the core of the reactor, clearly defining the problem for this type of fuel and this kind of reactor

  11. Thermal properties and kinetics of Al/α-MnO{sub 2} nanostructure thermite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jia-Xing; Fang, Xiang; Guo, Tao; Ding, Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Nan; Yao, Miao, E-mail: 1023855857@qq.com [PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Bei, Feng-Li; Yu, Hong-Jun [Nanjing University of Science and Technology (China)

    2018-05-01

    In this work, thermal properties and kinetics of Al-nanoparticles/α-MnO{sub 2} nanorods thermite were reported. The α-MnO{sub 2} nanorods were synthesized using a hydrothermal method and were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), then combined with Al nanoparticles based on the ultrasonic mixing method to prepare the nanostructure thermite. Besides, both pure components and mixture were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to observe their morphologies and structures. Subsequently, the thermal properties of Al/α-MnO{sub 2} nanostructure thermite were studied on the basis of thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). According to the TG-DSC tests, the calculation results of activation energy for kinetics of Al/α-MnO{sub 2} thermite were obtained using different isoconversional methods. It was found that Al/α-MnO{sub 2} nanostructure thermite has high heat release and low onset temperature, and the heat release of the nanostructure thermite was approximately 1146.6 J g{sup -1}. (author)

  12. Stabilized super-thermite colloids: A new generation of advanced highly energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbasuney, Sherif; Gaber Zaky, M.; Radwan, Mostafa; Mostafa, Sherif F.

    2017-10-01

    One of the great impetus of nanotechnology on energetic materials is the achievement of nanothermites (metal-oxide/metal) which are characterized by massive heat output. Yet, full exploitation of super-thermites in highly energetic systems has not been achieved. This manuscript reports on the sustainable fabrication of colloidal Fe2O3 and CuO nanoparticles for thermite applications. TEM micrographs demonstrated mono-dispersed Fe2O3 and CuO with an average particle size of 3 and 15 nm respectively. XRD diffractograms demonstrated highly crystalline materials. SEM micrographs demonstrated a great tendency of the developed oxides to aggregate over drying process. The effective integration and dispersion of mono-dispersed colloidal thermite particles into energetic systems are vital for enhanced performance. Aluminum is of interest as highly energetic metal fuel. In this paper, synthesized Fe2O3 and CuO nanoparticles were re-dispersed in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with aluminum nanoparticles using ultrasonic prope homogenizer. The colloidal thermite peraticles can be intgegrated into highly energetic system for subsequent nanocomposite development. Thanks to stabilization of colloidal CuO nanoparticles in IPA which could offer intimate mixing between oxidizer and metal fuel. The stabilization mechanism of CuO in IPA was correlated to steric stabilization with solvent molecules. This approach eliminated nanoparticle drying and the re-dispersion of dry aggregates into energetic materials. This manuscript shaded the light on the real development of colloidal thermite mixtures and their integration into highly energetic systems.

  13. Solidification of highly active fission products by a thermite reaction. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, G.; Hild, W.

    1976-07-01

    To solidify high-level fission products a process was developed according to which a high-melting ceramic product is obtained as a solidification matrix in a thermite reaction. With a constant content of fission product oxides reaction mixtures consisting of 35 to 55 wt.% of manganese dioxide, 24 to 32 wt.% of aluminum shot and 17 to 36 wt.% of sand give suitable products. In the thermite reactiom some components contained in the reactic mixture volatilize partly by evaporation (alkali oxides, manganese oxide, and others) and partly by the formation of volatile oxides having lower valencies (silicon and aluminum oxide). The smoke generated can be easily collected in filters made of glass wool fibers. (orig./HR) [de

  14. Improving fatigue performance of rail thermite welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezzini-Aouad, M.; Flahaut, P.; Hariri, S.; Winiar, L.

    2010-06-01

    Rail transport development offers economic and ecological interests. Nevertheless, it requires heavy investments in rolling material and infrastructure. To be competitive, this transportation means must rely on safe and reliable infrastructure, which requires optimization of all implemented techniques and structure. Rail thermite (or aluminothermic) welding is widely used within the railway industry for in-track welding during re-rail and defect replacement. The process provides numerous advantages against other welding technology commonly used. Obviously, future demands on train traffic are heavier axle loads, higher train speeds and increased traffic density. Thus, a new enhanced weld should be developed to prevent accidents due to fracture of welds and to lower maintenance costs. In order to improve such assembly process, a detailed metallurgical study coupled to a thermomechanical modelling of the phenomena involved in the thermite welding process is carried out. Obtained data enables us to develop a new improved thermite weld (type A). This joint is made by modifying the routinely specified procedure (type B) used in a railway rail by a standard gap alumino-thermic weld. Joints of type A and B are tested and compared. Based on experimental temperature measurements, a finite element analysis is used to calculate the thermal residual stresses induced. In the vicinity of the weld, the residual stress patterns depend on the thermal conditions during welding as it also shown by litterature [1, 2]. In parallel, X-Ray diffraction has been used to map the residual stress field that is generated in welded rail of types A and B. Their effect on fatigue crack growth in rail welds is studied. An experimental study based on fatigue tests of rails welded by conventional and improved processes adjudicates on the new advances and results will be shown.

  15. Analysis of the consequences of 'thermite' reaction; Analisis sobre las consecuencias de la reaccion 'termita'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorio, Daniel; Cincotta, Daniel O; Camacho, Esteban F; Bruno, Hernan R; Boero, Norma L [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes

    1999-07-01

    The mixture of Al-U{sub 3}O{sub 8} is not in a state of chemical equilibrium, and at temperatures of between 850 degree C and 1000 degree C, it reacts exo thermally. This is known, in corresponding bibliography, as a 'Thermite reaction'. This mixture is used in the manufacturing of the plate-type fuel used in research reactors. It has been pointed out that the release of energy caused by this type of reactions might represent a risk in case of accidents in this type of reactor. Conclusions, in general, tend to indicate that no such risk exists, although no concrete assurance is given that this is the case, and this fact, therefore, leaves room for doubt. The objective of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of what happens to a fuel plate when it is subjected to thermite reaction. We will, furthermore, analyze the consequences of the release of energy generated by this type of reaction within the core of the reactor, clearly defining the problem for this type of fuel and this kind of reactor.

  16. THERMIT, 3-D Thermo-Hydraulics of BWR and PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimi, M.S.; Kao, S.P.; Kelly, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: THERMIT2, the most recent release of THERMIT, is intended for thermal-hydraulic analysis of both boiling and pressurized water reactor cores. It solves the three-dimensional, two-fluid equations describing the two-phase flow and heat transfer dynamics in rectangular coordinates. The two-fluid model uses separate partial differential equations expressing conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for each fluid. THERMIT2 offers the choice of either pressure or velocity boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the core. THERMIT2 includes a two-phase turbulent mixing model which provides subchannel analysis capability. THERMIT2 also solves the radial heat conduction equations for fuel pin temperatures, and calculates the heat flux from fuel pin to coolant with appropriate heat transfer models described by a boiling curve. 2 - Method of solution: By expressing the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between the fluids with physically-based mathematical models, the relative motion and thermal non-equilibrium between the fluids can exist

  17. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringe, J. W.; Létant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.; Levie, H. W.; Kuhl, A. L.; Murphy, G. A.; Alves, S. W.; Vandersall, K. S.; Pantoya, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemical code. Temperatures in the range of 2300-2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly the full 4 ms pressure observation time. After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. Results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%-1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide and aluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. These results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine.

  18. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tringe, J. W.; Létant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.; Levie, H. W.; Kuhl, A. L.; Murphy, G. A.; Alves, S. W.; Vandersall, K. S.; Pantoya, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemical code. Temperatures in the range of 2300–2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly the full 4 ms pressure observation time. After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. Results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%–1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide and aluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. These results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine

  19. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, J. W.; Létant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.; Levie, H. W.; Kuhl, A. L.; Murphy, G. A.; Alves, S. W.; Vandersall, K. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Pantoya, M. L. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2013-12-21

    Energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemical code. Temperatures in the range of 2300–2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly the full 4 ms pressure observation time. After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. Results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%–1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide and aluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. These results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine.

  20. Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Aguilar Martín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity.

  1. Simulation of TRAN B experiments by alumina thermite melt injection (SIMBATH out-of-pile experiments, TRAN simulation B1/1, B1/3, B1/4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peppler, W.; Will, H.

    1986-07-01

    The SIMBATH programme was initiated to investigate the physical phenomena of transient material movement and relocation during transient overpower (TOP) and loss of flow (LOF) driven TOP accidents in LMFBR's. The energy release during the accident is simulated out of pile by the reaction of a thermite mixture. Within the frame of comparing studies of the behaviour of fuel (UO 2 ) and the thermite melt (Al 2 O 3 +Fe) used, respectively, the TRAN B series was reproduced out of pile with this thermite. Special emphasis is given to the similarities and differences in the freezing behaviour of these two materials. The test results of the simulation experiments are analysed and reported. Additionally the tests were recalculated with the code PLUGM. Similarity is found with respect to the freezing behaviour of these two materials. (orig.) [de

  2. A DFT study on the enthalpies of thermite reactions and enthalpies of formation of metal composite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-ying; Wang, Meng-jie; Chang, Chun-ran; Xu, Kang-zhen; Ma, Hai-xia; Zhao, Feng-qi

    2018-05-01

    The standard thermite reaction enthalpies (ΔrHmθ) for seven metal oxides were theoretically analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) under five different functional levels, and the results were compared with experimental values. Through the comparison of the linear fitting constants, mean error and root mean square error, the Perdew-Wang functional within the framework of local density approximation (LDA-PWC) and Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange-correlation functional within the framework of generalized gradient approximation (GGA-PBE) were selected to further calculate the thermite reaction enthalpies for metal composite oxides (MCOs). According to the Kirchhoff formula, the standard molar reaction enthalpies for these MCOs were obtained and their standard molar enthalpies of formation (ΔfHmθ) were finally calculated. The results indicated that GGA-PBE is the most suitable one out of the total five methods to calculate these oxides. Tungstate crystals present the maximum deviation of the enthalpies of thermite reactions for MCOs and these of their physical metal oxide mixtures, but ferrite crystals are the minimum. The correlation coefficients are all above 0.95, meaning linear fitting results are very precise. And the molar enthalpies of formation for NiMoO4, CuMoO4, PbZrO3 (Pm/3m), PbZrO3 (PBA2), PbZrO3 (PBam), MgZrO3, CdZrO3, MnZrO3, CuWO4 and Fe2WO6 were first obtained as -1078.75, -1058.45, -1343.87, -1266.54, -1342.29, -1333.03, -1210.43, -1388.05, -1131.07 and - 1860.11 kJ·mol-1, respectively.

  3. Rare earth intermetallic compounds produced by a reduction-diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A reduction-diffusion process is given for producing novel rare earth intermetallic compounds, such as cobalt--rare earth intermetallic compounds, especially compounds useful in preparing permanent magnets. A particulate mixture of rare earth metal halide, cobalt and calcium hydride is heated to effect reduction of the rare earth metal halide and to diffuse the resulting rare earth metal into the cobalt to form the intermetallic compound

  4. Prediction of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhanov, Gennady S; Kiselyova, N N

    2009-01-01

    The problems of predicting not yet synthesized intermetallic compounds are discussed. It is noted that the use of classical physicochemical analysis in the study of multicomponent metallic systems is faced with the complexity of presenting multidimensional phase diagrams. One way of predicting new intermetallics with specified properties is the use of modern processing technology with application of teaching of image recognition by the computer. The algorithms used most often in these methods are briefly considered and the efficiency of their use for predicting new compounds is demonstrated.

  5. Underwater microwave ignition of hydrophobic thermite powder enabled by the bubble-marble effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meir, Yehuda; Jerby, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Highly energetic thermite reactions could be useful for a variety of combustion and material-processing applications, but their usability is yet limited by their hard ignition conditions. Furthermore, in virtue of their zero-oxygen balance, exothermic thermite reactions may also occur underwater. However, this feature is also hard to utilize because of the hydrophobic properties of the thermite powder, and its tendency to agglomerate on the water surface rather than to sink into the water. The recently discovered bubble-marble (BM) effect enables the insertion and confinement of a thermite-powder batch into water by a magnetic field. Here, we present a phenomenon of underwater ignition of a thermite-BM by localized microwaves. The thermite combustion underwater is observed in-situ, and its microwave absorption and optical spectral emission are detected. The vapour pressure generated by the thermite reaction is measured and compared to theory. The combustion products are examined ex-situ by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy which verifies the thermite reaction. Potential applications of this underwater combustion effect are considered, e.g., for detonation, wet welding, thermal drilling, material processing, thrust generation, and composite-material production, also for other oxygen-free environments

  6. Underwater microwave ignition of hydrophobic thermite powder enabled by the bubble-marble effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meir, Yehuda; Jerby, Eli, E-mail: jerby@eng.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 6997801 (Israel)

    2015-08-03

    Highly energetic thermite reactions could be useful for a variety of combustion and material-processing applications, but their usability is yet limited by their hard ignition conditions. Furthermore, in virtue of their zero-oxygen balance, exothermic thermite reactions may also occur underwater. However, this feature is also hard to utilize because of the hydrophobic properties of the thermite powder, and its tendency to agglomerate on the water surface rather than to sink into the water. The recently discovered bubble-marble (BM) effect enables the insertion and confinement of a thermite-powder batch into water by a magnetic field. Here, we present a phenomenon of underwater ignition of a thermite-BM by localized microwaves. The thermite combustion underwater is observed in-situ, and its microwave absorption and optical spectral emission are detected. The vapour pressure generated by the thermite reaction is measured and compared to theory. The combustion products are examined ex-situ by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy which verifies the thermite reaction. Potential applications of this underwater combustion effect are considered, e.g., for detonation, wet welding, thermal drilling, material processing, thrust generation, and composite-material production, also for other oxygen-free environments.

  7. Intermetallic semiconducting films

    CERN Document Server

    Wieder, H H

    1970-01-01

    Intermetallic Semiconducting Films introduces the physics and technology of AшВv compound films. This material is a type of a polycrystalline semiconductor that is used for galvanomagnetic device applications. Such material has a high electron mobility that is ideal for generators and magnetoresistors. The book discusses the available references on the preparation and identification of the material. An assessment of its device applications and other possible use is also enumerated. The book describes the structures and physical parts of different films. A section of the book covers the three t

  8. Abrasive wear of intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawk, J.A.; Alman, D.E.; Wilson, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines is investigating the wear behavior of a variety of advanced materials. Among the many materials under evaluation are intermetallic alloys based on the compounds: Fe 3 Al, Ti 3 Al, TiAl, Al 3 Ti, NiAl and MoSi 2 . The high hardness, high modulus, low density, and superior environmental stability of these compounds make them attractive for wear materials. This paper reports on the abrasive wear of alloys and composites based on the above compounds. The abrasive wear behavior of these alloys and composites are compared to other engineering materials used in wear applications

  9. Fatigue of superalloys and intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoloff, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of intermetallic alloys and their composites is contrasted to that of nickel-base superalloys. The roles of microstructure and slip planarity are emphasized. Obstacles to use of intermetallics under cyclic loading conditions are described and future research directions are suggested

  10. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Ordered intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides offer many advantages for structural use at elevated temperatures in hostile environments. Their attractive properties include excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, light weight, and superior strength at elevated temperatures. The major concern for structural use of intermetallics was their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. For the past ten years, considerable effort has been devoted to the research and development of ordered intermetallic alloys, and good progress has been made on understanding intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling brittle fracture in intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides. Parallel efforts on alloy design have led to the development of a number of ductile and strong intermetallic alloys based on Ni(3)Al, NiAl, Fe(3)Al, FeAl, Ti(3)Al and TiAl systems for structural applications. (orig.)

  11. Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, K.Y.

    1982-05-01

    Natural and forced convection experiments (SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test section with the pressure-velocity boundary condition and subsequently extended to the whole loop. For the test section simulation, a steady-state and transient calculations are performed and compared with experimental data. For the loop simulation, two methods are used, a simulated 1-D loop and an actual 1-D loop. In the simulated 1-D loop analysis, the vapor density is increased by one hundred and two hundred times to avoid the code failure and the results still showed some of the important characteristics of the two-phase flow oscillation in a loop. A mathematical model is suggested for the two-phase flow oscillation. In the actual 1-D loop, only the single phase calculation was performed and turned out to be nearly the same as the simulated 1-D loop single phase results

  12. Diffusion mechanisms in intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larikov, L N [ANU, Inst. Metallofiziki, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1992-08-01

    Recent research aimed at the identification of the principal mechanisms of diffusion in intermetallics is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the effect of the type of interatomic bond on the contribution of different mechanisms to diffusion in ordered metallic compounds. Results of an analysis of experimental determinations of diffusion coefficients D(A) and D(B) in binary intermetallics (CuZn, Cu3Sn, AuCd, AgZn, AgMg, InSb, GaSb, AlSb, Fe3Al, FeAl, FeAl3, Ni3Al, Ni3Nb, FeSn, FeSn2, Ni3Sn2, Ni3Sn4, Co3Sn2, CoSn, CoSn2, and CoGa) are presented, and it is shown that the D(A)/D(B) ratio differs substantially for different diffusion mechanisms. 60 refs.

  13. Intermetallic-Based High-Temperature Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1999-04-25

    The intermetallic-based alloys for high-temperature applications are introduced. General characteristics of intermetallics are followed by identification of nickel and iron aluminides as the most practical alloys for commercial applications. An overview of the alloy compositions, melting processes, and mechanical properties for nickel and iron aluminizes are presented. The current applications and commercial producers of nickel and iron aluminizes are given. A brief description of the future prospects of intermetallic-based alloys is also given.

  14. Production of nanograined intermetallics using high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhamidi, Ali; Edalati, Kaveh; Horita, Zenji, E-mail: horita@zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Formation of intermetallics is generally feasible at high temperatures when the lattice diffusion is fast enough to form the ordered phases. This study shows that nanograined intermetallics are formed at a low temperature as 573 K in Al- 25 mol% Ni, Al- 50 mol.% Ni and Al- 50 mol% Ti powder mixtures through powder consolidation using high-pressure torsion (HPT). For the three compositions, the hardness gradually increases with straining but saturates to the levels as high as 550-920 Hv. In addition to the high hardness, the TiAl material exhibits high yield strength as {approx}3 GPa with good ductility as {approx}23%, when they are examined by micropillar compression tests. X-ray diffraction analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the significant increase in hardness and strength is due to the formation of nanograined intermetallics such as Al{sub 3}Ni, Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}, TiAl{sub 3}, TiAl{sub 2} and TiAl with average grain sizes of 20-40 nm (author)

  15. Calculation of the CAREM reactor with the HUEMUL-PUMA-THERMIT chain of codes; Calculo del reactor CAREM con la cadena de codigos HUEMUL-PUMA-THERMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notari, Carla; Grant, Carlos R [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the work was the evaluation of the the CAREM 25 reactor core, using a chain of codes (HUEMUL-PUMA-THERMIT) different to the one used in the original design (CONDOR-CITVAP-THERMIT). First, we performed a partial validation of the our codes in lattices similar to CAREM and reproduced a benchmark for simulation of gadolinium burnup. The results were considered satisfactory for this stage of the project. Then, we calculated the core along the normal operating equilibrium cycle and in hot and cold shut-down conditions. The main outcome of our evaluation confirms the general behaviour of the reference calculations except in one important point referring to the cold shut down. In this condition, the failure of one single rod of bank number 13 of the shut down system, leaves the core in a supercritical state at the beginning of the cycle and this anomaly persists during almost a third of the overall cycle. A new design of the core is proposed with minor modifications of the reference one, without introducing new types of fuel elements and keeping the same fuel management scheme. This new core fulfills all the design requirements. (author)

  16. Method of production multifilamentary intermetallic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marancik, W.G.; Young, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    A method of making A-15 type intermetallic superconductors is disclosed which features elimination of numerous annealing steps. Nb or V filaments are embedded in Cu matrices; annular layers of Sn or Ga, respectively, separated from each other by Cu layers, provide the other component of the intermetallic superconductors Nb3Sn and V3Ga

  17. Intermetallic alloys: Deformation, mechanical and fracture behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, B.

    1988-01-01

    The state of the art in intermetallic alloys development with particular emphasis on deformation, mechanical and fracture behaviour is documented. This review paper is prepared to lay the ground stones for a future work on mechanical property characterization and fracture behaviour of intermetallic alloys at GKSS. (orig.)

  18. Intermetallics Synthesis in the Fe–Al System via Layer by Layer 3D Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floran Missemer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intermetallide phase formation was studied in a powdered Fe–Al system under layer by layer laser cladding with the aim of fabricating the gradient of properties by means of changing the Fe–Al concentration ratio in the powder mixture from layer to layer. The relationships between the laser cladding parameters and the intermetallic phase structures in the consecutively cladded layers were determined. In order to study the structure formation an optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, measurement of microhardness, scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy analysis were used after the laser synthesis of intermetallic compounds.

  19. Intermetallics structures, properties, and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Steurer, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this book is clearly on the statistics, topology, and geometry of crystal structures and crystal structure types. This allows one to uncover important structural relationships and to illustrate the relative simplicity of most of the general structural building principles. It also allows one to show that a large variety of actual structures can be related to a rather small number of aristotypes. It is important that this book is readable and beneficial in the one way or another for everyone interested in intermetallic phases, from graduate students to experts in solid-state chemistry/physics/materials science. For that purpose it avoids using an enigmatic abstract terminology for the classification of structures. The focus on the statistical analysis of structures and structure types should be seen as an attempt to draw the background of the big picture of intermetallics, and to point to the white spots in it, which could be worthwhile exploring. This book was not planned as a textbook; rather, it...

  20. Valence instabilities in cerium intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkman, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to study the magnetic behaviour of cerium in intermetallic compounds, that show an IV behaviour, e.g. CeSn 3 . In the progress of the investigations, it became of interest to study the effect of changes in the lattice of the IV compound by substituting La or Y for Ce, thus constituting the Cesub(1-x)Lasub(x)Sn 3 and Cesub(1-x)Ysub(x)Sn 3 quasibinary systems. A second purpose was to examine the possibility of introducing instabilities in the valency of a trivalent intermetallic cerium compound: CeIn 3 , also by La and Y-substitutions in the lattice. Measurements on the resulting Cesub(1-x)Lasub(x)In 3 and Cesub(1-x)Ysub(x)In 3 quasibinaries are described. A third purpose was to study the (gradual) transition from a trivalent cerium compound into an IV cerium compound. This was done by examining the magnetic properties of the CeInsub(x)Snsub(3-x) and CePbsub(x)Snsub(3-x) systems. Finally a new possibility was investigated: that of the occurrence of IV behaviour in CeSi 2 , CeSi, and in CeGa 2 . (Auth.)

  1. Intermetallics: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris, D. G.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermetallics have seen extensive world-wide attention over the past decades. For the most part these studies have examined multi-phase aluminide based alloys, because of their high stiffness, combined with reasonable strength and ductility, good structural stability and oxidation resistance, and attempted to improve current Ni-base superalloys, Ti-base alloys, or Fe-base stainless steels for structural aerospace applications. The current status of development and application of such materials is briefly reviewed. Future developments are taking intermetallics from the realm of "improved high-temperature but low-ductility metallic alloys" into the realm of "improved aggressive-environment, high-toughness ceramic-like alloys". Such evolution will be outlined.

    Durante los últimos décadas ha habido un desarrollo de los intermetálicos, sobre todo por aplicaciones estructurales a alta temperatura en aplicaciones aeroespaciales, donde, por su rigidez alta, en combinación con una resistencia mecánica y ductilidad razonable, su buena estabilidad estructural y resistencia a la oxidación, han sido vistos como versiones avanzadas y mejoradas de las aleaciones metálicas como, por ejemplo, las superaleaciones a base de nitrógeno y las aleaciones de titanio. Se discute el desarrollo importante durante las últimas décadas, y también los nuevos desarrollos probables durante los próximos años. Se podrían ver los intermetálicos como versiones mejoradas de los cerámicos.

  2. Intermetallics as innovative CRM-free materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Pavel; Jaworska, Lucyna; Cabibbo, Marcello

    2018-03-01

    Many of currently used technical materials cannot be imagined without the use of critical raw materials. They require chromium (e.g. in stainless and tool steels), tungsten and cobalt (tool materials, heat resistant alloys), niobium (steels and modern biomaterials). Therefore there is a need to find substitutes to help the European economy. A promising solution can be the application of intermetallics. These materials offer wide variety of interesting properties, such as high hardness and wear resistance or high chemical resistance. In this paper, the overview of possible substitute materials among intermetallics is presented. Intermetallics based on aluminides and silicides are shown as corrosion resistant materials, composites composed of ceramics in intermetallic matrix as possible tool materials. The manufacturing processes are being developed to minimize the disadvantages of these materials, mainly the room-temperature brittleness.

  3. Sintered cobalt-rare earth intermetallic product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, M.G.

    1975-01-01

    This patent describes a sintered product having substantially stable permanent magnet properties in air at room temperature. It comprises compacted particulate cobalt--rare earth alloy consisting essentially of a Co 5 R intermetallic phase and a CoR intermetallic phase which is richer in rare earth metal content than the Co 5 R phase, where R is a rare earth metal. The Co 5 R intermetallic phase is present in an amount of at least 65 percent by weight of the sintered product and the CoR intermetallic phase which is richer in rare earth metal content than the Co 5 R phase is present in a positive amount having a value ranging up to about 35 percent by weight of the product. The sintered product has a density of at least 87 percent and has pores which are substantially noninterconnecting and wherein the component grains have an average size less than 30 microns

  4. Applications of the thermit code to 3D thermal hydraulic analysis of LWR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    The THERMIT code calculates the three-dimensional transient thermal hydraulic behavior of light water reactor cores. Its two-fluid dynamics equations for two-phase flow offer improved physical modelling capability needed in the context of calculation coupled to neutron kinetics for feedback. The numerical fluid dynamics method was chosen for reliability over a wider range of transients. An improved heat transfer numerical method is presented which gives better numerical stability and accuracy. A number of example calculations are discussed which give an idea of the power and flexibility of the code

  5. Prompt striations observed in a barium thermite release at 335 km

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.J.; Pongratz, M.B.; Smith, G.M.; Barasch, G.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    Three barium clouds have been released from a single rocket at altitudes of 335, 443, and 535 km. The releases were by means of barium thermite injection. Adding the different cross-field velocity components of the rocket at each of the releases resulted in barium clouds with different kinetic velocity distributions. The barium cloud with the most peaked velocity distribution striated promptly, in good agreement with theoretical predictions based on a kinetic plasma instability. Details of the data analysis and experiment are discussed

  6. Research on manufacturing aluminum - rare earth alloy with a high content of rare earth (> 20% RE) from total rare earth oxides by thermit reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Trong Hiep; Dam Van Tien; Tran Duy Hai; Ngo Xuan Hung and Ly Thanh Vu

    2004-01-01

    In this report, several theoretical principles of thermit reduction method used for metal oxides to obtain metals, ferroalloys and ligatua with technical purity are presented. Manufacture of aluminum-rare earth alloys by thermit reduction is also described in the report. Data that are generalized based on thermo-kinetic calculation of the thermit reduction and selection of technological flow-sheet based on thermal effect will partly clarify research results in investigating typical features of the process and identify measures to reduce metal loss in discharged slags. (author)

  7. Microstructural evolution of Ni40Zr60 alloy during early stage of mechanical alloying of intermetallic compounds NiZr2 and Ni11Zr9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Peeyew; Koch, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    The microstructural change of Ni 40 Zr 60 alloy during mechanical alloying of mixtures of the intermetallic compounds NiZr 2 and Ni 11 Zr 9 has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. A specific ''cauliflower'' phase was formed during early stage of mechanical alloying process. It is suggested that the solid state reaction between intermetallic compounds NiZr 2 and Ni 11 Zr 9 is not the only origin for the formation of the ''cauliflower'' phase. ((orig.))

  8. Analysis of a thermite experiment to study low pressure corium dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, D.

    2001-08-01

    The report describes the recalculation of a thermite experiment in a reduced scale which simulates the discharge of molten core materials out of the pressure vessel of a light water reactor into the open compartments and the dome of the containment. The experiment was performed in the framework of a multinational effort at the Sandia National Laboratory, U.S.A. It is being followed by the DISCO program at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. A computational fluid dynamics code was supplemented with specific models to recalculate the Sandia experiment in order to identify problem areas which need to be addressed in the future. Therefore, a first attempt was undertaken to extrapolate to reactor conditions. This was done in two steps to separate geometric from material scaling relationships. The study shows that important experimental results can be extrapolated according to general scaling laws but that there are sensitivities, especially when replacing thermite by corium. The results show a considerable scatter and a dependence on geometric resolution and dynamics of energy transfer between participating components. (orig.) [de

  9. Study of the U3O8-Al thermite reaction and strength of reactor fuel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    Research and test reactors are presently operated with aluminum-clad fuel elements containing highly enriched uranium-aluminum alloy cores. To lower the enrichment and still maintain reactivity, the uranium content of the fuel element will need to be higher than currently achievable with alloy fuels. This will necessitate conversion to other forms such as U 3 O 8 -aluminum cermets. Above the aluminum melting point, U 3 O 8 and aluminum undergo an exothermic thermite reaction and cermet fuel cores tend to keep their original shape. Both factors could affect the course and consequences of a reactor accident, and therefore prompted an investigation of the behavior of cermet fuels at elevated temperatures. Tests were carried out using pellets and extruded tube sections with 53 wt % U 3 O 8 in aluminum. This content corresponds to a theoretical uranium density of 1.9 g/cc. Results indicate that the thermite reaction occurs at about 900 0 C in air without a violent effect. The heat of reaction was approximately 123 cal/g of U 3 O 8 -aluminum fuel. Tensile and compressive strength of the fuel tube section is low above 660 0 C. In tension, sections failed at about the aluminum melting point. In compression with 2 psi average axial stress, failure occurred at 917 0 C, while 7 psi average axial stress produced failure at 669 0 C. (author)

  10. Study of the U3O8-Al thermite reaction and strength of reactor fuel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B.

    1983-01-01

    Research and test reactors are presently operated with aluminum-clad fuel elements containing highly enriched uranium-aluminum alloy cores. To lower the enrichment and still maintain reactivity, the uranium content of the fuel element will need to be higher than currently achievable with alloy fuels. This will necessitate conversion to other forms such as U 3 O 8 -aluminum cermets. Above the aluminum melting point, U 3 O 8 and aluminum undergo an exothermic thermite reaction and cermet fuel cores tend to keep their original shape. Both factors could affect the course and consequences of a reactor accident, and prompted an investigation of the behavior of cermet fuels at elevated temperatures. Tests were carried out using pellets and extruded tube-sections with 53 wt % U 3 O 8 in aluminum. This content corresponds to a theoretical uranium density of 1.9 g/cc. Results indicate that the thermite reaction occurs at about 900 0 C in air without a violent effect. The heat of reaction was approximately 123 cal/g of U 3 O 8 -aluminum fuel. Tensile and compressive strength of the fuel tube section is low above 660 0 C. In tension, sections failed at about the aluminum melting point. In compression with 2-psi average axial stress, failure occurred at 917 0 C, while 7 psi average axial stress produced failure at 669 0 C

  11. Calculation of the CAREM reactor with the HUEMUL-PUMA-THERMIT chain of codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, Carla; Grant, Carlos R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the work was the evaluation of the the CAREM 25 reactor core, using a chain of codes (HUEMUL-PUMA-THERMIT) different to the one used in the original design (CONDOR-CITVAP-THERMIT). First, we performed a partial validation of the our codes in lattices similar to CAREM and reproduced a benchmark for simulation of gadolinium burnup. The results were considered satisfactory for this stage of the project. Then, we calculated the core along the normal operating equilibrium cycle and in hot and cold shut-down conditions. The main outcome of our evaluation confirms the general behaviour of the reference calculations except in one important point referring to the cold shut down. In this condition, the failure of one single rod of bank number 13 of the shut down system, leaves the core in a supercritical state at the beginning of the cycle and this anomaly persists during almost a third of the overall cycle. A new design of the core is proposed with minor modifications of the reference one, without introducing new types of fuel elements and keeping the same fuel management scheme. This new core fulfills all the design requirements. (author)

  12. Ignition dynamics and activation energies of metallic thermites: From nano- to micron-scale particulate composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Emily M.; Pantoya, Michelle L.

    2005-08-01

    Ignition behaviors associated with nano- and micron-scale particulate composite thermites were studied experimentally and modeled theoretically. The experimental analysis utilized a CO2 laser ignition apparatus to ignite the front surface of compacted nickel (Ni) and aluminum (Al) pellets at varying heating rates. Ignition delay time and ignition temperature as a function of both Ni and Al particle size were measured using high-speed imaging and microthermocouples. The apparent activation energy was determined from this data using a Kissinger isoconversion method. This study shows that the activation energy is significantly lower for nano- compared with micron-scale particulate media (i.e., as low as 17.4 compared with 162.5kJ /mol, respectively). Two separate Arrhenius-type mathematical models were developed that describe ignition in the nano- and the micron-composite thermites. The micron-composite model is based on a heat balance while the nanocomposite model incorporates the energy of phase transformation in the alumina shell theorized to be an initiating step in the solid-solid diffusion reaction and uniquely appreciable in nanoparticle media. These models were found to describe the ignition of the Ni /Al alloy for a wide range of heating rates.

  13. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  14. 2. Intermetallic compounds with lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemans, J.B.A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations are given concerning the structures of intermetallic compounds of the lanthanides and thorium (R) on the one hand, and with Fe, Co or Ni (M) on the other. They all derive from the parent composition RM 5 with the CaCu 5 hexagonal structure. This consists of alternate layers in which the M atoms are distinguished as M 1 and M 2 . The other compounds whose structures are studied are obtained by systematic replacement of R by M, or vice versa. In the first type, every third R is replaced by two M's yielding R 2 M 17 compounds. The substitution may be truly random or structured in two ways: so that either the hexagonal structure is maintained or that it is converted into a rhombihedral one. In the second type, one M (in a M 1 position) out of every five is replaced by one R, giving rise to RM 2 compounds which form Laves phases. In the third type, the M 1 's are replaced by R's, resulting in compounds RM 3 . In the fourth type, every third M is replaced by R, yielding R 2 M 7 compounds. With M = Co and R a light lanthanide, the compounds are ferromagnets; with R yttrium, thorium, or a heavy lanthanide, they are ferrimagnets. The preparation of the compounds in an arc-melting apparatus under an Ar-atmosphere followed by annealing is described

  15. Magnetic properties of rare-earth intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmayr, H.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the concepts at present used to explain the magnetic properties of rare-earth intermetallics which have been the subject of numerous investigations in recent years. Rare-earth intermetallics with the formula Rsub(a)Bsub(b) are divided according to the magnetic moment of the B atom(s). If there is no magnetic moment present at the B-site, the exchange is only between the magnetic moments at the R-sites, which can only be of indirect character. One possible model is still the RKKY model, although it usually gives in practice only a qualitative description of the magnetic properties. Typical R-B compounds with the B-moment equal to zero are (for instance) the RA1 2 compounds, and related compounds such as the RZn and RCd compounds as well as compounds of the general formula RB 2 (B = Ni, Os, Ir, Pd, Ru or Rh). Of all intermetallics with nonzero B-moment, the R-3d intermetallics are the most important. These intermetallics can be formed with Mn, Fe, Co and Ni. In these systems there exist in principle three interactions, namely between the R-R, R-3d and 3d-3d atoms. The most important is usually the latter interaction. After a short discussion of the crystal structures which occur with R-3d intermetallics, the basic magnetic properties of R-3d intermetallics are presented. These properties are discussed with respect to the formation of a magnetic moment at the 3d site in the framework of present band theories. Special emphasis is given to a discussion of the localized or itinerant character of 3d electrons. (author)

  16. Spark plasma sintering of titanium aluminide intermetallics and its composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldoshan, Abdelhakim Ahmed

    Titanium aluminide intermetallics are a distinct class of engineering materials having unique properties over conventional titanium alloys. gamma-TiAl compound possesses competitive physical and mechanical properties at elevated temperature applications compared to Ni-based superalloys. gamma-TiAl composite materials exhibit high melting point, low density, high strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is one of the powder metallurgy techniques where powder mixture undergoes simultaneous application of uniaxial pressure and pulsed direct current. Unlike other sintering techniques such as hot iso-static pressing and hot pressing, SPS compacts the materials in shorter time (< 10 min) with a lower temperature and leads to highly dense products. Reactive synthesis of titanium aluminide intermetallics is carried out using SPS. Reactive sintering takes place between liquid aluminum and solid titanium. In this work, reactive sintering through SPS was used to fabricate fully densified gamma-TiAl and titanium aluminide composites starting from elemental powders at different sintering temperatures. It was observed that sintering temperature played significant role in the densification of titanium aluminide composites. gamma-TiAl was the predominate phase at different temperatures. The effect of increasing sintering temperature on microhardness, microstructure, yield strength and wear behavior of titanium aluminide was studied. Addition of graphene nanoplatelets to titanium aluminide matrix resulted in change in microhardness. In Ti-Al-graphene composites, a noticeable decrease in coefficient of friction was observed due to the influence of self-lubrication caused by graphene.

  17. Zirconium intermetallics and hydrogen uptake during corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1987-04-01

    The routes by which hydrogen can enter zirconium alloys containing second phase particles during corrosion are discussed. Both direct diffusion through the bulk of the oxide film, and migration through second phase particles that intersect the surface are considered. An examination of results for hydrogen uptake by zirconium alloys during the early stages of oxidation, when the oxide film is still coherent, suggests that for Zr, Zr-1%Cu and Zr-1%Fe the hydrogen enters by diffusing through the bulk ZrO 2 film, whereas for the Zircaloys the primary migration route may be through the intermetallics. The steps in the latter process are discussed and the evidence available on the properties of the intermetallics collated. A comparison of these data with results for hydrogen uptake by two series of ternary alloys (Zr-1%Nb - 1%X, Zr-1%Cu - 1%X) suggests that high hydrogen uptakes often correlate with intermetallics with high hydrogen solubilities and vice versa. The properties of Zr(Fe/Cr) 2+x intermetallics are examined in an attempt to understand the behaviour of the Zircaloys, and it is concluded that present data establishing composition and unit cell dimensions for such intermetallic particles are not of sufficient accuracy to permit a correlation

  18. Structural and functional intermetallics - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varin, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This overview presents the current status of the research and development of both structural and functional intermetallics. On the one hand, the discussion is focused on commercialization and existing industrial applications of intermetallics. Within this frame the applications of titanium aluminides (TiAl) for turbocharger rotors and exhaust valves in automotive industry are being discussed. Advances in the applications of TiAl alloys for the next generation of turbine blades in aerospace/aircraft segment are also presented. The entire spectrum of nickel and iron aluminide alloys developed commercially by the Oak Ridge national Laboratory (USA) and the examples of their application in various segments of industry are thoroughly discussed. Some inroads made in the application of directionally solidified (DS) multiphase niobium silicides (Nb 3 Si+Nb 5 Si 3 ) in situ intermetallic composites with the goal of pushing the service temperature envelope of turbine blades to ∼ 1200-1300 o C are also discussed. On the other hand, various topics in basic or curiosity driven research of titanium aluminides and trialuminides, iron aluminides and high temperature structural silicides are discussed. Some very recent findings on the improvements in fracture toughness and strength of titanium trialuminides and magnetic behaviour of unconventionally cold - worked iron aluminides are highlighted. The topic of functional intermetallics is limited to the systems must suitable for hydrogen storage applications. A perspective on the directions of future research and development of intermetallics is also provided. (author)

  19. Sintered cobalt-rare earth intermetallic product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for preparing novel sintered cobalt--rare earth intermetallic products which can be magnetized to form permanent magnets having stable improved magnetic properties. A cobalt--rare earth metal alloy is formed having a composition which at sintering temperature falls outside the composition covered by the single Co 5 R intermetallic phase on the rare earth richer side. The alloy contains a major amount of the Co 5 R intermetallic phase and a second solid CoR phase which is richer in rare earth metal content than the Co 5 R phase. The specific cobalt and rare earth metal content of the alloy is substantially the same as that desired in the sintered product. The alloy, in particulate form, is pressed into compacts and sintered to the desired density. The sintered product is comprised of a major amount of the Co 5 R solid intermetallic phase and up to about 35 percent of the product of the second solid CoR intermetallic phase which is richer in rare earth metal content than the Co 5 R phase

  20. Surfaces of Intermetallics: Quasicrystals and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, Chad [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize surfaces of intermetallics, including quasicrystals. In this work, surface characterization is primarily focused on composition and structure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) performed under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions.

  1. Toughening and creep in multiphase intermetallics through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has however often been the case that the process of ductilisation or toughening has also led to a decrease in high temperature properties, especially creep. In this paper we describe approaches to the ductilisation of two different classes of intermetallic alloys through alloying to introduce beneficial, second phase effects.

  2. Influence of intermetallic growth on the mechanical properties of Zn–Sn–Cu–Bi/Cu solder joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Fei; Yao, Jia; Liang, Jingwei; Qiu, Xiaoming, E-mail: qiuxm13@163.com

    2015-11-15

    The formation of intermetallic reaction layers and their influence on shear strength and fractography was investigated between the Zn–Sn–Cu–Bi (ZSCB) and Cu substrate during the liquid state reaction at 450 °C after 10–90 s. Results showed that reliable solder joints could be obtained at 450 °C after 15–30 s of wetting, accompanied by the creation of scallop ε-CuZn{sub 5}, flat γ-Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} and β-CuZn intermetallic layers in ZSCB/Cu interface. However, with excess increase of soldering time, a transient intermetallic ε-CuZn{sub 4} phase was nuclear and grew at ε-CuZn{sub 5}/γ-Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} interface, which apparently deteriorated the shear strength of solder joints from 76.5 MPa to 51.6 MPa. The sensitivity of the fracture proportion was gradually transformed from monotonic ε-CuZn{sub 5} to the mixture of ε-CuZn{sub 4} and ε-CuZn{sub 5} intermetallic cleavage. Furthermore, the growth mechanism of ε-CuZn{sub 4} intermetallic phase at the ZSCB/Cu interface was discussed. - Highlights: • There are four interfacial intermetallic layers formed at the Zn–Sn–Cu–Bi/Cu interface. • The growth mechanism of ε-CuZn{sub 4} intermetallic phase was discussed. • The wetting time of Zn–Sn–Cu–Bi solder in contact with Cu substrate is a key parameter.

  3. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of thermite reaction at Al and CuO nano-interfaces at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cui-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Xu; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Zhang, Chao-Yang; Lu, Zhi-Peng

    2018-05-01

    The thermite reaction at Al/CuO nano-interfaces is investigated with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations in canonical ensemble at 500 K, 800 K, 1200 K and 1500 K, respectively. The reaction process and reaction products are analyzed in terms of chemical bonds, average charge, time constants and total potential energy. The activity of the reactants enhances with increasing temperature, which induces a faster thermite reaction. The alloy reaction obviously expands outward at Cu-rich interface of Al/CuO system, and the reaction between Al and O atoms obviously expands outward at O-rich interface as temperature increases. Different reaction products are found at the outermost layer of different interfaces in the Al/CuO system. In generally, the average charge of the outer layer aluminum atoms (i.e., Al1, Al2, Al5 and Al6) increases with temperature. The potential energy of Al/CuO system decreases significantly, which indicates that drastic exothermic reaction occurs at the Al/CuO system. This research enhances fundamental understanding in temperature effect on the thermite reaction at atomic level, which can potentially open new possibilities for its industrial application.

  4. Characterisation of Ceramic-Coated 316LN Stainless Steel Exposed to High-Temperature Thermite Melt and Molten Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Shankar, A.; Vetrivendan, E.; Shukla, Prabhat Kumar; Das, Sanjay Kumar; Hemanth Rao, E.; Murthy, S. S.; Lydia, G.; Nashine, B. K.; Mallika, C.; Selvaraj, P.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2017-11-01

    Currently, stainless steel grade 316LN is the material of construction widely used for core catcher of sodium-cooled fast reactors. Design philosophy for core catcher demands its capability to withstand corium loading from whole core melt accidents. Towards this, two ceramic coatings were investigated for its application as a layer of sacrificial material on the top of core catcher to enhance its capability. Plasma-sprayed thermal barrier layer of alumina and partially stabilised zirconia (PSZ) with an intermediate bond coat of NiCrAlY are selected as candidate material and deposited over 316LN SS substrates and were tested for their suitability as thermal barrier layer for core catcher. Coated specimens were exposed to high-temperature thermite melt to simulate impingement of molten corium. Sodium compatibility of alumina and PSZ coatings were also investigated by exposing samples to molten sodium at 400 °C for 500 h. The surface morphology of high-temperature thermite melt-exposed samples and sodium-exposed samples was examined using scanning electron microscope. Phase identification of the exposed samples was carried out by x-ray diffraction technique. Observation from sodium exposure tests indicated that alumina coating offers better protection compared to PSZ coating. However, PSZ coating provided better protection against high-temperature melt exposure, as confirmed during thermite melt exposure test.

  5. Uncontrolled re-entry of satellite parts after finishing their mission in LEO: Titanium alloy degradation by thermite reaction energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monogarov, K. A.; Pivkina, A. N.; Grishin, L. I.; Frolov, Yu. V.; Dilhan, D.

    2017-06-01

    Analytical and experimental studies conducted at Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics for investigating the use of pyrotechnic compositions, i.e., thermites, to reduce the risk of the fall of thermally stable parts of deorbiting end-of-life LEO satellites on the Earth are described. The main idea was the use of passive heating during uncontrolled re-entry to ignite thermite composition, fixed on the titanium surface, with the subsequent combustion energy release to be sufficient to perforate the titanium cover. It is supposed, that thus destructed satellite parts will lose their streamline shape, and will burn out being aerodynamically heated during further descending in atmosphere (patent FR2975080). On the base of thermodynamic calculations the most promising thermite compositions have been selected for the experimental phase. The unique test facilities have been developed for the testing of the efficiency of thermite charges to perforate the titanium TA6V cover of 0.8 mm thickness under temperature/pressure conditions duplicated the uncontrolled re-entry of titanium tank after its mission on LEO. Experiments with the programmed laser heating inside the vacuum chamber revealed the only efficient thermite composition among preliminary selected ones to be Al/Co3O4. Experimental searching of the optimal aluminum powder between spherical and flaked nano- and micron-sized ones revealed the possibility to adjust the necessary ignition delay time, according to the titanium cover temperature dependency on deorbiting time. For the titanium tank the maximum temperature is 1100 °C at altitude 68 km and pressure 60 Pa. Under these conditions Al/Co3O4 formulations with nano-Al spherical particles provide the ignition time to be 13.3 s, and ignition temperature as low as 592±5 °C, whereas compositions with the micron-sized spherical Al powder reveal these values to be much higher, i.e., 26.3 s and 869±5 °C, respectively. The analytical and experimental studies described

  6. Ab Initio Studies of Shock-Induced Chemical Reactions of Inter-Metallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharieva, Roussislava; Hanagud, Sathya

    2009-06-01

    Shock-induced and shock assisted chemical reactions of intermetallic mixtures are studied by many researchers, using both experimental and theoretical techniques. The theoretical studies are primarily at continuum scales. The model frameworks include mixture theories and meso-scale models of grains of porous mixtures. The reaction models vary from equilibrium thermodynamic model to several non-equilibrium thermodynamic models. The shock-effects are primarily studied using appropriate conservation equations and numerical techniques to integrate the equations. All these models require material constants from experiments and estimates of transition states. Thus, the objective of this paper is to present studies based on ab initio techniques. The ab inito studies, to date, use ab inito molecular dynamics. This paper presents a study that uses shock pressures, and associated temperatures as starting variables. Then intermetallic mixtures are modeled as slabs. The required shock stresses are created by straining the lattice. Then, ab initio binding energy calculations are used to examine the stability of the reactions. Binding energies are obtained for different strain components super imposed on uniform compression and finite temperatures. Then, vibrational frequencies and nudge elastic band techniques are used to study reactivity and transition states. Examples include Ni and Al.

  7. Cerium intermetallics CeTX. Review III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poettgen, Rainer; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Chevalier, Bernard [Bordeaux Univ., Pessac (France). Inst. de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux

    2016-05-01

    The structure-property relationships of CeTX intermetallics with structures other than the ZrNiAl and TiNiSi type are systematically reviewed. These CeTX phases form with electron-poor and electron-rich transition metals (T) and X = Mg, Zn, Cd, Hg, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, P, As, Sb, and Bi. The review focusses on the crystal chemistry, the chemical bonding peculiarities, and the magnetic and transport properties. Furthermore {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopic data, high-pressure studies, hydrogenation reactions and the formation of solid solutions are reviewed. This paper is the third of a series of four reviews on equiatomic intermetallic cerium compound [Part I: R. Poettgen, B. Chevalier, Z. Naturforsch. 2015, 70b, 289; Part II: R. Poettgen, B. Chevalier, Z. Naturforsch. 2015, 70b, 695].

  8. Pressure-induced phenomena in U intermetallics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sechovský, V.; Honda, F.; Prokeš, K.; Syshchenko, O.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Kamarád, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2003), s. 1377-1386 ISSN 0587-4254. [International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 02). Cracow, 10.07.2002-13.07.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0739 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914; CEZ:MSM 113200002 Keywords : pressure effect * intermetallics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2003

  9. Composites having an intermetallic containing matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, D.C.; Brupbacher, J.M.; Christodoulou, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a composite material. It comprises: a dispersion of in-situ precipitated second phase particles selected from the group consisting of borides, carbides, nitrides, and sulfides, in an intermetallic containing matrix selected from the group consisting of the aluminides, silicides, and beryllides of nickel, copper, titanium, cobalt, iron, platinum, gold, silver, niobium, tantalum, zinc, molybdenum, hafnium, tin, tungsten, lithium, magnesium, thorium, chromium, vanadium, zirconium, and manganese

  10. Modification of NiAl intermetallic coatings processed by PTA with chromium carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Diogo Henrique Sepel; Brunetti, Cristiano; Pintaude, Giuseppe; Oliveira, Ana Sofia Climaco Monteiro d'

    2010-01-01

    Equipment that operate under high-temperatures can be protected with NiAl intermetallic coatings mainly because of their metallurgical stability. This study as it evaluates the effect of chromium carbide added to Ni-Al intermetallic coatings processed by PTA. Three Ni-Al-Cr23C6 powder mixtures with different carbide fractions (15, 30 and 45 wt%) and another without carbides were deposited by PTA on an AISI 304 stainless steel plate, using two different current intensities (100 and 150A). Coatings were evaluated regarding the presence of welding defects, and resultant microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Vickers microhardness and EDS chemical composition were also determined. NiAl and Cr_7C_3 development was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. A combination of NiAl/Cr-Fe-Ni phases was identified. The hardness was strongly related to the formed phases and their amounts. Besides presenting advances toward the development of coatings which can withstand severe operation conditions, the present study shows that PTA hardfacing is able to produce reinforced intermetallic coatings for high-temperature applications. (author)

  11. Ceramic-intermetallic composites produced by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering

    CERN Document Server

    Cabanas-Moreno, J G; Martínez-Sanchez, R; Delgado-Gutierrez, O; Palacios-Gomez, J; Umemoto, M

    1998-01-01

    Nano-and microcomposites of intermetallic (Co/sub 3/Ti, AlCo/sub 2 /Ti) and ceramic (TiN, Ti(C, N), Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) phases have been produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS) of powders resulting from mechanical alloying of Al-Co-Ti elemental powder mixtures. The mechanically alloyed powders consisted of mixtures of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases which, on sintering, transformed into complex microstructures of the intermetallic and ceramic phases. For Al contents lower than about 30 at% in the original powder mixtures, the use of SPS led to porosities of 1-2% in the sintered compacts and hardness values as high as ~1700 kg/mm/sup 2/; in these cases, the composite matrix was TiN and Ti(C, N), with the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ phase found as finely dispersed particles in the matrix and the Co /sub 3/Ti and AlCo/sub 2/Ti phases as interdispersed grains. (19 refs).

  12. New ternary intermetallics, based magnesium, for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquefere, J.G.

    2009-05-01

    The use of fossil fuels (non-renewable energy) is responsible for increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Among the considered alternatives, hydrogen is seen as the most attractive energy vector. The storage in intermetallics makes it possible to obtain mass and volume capacities (e.g. 140 g/L) higher than those obtained by liquid form or under pressure (respectively 71 and 40 g/L). We have synthesised Mg and Rare Earth based compounds (RE = Y, Ce and Gd), derived from the cubic Laves phases AB2. Their physical and chemical properties have been studied (hydrogenation, electrochemistry, magnetism,...). The conditions of sorption (P and T) are particularly favorable (i.e. absorption at room temperature and atmospheric pressure). Besides, to improve the sorption kinetics of metallic magnesium, the compounds developed previously were used as catalysts. Thus, GdMgNi4 was milled with magnesium and the speeds of absorption and desorption of the mixture are found higher than those obtained for the composites Mg+Ni or Mg+V, which are reference systems. A theoretical approach (DFT) was used to model the electronic structure of the ternary compounds (i.e. REMgNi4) and thus to predict or confirm the experimental results. (authors)

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of Nanoparticles of Intermetallic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSalvo, Francis J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The research program from 2010 to the end of the grant focused on understanding the factors important to the synthesis of single phase intermetallic nano-particles (NPs), their size, crystalline order, surface properties and electrochemical activity. The synthetic method developed is a co-reduction of mixtures of single metal precursors by strong, soluble reducing agents in a non-protic solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). With some exceptions, the particles obtained by room temperature reduction are random alloys that need to be annealed at modest temperatures (200 to 600 °C) in order to develop an ordered structure. To avoid significant particle size growth and agglomeration, the particles must be protected by surface coatings. We developed a novel method of coating the metal nanoparticles with KCl, a by-product of the reduction reaction if the proper reducing agents are employed. In that case, a composite product containing individual metal nanoparticles in a KCl matrix is obtained. The composite can be heated to at least 600 °C without significant agglomeration or growth in particle size. Washing the annealed product in the presence of catalyst supports in ethylene glycol removes the KCl and deposits the particles on the support. Six publications present the method and its application to producing and studying new catalyst/support combinations for fuel cell applications. Three publications concern the use of related methods to explore new lithium-sulfur battery concepts.

  14. Containerless automated processing of intermetallic compounds and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Joslin, S. M.; Reviere, R. D.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    An automated containerless processing system has been developed to directionally solidify high temperature materials, intermetallic compounds, and intermetallic/metallic composites. The system incorporates a wide range of ultra-high purity chemical processing conditions. The utilization of image processing for automated control negates the need for temperature measurements for process control. The list of recent systems that have been processed includes Cr, Mo, Mn, Nb, Ni, Ti, V, and Zr containing aluminides. Possible uses of the system, process control approaches, and properties and structures of recently processed intermetallics are reviewed.

  15. Diffusion in substitutionally disordered B2 intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, I.V.; Murch, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive diffusion kinetics theory is formulated to describe seamlessly tracer and chemical diffusion in antistructurally disordered B2 intermetallics showing positive and negative deviations from stoichiometry. The theory is based around unit processes consisting of six-jump cycles that can be assisted by intrinsic and extrinsic antistructural atoms of either atomic species. The Ising alloy model is used to illustrate the formalism, but the formalism can be adapted to other models. Expressions are developed for the tracer diffusion coefficients, the phenomenological coefficients, the intrinsic diffusion coefficients, the interdiffusion coefficient and the various correlation factor components. Results for the tracer and collective correlation factors and the vacancy wind factor (in interdiffusion) are in excellent agreement with results from Monte Carlo computer simulations based around single vacancy jumps. (author)

  16. Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  17. Single crystal growth of europium and ytterbium based intermetallic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The difference between an intermetallic compound and a regular metal (e.g., ... intriguing properties, there have not been any reports of thorough investigations of .... scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive ...

  18. Persistent local chemical bonds in intermetallic phase formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yanwen [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Bian, Xiufang, E-mail: xfbian@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Qin, Xubo [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang, Shuo; Huang, Yuying [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2014-05-01

    We found a direct evidence for the existence of the local chemical Bi–In bonds in the BiIn{sub 2} melt. These bonds are strong and prevail, dominating the structure evolution of the intermetallic clusters. From the local structure of the melt-quenched BiIn{sub 2} ribbon, the chemical Bi–In bonds strengthen compared with those in the equilibrium solidified alloy. The chemical bonds in BiIn{sub 2} melt retain to solid during a rapid quenching process. The results suggest that the intermetallic clusters in the melt evolve into the as-quenched intermetallic phase, and the intermetallic phase originates from the chemical bonds between unlike atoms in the melt. The chemical bonds preserve the chemical ordered clusters and dominate the clusters evolution.

  19. Magnetocaloric effect in rare-earth intermetallics: Recent trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... intermetallic hydrides, manganite oxides, Ni–Mn–Sb-type shape memory ... With the help of temperature-dependent heat capacity information in various applied .... for relative cooling power and a wide working temperature range of about ...

  20. The intermetallic ThRh5: microstructure and enthalpy increments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Aparna; Joshi, A.R.; Kaity, Santu; Mishra, R.; Roy, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Actinide intermetallics are one of the most interesting and important series of compounds. Thermochemistry of these compounds play significant role in understand the nature of bonding in alloys and nuclear fuel performance. In the present paper we report synthesis and characterization of thorium based intermetallic compound ThRh 5 (s) by SEM/EDX technique. The mechanical properties and enthalpy increment as a function of temperature of the alloy has been measured. (author)

  1. Rare earth-ruthenium-magnesium intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Sebastian; Kersting, Marcel; Heletta, Lukas; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie

    2017-07-01

    Eight new intermetallic rare earth-ruthenium-magnesium compounds have been synthesized from the elements in sealed niobium ampoules using different annealing sequences in muffle furnaces. The compounds have been characterized by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Sm{sub 9.2}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 17.8} (a=939.6(2), c=1779(1) pm), Gd{sub 11}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 16} (a=951.9(2), c=1756.8(8) pm), and Tb{sub 10.5}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 16.5} (a=942.5(1), c=1758.3(4) pm) crystallize with the tetragonal Nd{sub 9.34}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 17.66} type structure, space group I4/mmm. This structure exhibits a complex condensation pattern of square-prisms and square-antiprisms around the magnesium and ruthenium atoms, respectively. Y{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} (a=344.0(1), c=2019(1) pm) and Tb{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} (a=341.43(6), c=2054.2(7) pm) adopt the Er{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} structure and Tm{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg (a=337.72(9), c=1129.8(4) pm) is isotypic with Sc{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg. Tm{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} (a=337.35(9), c=2671(1) pm) and Lu{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} (a=335.83(5), c=2652.2(5) pm) are the first ternary ordered variants of the Ti{sub 3}Cu{sub 4} type, space group I4/mmm. These five compounds belong to a large family of intermetallics which are completely ordered superstructures of the bcc subcell. The group-subgroup scheme for Lu{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} is presented. The common structural motif of all three structure types are ruthenium-centered rare earth cubes reminicent of the CsCl type. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of Y{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} and Lu{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} samples revealed Pauli paramagnetism of the conduction electrons.

  2. Ground state searches in fcc intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolverton, C.; de Fontaine, D.; Ceder, G.; Dreysse, H.

    1991-12-01

    A cluster expansion is used to predict the fcc ground states, i.e., the stable phases at zero Kelvin as a function of composition, for alloy systems. The intermetallic structures are not assumed, but derived regorously by minimizing the configurational energy subject to linear constraints. This ground state search includes pair and multiplet interactions which spatially extend to fourth nearest neighbor. A large number of these concentration-independent interactions are computed by the method of direct configurational averaging using a linearized-muffin-tin orbital Hamiltonian cast into tight binding form (TB-LMTO). The interactions, derived without the use of any adjustable or experimentally obtained parameters, are compared to those calculated via the generalized perturbation method extention of the coherent potential approximation within the context of a KKR Hamiltonian (KKR-CPA-GPM). Agreement with the KKR-CPA-GPM results is quite excellent, as is the comparison of the ground state results with the fcc-based portions of the experimentally-determined phase diagrams under consideration

  3. Spin polarization in rare earth intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenwijk, F.J. van

    1976-01-01

    In this thesis the results of Moessbauer experiments performed on a series of intermetallic compounds of europium and gadolinium are reported. For each of these compounds the magnetic hyperfine field, the electric field gradient at the nuclear site and the isomer shift were determined. For most of the compounds the magnetic ordering temperature was also measured. For some of the europium compounds (e.g. EuAu 5 , EuAg 5 , and EuCu 5 ) it could be derived from the measurements that the easy direction of magnetization falls along the crystallographic c-axis. In a number of compounds (e.g. EuCu 5 , EuZn 5 , EuAu 2 and GdCu 5 ), the various contributions to the magnetic hyperfine field were disentangled by the investigation of suitable pseudobinary compounds that are dilute in Eu. The neighbour contribution Hsub(N) and the paramagnetic Curie temperature thetasub(p) were compared with each other in terms of the RKKY model for EuCu 5 and GdCu 5 . Since the correspondence was found to be poor it was concluded that the magnetic behaviour in these compounds cannot be described by a simple free electron picture as is the basis for the RKKY model

  4. Thermal stress effects in intermetallic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, P. K.; Sensmeier, M. D.; Kupperman, D. S.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    1993-01-01

    Intermetallic matrix composites develop residual stresses from the large thermal expansion mismatch (delta-alpha) between the fibers and matrix. This work was undertaken to: establish improved techniques to measure these thermal stresses in IMC's; determine residual stresses in a variety of IMC systems by experiments and modeling; and, determine the effect of residual stresses on selected mechanical properties of an IMC. X ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), synchrotron XRD (SXRD), and ultrasonics (US) techniques for measuring thermal stresses in IMC were examined and ND was selected as the most promising technique. ND was demonstrated on a variety of IMC systems encompassing Ti- and Ni-base matrices, SiC, W, and Al2O3 fibers, and different fiber fractions (Vf). Experimental results on these systems agreed with predictions of a concentric cylinder model. In SiC/Ti-base systems, little yielding was found and stresses were controlled primarily by delta-alpha and Vf. In Ni-base matrix systems, yield strength of the matrix and Vf controlled stress levels. The longitudinal residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-24Al-llNb composite were modified by thermomechanical processing. Increasing residual stress decreased ultimate tensile strength in agreement with model predictions. Fiber pushout strength showed an unexpected inverse correlation with residual stress. In-plane shear yield strength showed no dependence on residual stress. Higher levels of residual tension led to higher fatigue crack growth rates, as suggested by matrix mean stress effects.

  5. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  6. Properties of vacancies type defects in intermetallic compounds of the Al-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascuet, M.I; Fernandez, J.R; Monti, A.M

    2006-01-01

    There are five intermetallic compounds in the Al-Mo system that are stable at low temperatures. Of these, the richest phases in some of the two components are the compounds Al 12 Mo and AlMo 3 , whose Pearson symbols are cI26 and cP8, respectively. In both structures, the atoms of the minority component occupy positions bcc and each one of them is surrounded by 12 atoms first neighbors of the other component. These 13 atoms form icosahedron shaped units or heaps. Unlike what occurs in Al 12 Mo, the AlMo 3 heaps are superposed by sharing atoms from the majority component. The neighboring environment of the majority component is mixed but differs considerably in one or another intermetallic. In each structure, the sites occupied by any given species are crystallographically equivalent, that is, they can self generate from one of the positions and from the crystalline structure's elements of symmetry. This work studies the energy of vacancies and antisites in both compounds and the atomic-jump processes to vacant sites. Computer simulation techniques were used based on minimizing the system's energy. Many-body embedded-atom potentials were used to represent the atomic interactions. The potential mixture used resulted in an adjustment to the crystalline structure of the AlMo 3 phase at low temperatures and to its formation energy (cw)

  7. Superconducting Nb{sub 3}Sn intermetallics made by electrochemical reduction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SnO{sub 2} oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, B A; Fray, D J; Yan, X-Y; Chen, G

    2003-05-01

    The article is focused on low temperature superconducting Nb{sub 3}Sn material manufactured by novel electrodeoxidizing method developed in Cambridge whereby the range of alloys and intermetallics are produced cheaply making potential superconducting wires more cost effective. The process of direct electrochemical reduction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SnO{sub 2} mixtures and in situ formation of the Nb{sub 3}Sn is discussed in details.

  8. Mechanical properties of aluminium matrix composites reinforced with intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, B.; Garcia-Escorial, A.; Ibanez, J.; Lieblich, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this work 2124 aluminium matrix composites reinforced with Ni 3 Al, NiAl, MoSi 2 and Cr 3 Si intermetallic powder particles have been investigated. For comparison purposes, un reinforced 2124 and reinforced with SiC have also been studied. In all cases, the same powder metallurgy route was used, i. e. the 2124 alloy was obtained by rapid solidification and the intermetallic particles by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The matrix and the intermetallics were mechanically blended, cold compacted and finally hot extruded. Tensile tests were carried out in T1 and T4 treatments. Results indicate that mechanical properties depend strongly on the tendency to form new phases at the matrix-intermetallic interface during processing and/or further thermal treatments. The materials which present better properties are those that present less reaction between matrix and intermetallic reinforcement, i. e. MoSi 2 and SiC reinforced composites. (Author) 9 refs

  9. Superplastic ceramics and intermetallics and their potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, J.; Nieh, T.G.

    1994-11-01

    Recent advances in the basic understanding of superplasticity and superplastic forming of ceramics and intermetallics are reviewed. Fine-grained superplastic ceramics, including yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, Y- or MgO-doped Al 2 O 3 Hydroxyapatite, β-spodumene glass ceramics, Al 2 0 3 -YTZP two-phase composites, SiC-Si 3 N 4 and Fe-Fe 3 C composites, are discussed. Superplasticity in the nickel-base (e.g., Ni 3 Al and Ni 3 Si) and titanium-base intermetallics (TiAl and T1 3 Al), is described. Deformation mechanisms as well as microstructural requirements and effects such as grain size, grain growth, and grain-boundary phases, on the superplastic deformation behavior am addressed. Factors that control the superplastic tensile elongation of ceramics are discussed. Superplastic forming, and particularly biaxial gas-pressure forming, of several ceramics and intermetallics are presented with comments on the likelihood of commercial application

  10. Phase transformations in intermetallic phases in zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, V. P., E-mail: vpfilippov@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Kirichenko, V. G. [Kharkiv National Karazin University (Ukraine); Salomasov, V. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Khasanov, A. M. [University of North Carolina – Asheville, Chemistry Department (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Phase change was analyzed in intermetallic compounds of zirconium alloys (Zr – 1.03 at.% Fe; Zr – 0.51 at.% Fe; Zr – 0.51 at.% Fe – M(M = Nb, Sn). Mössbauer spectroscopy on {sup 57}Fe nuclei in backscattering geometry with the registration of the internal conversion electrons and XRD were used. Four types of iron bearing intermetallic compounds with Nb were detected. A relationship was found between the growth process of intermetallic inclusions and segregation of these phases. The growth kinetics of inclusions possibly is not controlled by bulk diffusion, and a lower value of the iron atom’s activation energy of migration can be attributed to the existence of enhanced diffusion paths and interface boundaries.

  11. Crystal field in rare-earth metals and intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    Reasons for the success of the crystal-field model for the rare-earth metals and intermetallic compounds are discussed. A review of some of the available experimental results is made with emphasis on cubic intermetallic compounds. Various sources of the origin of the crystal field in these metals are discussed in the background of the recent APW picture of the conduction electrons. The importance of the non-spherical part of the muffin-tin potential on the single-ion anisotropy is stressed. (author)

  12. Transformation of iron containing constituent intermetallic particles during hydrothermal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgaonkar, Shruti; Din, Rameez Ud; Kasama, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    in the alloys. Furthermore, electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis revealed that the during the steam treatment, the Fe enriched areas of the Al (Fe-Si) Mn type intermetallic particles were transformed into Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 phases, while energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy line profile measurements...... by scanning transmission electron microscope showed that Mn and Si were leached out and incorporated into the surrounding oxide layer. Further, the part of intermetallic phase was transformed into polycrystalline material....

  13. High temperature oxidation behavior of TiAl-based intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroosnijder, M.F.; Sunderkoetter, J.D.; Haanappel, V.A.C.

    1996-01-01

    TiAl-based intermetallic compounds have attracted considerable interest as structural materials for high-temperature applications due to their low density and substantial mechanical strength at high temperatures. However, one major drawback hindering industrial application arises from the insufficient oxidation resistance at temperatures beyond 700 C. In the present contribution some general aspects of high temperature oxidation of TiAl-based intermetallics will be presented. This will be followed by a discussion of the influence of alloying elements, in particular niobium, and of the effect of nitrogen in the oxidizing environment on the high temperature oxidation behavior of such materials

  14. Quaternary borocarbides: New class of intermetallic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, R.; Gupta, L. C.; Dhar, S. K.; Mazumdar, Chandan; Hossain, Zakir; Godart, C.; Levy-Clement, C.; Padalia, B. D.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    1995-01-01

    Our recent discovery of superconductivity (SC) in the four-element multiphase Y-Ni-B-C system at an elevated temperature (TC approximately 12 K) has opened up great possibilities of identifying new superconducting materials and generating new physics. Superconductivity with Tc (greater than 20 K) higher than that known so far in bulk intermetallics has been observed in multiphase Y-Pd-B-C and Th-Pd-B-C systems and a family of single phase materials RENi2B2C (RE= Y, rare earth) have been found. Our investigations show YNi2B2C to be a strong coupling hard type-II SC. HC2(T) exhibits an unconventional temperature dependence. Specific heat and magnetization studies reveal coexistence of SC and magnetism in RNi2B2C (R = Ho, Er, Tm) with magnetic ordering temperatures (Tc approximately 8 K, 10.5 K, 11 K and Tm approximately 5 K, approximately 7K, approximately 4 K respectively) that are remarkably higher than those in known magnetic superconductors . Mu-SR studies suggest the possibility of Ni atoms carrying a moment in TmNi2B2C. Resistivity results suggests a double re-entrant transition (SC-normal-SC) in HoNi2B2C. RENi2B2C (RE = Ce, Nd, Gd) do not show SC down to 4.2 K. The Nd- and Gd-compounds order magnetically at approximately 4.5 K and approximately 19.5 K, respectively. Two SC transitions are observed in Y-Pd-B-C (Tc approximately 22 K, approximately 10 K) and in Th-Pd-B-C (Tc approximately 20 K, approximately 14 K) systems, which indicate that there are at least two structures which support SC in these borocarbides. In our multiphase ThNi2B2C we observe SC at approximately 6 K. No SC was seen in multiphase UNi2B2C, UPd2B2C, UOs2Ge2C and UPd5B3C(0.35) down to 4.2 K. Tc in YNi2B2C is depressed by substitutions (Gd, Th and U at Y-sites and Fe, Co at Ni-sites).

  15. Grouting mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyusov, A A; Bakshutov, V S; Kulyavtsev, V A

    1980-10-23

    A grouting mixture is proposed for low-temperature boreholes. The mixture contains cement, beta gypsum polyhydrate, and calcium chloride, so as to increase the water resistance and strength properties of expanding brick at conditions from 20 to -5/sup 0/ C, the components are in the following ratios: (by wt.-%): cement, 77.45-88.06; beta gypsum polyhydrate, 9.79-19.36; calcium chloride, 2.15-3.19. Grouting mortar for cold boreholes serves as the cement.

  16. High-pressure structural stability of the ductile intermetallic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Murnaghan equation of state fit to the pressure, volume data yielded a bulk modulus of 67∙6 GPa with the pressure derivative of bulk modulus fixed at 4. Keywords. Intermetallics; X-ray ... ners of the unit cell cube occupied by the 'M' element and cube centre occupied by the 'R' element. Although some ductility has been ...

  17. Magnetic properties of RNi5-xCux intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchin, A.G.; Ermolenko, A.S.; Kulikov, Yu.A.; Khrabrov, V.I.; Rosenfeld, E.V.; Makarova, G.M.; Lapina, T.P.; Belozerov, Ye.V.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic properties have been studied for the series of RNi 5-x Cu x intermetallics with R=Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu; x= 5-x Cu x but GdNi 5-x Cu x . These results are explained in the frame of band magnetism, random local crystal field, and domain wall pinning theories

  18. Investigation on thixojoining to produce hybrid components with intermetallic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyboldt, Christoph; Liewald, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    Current research activities at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology of the University of Stuttgart are focusing on the manufacturing of hybrid components using semi-solid forming strategies. One process investigated is the joining of different materials in the semi-solid state and is so called "thixojoining". In this process, metallic inlays are inserted into the semi-solid forming die before the actual forming process and are then joined with a material which was heated up to its semi-solid state. Earlier investigations have shown that using this process a very well-shaped form closure can be produced. Furthermore, it was found that sometimes intermetallic phases are built between the different materials, which decisively influence the part properties of such hybrid components for its future application. Within the framework presented in this paper, inlays made of aluminum, brass and steel were joined with aluminum in the semi-solid state. The aim of the investigations was to create an intermetallic bond between the different materials. For this investigations the liquid phase fraction of the aluminum and the temperature of the inlay were varied in order to determine the influence on the formation of the intermetallic phase. Forming trials were performed using a semi-solid forming die with a disk shaped design. Furthermore, the intermetallic phase built was investigated using microsections.

  19. Nanoscale grain growth behaviour of CoAl intermetallic synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Grain growth behaviour of the nanocrystalline CoAl intermetallic compound synthesized by mechanical alloying has been studied by isothermal annealing at different temperatures and durations. X-ray diffraction method was employed to investigate structural evolutions during mechanical alloying and annealing processes.

  20. Nanoscale grain growth behaviour of CoAl intermetallic synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Grain growth behaviour of the nanocrystalline CoAl intermetallic compound synthesized by mechanical alloying has been studied by isothermal annealing at different temperatures and durations. X-ray diffraction method was employed to investigate structural evolutions during mechanical alloying and anneal-.

  1. Experiments on the behaviour of thermite melt injected into sodium: Final report on the THINA test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, F.; Kaiser, A.; Peppler, W.

    1994-01-01

    During hypothetical accidents of fast breeder reactors the core melts and part of the core material inventory is ejected into the upper coolant plenum. As a consequence, a fuel to coolant thermal interaction occurs between the melt and the sodium. A series of simulating experiments was carried out in KfK/IRS to improve the knowledge about the phenomenology of molten fuel/coolant interactions and to support theoretical work on the safety of fast breeder reactors. In the tests, a thermite melt of up to 3270 K is injected from below into a sodium pool the temperature of which is between 770 and 820 K. The masses of the melt and the sodium are about five and 150 kg, respectively. Thermal interactions have been observed to occur as a sequence of small local pressure events mainly during the melt injection. Large-scale vapour explosions have not been observed. Generally, the conversion ratios of thermal to mechanical energy have been low. (author)

  2. Low-Temperature Synthesis Routes to Intermetallic Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaak, Raymond E

    2008-01-08

    Over the past few years, our group has gained expertise at developing low-temperature solution-based synthetic pathways to complex nanoscale solids, with particular emphasis on nanocrystalline intermetallic compounds. Our synthetic capabilities are providing tools to reproducibly generate intermetallic nanostructures with simultaneous control over crystal structure, composition, and morphology. This DOE-funded project aims to expand these capabilities to intermetallic superconductors. This could represent an important addition to the tools that are available for the synthesis and processing of intermetallic superconductors, which traditionally utilize high-temperature, high-pressure, thin film, or gas-phase vacuum deposition methods. Our current knowledge of intermetallic superconductors suggests that significant enhancements could result from the inherent benefits of low-temperature solution synthesis, e.g. metastable phase formation, control over nanoscale morphology to facilitate size-dependent property studies, robust and inexpensive processability, low-temperature annealing and consolidation, and impurity incorporation (for doping, stoichiometry control, flux pinning, and improving the critical fields). Our focus is on understanding the superconducting properties as a function of synthetic route, crystal structure, crystallite size, and morphology, and developing the synthetic tools necessary to accomplish this. This research program can currently be divided into two classes of superconducting materials: intermetallics (transition metal/post transition metal) and metal carbides/borides. Both involve the development and exploitation of low-temperature synthesis routes followed by detailed characterization of structures and properties, with the goal of understanding how the synthetic pathways influence key superconducting properties of selected target materials. Because of the low-temperature methods used to synthesize them and the nanocrystalline morphologies

  3. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the formation of rare earth intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deodhar, S.S.

    1975-01-01

    Heats of reaction of rare earth intermetallics with iron, cobalt and nickel were determined using Differential Thermal Analysis technique. The intermetallic compounds studied were of MgCu 2 type Laves phases and the rare earth elements studied were praseodymium, gadolinium, dyprosium and erbium. The reactions were exothermic and the heats of reaction were generally high. They varied from the low of -2.5 kcal/g mole for Fe 2 Gd to the high of -35.3 kcal/g mole for Ni 2 Er. The magnitudes of heats of reaction were always greater for the intermetallics of heavy rare earth elements. The rare earth intermetallics studied were either ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic. The variations in the magnetic moments and the heats of reaction with respect to the atomic number of the rare earth elements followed certain trends. The similarities were observed in the trends of two properties. Electronic configuration for the MgCu 2 type rare earth intermetallics is proposed using Engel--Brewer correlation for metallic structures and the structural features of the Laves phase compounds. Kinetics of the reactions between the rare earth elements and iron, cobalt, and nickel was studied. The rate of reaction was diffusion controlled in each case. The Valensi--Carter equation for the diffusion mechanism satisfactorily described the kinetic behavior. The magnitudes of activation energies and frequency factors were determined. The reactions can be characterized by their reaction temperatures since they always begin at definite temperatures. It was observed that the reaction began at a higher temperature if the activation energy for the reaction was high

  4. Hydrogenations of alloys and intermetallic compounds of magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavra, Z.

    1981-08-01

    A kinetic and thermodynamic study of the hydrogenation of alloys and intermetallic compounds of magnesium is presented. It was established that the addition of elements of the IIIA group (Al, Ga, In) to magnesium catalyses its hydrogenation. This is explained by the mechanism of diffusion of magnesium cation vacancies. The hydride Mg 2 NiH 4 was characterized by thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction and NMR measurements. The possibility of forming pseudo-binary compounds of Mg 2 Ni by the substitution of nickel or magnesium was examined. The hydrogenation of the inter-metallic compounds of the Mg-Al system was investigated. It was found that the addition of indium and nickel affected the hydrogenation kinetics. A preliminary study of the hydrogenation of various binary and ternary alloys of magnesium was carried out. (Author)

  5. Cerium intermetallics with TiNiSi-type structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, Oliver; Niehaus, Oliver; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Chevalier, Bernard [Bordeaux Univ. CNRS (UPR 9048), Pessac (France). Inst. de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux (ICMCB)

    2016-08-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the equiatomic composition CeTX that crystallize with the orthorhombic TiNiSi-type structure can be synthesized with electron-rich transition metals (T) and X = Zn, Al, Ga, Si, Ge, Sn, As, Sb, and Bi. The present review focusses on the crystal chemistry and chemical bonding of these CeTX phases and on their physical properties, {sup 119}Sn and {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectra, high-pressure effects, hydrogenation reactions and the formation of solid solutions in order to elucidate structure-property relationships. This paper is the final one of a series of four reviews on equiatomic intermetallic cerium compounds [Part I: Z. Naturforsch. 2015, 70b, 289; Part II: Z. Naturforsch. 2015, 70b, 695; Part III: Z. Naturforsch. 2016, 71b, 165].

  6. Multi-component intermetallic electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M; Trahey, Lynn; Vaughey, John T

    2015-03-10

    Multi-component intermetallic negative electrodes prepared by electrochemical deposition for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries are disclosed. More specifically, the invention relates to composite intermetallic electrodes comprising two or more compounds containing metallic or metaloid elements, at least one element of which can react with lithium to form binary, ternary, quaternary or higher order compounds, these compounds being in combination with one or more other metals that are essentially inactive toward lithium and act predominantly, but not necessarily exclusively, to the electronic conductivity of, and as current collection agent for, the electrode. The invention relates more specifically to negative electrode materials that provide an operating potential between 0.05 and 2.0 V vs. metallic lithium.

  7. Discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites via XD synthesis. [exothermal dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. S.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of recent results obtained for discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites produced using the XD process. Intermetallic matrices investigated include NiAl, multiphase NiAl + Ni2AlTi, CoAl, near-gamma titanium aluminides, and Ll2 trialuminides containing minor amounts of second phase. Such mechanical properties as low and high temperature strength, compressive and tensile creep, elastic modulus, ambient ductility, and fracture toughness are discussed as functions of reinforcement size, shape, and volume fraction. Microstructures before and after deformation are examined and correlated with measured properties. An observation of interest in many of the systems examined is 'dispersion weakening' at high temperatures and high strain rates. This behavior is not specific to the XD process; rather similar observations have been reported in other discontinuous composites. Proposed mechanisms for this behavior are presented.

  8. Environmental embrittlement of intermetallic compounds in Fe-Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建民; 张瑞林; S.H.YU; 余瑞璜

    1996-01-01

    First,it is proposed that hydrogen atoms occupy the interstitial sites in Fe3Al and FeAl.Then the environmental embrittlement of intermetallic compounds in Fe-Al alloys is studied in the light of calculated valence electron structures and bond energy of Fe3Al and FeAl containing hydrogen atoms.From the analyses it is found that the states of metal atoms will change,in which more lattice electrons will become covalent electrons to bond with hydrogen atoms when the atomic hydrogen diffuses into the intermetallic compounds in Fe-Al alloys,which will result in the decrease of local metallicity in Fe3Al and FeAl.Meanwhile,it is found that the crystal will easily cleave since solute hydrogen bonds with metal atoms and severely anisotropic bonds form.As a conclusion,these factors result in the environmental embrittlement of Fe3Al and FeAl.

  9. Investigations on Ce- and Yb-based intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elenbaas, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The author describes investigations on a number of cerium- and ytterbium-based intermetallic compounds and alloys, yielding a lot of experimental results which could not always be put in a quantitative picture. All experimental data are consistent with a single-ion behaviour, where the 4f state is more or less modified by the conduction electrons. In the investigated systems several different features of the magnetism of cerium atoms in metals were studied. (Auth.)

  10. Electronic structure and properties of rare earth and actinide intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmayr, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    There are 188 contributions, experimental and theoretical, a few on rare earth and actinide elements but mostly on rare earth and actinide intermetallic compounds and alloys. The properties dealt with include 1) crystal structure, 2) magnetic properties and magnetic structure, 3) magnetic phase transformations and valence fluctuations, 4) electrical properties and superconductivity and their temperature, pressure and magnetic field dependence. A few papers deal with crystal growth and novel measuring methods. (G.Q.)

  11. Oxygen stabilized rare-earth iron intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dariel, M.P.; Malekzadeh, M.; Pickus, M.R.

    1975-10-01

    A new, oxygen-stabilized intermetallic compound was identified in sintered, pre-alloyed rare-earth iron powder samples. Its composition corresponds to formula R 12 Fe 32 O 2 and its crystal structure belongs to space group Im3m. The presence of these compounds was observed, so far, in several R--Fe--O systems, with R = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Y

  12. Lattice and magnetic anisotropies in uranium intermetallic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havela, L.; Mašková, S.; Adamska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Examples of UNiAlD and UCoGe illustrate that the soft crystallographic direction coincides quite generally with the shortest U-U links in U intermetallics. Added to existing experimental evidence on U compounds it leads to a simple rule, that the easy magnetization direction and the soft crystall...... crystallographic direction (in the sense of highest compressibility under hydrostatic pressure) must be mutually orthogonal....

  13. First principles study of halogens adsorption on intermetallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Quanxi; Wang, Shao-qing

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The linear relation between adsorbates induced work function change and dipole moment change also exists for intermetallic surfaces. • It is just a common linear relationship rather than a directly proportion. • A new weight parameter β is proposed to describe different factors effect on work function shift. - Abstract: Halides are often present at electrochemical environment, they can directly influence the electrode potential or zero charge potential through the induced work-function change. In this work, we focused in particular on the halogen-induced work function change as a function of the coverage of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine on Al_2Au and Al_2Pt (110) surfaces. Results show that the real relation between work function change and dipole moment change for halogens adsorption on intermetallic surfaces is just a common linear relationship rather than a directly proportion. Besides, the different slopes between fitted lines and the theoretical slope employed in pure metal surfaces demonstrating that the halogens adsorption on intermetallic surfaces are more complicated. We also present a weight parameter β to describe different factors effect on work function shift and finally qualify which factor dominates the shift direction.

  14. The behavior of intermetallic compounds at large plastic strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, G.T.; Embury, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper contains a summary of a broad study of intermetallics which includes the following materials, Ni 3 Al, Ti-48Al-1V, Ti-24Al-11Nb, Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb, and Ti-24.5 Al-10.5Nb-1.5Mo. Much effort has been devoted to the study of ordered materials at modes plastic strains and the problem of premature failure. However by utilizing stress states other than simple tension it is possible to study the deformation of intermetallic compounds up to large plastic strains and to consider the behavior of these materials in the regime where stresses approach the theoretical stress. The current work outlines studies of the work hardening rate of a number of titanium and nickel-based intermetallic compounds deformed in compression. Attention is given to the structural basis of the sustained work hardening. The large strain plasticity of these materials is summarized in a series of diagrams. Fracture in these materials in compression occurs via catastrophic shear at stresses of the order of E/80 (where E is the elastic modulus)

  15. The role of intermetallic precipitates in Ti-62222S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D J [US Air Force Mater. Directorate Wright Lab., Wright Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Broderick, T F [US Air Force Mater. Directorate Wright Lab., Wright Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Woodhouse, J B [UES Inc, Dayton, OH (United States); Hoenigman, J R [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States). Research Inst.

    1996-08-15

    Samples of Ti-62222-0.23wt.%Si were heat treated and aged at temperatures ranging from 1150 F to 1500 F with the view of effecting selective precipitation of {alpha}{sub 2} precipitates and silicides (i.e. Ti{sub x}Zr{sub 5-x}Si{sub 3}). The effect of these intermetallic precipitates on the mechanical properties and fracture morphology was assessed via three separate microstructural conditions: Ti-62222S with {alpha}{sub 2} precipitates, Ti-62222S with {alpha}{sub 2} and silicide precipitates, and Ti-62222S with silicide precipitates. Both types of intermetallic precipitate appear to lower the fracture toughness, however {alpha}{sub 2} promotes intergranular fracture while silicides lead to transgranular failure and dimpling. The combined presence of the {alpha}{sub 2} and silicides leads to mixed mode failure. Further, since {alpha}{sub 2} is present in the {alpha} phase and silicides precipitate out in the {beta} phase, it appears that the effect of each of these intermetallics in Ti-62222S is additive rather than synergistic. (orig.)

  16. The nucleation and growth of intermetallic Al-Pt phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, A.; Barna, P.B.; Labar, J. l.

    2002-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of intermetallic Al-Pt phases on amorphous carbon was investigated by half shadow technique in co-deposited thin films. In such experimental condition, the composition of the deposited films varied in the range of Al x Pt 1-x (0≤x≤0.6). The coexistence of Al 5 Pt, Al 2 Pt, Al 3 Pt 2 intermetallic phases have been found in the whole range with varying ratio. Vapour depositions were performed in an UHV system. The Al and Pt components were evaporated simultaneously onto amorphous carbon layer supported by TEM micro-grids. Deposition rates were controlled separately by quartz crystal monitors. Substrate temperature during deposition was 350 grad C. A special evaporation arrangement made possible to create a half shadow area on the substrate in which the quantity one of the components increased from zero to the wanted composition of the sample. The composition of the zones was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in TEM. The intermetallic phases developed in the sample were investigated by analytical TEM (Philips CM20) and high resolution TEM (JEOL 3010 UHR). The electron diffraction patterns have been evaluated by ProcessDiffraction program. (Authors)

  17. Laves intermetallics in stainless steel-zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D.P.; McDeavitt, S.M.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Laves intermetallics have a significant effect on properties of metal waste forms being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. These waste forms are stainless steel-zirconium alloys that will contain radioactive metal isotopes isolated from spent nuclear fuel by electrometallurgical treatment. The baseline waste form composition for stainless steel-clad fuels is stainless steel-15 wt.% zirconium (SS-15Zr). This article presents results of neutron diffraction measurements, heat-treatment studies and mechanical testing on SS-15Zr alloys. The Laves intermetallics in these alloys, labeled Zr(Fe,Cr,Ni) 2+x , have both C36 and C15 crystal structures. A fraction of these intermetallics transform into (Fe,Cr,Ni) 23 Zr 6 during high-temperature annealing; the authors have proposed a mechanism for this transformation. The SS-15Zr alloys show virtually no elongation in uniaxial tension, but exhibit good strength and ductility in compression tests. This article also presents neutron diffraction and microstructural data for a stainless steel-42 wt.% zirconium (SS-42Zr) alloy

  18. Reaction of intermetallic compounds of the ScT composition (T=Ag, Cu, Zn, Ni) with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilkin, S.P.; Volkova, L.S.; Tarasov, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    Reaction of intermetallic compounds of ScT composition (T=Ag, Cu, Zn, Ni), crystallized in CsCl structural type, with hydrogen at 0.2-10 MPa pressure and 293-673 K temperature is studied by chemical, x-ray phase and complex thermogravimetry analysis methods. It is shown that under such conditions hydrogen absorption by ScAg and ScCu is accompanied by the decay of their source matrices into scandium dihydride and metal silver and copper respectively. For ScZn a fine-dispersion mixture of scandium dihydride with zinc and hydride phase of a new zinc-containing intermetallic compound appears to be the finite reaction product. In case of ScNi a hydride phase of ScNiH 2.6 composition is produced, which is crystallized in a rhombic syngony with the lattice periods: a=0.5281±0.0007, b=0.7393±0.0009 and c=0.3327±0.0004 nm. 9 refs.; 2 tabs

  19. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Ti-48Al and Ti-48Al-2Cr Intermetallic Alloys Produced by Electric Current Activated Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Y.; Ozdemir, O.

    2018-06-01

    In this study, Ti-48Al and Ti-48Al-2Cr (at. pct) intermetallic alloys were produced by electric current activated sintering (ECAS). In order to characterize the phase formation and microstructures of these alloys, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were used. The XRD result shows that the intermetallic alloys are composed of γ-TiAl and α 2-Ti3Al phases. The microstructure is dense with a low amount of porosity. The hot corrosion behavior of intermetallic alloys was carried out in a salt mixture of 25 wt pct K2SO4 and 75 wt pct Na2SO4 at 700 °C for 180 hours. The morphology of corroded surfaces was observed by SEM-EDS and XRD. Corrosion phases were identified as TiO2 and Al2O3. Well-adhering oxide scale was detected on the corroded sample surface at the end of 180 hours, and no spallation was observed. In addition, a parabolic curve was obtained at the weight change rate vs time.

  20. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Ti-48Al and Ti-48Al-2Cr Intermetallic Alloys Produced by Electric Current Activated Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Y.; Ozdemir, O.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, Ti-48Al and Ti-48Al-2Cr (at. pct) intermetallic alloys were produced by electric current activated sintering (ECAS). In order to characterize the phase formation and microstructures of these alloys, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were used. The XRD result shows that the intermetallic alloys are composed of γ-TiAl and α 2-Ti3Al phases. The microstructure is dense with a low amount of porosity. The hot corrosion behavior of intermetallic alloys was carried out in a salt mixture of 25 wt pct K2SO4 and 75 wt pct Na2SO4 at 700 °C for 180 hours. The morphology of corroded surfaces was observed by SEM-EDS and XRD. Corrosion phases were identified as TiO2 and Al2O3. Well-adhering oxide scale was detected on the corroded sample surface at the end of 180 hours, and no spallation was observed. In addition, a parabolic curve was obtained at the weight change rate vs time.

  1. Study and development of NiAl intermetallic coating on hypo-eutectoid steel using highly activated composite granules of the Ni-Al system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Zadorozhnyy, Vladislav Yu.; Pavlov, Mikhail D.; Semenov, Dmitri V.; Kaloshkin, Sergey D. [National Univ. of Science and Technology (MISIS), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2018-01-15

    NiAl intermetallic coating thickness of about 50 μm was fabricated on hypo-eutectoid steel by mechanical alloying using pre-activated Ni-Al composite granules as coating material. First, Ni and Al powders were mixed with the composition of Ni-50 at.% Al and mechanically activated in a planetary ball mill, until the composite granules of this powder mixture, having maximum activity (9 cm sec{sup -1}), were formed after 120 min of milling at 200 rpm. The composite granules were then taken out from the planetary ball mill just before the critical time, i. e. the time at which these granules synthesize and convert to an intermetallic NiAl compound. The highly activated composite granules of Ni-Al were then put into the vial of a vibratory ball mill with the substrate on top of the chamber. After mechanical alloying for 60 min in the vibratory ball mill, the composite granules were synthesized fully and heat was produced during the synthesis which helped producing a thick and strong adhesive coating of NiAl intermetallic on the steel substrate. The main advantage of this technique is that not only is time saved but also there is no need for any post mechanical alloying process such as annealing or laser treatment etc. to get homogeneous, strongly bonded intermetallic coatings. X-ray diffraction analysis clearly indicates the formation of NiAl phase. Micro-hardness of the coating and substrate was also measured. The cross-sectional microstructure of the composite granules and the final coating were studied by scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Development of intermetallic coatings for fusion power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Domenico, T.; Dragel, G.; Clark, R.

    1994-03-01

    In the design of liquid-metal cooling systems, corrosion resistance of structural materials and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its subsequent influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. The objective of this study is to develop stable corrosion-resistant electrical insulator coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coatings that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the structural walls. Vanadium and V-base alloys are potential materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor. Insulator coatings inside the tubing are required when the system is cooled by liquid metals. Various intermetallic films were produced on V, V-t, and V-20 Ti, V-5Cr-t and V-15Cr-t, and Ti, and Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The intermetallic layers were developed by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium of 3--5 at.% and containing dissolved metallic solutes at temperatures of 416--880 degrees C. Subsequently, electrical insulator coatings were produced by reaction of the reactive layers with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium or by air oxidation under controlled conditions at 600--1000 degrees C. These reactions converted the intermetallic layers to electrically insulating oxide/nitride or oxy-nitride layers. This coating method could be applied to a commercial product. The liquid metal can be used over and over because only the solutes are consumed within the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. This paper will discuss initial results on the nature of the coatings and their in-situ electrical resistivity characteristics in liquid lithium at high temperatures

  3. Interaction of intermetallic compounds formed by rare earths, scandium, yttrium and 3d-transition metals, with gaseous ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilkin, S.P.; Volkova, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    Interaction of the RT n intermetallic compounds, where R Sc, Y, rare earths, T = Fe, Co, Ni; n = 2,3,5, with gaseous ammonia under pressure of 1MPa and at temperatures of 293, 723 and 798 K is studied. It is established on the basis of roentgenographic studied, chemical analysis data, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and specific surface measurements that metallic matrixes of intermetallides decompose into nitrides and transition metal phases at temperatures of 723 and 798 K under effect of ammonia and independent of structural types of the source materials; partial or complete decomposition of intermetallides through ammonia with formation of transition metal mixture, binary hydrides and nitrides of the most electropositive metal the above systems occurs at the temperature of 293 K depending on the heat of the source compounds and their tendency to decomposition under ammonia effect

  4. Electromagnetic generation of volume waves in RFe2 intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasov, R.S.; Borovkova, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the phenomenon of electromagneto-acoustic transformation of longitudinal and cross waves in RFe 2 intermetallics. It is shown that in the range from the room temperature to Curie point the generation of ultrasound occurs only at the expense of one-ion anisotropic magnetostriction. In the vicinity of Curie point the contribution of isotropic magnetostriction of paraprocess is not observed. The quantitative interpretation is given to temperature and field dependences of electromagneto-acoustic transformation parameters. A noticeable temperature hysteresis of the above-mentioned transformation is revealed in ErFe 2 near the point of compensation. 7 refs.; 5 figs

  5. Chemistry and Properties of Complex Intermetallics from Metallic Fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-03-28

    This project investigated the reaction chemistry and synthesis of new intermetallic materials with complex compositions and structures using metallic fluxes as solvents. It was found that the metallic fluxes offer several key advantages in facilitating the formation and crystal growth of new materials. The fluxes mostly explored were liquid aluminum, gallium and indium. The main purpose of this project was to exploit the potential of metallic fluxes as high temperature solvent for materials discovery in the broad class of intermetallics. This work opened new paths to compound formation. We discovered many new Si (or Ge)-based compounds with novel structures, bonding and physicochemical properties. We created new insights about the reaction chemistry that is responsible for stabilizing the new materials. We also studied the structural and compositional relationships to understand their properties. We investigated the use of Group-13 metals Al, Ga and In as solvents and have generated a wide variety of new results including several new ternary and quaternary materials with fascinating structures and properties as well as new insights as to how these systems are stabilized in the fluxes. The project focused on reactions of metals from the rare earth element family in combination with transition metals with Si and Ge. For example molten gallium has serves both as a reactive and non-reactive solvent in the preparation and crystallization of intermetallics in the system RE/M/Ga/Ge(Si). Molten indium behaves similarly in that it too is an excellent reaction medium, but it gives compounds that are different from those obtained from gallium. Some of the new phase identified in the aluminide class are complex phases and may be present in many advanced Al-matrix alloys. Such phases play a key role in determining (either beneficially or detrimentally) the mechanical properties of advanced Al-matrix alloys. This project enhanced our basic knowledge of the solid state chemistry

  6. Negative thermal expansion induced by intermetallic charge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Masaki; Oka, Kengo; Nabetani, Koichiro

    2015-06-01

    Suppression of thermal expansion is of great importance for industry. Negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials which shrink on heating and expand on cooling are therefore attracting keen attention. Here we provide a brief overview of NTE induced by intermetallic charge transfer in A-site ordered double perovskites SaCu 3 Fe 4 O 12 and LaCu 3 Fe 4- x Mn x O 12 , as well as in Bi or Ni substituted BiNiO 3 . The last compound shows a colossal dilatometric linear thermal expansion coefficient exceeding -70 × 10 -6 K -1 near room temperature, in the temperature range which can be controlled by substitution.

  7. Intermetallic compound development for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munroe, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    lntermetallic compounds have been vigorously researched for the past twenty years. As a result of these studies the fundamental behaviour of a number of transition metal aluminides and suicides is now well understood, and a number of alloys with commercially acceptable properties have been developed. Future challenges for these alloys, for example Ni 3 AI, TiAI and Fe 3 AI, are focused on the development of large-scale production routes. However, there remain a number of other intermetallic compounds, such as Laves phases, which exhibit some promising properties, but little is presently known about their intrinsic behaviour. For compounds such as these more fundamental studies are required

  8. Plasticity enhancement mechanisms in refractory metals and intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibala, R.; Chang, H.; Czarnik, C.M.; Edwards, K.M.; Misra, A.

    1993-01-01

    Plasticity enhancement associated with surface films and precipitates or dispersoids in bcc refractory metals is operative in ordered intermetallic compounds. Some results are given for NiAl and MoSi 2 -based materials. The monotonic and cyclic plasticity of NiAl at room temperature can be enhanced by surface films. Ductile second phases also enhance the plasticity of NiAl. MoSi 2 exhibits similar effects of surface films and dispersoids, but primarily at elevated temperatures. The plasticity enhancement is associated with enhanced dislocation generation from constrained deformation at the film-substrate or precipitate/dispersoid-matrix interface of the composite systems

  9. NMR and domain wall mobility in intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, A.P.; Sampaio, L.C.; Cunha, S.F.; Alves, K.M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The technique of pulsed NMR can be used to study the distribution of hyperfine fields in a magnetic matrix. The dynamics of the domain walls are relevant to the generation of NMR signals. In the present study on the (R x Y 1-x ) Fe 2 intermetallic compounds, the reduction in the signals is associated to increased propagation fields. This indicates that a smaller domain wall mobility is at the origin of these effects. NMR spectra in this system show the importance of direct and indirect (i.e., mediated by Fe atoms) terms in the transferred hyperfine field. (author)

  10. Study of Intermetallic Nanostructures for Light-Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Niels Grobech [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Asta, Mark D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hosemann, Peter [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Maloy, Stuart [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-30

    High temperature mechanical measurements were conducted to study the effect of the dynamic precipitation process of PH 13-8 Mo maraging steel. Yield stress, ultimate tensile strength, total elongation, hardness, strain rate sensitivity and activation volume were evaluated as a function of the temperature. The dynamic changes in the mechanical properties at different temperatures were evaluated and a balance between precipitation hardening and annealed softening is discussed. A comparison between hardness and yield stress and ultimate tensile strength over a temperature range from 300 to 600 °C is made. The behavior of the strain rate sensitivity was correlated with the intermetallic precipitates formed during the experiments.

  11. A novel method to fabricate TiAl intermetallic alloy 3D parts using additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J.S. Dilip

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work explores the feasibility of fabricating porous 3D parts in TiAl intermetallic alloy directly from Ti–6Al–4V and Al powders. This approach uses a binder jetting additive manufacturing process followed by reactive sintering. The results demonstrate that the present approach is successful for realizing parts in TiAl intermetallic alloy.

  12. Morphology of intermetallic phases in Al-Si cast alloys and their fracture behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Hurtalová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Al-Si cast alloys in recent years have increased especially in the automotive industry (dynamic exposed cast, en-gine parts, cylinder heads, pistons and so on. Controlling the microstructure of secondary aluminium cast alloys is very important, because these alloys contain more additional elements that form various intermetallic phases in the structure. Therefore, the contribution is dealing with the valuation type of intermetallic phases and their identification with using optical and scanning microscopy. Some of the intermetallic phases could be identified on the basis of morphology but some of them must be identified according EDX analysis. The properties of alu-minium alloy are affected by morphology of intermetallic phases and therefore it is necessary to study morphology and its fracture behav-iour. The present work shows morphology and typical fracture behaviour as the most common intermetallic phases forming in Al-Si alloys.

  13. Intermetallic superconductors - The state of development in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, E.

    1991-01-01

    The commercial fabrication of intermetallic superconductors has reached a high degree of maturity in the past thirty years. The only significant, commercial requirement for superconducting wire is the construction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices for medical diagnosis. In addition to this demand there are one-time projects such as a high energy particle accelerators which often need considerable quantities of superconducting material over the few years of construction. R and D projects also provide a fluctuating market for superconducting materials, in the past the projects have included power apparatus such as generators, motors, energy storage and transmission cables, and magnets for experimental fusion reactors. Superconducting magnetically levitated trains have undergone full scale trials in Japan and Germany. This is by no means a comprehensive list of all the possible applications. Virtually all the devices requiring a magnetic field to be produced by superconducting windings have used NbTi wire, but a few experimental Nb 3 Sn high field magnets have been constructed. In the case of these materials commercial vendors can provide a high degree of quality assurance on such characteristics as critical current, coupling effects and mechanical tolerances. This paper discusses the market for intermetallic and ceramic superconductors, their fabrication properties, applications, and cost

  14. An experimental study of praseodymium intermetallic compounds at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greidanus, F.J.A.M.

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis the author studies the low temperature properties of praseodymium intermetallic compounds. In chapter 2 some of the techniques used for the experiments described in the subsequent chapters are discussed. A set-up to perform specific-heat experiments below 1 K and a technique for performing magnetic susceptibility measurments below 1 K, using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) are described. Chapter 3 is devoted to the theory of interacting Pr 3+ ions. Both bilinear and biquadratic interactions are dealt with in a molecular-field approximation. It is shown that first as well as second-order phase transitions can occur, depending on the nature of the ground state, and on the ratio of magnetic to crystal-field interactions. In chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7 experimental results on the cubic Laves phase compounds PrRh 2 , PrIr 2 , PrPt 2 , PrRu 2 and PrNi 2 are presented. From inelastic neutron scattering experiments the crystalline electric field parameters of the above compounds are determined. In chapters 5 and 6 susceptibility, neutron-diffraction, hyperfine specific-heat, low-field magnetization, pulsed-field magnetization, specific-heat and resistivity measurements are presented. In chapter 7 the specific heat and differential susceptibility of PrNi 2 below 1 K are studied. Finally, in chapter 8 praseodymium intermetallic compounds with low-symmetry singlet ground states, and cubic compounds with magnetic doublet ground states are studied. (Auth.)

  15. Structural and Electronic Investigations of Complex Intermetallic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Hyunjin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In solid state chemistry, numerous investigations have been attempted to address the relationships between chemical structure and physical properties. Such questions include: (1) How can we understand the driving forces of the atomic arrangements in complex solids that exhibit interesting chemical and physical properties? (2) How do different elements distribute themselves in a solid-state structure? (3) Can we develop a chemical understanding to predict the effects of valence electron concentration on the structures and magnetic ordering of systems by both experimental and theoretical means? Although these issues are relevant to various compound classes, intermetallic compounds are especially interesting and well suited for a joint experimental and theoretical effort. For intermetallic compounds, the questions listed above are difficult to answer since many of the constituent atoms simply do not crystallize in the same manner as in their separate, elemental structures. Also, theoretical studies suggest that the energy differences between various structural alternatives are small. For example, Al and Ga both belong in the same group on the Periodic Table of Elements and share many similar chemical properties. Al crystallizes in the fcc lattice with 4 atoms per unit cell and Ga crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell lattice with 8 atoms per unit cell, which are both fairly simple structures (Figure 1). However, when combined with Mn, which itself has a very complex cubic crystal structure with 58 atoms per unit cell, the resulting intermetallic compounds crystallize in a completely different fashion. At the 1:1 stoichiometry, MnAl forms a very simple tetragonal lattice with two atoms per primitive unit cell, while MnGa crystallizes in a complicated rhombohedral unit cell with 26 atoms within the primitive unit cell. The mechanisms influencing the arrangements of atoms in numerous crystal structures have been studied theoretically by calculating electronic

  16. Microstructure and tribological properties of Ti–Cu intermetallic compound coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Chun; Zhou, Jiansong; Yu, Youjun; Wang, Lingqian; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ti–Cu coating has been synthesized on pure Ti substrate by laser cladding. ► Microstructure and tribological properties of Ti–Cu coating were analyzed. ► The prepared Ti–Cu intermetallic compound coating has excellent wear resistance. -- Abstract: Ti–Cu intermetallic compound coating has been in situ synthesized successfully on pure Ti substrate by laser cladding using copper powder as the precursor. It has been found that the prepared coating mainly contains of TiCu, TiCu 3 , Ti 3 Cu, and Ti phases. The transmission electron microscopy results conform further the existence of Ti–Cu intermetallic compound in the fabricated coating. Tribological properties of the prepared Ti–Cu intermetallic compound coating were systematically evaluated. It was found that normal loads and sliding speeds have a strong influence on the friction coefficient and wear rate of Ti–Cu intermetallic compound coating. Namely, the friction coefficient of the Ti–Cu intermetallic compound coating decreased with increasing normal load and sliding speed. The wear rate of the Ti–Cu intermetallic compound coating decreased rapidly with increasing sliding speed, while the wear rate increased as the normal load increased.

  17. Studies about interaction of hydrogen isotopes with metals and intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasut, F.; Anisoara, P.; Zamfirache, M.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen is a non-toxic but highly inflammable gas. Compared to other inflammable gases, its range of inflammability in air is much broader (4-74.5%) but it also vaporizes much more easily. Handling of hydrogen in form of hydrides enhances safety. The interaction of hydrogen with metals and intermetallic compounds is a major field within physical chemistry. Using hydride-forming metals and intermetallic compounds, for example, recovery, purification and storage of heavy isotopes in tritium containing system can solve many problems arising in the nuclear-fuel cycle. The paper presents the thermodynamics and the kinetics between hydrogen and metal or intermetallic compounds. (author)

  18. Effects of elastic anisotropy on mechanical behavior of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of the deformation and fracture behavior of ordered intermetallic compounds are examined within the framework of linear anisotropic elasticity theory of dislocations and cracks. The orientation dependence and the tension/compression asymmetry of yield stress are explained in terms of the anisotropic coupling effect of non-glide stresses to the glide strain. The anomalous yield behavior is related to the disparity (edge/screw) of dislocation mobility and the critical stress required for the dislocation multiplication mechanism of Frank-Read type. The slip-twin conjugate relationship, extensive faulting, and pseudo-twinning (martensitic transformation) at a crack tip can be enhanced also by the anisotropic coupling effect, which may lead to transformation toughening of shear type

  19. Electronic Structure of GdCuGe Intermetallic Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukoyanov, A. V.; Knyazev, Yu. V.; Kuz'min, Yu. I.

    2018-04-01

    The electronic structure of GdCuGe intermetallic compound has been studied. Spin-polarized energy spectrum calculations have been performed by the band method with allowance for strong electron correlations in the 4 f-shell of gadolinium ions. Antiferromagnetic ordering of GdCuGe at low temperatures has been obtained in a theoretical calculation, with the value of the effective magnetic moment of gadolinium ions reproduced in fair agreement with experimental data. The electronic density of states has been analyzed. An optical conductivity spectrum has been calculated for GdCuGe; it reveals specific features that are analogous to the ones discovered previously in the GdCuSi compound with a similar hexagonal structure.

  20. Electronic and magnetic properties of intermetallic compound YCo5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.W.; Feng, Y.P.; Ong, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of the intermetallic compound YCo 5 have been studied using density functional theory with the local spin density approximation. The calculated magnetic moments of Y, Co(2c) and Co(3g) are -0.61, 1.68 and 2.04 μ B , respectively, and the total magnetic moment is about 8.87 μ B per formula unit, which agrees well with the previous experimental results. The dependence of the magnetic moments of Y, Co(2c) and Co(3g) on the lattice spacing has been investigated. The local electronic structure of Y, Co(2c) and Co(3g) are discussed in detail. The local magnetic susceptibilities of Y, Co(2c) and Co(3g) are calculated. Based on our results, YCo 5 was found to have characteristic of a strong ferromagnet. (orig.)

  1. A spin echo study of A15 intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoep, G.K.

    1976-01-01

    This thesis mainly concerns the measurement of spin-lattice relaxation times in intermetallic compounds of the bcc lattice structure, having the formula V 3 X (C = Pt, Ir, Os, Pd, Rh, Ni, Co, Au). When, in a spin echo experiment, a two-pulse sequence was applied, several quadrupolar echoes were observed. Special attention is given to the 'forbidden' echoes (absol.(Δm')GT1) in V 3 Au and V 3 Co. In relation to the V 3 X compounds, several characteristics are discussed including temperature dependence and concentration dependence of spin relaxation times, superconductivity and the importance of d-state electrons in determination of the spin relaxation times. Finally, the above characteristics were determined for 6 different samples of the vanadium-gold alloy, V 3 Au, specifically

  2. Theory of Valence Transitions in Ytterbium and Europium Intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatic, V.; Freericks, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    The exact solution of the multi-component Falicov-Kimball model in infinite-dimensions is presented and used to discuss a new fixed point of valence fluctuating intermetallics with Yb and Eu ions. In these compounds, temperature, external magnetic field, pressure, or chemical pressure induce a transition between a metallic state with the f-ions in a mixed-valent (non-magnetic) configuration and a semi-metallic state with the f-ions in an integral-valence (paramagnetic) configuration. The zero-field transition occurs at the temperature T V , while the zero-temperature transition sets in at the critical field H c . We present the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of the model for an arbitrary concentration of d- and f -electrons. For large U, we find a MI transition, triggered by the temperature or field- induced change in the f-occupancy. (author)

  3. Effect of Flux onto Intermetallic Compound Formation and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Siti Rabiatull Aisha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of different composition of no-clean flux onto intermetallic compound (IMC formation and growth was investigated. The solder joint between Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder alloy and printed circuit board (PCB was made through reflow soldering. They were further aged at 125°C and 150°C for up to 1000 hours. Results showed that fluxes significantly affect the IMC thickness and growth. In addition, during aging, the scallop and columnar morphology of IMC changed to a more planar type for both type of flux during isothermal aging. It was observed that the growth behavior of IMC was closely related to initial soldering condition.

  4. Development of New Cryocooler Regenerator Materials-Ductile Intermetallic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A.; Pecharsky, A.O.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    The volumetric heat capacities of a number of binary and ternary Er- and Tm-based intermetallic compounds, which exhibited substantial ductilities, were measured from ∼3 to ∼350 K. They have the RM stoichiometry (where R = Er or Tm, and M is a main group or transition metal) and crystallize in the CsCl-type structure. The heat capacities of the Tm-based compounds are in general larger than the corresponding Er-based materials. Many of them have heat capacities which are significantly larger than those of the low temperature ( 2 , Er 3 Ni and ErNi. Utilization of the new materials as regenerators in the various cryocoolers should improve the performance of these refrigeration units for cooling below 15 K

  5. Diffusion in intermetallic compounds studied using short-lived radioisotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Diffusion – the long range movement of atoms – plays an important role in materials processing and in determining suitable applications for materials. Conventional radiotracer methods for measuring diffusion can determine readily how distributions of radioactive probe atoms in samples evolve under varying experimental conditions. It is possible to obtain limited information about atomic jump rates and pathways from these measurements; however, it is desirable to make more direct observations of the atomic jumps by using experimental methods that are sensitive to atomic scale processes. One such method is time-differential perturbed $\\gamma$–$\\gamma$-angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC). Two series of PAC experiments using $^{111m}$Cd are proposed to contribute to fundamental understanding of diffusion in intermetallic compounds. The goal of the first is to determine the dominant vacancy species in several Li$_{2}$-structured compounds and see if the previously observed change in diffusion mechanism th...

  6. Mechanical alloying of TiFe intermetallic for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, L.E.R.; Leiva, D.R.; Silva, W.B.; Ishikawa, T.T.; Botta, W.J.; Leal Neto, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Elementary powders of Ti and Fe in the stoichiometric ratio 50:50 were submitted to mechanical alloying for 2, 6, 10 and 20 h in a planetary ball mill. The synthesis of TiFe intermetallic with high yield was achieved for all milling times. The structural characterization of the samples revealed the trend of the particles to form agglomerates and the formation of cracks. H-absorption capacities of 0,74; 0,90; 0,97 and 0,95 wt. % (at room temperature and 20 bar of H2) were obtained for processing times of 2, 6, 10 and 20 h, respectively, without using a thermal activation process after milling. (author)

  7. A tem investigation on intermetallic particles in zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarminto, Harini Sosiati; Kuwano, Noriyuki; Oki, Kensuke

    1996-01-01

    Tem investigation were conducted on the heat treated zircaloy-2 having the composition of Zr containing 1.6% Sn, 0.2% Fe, 0.1% Cr and 0.05% Ni (%wt) in order tostudy the characteristics of intermetallic particles related to the microstructural basis on the corrosion effect. Forged zircaloy-2 was annealed in the β-phase at 1050 C degrees for various isothermally in the α-phase region at 650 and 750 C degrees, followed by water quenching. The size precipates, the lower became their number. By increasing the annealing temperature, the growth of precipitates formed in this zircaloy-2 were of the Zr(Cr,Fe) 2 and Zr 2 (Fe,Cr,Ni) types. These kinds of precipitates and the ratios of Fe/Cr were independent of size and shape of precipitates and annealing time and temperature. (author), 16 refs, 2 tabs, 5 figs

  8. Computer simulations of disordering and amorphization kinetics in intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaczer, M.; Victoria, M.

    1995-01-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulations on three intermetallic compounds, Cu 3 Au, Ni 3 Al and NiAl, have been performed to investigate the kinetics of the disordering and amorphization processes. These systems were chosen because reliable embedded atom potentials were developed for the constituent species and their alloys, and also because extended experimental results are available for them. Previous simulations of collision cascades with 5 keV Cu and Ni primary knock-out atom (PKA) showed a significant difference between the evolution of the short range order (SRO) and the crystalline order (CO) parameters in all of the intermetallics: a complete loss of the crystalline structure and only partial chemical disorder in the core of the cascade [T. Diaz de la Rubia et al., Phys. Rev. B 47 (1993) 11483; M. Spaczer et al., Phys. Rev. B 50 (1994) 13204]. The present paper deals with the simulation of the amorphization process in NiAl by 5 and 15 keV Ni PKAs. The kinetic energy of the atoms in the simulated systems was removed on different time scales to mimic strong or weak coupling between electrons and phonons. No evidence of amorphization was found at the end of the cascades created by the 5 keV recoils. However, the 15 keV PKA events showed that (i) in the no-coupling case the system evolved to a highly disordered state, (ii) an amorphous region with about 100 non-lattice atoms was found in the case of weak coupling, (iii) the locally melted and recrystallized region collapsed to a small dislocation loop when medium coupling was used and (iv) a highly ordered state resulted in the case of strong coupling. (orig.)

  9. Synthesis of nano intermetallic Nb{sub 3}Sn by mechanical alloying and annealing at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, M., E-mail: marlope@udec.cl [Department of Materials Engineering, Universidad de Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción (Chile); Jiménez, J.A. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, C.S.I.C., Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ramam, K.; Mangalaraja, R.V. [Department of Materials Engineering, Universidad de Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción (Chile)

    2014-11-05

    Highlights: • Intermetallic Nb{sub 3}Sn nano grains were synthesized by powder metallurgy route. • Structure analysis was studied using a multiphase Rietveld refinement fit. • The presence of Nb{sub 3}Sn 86% and NbO 8% was identified. • More tin content in the equilibrium Nb–Sn diagram was obtained. • Magnetic properties show Nb{sub 3}Sn powders are soft super paramagnetic materials. - Abstract: In this study, intermetallic Nb{sub 3}Sn of nanometer-sized grains was synthesized by powder metallurgy route. Elemental powders of Nb and Sn in the stoichiometric proportions were mechanically alloyed for 3 h in a high-energy mill under a protective atmosphere of argon. X-ray diffraction patterns of milled powders confirmed the formation of a Nb(Sn) solid solution evidenced by the presence of Nb peaks only, which are shifted to higher angles. Rietveld refinements used to analyze this XRD pattern indicated a better fit when a tetragonal structure with the space group I4/mmm is used instead the Nb cubic lattice with space group Im−3m. Size-strain analysis from line-broadening of peak profiles by using “double-Voigt” approaches showed that the broadening is due to both a small crystallite size (around 6 nm) and microstrains. Subsequent heat treatment of the Nb(Sn) powder mixture was required for the formation of the Nb{sub 3}Sn ordered phase. X-ray diffraction patterns obtained after a thermal treatment at 700 °C for 1 h were fitted using a multiphase Rietveld refinement. Although the resulting powders are composed mainly by Nb{sub 3}Sn (up to 87 weight%), certain amount of other intermetallic phases like Nb{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}, NbSn{sub 2} and Nb and Sn oxides were also determined. In agreement with the Rietveld refinement analysis, microprobe analysis also revealed that changes in chemical composition at different sites of powder particles are preserved even after annealing at 700 °C. Magnetic properties measured at 300 K on resulted Nb{sub 3}Sn powders

  10. Microstructure and tribological properties of TiCu2Al intermetallic compound coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Chun; Zhou Jiansong; Zhao Jierong; Wang Linqian; Yu Youjun; Chen Jianmin; Zhou Huidi

    2011-01-01

    TiCu 2 Al ternary intermetallic compound coating has been in situ synthesized successfully on pure Ti substrate by laser cladding. Tribological properties of the prepared TiCu 2 Al intermetallic compound coating were systematically evaluated. It was found that the friction coefficient and wear rate was closely related to the normal load and sliding speed, i.e., the friction coefficient of the prepared TiCu 2 Al intermetallic compound coating decreased with increasing normal load and sliding speed. The wear rate of the TiCu 2 Al intermetallic compound coating decreased rapidly with increasing sliding speed, while the wear rate first increased and then decreased at normal load from 5 to 15 N.

  11. 3D study of intermetallics and their effect on the corrosion morphology of rheocast aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingo, B.; Arrabal, R.; Pardo, A.; Matykina, E.; Skeldon, P.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of heat treatment T6.1 on the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of rheocast aluminium alloy A356 is investigated on the basis of 2D/3D characterization techniques and electrochemical and SKPFM measurements. Heat treatment strengthens the α-Al matrix, modifies the intermetallic particles and spheroidizes eutectic Si. These changes do not modify significantly the corrosion behaviour of the alloy. 3D SEM-Tomography clearly shows that the corrosion advances in the shape of narrow paths between closely spaced intermetallics without a major influence of eutectic Si. - Highlights: • T6.1 spheroidizes Si, strengthens the matrix and modifies the intermetallics. • Electrochemical behaviour of untreated and heat-treated alloys is similar. • 3D SEM-Tomography provides additional information on the corrosion morphology. • Corrosion advances as paths between intermetallics with little influence of Si.

  12. First principles study of electronic, elastic and thermal properties of lutetium intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagare, Gitanjali; Chouhan, Sunil Singh; Soni, Pooja; Sanyal, S.P.; Rajagopalan, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the electronic, elastic and thermal properties of lutetium intermetallics LuX have been studied theoretically by using first principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) with the generalized gradient approximation (GCA)

  13. Microstructure and tribological properties of TiCu{sub 2}Al intermetallic compound coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Chun, E-mail: guochun@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Jiansong [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao Jierong; Wang Linqian; Yu Youjun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen Jianmin; Zhou Huidi [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-04-15

    TiCu{sub 2}Al ternary intermetallic compound coating has been in situ synthesized successfully on pure Ti substrate by laser cladding. Tribological properties of the prepared TiCu{sub 2}Al intermetallic compound coating were systematically evaluated. It was found that the friction coefficient and wear rate was closely related to the normal load and sliding speed, i.e., the friction coefficient of the prepared TiCu{sub 2}Al intermetallic compound coating decreased with increasing normal load and sliding speed. The wear rate of the TiCu{sub 2}Al intermetallic compound coating decreased rapidly with increasing sliding speed, while the wear rate first increased and then decreased at normal load from 5 to 15 N.

  14. Intermetallic matrix composites; Proceedings of the MRS Symposium, San Francisco, CA, Apr. 18-20, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, D.L.; Martin, P.L.; Miracle, D.B.; Mcmeeking, R.

    1990-01-01

    The present volume on intermetallic matrix composites discusses the modeling, processing, microstructure/property relationships, and compatibility of intermetallic matrix composites. Attention is given to models for the strength of ductile matrix composites, innovative processing techniques for intermetallic matrix composites, ductile phase toughening of brittle intermetallics, and reactive synthesis of NbAl3 matrix composites. Topics addressed include solidification processing of NbCr2 alloys, Ta and Nb reinforced MoSi2, the microstructure and mechanical behavior of Ni3Al-matrix composites, and ductile-phase toughening of Cr3Si with chromium. Also discussed are dislocation morphologies in TiB2/NiAl, the development of highly impact resistant NiAl matrix composites, the effect of notches on the fatigue life of the SCS-6Ti3Al composite, and the chemical stability of fiber-metal matrix composites

  15. Reaction kinetics of the formation of intermetallic Fe – Zn during hot - dip galvanizing of steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly describes the composition of intermetallic Fe - Zn, i.e. zeta (ζ, delta (δ1k + δ1p, gamma1 (Γ1 and gamma (Γ on galvanized steel during low temperature galvanization (t ~ 450 °C. It gives detailed the formation, growth of individual phases during galvanization and their interaction. In terms of the kinetics, the formation of the coating is defined by a parabolic kinetic equation of the growth of different intermetallic phases under ideal conditions. From the available literature the rate constants of the formation of individual intermetallic phases and also for the total coating are cited. The composition of the intermetallic phases, iron content, crystal structure, and group symmetry in which the surface of galvanized steel forms.

  16. Elemental analysis of the Al-Fe intermetallic prepared by fast solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval J, R.A.; Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Aspiazu F, J.; Villasenor S, P.

    2003-01-01

    Applying the PIXE technique samples of the Al-Fe intermetallic prepared by fast solidification, obtained starting from Al recycled were analyzed. The concentrations of the found elements are given. (Author)

  17. Micromechanisms of fracture and fatigue in Ti3Al based and TiAl based intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.W.; Chave, R.A.; Hippsley, C.A.; Bowen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Micromechanisms of fracture and fatigue crack growth resistance in specific Ti 3 Al based and TiAl based intermetallics are reviewed. Effects of test temperature, environment and microstructure on crack growth resistance are considered in detail for several Ti 3 Al and Ti'Al based intermetallic systems under development. The implications of these studies for the structural reliability of these materials is also addressed briefly. (orig.)

  18. Study on the Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behaviors of Fe-(20, 45) wt%Gd Intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Bo Kyeong; Baik, Youl; Choi, Yong [Dankook University, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Byung Moon [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Fe-(20, 45 wt%) Gd intermetallics were vacuum arc melted as the mother alloy of a neutron shielding and absorbing material. The structure of the cast Fe-20 wt%Gd intermetallics had primary dendrites with a short width of about 2 μm, which became coarse with increasing Gd content. The final compositions of the Fe-20 wt%Gd and Fe-45 wt%Gd intermetallics determined by Rietveld refinement were mainly Fe{sub 3}Gd with 26.6 at%Fe{sub 2}Gd, and Fe{sub 3}Gd with various intermetallics like 13.9 at%Fe{sub 2}Gd, 7.3 at%Fe{sub 9}Gd and 3.9 at%Fe{sub 17}Gd{sub 2}, respectively. The micro-hardnesses, yield strength, ultimate compressive strength and elongation of the Fe-20 wt%Gd intermetallics were 629±12 Hv, 753 MPa, 785 MPa and 4%, respectively, and those of the Fe-45 wt%Gd intermetallics were 741±13 Hv, 772 MPa, 823 MPa and 3%. Passivity was not present in artificial sea water at room temperature. The corrosion potentials and the corrosion rates of the Fe-20 wt%Gd and Fe-45 wt%Gd intermetallics were –624 mV{sub SHE}, 2.771 mA/cm{sup 2} , and –804 mV{sub SHE}, 3.397 mA/cm{sup 2} , respectively. The corroded surface of the Fe-Gd intermetallics contained corrosion products like gadolinium with iron, which detached to leave a trail of pits.

  19. A study of atomic distribution in the intermetallic compound by AP-FIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the atomic distributions in the intermetallic compound by field ion microscope and atom probe (AP-FIM). The samples used in this work had nearly stoichiometry composition of Ni 3 Al with boron and without boron. The samples of TiAl also had nearly stoichiometry composition and adding Zr and Mn. The field ion image of Ni 3 Al without boron displays essentially the ordered f.c.c. crystal structure (Ll 2 ) with the center of (001) face. The field ion image of B-doped Ni 3 Al shows that the extent of ordering is reduced by addition of boron. The results of AP analysis show that the distribution of boron atom in Ni 3 Al is approximately homogeneous for the low boron contents. The atomic arrangements of Ni and Al in Ni 3 Al crystal lattice were changed by addition of boron. It is shown in the probability of consecutive evaporative sequence Al-Al and Ni-Ni is increased with B-doping. The field ion image of TiAl shows two regions with ordered f.c.t crystal structure (r-TiAl) and disordered. The distributions of Ti and Al atoms in the TiAl alloy show that the structure of a lamellar mixture were confirmed by AP profiles. The results of AP analysis show that distributions of Ti, Al, Mn and Zr in the alloy essentially is homogeneous. The results of AP analysis also exhibit that the interface of an oxide exists in the alloys. These interfaces of oxides consist of TiO and AlO in the TiAl, NiO in the Ni 3 Al. The broadness of the oxides interface were estimated about 8-10nm

  20. Effects of iron on intermetallic compound formation in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@mail.kmutt.ac.th [Production Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Iron reduces the modification effects of scandium in Al–Si–Mg alloys. • Morphologies of Sc-rich intermetallic phases vary with Fe and Sc contents and the cooling rates. • Sc neutralizes effects of Fe by changing Fe-rich intermetallic phases from platelets to more cubic. - Abstract: In general, iron has a strong tendency to dissolve in molten aluminum. Iron has very low solid solubility in aluminum–silicon casting alloys, so it will form intermetallic compounds that cause detrimental effects on mechanical properties. In this work, the effects of iron on intermetallic compound formations in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg alloys were studied. There were two levels of iron addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%) and two levels of scandium addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%). We found that the effects of scandium modification decreased with increasing iron addition. The morphologies of the complex intermetallic compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. It was found that scandium changes the morphology of Fe-rich intermetallic compounds from β-phase (plate-like) to α-phase, which reduces the harmful effects of β-phase.

  1. Codeformation processing of mechanically-dissimilar metal/intermetallic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marte, Judson Sloan

    A systematic and scientific approach has been applied to the study of codeformation processing. A series of composites having mechanically-dissimilar phases were developed in which the high temperature flow behavior of the reinforcement material could be varied independent of the matrix. This was accomplished through the use of a series of intermetallic matrix composites (IMCs) as discontinuous reinforcements in an otherwise conventional metal matrix composite. The IMCs are produced using an in-situ reaction synthesis technique, called the XD(TM) process. The temperature of the exothermic synthesis reaction, called the adiabatic temperature, has been calculated and shown to increase with increasing volume percentage of TiB2 reinforcement. Further, this temperature has been shown to effect the size and spacing of the TiB2, microstructural features which are often used in discontinuous composite strength models. Study of the high temperature flow behavior of the components of the metal/IMC composite is critical to the development of an understanding of codeformation. A series of compression tests performed at 1000° to 1200°C and strain-rates of 10-3 and 10-4 sec-1. Peak flow stresses were used to evaluate the influence of material properties and process conditions. These data were incorporated into phenomenologically-based constitutive equations that have been used to predict the flow behavior. It has been determined that plastic deformation of the IMCs occurs readily, and is largely TiB2 independent, at temperatures approaching the melting point of the intermetallic matrices. Ti-6Al-4V/IMC powder blends were extruded at high temperatures to achieve commensurately deformed microstructures. The results of codeformation processing were analyzed in terms of the plastic strain of the IMC particulates. IMC particle deformation was shown to increase with increasing IMC particle size, volume percentage of IMC, extrusion temperature, homologous temperature, extrusion

  2. Magnetic and electronic properties of some actinide intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaar, Ilan

    1992-06-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties of the light actinide intermetallic compounds are often related to interplay between localized and itinerant (band like) behavior of the 5f- electrons. In the present work, the properties of some actinide, mainly Np, intermetallic compounds were studied by Mossbauer effect, ac and dc susceptibility, X-ray and Neutron diffraction techniques. 1. NpX 2 (X=Ga,Si) - Both compounds order ferromagnetically at TC=55(2) and 48(2) K respectively. A comparison of our data with the results for other NpX 2 (X=Al,As,Sb,Tl) compounds indicates that NpGa 2 is a highly localized 5f electron system, whereas in NpSi 2 the 5f electrons are partially delocalized. The magnetic properties of NpX 2 compounds can neither be consistently explained within the conventional crystal electric field picture (CEF) nor by takink into account hybridization dressing of local spin density models. 2. NpX 3 (X=Ga,Si,In,Al) in the cubic AuCu 3 (Pm3m) crystallographic structure - From the Mossbauer isomer shift (IS) data we argue that the Np ion in the NpX 3 family is close to the formal 3+ (5I 4 ) charge state. The magnetic moment of the Np in NpSi 3 is totally suppressed whereas in NpGa 3 and NpAl 3 a localized (narrow band) moment is established. However, in NpIn 3 at 4.2 K, a modulated magnetic moment (0-1.5μB) is observed. Comparing the magnetic behavior of the NpX 3 family (X=Si,Ge,Ga, Al,In and Sn), we find an impressive variation of the magnetic properties, from temperature independent paramagnetism (TIP), localized and modulated ordered moments, to the formation of a concentrated Kondo lattice. Hybridization of 5f electrons with ligand electrons appears to play a crucial role in establishing these magnetic properties. However, at present a consistent theoretical picture can not be drawn. 3. XFe 4 Al 8 (X=Ho,Np,U) spin galss (SG) systems in the ThMn 12 (I 4 /mmm) crystallographic structure - Localized and itinerant behaviour of the f electrons

  3. EFFECT OF INTERMETALLIC PHASES ON CORROSION BEHAVIOR AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL AND SUPER-DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu Paulraj; Rajnish Garg

    2015-01-01

    Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) and Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS) have excellent integration of mechanical and corrosion properties. However, the formation of intermetallic phases is a major problem in their usage. The mechanical and corrosion properties are deteriorated due to the presence of intermetallic phases. These phases are induced during welding, prolonged exposure to high temperatures, and improper heat treatments. The main emphasis of this review article is on intermetallic pha...

  4. Optimal mixture experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, B K; Pal, Manisha; Das, P

    2014-01-01

    The book dwells mainly on the optimality aspects of mixture designs. As mixture models are a special case of regression models, a general discussion on regression designs has been presented, which includes topics like continuous designs, de la Garza phenomenon, Loewner order domination, Equivalence theorems for different optimality criteria and standard optimality results for single variable polynomial regression and multivariate linear and quadratic regression models. This is followed by a review of the available literature on estimation of parameters in mixture models. Based on recent research findings, the volume also introduces optimal mixture designs for estimation of optimum mixing proportions in different mixture models, which include Scheffé’s quadratic model, Darroch-Waller model, log- contrast model, mixture-amount models, random coefficient models and multi-response model.  Robust mixture designs and mixture designs in blocks have been also reviewed. Moreover, some applications of mixture desig...

  5. Lattice disorder in strongly correlated lanthanide and actinide intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, C.H.; Bauer, E.D.; Maple, M.B.; Lawrence, J.M.; Kwei, G.H.; Sarrao, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Lanthanide and actinide intermetallic compounds display a wide range of correlated-electron behavior, including ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, nonmagnetic (Kondo) ground states, and so-called 'non-Fermi liquid' (NFL) behavior. The interaction between f electrons and the conduction band is a dominant factor in determining the ground state of a given system. However, lattice disorder can create a distribution of interactions, generating unusual physical properties. These properties may include NFL behavior in many materials. In addition, lattice disorder can cause deviations from standard Kondo behavior that is less severe than NFL behavior. A review of the lattice disorder mechanism within a tight-binding model is presented, along with measurements of the YbBCu 4 and UPd x Cu 5-x systems, demonstrating the applicability of the model. These measurements indicate that while the YbBCu 4 system appears to be well ordered, both site interchange and continuous bond-length disorder occur in the UPd x Cu 5-x series. Nevertheless, the measured bond-length disorder in UPdCu 4 does not appear to be enough to explain the NFL properties simply with the Kondo disorder model. (au)

  6. Fracture toughness of intermetallics using a micro-mechanical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerberich, W.W.; Venkataraman, S.K.; Hoehn, J.W.; Marsh, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    A novel technique for determining the fracture toughness of brittle intermetallics is presented, wherein very small samples are used and multiple tests are easily conducted on a flat polished surface. The fracture toughness of single crystal NiAl and polycrystalline Al 3 Sc are evaluated with this continuous microscratch technique at scratch rates ranging from 0.5 to greater than 100 μm s - . For comparison, small compact tension samples of (100) NiAl are evaluated at applied stress intensity rates ranging from 1.5 to 5,400 MPa-m 1/2 s -1 . Good comparison of microscratch toughness to compact tension K Ic values are obtained in this study for (001) NiAl, 10.6 vs. 10.0 MPa-m 1/2 , from the literature for (001) , 13.5 vs. 12.2 MPa-m 1/2 , and from the literature for polycrystalline Al 3 Sc, 3.5 vs. 3.1 MPa-m 1/2 . Also, the fracture toughness of both NiAl and Al 3 Sc are found to be strongly dependent on strain rate at room temperature with toughness dropping by an order of magnitude over a decade increase in rate. Possible reasons and implications to improving low temperature brittleness are discussed

  7. Computer simulations of disordering kinetics in irradiated intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaczer, M.; Caro, A.; Victoria, M.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.

    1994-01-01

    Molecular-dynamics computer simulations of collision cascades in intermetallic Cu 3 Au, Ni 3 Al, and NiAl have been performed to study the nature of the disordering processes in the collision cascade. The choice of these systems was suggested by the quite accurate description of the thermodynamic properties obtained using embedded-atom-type potentials. Since melting occurs in the core of the cascades, interesting effects appear as a result of the superposition of the loss (and subsequent recovery) of the crystalline order and the evolution of the chemical order, both processes being developed on different time scales. In our previous simulations on Ni 3 Al and Cu 3 Au [T. Diaz de la Rubia, A. Caro, and M. Spaczer, Phys. Rev. B 47, 11 483 (1993)] we found a significant difference between the time evolution of the chemical short-range order (SRO) and the crystalline order in the cascade core for both alloys, namely the complete loss of the crystalline structure but only partial chemical disordering. Recent computer simulations in NiAl show the same phenomena. To understand these features we study the liquid phase of these three alloys and present simulation results concerning the dynamical melting of small samples, examining the atomic mobility, the relaxation time, and the saturation value of the chemical short-range order. An analytic model for the time evolution of the SRO is given

  8. Experimental formation enthalpies for intermetallic phases and other inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, George; Meschel, S. V.; Nash, Philip; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The standard enthalpy of formation of a compound is the energy associated with the reaction to form the compound from its component elements. The standard enthalpy of formation is a fundamental thermodynamic property that determines its phase stability, which can be coupled with other thermodynamic data to calculate phase diagrams. Calorimetry provides the only direct method by which the standard enthalpy of formation is experimentally measured. However, the measurement is often a time and energy intensive process. We present a dataset of enthalpies of formation measured by high-temperature calorimetry. The phases measured in this dataset include intermetallic compounds with transition metal and rare-earth elements, metal borides, metal carbides, and metallic silicides. These measurements were collected from over 50 years of calorimetric experiments. The dataset contains 1,276 entries on experimental enthalpy of formation values and structural information. Most of the entries are for binary compounds but ternary and quaternary compounds are being added as they become available. The dataset also contains predictions of enthalpy of formation from first-principles calculations for comparison. PMID:29064466

  9. Low temperature and surfactant-free synthesis of Pd2Sn intermetallic nanoparticles for ethanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Congmin; Wu, Yurong; Wang, Xin; Zou, Liangliang; Zou, Zhiqing; Yang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Many intermetallic compounds have a predictable structure, interesting electronic effects, and useful catalytic properties. In this work, a low temperature, surfactant-free, and one-pot method is used to synthesize carbon supported Pd 2 Sn intermetallic nanoparticles. The superlattice of the product was then characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. These synthesized intermetallic nanoparticles were found to exhibit a higher activity and stability for electrocatalysis of the ethanol oxidation reaction in an alkaline media than has been achieved using a traditional Pd/C catalyst, which could be attributed to the structural and compositional stabilities of ordered Pd 2 Sn intermetallic nanoparticles.

  10. Microstructure and tribological properties of TiAg intermetallic compound coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Chun; Chen Jianmin; Zhou Jiansong; Zhao Jierong; Wang Linqian; Yu Youjun; Zhou Huidi

    2011-01-01

    TiAg intermetallic compound coating has been in situ synthesized successfully on pure Ti substrate by laser cladding using Ag powder as the precursor. It has been found that the prepared coating mainly comprised TiAg and Ti phases. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy results further conform the existence of TiAg intermetallic compound in the prepared coating. The magnified high resolution transmission electron microscopy images shown that the laser cladding coating contains TiAg nanocrystalline with the size of about 4 nm. Tribological properties of the prepared TiAg intermetallic compound coating were systematically evaluated. It was found that the friction coefficient and wear rate was closely related to the normal load and sliding speed, i.e., the friction coefficient of the prepared TiAg intermetallic compound coating decreased with increasing normal load and sliding speed. The wear rate of the TiAg intermetallic compound coating decreased rapidly with increasing sliding speed, while the wear rate increased as the normal load increased.

  11. Microstructure and tribological properties of TiAg intermetallic compound coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Chun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen Jianmin, E-mail: chenjm@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou Jiansong [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao Jierong; Wang Linqian; Yu Youjun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Huidi [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-10-01

    TiAg intermetallic compound coating has been in situ synthesized successfully on pure Ti substrate by laser cladding using Ag powder as the precursor. It has been found that the prepared coating mainly comprised TiAg and Ti phases. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy results further conform the existence of TiAg intermetallic compound in the prepared coating. The magnified high resolution transmission electron microscopy images shown that the laser cladding coating contains TiAg nanocrystalline with the size of about 4 nm. Tribological properties of the prepared TiAg intermetallic compound coating were systematically evaluated. It was found that the friction coefficient and wear rate was closely related to the normal load and sliding speed, i.e., the friction coefficient of the prepared TiAg intermetallic compound coating decreased with increasing normal load and sliding speed. The wear rate of the TiAg intermetallic compound coating decreased rapidly with increasing sliding speed, while the wear rate increased as the normal load increased.

  12. Electrochemical properties of the passive film on bulk Zr–Fe–Cr intermetallic fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yakui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ling, Yunhan, E-mail: yhling@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lai, Wensheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xing, Shupei; Ma, Wen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Huhhot 010051 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • SPS was employed to prepare Zr-based intermetallics which were commonly existed in zircaloy. • Zr-based intermetallics act as cathode when they embedded in zirconium matrix. • The passive films on surface of intermetallics behaved as n-type semiconductors. • Carrier concentration of Zr(Fe{sub 3}Cr){sub 2} was much lower than that of other intermetallics. - Abstract: Although Zr-based second phase particles (SPPs) are important factors influencing corrosion resistance of zircaloy cladding materials, the corrosion behavior of SPPs has not been investigated by means of electrochemical method so far. In order to clarify the role of SPPs commonly existed in zircaloy, bulk Zr-based intermetallics were firstly fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at temperatures 1373 K and an applied pressure of 60 MPa in this work. Both the natural passive film on surface and oxidation behavior of intermetallic has been investigated in this work. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed that as-prepared intermetallic of crystal structure belongs to Laves phase with AB{sub 2} type. Electrochemical measurement of passive film on surface of bulk Zr-based intermetallic exhibited significant difference with that of zirconium. Potentiodynamic measurements results revealed that intermetallic exhibited higher corrosion potential and lower corrosion current density than that of pure zirconium, implying that Zr-based second phase will act as cathode when they are included in zirconium matrix. Meanwhile, significant improvement of Zr–Fe–Cr intermetallic on the water chemistry corrosion resistance was demonstrated comparing with Zr–Fe and Zr–Cr binary intermetallics.

  13. An MHD heat source based on intermetallic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadjian, H.; Zavitsanos, P. (General Sciences, Inc., Souderton, PA (United States)); Marston, C.H. (Villanova Univ., PA (United States))

    1991-05-06

    The main objective of this program was the development of an MHD heat source of potential use in Space - Based Multi Megawatt, MHD Power Systems. The approach is based on extension of high temperature chemical/ion release technology developed by the General Sciences, Incorporated (GSI) team and successfully applied in other Space Applications. Solid state reactions have been identified which can deliver energy densities and electrons in excess of those from high energy explosives as well as other conventional fuels. The use of intermetallic reactions can be used to generate hot hydrogen plasma from the reaction, to create a high level of seedant ionization, can be packaged as a cartridge type fuels for discrete pulses. The estimated weight for energizing a (100 MW - 1000 sec) Pulsed MHD Power System can range from 12 to 25 {times} 10{sup 3} kg depending on reaction system and strength of the magnetic field. The program consisted of two major tasks with eight subtasks designed to systematically evaluate these concepts in order to reduce fuel weight requirements. Laboratory measurements on energy release, reaction product identification and levels of ionization were conducted in the first task to screen candidate fuels. The second task addressed the development of a reaction chamber in which conductivity, temperature and pressure were measured. Instrumentation was developed to measure these parameters under high temperature pulsed conditions in addition to computer programs to reduce the raw data. Measurements were conducted at GSI laboratories for fuel weights of up to 120 grams and at the Franklin Research Center* for fuel weights up to 1 kilogram. The results indicate that fuel weight can be scaled using modular packaging. Estimates are presented for fuel weight requirements. 15 refs.

  14. A Review on the Properties of Iron Aluminide Intermetallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zamanzade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron aluminides have been among the most studied intermetallics since the 1930s, when their excellent oxidation resistance was first noticed. Their low cost of production, low density, high strength-to-weight ratios, good wear resistance, ease of fabrication and resistance to high temperature oxidation and sulfurization make them very attractive as a substitute for routine stainless steel in industrial applications. Furthermore, iron aluminides allow for the conservation of less accessible and expensive elements such as nickel and molybdenum. These advantages have led to the consideration of many applications, such as brake disks for windmills and trucks, filtration systems in refineries and fossil power plants, transfer rolls for hot-rolled steel strips, and ethylene crackers and air deflectors for burning high-sulfur coal. A wide application for iron aluminides in industry strictly depends on the fundamental understanding of the influence of (i alloy composition; (ii microstructure; and (iii number (type of defects on the thermo-mechanical properties. Additionally, environmental degradation of the alloys, consisting of hydrogen embrittlement, anodic or cathodic dissolution, localized corrosion and oxidation resistance, in different environments should be well known. Recently, some progress in the development of new micro- and nano-mechanical testing methods in addition to the fabrication techniques of micro- and nano-scaled samples has enabled scientists to resolve more clearly the effects of alloying elements, environmental items and crystal structure on the deformation behavior of alloys. In this paper, we will review the extensive work which has been done during the last decades to address each of the points mentioned above.

  15. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  16. Intermetallic compounds of Ni and Ga as catalysts for the synthesis of methanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharafutdinov, Irek; Elkjær, Christian Fink; de Carvalho, Hudson Wallace Pereira

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present a detailed study of the formation of supported intermetallic Ni–Ga catalysts for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol. The bimetallic phase is formed during a temperature-programmed reduction of the metal nitrates. By utilizing a combination of characterization techniques......, in particular in situ and ex situ X-ray diffraction, in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence, we have studied the formation of intermetallic Ni–Ga catalysts of two compositions: NiGa and Ni5Ga3. These methods...... demonstrate that the catalysts with the desired intermetallic phase and composition are formed upon reduction in hydrogen and enable us to propose a mechanism of the Ni–Ga nanoparticles formation. By studying the effect of calcination prior to catalyst reduction, we show that the reactivity depends...

  17. Effect of intermetallic phases on the anodic oxidation and corrosion of 5A06 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song-mei; Li, Ying-dong; Zhang, You; Liu, Jian-hua; Yu, Mei

    2015-02-01

    Intermetallic phases were found to influence the anodic oxidation and corrosion behavior of 5A06 aluminum alloy. Scattered intermetallic particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after pretreatment. The anodic film was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and its corrosion resistance was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization in NaCl solution. The results show that the size of Al-Fe-Mg-Mn particles gradually decreases with the iron content. During anodizing, these intermetallic particles are gradually dissolved, leading to the complex porosity in the anodic film beneath the particles. After anodizing, the residual particles are mainly silicon-containing phases, which are embedded in the anodic film. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the porous anodic film layer is easily penetrated, and the barrier plays a dominant role in the overall protection. Meanwhile, self-healing behavior is observed during the long immersion time.

  18. First principles electronic and thermal properties of some AlRE intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Vipul; Sanyal, Sankar P.; Rajagopalan, M.

    2008-01-01

    A study on structural and electronic properties of non-magnetic cubic B 2 -type AlRE (RE=Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr and Lu) intermetallics has been done theoretically. The self-consistent tight binding linear muffin tin orbital method is used to describe the electronic properties of these intermetallics at ambient and at high pressure. These compounds show metallic behavior under ambient conditions. The variation of density of states under compression indicates some possibility of structural phase transformation in AlLa, AlCe and AlPr. Thermal properties like Debye temperature and Grueneisen constant are calculated at T=0 K and at ambient pressure within the Debye-Grueneisen model and compared with the others' theoretical results. Our results are in good agreement. We have also performed a pressure-induced variation of Debye temperature and have found a decrease in Debye temperature around 40 kbar in AlRE (RE=La, Ce, Pr) intermetallics

  19. Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Mo-40Ni-13Si Multiphase Intermetallic Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunyan; Wang, Shuhuan; Gui, Yongliang; Cheng, Zihao; Ni, Guolong

    2016-12-06

    Intermetallic compounds are increasingly being expected to be utilized in tribological environments, but to date their implementation is hindered by insufficient ductility at low and medium temperatures. This paper presents a novel multiphase intermetallic alloy with the chemical composition of Mo-40Ni-13Si (at %). Microstructure characterization reveals that a certain amount of ductile Mo phases formed during the solidification process of a ternary Mo-Ni-Si molten alloy, which is beneficial to the improvement of ductility of intermetallic alloys. Tribological properties of the designed alloy-including wear resistance, friction coefficient, and metallic tribological compatibility-were evaluated under dry sliding wear test conditions at room temperature. Results suggest that the multiphase alloy possesses an excellent tribological property, which is attributed to unique microstructural features and thereby a good combination in hardness and ductility. The corresponding wear mechanism is explained by observing the worn surface, subsurface, and wear debris of the alloy, which was found to be soft abrasive wear.

  20. Characterization and hardness of TiCu–Ti2Cu3 intermetallic material fabricated by mechanical alloying and subsequent annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbarpour, Mohammad Reza; Hesari, Feridoun Alikhani

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the microstructural and phase evolutions during mechanical alloying (MA) and subsequent heat treatment of Cu–Ti powder mixture are investigated through x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and micro-hardness measurements. The obtained experimental results demonstrated that after an optimum MA time of 30 h, TiCu intermetallic compound was achieved with a mean grain size of ≈8 nm and a high micro-hardness value of ≈634 Hv. Annealing the milled powder at different temperatures resulted in formation of major TiCu and Ti 2 Cu 3 , and minor Ti 2 Cu and Cu 4 Ti nanocrystalline phases, release of internal strain, and coarsening of grains. The amount of TiCu phase and the grain size increased with increase of the annealing temperature. Micro-hardness value of ≈765 Hv was recorded when the milled TiCu powder was annealed at 850 °C. This superior high micro-hardness value can be attributed to formation of higher amount of TiCu phase. (paper)

  1. EFFECT OF INTERMETALLIC PHASES ON CORROSION BEHAVIOR AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL AND SUPER-DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Paulraj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS and Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS have excellent integration of mechanical and corrosion properties. However, the formation of intermetallic phases is a major problem in their usage. The mechanical and corrosion properties are deteriorated due to the presence of intermetallic phases. These phases are induced during welding, prolonged exposure to high temperatures, and improper heat treatments. The main emphasis of this review article is on intermetallic phases and their effects on corrosion and mechanical properties. First the effect of various alloying elements on DSS and SDSS has been discussed followed by formation of various intermetallic phases. The intermetallic phases affect impact toughness and corrosion resistance significantly. Their deleterious effect on weldments has also been reviewed.

  2. Atom probe tomography of intermetallic phases and interfaces formed in dissimilar joining between Al alloys and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmens, B.; Springer, H.; Duarte, M.J.; De Graeve, I.; De Strycker, J.; Raabe, D.; Verbeken, K.

    2016-01-01

    While Si additions to Al are widely used to reduce the thickness of the brittle intermetallic seam formed at the interface during joining of Al alloys to steel, the underlying mechanisms are not clarified yet. The developed approach for the site specific atom probe tomography analysis revealed Si enrichments at grain and phase boundaries between the θ (Fe 4 Al 13 ) and η (Fe 2 Al 5 ) phase, up to about ten times that of the concentration in Al. The increase in Si concentration could play an important role for the growth kinetics of the intermetallic phases formed for example in hot-dip aluminizing of steel. - Highlights: •Si additions to Al reduce thickness of intermetallic seam in joining with steel. •Approach developed for the site specific APT analysis of the intermetallic seam •Si enrichment at grain and phase boundaries possibly affects growth of intermetallics.

  3. Development of melting and casting process for Nb-Al intermetallic compounds and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Kinya; Degawa, Toru; Nagashima, Yoshinori

    1993-01-01

    The shaping methods of Nb-Al intermetallic compounds, especially melting and casting, have considerably different characteristics as compared with those for other metals and alloys. The authors have investigated melting and casting processes for Nb-Al compounds to develop precision casting processes for these intermetallics. Fundamental properties of Nb-Al compound castings have been also investigated for high temperature structural use in this work. An advanced Induction Skull Melting (ISM) furnace has been developed and the advantages of ISM have been recognized as a result of this study. The mechanical properties, such as hardness and compression strength, are dependent upon the Al content in Nb-Al binary compounds

  4. A Self-Propagating Foaming Process of Porous Al-Ni Intermetallics Assisted by Combustion Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kobashi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The self-propagating foaming process of porous Al-Ni intermetallics was investigated. Aluminum and nickel powders were blended, and titanium and boron carbide powders were added as reactive exothermic agents. The blended powder was extruded to make a rod-shape precursor. Only one end of the rod precursor was heated to ignite the reaction. The reaction propagated spontaneously throughout the precursor. Pore formation took place at the same time as the reaction occurred. Adding the exothermic agent was effective to increase the porosity. Preheating the precursor before the ignition was also very effective to produce porous Al-Ni intermetallics with high porosity.

  5. Real structure and selected properties of the superconducting intermetallic compound V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinstueck, K.; Kraemer, U.; Paufler, P.; Ullrich, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Plasticity and electro-plastic effects have been detected at temperatures above 1200 0 C in the intermetallic compound V 3 Si which can not plastically be deformed under normal conditions. The mechanisms of plastic deformation were elucidated. The critical temperature and the critical current density could be altered by plastic deformation. It was found that the mechanisms of plastic deformation as well as the alteration of the critical parameters are dependent on the chemical composition of the intermetallic compound within the range of homogeneity. For measuring such alterations Kossel's interference method was used. Intense plastic deformation of crystals resulted in an influence on the martensite transformation

  6. Influence of annealing time and temperature on the Fe3Al intermetallic alloys microstructure modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garbala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an industry interesting in intermetallic alloys in recent years. There are widely possibilities to adopt this kind of materials for structural units. More expensive materials can be replaced by them. A property which limits their wider application is the low plasticity at environment and elevated temperatures. In paper the results of the thermal microstructure modification are shown. To this end, the influence of annealing time and temperature on the intermetallic phase Fe3Al grain size was investigated. The impact of these factors on micro-hardness was examined as well. It was found that these operations cause the grain size reduction and the micro-hardness decrease.

  7. Large positive magnetoresistance in intermetallic compound NdCo2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, R.; Dhara, S.; Das, I.; Bandyopadhyay, B.; Rawat, R.

    2018-04-01

    The magnetic, magneto-transport and magnetocaloric properties of antiferromagnetic intermetallic compound NdCo2Si2 (TN = 32K) have been studied. The compound yields a positive magnetoresistance (MR) of about ∼ 123 % at ∼ 5K in 8 T magnetic field. The MR value is significantly large vis - a - vis earlier reports of large MR in intermetallic compounds, and possibly associated with the changes in magnetic structure of the compound. The large MR value can be explained in terms of field induced pseudo-gaps on Fermi surface.

  8. Intermetallic Strengthened Alumina-Forming Austenitic Steels for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bin [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Baker, Ian [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)

    2016-03-31

    In order to achieve energy conversion efficiencies of >50 % for steam turbines/boilers in power generation systems, the materials required must be strong, corrosion-resistant at high temperatures (>700°C), and economically viable. Austenitic steels strengthened with Laves phase and L12 precipitates, and alloyed with aluminum to improve oxidation resistance, are potential candidate materials for these applications. The creep resistance of these alloys is significantly improved through intermetallic strengthening (Laves-Fe2Nb + L12-Ni3Al precipitates) without harmful effects on oxidation resistance. Microstructural and microchemical analyses of the recently developed alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) steels (Fe-14Cr-32Ni-3Nb-3Al-2Ti-based) indicated they are strengthened by Ni3Al(Ti) L12, NiAl B2, Fe2Nb Laves phase and MC carbide precipitates. Different thermomechanical treatments (TMTs) were performed on these stainless steels in an attempt to further improve their mechanical properties. The thermo-mechanical processing produced nanocrystalline grains in AFA alloys and dramatically increased their yield strength at room temperature. Unfortunately, the TMTs didn’t increase the yield strengths of AFA alloys at ≥700ºC. At these temperatures, dislocation climb is the dominant mechanism for deformation of TMT alloys according to strain rate jump tests. After the characterization of aged AFA alloys, we found that the largest strengthening effect from L12 precipitates can be obtained by aging for less than 24 h. The coarsening behavior of the L12 precipitates was not influenced by carbon and boron additions. Failure analysis and post-mortem TEM analysis were performed to study the creep failure mechanisms of these AFA steels after creep tests. Though the Laves and B2-NiAl phase precipitated along the boundaries can improve the creep properties, cracks were

  9. The influence of pressure on diffusion leading to intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adda, Y.; Beyeler, M.; Kirianenko, A.; Pernot, B.

    1961-01-01

    Some investigators A.D. LE CLAIRE, J.L. ZAMBROW, L. CASTLEMAN, have shown that the application of uniaxial pressure parallel to the direction of diffusion may notably modify the kinetics of growth of the intermediate phases which can be formed in this direction. The interpretation of this phenomenon being obscure, an attempt is made to explain it by detailed analysis of the experimental facts. The microscopic studies of the kinetics of growth of the zones formed shows particularly in the couples Uranium-Copper and Uranium-Nickel that it is influenced in a similar manner by a uniaxial pressure and a hydrostatic one. On the other hand the rate of growth of these zones increases as a function of the applied pressure in the systems Uranium-Copper, Uranium-Nickel and Uranium-Aluminium (this effect being particularly marked in Uranium-Aluminium). To determine with precision the limits of the range of stability of the intermetallic compounds, the curves of concentration penetration characteristics of the diffusion have been established by means of the CASTAING electronic microanalyser. The examination of the results indicates that when diffusion takes place without external pressure (couples U-Cu and U-Ni) or with a pressure less than 300 kg/cm 2 (couple U-Al) the concentration varies notably in the compounds obtained, which theoretically are stoichiometric. Thus, when crossing the zone of diffusion of one base metal to another one notes a continual passage of: UCu 4.70 to UCu 5.25 in the couple U-Cu; UNi 4.75 to UNi 5.25 in the couple U-Ni; UAl 2.2 to UAl 3.3 in the couple U-Al. If an uniaxial or hydrostatic pressure above 500 kg/cm 2 is applied to the couples U-Cu and U-Ni, or above 1000 kg/cm 2 for the couple U-Al, the composition is then constant in the zones formed. It corresponds to: UCu 5 in the couple U-Cu; UNi 5 in the couple U-Ni; UAl 3 in the couple U-Al. These results are confirmed by an X-ray diffraction study, mainly in the U-Cu system. Experiments in

  10. FY 1998 report on the result of R and D projects by local consortiums. Rare metal recovery and resourcing of residual slags from metal plating wastes and aluminum dross by continuous thermit reaction (CTR) system; 1998 nendo CTR (Continuous Termit Reaction) System ni yoru aluminium dross to mekki surajji kara no energy less, rare metal kaisei process to sono slag no saishigenka seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D project has been implemented for treating metal plating wastes (sludge) and aluminum dross in a melting furnace operated in a reducing atmosphere, in order to make the wastes harmless and recover the rare metals by the thermit reactions. The theoretical analysis of the powder properties has produced the desired powder pretreatment conditions, such as drying/firing conditions, mixing ratio and composition, forming conditions, and characteristics of the formed articles. For recovering the useful metals, it is confirmed that the thermit reactions proceed efficiently in a high-temperature melting furnace operated in a reducing atmosphere, and the molten metals are easily separated from the molten slag. It is also confirmed that the formed article allows separation of the metals from the residual slag more easily than the mixed powder. For the design of the continuous thermit reaction (CTR) system, it is investigated whether the products and other discharged substances can be safely handled and effectively utilized, and the control/instrumentation systems and others are established after setting the conditions for, e.g., sludge drying/firing in air, powder mixing/crushing, briquette production, and flow of the thermit reactions in a reducing atmosphere. (NEDO)

  11. Growth of intermetallics between Sn/Ni/Cu, Sn/Ag/Cu and Sn/Cu layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horváth, Barbara; Illés, Balázs; Shinohara, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Intermetallic growth mechanisms and rates are investigated in Sn/Ni/Cu, Sn/Ag/Cu and Sn/Cu layer systems. An 8–10 μm thick Sn surface finish layer was electroplated onto a Cu substrate with a 1.5–2 μm thick Ni or Ag barrier layer. In order to induce intermetallic layer growth, the samples were aged in elevated temperatures: 50 °C and 125 °C. Intermetallic layer growth was checked by focused ion beam–scanning ion microscope. The microstructures and chemical compositions of the intermetallic layers were observed with a transmission electron microscope. It has been found that Ni barrier layers can effectively block the development of Cu 6 Sn 5 intermetallics. The intermetallic growth characteristics in the Sn/Cu and Sn/Ni/Cu systems are very similar. The intermetallic layer grows towards the Sn layer and forms a discrete layer. Differences were observed only in the growth gradients and surface roughness of the intermetallic layer which may explain the different tin whiskering properties. It was observed that the intermetallic layer growth mechanisms are completely different in the Ag barrier layers compared to the Ni layers. In the case of Sn/Ag/Cu systems, the Sn and Cu diffused through the Ag layer, formed Cu 6 Sn 5 intermetallics mainly at the Sn/Ag interface and consumed the Ag barrier layer. - Highlights: • Intermetallic growth was characterised in Sn/Ni/Cu, Sn/Ag/Cu and Sn/Cu layer systems. • Intermetallic growth rates and roughness are similar in the Sn/Cu and Sn/Ni/Cu systems. • Sn/Ni/Cu system contains the following intermetallic layer structure Sn–Ni3Sn4–Ni3Sn2–Ni3Sn–Ni. • In the case of Sn/Ag/Cu systems the Sn and Cu diffusion consumes the Ag barrier layer. • When Cu reaches the Sn/Ag interface a large amount of Cu 6 Sn 5 forms above the Ag layer

  12. MD study of primary damage in L10 TiAl structural intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskoboinikov, Roman E.

    2013-01-01

    Computer modelling by molecular dynamics has been applied to study the radiation damage created in collision cascades in L1 0 TiAl intermetallic compound. Either Al or Ti primary knock-on atoms (PKA) with energy 5 keV ⩽ E PKA ⩽ 20 keV were introduced in the intermetallic crystals at temperatures ranging from 100 K to 900 K. At least 24 different cascade for each (E PKA , T, PKA type) set were modelled in order to simulate a random spatial and temporal distribution of PKAs and provide statistical reliability of the results. The total yield of more than 760 simulated cascades is the largest yet reported for this binary intermetallic material. A comprehensive treatment of the modelling results has been carried out. The number of Frenkel pairs, fraction of Al and Ti vacancies, self-interstitial atoms and anti-sites as a function of (E PKA , T, PKA type) has been established. Preferred formation of Al self-interstitial atoms has been detected in L1 0 TiAl structural intermetallics exposed to irradiation

  13. Corrosion Study and Intermetallics Formation in Gold and Copper Wire Bonding in Microelectronics Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Breach

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparison study on the reliability of gold (Au and copper (Cu wire bonding is conducted to determine their corrosion and oxidation behavior in different environmental conditions. The corrosion and oxidation behaviors of Au and Cu wire bonding are determined through soaking in sodium chloride (NaCl solution and high temperature storage (HTS at 175 °C, 200 °C and 225 °C. Galvanic corrosion is more intense in Cu wire bonding as compared to Au wire bonding in NaCl solution due to the minimal formation of intermetallics in the former. At all three HTS annealing temperatures, the rate of Cu-Al intermetallic formation is found to be three to five times slower than Au-Al intermetallics. The faster intermetallic growth rate and lower activation energy found in this work for both Au/Al and Cu/Al as compared to literature could be due to the thicker Al pad metallization which removed the rate-determining step in previous studies due to deficit in Al material.

  14. Mechanical properties of intermetallics formed during thermal aging of Cu-Al ball bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouters, M.H.M.; Gubbels, G.H.M.; O'Halloran, O.; Rongen, R.; Weltevreden, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    In high power automotive electronics copper wire bonding is regarded as most promising alternative for gold wire bonding in 1st level interconnects and therefore subjected to severe functional requirements. In the Cu-Al ball bond interface the growth of intermetallic compounds may deteriorate the

  15. X-Ray Diffraction of Intermetallic Compounds: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Skakuj, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students synthesize the intermetallic compounds AlNi and AlNi3 and study them by X-ray diffractometry. The compounds are synthesized in a simple one-step reaction occurring in the solid state. Powder X-ray diffractograms are recorded for the two compounds…

  16. Charge and spin density in s-stable rare earth intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, H. de.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with a study of the electronic structure of rare earth intermetallic compounds, in particular the electronic charge and spin density distribution. These are closely related to the properties of the rare earth ions, which carry the partly filled 4f shell. In chapter 1 a survey of the theory of hyperfine interaction as far as it has a bearing on the Moessbauer effect of 155 Gd and 151 Eu is given. Also some details of the Moessbauer spectra, which have practical importance are discussed. In chapter 2 the experimental set-up is described. Special attention is paid to the gamma radiation source and gamma detection requirements. In chapter 3 the author introduces the theoretical framework which will be used to interpret the measurements. In chapter 4 the results of the 155 Gd Moessbauer measurements are presented. Also it is discussed how the result can be understood in terms of the charge and spin density in rare earth intermetallic compounds. In order to lend support to the picture emerging from the previous chapter, in chapter 5 the conduction electron band structure of some representative Gd intermetallics is computed with an approximate semi-empirical LCAO method. The results are compared with those from chapter 4. Finally, in chapter 6, the 151 Eu resonance is used to investigate the temperature dependence of the hyperfine field and line width in the Eu intermetallic compounds Eu 2 Mg 17 and EuMg 5 . (Auth.)

  17. Al/Ni metal intermetallic composite produced by accumulative roll bonding and reaction annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari, A.; Hosseini, M.; Manesh, H. Danesh

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Al/Ni metallic composites produced by accumulative roll bonding were heat treated at different temperatures and periods, to investigate the effect of reaction annealing on the structure and mechanical properties. → Based on the annealing conditions, various intermetallic phases were formed. The structure and composition of the composites were detected by SEM and XRD techniques. → The strength of the initial metallic composite can be improved due to the formation of the hard intermetallic phases, by the heat treatment process. - Abstract: In this research, Al/Ni multilayers composites were produced by accumulative roll bonding and then annealed at different temperatures and durations. The structure and mechanical properties of the fabricated metal intermetallic composites (MICs) were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were used to evaluate the structure and composition of the composite. The Al 3 Ni intermetallic phase is formed in the Al/Ni interface of the samples annealed at 300 and 400 deg. C. When the temperature increased to 500 deg. C, the Al 3 Ni 2 phase was formed in the composite structure and grew, while the Al 3 Ni and Al phases were simultaneously dissociated. At these conditions, the strength of MIC reached the highest content and was enhanced by increasing time. At 600 deg. C, the AlNi phase was formed and the mechanical properties of MIC were intensively degraded due to the formation of structural porosities.

  18. Characterization of intermetallic compounds in Cu-Al ball bonds: layer growth, mechanical properties and oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouters, M.H.M.; Gubbels, G.H.M.; O'Halloran, O.; Rongen, R.

    2011-01-01

    In high power automotive electronics copper wire bonding is regarded as most promising alternative for gold wire bonding in 1 st level interconnects and therefore subjected to severe functional requirements. In the Cu-Al ball bond interface the growth of intermetallic compounds may deteriorate the

  19. Preparation of Ti3Al intermetallic compound by spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tsutomu; Fukui, Takahiro

    2018-04-01

    Sintered compacts of single phase Ti3Al intermetallic compound, which have excellent potential as refractory materials, were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). A raw powder of Ti3Al intermetallic compound with an average powder diameter of 176 ± 56 μm was used in this study; this large powder diameter is disadvantageous for sintering because of the small surface area. The samples were prepared at sintering temperatures (Ts) of 1088, 1203, and 1323 K, sintering stresses (σs) of 16, 32, and 48 MPa, and a sintering time (ts) of 10 min. The calculated relative densities based on the apparent density of Ti3Al provided by the supplier were approximately 100% under all sintering conditions. From the experimental results, it was evident that SPS is an effective technique for dense sintering of Ti3Al intermetallic compounds in a short time interval. In this report, the sintering characteristics of Ti3Al intermetallic compacts are briefly discussed and compared with those of pure titanium compacts.

  20. Ni.sub.3 Al-based intermetallic alloys having improved strength above 850.degree. C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chain T.

    2000-01-01

    Intermetallic alloys composed essentially of: 15.5% to 17.0% Al, 3.5% to 5.5% Mo, 4% to 8% Cr, 0.04% to 0.2% Zr, 0.04% to 1.5% B, balance Ni, are characterized by melting points above 1200.degree. C. and superior strengths at temperatures above 1000.degree. C.

  1. Investigations of intermetallic alloy hydriding mechanisms. Annual progress report, May 1 1979-April 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesay, B.R.; Larsen, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    Investigations are being conducted on mechanisms involved with the hydrogen-metal interactions which control the absorption and desorption processes in intermetallic compounds. The status of the following investigations is reported: modeling of hydride formation; microbalance investigations; microstructure investigations; flexure experiments; resistivity experiments; and nuclear backscattering measurements. These investigations concern fundamental hydrogen interaction mechanisms involved in storage alloys

  2. Magnetic anisotropy in intermetallic compounds containing both uranium and 3d-metal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andreev, Alexander V.; Tereshina, Evgeniya; Gorbunov, Denis; Šantavá, Eva; Šebek, Josef; Žáček, Martin; Homma, Y.; Shiokawa, Y.; Satoh, I.; Yamamura, Y.; Komatsubara, T.; Watanabe, K.; Koyama, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 9 (2013), s. 727-733 ISSN 0031-918X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0150 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : uranium intermetallics * magnetic anisotropy * ferromagnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.605, year: 2013

  3. Mechanism of forming interfacial intermetallic compounds at interface for solid state diffusion bonding of dissimilar materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, P.; Liu, D.

    2006-01-01

    The formation of brittle intermetallic compounds at the interfaces of diffusion bonds is the main cause which leads to poor bond strength. Therefore, it is very important to study and establish the formation and growth model of intermetallic compounds at the interfaces for the control process of diffusion bonding. In this paper, according to the diffusion kinetics and the thermodynamics, the principle of formation of intermetallic compounds at interfaces in the multi-component diffusion couple, the flux-energy principle, is put forward. In the light of diffusion theory, the formation capacity of the phase at the interfaces is determined by specific properties of the composition in the diffusion couple and the composition ratio of the formed phase is in agreement with the diffusion flux. In accordance with the flux-energy principle, the microstructure of the Ni/TC4 interface is Ni/TiNi 3 /TiNi/Ti 2 Ni/TC4, the microstructure of the TC4/00Cr18Ni9Ti interface is 00Cr18Ni9Ti/TiFe 2 /TiFe/Ti 2 Fe/TC4, and the microstructure of the TiAl/40Cr interface is 40Cr/TiC/Ti 3 Al + FeAl + FeAl 2 /TiAl. Multi-intermetallic compounds with the equivalent flux-energy can be formed at the interfaces at the same time

  4. Fe-Zn intermetallic phases prepared by diffusion annealing and spark-plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, P.; Cinert, Jakub; Pala, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2016), s. 253-256 ISSN 1580-2949 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Fe-Zn intermetallics * spark-plasma sintering * diffusion annealing * phase composition * hardness Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 0.436, year: 2016

  5. Pressure effect on magnetic and magnetotransport properties of intermetallic and colossal magnetoresistance oxide compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arnold, Zdeněk; Ibarra, M. R.; Algarabel, P. A.; Marquina, C.; De Teresa, J. M.; Morellon, L.; Blasco, J.; Magen, C.; Prokhnenko, Olexandr; Kamarád, Jiří; Ritter, C.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2005), S3035-S3055 ISSN 0953-8984 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : pressure effect * intermetallic compounds * magnetic properties * magnetic phase transitions * magnetotransport properties * oxides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2005

  6. The chemical phenol extraction of intermetallic particles from casting AlSi5Cu1Mg alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrówka-Nowotnik, G; Sieniawski, J; Nowotnik, A

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a chemical extraction technique for determination of intermetallic phases formed in the casting AlSi5Cu1Mg aluminium alloy. Commercial aluminium alloys contain a wide range of intermetallic particles that are formed during casting, homogenization and thermomechanical processing. During solidification, particles of intermetallics are dispersed in interdendritic spaces as fine primary phases. Coarse intermetallic compounds that are formed in this aluminium alloy are characterized by unique atomic arrangement (crystallographic structure), morphology, stability, physical and mechanical properties. The volume fraction, chemistry and morphology of the intermetallics significantly affect properties and material behaviour during thermomechanical processing. Therefore, accurate determination of intermetallics is essential to understand and control microstructural evolution in Al alloys. Thus, in this paper it is shown that chemical phenol extraction method can be applied for precise qualitative evaluation. The results of optical light microscopy LOM, scanning electron microscopy SEM and X-ray diffraction XRD analysis reveal that as-cast AlSi5Cu1Mg alloy contains a wide range of intermetallic phases such as Al(4)Fe, gamma- Al(3)FeSi, alpha-Al(8)Fe(2)Si, beta-Al(5)FeSi, Al(12)FeMnSi.

  7. Atomic interaction of the MEAM type for the study of intermetallics in the Al–U alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascuet, M.I. [CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernández, J.R., E-mail: julrfern@cnea.gov.ar [CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CAC-CNEA, Avda. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); UNSAM, Avda. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-12-15

    Interaction for both pure Al and Al–U alloys of the MEAM type are developed. The obtained Al interatomic potential assures its compatibility with the details of the framework presently adopted. The Al–U interaction fits various properties of the Al{sub 2}U, Al{sub 3}U and Al{sub 4}U intermetallics. The potential verifies the stability of the intermetallic structures in a temperature range compatible with that observed in the phase diagram, and also takes into account the greater stability of these structures relative to others that are competitive in energy. The intermetallics are characterized by calculating elastic and thermal properties and point defect parameters. Molecular dynamics simulations show a growth of the Al{sub 3}U intermetallic in the Al/U interface in agreement with experimental evidence. - Highlights: • Potential parameters for Al and Al–U systems are obtained. • Intermetallics are characterized by calculating elastic and thermal properties. • Point defect diffusivities are calculated for the three intermetallics. • Growth of the Al{sub 3}U intermetallic is shown to occur in the Al/U interface as in the real alloy.

  8. Atomic interaction of the MEAM type for the study of intermetallics in the Al–U alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascuet, M.I.; Fernández, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Interaction for both pure Al and Al–U alloys of the MEAM type are developed. The obtained Al interatomic potential assures its compatibility with the details of the framework presently adopted. The Al–U interaction fits various properties of the Al_2U, Al_3U and Al_4U intermetallics. The potential verifies the stability of the intermetallic structures in a temperature range compatible with that observed in the phase diagram, and also takes into account the greater stability of these structures relative to others that are competitive in energy. The intermetallics are characterized by calculating elastic and thermal properties and point defect parameters. Molecular dynamics simulations show a growth of the Al_3U intermetallic in the Al/U interface in agreement with experimental evidence. - Highlights: • Potential parameters for Al and Al–U systems are obtained. • Intermetallics are characterized by calculating elastic and thermal properties. • Point defect diffusivities are calculated for the three intermetallics. • Growth of the Al_3U intermetallic is shown to occur in the Al/U interface as in the real alloy.

  9. The μ3 model of acids and bases: extending the Lewis theory to intermetallics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Timothy E; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2012-04-02

    A central challenge in the design of new metallic materials is the elucidation of the chemical factors underlying the structures of intermetallic compounds. Analogies to molecular bonding phenomena, such as the Zintl concept, have proven very productive in approaching this goal. In this Article, we extend a foundational concept of molecular chemistry to intermetallics: the Lewis theory of acids and bases. The connection is developed through the method of moments, as applied to DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations. We begin by illustrating that the third and fourth moments (μ(3) and μ(4)) of the electronic density of states (DOS) distribution tune the properties of a pseudogap. μ(3) controls the balance of states above and below the DOS minimum, with μ(4) then determining the minimum's depth. In this way, μ(3) predicts an ideal occupancy for the DOS distribution. The μ(3)-ideal electron count is used to forge a link between the reactivity of transition metals toward intermetallic phase formation, and that of Lewis acids and bases toward adduct formation. This is accomplished through a moments-based definition of acidity which classifies systems that are electron-poor relative to the μ(3)-ideal as μ(3)-acidic, and those that are electron-rich as μ(3)-basic. The reaction of μ(3) acids and bases, whether in the formation of a Lewis acid/base adduct or an intermetallic phase, tends to neutralize the μ(3) acidity or basicity of the reactants. This μ(3)-neutralization is traced to the influence of electronegativity differences at heteroatomic contacts on the projected DOS curves of the atoms involved. The role of μ(3)-acid/base interactions in intermetallic phases is demonstrated through the examination of 23 binary phases forming between 3d metals, the stability range of the CsCl type, and structural trends within the Ti-Ni system.

  10. Vacancies and atomic processes in intermetallics - From crystals to quasicrystals and bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Physics, Stuttgart University, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Baier, Falko [Voith Turbo Comp., Alexanderstr. 2, 89552 Heidenheim (Germany); Mueller, Markus A. [GFT Technologies A. G., Filderhauptstr. 142, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Reichle, Klaus J. [Philipp-Matthaeus-Hahn School, Jakob-Beutter-Str. 15, 72336 Balingen (Germany); Reimann, Klaus [NXP Semiconductors, Central Research and Development, High Tech Campus 4, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Rempel, Andrey A. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Pervomaiskaya 91, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Sato, Kiminori [Tokyo Gakugei University, Nukuikita 4-1-1, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Ye, Feng [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xue Yuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Xiangyi [Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Sprengel, Wolfgang [Institute of Materials Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    A review is given on atomic vacancies in intermetallic compounds. The intermetallic compounds cover crystalline, quasicrystalline, and bulk metallic glass (BMG) structures. Vacancies can be specifically characterized by their positron lifetimes, by the coincident measurement of the Doppler broadening of the two quanta emitted by positron-electron annihilation, or by time-differential dilatometry. By these techniques, high concentrations and low mobilities of thermal vacancies were found in open-structured B2 intermetallics such as FeAl or NiAl, whereas the concentrations of vacancies are low and their mobilities high in close-packed structure as, e.g., L1{sub 2}-Ni{sub 3}Al. The activation volumes of vacancy formation and migration are determined by high-pressure experiments. The favorable sublattice for vacancy formation is found to be the majority sublattice in Fe{sub 61}Al{sub 39} and in MoSi{sub 2}. In the icosahedral quasicrystal Al{sub 70}Pd{sub 21}Mn{sub 9} the thermal vacancy concentration is low, whereas in the BMG Zr{sub 57}Cu{sub 15.4}Ni{sub 12.6}Nb{sub 3}Al{sub 10} thermal vacancies are found in high concentrations with low mobilities. This may determine the basic mechanisms of the glass transition. Making use of the experimentally determined vacancy data, the main features of atomic diffusion studies in crystalline intermetallics, in quasicrystals, and in BMGs can be understood. Manfred Faehnle and his group have substantially contributed to the theoretical understanding of vacancies and diffusion mechanisms in intermetallics. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Perception of trigeminal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Electron-Poor Polar Intermetallics: Complex Structures, Novel Clusters, and Intriguing Bonding with Pronounced Electron Delocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qisheng; Miller, Gordon J

    2018-01-16

    Intermetallic compounds represent an extensive pool of candidates for energy related applications stemming from magnetic, electric, optic, caloric, and catalytic properties. The discovery of novel intermetallic compounds can enhance understanding of the chemical principles that govern structural stability and chemical bonding as well as finding new applications. Valence electron-poor polar intermetallics with valence electron concentrations (VECs) between 2.0 and 3.0 e - /atom show a plethora of unprecedented and fascinating structural motifs and bonding features. Therefore, establishing simple structure-bonding-property relationships is especially challenging for this compound class because commonly accepted valence electron counting rules are inappropriate. During our efforts to find quasicrystals and crystalline approximants by valence electron tuning near 2.0 e - /atom, we observed that compositions close to those of quasicrystals are exceptional sources for unprecedented valence electron-poor polar intermetallics, e.g., Ca 4 Au 10 In 3 containing (Au 10 In 3 ) wavy layers, Li 14.7 Mg 36.8 Cu 21.5 Ga 66 adopting a type IV clathrate framework, and Sc 4 Mg x Cu 15-x Ga 7.5 that is incommensurately modulated. In particular, exploratory syntheses of AAu 3 T (A = Ca, Sr, Ba and T = Ge, Sn) phases led to interesting bonding features for Au, such as columns, layers, and lonsdaleite-type tetrahedral frameworks. Overall, the breadth of Au-rich polar intermetallics originates, in part, from significant relativistics effect on the valence electrons of Au, effects which result in greater 6s/5d orbital mixing, a small effective metallic radius, and an enhanced Mulliken electronegativity, all leading to ultimate enhanced binding with nearly all metals including itself. Two other successful strategies to mine electron-poor polar intermetallics include lithiation and "cation-rich" phases. Along these lines, we have studied lithiated Zn-rich compounds in which structural

  13. Iterative Mixture Component Pruning Algorithm for Gaussian Mixture PHD Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As far as the increasing number of mixture components in the Gaussian mixture PHD filter is concerned, an iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is proposed. The pruning algorithm is based on maximizing the posterior probability density of the mixture weights. The entropy distribution of the mixture weights is adopted as the prior distribution of mixture component parameters. The iterative update formulations of the mixture weights are derived by Lagrange multiplier and Lambert W function. Mixture components, whose weights become negative during iterative procedure, are pruned by setting corresponding mixture weights to zeros. In addition, multiple mixture components with similar parameters describing the same PHD peak can be merged into one mixture component in the algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is superior to the typical pruning algorithm based on thresholds.

  14. A Comparative Discussion of the Catalytic Activity and CO2-Selectivity of Cu-Zr and Pd-Zr (Intermetallic Compounds in Methanol Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Köpfle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The activation and catalytic performance of two representative Zr-containing intermetallic systems, namely Cu-Zr and Pd-Zr, have been comparatively studied operando using methanol steam reforming (MSR as test reaction. Using an inverse surface science and bulk model catalyst approach, we monitored the transition of the initial metal/intermetallic compound structures into the eventual active and CO2-selective states upon contact to the methanol steam reforming mixture. For Cu-Zr, selected nominal stoichiometries ranging from Cu:Zr = 9:2 over 2:1 to 1:2 have been prepared by mixing the respective amounts of metallic Cu and Zr to yield different Cu-Zr bulk phases as initial catalyst structures. In addition, the methanol steam reforming performance of two Pd-Zr systems, that is, a bulk system with a nominal Pd:Zr = 2:1 stoichiometry and an inverse model system consisting of CVD-grown ZrOxHy layers on a polycrystalline Pd foil, has been comparatively assessed. While the CO2-selectivity and the overall catalytic performance of the Cu-Zr system is promising due to operando formation of a catalytically beneficial Cu-ZrO2 interface, the case for Pd-Zr is different. For both Pd-Zr systems, the low-temperature coking tendency, the high water-activation temperature and the CO2-selectivity spoiling inverse WGS reaction limit the use of the Pd-Zr systems for selective MSR applications, although alloying of Pd with Zr opens water activation channels to increase the CO2 selectivity.

  15. A simple route to Cu{sub x}Sn{sub (100−x)} intermetallic nanoparticle catalyst for ultra-phenol hydroxylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pithakratanayothin, Sakollapath [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College and Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Tongsri, Ruangdaj [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit - PM-RDU, National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Chaisuwan, Thanyalak [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College and Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wongkasemjit, Sujitra, E-mail: dsujitra@chula.ac.th [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College and Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-09-15

    A practical methodology and novel, economical materials were proposed to successfully prepare nanoparticle catalysts for phenol hydroxylation. The preparation was carried out via mechanical alloying (MA) of Cu{sub x}Sn{sub (100−x)} powder mixtures (where x = 30, 50, 70, and 100%wt). The mechanical alloyed nanoparticles were characterized using various techniques. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that η-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}, ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn, and CuSn phases could be formed in the mechanical alloyed Cu{sub x}Sn{sub (100−x)} materials. Transmission electron micrographs and selected area electron diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of η-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}, ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn, and CuSn phases. Activity of the catalysts, using the optimal conditions of 70 °C reaction temperature for 1 h, 50 mg of Cu{sub 0.5}Sn{sub 0.5}, and 1:3 phenol:H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ratio, provided more than 98% conversion with 70% catechol (CAT) and 29% hydroquinone (HQ). Experimental results suggested that the presence of the ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn phase gave higher activity while Sn reduced benzoquinone (BQ) to HQ. The catalyst maintained its stability with no structural collapse for more than 24 h. - Highlights: • Cu{sub x}Sn{sub y} intermetallic as a catalyst was successfully synthesized via mechanical alloying. • Cu{sub x}Sn{sub y} intermetallics promoted impressive phenol hydroxylation. • 98% conversion was achieved with high selectivity of catechol.

  16. Mechanical and oxidation properties of some B2 rare earth–magnesium intermetallic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumphy, Brad [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-12-15

    The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on three main topics. First is a discussion about the basic structure and composition of binary B2 intermetallic compounds. Second, the mechanical properties of intermetallics are examined, starting with the cause for the typically inherent brittleness observed in B2 intermetallics. A number of B2 compounds have been found to possess an abnormal level of ductility compared to other intermetallics in this class, including a handful of other rare earth–non-rare earth (RM) B2 line compounds, and these findings are also discussed. Finally, oxidation studies of rare earth metals, focusing on yttrium and cerium, as well as magnesium and some B2 materials are discussed. Chapter 2 is an in-depth look into certain aspects of the laboratory work done during this study. The many challenges and difficulties encountered required that a variety of laboratory techniques be attempted in the making, processing, and testing of these two intermetallic materials. The results and ensuing discussion for the mechanical testing that was performed are found in Chapter 3. Tensile and compression testing results for YMg are shown first, followed by those for CeMg. Some samples were made using electrical discharge machining (EDM) while others were polished into the desired shape. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was utilized to inspect surfaces of the tensile and compression samples. Hardness values and attempts to determine fracture toughness are also recorded before beginning the discussion. Chapter 4 follows the same basic format for the oxidation study portion of the research. Oxidation curves for CeMg are followed by a qualitative chemical analysis using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The YMg oxidation curves are shown next followed by an x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the oxidation process for this material and a discussion of the results. Chapter 5 is a summary of the research performed in the mechanical and

  17. Chemical Frustration. A Design Principle for the Discovery of New Complex Alloy and Intermetallic Phases, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, Daniel C [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-23

    Final technical report for "Chemical Frustration: A Design Principle for the Discovery of New Complex Alloy and Intermetallic Phases" funded by the Office of Science through the Materials Chemistry Program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  18. Microstructure Characterization and Wear-Resistant Properties Evaluation of an Intermetallic Composite in Ni–Mo–Si System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyuan Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Intermetallic compounds have been studied for their potential application as structural wear materials or coatings on engineering steels. In the present work, a newly designed intermetallic composite in a Ni–Mo–Si system was fabricated by arc-melting process with commercially pure metal powders as starting materials. The chemical composition of this intermetallic composite is 45Ni–40Mo–15Si (at %, selected according to the ternary alloy diagram. The microstructure was characterized using optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and the wear-resistant properties at room temperature were evaluated under different wear test conditions. Microstructure characterization showed that the composite has a dense and uniform microstructure. XRD results showed that the intermetallic composite is constituted by a binary intermetallic compound NiMo and a ternary Mo2Ni3Si metal silicide phase. Wear test results indicated that the intermetallic composite has an excellent wear-resistance at room-temperature, which is attributed to the high hardness and strong atomic bonding of constituent phases NiMo and Mo2Ni3Si.

  19. An Investigation of the Microstructure of an Intermetallic Layer in Welding Aluminum Alloys to Steel by MIG Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc Manh; Huang, Shyh-Chour

    2015-12-02

    Butt joints of A5052 aluminum alloy and SS400 steel, with a new type of chamfered edge, are welded by means of metal inert gas welding and ER4043 Al-Si filler metal. The microhardness and microstructure of the joint are investigated. An intermetallic layer is found on the surface of the welding seam and SS400 steel sheet. The hardness of the intermetallic layer is examined using the Vickers hardness test. The average hardness values at the Intermetallic (IMC) layer zone and without the IMC layer zone were higher than that of the welding wire ER4043. The tensile strength test showed a fracture at the intermetallic layer when the tensile strength is 225.9 MPa. The tensile value test indicated the average of welds was equivalent to the 85% tensile strength of the A5052 aluminum alloy. The thickness of the intermetallic layers is non-uniform at different positions with the ranges from 1.95 to 5 μm. The quality of the butt joint is better if the intermetallic layer is minimized. The Si crystals which appeared at the welding seam, indicating that this element participated actively during the welding process, also contributed to the IMC layer's formation.

  20. Isothermal analysis of intermetallic MmNi5-xAlx in air decomposition processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obregon, S.A.; Andrade Gamboa, J.J.; Esquivel, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, it is analyzed the behavior of the degree of reaction as function of time α (t) of a sample of MmNi 4.3 Al 0.7 (Mm mischmetal = La 0.25 Ce 0.52 Nd 0.17 Pr 0.06 ) at different temperatures. The curves were obtained by isothermal calorimetric techniques. As a result of this study, it was observed that the kinetics of intermetallic can be separated into two main stages. At temperatures below 350 o C, the first stage is the oxidation of Mm and Al. At temperatures over 400 o C, the oxidation of Ni is also produced parallel to the above mentioned reactions. But the kinetics of the last one is at least three orders of magnitude slower. It was also observed that no thermal event occurs below 180 o C. It indicates that the intermetallic do not react at temperatures below this temperature value (author)

  1. An application of Pettifor structure maps for the identification of pseudo-binary quasicrystalline intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Inoue, A.

    2006-01-01

    Quasicrystal-forming ability is considered from the viewpoint of Pettifor maps, where a single phenomenological coordinate, the Mendeleev number, captures the bonding characteristics of elements in forming intermetallics. By considering the largest sized atom as the most important constituent, it is shown that most known ternary and quaternary quasicrystals can be treated as pseudo-binary intermetallics. This also results in a classification of quasicrystals into four structural classes based on the nature of the bond orbital - s, p, d or f - of the large atom with four associated related crystal structures. A colour scheme is introduced to indicate preferences for two types of sites. We propose a new classification of quasicrystals as centred on Li, Mg, Al, Ga, Ca, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf and rare earth elements, as they are the largest atoms in the constituent quasicrystals in contrast to the conventional classification based on majority species

  2. An application of Pettifor structure maps for the identification of pseudo-binary quasicrystalline intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S. [Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science, CV Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India) and Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 9808577 (Japan)]. E-mail: rangu@met.iisc.ernet.in; Inoue, A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 9808577 (Japan)

    2006-08-15

    Quasicrystal-forming ability is considered from the viewpoint of Pettifor maps, where a single phenomenological coordinate, the Mendeleev number, captures the bonding characteristics of elements in forming intermetallics. By considering the largest sized atom as the most important constituent, it is shown that most known ternary and quaternary quasicrystals can be treated as pseudo-binary intermetallics. This also results in a classification of quasicrystals into four structural classes based on the nature of the bond orbital - s, p, d or f - of the large atom with four associated related crystal structures. A colour scheme is introduced to indicate preferences for two types of sites. We propose a new classification of quasicrystals as centred on Li, Mg, Al, Ga, Ca, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf and rare earth elements, as they are the largest atoms in the constituent quasicrystals in contrast to the conventional classification based on majority species.

  3. Pitting Corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti Intermetallic Compound at Various Chloride Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadang Priyotomo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti intermetallic compound was investigated as function of chloride concentration by using electrochemical method and scanning electron microscope in sodium chloride solutions at 293 K.  In addition, the pitting corrosion of type C276 alloy was also studied under the same experimental condition for comparison.  The pitting potential obtained for the intermetallic compound decreased with increasing chloride concentration.  The specific pitting potential and pitting potential of Ni3(Si,Ti were lower than those of C276 alloy, which means that the pitting corrosion resistance of C276 alloy was higher than that of Ni3(Si,Ti.

  4. Intermetallic alloys - overview on new materials developments for structural applications in West Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthoff, G.

    1990-01-01

    As a result of recent research on intermetallics for high-temperature applications several alloy systems which are based on intermetallics are regarded as promising for new materials developments, and respective developments have been initiated in West Germany. The present work is aimed a lightweight materials on one hand and at high-temperature high-strength materials on the other hand. The overview surveys the work in West Germany on γ-TiAl, Ti 5 Si 3 -based alloys, Mg 2 Si-Al, NiAl-Cr, Al 3 Nb-NiAl and Laves phase-based alloys, and the mechanical properties - strength, ductility and/or toughness - are described. (orig.) [de

  5. Pressure effect on magnetic and magnetotransport properties of intermetallic and colossal magnetoresistance oxide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Z; Ibarra, M R; Algarabel, P A; Marquina, C; Teresa, Jose MarIa de; Morellon, L; Blasco, J; Magen, C; Prokhnenko, O; Kamarad, J; Ritter, C

    2005-01-01

    The joint power of neutron diffraction and pressure techniques allows us to characterize under unique conditions the nature and different role of basic interactions in solids. We have covered a broad phenomenology in archetypical compounds: intermetallics and magnetic oxides. We have selected compounds in which the effect of moderate pressure is able to modify the electronic structure and bond angles that in turn are in the bases of magnetic and structural transitions. Complex magnetic and structural phase diagrams are reported for compounds with magnetic (Tb 1-X Y X Mn 2 ) and structural (RE 5 Si 4-X Ge X ) instabilities. Pressure-induced change of the magnetic structure in (R 2 Fe 17 ) intermetallics and the effect on the colossal magnetoresistance manganites are described

  6. Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

    2009-08-31

    Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

  7. Thermal Expansion of Ni3Al Intermetallic Compound: Experiment and Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hai-Peng; Lü Peng; Zhou Kai; Wei Bing-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The thermal expansion of Ni 3 Al intermetallic compound is determined by a thermal dilatometer and simulated by the molecular dynamics method. The results of the linear thermal expansion coefficients are presented from 200 K up to the maximum temperature of 1600 K. The single phase of Ni 3 Al intermetallic compound is confirmed by x-ray diffraction together with DSC melting and solidification peaks, from which the solidus and the liquidus temperatures are obtained to be 1660 and 1695 K, respectively. The measured linear thermal expansion coefficient increases from 1.5 × 10 −5 to 2.7 × 10 −5 K −1 in the experimental temperature range, in good agreement with the data obtained by the molecular dynamics simulation, just a slight difference from the temperature dependence coefficient. Furthermore, the atomic structure and position are presented to reveal the atom distribution change during thermal expansion of Ni 3 Al compound. (paper)

  8. FIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    -containing intermetallic particles incorporated into the anodic oxide films on industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) has been investigated. AA1050 aluminium was anodized in a 100?ml/l sulphuric acid bath with an applied voltage of 14?V at 20°C ±2°C for 10 or 120?min. The anodic film subsequently was analyzed......Purpose - The purpose of this investigation is to understand the structure of trapped intermetallics particles and localized composition changes in the anodized anodic oxide film on AA1050 aluminium substrates. Design/methodology/approach - The morphology and composition of Fe......-shaped particles were embedded in the anodic oxide film as a thin strip structure and located near the top surface of the film, whereas the round-shaped particles were trapped in the film with a spherical structure, but partially dissolved and were located throughout the thickness of the anodic film. The Fe...

  9. Electronic structure and phase stability during martensitic transformation in Al-doped ZrCu intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Feng; Shen Ping; Liu Tao; Lin Qiaoli; Jiang Qichuan

    2010-01-01

    Martensitic transformation, phase stability and electronic structure of Al-doped ZrCu intermetallics were investigated by experiments and first-principles calculations using the pseudopotentials plane wave method. The formation energy calculations indicate that the stability of the ZrCu phase increases with the increasing Al content. Al plays a decisive role in controlling the formation and microstructures of the martensite phases in Zr-Cu-Al alloys. The total energy difference between ZrCu (B2) austenite and ZrCu martensite plays an important role in the martensitic transformation. The phase stability is dependent on its electronic structure. The densities of states (DOS) of the intermetallics were discussed in detail.

  10. The shock Hugoniot of the intermetallic alloy Ti-46.5Al-2Nb-2Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millett, Jeremy; Gray, George T. Rusty III; Bourne, Neil

    2000-01-01

    Plate impact experiments were conducted on a γ-titanium aluminide (TiAl) based ordered intermetallic alloy. Stress measurements were recorded using manganin stress gauges supported on the back of TiAl targets using polymethylmethacrylate windows. The Hugoniot in stress-particle velocity space for this TiAl alloy was deduced using impedance matching techniques. The results in this study are compared to the known Hugoniot data of the common alpha-beta engineering Ti-based alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The results of the current study on the intermetallic alloy TiAl support that TiAl possesses a significantly higher stress for a given particle velocity than the two-phase Ti-6Al-4V alloy. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  11. Thermochemical investigations on intermetallic UMe3 compounds (Me=Ru,Rh,Pd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijbenga, G.

    1981-10-01

    The subject of this thesis is the determination of the thermodynamic properties of the intermetallic compounds of uranium with the light platinum metals, ruthenium, rhodium and palladium. These intermetallics are formed as very stable compounds during fission in nuclear fuel by the reaction of the fission products Ru, Rh and Pd with the matrix. Methods for the preparation of URu 3 , URh 3 and UPd 3 , experiments showing the chemical reactivities of these compounds, and studies of the stoichiometry of hexagonal UPd 3 by X-ray diffraction of solubility experiments of UN and palladium in UPd 3 , are described. Thermodynamic properties of the UMe 3 compounds have been obtained using several experimental thermodynamic techniques: fluorine bomb calorimetry, low-temperature cryogenic calorimetry, high-temperature drop calorimetry and EMF measurements of reversible cells. (Auth.)

  12. Fracture and fatigue considerations in the development of ductile-phase reinforced intermetallic-matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The salient microstructural factors influencing fracture and fatigue-crack growth resistance of ductile-particle reinforced intermetallic-matrix composites at ambient temperature are reviewed through examples from the Nb/MoSi 2 , TiNb/TiAl, Nb/TiAl and Nb/Nb 3 Al systems; specific emphasis is placed on properties and morphology of the reinforcement and its interfacial properties with the matrix. It is shown that composites must be fabricated with a high aspect ratio ductile-reinforcement morphology in order to promote crack-particle interception and resultant crack bridging for improved fracture and fatigue properties. Concurrently, however, the ductile phases have contrasting effects on crack growth under monotonic vs. cyclic loading suggesting that composite microstructures tailored for optimal toughness may not necessarily yield optimal fatigue resistance. Perspectives for the future development of damage-tolerant intermetallic-composite microstructures are discussed

  13. Sn and Ti influences on intermetallic phases damage in hot dip galvanizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Di Cocco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Protection against metallic materials corrosion is one of the most important means to reduce both maintenance costs and environmental impact. In the last years new studies on chemical baths compositions and fluxes have been performed in order to improve processes, corrosion resistance and mechanical behavior of Zn based coatings. Chemical bath composition is often improved by the Sn addition which increases the fluidity of the melt. Ti addition makes the coatings to change color under appropriate heat treatment. In this work a comparative microstructural analysis, in Zn-Sn and Zn-Ti coatings, is performed to evaluate intermetallic phases formation kinetics and the influence of intermetallic microstructure on coating damage under constant bending deformation.

  14. Vanadium Influence on Iron Based Intermetallic Phases in AlSi6Cu4 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolibruchová D.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Negative effect of iron in Al-Si alloys mostly refers with iron based intermetallic phases, especially Al5FeSi phases. These phases are present in platelet-like forms, which sharp edges are considered as main cracks initiators and also as contributors of porosity formation. In recent times, addition of some elements, for example Mn, Co, Cr, Ni, V, is used to reduce influence of iron. Influence of vanadium in aluminium AlSi6Cu4 alloy with intentionally increased iron content is presented in this article. Vanadium amount has been graduated and chemical composition of alloy has been analysed by spectral analysis. Vanadium influence on microstructural changes was evaluated by microstructural analysis and some of intermetallic particles were reviewed by EDX analysis.

  15. Effect of Iron-Containing Intermetallic Particles on the Corrosion Behaviour of Aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the corrosion behaviour of binary Al-Fe alloys containing iron at levels between 0.04 and 0.42 wt.% was investigated by electrochemical measurements in both acidic and alkaline chloride solutions. Comparing solution heat-treated and quenched materials with samples...... with {100} facets, and are observed to contain numerous intermetallic particles. Fine facetted filaments also radiate out from the periphery of pits. The results demonstrate that the corrosion of "pure" 99.96% Al is thus dominated by the role of iron, which is the main impurity, and its electrochemical...... that had been subsequently annealed to promote precipitation of Al3Fe intermetallic particles, it was found that annealing increases both the cathodic and anodic reactivity. The increased cathodic reactivity is believed to be directly related to the increased available surface area of the iron...

  16. Role of intermetallics on the mechanical fatigue behavior of Cu–Al ball bond interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassnig, A., E-mail: alice.lassnig@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Pelzer, R. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstrae 2, 9500 Villach (Austria); Gammer, C. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Khatibi, G. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology and Analytics, Getreidemarkt 9, 1060 Wien (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    The mechanical fatigue behavior of Cu–Al interfaces occurring in thermosonic ball bonds –typically used in microelectronic packages for automotive applications – is investigated by means of a specially designed fatigue test technique. Fully reversed cyclic shear stresses are induced at the bond interface, leading to subsequent fatigue lift off failure and revealing the weakest site of the bond. A special focus is set on the role of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMC) on the fatigue performance of such interfaces. Therefore fatigue life curves were obtained for three representative microstructural states: The as-bonded state is compared to two annealed states at 200 °C for 200 h and at 200 °C for 2000 h respectively. In the moderately annealed state two IMC layers (Al{sub 2}Cu, Al{sub 4}Cu{sub 9}) could be identified, whereas in the highly aged state the original pad metallization was almost entirely consumed and AlCu is formed as a third IMC. Finally, the crack path is traced back as a function of interfacial microstructure by means of electron microscopy techniques. Whereas conventional static shear tests reveal no significant decrease of the bond shear force with increased IMC formation the fatigue tests prove a clear degradation in the cyclic mechanical performance. It can be concluded that during cycling the crack deflects easily into the formed intermetallics, leading to early failure of the ball bonds due to their brittle nature. - Highlights: • High cycle fatigue of various miniaturized Cu–Al interfaces is investigated. • Interfacial intermetallic compounds consist of Al2Cu, AlCu and Al4Cu9. • Static shear strength shows minor dependency on interfacial phase formation. • Fatigue tests prove significant degradation with intermetallic compound evolution. • Fatigue fracture surface analysis reveal microstructure dependent crack path.

  17. The role of zinc on the chemistry of complex intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Weiwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Combining experiments and electronic structure theory provides the framework to design and discover new families of complex intermetallic phases and to understand factors that stabilize both new and known phases. Using solid state synthesis and multiple structural determinations, ferromagnetic β-Mn type Co8+xZn12–x was analyzed for their crystal and electronic structures.

  18. The Role of Second Phase Intermetallic Particles on the Spall Failure of 5083 Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Bradley Survice Engineering Company, Aberdeen, MD A reprint from Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials. 2016;2:476–483...Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD, USA 2 Survice Engineering Company, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD, USA 123 J...2016) 2:476–483 479 123 ligaments between cracks and a second phase intermetallic particle (identified by black arrow) above the crack with an average

  19. Formation of Ni-Ti intermetallics during reactive sintering at 500-650 degrees C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, P.; Pokorný, P.; Vojtěch, V.; Knaislová, A.; Školáková, A.; Čapek, J.; Karlík, M.; Kopeček, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 155, Apr (2015), s. 113-121 ISSN 0254-0584 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03044S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : intermetallic compounds * powder metallurgy * electron microscopy * microstructure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.101, year: 2015

  20. Control of interfacial intermetallic compounds in Fe–Al joining by Zn addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J. [Key Laboratory of Robot and Welding Automation of Jiangxi Province, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Center for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Li, Y.L., E-mail: liyulong1112ster@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Robot and Welding Automation of Jiangxi Province, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Zhang, H. [Key Laboratory of Robot and Welding Automation of Jiangxi Province, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Guo, W. [Center for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhou, Y. [Center for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-10-01

    By Zn addition to the fusion zone, the interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) of laser Al/steel joint changed from layered Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and needle-like FeAl{sub 3} to layered Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5−x}Zn{sub x} and dispersed FeZn{sub 10} with minor Al-rich amorphous phase. This resulted in an improvement in the joint strength and the change of failure mode.

  1. Magnetic-field induced phase transitions in intermetallic rare-earth ferrimagnets with a compensation point

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabdenov, Ch.K.; Davydova, M.D.; Zvezdin, K.A.; Gorbunov, Denis; Tereshina, I. S.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Zvezdin, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2017), s. 551-558 ISSN 1063-777X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03593S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : rare-earth intermetallics * phase diagram * field-induced transition * magnetic anisotropy * high magnetic fields Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.804, year: 2016

  2. Role of intermetallics on the mechanical fatigue behavior of Cu–Al ball bond interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassnig, A.; Pelzer, R.; Gammer, C.; Khatibi, G.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical fatigue behavior of Cu–Al interfaces occurring in thermosonic ball bonds –typically used in microelectronic packages for automotive applications – is investigated by means of a specially designed fatigue test technique. Fully reversed cyclic shear stresses are induced at the bond interface, leading to subsequent fatigue lift off failure and revealing the weakest site of the bond. A special focus is set on the role of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMC) on the fatigue performance of such interfaces. Therefore fatigue life curves were obtained for three representative microstructural states: The as-bonded state is compared to two annealed states at 200 °C for 200 h and at 200 °C for 2000 h respectively. In the moderately annealed state two IMC layers (Al 2 Cu, Al 4 Cu 9 ) could be identified, whereas in the highly aged state the original pad metallization was almost entirely consumed and AlCu is formed as a third IMC. Finally, the crack path is traced back as a function of interfacial microstructure by means of electron microscopy techniques. Whereas conventional static shear tests reveal no significant decrease of the bond shear force with increased IMC formation the fatigue tests prove a clear degradation in the cyclic mechanical performance. It can be concluded that during cycling the crack deflects easily into the formed intermetallics, leading to early failure of the ball bonds due to their brittle nature. - Highlights: • High cycle fatigue of various miniaturized Cu–Al interfaces is investigated. • Interfacial intermetallic compounds consist of Al2Cu, AlCu and Al4Cu9. • Static shear strength shows minor dependency on interfacial phase formation. • Fatigue tests prove significant degradation with intermetallic compound evolution. • Fatigue fracture surface analysis reveal microstructure dependent crack path

  3. PAC and μSr investigations of light interstitial diffusion in intermetallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, P.; Baudry, A.

    1988-01-01

    Specific aspects of the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) of gamma rays concerning its application to the study of atomic diffusion in solids are presented. PAC results recently obtained on the 181 Ta probe in several crystalline and amorphous phases of Zr 2 Ni hydrides are briefly summarized. Preliminary μSR results relative to these intermetallic hydrides are presented and compared to the PAC data

  4. Thermal, structural, and magnetic studies of metals and intermetallic compounds. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, W.E.; Craig, R.S.; Rao, V.U.S.

    1976-01-01

    The powerful magnetism of certain intermetallics, e.g., SmCo 5 , has been established to originate with the powerful magnetic anisotropy of SmCo 5 , not its large magnetization. The anisotropy is, in turn, a crystal field effect. The crystal field interaction has been elucidated by the method of quantum mechanics. Studies of the systems RFe 2 , RFe 3 , RCo 3 , and R 2 Co 7 (R = a rare earth, Y or Th) reveals them to be important for hydrogen storage. In addition, important effects associated with hydrogenation of metals have been found--great enhancement of magnetization of certain systems (e.g., ErFe 2 ) and substantial increase in superconducting transition temperatures (e.g., Zr/sub .5/H/sub .5/V 2 ). Results of studies suggest that the surfaces of rare earth intermetallics are atypical. The spectrum of properties exhibited by the rare earth intermetallics suggests their utility in the efficient capture and storage of solar energy and the use of it for powering a vehicle. These aspects of the systems warrant further attention

  5. A new method to estimate the atomic volume of ternary intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, M.; Merlo, F.

    2011-01-01

    The atomic volume of an A x B y C z ternary intermetallic compound can be calculated starting from volumes of some proper A-B, A-C and B-C binary phases. The three methods by Colinet, Muggianu and Kohler, originally used to estimate thermodynamic quantities, and a new method here proposed, were tested to derive volume data in eight systems containing 91 ternary phases with the known structure. The comparison between experimental and calculated volume values shows the best agreement both for the Kohler method and for the new proposed procedure. -- Graphical abstract: Synopsys: the volume of a ternary intermetallic compound can be calculated starting from volumes of some binary phases, selected by the methods of Colinet, Muggianu, Kohler and a new method proposed here. The so obtained values are compared with the experimental ones for eight ternary systems. Display Omitted Research highlights: → The application of some thermodinamic methods to a crystallochemical problem. → The prevision of the average atomic volume of ternary intermetallic phases. → The proposal of a new procedure to select the proper starting set of binary phases.

  6. Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Mo–40Ni–13Si Multiphase Intermetallic Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunyan; Wang, Shuhuan; Gui, Yongliang; Cheng, Zihao; Ni, Guolong

    2016-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds are increasingly being expected to be utilized in tribological environments, but to date their implementation is hindered by insufficient ductility at low and medium temperatures. This paper presents a novel multiphase intermetallic alloy with the chemical composition of Mo–40Ni–13Si (at %). Microstructure characterization reveals that a certain amount of ductile Mo phases formed during the solidification process of a ternary Mo–Ni–Si molten alloy, which is beneficial to the improvement of ductility of intermetallic alloys. Tribological properties of the designed alloy—including wear resistance, friction coefficient, and metallic tribological compatibility—were evaluated under dry sliding wear test conditions at room temperature. Results suggest that the multiphase alloy possesses an excellent tribological property, which is attributed to unique microstructural features and thereby a good combination in hardness and ductility. The corresponding wear mechanism is explained by observing the worn surface, subsurface, and wear debris of the alloy, which was found to be soft abrasive wear. PMID:28774106

  7. Limitation of critical current density by intermetallic formation in fine filament Nb-Ti superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbalestier, D.C.; Chengren, L.; Starch, W.; Lee, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments have been performed to investigate the role that the intermetallic reaction between the copper matrix and the Nb-Ti filaments plays in limiting the critical current density (J/sub c/) of Nb 45.6 wt% Ti composites. The first experiment involved composites which were industrially extruded. It was found that as the number of heat treatments increased, the J/sub c/ declined, the resistive transition broadened and the filaments sausaged. The filament sausaging was initiated by intermetallic particles at the filament matrix interface. A series of many heat treatment procedures were then applied to composites fabricated in the authors own laboratories without extrusion. Very high J/sub c/ values were obtained at filament sizes of 20 μm. When the same heat treatment procedures were applied to 4 - 5 μm conductors, extensive sausaging and degraded J/sub c/ values resulted. This degradation was also found to be due to the formation of Cu-Nb-Ti intermetallic compounds. It is concluded that a reliable filament diffusion barrier technology is necessary to permit full flexibility in the heat treatment of 2 - 5 μ filament Nb-Ti composites

  8. Limitation of critical current density by intermetallic formation in fine filament Nb-Ti superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbalestier, D.C.; Chengren, Li; Lee, P.J.; Starch, W.

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments have been performed to investigate the role that the intermetallic reaction between the copper matrix and the Nb-Ti filaments plays in limiting the critical current density (J /SUB c/ ) of Nb 46.5 wt% Ti composites. The first experiment involved composites which were industrially extruded. It was found that as the number of heat treatments increased, the J /SUB c/ declined, the resistive transition broadened and the filaments sausaged. The filament sausaging was initiated by intermetallic particles at the filament matrix interface. A series of many heat treatment procedures were then applied to composites fabricated in our own laboratories without extrusion. Very high J /SUB c/ values were obtained at filament sizes of 20 μm. When the same heat treatment procedures were applied to 4 - 5 μm conductors, extensive sausaging and degraded J /SUB c/ values resulted. This degradation was also found to be due to the formation of Cu-Nb-Ti intermetallic compounds. It is concluded that a reliable filament diffusion barrier technology is necessary to permit full flexibility in the heat treatment of 2 - 5 μm filament Nb-Ti composites

  9. First principles electronic and thermal properties of some AlRE intermetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vipul; Sanyal, Sankar P.; Rajagopalan, M.

    2008-10-01

    A study on structural and electronic properties of non-magnetic cubic B 2-type AlRE (RE=Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr and Lu) intermetallics has been done theoretically. The self-consistent tight binding linear muffin tin orbital method is used to describe the electronic properties of these intermetallics at ambient and at high pressure. These compounds show metallic behavior under ambient conditions. The variation of density of states under compression indicates some possibility of structural phase transformation in AlLa, AlCe and AlPr. Thermal properties like Debye temperature and Grüneisen constant are calculated at T=0 K and at ambient pressure within the Debye-Grüneisen model and compared with the others’ theoretical results. Our results are in good agreement. We have also performed a pressure-induced variation of Debye temperature and have found a decrease in Debye temperature around 40 kbar in AlRE (RE=La, Ce, Pr) intermetallics.

  10. First principles electronic and thermal properties of some AlRE intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Vipul [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 026 (India)], E-mail: vips73@yahoo.com; Sanyal, Sankar P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 026 (India); Rajagopalan, M. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai-600 025 (India)

    2008-10-01

    A study on structural and electronic properties of non-magnetic cubic B{sub 2}-type AlRE (RE=Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr and Lu) intermetallics has been done theoretically. The self-consistent tight binding linear muffin tin orbital method is used to describe the electronic properties of these intermetallics at ambient and at high pressure. These compounds show metallic behavior under ambient conditions. The variation of density of states under compression indicates some possibility of structural phase transformation in AlLa, AlCe and AlPr. Thermal properties like Debye temperature and Grueneisen constant are calculated at T=0 K and at ambient pressure within the Debye-Grueneisen model and compared with the others' theoretical results. Our results are in good agreement. We have also performed a pressure-induced variation of Debye temperature and have found a decrease in Debye temperature around 40 kbar in AlRE (RE=La, Ce, Pr) intermetallics.

  11. Intermetallic Growth and Interfacial Properties of the Grain Refiners in Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Cheng, Nanpu; Chen, Zhiqian; Xie, Zhongjing; Hui, Liangliang

    2018-01-01

    Al3TM(TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Sc) particles acting as effective grain refiners for Al alloys have been receiving extensive attention these days. In order to judge their nucleation behaviors, first-principles calculations are used to investigate their intermetallic and interfacial properties. Based on energy analysis, Al3Zr and Al3Sc are more suitable for use as grain refiners than the other two intermetallic compounds. Interfacial properties show that Al/Al3TM(TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Sc) interfaces in I-ter interfacial mode exhibit better interface wetting effects due to larger Griffith rupture work and a smaller interface energy. Among these, Al/Al3Sc achieves the lowest interfacial energy, which shows that Sc atoms should get priority for occupying interfacial sites. Additionally, Sc-doped Al/Al3(Zr, Sc) interfacial properties show that Sc can effectively improve the Al/Al3(Zr, Sc) binding strength with the Al matrix. By combining the characteristics of interfaces with the properties of intermetallics, the core-shell structure with Al3Zr-core or Al3Zr(Sc1-1)-core encircled with an Sc-rich shell forms. PMID:29677155

  12. Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Mo–40Ni–13Si Multiphase Intermetallic Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermetallic compounds are increasingly being expected to be utilized in tribological environments, but to date their implementation is hindered by insufficient ductility at low and medium temperatures. This paper presents a novel multiphase intermetallic alloy with the chemical composition of Mo–40Ni–13Si (at %. Microstructure characterization reveals that a certain amount of ductile Mo phases formed during the solidification process of a ternary Mo–Ni–Si molten alloy, which is beneficial to the improvement of ductility of intermetallic alloys. Tribological properties of the designed alloy—including wear resistance, friction coefficient, and metallic tribological compatibility—were evaluated under dry sliding wear test conditions at room temperature. Results suggest that the multiphase alloy possesses an excellent tribological property, which is attributed to unique microstructural features and thereby a good combination in hardness and ductility. The corresponding wear mechanism is explained by observing the worn surface, subsurface, and wear debris of the alloy, which was found to be soft abrasive wear.

  13. Strong, ductile, and thermally stable Cu-based metal-intermetallic nanostructured composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusoe, Keith J; Vijayan, Sriram; Bissell, Thomas R; Chen, Jie; Morley, Jack E; Valencia, Leopolodo; Dongare, Avinash M; Aindow, Mark; Lee, Seok-Woo

    2017-01-09

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and nanocrystalline metals (NMs) have been extensively investigated due to their superior strengths and elastic limits. Despite these excellent mechanical properties, low ductility at room temperature and poor microstructural stability at elevated temperatures often limit their practical applications. Thus, there is a need for a metallic material system that can overcome these performance limits of BMGs and NMs. Here, we present novel Cu-based metal-intermetallic nanostructured composites (MINCs), which exhibit high ultimate compressive strengths (over 2 GPa), high compressive failure strain (over 20%), and superior microstructural stability even at temperatures above the glass transition temperature of Cu-based BMGs. Rapid solidification produces a unique ultra-fine microstructure that contains a large volume fraction of Cu 5 Zr superlattice intermetallic compound; this contributes to the high strength and superior thermal stability. Mechanical and microstructural characterizations reveal that substantial accumulation of phase boundary sliding at metal/intermetallic interfaces accounts for the extensive ductility observed.

  14. The effect of pH on the corrosion behavior of intermetallic compounds Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) and Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) + 2Mo in sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyotomo, Gadang, E-mail: gada001@lipi.go.id; Nuraini, Lutviasari, E-mail: Lutviasari@gmail.com [Research Center for Metallurgy and Material, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK Gd.474, Setu, Tangerang Selatan, Banten 15314 (Indonesia); Kaneno, Yasuyuki, E-mail: kaneno@mtr.osakafu-u.ac.id [Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2015-12-29

    The corrosion behavior of the intermetallic compounds, Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) (L1{sub 2}: single phase) and Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) + 2Mo (L1{sub 2} and (L12 + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region), has been investigated using an immersion test, electrochemical method and surface analytical method (SEM; scanning electron microscope and EDAX: Energy Dispersive X-ray) in 0.5 kmol/m{sup 3} NaCl solutions at various pH. The corrosion behavior of nickel alloy C-276 was studied under the same experimental conditions as a reference. It was found that the uniform attack was observed on Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) for the immersion test at lower pH, while the pitting attack was observed on this compound for this test at neutral solution. Furthermore, Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti)+2Mo had the preferential dissolution of L1{sub 2} compared to (L1{sub 2} + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region at lower pH, while pitting attack occurred in (L1{sub 2} + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region at neutral solution. For both intermetallic compounds, the magnitude of pitting and uniform attack decrease with increasing pH of solutions. From the immersion test and polarization curves, the corrosion resistance of Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti)+2Mo is lower than that of Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti), while the nickel alloy C-276 is the highest one at various pH of solutions. On the other hand, in the lower pH of solutions, the corrosion resistance of tested materials decreased significantly compared to those in neutral and higher pH of solutions.

  15. Mixtures Estimation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mengersen, Kerrie; Titterington, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This book uses the EM (expectation maximization) algorithm to simultaneously estimate the missing data and unknown parameter(s) associated with a data set. The parameters describe the component distributions of the mixture; the distributions may be continuous or discrete. The editors provide a complete account of the applications, mathematical structure and statistical analysis of finite mixture distributions along with MCMC computational methods, together with a range of detailed discussions covering the applications of the methods and features chapters from the leading experts on the subject

  16. The role of intermetallic phases in the corrosion of magnesium-rare earth alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Campos, Maria del Rosario

    2016-07-25

    A new concept to develop a RE based Mg alloy with improved corrosion resistance was followed in the current work. Based on subsequent characterisation steps to eliminate less suitable RE elements the best microstructure for improved corrosion resistance was identified. At first, the corrosion properties of selected RE elements were determined. Based on these results RE elements that have a potential to enhance the corrosion resistance of Mg-RE alloys were selected. Two aspects of RE elements were important for the selection: the electrochemical properties and the solid solubility in Mg. If the solubility limit of RE elements in the Mg matrix is exceeded, they form intermetallic phases with Mg. By performing galvanic coupling measurements the compatibility between Mg matrix and intermetallic phases were estimated. At that point three binary Mg-RE alloys systems remained (Mg-Ce, Mg-La, and Mg-Gd). To evaluate the influence of composition (amount of intermetallic phases) on the corrosion behaviour, four concentrations were cast with 1, 5, 10 and 15 wt. % of RE. Ce and La have a lower solid solubility in Mg matrix generating higher volume fraction of the secondary phases, thus higher dissolution rates in the binary Mg-RE alloys. While Gd with higher solid solubility shows a different behaviour. Additions of up to 10 wt. % Gd resulted in similar behaviour compared to 1 wt. % Gd addition. The most promising results were obtained for the Mg-Gd system with 10 wt. % Gd. Thus, the microstructure of this alloy was further modified by heat treatments to understand the influence of microstructural changes on corrosion behaviour. A ternary element was used to attempt further optimisation of the corrosion performance. Additions of Al, Zn, Ga and Y did not show any improvement in the corrosion resistance of Mg10Gd. This is due to increasing volume fractions of critical more noble phases and the microstructure dominated by eutectic phase formation. Thus galvanic effects became much

  17. The role of intermetallic phases in the corrosion of magnesium-rare earth alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Campos, Maria del Rosario

    2016-01-01

    A new concept to develop a RE based Mg alloy with improved corrosion resistance was followed in the current work. Based on subsequent characterisation steps to eliminate less suitable RE elements the best microstructure for improved corrosion resistance was identified. At first, the corrosion properties of selected RE elements were determined. Based on these results RE elements that have a potential to enhance the corrosion resistance of Mg-RE alloys were selected. Two aspects of RE elements were important for the selection: the electrochemical properties and the solid solubility in Mg. If the solubility limit of RE elements in the Mg matrix is exceeded, they form intermetallic phases with Mg. By performing galvanic coupling measurements the compatibility between Mg matrix and intermetallic phases were estimated. At that point three binary Mg-RE alloys systems remained (Mg-Ce, Mg-La, and Mg-Gd). To evaluate the influence of composition (amount of intermetallic phases) on the corrosion behaviour, four concentrations were cast with 1, 5, 10 and 15 wt. % of RE. Ce and La have a lower solid solubility in Mg matrix generating higher volume fraction of the secondary phases, thus higher dissolution rates in the binary Mg-RE alloys. While Gd with higher solid solubility shows a different behaviour. Additions of up to 10 wt. % Gd resulted in similar behaviour compared to 1 wt. % Gd addition. The most promising results were obtained for the Mg-Gd system with 10 wt. % Gd. Thus, the microstructure of this alloy was further modified by heat treatments to understand the influence of microstructural changes on corrosion behaviour. A ternary element was used to attempt further optimisation of the corrosion performance. Additions of Al, Zn, Ga and Y did not show any improvement in the corrosion resistance of Mg10Gd. This is due to increasing volume fractions of critical more noble phases and the microstructure dominated by eutectic phase formation. Thus galvanic effects became much

  18. I-optimal mixture designs

    OpenAIRE

    GOOS, Peter; JONES, Bradley; SYAFITRI, Utami

    2013-01-01

    In mixture experiments, the factors under study are proportions of the ingredients of a mixture. The special nature of the factors in a mixture experiment necessitates specific types of regression models, and specific types of experimental designs. Although mixture experiments usually are intended to predict the response(s) for all possible formulations of the mixture and to identify optimal proportions for each of the ingredients, little research has been done concerning their I-optimal desi...

  19. Mixtures and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Drinking water can be considered as a complex mixture that consists of tens, hundreds or thousands of chemicals of which the composition is qualitatively and quantitatively not fully known. From a public health point of view it is most relevant to answer the question of whether chemicals in drinking

  20. The Effects of Grain Refinement and Rare Earth Intermetallics on Mechanical Properties of As-Cast and Wrought Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourbahari, Bita; Mirzadeh, Hamed; Emamy, Massoud

    2018-03-01

    The effects of rare earth intermetallics and grain refinement by alloying and hot extrusion on the mechanical properties of Mg-Gd-Al-Zn alloys have been studied to elucidate some useful ways to enhance the mechanical properties of magnesium alloys. It was revealed that aluminum as an alloying element is a much better grain refining agent compared with gadolinium, but the simultaneous presence of Al and Gd can refine the as-cast grain size more efficiently. The presence of fine and widely dispersed rare earth intermetallics was found to be favorable to achieve finer recrystallized grains during hot deformation by extrusion. The presence of coarse dendritic structure in the GZ61 alloy, grain boundary eutectic containing Mg17Al12 phase in the AZ61 alloy, and rare earth intermetallics with unfavorable morphology in the Mg-4Gd-2Al-1Zn alloy was found to be detrimental to mechanical properties of the alloy in the as-cast condition. As a result, the microstructural refinement induced by hot extrusion process resulted in a significant enhancement in strength and ductility of the alloys. The presence of intermetallic compounds in the extruded Mg-4Gd-2Al-1Zn and Mg-2Gd-4Al-1Zn alloys deteriorated tensile properties, which was related to the fact that such intermetallic compounds act as stress risers and microvoid initiation sites.

  1. Mixture based outlier filtration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecherková, Pavla; Nagy, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2006), s. 30-35 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA MDS 1F43A/003/120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : data filtration * system modelling * mixture models Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20060165.pdf

  2. Intermetallic precipitation in rare earth-treated A413.1 alloy. A metallographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, Agnes M.; Samuel, Fawzy H.

    2018-01-01

    The present study was performed mainly on A413.1 alloy. Measured amounts of La, Ce or La+Ce, Ti and Sr were added to the molten alloy in the form of master alloys. Samples sectioned from castings obtained from thermal analysis experiments were used for preparing samples for metallographic examination. The results show that addition of rare earth (RE) metals to Al-Si alloys increased the α-Al nucleation temperature and depressed the Al-Si eutectic formation temperature, thereby increasing the solidification range. Depending upon the alloying elements/additives, a large number of RE-based intermetallics could be formed: Al 4 (Ce,La), Al 13 (Ce,La) 2 Cu 3 , Al 7 (Cu,Fe) 6 (Ce,La) 6 Si 2 , Al 4 La, Al 2 La 5 Si 2 , Al 2 Ce 5 Si 2 , Al 2 (Ce,La) 5 Si 2 . Under an electron microscope, these phases appear in backscatter imaging mode in the form of thin grayish-white platelets on the dark gray Al matrix. The average thickness of these platelets is about 1.5 μm. When the alloy is grain refined with Ti-based master alloys, precipitation of a gray phase in the form of sludge is observed: Al 12 La 3 Ti 2 , or Al 12 (Ce,La) 3 Ti 2 . Regardless the alloy composition, the RE/Al ratios remain constant in each type of intermetallic. Rare earth metals have a strong affinity to react with Sr (resulting in partial modification of the eutectic Si particles) as well as some transition elements, in particular Ti and Cu. Iron has a very low affinity for interaction with RE metals. It is only confined to Fe-based intermetallics.

  3. Intermetallic and electrical insulator coatings on high-temperature alloys in liquid-lithium environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    In the design of liquid-metal cooling systems for fusion-reactor blanket, applications, the corrosion resistance of structural materials and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its subsequent influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. When the system is cooled by liquid metals, insulator coatings are required on piping surfaces in contact with the coolant. The objective of this study is to develop stable corrosion-resistant electrical insulator coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coatings that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the structural wall, and Be-V intermetallic coatings for first-wall components that face the plasma. Vanadium and V-base alloys are leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor. Various intermetallic films were produced on V-alloys and on Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The intermetallic layers were developed by exposure of the materials to liquid Li containing 2 at temperatures of 500--1030 degree C. CaO electrical insulator coatings were produced by reaction of the oxygen-rich layer with <5 at. % Ca dissolved in liquid Li at 400--700 degree C. The reaction converted the oxygen-rich layer to an electrically insulating film. This coating method is applicable to reactor components because the liquid metal can be used over and over; only the solute within the liquid metal is consumed. This paper will discuss initial results on the nature of the coatings and their in-situ electrical resistivity characteristics in liquid Li at high temperatures

  4. The corrosion resistance of HVOF sprayed coatings with intermetallic phases in aggressive environments

    OpenAIRE

    B. Formanek; J. Cizner; B. Szczucka-Lasota; R. Przeliorz

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The cyclic corrosion behavior of coatings with intermetallic matrix ( FeAl, NiAl and FeAl-TiAl) was investigated in aggressive gases.Design/methodology/approach: The composite coatings strengthened by a fine dispersive Al2O3 and other ceramic phases were thermally sprayed by HVOF method in Jet Kote 2 system. A kinetics test was carried out by periodic method for exposure times of up to 500 hours. Mass changes of the studied coatings during the corrosion test are presented. The surfac...

  5. Amorphous phase formation in intermetallic Mg2Ni alloy synthesized by ethanol wet milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.-W.; Chyou, S.-D.; Wang, S.-H.; Yang, M.-W.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Tien, H.-C.; Huang, N.-N.

    2009-01-01

    The hydriding/dehydriding properties of an intermetallic Mg 2 Ni alloy synthesized by wet ball milling in ethanol have been investigated. The appearance of the particle surface after different milling methods is one obvious difference. The alloyed powders prepared by either dry milling or wet milling under ethanol were characterized for phase content by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The results show that two broad diffuse peaks, which are an ionic-organic-Mg amorphous material, appear in addition to the nickel element peaks. This unexpected amorphous phase has the special hydrogen absorbing/desorbing features.

  6. B2 intermetallic compounds of Zr. New class of the shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, Yu.N.; Delaey, L.; Jang, W.Y.

    1995-01-01

    It is known that the B2 equiatomic intermetallic compounds of Zr (ZrCo-based) undergo a martensitic transformation (MT) with wide temperature hysteresis. It was found that the MT is accompanied by the perfect shape memory effect (SME) for ZrCu and ZrRh. In this report we represent the results of structural analysis, electrical resistivity, calorimetric and SME measurements for ZrCu- and ZrCo-based compounds. Interrelation between structural, thermodynamical parameters of MT and SME in this alloys will be described. The shape memory aspects of this potential alloys for the application at high temperatures will be discussed. (orig.)

  7. Intermetallic Alloys as CO Electroreduction Catalysts-Role of Isolated Active Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamad, Mohammadreza; Tripkovic, Vladimir; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2014-01-01

    One of the main challenges associated with the electrochemical CO or CO2 reduction is poor selectivity toward energetically rich products. In order to promote selectivity toward hydrocarbons and alcohols, most notably, the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) should be suppressed. To achieve this goal...... potentially selective intermetallic surfaces on which CO can be reduced to methanol at potentials comparable to or even slightly positive than those for CO/CO2 reduction to methane on Cu. Common features shared by most of the selective alloys are single TM sites. The role of single sites is to block parasitic...... HER and thereby promote CO reduction....

  8. Influence of the ion implantation on the nanoscale intermetallic phases formation in Ni-Ti system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, M.P.; Kurzina, I.A.; Bozhko, I.A.; Kozlov, E.V.; Fortuna, S.V.; Sivin, D.O.; Stepanov, I.B.; Sharkeev, Yu.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The ion implantation at a high intensity mode is an effective method for modification of the surface properties of metals and alloys. Improvement of mechanical and tribological properties of irradiated materials using the high intensity implantation is connected with an element composition and microstructure modification of the surface and subsurface layers. One shows a great interest in intermetallic phase's synthesis by ion implantation, because of unique physical-mechanical properties of the intermetallic compounds. The influence of the irradiation conditions on the structural state and surface properties of implanted materials is not clear enough. The study of the factors influencing on the formation of the surface ion - alloyed layers of metal targets having the high tribological and mechanical properties by high intensity ion implantation is actual. The aim of the present work is a study of the microstructure, phase composition, physical and mechanical properties of the ion-alloyed Ni surfaces formed at high intensity implantation of Ti ions. The implantation Ti ions into Ni samples at high intensity mode was realized using ion source 'Raduga - 5'. The implantation Ti ions into Ni was carried out at accelerating voltage 20 kV for 2 h. The regimes were differed in the samples temperature (580 - 700 K), the distance from the ion implanted samples to the ion source (0.43-0.93 m) and the dose of irradiated ions (0.3·10 18 -2.9·10 18 ion/cm -2 ). The element composition of the implanted samples was analyzed by the electron spectroscopy. The structural-phase state of the Ni ion-modified layers was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Additionally, the investigation of mechanical and tribological properties of the implanted Ni samples was carried out. It was established that the maximum thickness of the ion-alloyed nickel layers at high intensity mode allows forming the nanoscale intermetallic phases (Ni

  9. Computer simulation of disordering kinetics in irradiated A3B intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaczer, M.; Caro, A.; Victoria, M.; De la Rubia, T.

    1994-01-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulations of collision cascades on intermetallic Ni 3 Al, Cu 3 Au and NiAl have been performed to study the nature of the disordering processes in the cascade. The evolution of the crystalline and chemical order parameters show different time scales. To understand these features we study the liquid phase of these three alloys and present simulation results concerning the dynamical melting of small samples, examining the relaxation time and saturation value of the chemical short range order, SRO. A theoretical model for the time evolution of the SRO is given. ((orig.))

  10. Thermodynamic data for uranium and thorium intermetallic compounds: A historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    The development of quantitative information concerning the stabilities of uranium and thorium intermetallic compounds since the publication of Rough and Bauer's phase diagram compilation are reviewed. During this era a number of high temperature measurement techniques have been developed, from gas/solid equilibration to mass spectrometry and from high temperature calorimetry to solid state electrochemistry, and the growth of quantitative information has run parallel to this evolution. The amount of experimental effort now appears to be declining, and the task presently of major importance is to integrate and rationalize the quantitative information, an effort which will undoubtedly lead to new experimental initiatives. (orig.)

  11. < c >-component plastic displacements in different microstructures of TiAl-base intermetallics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orlová, Alena; Kuchařová, Květa; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 483, Sp.Iss.SI (2008), s. 109-112 ISSN 0921-5093. [International Conference on the Strength of Materials /14./. Xian, 04.06.2006-09.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS200410502; GA MŠk OC 522.100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : intermetallics * creep * transmission electron microscopy * titanium aluminides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2008

  12. Mixture for plugging absorption zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitinkov, G V; Kovalenko, N G; Makarov, L V; Zinnatulchin, Ts Kh

    1981-01-17

    A mixture is proposed for plugging absorption zones. The mixture contains synthetic polymer and a solvent. So as to increase the penetrability of the mixture through a reduction in its viscosity and an increase in insulation properties, the compound contains either Capron or Neilon as the synthetic polyamide resin polmyer, and concentrated chloride as the solvent. The mixture is prepared in a special AzINMASh-30 unit (acid cart). After the mixture has been produced, it is injected into the borehole by means of an acid cart pump. So as to prevent coaggulation at the point when the mixture in injected into the stratum through tubes, the mixture is placed betwen chemically inert fluids, for example, a clay mortar. The inert and compressed fluids are injected by means of a cementing unit. The entire process of production and application of the mixture is simple and fully automated through the use of well-known equipment.

  13. NiTi intermetallic surface coatings by laser metal deposition for improving wear properties of Ti-6Al-4V substrates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokgalaka, MN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The NiTi intermetallic possesses a number of good properties, such as high wear, oxidation, and corrosion resistance. This paper focuses on the deposition of NiTi intermetallic coatings on Ti6Al4V substrate by laser melting of Ti and Ni elemental...

  14. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy characterization of intermetallics formed in Fe/Ti nanometer-scale multilayers during thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.L.; Peng, T.X.; Cao, B.S.; Lei, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Intermetallics formation in the Fe/Ti nanometer-scale multilayers magnetron-sputtering deposited on Si(100) substrate during thermal annealing at 623-873 K was investigated by using small and wide angle X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The Fe/Ti nanometer-scale multilayers were constructed with bilayer thickness of 16.2 nm and the sublayer thickness ratio of 1:1. At the annealing temperature of 623 K, intermetallics FeTi were formed by nucleation at the triple joins of α-Fe(Ti)/α-Ti interface and α-Ti grain boundary with an orientational correlation of FeTi(110)//α-Ti(100) and FeTi[001]//α-Ti[001] to adjacent α-Ti grains. The lateral growth of intermetallics FeTi which is dependent on the diffusion path of Ti led to a coalescence into an intermetallic layer. With an increase in the annealing temperature, intermetallics Fe 2 Ti were formed between the intermetallics FeTi and the excess Fe due to the limitation of Fe and Ti atomic concentrations, resulting in the coexistence of intermetallics FeTi and Fe 2 Ti. It was found that the low energy interface as well as the dominant diffusion path constrained the nucleation and growth of intermetallics during interfacial reaction in the nanometer-scale metallic multilayers.

  15. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis flammable range and dominant parameters for synthesizing several ceramics and intermetallic compounds under heat-loss condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Atsushi

    1996-01-01

    Extensive comparisons have been conducted between experimental and theoretical results for the nonadiabatic self-propagating high-temperature synthesis combustion characteristics of many solid-solid systems subjected to volumetric heat loss. The nonadiabatic flame propagation theory--which describes the premixed mode of bulk flame propagation supported by the nonpremixed reaction of dispersed nonmetal (or higher-melting point metal) particles in the liquid metal, with finite-rate reaction at the particle surface and temperature-sensitive Arrhenius-type condensed-phase mass diffusivity--is used to compare with experimental results with heat loss. Systems examined are ceramics (TiC, TiB 2 , and ZrB 2 ) and intermetallic compounds (NiAl, TiCo, and TiNi). By using a consistent set of physicochemical parameters for these systems, satisfactory quantitative agreement is demonstrated for the flammable range (defined in terms of the mixture ratio, degree of dilution, particle size, and/or compact diameter)

  16. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...

  17. Mixtures of truncated basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework, called mixtures of truncated basis functions (MoTBFs), for representing general hybrid Bayesian networks. The proposed framework generalizes both the mixture of truncated exponentials (MTEs) framework and the mixture of polynomials (MoPs) framework. Similar t...

  18. The corrosion behavior of the T1 (Al2CuLi) intermetallic compound in aqueous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, R. G.; Stoner, G. E.

    1989-01-01

    The intermetallic compound T1 (Al2CuLi) is suspected to play an important role in the localized corrosion at subgrain boundaries in Al-Li-Cu alloys. The intermetallic was synthesized for characterization of its corrosion behavior. Experiments performed included open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization, and corrosion rate vs. pH in solutions whose pH was varied over the range of 3 to 11. Subgrain boundary pitting and continuous subgrain boundary corrosion are discussed in terms of the data obtained. Evidence suggesting the dealloying of copper from this compound is also presented.

  19. Joining thick section aluminum to steel with suppressed FeAl intermetallic formation via friction stir dovetailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza-E-Rabby, Md.; Ross, Kenneth; Overman, Nicole R.; Olszta, Matthew J.; McDonnell, Martin; Whalen, Scott A.

    2018-04-01

    A new solid-phase technique called friction stir dovetailing (FSD) has been developed for joining thick section aluminum to steel. In FSD, mechanical interlocks are formed at the aluminum-steel interface and are reinforced by metallurgical bonds where intermetallic growth has been uniquely suppressed. Lap shear testing shows superior strength and extension at failure compared to popular friction stir approaches where metallurgical bonding is the only joining mechanism. High resolution microscopy revealed the presence of a 40-70 nm interlayer having a composition of 76.4 at% Al, 18.4 at% Fe, and 5.2 at% Si, suggestive of limited FeAl3 intermetallic formation.

  20. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  1. Iron Intermetallic Phases in the Alloy Based on Al-Si-Mg by Applying Manganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podprocká R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an effective element used for the modification of needle intermetallic phases in Al-Si alloy. These particles seriously degrade mechanical characteristics of the alloy and promote the formation of porosity. By adding manganese the particles are being excluded in more compact shape of “Chinese script” or skeletal form, which are less initiative to cracks as Al5FeSi phase. In the present article, AlSi7Mg0.3 aluminium foundry alloy with several manganese content were studied. The alloy was controlled pollution for achieve higher iron content (about 0.7 wt. % Fe. The manganese were added in amount of 0.2 wt. %, 0.6 wt. %, 1.0 wt. % and 1.4 wt. %. The influence of the alloying element on the process of crystallization of intermetallic phases were compared to microstructural observations. The results indicate that increasing manganese content (> 0.2 wt. % Mn lead to increase the temperature of solidification iron rich phase (TAl5FeSi and reduction this particles. The temperature of nucleation Al-Si eutectic increase with higher manganese content also. At adding 1.4 wt. % Mn grain refinement and skeleton particles were observed.

  2. Ultrafast and Highly Reversible Sodium Storage in Zinc-Antimony Intermetallic Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Anmin [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department; Gan, Li-yong [Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, (China). Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Materials; Cheng, Yingchun [Nanjing Univ. of Technology (China). Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM); Tao, Xinyong [Zhejiang Univ. of Technology, Hangzhou (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Yuan, Yifei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Sharifi-Asl, Soroosh [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department; He, Kun [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department; Asayesh-Ardakani, Hasti [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department; Vasiraju, Venkata [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering; Lu, Jun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Mashayek, Farzad [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department; Klie, Robert [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Department of Physics; Vaddiraju, Sreeram [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering; Schwingenschlögl, Udo [King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department

    2015-12-17

    The progress on sodium-ion battery technology faces many grand challenges, one of which is the considerably lower rate of sodium insertion/deinsertion in electrode materials due to the larger size of sodium (Na) ions and complicated redox reactions compared to the lithium-ion systems. Here, it is demonstrated that sodium ions can be reversibly stored in Zn-Sb intermetallic nanowires at speeds that can exceed 295 nm s-1. Remarkably, these values are one to three orders of magnitude higher than the sodiation rate of other nanowires electrochemically tested with in situ transmission electron micro­scopy. It is found that the nanowires display about 161% volume expansion after the first sodiation and then cycle with an 83% reversible volume expansion. Despite their massive expansion, the nanowires can be cycled without any cracking or facture during the ultrafast sodiation/desodiation process. Additionally, most of the phases involved in the sodiation/desodiation process possess high electrical conductivity. More specifically, the NaZnSb exhibits a layered structure, which provides channels for fast Na+ diffusion. This observation indicates that Zn-Sb intermetallic nanomaterials offer great promise as high rate and good cycling stability anodic materials for the next generation of sodium-ion batteries.

  3. Self-irradiation damage to the local structure of plutonium and plutonium intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C. H.; Jiang Yu; Medling, S. A. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Wang, D. L. [Nuclear Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Costello, A. L.; Schwartz, D. S.; Mitchell, J. N.; Tobash, P. H. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Bauer, E. D. [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); McCall, S. K.; Wall, M. A.; Allen, P. G. [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-03-07

    The effect of self-irradiation damage on the local structure of {delta}-Pu, PuAl{sub 2}, PuGa{sub 3}, and other Pu intermetallics has been determined for samples stored at room temperature using the extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) technique. These measurements indicate that the intermetallic samples damage at a similar rate as indicated in previous studies of PuCoGa{sub 5}. In contrast, {delta}-Pu data indicate a much slower damage accumulation rate. To explore the effect of storage temperature and possible room temperature annealing effects, we also collected EXAFS data on a {delta}-Pu sample that was held at less than 32 K for a two month period. This sample damaged much more quickly. In addition, the measurable damage was annealed out at above only 135 K. Data from samples of {delta}-Pu with different Ga concentrations and results on all samples collected from different absorption edges are also reported. These results are discussed in terms of the vibrational properties of the materials and the role of Ga in {delta}-Pu as a network former.

  4. Oxidation behavior of niobium aluminide intermetallics protected by aluminide and silicide diffusion coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Soboyejo, W.; Rapp, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of a new class of damage-tolerant niobium aluminide (Nb 3 Al-xTi-yCr) intermetallics is studied between 650 C and 850 C. Protective diffusion coatings were deposited by pack cementation to achieve the siliciding or aluminizing of substrates with or without intervening Mo or Ni layers, respectively. The compositions and microstructures of the resulting coatings and oxidized surfaces were characterized. The isothermal and cyclic oxidation kinetics indicate that uncoated Nb-40Ti-15Al-based intermetallics may be used up to ∼750 C. Alloying with Cr improves the isothermal oxidation resistance between 650 C and 850 C. The most significant improvement in oxidation resistance is achieved by the aluminization of electroplated Ni interlayers. The results suggest that the high-temperature limit of niobium aluminide-based alloys may be increased to 800 C to 850 C by aluminide-based diffusion coatings on ductile Ni interlayers. Indentation fracture experiments also indicate that the ductile nickel interlayers are resistant to crack propagation in multilayered aluminide-based coatings

  5. Studies of hydrogen absorption and desorption processes in advanced intermetallic hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Masashi

    2005-07-01

    This work is a part of the research program performed in the Department of Energy Systems, Institute for Energy Technology (Kjeller, Norway), which is focused on the development of the advanced hydrogen storage materials. The activities are aimed on studies of the mechanisms of hydrogen interactions with intermetallic alloys with focus on establishing an interrelation between the crystal structure, thermodynamics and kinetics of the processes in the metal-hydrogen systems, on the one hand, and hydrogen storage properties (capacity, rates of desorption, hysteresis). Many of the materials under investigation have potential to be applied in applications, whereas some already have been commercialised in the world market. A number of metals take up considerable amounts of hydrogen and form chemical compounds with H, metal hydrides. Unfortunately, binary hydrides are either very stable (e.g. for the rare earth metals [RE], Zr, Ti, Mg: metal R) or are formed at very high applied pressures of hydrogen gas (e.g. for the transition metals, Ni, Co, Fe, etc.: Metal T). However, hydrogenation process becomes easily reversible at very convenient from practical point of view conditions, around room temperature and at H2 pressures below 1 MPa for the two-component intermetallic alloys R{sub x}T{sub y}. This raised and maintains further interest to the intermetallic hydrides as solid H storage materials. Materials science research of this thesis is focused on studies of the reasons staying behind the beneficial effect of two non-transition elements M(i.e., In and Sn) contributing to the formation of the ternary intermetallic alloys R{sub x}T{sub y}M{sub 2}., on the hydrogen storage behaviours. Particular focus is on two aspects where the remarkable improvement of ordinary metal hydrides is achieved via introduction of In and Sn: a) Increase of the volume density of stored hydrogen in solid materials to the record high level. b) Improvement of the kinetics of hydrogen charge and

  6. Effect of intermetallic precipitation on the properties of multi passed duplex stainless steel weldment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Seong Han [Technology research institute, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hae Woo [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated the effect of the aging time of weldment of 24Cr-3.5Mo duplex stainless steel on the microstructure and corrosion behavior. After performing FCAW, we carried out heat treatments at varying times at 850 ℃ and performed observation of microstructure, potentio dynamic test, SEM-EDS analysis, and X-ray diffraction analysis. As the aging time increased, the fraction of δ-ferrite decreased sharply, but the fraction of γ slightly increased. The σ phase was generated at a non-metallic inclusion along the grain boundaries of δ-ferrite and γ, while the χ phase was generated in the structure of δ-ferrite. As the intermetallic compounds increased, the critical pitting potential fell sharply, and PREN of the surrounding structure decreased by 5 due to precipitation of the σ phase in 3.5% NaCl at 60 ℃. Pitting occurred intensively under a multi-pass line which relatively had more intermetallic compounds, and the precipitation of the σ phase caused the formation of Cr carbide.

  7. A theoretical search for intermetallic compounds and solution phases in the binary system Sn/Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appen, Joerg von; Dronskowski, Richard; Hack, Klaus

    2004-10-06

    The binary system Sn/Zn was theoretically investigated by a classical thermodynamic analysis (CALPHAD approach) and by density-functional total-energy calculations on the basis of the LDA/GGA, plane waves/muffin-tin orbitals, and supercell geometries. In harmony with experimental data, both methods agree in that there is only very small solubility between the elements and no formation of a stable intermetallic phase over the entire compositional range. For the hypothetical composition Sn{sub 2}Zn, a total of 30 different crystal structures was quantum-mechanically optimized, and the chemical bondings of Sn{sub 2}Zn adopting the CaF{sub 2} and HgBr{sub 2} structures were analyzed in detail; generally, the more ionic structure types are better suited for the Sn{sub 2}Zn composition than typical intermetallic ones. Theoretical enthalphy-pressure diagrams were generated to explore high-pressure compound formation, and the observed transition pressures between the {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} allotropes of tin were correctly reproduced by electronic structure theory.

  8. A phase-field model for non-equilibrium solidification of intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assadi, H.

    2007-01-01

    Intermetallics may exhibit unique solidification behaviour-including slow growth kinetics, anomalous partitioning and formation of unusual growth morphologies-because of departure from local equilibrium. A phase-field model is developed and used to illustrate these non-equilibrium effects in solidification of a prototype B2 intermetallic phase. The model takes sublattice compositions as primary field variables, from which chemical long-range order is derived. The diffusive reactions between the two sublattices, and those between each sublattice and the liquid phase are taken as 'internal' kinetic processes, which take place within control volumes of the system. The model can thus capture solute and disorder trapping effects, which are consistent-over a wide range of the solid/liquid interface thickness-with the predictions of the sharp-interface theory of solute and disorder trapping. The present model can also take account of solid-state ordering and thus illustrate the effects of chemical ordering on microstructure formation and crystal growth kinetics

  9. High temperature cyclic oxidation of Ti-Al based intermetallic in static laboratory air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astuty Amrin; Esah Hamzah; Nurfashahidayu Mohd Badri; Hafida Hamzah

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the oxidation behaviour of binary γ-Ti Al based intermetallics with composition (at%) of 45A, 48Al and 50 Al, and ternary alloys of Ti-48Al containing 2Cr and 4Cr. Thermal cyclic oxidation was conducted discontinuously at temperatures of 700 degree Celsius and 900 degree Celsius in static laboratory air. Optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were employed for the analysis. SEM examination of cross-sectional samples using secondary electron and line-scan analysis after exposure at 700 degree Celsius showed that non-adherent oxides scales formed due to the spallation caused by cyclic condition. For exposure to 900 degree Celsius, only binary alloys exhibited breakaway oxidation whereas the oxide scales formed on the ternary alloys were well-adhered on the substrate alloy. Overall, exposure at 900 degree Celsius resulted in thicker and harder oxide scales and addition of Cr seems to improve oxidation resistance of Ti-Al based intermetallics at higher temperature. (author)

  10. Influence of gas detonation spraying conditions on the quality of Fe-Al intermetallic protective coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senderowski C.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present generalized research results and analyses of the quality of coatings produced with self decomposing Fe-Al intermetallic powders deposited on 1045 steel in the gas detonation spraying (GDS. A number of GDS experiments has been carried out with significantly changed operational spraying parameters (the volume of the fuel gas, carrier gas, distance and the frequency of spraying which define the process energy level directly influencing the quality of the coating. On the basis of the initial results the choice of the process parameters has been made to obtain the most advantageous set of geometrical and physical-mechanical properties of the coating material and substrate. The quality of the coatings was considered by taking into account the grain morphology, chemical content, phase inhomogeneity, cohesive porosity, as well as adhesive porosity in the substrate coating joint. The coating roughness was also considered. It was found that all GDS coatings produced are built with lamellar splats which result from the GDS process transformed (changed plasticity and geometry powder particles forming the deposit. The result of the GDS spraying parameters optimization is the lack of signs of melting of the material (even in microareas while the geometry of the deposited grains is considerably changed. This phenomenon has been considered as a proof of high plasticity of the GDS formed Fe-Al intermetallic coatings.

  11. Stability of ZrBe17, and NiBe intermetallics during intermediate temperature oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.C.; Nieh, T.G.; Wadsworth, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that since the finding of MoSi 2 pest by Fitzer in 1955, a number of intermetallic compounds, e.g., ZrBe 13 , WSi 2 , and NiAl have also been reported to exhibit similar behavior during oxidation in air. For example, Lewis reported that catastrophic failure (total disintegration into powders) occurred in ZrBe 13 when oxidized at 700 degrees C in air. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the powders were composed of BeO, ZrO 2 (cubic), Zr 2 Be 17 , and unreacted ZrBe 13 . Regardless of numerous cited incidents of pest in intermetallics, fundamental understanding of pest is very limited. Recently, MoSi 2 pest has been studied in a great detail and fundamental insights to the mechanism of pest have been established. It is found that both single- and ply- crystalline MoSi 2 are susceptible to pest, which leads to the disintegration of test samples into powder consisting of MoO 3 whiskers, SiP 2 clusters, and residual MoSi 2 crystals. Pest is also noted to associate with substantial volume expansion of the samples. Most important, the occurrence of pest is contingent upon the formation of blisters, resulting from volume expansion by oxidation and the evaporation of MoO 3 on the surfaces and grain boundary interfaces

  12. Mining for elastic constants of intermetallics from the charge density landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Chang Sun; Broderick, Scott R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Jones, Travis E. [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Loyola, Claudia [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Eberhart, Mark E. [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Rajan, Krishna, E-mail: krajan@iastate.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    There is a significant challenge in designing new materials for targeted properties based on their electronic structure. While in principle this goal can be met using knowledge of the electron charge density, the relationships between the density and properties are largely unknown. To help overcome this problem we develop a quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) between the charge density and the elastic constants for B2 intermetallics. Using a combination of informatics techniques for screening all the potentially relevant charge density descriptors, we find that C{sub 11} and C{sub 44} are determined solely from the magnitude of the charge density at its critical points, while C{sub 12} is determined by the shape of the charge density at its critical points. From this reduced charge density selection space, we develop models for predicting the elastic constants of an expanded number of intermetallic systems, which we then use to predict the mechanical stability of new systems. Having reduced the descriptors necessary for modeling elastic constants, statistical learning approaches may then be used to predict the reduced knowledge-based required as a function of the constituent characteristics.

  13. Effect of intermetallic precipitation on the properties of multi passed duplex stainless steel weldment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Seong Han; Lee, Hae Woo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the aging time of weldment of 24Cr-3.5Mo duplex stainless steel on the microstructure and corrosion behavior. After performing FCAW, we carried out heat treatments at varying times at 850 ℃ and performed observation of microstructure, potentio dynamic test, SEM-EDS analysis, and X-ray diffraction analysis. As the aging time increased, the fraction of δ-ferrite decreased sharply, but the fraction of γ slightly increased. The σ phase was generated at a non-metallic inclusion along the grain boundaries of δ-ferrite and γ, while the χ phase was generated in the structure of δ-ferrite. As the intermetallic compounds increased, the critical pitting potential fell sharply, and PREN of the surrounding structure decreased by 5 due to precipitation of the σ phase in 3.5% NaCl at 60 ℃. Pitting occurred intensively under a multi-pass line which relatively had more intermetallic compounds, and the precipitation of the σ phase caused the formation of Cr carbide.

  14. Microstructural and Material Quality Effects on Rolling Contact Fatigue of Highly Elastic Intermetallic Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Thomas, Fransua; Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    Rolling element bearings made from highly-elastic intermetallic materials (HIM)s, such as 60NiTi, are under development for applications that require superior corrosion and shock resistance. Compared to steel, intermetallics have been shown to have much lower rolling contact fatigue (RCF) stress capability in simplified 3-ball on rod (ASTM STP 771) fatigue tests. In the 3-ball tests, poor material quality and microstructural flaws negatively affect fatigue life but such relationships have not been established for full-scale 60NiTi bearings. In this paper, 3-ball-on-rod fatigue behavior of two quality grades of 60NiTi are compared to the fatigue life of full-scale 50mm bore ball bearings made from the same materials. 60NiTi RCF rods with material or microstructural flaws suffered from infant mortality failures at all tested stress levels while high quality 60NiTi rods exhibited no failures at lower stress levels. Similarly, tests of full-scale bearings made from flawed materials exhibited early surface fatigue and through crack type failures while bearings made from high quality material did not fail even in long-term tests. Though the full-scale bearing test data is yet preliminary, the results suggest that the simplified RCF test is a good qualitative predictor of bearing performance. These results provide guidance for materials development and to establish minimum quality levels required for successful bearing operation and life.

  15. Behavior of palladium and its impact on intermetallic growth in palladium-coated Cu wire bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Qin, Ivy; Clauberg, Horst; Chylak, Bob; Acoff, Viola L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of palladium in palladium-coated Cu (PdCu) wire bonding and its impact on bond reliability by utilizing transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A Pd layer approximately 80 nm thick, which is coated on the surface of Cu wire, dissolves into the Cu matrix during ball formation (under N 2 gas protection) when the wire tip is melted to form a ball. As a result of dissolving the very thin Pd layer into the ball, Pd is almost undetectable along the entire bond interface between the ball and the Al pad. The behavior of Pd during thermal aging in air, however, is different for central and peripheral interfaces. At the central interface, less than 5 at.% Pd is present after 168 h aging at 175 °C. At the periphery, however, Pd diffuses back and congregates, reaching a level of ∼12 at.% after 24 h, and a Pd-rich (Cu,Pd) 9 Al 4 layer (>40 at.% Pd) forms after 168 h. Pd acts substitutionally in Cu 9 Al 4 but cannot penetrate into the CuAl 2 or CuAl. By comparison of intermetallic thickness and interfacial morphology between PdCu and bare Cu wire bonds, it is concluded that the presence of Pd reduces intermetallic growth rate, and is associated with numerous nanovoids in PdCu bonds.

  16. Separation of gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the separation of a gaseous plasma mixture into components in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, comprising: a source for converting the gaseous mixture into a train of plasma packets; an open-ended vessel with a main section and at least one branch section, adapted to enclose along predetermined tracks the original plasma packets in the main section, and the separated plasma components in the branch sections; drive means for generating travelling magnetic waves along the predetermined tracks with the magnetic flux vector of the waves transverse to each of the tracks; and means for maintaining phase coherence between the plasma packets and the magnetic waves at a value needed for accelerating the components of the packets to different velocities and in such different directions that the plasma of each packet is divided into distinctly separate packets in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, and which plasma packets are collected from the branch sections of the vessels. (author)

  17. Research of Deformation of Clay Soil Mixtures Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Romas Girkontas; Tadas Tamošiūnas; Andrius Savickas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine clay soils and clay soils mixtures deformations during drying. Experiments consisted from: a) clay and clay mixtures bridges (height ~ 0,30 m, span ~ 1,00 m); b) tiles of clay and clay, sand and straw (height, length, wide); c) cylinders of clay; clay and straw; clay, straw and sand (diameter; height). According to the findings recommendations for clay and clay mixtures drying technology application were presented. During the experiment clay bridge bear...

  18. Intermetallic Pd 3 Pb nanowire networks boost ethanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions with significantly improved methanol tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Qiurong [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Washington State University; Pullman; USA; Zhu, Chengzhou [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Washington State University; Pullman; USA; Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology; Bi, Cuixia [Institute of Crystal Materials; Shandong University; Jinan 250100; P. R. China; Xia, Haibing [Institute of Crystal Materials; Shandong University; Jinan 250100; P. R. China; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Richland; USA; Du, Dan [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Washington State University; Pullman; USA; Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology; Lin, Yuehe [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Washington State University; Pullman; USA

    2017-01-01

    Intermetallic nanocrystals are currently receiving extensive attention due to their well-defined crystal structures, highly ordered atomic distribution and superior structural stability that endow them with optimized catalytic activities, stabilities and high selectivity for use as electrocatalysts for fuel cells.

  19. Identification of intermetallic phases in a eutectic Al-Si casting alloy using electron backscatter diffraction pattern analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kral, M.V.; McIntyre, H.R.; Smillie, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Intermetallic phases in sand cast eutectic Al-Si alloys were characterized using a combination of SEM, EDS and EBSD pattern analysis. Chinese script α-phase particles were consistent with cubic Al 19 (Fe,Mn) 5 Si 2 . Plate-shaped β-phase particles were consistent with tetragonal Al 3 (Fe,Mn)Si 2

  20. Results on powder injection molding of Ni[sub 3]Al and application to other intermetallic compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Net forming processes are under development to allow affordable production of intermetallic components. Powder injection molding (PIM) mav be employed for the production of complex-shaped intermetallic geometries. Proper choice of powder parameters and processing conditions can lead to the formation of fullv dense structures through pressure-less sintering. In this study, Ni[sub 3]Al with 0.04 wt.-% boron has been successfully injection molded and sintered to full density. A yield strength of 340 MPa, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 591 MPa, and 8% elongation were attained for injection molded and sintered tensile bars. Powder characteristics and sintering behavior are given for the nickel aluminide employed in this study to highlight the powder attributes needed for injection molding. Molding parameters, debinding and sintering schedules, along, with mechanical properties are presented to indicate the viability of PIM for intermetallics. This approach based on the understanding of key powder characteristics and use of the reactive synthesis powder process mav be extended to the successful injection molding of other intermetallic systems.

  1. Results on powder injection molding of Ni{sub 3}Al and application to other intermetallic compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.M.

    1992-12-31

    Net forming processes are under development to allow affordable production of intermetallic components. Powder injection molding (PIM) mav be employed for the production of complex-shaped intermetallic geometries. Proper choice of powder parameters and processing conditions can lead to the formation of fullv dense structures through pressure-less sintering. In this study, Ni{sub 3}Al with 0.04 wt.-% boron has been successfully injection molded and sintered to full density. A yield strength of 340 MPa, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 591 MPa, and 8% elongation were attained for injection molded and sintered tensile bars. Powder characteristics and sintering behavior are given for the nickel aluminide employed in this study to highlight the powder attributes needed for injection molding. Molding parameters, debinding and sintering schedules, along, with mechanical properties are presented to indicate the viability of PIM for intermetallics. This approach based on the understanding of key powder characteristics and use of the reactive synthesis powder process mav be extended to the successful injection molding of other intermetallic systems.

  2. Multifunctional phenomena in rare-earth intermetallic compounds with a laves phase structure: giant magnetostriction and magnetocaloric effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tereshina, I.; Cwik, J.; Tereshina, Evgeniya; Politova, G.; Burkhanov, G.; Chzhan, V.; Ilyushin, A.; Miller, M.; Zaleski, A.; Nenkov, K.; Schultz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 11 (2014), s. 2504604 ISSN 0018-9464 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : giant magnetostriction * Laves phase structure * magnetic anisotropy * magnetocaloric effect * rare-earth intermetallic Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2014

  3. Description of structure of Fe-Zn intermetalic compounds present in hot-dip galvanized coatings on steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is describing formation, composition, morphology and crystallographic characteristics of intermetalic compounds Fe - Zn present in the coating formed during the process of low-temperature hot-dip galvanizing of carbon steels. In mutual confrontation we introduce older bibliography and results of latest modern researches based on combination of most precise analytical methods.

  4. Effect of Sr and solidification conditions on characteristics of intermetallic in Al-Si 319 industrial alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza-Cuadra, J.; Gallegos-Acevedo, P.; Mancha-Molinar, H.; Picado, A.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to determine the effect of strontium (Sr) on the characteristic of intermetallic phases, particularly the Al 5 FeSi phase which present morphology of platelets or needle-like. The results showed that within the range of variables studied, the modification process caused the disappearance of the needles and only occur the precipitation of phase α (chinese script-like). Refinement of the intermetallic phases occurs in conjunction with the refinement in grain size. Both parameters depend strongly on local cooling rate (T), temperature gradient (G) and apparent rate of solidification front (V). In the case of equiaxed structures the refinement of grain size and intermetallic occurs with increasing local cooling rate and temperature gradient and decrease the apparent rate of solidification front. In the case of columnar structures, refinement of grains and intermetallic requires the increase in values of the three variables indicated. Moreover, the addition of Sr resulted in the modification of silicon eutectic, as noted in others research works.

  5. Characterization of intermetallic compounds in Cu-Al ball bonds: thermo-mechanical properties, interface delamination and corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, G.H.M.; Kouters, M.H.M.; Dos Santos Ferreira, O.

    2012-01-01

    In high power automotive electronics copper wire bonding is regarded as the most promising alternative for gold wire bonding in 1st level interconnects. In the Cu-Al ball bond interface the growth of intermetallic compounds can deteriorate the electrical and mechanical properties of the

  6. Influence of severe plastic deformation on intermetallic particles in Mg-12wt.%Zn alloy investigated using transmission electron microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Martin; Gärtnerová, Viera; Jäger, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, Sep (2016), 129-136 ISSN 1044-5803 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Mg-Zn * severe plastic deformation * equal channel angular pressing * transmission electron microscopy * microstructure * intermetallic particles Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.714, year: 2016

  7. Mutagenicity of complex mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelroy, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of coal-derived complex chemical mixtures on the mutagenicity of 6-aminochrysene (6-AC) was determined with Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Previous results suggested that the mutagenic potency of 6-AC for TA98 in the standard microsomal activation (Ames) assay increased if it was presented to the cells mixed with high-boiling coal liquids (CL) from the solvent refined coal (SRC) process. In this year's work, the apparent mutational synergism of CL and 6-AC was independently verified in a fluctuation bioassay which allowed quantitation of mutational frequencies and cell viability. The results of this assay system were similar to those in the Ames assay. Moreover, the fluctation assay revealed that mutagenesis and cellular toxicity induced by 6-AC were both strongly enhanced if 6-AC was presented to the cells mixed in a high-boiling CL. 4 figures

  8. Microstructure and properties of Ti-Al intermetallic/Al2O3 layers produced on Ti6Al2Mo2Cr titanium alloy by PACVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, R.; Bolek, T.; Mizera, J.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents investigation of microstructure and corrosion resistance of the multi-component surface layers built of intermetallic phases of the Ti-Al system and an outer Al2O3 ceramic sub-layer. The layers were produced on a two phase (α + β) Ti6Al2Mo2Cr titanium alloy using the PACVD method with the participation of trimethylaluminum vapors. The layers are characterized by a high surface hardness and good corrosion, better than that of these materials in the starting state. In order to find the correlation between their structure and properties, the layers were subjected to examinations using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), surface analysis by XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and analyses of the chemical composition (EDS). The properties examined included: the corrosion resistance and the hydrogen absorptiveness. Moreover growth of the Al2O3 ceramic layer and its influence on the residual stress distribution was simulated using finite element method [FEM]. The results showed that the produced layer has amorphous-nano-crystalline structure, improved corrosion resistance and reduces the permeability of hydrogen as compared with the base material of Ti6Al2Mo2Cr -titanium alloy.

  9. Effects of filling material and laser power on the formation of intermetallic compounds during laser-assisted friction stir butt welding of steel and aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xinjiang; Jin, Xiangzhong; Peng, Nanxiang; Ye, Ying; Wu, Sigen; Dai, Houfu

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, two kinds of materials, Ni and Zn, are selected as filling material during laser-assisted friction stir butt welding of Q235 steel and 6061-T6 aluminum alloy, and their influences on the formation of intermetallic compounds on the steel/aluminum interface of the joints were first studied. SEM was used to analyze the profile of the intermetallic compound layer and the fractography of tensile fracture surfaces. In addition, EDS was applied to investigate the types of the intermetallic compounds. The results indicate that a thin iron-abundant intermetallic compound layer forms and ductile fracture mode occurs when Ni is added, but a thick aluminum-abundant intermetallic compound layer generates and brittle fracture mode occurs when Zn is added. So the tensile strength of the welds with Ni as filling material is greater than that with Zn as filling material. Besides, the effect of laser power on the formation of intermetallic compound layer when Ni is added was investigated. The preheated temperature field produced by laser beam in the cross section of workpiece was calculated, and the tensile strength of the joints at different laser powers was tested. Results show that only when suitable laser power is adopted, can suitable preheating temperature of the steel reach, then can thin intermetallic compound layer form and high tensile strength of the joints reach. Either excessive or insufficient laser power will reduce the tensile strength of the joints.

  10. Digestive ripening facilitated atomic diffusion at nanosize regime: Case of AuIn{sub 2} and Ag{sub 3}In intermetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Neha [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Jagirdar, Balaji R., E-mail: jagirdar@ipc.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Klabunde, Kenneth J. [Department of Chemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A digestive ripening facilitated interatomic diffusion process is presented. • Nearly monodisperse AuIn{sub 2} and Ag{sub 3}In intermetallic nanoparticles were synthesized. • Optimization of reaction temperature facilitates interatomic transfer. • Presence of excess ligand plays a crucial role in the digestive ripening process. - Abstract: Monodisperse colloidal gold–indium (AuIn{sub 2}) intermetallic nanoparticles have been synthesized from Au and In colloids using the digestive ripening process. Formation of the intermetallic proceeds via digestive ripening facilitated atomic diffusion of Au and In atoms from the Au and In nanoparticles followed simultaneously by their growth in the solution. Optimization of the reaction temperature was found to be crucial for the formation of AuIn{sub 2} intermetallic from gold and indium nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of nearly monodisperse nanoparticles of Au and AuIn{sub 2} with particle size distribution of 3.7 ± 1.0 nm and 5.0 ± 1.6 nm, respectively. UV–visible spectral studies brought out the absence of SPR band in pure AuIn{sub 2} intermetallic nanoparticles. Optical study and electron microscopy, in combination with powder X-ray diffraction established phase pure AuIn{sub 2} intermetallic nanoparticles unambiguously. The potential of such an unprecedented approach has been further exploited in the synthesis of Ag{sub 3}In intermetallic nanoparticles with the dimension of less than 10 nm.

  11. Electrochemical preparation of Al–Sm intermetallic compound whisker in LiCl–KCl Eutectic Melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, De−Bin; Yan, Yong−De; Zhang, Mi−Lin; Li, Xing; Jing, Xiao−Yan; Han, Wei; Xue, Yun; Zhang, Zhi−Jian; Hartmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The reduction process of Sm(III) was investigated in LiCl–KCl melt on an aluminum electrode at 773 K. • Al–Sm alloy with different phase structure (Al 2 Sm and Al 3 Sm) was prepared by potentiostatic electrolysis on an aluminum electrode with the change of electrolytic potentials and time in LiCl–KCl–SmCl 3 melts. • Al − Sm alloy containing whiskers (Al 4 Sm) was obtained by potentiostatic electrolysis (−2.10 V) on an aluminum electrode for 7 hours with the change of electrolytic temperature and cooling rate in LiCl–KCl–SmCl 3 (16.5 wt. %) melts. The results from micro–hardness test and potentiodynamic polarization test show the micro hardness and corrosion property are remarkably improved with the help of Al–Sm intermetallic compound whiskers. - Abstract: This work presents the electrochemical study of Sm(III) on an aluminum electrode in LiCl–KCl melts at 773 K by different electrochemical methods. Three electrochemical signals in cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, open circuit chronopotentiometry, and cathode polarization curve are attributed to different kinds of Al–Sm intermetallic compounds, Al 2 Sm, Al 3 Sm, and Al 4 Sm, respectively. Al–Sm alloy with different phase structure (Al 2 Sm and Al 3 Sm) could be obtained by the potentiostatic electrolysis with the change of electrolytic potentials and time. Al–Sm alloy containing whiskers (Al 4 Sm) was obtained by potentiostatic electrolysis (−2.10 V) on an aluminum electrode for 7 hours with the change of electrolytic temperature and cooling rate in LiCl–KCl–SmCl 3 (16.5 wt. %) melts. The XRD and SEM&EDS were employed to investigate the phase composition and microstructure of Al–Sm alloy. SEM analysis shows that lots of needle−like precipitates formed in Al–Sm alloy, and their ratios of length to diameter are found to be greater than 10 to 1. The TEM and electron diffraction pattern were performed to investigate the crystal structure of the

  12. Intermetallic precipitation in rare earth-treated A413.1 alloy. A metallographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Agnes M.; Samuel, Fawzy H. [Univ. du Quebec a Chicoutimi (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Doty, Herbert W. [General Motors, Pontiac, MI (United States). Materials Engineering; Valtierra, Salvador [Nemak, S.A., Garza Garcia (Mexico)

    2018-02-15

    The present study was performed mainly on A413.1 alloy. Measured amounts of La, Ce or La+Ce, Ti and Sr were added to the molten alloy in the form of master alloys. Samples sectioned from castings obtained from thermal analysis experiments were used for preparing samples for metallographic examination. The results show that addition of rare earth (RE) metals to Al-Si alloys increased the α-Al nucleation temperature and depressed the Al-Si eutectic formation temperature, thereby increasing the solidification range. Depending upon the alloying elements/additives, a large number of RE-based intermetallics could be formed: Al{sub 4}(Ce,La), Al{sub 13}(Ce,La){sub 2}Cu{sub 3}, Al{sub 7}(Cu,Fe){sub 6}(Ce,La){sub 6}Si{sub 2}, Al{sub 4}La, Al{sub 2}La{sub 5}Si{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}Ce{sub 5}Si{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}(Ce,La){sub 5}Si{sub 2}. Under an electron microscope, these phases appear in backscatter imaging mode in the form of thin grayish-white platelets on the dark gray Al matrix. The average thickness of these platelets is about 1.5 μm. When the alloy is grain refined with Ti-based master alloys, precipitation of a gray phase in the form of sludge is observed: Al{sub 12}La{sub 3}Ti{sub 2}, or Al{sub 12}(Ce,La){sub 3}Ti{sub 2}. Regardless the alloy composition, the RE/Al ratios remain constant in each type of intermetallic. Rare earth metals have a strong affinity to react with Sr (resulting in partial modification of the eutectic Si particles) as well as some transition elements, in particular Ti and Cu. Iron has a very low affinity for interaction with RE metals. It is only confined to Fe-based intermetallics.

  13. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt % to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %. Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  14. Structure evolution of multilayer materials of heat-resistant intermetallic compounds under the influence of temperature in the process of diffusion welding under pressure and their mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzhov, Valeriy P.; Karpov, Michael I.; Prokhorov, Dmitriy V. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Multilayer materials of high-resistant intermetallic compounds of some transition metals with aluminum and silicon were obtained by diffusion welding of packages, collected from a large number of the respective foils, such as niobium and aluminum. Materials of intermetallics with silicon were obtained by the welding of packages built from metal foils with Si-coating. The change in the structure according to the temperature of the welding was studied, and the high-temperature bending strength was determined. Key words: multilayer composite, high-resistant material, intermetallic compound, diffusion welding, package rolling, layered structure, bending strength.

  15. Advances in processing of NiAl intermetallic alloys and composites for high temperature aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, Kamil; Basista, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few decades intermetallic compounds such as NiAl have been considered as potential high temperature structural materials for aerospace industry. A large number of investigations have been reported describing complex fabrication routes, introducing various reinforcing/alloying elements along with theoretical analyses. These research works were mainly focused on the overcoming of main disadvantage of nickel aluminides that still restricts their application range, i.e. brittleness at room temperature. In this paper we present an overview of research on NiAl processing and indicate methods that are promising in solving the low fracture toughness issue at room temperature. Other material properties relevant for high temperature applications are also addressed. The analysis is primarily done from the perspective of NiAl application in aero engines in temperature regimes from room up to the operating temperature (over 1150 °C) of turbine blades.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in D019 Ti3Al intermetallic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskoboinikov, Roman E.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) has been applied to simulate the radiation damage created in displacement cascades in D0 19 Ti 3 Al structural intermetallics. Collision cascades formed by the recoil of either Al or Ti primary knock-on atoms (PKA) with energy E PKA = 5, 10, 15 or 20 keV were considered in Ti 3 Al single crystals at T = 100, 300, 600 and 900 K. At least 24 different cascades for each (E PKA , T, PKA type) set were simulated. A comprehensive treatment of the modelling results has been carried out. We have evaluated the number of Frenkel pairs, fraction of Al and Ti vacancies, self-interstitial atoms and anti-sites as a function of (E PKA ,T, PKA type). Preferred formation of both Al vacancies and self-interstitial atoms in D0 19 Ti 3 Al exposed to irradiation has been detected

  17. Process for the manufacture of a superconductor with an intermetallic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, M.

    1980-01-01

    A superconductor with a superconducting intermetallic compound consisting of at least two elements can be manufactured by producing a conductor preproduct with a first component containing one element of the compound and a second component consisting of a carrier metal and the remaining element or elements of the alloy containing the compound, and by heat treating the conductor preproduct, so that the compound is formed by the reaction of the element of the first compound with the remaining element or elements of the second compound. In such a superconductor, one tries to increase the effective current density and critical current. The invention states that the heat treatment should be carried out in a hydrogen atmosphere. Superconductors produced by this process can be used for superconductor devices whose magnetic fields have a flux density above 10 Tesla. (orig.) [de

  18. Crack resistance behaviour of an intermetallic Ti-Al-Si-Nb alloy at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittkowsky, B.U.; Pfuff, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The room temperature crack growth behaviour of a Ti-Al-Si-Nb alloy consisting of the two intermetallic phases (Ti, Nb) 3 (Al, Si) and (Ti, Nb) 5 (Si, Al) 3 is investigated in the present paper. The material exhibits a heterogeneous disordered microstructure and fails in a brittle manner. Crack growth is associated with a pronounced crack resistance behaviour. For a sample of nominally identical specimens the R-curves scatter around a mean curve with a standard deviation which remains roughly constant as the crack grows. A natural extension of the bundle model introduced in a previous paper is used to simulate R-curves and their scatter is in reasonably good agreement with the experimental findings. (orig.)

  19. Effects of Nb content on the Zr{sub 2}Fe intermetallic stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, C. E-mail: ciramos@cnea.gov.ar; Saragovi, C.; Granovsky, M.; Arias, D

    2003-02-01

    With the aim of studying the stability range of the Zr{sub 2}Fe intermetallic when adding Nb, the range of existence of the cubic ternary phase ({lambda}{sub 1}) and the corresponding two-phase field between them, four samples were analyzed, each one containing 35 at.% Fe and different at.% Nb: 0.5, 4 10 and 15. Optical and scanning electron metallographies, X-ray diffraction, microprobe analysis and Moessbauer spectroscopy were performed to determine and characterize the phases present in the samples. Results show that the Zr{sub 2}Fe compound accepts up to nearly 0.5 at.% Nb in solution, since the Zr{sub 2}Fe+{lambda}{sub 1} region is stable in the (0.5-3.5) at.% Nb range. To summarize these results an 800 deg. C section of the ternary Zr-Nb-Fe diagram, in the studied zone, was proposed.

  20. Effects of Nb content on the Zr2Fe intermetallic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, C.; Saragovi, C.; Granovsky, M.; Arias, D.

    2003-01-01

    With the aim of studying the stability range of the Zr 2 Fe intermetallic when adding Nb, the range of existence of the cubic ternary phase (λ 1 ) and the corresponding two-phase field between them, four samples were analyzed, each one containing 35 at.% Fe and different at.% Nb: 0.5, 4 10 and 15. Optical and scanning electron metallographies, X-ray diffraction, microprobe analysis and Moessbauer spectroscopy were performed to determine and characterize the phases present in the samples. Results show that the Zr 2 Fe compound accepts up to nearly 0.5 at.% Nb in solution, since the Zr 2 Fe+λ 1 region is stable in the (0.5-3.5) at.% Nb range. To summarize these results an 800 deg. C section of the ternary Zr-Nb-Fe diagram, in the studied zone, was proposed

  1. A statistical-thermodynamic model for ordering phenomena in thin film intermetallic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, Olga; Krachler, Regina

    2008-01-01

    Ordering phenomena in bcc (110) binary thin film intermetallics are studied by a statistical-thermodynamic model. The system is modeled by an Ising approach that includes only nearest-neighbor chemical interactions and is solved in a mean-field approximation. Vacancies and anti-structure atoms are considered on both sublattices. The model describes long-range ordering and simultaneously short-range ordering in the thin film. It is applied to NiAl thin films with B2 structure. Vacancy concentrations, thermodynamic activity profiles and the virtual critical temperature of order-disorder as a function of film composition and thickness are presented. The results point to an important role of vacancies in near-stoichiometric and Ni-rich NiAl thin films

  2. Production of low oxygen contamination orthorhombic Ti-Al-Nb intermetallic foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, S.C.; Peters, J.A.; Blatter, P.; Jaquet, J.C.; Morris, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Aerospace industries continue the search for high performance materials, and recent years have seen rapid developments being made in the capabilities of Ti-Al based intermetallic alloys. Interest in these alloys is caused by their attractive combination of strength and density, but major drawbacks include brittleness at low temperature and sensitivity to interstitial contamination. Development of a relatively new class of alloys was stimulated in 1988 by the discovery of Banerjee et al. of a Ti-Al-Nb orthorhombic (O) phase based on the Ti 2 AlNb composition. Some important applications for these alloys require the use of foil ( 2 phase and leads to material embrittlement. ELIT (Extra Low Interstitial Transfer) pack-rolling, developed by Sulzer Innotec, offers a technique to avoid oxygen contamination

  3. Intermetallic compounds in 3D integrated circuits technology: a brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, Syahira; Mahmoodian, Reza; Hamdi, Mohd; Tu, King-Ning

    2017-12-01

    The high performance and downsizing technology of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) for mobile consumer electronic products have gained much attention in the microelectronics industry. This has been driven by the utilization of chip stacking by through-Si-via and solder microbumps. Pb-free solder microbumps are intended to replace conventional Pb-containing solder joints due to the rising awareness of environmental preservation. The use of low-volume solder microbumps has led to crucial constraints that cause several reliability issues, including excessive intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formation and solder microbump embrittlement due to IMCs growth. This article reviews technologies related to 3D-ICs, IMCs formation mechanisms and reliability issues concerning IMCs with Pb-free solder microbumps. Finally, future outlook on the potential growth of research in this area is discussed.

  4. Effects of surface polishing and annealing on the optical conductivity of intermetallic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, J Y

    1999-01-01

    The optical conductivity spectra of several intermetallic compounds were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Three spectra were measured for each compound; just after the sample was mechanically polished, at high temperature, and after the sample was annealed at 110 .deg. C for at least one day and cooled to room temperature. An equiatomic FeTi alloy showed the typical effects of annealing after mechanical polishing of surface. The spectrum after annealing had a larger magnitude and sharper structures than the spectrum before annealing. We also observed shifts of peaks in the spectrum. A relatively low-temperature annealing gave rise to unexpectedly substantial effects, and the effects were explained by recrystallization and/or a disorder -> order transition of the surface of the sample which was damaged and, hence, became highly disordered by mechanical polishing. Similar effects were also observed when the sample temperature was lowered. The observed changes upon annealing could partly be explained by p...

  5. Size and surface AREA analysis of some metallic and intermetallic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmasry, M.A.A.; Elsayed, A.A.; Abadir, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The powder characterization of three intermetallic compounds ( Cr B, B 4 c and S ib 4 ) and three metallic powders (Fe, Co, and Ni) has been performed. This included the determination of powder density, chemical analysis, impurity analysis, shape factor, particle size analysis and specific surface area. The particle size analysis for the six powders was carried out using three techniques, namely; the 0-23, the microtrac and the fisher sub sieve and size. It was found that the analysis of the two powders and deviates from the log-normal probability distribution and the deviation was corrected. The specific surface area of the powders was measured using the high speed surface area analysis (BET method), and it was also calculated from surface area analysis findings, the BET technique was found to give the highest specific surface area values, and was attributed to the inclusion of internal porosity in the measurement. 8 fig., 10 tab

  6. Electronic structure, elasticity, bonding features and mechanical behaviour of zinc intermetallics: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatima, Bushra, E-mail: bushrafatima25@gmail.com; Acharya, Nikita; Sanyal, Sankar P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, 462026 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The structural stability, electronic structure, elastic and mechanical properties of TiZn and ZrZn intermetallics have been studied using ab-initio full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within generalized gradient approximation for exchange and correlation potentials. The various structural parameters, such as lattice constant (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B), and its pressure derivative (B’) are analysed and compared. The investigation of elastic constants affirm that both TiZn and ZrZn are elastically stable in CsCl (B{sub 2} phase) structure. The electronic structures have been analysed quantitatively from the band structure which reveals the metallic nature of these compounds. To better illustrate the nature of bonding and charge transfer, we have also studied the Fermi surfaces. The three well known criterion of ductility namely Pugh’s rule, Cauchy’s pressure and Frantsevich rule elucidate the ductile nature of these compounds.

  7. Predicting the stability of ternary intermetallics with density functional theory and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan; Chen, Liming; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A. L.

    2018-06-01

    We use a combination of machine learning techniques and high-throughput density-functional theory calculations to explore ternary compounds with the AB2C2 composition. We chose the two most common intermetallic prototypes for this composition, namely, the tI10-CeAl2Ga2 and the tP10-FeMo2B2 structures. Our results suggest that there may be ˜10 times more stable compounds in these phases than previously known. These are mostly metallic and non-magnetic. While the use of machine learning reduces the overall calculation cost by around 75%, some limitations of its predictive power still exist, in particular, for compounds involving the second-row of the periodic table or magnetic elements.

  8. Intermetallic compounds in 3D integrated circuits technology: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, Syahira; Mahmoodian, Reza; Hamdi, Mohd; Tu, King-Ning

    2017-01-01

    The high performance and downsizing technology of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) for mobile consumer electronic products have gained much attention in the microelectronics industry. This has been driven by the utilization of chip stacking by through-Si-via and solder microbumps. Pb-free solder microbumps are intended to replace conventional Pb-containing solder joints due to the rising awareness of environmental preservation. The use of low-volume solder microbumps has led to crucial constraints that cause several reliability issues, including excessive intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formation and solder microbump embrittlement due to IMCs growth. This article reviews technologies related to 3D-ICs, IMCs formation mechanisms and reliability issues concerning IMCs with Pb-free solder microbumps. Finally, future outlook on the potential growth of research in this area is discussed.

  9. On the valence state of Yb and Ce in transition metal intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, F.R. de; Dijkman, W.H.; Mattens, W.C.M.

    1979-01-01

    In the pure state Yb is a divalent metal, similar to Ca; in alloys it can become trivalent like the majority of the rare earth metals. Using a value of 38 kJ (mol Yb) -1 for the energy difference between divalent and trivalent Yb metal and using model calculations for the heat of formation of intermetallic compounds, the authors are able to account for the existing information on the valence state of Yb in transition metal compounds. A similar analysis of compounds of Ce with transition metals shows that a model in which the 4f electron is treated as a core electron, i.e. being absent in the tetravalent modification of Ce and present as a fully localized electron in trivalent Ce, does not apply. (Auth.)

  10. Interface-related deformation phenomena in intermetallic γ-titanium aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, F.; Wagner, R.

    1993-01-01

    The development of titanium aluminides towards higher ductility concentrates on Ti-rich alloys which are composed of the intermetallic phases γ(TiAl) and α 2 (Ti 3 Al). The two phases form a lamellar microstructure with various types of interfaces. The deformation behaviour of these materials was investigated by compression tests, which were performed for different orientations of the interfacial boundaries with respect to the sample axis. With regard to the mechanical properties the structure of the interfaces and the micromechanisms of deformation were studied by conventional and high resolution electron microscopy. Accordingly, the interfacial boundaries impede the propagation of slip across the lamellae, leading to an athermal contribution to the flow stress. (orig.)

  11. Interface-related deformation phenomena in intermetallic γ-titanium aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, F.; Wagner, R.

    1993-01-01

    The development of titanium aluminides towards higher ductility concentrates on Ti-rich alloys which are composed of the intermetallic phases γ(TiAl) and α2(Ti3Al). The two phases form a lamellar microstructure with various types of interfaces. The deformation behaviour of these materials was investigated by compression tests, which were performed for different orientations of the interfacial boundaries with respect to the sample axis. With regard to the mechanical properties the structure of the interfaces and the micromechanisms of deformation were studied by conventional and high resolution electron microscopy. Accordingly, the interfacial boundaries impede the propagation of slip across the lamellae, leading to an athermal contribution to the flow stress.

  12. Intermetallic bonds and midgap interface states at epitaxial Al/GaAs(001) junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxisch, T.; Baldereschi, A.; Binggeli, N.

    2003-03-01

    Using first-principles pseudopotential calculations, we have investigated the nature of the electronic states with energies within the semiconductor bandgap of abrupt, defect-free As-terminated Al/GaAs(001) junctions. While bonding-/antibonding-like semiconductor evanescent states occur near the valence-/conduction-band edges, the semiconductor midgap region is characterized by a new type of electronic states, not accounted for by commonly accepted models. These states, which correspond to intermetallic bonds between the outermost Ga cations of the semiconductor and Al atoms of the metal, occur near the Fermi energy. They are localized at the interface and are located around the J-point of the Brillouin zone. These new interface states derive from an interaction between localized states of the Al(001) surface and bulk GaAs conduction band states, mediated by localized states of the unreconstructed As-terminated GaAs(001) surface. (author)

  13. Application of feal intermetallic phase matrix based alloys in the turbine components of a turbocharger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cebulski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a possible application of the state-of-the-art alloys based on the FeAl intermetallic phases as materials for the manufacture of heat-proof turbine components in an automobile turbocharger. The research was aimed at determining the resistance to corrosion of Fe40Al5CrTiB alloy in a gaseous environment containing 9 % O2 + 0,2 % HCl + 0,08 % SO2 + N2. First the kinetics of corrosion processes for the considered alloy were determined at the temperatures of 900 °C, 1 000 °C and 1 100 °C, which was followed by validation under operating conditions. To do so, the tests were carried out over a distance of 20 000 km. The last stage involved examination of the surfaces after the test drive. The obtained results are the basis for further research in this field.

  14. Formation and transformation of binary intermetallic phases in high purity Al-Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griger, A.; Stefaniay, V.; Kovacs-Csetenyi, E.; Turmezey, T.

    1990-01-01

    The solid solubility of iron in aluminium is very low (<0.04%), (all compositions are given in w%) therefore most of the iron content appears as intermetallic phases in combination with aluminium and other elements. The amount of iron does not exceed the level of the eutectic concentration in the commercial aluminium alloys, however the non-desired effect of these primary phases of large size must be taken into consideration. In the case of rapid solidification (RS) the eutectic point shifts to higher values of iron content. The eutectic has a very fine structure and the primary phases formed at high cooling rates have also very low particle size. Because of it, for the sake of improvement of the thermo-mechanical properties of the RS aluminium alloys the quantity of iron can be increased up to 8-10%. Above this concentration the favourable properties do not develop while the elongation decreases

  15. Low-temperature thermal expansion of metastable intermetallic Fe-Cr phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunoff, A.; Levin, A.A.; Meyer, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) of metastable disordered intermetallic Fe-Cr phases formed in thin Fe-Cr alloy films prepared by an extremely non-equilibrium method of the pulsed laser deposition are studied. The lattice parameters of the alloys calculated from the low-temperature wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD) patterns show linear temperature dependencies in the temperature range 143-293 K and a deviation from the linearity at lower temperatures. The linear thermal expansion coefficients determined from the slopes of the linear portions of the temperature-lattice parameter dependencies differ significantly from phase to phase and from the values expected for the body-centered cubic (b.c.c.) Fe 1-x Cr x solid solutions. Strain-crystallite size analysis of the samples is performed. Predictions about the Debye temperature and the mechanical properties of the alloys are made.

  16. Sodium borohydride hydrolysis in the presence of intermetallic compound LaNi5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobov, I.I.; Mozgina, N.G.

    1992-01-01

    Kinetics of catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride in the 1 mol/l solution of caustic sodium within the range of 298-318 K in presence of LaNi 5 intermetallic compound is studied. It is established that the reaction has zero order by NaBH 4 and the first one by LaNi 5 . The apparent activation energy of NaBH 4 catalytic hydrolysis in presence of LaNi 5 , calculated on the basis of temperature dependence of reaction velocity, is constant within the temperature range under investigation and constitutes 56$+-$1.5 kJ/mol. Recombination of surface hydrogen on LaNi 5 in molecular one is limiting stage determining NaBH 4 hydrolysis rate

  17. The possibility to use TiAl intermetallics for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Titanium aluminide TiAl is the promising heat resisting structural material with operation temperature up to 850-900 deg C. This intermetallic compound is characterized by low density and high specific values of elasticity moduli and heat resistance properties in wide temperature range, as compared to known heat resisting titanium, iron and nickel base alloys. Test batch of pressed blades was manufactured of TiAl with the use of powder technology. Results of testing showed, that endurance strength of blades exceeded by 30% the strength, required for operation. The calculations showed, that the use of such blades in gas-turbine cagines could provide 30-40% decrease of mass of compressor blading

  18. Mechanical Behavior and Fracture Properties of NiAl Intermetallic Alloy with Different Copper Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao-Hsing Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deformation behavior and fracture characteristics of NiAl intermetallic alloy containing 5~7 at% Cu are investigated at room temperature under strain rates ranging from 1 × 10−3 to 5 × 103 s−1. It is shown that the copper contents and strain rate both have a significant effect on the mechanical behavior of the NiAl alloy. Specifically, the flow stress increases with an increasing copper content and strain rate. Moreover, the ductility also improves as the copper content increases. The change in the mechanical response and fracture behavior of the NiAl alloy given a higher copper content is thought to be the result of the precipitation of β-phase (Ni,CuAl and γ'-phase (Ni,Cu3Al in the NiAl matrix.

  19. Discovery of Intermetallic Compounds from Traditional to Machine-Learning Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliynyk, Anton O; Mar, Arthur

    2018-01-16

    Intermetallic compounds are bestowed by diverse compositions, complex structures, and useful properties for many materials applications. How metallic elements react to form these compounds and what structures they adopt remain challenging questions that defy predictability. Traditional approaches offer some rational strategies to prepare specific classes of intermetallics, such as targeting members within a modular homologous series, manipulating building blocks to assemble new structures, and filling interstitial sites to create stuffed variants. Because these strategies rely on precedent, they cannot foresee surprising results, by definition. Exploratory synthesis, whether through systematic phase diagram investigations or serendipity, is still essential for expanding our knowledge base. Eventually, the relationships may become too complex for the pattern recognition skills to be reliably or practically performed by humans. Complementing these traditional approaches, new machine-learning approaches may be a viable alternative for materials discovery, not only among intermetallics but also more generally to other chemical compounds. In this Account, we survey our own efforts to discover new intermetallic compounds, encompassing gallides, germanides, phosphides, arsenides, and others. We apply various machine-learning methods (such as support vector machine and random forest algorithms) to confront two significant questions in solid state chemistry. First, what crystal structures are adopted by a compound given an arbitrary composition? Initial efforts have focused on binary equiatomic phases AB, ternary equiatomic phases ABC, and full Heusler phases AB 2 C. Our analysis emphasizes the use of real experimental data and places special value on confirming predictions through experiment. Chemical descriptors are carefully chosen through a rigorous procedure called cluster resolution feature selection. Predictions for crystal structures are quantified by evaluating

  20. The creep properties of a low alloy ferritic steel containing an intermetallic precipitate dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batte, A.D.; Murphy, M.C.; Edmonds, D.V.

    1976-01-01

    A good combination of creep rupture ductility and strength together with excellent long term thermal stability, has been obtained from a dispersion of intermetallic Laves phase precipitate in a non-transforming ferritic low alloy steel. The steel is without many of the problems currently associated with the heat affected zone microstructures of low alloy transformable ferritic steels, and can be used as a weld metal. Following suitable development to optimize the composition and heat treatment, such alloys may provide a useful range of weldable creep resistant steels for steam turbine and other high temperature applications. They would offer the unique possibility of easily achievable microstructural uniformity, giving good long term strength and ductility across the entire welded joint

  1. Highly stable carbon coated Mg2Si intermetallic nanoparticles for lithium-ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamirat, Andebet Gedamu; Hou, Mengyan; Liu, Yao; Bin, Duan; Sun, Yunhe; Fan, Long; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is an ideal candidate anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). However, it suffers from rapid capacity fading due to large volume expansion upon lithium insertion. Herein, we design and fabricate highly stable carbon coated porous Mg2Si intermetallic anode material using facile mechano-thermal technique followed by carbon coating using thermal vapour deposition (TVD), toluene as carbon source. The electrode exhibits an excellent first reversible capacity of 726 mAh g-1 at a rate of 100 mA g-1. More importantly, the electrode demonstrates high rate capability (380 mAh g-1 at high rate of 2 A g-1) as well as high cycle stability, with capacity retentions of 65% over 500 cycles. These improvements are attributable to both Mg supporting medium and the uniform carbon coating, which can effectively increase the conductivity and electronic contact of the active material and protects large volume alterations during the electrochemical cycling process.

  2. Crystal structure and electrical resistivity studies of Gd(Fe1-x Cox)2 intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onak, M.; Guzdek, P.; Stoch, P.; Chmist, J.; Bednarski, M.; Panta, A.; Pszczola, J.

    2007-01-01

    From X-ray analysis (295 K) it was found that the cubic, MgCu 2 -type, Fd3m crystal structure appears across the Gd(Fe 1-x Co x ) 2 series. Electrical resistivity measurements for the Gd(Fe 1-x Co x ) 2 intermetallics were performed in a wide temperature region and the parameters characterizing the resistivity dependence on temperature and composition were determined. The differential of the electrical resistivity against temperature was used to estimate Curie temperatures. The Curie temperature versus x, high and moderately increasing in the iron-rich area, rapidly drops in the cobalt-rich region. The obtained results are compared with the data known for the Dy(Fe 1-x Co x ) 2 series. The Curie temperature is related to both the number of 3d electrons and the de Gennes factor

  3. The intermetallic bonding between a ring carrier and aluminum piston alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasijevic, Srećko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of investigating the formation of intermetallic bond between a ring carrier and aluminum piston alloy. The ring carrier is made of austenitic cast iron (Ni-Resist in order to increase the wear resistance of the first ring groove and applied in highly loaded diesel engines. Metallographic examination of the quality of alfin bond was done. A metallographic investigation using an optical microscope in combination with the SEM/EDS analysis of the quality of the intermetallic bonding layer was done. The test results show that can be made successfully as well as the formation of metal connection (alfin bond between the ring carrier and aluminum piston alloy.El artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación sobre la formación de una unión intermetálica entre el portasegmento y la aleación de aluminio del pistón. El portasegmento es una fundición de hierro austenítico (Ni-Resist con el fin de aumentar la resistencia al desgaste de la unión Al-fin del primer segmento y se utiliza en motores diésel altamente cargados. Se realizó un examen metalográfico de la unión intermetálica, mediante un microscopio óptico en combinación con SEM/EDS. Los satisfactorios resultados obtenidos muestran la formación de contacto metálico (unión Al-fin del primer segmento entre el portasegmento y la aleación de aluminio del pistón.

  4. Phase transition of intermetallic TbPt at high temperature and high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fei; Wu, Xiang; Yang, Ke; Qin, Shan

    2018-04-01

    Here we present synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction experiments combined with diamond anvil cell and laser heating techniques on the intermetallic rare earth compound TbPt (Pnma and Z  =  4) up to 32.5 GPa and ~1800 K. The lattice parameters of TbPt exhibit continuous compression behavior up to 18.2 GPa without any evidence of phase transformation. Pressure-volume data were fitted to a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state with V 0  =  175.5(2) Å3, {{K}{{T0}}}   =  110(5) GPa and K{{T0}}\\prime   =  3.8(7). TbPt exhibits anisotropic compression with β a   >  β b   >  β c and the ratio of axial compressibility is 2.50:1.26:1.00. A new monoclinic phase of TbPt assigned to the Pc or P2/c space group was observed at 32.5 GPa after laser heating at ~1800 K. This new phase is stable at high pressure and presented a quenchable property on decompression to ambient conditions. The pressure-volume relationship is well described by the second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, which yields V 0  =  672(4) Å3, {{K}{{T0}}}   =  123(6) GPa, which is about ~14% more compressible than the orthorhombic TbPt. Our results provide more information on the structure and elastic property view, and thus a better understanding of the physical properties related to magnetic structure in some intermetallic rare earth alloys.

  5. Thermal expansion and thermal diffusivity properties of Co-Si solid solutions and intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Ying; Li, Liuhui; Gu, Qianqian; Zhou, Kai; Yan, Na; Wei, Bingbo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Length change difference between rapidly and slowly solidified Co-Si alloy occurs at high temperature. • Generally CTE increases with an increasing Si content. • The thermal diffusion abilities are CoSi 2 > Co 95 Si 5 > Co 90 Si 10 > Co 2 Si > CoSi if T exceeds 565 K. • All the CTE and thermal diffusivity variations with T satisfy linear or polynomial relations. - Abstract: The thermal expansion of Co-Si solid solutions and intermetallic compounds was measured via dilatometric method, compared with the results of first-principles calculations, and their thermal diffusivities were investigated using laser flash method. The length changes of rapidly solidified Co-Si alloys are larger than those of slowly solidified alloys when temperature increases to around 1000 K due to the more competitive atom motion. The coefficient of thermal expansion (α) of Co-Si alloy increases with an increasing Si content, except that the coefficient of thermal expansion of Co 95 Si 5 influenced by both metastable structure and allotropic transformation is lower than that of Co 90 Si 10 at a higher temperature. The thermal expansion abilities of Co-Si intermetallic compounds satisfy the relationship of Co 2 Si > CoSi > CoSi 2 , and the differences of the coefficients of thermal expansion between them increase with the rise of temperature. The thermal diffusivity of CoSi 2 is evidently larger than the values of other Co-Si alloys. If temperature exceeds 565 K, their thermal diffusion abilities are CoSi 2 > Co 95 Si 5 > Co 90 Si 10 > Co 2 Si > CoSi. All the coefficient of thermal expansion and thermal diffusivity variations with temperature satisfy linear or polynomial relations.

  6. Femtosecond laser ablation and nanoparticle formation in intermetallic NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, David J., E-mail: davidjjorgensen@engr.ucsb.edu; Titus, Michael S.; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • The single-pulse fs laser ablation threshold of NiAl is 83 mJ/cm{sup 2}. • The transition between low- and high-fluence ablation regimes is 2.8 J/cm{sup 2}. • A bimodal size distribution of nanoparticles is formed with fs laser ablation. • Smaller nanoparticles are enriched in Al during pulsed fs laser ablation. • The target surface is depleted in Al during pulsed fs laser ablation. - Abstract: The ablation behavior of a stoichiometric intermetallic compound β-NiAl subjected to femtosecond laser pulsing in air has been investigated. The single-pulse ablation threshold for NiAl was determined to be 83 ± 4 mJ/cm{sup 2} and the transition to the high-fluence ablation regime occurred at 2.8 ± 0.3 J/cm{sup 2}. Two sizes of nanoparticles consisting of Al, NiAl, Ni{sub 3}Al and NiO were formed and ejected from the target during high-fluence ablation. Chemical analysis revealed that smaller nanoparticles (1–30 nm) tended to be rich in Al while larger nanoparticles (>100 nm) were lean in Al. Ablation in the low-fluence regime maintained this trend. Redeposited material and nanoparticles remaining on the surface after a single 3.7 J/cm{sup 2} pulse, one hundred 1.7 J/cm{sup 2} pulses, or one thousand 250 mJ/cm{sup 2} pulses were enriched in Al relative to the bulk target composition. Further, the surface of the irradiated high-fluence region was depleted in Al indicating that the fs laser ablation removal rate of the intermetallic constituents in this regime does not scale with the individual pure element ablation thresholds.

  7. The formation of intermetallic compounds during interdiffusion of Mg–Al/Mg–Ce diffusion couples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jiahong; Jiang, Bin; Li, Xin; Yang, Qingshan; Dong, Hanwu; Xia, Xiangsheng; Pan, Fusheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Al–Ce intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed in Mg–Al/Mg–Ce diffusion couples. During the whole diffusion process, Al was the dominant diffusing species, and it substituted for Mg atoms of the Mg–Ce substrate. Five Al–Ce IMCs of Al 4 Ce, Al 11 Ce 3 , Al 3 Ce, Al 2 Ce, and AlCe were formed via the reaction of Al and Ce. - Highlights: • Al–Ce IMCs formation in the Mg–Al/Mg–Ce diffusion couples was studied. • Formation of Al 4 Ce as the first phase was rationalized using the Gibbs free energy. • The activation energy for the growth of the diffusion reaction zones was 36.6 kJ/mol. - Abstract: The formation of Al–Ce intermetallic compounds (IMCs) during interdiffusion of Mg–Al/Mg–Ce diffusion couples prepared by solid–liquid contact method was investigated at 623 K, 648 K and 673 K for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. During the whole diffusion process, Al was the dominant diffusing species, and it substituted for Mg of the Mg–Ce substrate. Five Al–Ce IMCs of Al 4 Ce, Al 11 Ce 3 , Al 3 Ce, Al 2 Ce and AlCe were formed via the reaction of Al and Ce. The formation of Al 4 Ce as the first kind of IMC was rationalized on the basis of an effective Gibbs free energy model. The activation energy for the growth of the total diffusion reaction layer was 36.6 kJ/mol

  8. Application of mechanical alloying to synthesis of intermetallic phases based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymek, S.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical alloying is the process of synthesis of powder materials during milling in high energetic mills, usually ball mills. The central event in mechanical alloying is the ball-powder-ball collision. Powder particles are trapped between the colliding balls during milling and undergo deformation and/or fracture. Fractured parts are cold welded. The continued fracture and cold welding results in a uniform size and chemical composition of powder particles. The main applications of mechanical alloying are: processing of ODS alloys, syntheses of intermetallic phases, synthesis of nonequilibrium structures (amorphous alloys, extended solid solutions, nanocrystalline, quasi crystals) and magnetic materials. The present paper deals with application of mechanical alloying to synthesis Ni A l base intermetallic phases as well as phases from the Nb-Al binary system. The alloy were processed from elemental powders. The course of milling was monitored by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. After milling, the collected powders were sieved by 45 μm grid and hot pressed (Nb alloys and NiAl) or hot extruded (NiAl). The resulting material was fully dense and exhibited fine grain (< 1 μm) and uniform distribution of oxide dispersoid. The consolidated material was compression and creep tested. The mechanical properties of mechanically alloys were superior to properties of their cast counterparts both in the room and elevated temperatures. Higher strength of mechanically alloyed materials results from their fine grains and from the presence of dispersoid. At elevated temperatures, the Nb-Al alloys have higher compression strength than NiAl-based alloys processed at the same conditions. The minimum creep rates of mechanically alloyed Nb alloys are an order of magnitude lower than analogously processed NiAl-base alloys. (author)

  9. The effect of crystal structure stability on the mobility of gas bubbles in intermetallic uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.; Hofman, G.L.; Birtcher, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation experiments with certain low-enrichment, high-density, uranium-base intermetallic alloys that are candidate reactor fuel materials, such as U 3 Si and U 6 Fe, have revealed extraordinarily large voids at low and medium fuel burnup. This phenomenon of breakaway swelling does not occur in other fuel types, such as U 3 Si 2 and UAl 3 , where a distribution of relatively small and stable fission gas bubbles forms. In situ transmission electron microscope observations of ion radiation-induced rapid swelling of intermetallic materials are consistent with growth by plastic flow. Large radiation enhancement of plastic flow in amorphous materials has been observed in several independent experiments and is thought to be a general materials phenomenon. The basis for a microscopic theory of fission gas bubble behavior in irradiated amorphous compounds has been formulated. The assumption underlying the overall theory is that the evolution of the porosity from that observed in the crystalline material to that observed in irradiated amorphous U 3 Si as a function of fluence is due to a softening of the irradiated amorphous material. Bubble growth in the low-viscosity material has been approximated by an effective enhanced diffusivity. Mechanisms are included for the radiation-induced softening of the amorphous material, and for a relation between gas atom mobilities and radiation-induced (defect-generated) changes in the material. Results of the analysis indicate that the observed rapid swelling in U 3 Si arises directly from enhanced bubble migration and coalescence due to plastic flow. 34 refs., 11 figs

  10. Void formation and its impact on Cu−Sn intermetallic compound formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Glenn; Vuorinen, Vesa; Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi

    2016-01-01

    Void formation in the Cu−Sn system has been identified as a major reliability issue with small volume electronic interconnects. Voids form during the interdiffusion of electrochemically deposited Cu and Sn, with varying magnitude and density. Electroplating parameters include the electrolytic chemistry composition and the electroplating current density, all of which appear to effect the voiding characteristics of the Cu−Sn system. In addition, interfacial voiding affects the growth kinetics of the Cu_3Sn and Cu_6Sn_5 intermetallic compounds of the Cu−Sn system. The aim here is to present voiding data as a function of electroplating chemistry and current density over a duration (up to 72 h) of isothermal annealing at 423 K (150 °C). Voiding data includes the average interfacial void size and average void density. Voids sizes grew proportionally as a function of thermal annealing time, whereas the void density grew initially very quickly but tended to saturate at a fixed density. A morphological evolution analysis called the physicochemical approach is utilised to understand the processes that occur when a voided Cu/Cu_3Sn interface causes changes to the IMC phase growth. The method is used to simulate the intermetallic thickness growths' response to interfacial voiding. The Cu/Cu_3Sn interface acts as a Cu diffusion barrier disrupting the diffusion of Cu. This resulted in a reduction in the Cu_3Sn thickness and an accelerated growth rate of Cu_6Sn_5. - Highlights: • Average void size is proportional linearly to thermal annealing time. • Average void density grows initially very rapidly followed by saturation. • Voids located close to the Cu/Cu_3Sn interface affect IMC growth rates. • Voids act as a diffusion barrier inhibiting Cu diffusion towards Sn. • Voids located at the interface cause Cu_3Sn to be consumed by Cu_6Sn_5.

  11. Fast diffusion in the intermetallics Ni3Sb and Fe3Si: a neutron scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randl, O.G.

    1994-02-01

    We present the results of neutron scattering experiments designed to elucidate the reason for the extraordinarily fast majority component diffusion in two intermetallic alloys of DO 3 structure, Fe 3 Si and Ni 3 Sb: We have performed diffraction measurements in order to determine the crystal structure and the state of order of both alloys as a function of composition and temperature. The results on Fe 3 Si essentially confirm the classical phase diagram: The alloys of a composition between 16 and 25 at % Si are DO 3 -ordered at room temperature and disorder at high temperatures. The high-temperature phase Ni 3 Sb also crystallizes in the DO 3 structure. Vacancies are created in one Ni sublattice at Sb contents beyond 25 at %. In a second step the diffusion mechanism in Ni 3 Sb has been studied by means of quasielastic neutron scattering. The results are reconcileable with a very simple NN jump model between the two different Ni sublattices. Finally, the lattice dynamics of Fe 3 Si and Ni 3 Sb has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering in dependence of temperature (both alloys) and alloy composition (Fe 3 Si only). The results on Fe 3 Si indicate clearly that phonon enhancement is not the main reason for fast diffusion in this alloy. In Ni 3 Sb no typical signs of phonon-enhanced diffusion have been found either. As a conclusion, fast diffusion in DO 3 intermetallics is explained by extraordinarily high vacancy concentrations (several atomic percent) in the majority component sublattices. (author)

  12. NMR measurements in milled GdCo2 and GdFe2 intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribuzy, C.V.B.; Guimaraes, A.P.; Biondo, A.; Larica, C.; Alves, K.M.B.

    1998-12-01

    We have used the nuclear magnetic resonance technique to study the magnetic and structural properties of the Gd-Co and Gd-Fe metallic systems, starting with the C15 laves phase intermetallic compounds, and submitting them to a high energy milling process. This leads to the amorphization of the samples, as determined by the X-ray diffraction spectra. For the Gd-Co system the NMR study used the 59 Co nucleus; in the Gd-Fe system, 155,157 Gd and 57 Fe were used. Both systems showed segregation of the pure elements, after a few hours of milling. In the Gd-Co system, a single line, of increasing width, was observed in the 59 Co spectrum. In the Gd-Fe system, the 155 Gd and 157 Gd resonances show three lines, arising from electrical quadrupole interaction. With increasing milling time, the lines broaden, and extra lines appear attributed to a cubic phase of Gd; this interpretation is supported by the X-ray analysis of the samples. The 57 Fe NMR spectrum of this system also informs on the direction of magnetization of the samples in the early stages of milling. From 1 h to 7 h of milling, a spectrum of α-Fe was observed. The study of the NMR line intensity as a function of radio frequency (r.f.) power in Gd Co 2 suggests the existence of regions of the samples with different degrees of disorder. We have observed the persistence of NMR signals from the original intermetallic compounds in the samples with up to 10 h and 7 h of milling, respectively, for Gd Co 2 and Gd Fe 2 . (author)

  13. Magneto-caloric effect in the pseudo-binary intermetallic YPrFe{sub 17} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pablo [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro, E-mail: pgorria@uniovi.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Sanchez Llamazares, Jose L. [Division de Materiales Avanzados, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Perez, Maria J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Franco, Victorino [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, ICMSE-CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, P.O. Box 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Reiffers, Marian; Kovac, Jozef [Institute of Experimental Physics, Watsonova 47, SK-04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Puente-Orench, Ines [Institute Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Blanco, Jesus A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YPrFe{sub 17} exhibits a broad {Delta}S{sub M}(T) associated with the ferro-to-paramagnetic phase transition (T{sub C} Almost-Equal-To 290 K). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtain |{Delta}S{sub M}| Almost-Equal-To 2.3 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1} and RCP Almost-Equal-To 100 J kg{sup -1}for a magnetic field change of 1.5 T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A single master curve for {Delta}S{sub M} is found when compared with other isostructural R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} binary alloys. - Abstract: We have synthesized the intermetallic YPrFe{sub 17} compound by arc-melting. X-ray and neutron powder diffraction show that the crystal structure is rhombohedral with R3{sup Macron }m space group (Th{sub 2}Zn{sub 17}-type). The investigated compound exhibits a broad isothermal magnetic entropy change {Delta}S{sub M}(T) associated with the ferro-to-paramagnetic phase transition (T{sub C} Almost-Equal-To 290 K). The |{Delta}S{sub M}| ( Almost-Equal-To 2.3 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1}) and the relative cooling power ( Almost-Equal-To 100 J kg{sup -1}) have been calculated for applied magnetic field changes up to 1.5 T. A single master curve for {Delta}S{sub M} under different values of the magnetic field change can be obtained by a rescaling of the temperature axis. The results are compared and discussed in terms of the magneto-caloric effect in the isostructural R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} (R = Y, Pr and Nd) binary intermetallic alloys.

  14. Contribution to the study of magnetic properties of rare-earth iron intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morariu, M.

    1976-01-01

    The intermetallic binary compounds Ysub(x)Fesub(y)(YFe 2 ,YFe 3 ,Y 6 Fe 23 ,Y 2 Fe 17 ), RFe 2 (R=Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Er and Tm) and the intermetallic pseudobinary compounds (Gdsub(x)Ysub(1-x))Fe 2 and Dy(Fesub(x)Nisub(1-x)) 3 were studied, using magnetic measurements and Moessbauer spectroscopy, in order to obtain information on their magnetic behaviour. The different models which describe magnetic interactions in rare-earths with 3d transition element compounds are reviewed. The magnetic hyperfine field Hsub(n) at the Fe 57 nucleus, measured by Moessbauer spectroscopy, depends on the atom position in the lattice, being sensitive to magnetic interactions with neighbouring atoms. The mean value of the magnetic hyperfine field, average Hsub(n) is proportional to the mean magnetic moment of the iron atom: average Hsub(n)/average μsub(Fe) approximately 150 kOe. The comparative study of the temperature dependence of average Hsub(n) and average μsub(Fe) values shows that this relation is valid for the whole range of magnetic ordering (T>Tsub(c)). The mean magnetic hyperfine fields at the Fe 57 nucleus in RFe 2 compounds depend on the rare-earth partner and vary approximative linearly with the Gennes factor. The spin reorientation diagram for the (Gdsub(x)Ysub(1-x))Fe 2 system is obtained. All results on Moessbauer spectroscopy are in good agreement with the magnetic measurements. The magnetic behaviour of iron atoms is justified using a model in which the most electrons are in a narrow band, so they could be considered localized, and the magnetic interactions between these atoms take place through a fraction (<5%) of 3d itinerant electrons. (author)

  15. Ultrafast and Highly Reversible Sodium Storage in Zinc-Antimony Intermetallic Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2015-12-17

    The progress on sodium-ion battery technology faces many grand challenges, one of which is the considerably lower rate of sodium insertion/deinsertion in electrode materials due to the larger size of sodium (Na) ions and complicated redox reactions compared to the lithium-ion systems. Here, it is demonstrated that sodium ions can be reversibly stored in Zn-Sb intermetallic nanowires at speeds that can exceed 295 nm s-1. Remarkably, these values are one to three orders of magnitude higher than the sodiation rate of other nanowires electrochemically tested with in situ transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the nanowires display about 161% volume expansion after the first sodiation and then cycle with an 83% reversible volume expansion. Despite their massive expansion, the nanowires can be cycled without any cracking or facture during the ultrafast sodiation/desodiation process. In addition, most of the phases involved in the sodiation/desodiation process possess high electrical conductivity. More specifically, the NaZnSb exhibits a layered structure, which provides channels for fast Na+ diffusion. This observation indicates that Zn-Sb intermetallic nanomaterials offer great promise as high rate and good cycling stability anodic materials for the next generation of sodium-ion batteries. Sodium ions can be stored in Zn4 Sb3 nanowires with a speed of 295.5 nm/s, which is one to three orders of magnitude higher than that of other nanowires electrochemically tested by the same method. Despite their massive expansion, the nanowires can be cycled dozens of times without any internal fracture during the ultrafast sodiation/desodiation process. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Complex mixtures biostudies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the project is to identify potential adverse biological activities associated with human exposures to complex organic mixtures (COM) from energy-related industries. Studies to identify the influence of chemical class fractions from a COM on the initiating activity of a known carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), demonstrated that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (NPAC) fractions were the most effective inhibitors of initiation. In an effort to determine the contribution of BaP to the initiating activity of the COM, binding of radiolabeled BaP to mouse skin DNA was measured. Results indicated that binding of BaP to DNA decreased in the presence of the COM so that at initiating COM doses, BaP binding was near the limit detection. Addition of unlabeled BaP to the COM at an amount similar to that originally present in the COM did not significantly increase the binding. Studies to determine the rates of disappearance of carcinogenic PAH from the site of application on the skin indicated that half-lives for PAH differed by a factor of about 2. Analytical methods developed to identify PAH from COM which covalently bind to DNA demonstrated that the lower level of detection is approximately 200 picograms. Developmental studies demonstrated that both pregnant rats and mice treated dermally with a high-boiling COM developed fetuses with major malformations including cleft palate, small lungs, edema, and sagittal suture hemorrhages. 3 figures, 5 tables

  17. Component effects in mixture experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepel, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    In a mixture experiment, the response to a mixture of q components is a function of the proportions x 1 , x 2 , ..., x/sub q/ of components in the mixture. Experimental regions for mixture experiments are often defined by constraints on the proportions of the components forming the mixture. The usual (orthogonal direction) definition of a factor effect does not apply because of the dependence imposed by the mixture restriction, /sup q/Σ/sub i=1/ x/sub i/ = 1. A direction within the experimental region in which to compute a mixture component effect is presented and compared to previously suggested directions. This new direction has none of the inadequacies or errors of previous suggestions while having a more meaningful interpretation. The distinction between partial and total effects is made. The uses of partial and total effects (computed using the new direction) in modification and interpretation of mixture response prediction equations are considered. The suggestions of the paper are illustrated in an example from a glass development study in a waste vitrification program. 5 figures, 3 tables

  18. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon; Ryu, Duchwan; Mallick, Bani K.; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class

  19. Easy and flexible mixture distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Mabit, Stefan L.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to generate flexible mixture distributions that are useful for estimating models such as the mixed logit model using simulation. The method is easy to implement, yet it can approximate essentially any mixture distribution. We test it with good results in a simulation study...

  20. Characterization of intermetallics in aluminum to zinc coated interstitial free steel joining by pulsed MIG brazing for automotive application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basak, Sushovan, E-mail: sushovanbasak@gmail.com [Metallurgical and Material Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata–700032 (India); Das, Hrishikesh, E-mail: hrishichem@gmail.com [Metallurgical and Material Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata–700032 (India); Pal, Tapan Kumar, E-mail: tkpal.ju@gmail.com [Metallurgical and Material Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata–700032 (India); Shome, Mahadev, E-mail: mshome@tatasteel.com [Material Characterization & Joining Group, R & D, Tata Steel, Jamshedpur–831007 (India)

    2016-02-15

    In order to meet the demand for lighter and more fuel efficient vehicles, a significant attempt is currently being focused toward the substitution of aluminum for steel in the car body structure. It generates vital challenge with respect to the methods of joining to be used for fabrication. However, the conventional fusion joining has its own difficulty owing to formation of the brittle intermetallic phases. In this present study AA6061-T6 of 2 mm and HIF-GA steel sheet of 1 mm thick are metal inert gas (MIG) brazed with 0.8 mm Al–5Si filler wire under three different heat inputs. The effect of the heat inputs on bead geometry, microstructure and joint properties of MIG brazed Al-steel joints were exclusively studied and characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) assisted X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selective area diffraction pattern. Finally microstructures were correlated with the performance of the joint. Diffusion induced intermetallic thickness measured by FESEM image and concentration profile agreed well with the numerically calculated one. HRTEM assisted EDS study was used to identify the large size FeAl{sub 3} and small size Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} type intermetallic compounds at the interface. The growth of these two phases in A2 (heat input: 182 J mm{sup −1}) is attributed to the slower cooling rate with higher diffusion time (~ 61 s) along the interface in comparison to the same for A1 (heat input: 155 J mm{sup −1}) with faster cooling rate and shorter diffusion time (~ 24 s). The joint efficiency as high as 65% of steel base metal is achieved for A2 which is the optimized parameter in the present study. - Highlights: • AA 6061 and HIF-GA could be successfully joined by MIG brazing. • Intermetallics are exclusively studied and characterized by XRD, FESEM and EPMA. • Intermetallic formation by diffusion is

  1. Corrosion behavior of Fe3Al intermetallics with addition of lithium, cerium and nickel in 2.5 % SO2+N2 at 900 degree centigrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna-Ramirez, A.; Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Martinez-Villafane, A.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J. G.; Chaon-Nava, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of Fe 3 Al-type intermetallic alloys with addition of 1 at. % cerium, lithium and nickel at high temperature has been studied. The various alloys were exposed to an environment composed of 2.5 % SO 2 +N 2 at 900 degree centigrade for 48 h. For all the intermetallic tested, the corrosion kinetics showed a parabolic behavior. The alloy, which showed less corrosion rate, was the Fe3AlNi alloy, being Fe 3 AlCeLi the alloy with the highest corrosion rate. For the various alloys, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, EDS, on the developed scale only detected aluminum, oxygen, and traces of iron and cerium, suggesting the formation of alumina as main component. The intermetallic alloys showed oxide cracking and spalling. The intermetallic chemical composition played an important role in defining the oxide scale morphology and the extent of damage. (Author) 39 refs.

  2. Elemental analysis of the Al-Fe intermetallic prepared by fast solidification; Analisis elemental del intermetalico Al-Fe preparado por solidificacion rapida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval J, R.A.; Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Aspiazu F, J.; Villasenor S, P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Applying the PIXE technique samples of the Al-Fe intermetallic prepared by fast solidification, obtained starting from Al recycled were analyzed. The concentrations of the found elements are given. (Author)

  3. The system analysis of temperature and melting enthalpy of intermetallic compounds of antimony-lanthanoids system of Sb Ln, Sb2Ln composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalova, M.A.; Chamanova, M.; Dodkhoev, E.S.; Badalov, A.; Abdusalyamova, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to system analysis of temperature and melting enthalpy of intermetallic compounds of antimony-lanthanoids system of Sb Ln, Sb 2 Ln composition. The melting enthalpy was estimated. The temperature value was determined.

  4. A general mixture theory. I. Mixtures of spherical molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Esam Z.

    1996-08-01

    We present a new general theory for obtaining mixture properties from the pure species equations of state. The theory addresses the composition and the unlike interactions dependence of mixture equation of state. The density expansion of the mixture equation gives the exact composition dependence of all virial coefficients. The theory introduces multiple-index parameters that can be calculated from binary unlike interaction parameters. In this first part of the work, details are presented for the first and second levels of approximations for spherical molecules. The second order model is simple and very accurate. It predicts the compressibility factor of additive hard spheres within simulation uncertainty (equimolar with size ratio of three). For nonadditive hard spheres, comparison with compressibility factor simulation data over a wide range of density, composition, and nonadditivity parameter, gave an average error of 2%. For mixtures of Lennard-Jones molecules, the model predictions are better than the Weeks-Chandler-Anderson perturbation theory.

  5. A diffraction based study of the deformation mechanisms in anomalously ductile B2 intermetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Rupalee Prashant

    For many decades, the brittle nature of most intermetallic compounds (e.g. NiAl) has been the limiting factor in their practical application. Many B2 (CsCl prototypical structure) intermetallics are known to exhibit slip on the {110} slip mode, which provides only 3 independent slip systems and, hence, is unable to satisfy the von Mises (a.k.a. Taylor) criterion for polycrystalline ductility. As a result, inherent polycrystalline ductility is unexpected. Recent discovery of a number of ductile B2 intermetallics has raised questions about possible violation of the von Mises criterion by these alloys. These ductile intermetallic compounds are MR (metal (M) combined with a rare earth metal or group IV refractory metal (R)) alloys and are stoichiometric, ordered compounds. Single crystal slip trace analyses have only identified the presence of {011} or {010} slip systems. More than 100 other B2 MR compounds are known to exist and many of them have already been shown to be ductile (e.g., CuY, AgY, CuDy, CoZr, CoTi, etc.). Furthermore, these alloys exhibit a large Bauschinger effect. The present work uses several diffraction based techniques including electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and in-situ neutron diffraction; in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mechanical testing, and crystal plasticity modeling, to elucidate the reason for ductility in select B2 alloys, explore the spread of this ductility over the B2 family, and understand the Bauschinger effect in these alloys. Several possible explanations (e.g., slip of dislocations, strong texture, phase transformations and twinning) for the anomalous ductility were explored. An X-ray diffraction based analysis ruled out texture, phase purity and departure from order as explanations for the anomalous ductility in MR alloys. In-situ neutron diffraction and post deformation SEM, EBSD, and TEM were unable to detect any evidence for

  6. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-01

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (Al6(Fe,Mn) was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content. PMID:28787888

  7. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al-5Mg-Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-29

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al-Mg-Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (Al-5Mg-Mn alloy with low Fe content (Al₆(Fe,Mn) was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al-5Mg-Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  8. New intermetallic compounds Ln(Ag, AL)4 (Ln-Y, Gd, Tb, Dy) and their structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'ma, Yu.B.; Stel'makhovich, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    By the methods of X-ray analysis crystal structure of compounds Ln(Ag,Al) 4 , where Ln-Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, posessing rhombic structure, is determined. The intermetallics have been prepared for the first time. Ways of atom distribution and their coordinates in DyAg 0.55 Al 3.45 structure (a=0.4296(1), b=04179(1), c=0.9995(3), R=0.093) are specified. Other compounds are formed in case of LnAgAl 3 compositions. Interatomic distances in Dy(Ag,Al) 4 structure are considered. A supposition is made on the formation in Ln-Ag-Al systems of a greater number of intermetallic compounds

  9. Microstructure and electrochemical characterization of laser melt-deposited Ti2Ni3Si/NiTi intermetallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lixin; Wang Huaming

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion and wear resistant Ti 2 Ni 3 Si/NiTi intermetallic alloys with Ti 2 Ni 3 Si as the reinforcing phase and the ductile NiTi as the toughening phase were designed and fabricated by the laser melt-deposition manufacturing process. Electrochemical behavior of the alloys was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in an NaOH solution. The results showed that the alloys have outstanding corrosion resistance due to the formation of a protective passive surface film of Ni(OH) 2 as well as the high chemical stability and strong inter-atomic bonds inherent to Ti 2 Ni 3 Si and NiTi intermetallics. The Ti 2 Ni 3 Si content has a significant influence on the microstructure of the alloys but only a slight effect on electrochemical corrosion properties

  10. Characterization of oxidation products on a ZrFe2-type laves intermetallic exposed to 200degreeC steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D. P.; Dietz, N.; Finnegan, N.

    2000-01-01

    The release of radioactive elements from the stainless steel-15 wt% zirconium (SS-15Zr) metal waste form will be governed by the corrosion behavior of ZrFe 2 -type intermetallics phases present in the alloy. In this article, oxidation products that formed on a ZrFe 2 -type intermetallic sample exposed to 200 C steam were characterized by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The data revealed two oxide layers on the sample surface: an outer crystalline iron-oxide layer and an inner amorphous zirconium-rich layer believed to be zirconium oxide. Thermodynamic considerations indicate that the zirconium-rich layer formed first. The iron-oxide layer appears to have resulted from the diffusion of iron through the zirconium-rich layer to the oxide-vapor interface

  11. Microstructural and wear characteristics of cobalt free, nickel base intermetallic alloy deposited by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Reena; Kumar, Santosh; Viswanadham, C.S.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.; Limaye, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the microstructural and wear characteristics of Ni base intermetallic hardfacing alloy (Tribaloy-700) deposited on stainless steel-316 L substrate by laser cladding technique. Cobalt base hardfacing alloys have been most commonly used hardfacing alloys for application involving wear, corrosion and high temperature resistance. However, the high cost and scarcity of cobalt led to the development of cobalt free hardfacing alloys. Further, in the nuclear industry, the use of cobalt base alloys is limited due to the induced activity of long lived radioisotope 60 Co formed. These difficulties led to the development of various nickel and iron base alloys to replace cobalt base hardfacing alloys. In the present study Ni base intermetallic alloy, free of Cobalt was deposited on stainless steel- 316 L substrate by laser cladding technique. Traditionally, welding and thermal spraying are the most commonly employed hardfacing techniques. Laser cladding has been explored for the deposition of less diluted and fusion-bonded Nickel base clad layer on stainless steel substrate with a low heat input. The laser cladding parameters (Laser power density: 200 W/mm 2 , scanning speed: 430 mm/min, and powder feed rate: 14 gm/min) resulted in defect free clad with minimal dilution of the substrate. The microstructure of the clad layer was examined by Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffraction technique. The clad layer exhibited sharp substrate/clad interface in the order of planar, cellular, and dendritic from the interface upwards. Dilution of clad with Fe from substrate was very low passing from ∼ 15% at the interface (∼ 40 μm) to ∼ 6% in the clad layer. The clad layer was characterized by the presence of hexagonal closed packed (hcp, MgZn 2 type) intermetallic Laves phase dispersed in the eutectic of Laves and face centered cubic (fcc) gamma solid solution. The

  12. Mictomagnetic, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic transitions in La(FexAl1–x)13 intermetallic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, T.T.M.; Nieuwenhuys, G.J.; Mydosh, J.A.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Cubic La(FexAl1–x)13 intermetallic compounds can be stabilized with iron concentration x between 0.46 and 0.92 in the NaZn13-type structure (D23) with Fm3c (Oh6) space-group symmetry. Here the Fe-Fe coordination number can increase up to 12. At low x values, a mictomagnetic regime occurs with

  13. Structural plasticity: how intermetallics deform themselves in response to chemical pressure, and the complex structures that result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Veronica M; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2014-10-06

    Interfaces between periodic domains play a crucial role in the properties of metallic materials, as is vividly illustrated by the way in which the familiar malleability of many metals arises from the formation and migration of dislocations. In complex intermetallics, such interfaces can occur as an integral part of the ground-state crystal structure, rather than as defects, resulting in such marvels as the NaCd2 structure (whose giant cubic unit cell contains more than 1000 atoms). However, the sources of the periodic interfaces in intermetallics remain mysterious, unlike the dislocations in simple metals, which can be associated with the exertion of physical stresses. In this Article, we propose and explore the concept of structural plasticity, the hypothesis that interfaces in complex intermetallic structures similarly result from stresses, but ones that are inherent in a defect-free parent structure, rather than being externally applied. Using DFT-chemical pressure analysis, we show how the complex structures of Ca2Ag7 (Yb2Ag7 type), Ca14Cd51 (Gd14Ag51 type), and the 1/1 Tsai-type quasicrystal approximant CaCd6 (YCd6 type) can all be traced to large negative pressures around the Ca atoms of a common progenitor structure, the CaCu5 type with its simple hexagonal 6-atom unit cell. Two structural paths are found by which the compounds provide relief to the Ca atoms' negative pressures: a Ca-rich pathway, where lower coordination numbers are achieved through defects eliminating transition metal (TM) atoms from the structure; and a TM-rich path, along which the addition of spacer Cd atoms provides the Ca coordination environments greater independence from each other as they contract. The common origins of these structures in the presence of stresses within a single parent structure highlights the diverse paths by which intermetallics can cope with competing interactions, and the role that structural plasticity may play in navigating this diversity.

  14. Microstructure and tribological properties of NiMo/Mo2Ni3Si intermetallic 'in-situ' composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Yongliang; Song Chunyan; Yang Li; Qin Xiaoling

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Wear resistant NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si intermetallic 'in-situ' composites was fabricated successfully with Mo-Ni-Si powder blends as the starting materials. Microstructure of the NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites consists of Mo 2 Ni 3 Si primary dendrites, binary intermetallic phase NiMo and small amount of Ni/NiMo eutectics structure. The NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites exhibited high hardness and outstanding tribological properties under room-temperature dry-sliding wear test conditions which were attributed to the covalent-dominant strong atomic bonds and excellent combination of strength and ductility and toughness. - Abstract: Wear resistant NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si intermetallic 'in-situ' composites with a microstructure of ternary metal silicide Mo 2 Ni 3 Si primary dendritic, the long strip-like NiMo intermetallic phase, and a small amount of Ni/NiMo eutectics structure were designed and fabricated using molybdenum, nickel and silicon elemental powders. Friction and wear properties of NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites were evaluated under different contact load at room-temperature dry-sliding wear test conditions. Microstructure, worn surface morphologies and subsurface microstructure were characterized by OM, XRD, SEM and EDS. Results indicate that NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites have low fiction coefficient, excellent wear resistance and sluggish wear-load dependence. The dominant wear mechanisms of NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites are soft abrasion and slightly superficial oxidative wear.

  15. Preparation of Fe-Al Intermetallic / TiC-Al2O3 Ceramic Composites from Ilmenite by SHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fe-Al intermetallic/TiC-Al2O3 ceramic composites were successfully prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) from natural ilmenite, aluminium and carbon as the raw materials. The effects of carbon sources, preheating time and heat treatment temperature on synthesis process and products were investigated in detail, and the reaction process of the FeTiO3-Al-C system was also discussed.It is shown that the temperature and velocity of the combustion wave are higher when graphite is used as the carbon source, which can reflect the effect of the carbon source structure on the combustion synthesis;Prolonging the preheating time or heat treatment temperature is beneficial to the formation of the ordered intermetallics; The temperature and velocity of the combustion wave arc improved, but the disordered alloys are difficult to eliminate with the preheating time prolonged. The compound powders mainly containing ordered Fe3Al intermetallic can be prepared through heat treatment at 750 ℃.

  16. Quantitative assessment of intermetallic phase precipitation in a super duplex stainless steel weld metal using automatic image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregori, A. [AB Sandvik Steel, Sandviken (Sweden). R and D Centre; Nilsson, J.-O. [AB Sandvik Steel, R and D Centre, Sandviken (Sweden); Bonollo, F. [Univ. di Padova, DTGSI, Vicenza (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    The microstructure of weld metal of the type 25%Cr-10%Ni-4%Mo-0.28%N in both as-welded and isothermally heat treated (temperature range: 700-1050 C: time range: 10s-72h) conditions has been investigated. Multipass welding was performed in Ar+2%N{sub 2} atmosphere using GTAW. By means of the electron diffraction technique. {sigma}-phase and {chi}-phase were detected and investigated. {chi}-phase precipitated more readily than {sigma}-phase and was found to be a precursor to {sigma}-phase by providing suitable nucleation sites. Quantitative image analysis of ferrite and intermetallic phases was performed as well as manual point counting (ISO 9042). Automatic image analysis was found to be more accurate. The results were used to assess the TTT-diagram with respect to intermetallic phase formation. On the basis of these results a CCT-diagram was computed, considering the intermetallic phase formation described by an Avrami type equation and adopting the additivity rule. (orig.)

  17. First principle study on generalized-stacking-fault energy surfaces of B2-AlRE intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaorong; Wang, Shaofeng; Wang, Rui

    2011-12-01

    First-principles calculations are used to predict the generalized-stacking-fault energy (GSFE) surfaces of AlRE intermetallics. The calculations employ the projector augmented-wave (PAW) method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) using the density functional theory (DFT). GSFE curves along {1 1 0} direction, {1 1 0} direction and {1 1 0} direction have been calculated. The fitted GSFE surfaces have been obtained from the Fourier series based on the translational symmetry. In order to illuminate the reasonable of our computational accuracy, we have compared our theoretical results of B2 intermetallics YCu with the previous calculated results. The unstable-stacking-fault energy (γus) on the {1 1 0} plane has the laws of AlPr, and directions. For the antiphase boundary (APB) energy, that of AlSc is the lowest in the calculated AlRE intermetallics. So the superdislocation with the Burgers vector along direction of AlSc will easily split into two superpartials.

  18. Effect of grain refiner on intermetallic phase formation in directional solidification of 6xxx series wrought Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, G.; O' Reilly, K.; Cantor, B. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Adv. Mat. and Composites; Hamerton, R.; Worth, J.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of a grain refiner on the formation of intermetallic phases in a directionally solidified (Bridgman grown) model 6xxx series wrought Al alloy has been investigated using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A base alloy with and without Al-Ti-B grain refiner was directionally solidified in a Bridgman furnace at growth velocities in the range of 5-120 mm/min. In both cases, the Fe-containing intermetallic phases present were found to be mainly {alpha}-AlFeSi and {beta}-AlFeSi. However, in the alloy with grain refiner solidified at 5mm/min, Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} was also observed. Quantitative XRD results indicated that the addition of Al-Ti-B grain refiner has a strong influence on the relative quantities of intermetallic phases forming during solidification at different growth velocities, which was also confirmed by TEM observations. TEM observations also show that depending on where the {beta}-AlFeSi particles solidified e.g. grain boundaries or triple grain junctions, the size and morphology of the particles may change dramatically. TiB{sub 2} particles were observed to nucleate {beta}-AlFeSi at low and high growth velocities in the 6xxx series Al alloys. (orig.)

  19. Lanthanum hexaboride as advanced structural refiner/getter in TiAl-based refractory intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartavykh, A.V., E-mail: karta@korolev-net.ru [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (TISNCM), 7a Centralnaya str., 142190 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr. 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Asnis, E.A.; Piskun, N.V.; Statkevich, I.I. [The E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, 11 Bozhenko str., 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Gorshenkov, M.V.; Tcherdyntsev, V.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr. 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • Fist application of LaB{sub 6} additive in TiAl-based intermetallics casting. • Pilot synthesis/casting and study of selected TiAl(Nb,Cr,Zr)B,La alloys set. • Dual effect observed: phase structure refinement and oxygen impurity removal. • Co-precipitation of TiB and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} in melt: 2LaB{sub 6} + 12Ti + 3O → 12TiB↓ + La{sub 2}O{sub 3}↓. • Features of structure refinement and oxygen gettering mechanisms reported. -- Abstract: The work is aimed at the study of the formation and refinement of microstructure appearing in the solidifying refractory TiAl-based intermetallics being inoculated with precise boron addition. The novelty of research consists in test application of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB{sub 6}) ligature within semi-continuous electron beam casting process of selected alloys. Two ingots with nominal compositions Ti–44Al–5Nb–2Cr–1.5Zr–0.4B–0.07La and Ti–44Al–5Nb–1Cr–1.5Zr–1B–0.17La (at.%) have been synthesized and cast along with the reference alloy Ti–44Al–5Nb–3Cr–1.5Zr. Their comparative examination suggests (i) essential microstructural phase refinement effect coupled with (ii) threefold/fourfold decrease of background content of undesirable residual oxygen impurity in both alloys containing LaB{sub 6}. This advanced dual activity (i–ii) of LaB{sub 6} is explained by its complete dissolution, dissociation and following re-precipitation of effective Ti-based monoboride nucleants of orthorhombic B27 structure, those being accompanied by strong internal gettering of dissolved oxygen from the melt and from boride-inoculated solid α{sub 2}-Ti{sub 3}Al phase with liberated elemental lanthanum. The phase composition and structure of cast alloys; state and characterization of newly precipitated TiB boride; features of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} micro/nano-dimensional precipitation and oxygen gettering mechanism are reported and discussed.

  20. Void formation and its impact on Cu−Sn intermetallic compound formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Glenn, E-mail: Glenn.Ross@aalto.fi; Vuorinen, Vesa; Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi

    2016-08-25

    Void formation in the Cu−Sn system has been identified as a major reliability issue with small volume electronic interconnects. Voids form during the interdiffusion of electrochemically deposited Cu and Sn, with varying magnitude and density. Electroplating parameters include the electrolytic chemistry composition and the electroplating current density, all of which appear to effect the voiding characteristics of the Cu−Sn system. In addition, interfacial voiding affects the growth kinetics of the Cu{sub 3}Sn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds of the Cu−Sn system. The aim here is to present voiding data as a function of electroplating chemistry and current density over a duration (up to 72 h) of isothermal annealing at 423 K (150 °C). Voiding data includes the average interfacial void size and average void density. Voids sizes grew proportionally as a function of thermal annealing time, whereas the void density grew initially very quickly but tended to saturate at a fixed density. A morphological evolution analysis called the physicochemical approach is utilised to understand the processes that occur when a voided Cu/Cu{sub 3}Sn interface causes changes to the IMC phase growth. The method is used to simulate the intermetallic thickness growths' response to interfacial voiding. The Cu/Cu{sub 3}Sn interface acts as a Cu diffusion barrier disrupting the diffusion of Cu. This resulted in a reduction in the Cu{sub 3}Sn thickness and an accelerated growth rate of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}. - Highlights: • Average void size is proportional linearly to thermal annealing time. • Average void density grows initially very rapidly followed by saturation. • Voids located close to the Cu/Cu{sub 3}Sn interface affect IMC growth rates. • Voids act as a diffusion barrier inhibiting Cu diffusion towards Sn. • Voids located at the interface cause Cu{sub 3}Sn to be consumed by Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}.

  1. Rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics: Structure-bonding-property relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, M. K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The explorations of rare-earth, transition metal intermetallics have resulted in the synthesis and characterization, and electronic structure investigation, as well as understanding the structure-bonding property relationships. The work has presented the following results: (1) Understanding the relationship between compositions and properties in LaFe13-xSix system: A detailed structural and theoretical investigation provided the understanding of the role of a third element on stabilizing the structure and controlling the transformation of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structures to the tetragonal derivative, as well as the relationship between the structures and properties. (2) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth iron silicides Re2-xFe4Si14-y and proposed superstructure: This compound offers complex structural challenges such as fractional occupancies and their ordering in superstructure. (3) Electronic structure calculation of FeSi2: This shows that the metal-semiconductor phase transition depends on the structure. The mechanism of band gap opening is described in terms of bonding and structural distortion. This result shows that the electronic structure calculations are an essential tool for understanding the relationship between structure and chemical bonding in these compounds. (4) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth Zinc aluminides Tb3Zn3.6Al7.4: Partially ordered structure of Tb3Zn3.6Al7.4 compound provides new insights into the formation, composition and structure of rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics. Electronic structure calculations attribute the observed composition to optimizing metal-metal bonding in the electronegative (Zn, Al) framework, while the specific ordering is strongly influenced by specific orbital interactions. (5) Synthesis of new structure type of Zn39(CrxAl1-x)81

  2. Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Intermetallics: Structure-bonding-Property Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Mi-Kyung [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Our explorations of rare-earth, transition metal intermetallics have resulted in the synthesis and characterization, and electronic structure investigation, as well as understanding the structure-bonding-property relationships. Our work has presented the following results: (1) Understanding the relationship between compositions and properties in LaFe13-xSix system: A detailed structural and theoretical investigation provided the understanding of the role of a third element on stabilizing the structure and controlling the transformation of cubic NaZn13-type structures to the tetragonal derivative, as well as the relationship between the structures and properties. (2) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth iron silicides RE2-xFe4Si14-y and proposed superstructure: This compound offers complex structural challenges such as fractional occupancies and their ordering in superstructure. (3) Electronic structure calculation of FeSi2: This shows that the metal-semiconductor phase transition depends on the structure. The mechanism of band gap opening is described in terms of bonding and structural distortion. This result shows that the electronic structure calculations are an essential tool for understanding the relationship between structure and chemical bonding in these compounds. (4) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth Zinc aluminides Tb3Zn3.6Al7.4: Partially ordered structure of Tb3.6Zn13-xAl7.4 compound provides new insights into the formation, composition and structure of rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics. Electronic structure calculations attribute the observed composition to optimizing metal-metal bonding in the electronegative (Zn, Al) framework, while the specific ordering is strongly influenced by specific orbital interactions. (5) Synthesis of new structure type of Zn39(CrxAl1-x

  3. Natural convection in ternary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, G.M.; Kai, L.

    1981-01-01

    The field equations for a mixture of a viscous fluid, a deformable solid and a non-viscous fluid are studied, based on a linearized theory proposed by Bowen. The fields of density of each constituent, temperature, velocity of each fluid and displacement of the solid are determined, for steady states flow of the mixture between two parallel planes and between two concentric cylinders which are maintained at diferent temperatures. (Author) [pt

  4. Centrifugal separation of mixture gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, M.S.; Chen, W.N.; Yin, Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    An attempt for single centrifugal separation of mixtures with different molecular formula was presented in this paper. The mixtures of SF 6 and CCl 3 F, and SF 6 and CCl 4 were chosen as the processing gases, which were prepared in three mass ratios, 0.5, 0.8 and 0.2, respectively. The separating characteristics such as the overall separation factors and the variation of cuts were studied. (author)

  5. Performance evaluation of Louisiana superpave mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This report documents the performance of Louisiana Superpave mixtures through laboratory mechanistic tests, mixture : volumetric properties, gradation analysis, and early field performance. Thirty Superpave mixtures were evaluated in this : study. Fo...

  6. Data on a new beta titanium alloy system reinforced with superlattice intermetallic precipitates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Knowles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “a new beta titanium alloy system reinforced with superlattice intermetallic precipitates” (Knowles et al., 2018 [1]. This includes data from the as-cast alloy obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD as well as SEM data in the solution heat treated condition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM selected area diffraction patterns (SADPs are included from the alloy in the solution heat treated condition, as well as the aged condition that contained < 100 nm B2 TiFe precipitates [1], the latter of which was found to exhibit double diffraction owing to the precipitate and matrix channels being of a similar width to the foil thickness (Williams and Carter, 2009 [2]. Further details are provided on the macroscopic compression testing of small scale cylinders. Of the micropillar deformation experiment performed in [1], SEM micrographs of focused ion beam (FIB prepared 2 µm micropillars are presented alongside those obtained at the end of the in-situ SEM deformation as well as videos of the in-situ deformation. Further, a table is included that lists the Schmidt factors of all the possible slip systems given the crystal orientations and loading axis of the deformed micropillars in the solution heat treated and aged conditions.

  7. Effects of surface polishing and annealing on the optical conductivity of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Joo Yull

    1999-01-01

    The optical conductivity spectra of several intermetallic compounds were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Three spectra were measured for each compound; just after the sample was mechanically polished, at high temperature, and after the sample was annealed at 110 .deg. C for at least one day and cooled to room temperature. An equiatomic FeTi alloy showed the typical effects of annealing after mechanical polishing of surface. The spectrum after annealing had a larger magnitude and sharper structures than the spectrum before annealing. We also observed shifts of peaks in the spectrum. A relatively low-temperature annealing gave rise to unexpectedly substantial effects, and the effects were explained by recrystallization and/or a disorder → order transition of the surface of the sample which was damaged and, hence, became highly disordered by mechanical polishing. Similar effects were also observed when the sample temperature was lowered. The observed changes upon annealing could partly be explained by presumption that the recrystallization would be realized in such a way that the average atomic spacing would be reduced

  8. Incorporation of Interfacial Intermetallic Morphology in Fracture Mechanism Map for Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Kumar, P.; Dutta, I.; Sidhu, R.; Renavikar, M.; Mahajan, R.

    2014-01-01

    A fracture mechanism map (FMM) is a powerful tool which correlates the fracture behavior of a material to its microstructural characteristics in an explicit and convenient way. In the FMM for solder joints, an effective thickness of the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer ( t eff) and the solder yield strength ( σ ys,eff) are used as abscissa and ordinate axes, respectively, as these two predominantly affect the fracture behavior of solder joints. Earlier, a definition of t eff, based on the uniform thickness of IMC ( t u) and the average height of the IMC scallops ( t s), was proposed and shown to aptly explain the fracture behavior of solder joints on Cu. This paper presents a more general definition of t eff that is more widely applicable to a range of metallizations, including Cu and electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG). Using this new definition of t eff, mode I FMM for SAC387/Cu joints has been updated and its validity was confirmed. A preliminary FMM for SAC387/Cu joints with ENIG metallization is also presented.

  9. Microstructural evaluation of interfacial intermetallic compounds in Cu wire bonding with Al and Au pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Giun; Kim, Sang Min; Lee, Jae Young; Choi, Mi Ri; Choe, Si Hyun; Kim, Ki Hong; Ryu, Jae Sung; Kim, Sangshik; Han, Seung Zeon; Kim, Won Yong; Lim, Sung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study on the difference in interfacial behavior of thermally aged Cu wire bonding with Al and Au pads was conducted using transmission electron microscopy. During high-temperature lifetime testing of Cu wire bonding with Al and Au pads at 175 °C for up to 2000 h, different growth rates and growth characteristics were investigated in the Cu–Al intermetallic compounds (IMCs), including CuAl 2 , CuAl and Cu 9 Al 4 , and in the Cu–Au IMCs, including (Au,Cu), Cu 3 Au and (Cu,Au). Because of the lower growth rates and greater ductility of Cu–Au IMCs compared to those of Cu–Al IMCs, the Cu wire bonding with the Au pad showed relatively better thermal aging properties of bond pull strength and ball shear strength than those with the Al pad counterpart. In this study, the coherent interfaces were found to retard the growth of IMCs, and a variety of orientation relationships between wire, pad and interfacial IMCs were identified

  10. Microcracking and macroscopic failure in intermetallic titanium aluminides; Mikrorissbildung und makroskopisches Versagen in intermetallischen Titanaluminiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesand-Valk, B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    2000-07-01

    This paper deals with the correlations between microstructural disorder, that means statistical distribution of phases and local material properties, and macroscopic failure of disordered multiphase materials. On a microscopic level the microstructural disorder leads to randomly distributed local damage before failure (in brittle materials to microcracks) and eventually to localisation of damage. On a macroscopic level the value and scatter of fracture strength and its dependence on specimen size are essentially determined by the microstructural disorder. The failure behaviour is treated by using the discrete chain-of-bundles-model, which treats the details of the microstructure not explicitly but as locally distributed fluctuations of characteristical material parameters. The model has been verified by comparing with experimental results for four intermetallic titanium aluminides and its validity has been demonstrated. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeit behandelt die Zusammenhaenge zwischen der Stochastizitaet des Gefueges, das heisst, einer statistischen Verteilung von Phasen und lokalen Materialeigenschaften und dem makroskopischen Versagen von ungeordneten mehrphasigen Werkstoffen. Auf mikroskopischer Ebene fuehrt die Stochastizitaet des Gefueges vor dem Versagen zu lokalen Schaedigungen (in sproeden Werkstoffen zu Mikrorissen) und schliesslich (abhaengig vom Grad der Unordnung) zur Lokalisierung des Bruchgeschehens. Makroskopisch werden die Groesse und Streuung von Bruchfestigkeitswerten und ihre Probengroessenabhaengigkeit durch die mikrostrukturelle Unordnung wesentlich bestimmt. Dieses Versagensverhalten wird in dem diskreten Chain-of-Bundles-Modell beschrieben, das die Details der Mikrostruktur nicht explizit sondern als lokale statistische Schwankungen von charakteristischen Werkstoffparametern erfasst. Am Beispiel von vier ausgewaehlten Titan-Aluminiden wird das Modell validiert und verifiziert. (orig.)

  11. Effect on strength of ternary alloying additions in L12 intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanpang.

    1991-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of {111} antiphase boundaries (APBs) as well as the site preference of ternary additions in an A 3 B intermetallic with L1 2 structure are studied, using a thermodynamic model. A survey of the results from a variety of ternary alloying additions to Ni 3 Al has shown that there is a conflict in the actual role which solid solution strengthening plays in the athermal increment of yield strength. For instance, a good quantitative agreement with linear concentration law is observed only in alloys with stoichiometric compositions but not in the general case of non-stoichiometric alloys. In the light of the possibility that micro-segregation could explain the experimental discrepancy, the author extends the binary solid solution strengthening theory to the ternary system in an L1 2 structure for the four real systems of Ni-Al-Si, Ni-Al-Ti, Ni-Al-Hf, and Ni-Al-V. It is found that ternary site preference plays an important role in the ternary solid solution strengthening theory with L1 2 structure. Good quantitative agreement was found between the calculated and experimentally measured strength for both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric alloys

  12. Intermetallic phases in the iron-rich region of the Zr-Fe phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granovsky, M.S. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Materiales; Arias, D. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Materiales

    1996-04-01

    Intermetallic phases in the Fe-rich region of the Zr-Fe system are studied by X-ray diffraction and optical and electron microscopy. The chemical composition of each phase has been quantitatively measured in a electron microprobe. The stable phases found in this region are ZrFe{sub 2}, Zr{sub 6}Fe{sub 23} and ({alpha}Fe). ZrFe{sub 2} is identified as a cubic Laves type phase (C15) and the ZrFe{sub 2}/ZrFe{sub 2}+Zr{sub 6}Fe{sub 23} boundary composition is 73{+-}1 at.% Fe. Zr{sub 6}Fe{sub 23} is a cubic phase of the Th{sub 6}Mn{sub 23} type and its composition is 80.0{+-}1.5 at.% Fe. The eutectic L{r_reversible}Zr{sub 6}Fe{sub 23}+{tau}-Fe transformation temperature and composition are 1325 C and 91{+-}1 at.% Fe, respectively. The solubility of Zr in {tau}-Fe at 1012 C is 500{+-}50 appm and 1000{+-}100 appm close to the eutectic temperature. (orig.).

  13. Intermetallic phases in the iron-rich region of the Zr-Fe phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granovsky, M.S.; Arias, D.

    1996-01-01

    Intermetallic phases in the Fe-rich region of the Zr-Fe system are studied by X-ray diffraction and optical and electron microscopy. The chemical composition of each phase has been quantitatively measured in a electron microprobe. The stable phases found in this region are ZrFe 2 , Zr 6 Fe 23 and (αFe). ZrFe 2 is identified as a cubic Laves type phase (C15) and the ZrFe 2 /ZrFe 2 +Zr 6 Fe 23 boundary composition is 73±1 at.% Fe. Zr 6 Fe 23 is a cubic phase of the Th 6 Mn 23 type and its composition is 80.0±1.5 at.% Fe. The eutectic L↔Zr 6 Fe 23 +τ-Fe transformation temperature and composition are 1325 C and 91±1 at.% Fe, respectively. The solubility of Zr in τ-Fe at 1012 C is 500±50 appm and 1000±100 appm close to the eutectic temperature. (orig.)

  14. Antiferromagnetism, structural instability and frustration in intermetallic AFe4X2 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Helge; Bergmann, Christoph; Weber, Katharina; Kraft, Inga; Mufti, N.; Klauss, Hans-Henning; Dellmann, T.; Woike, T.; Geibel, Christoph

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic systems with reduced dimensionality or frustration attract strong interest because these features lead to an increase of quantum fluctuations and often result in unusual properties. Here, we present a detailed study of the magnetic, thermodynamic, and structural properties of the intermetallic AFe4X2 compounds (A=Sc,Y,Lu,Zr; X=Si,Ge) crystallizing in the ZrFe4Si2 structure type. Our results evidence that these compounds cover the whole regime from frustrated AFM order up to an AFM quantum critical point. Susceptibility χ(T), specific heat, resistivity, and T-dependent XRD measurements were performed on polycrystalline samples. In all compounds we observed a Curie-Weiss behavior in χ(T) at high T indicating a paramagnetic moment of about 3μB/Fe. Magnetic and structural transitions as previously reported for YFe4Ge2 occur in all compounds with trivalent A. However, transition temperatures, nature of the transition as well as the relation between structural and magnetic transitions change significantly with the A element. Low TN's and large θCW /TN ratios confirm the relevance of frustration. The results are analyzed and discussed with respect to electronic, structural and magnetic instabilities applying DFT calculations. Financial support from the DFG (GRK 1621) is acknowledged

  15. DFT modeling of the electronic and magnetic structures and chemical bonding properties of intermetallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Alam, A.F.

    2009-06-01

    This thesis presents an ab initio study of several classes of intermetallics and their hydrides. These compounds are interesting from both a fundamental and an applied points of view. To achieve this aim two complementary methods, constructed within the DFT, were chosen: (i) pseudo potential based VASP for geometry optimization, structural investigations and electron localization mapping (ELF), and (ii) all-electrons ASW method for a detailed description of the electronic structure, chemical bonding properties following different schemes as well as quantities depending on core electrons such as the hyperfine field. A special interest is given with respect to the interplay between magneto-volume and chemical interactions (metal-H) effects within the following hydrided systems: binary Laves (e.g. ScFe 2 ) and Haucke (e.g. LaNi 5 ) phases on one hand, and ternary cerium based (e.g. CeRhSn) and uranium based (e.g. U 2 Ni 2 Sn) alloys on the other hand. (author)

  16. Physical properties of the GaPd2 intermetallic catalyst in bulk and nanoparticle morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wencka, M.; Schwerin, J.; Klanjšek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Intermetallic compound GaPd2 is a highly selective catalyst material for the semi-hydrogenation of acetylene. We have determined anisotropic electronic, thermal and magnetic properties of a GaPd2 monocrystal along three orthogonal orthorhombic directions of the structure. By using 69Ga and 71Ga NMR...... properties of the GaPd2 phase on going from the bulk material to the nanoparticles morphology, we have synthesized GaPd2/SiO2 supported nanoparticles and determined their electronic DOS at εF from the 71Ga NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate. The electronic DOS of the GaPd2 was also studied theoretically from...... spectroscopy, we have determined the electric-field-gradient tensor at the Ga site in the unit cell and the Knight shift, which yields the electronic density of states (DOS) at the Fermi energy εF. The DOS at εF was determined independently also from the specific heat. To see the change of electronic...

  17. Effects of Fragmented Fe Intermetallic Compounds on Ductility in Al-Si-Mg Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JaeHwang; Kim, DaeHwan

    2018-03-01

    Fe is intentionally added in order to form the Fe intermetallic compounds (Fe-IMCs) during casting. Field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) was conducted to understand microstructural changes and chemical composition analyses. The needlelike Fe-IMCs based on two dimensional observation with hundreds of micro size are modified to fragmented particles with the minimum size of 300 nm through clod rolling with 80% thickness reduction. The ratio of Fe:Si on the fragmented Fe-IMCs after 80% reduction is close to 1:1, representing the β-Al5FeSi. The yield and tensile strengths are increased with increasing reduction rate. On the other hand, the elongation is decreased with the 40% reduction, but slightly increased with the 60% reduction. The elongation is dramatically increased over two times for the specimen of 80% reduction compared with that of the as-cast. Fracture behavior is strongly affected by the morphology and size of Fe-IMCs. The fracture mode is changed from brittle to ductile with the microstructure modification of Fe-IMCs.

  18. Theoretical study of elastic, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of MgRh intermetallic compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Boucetta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, Magnesium alloys are known to be of great technological importance and high scientific interest. In this work, density functional theory plane-wave pseudo potential method, with local density approximation (LDA and generalized gradient approximation (GGA are used to perform first-principles quantum mechanics calculations in order to investigate the structural, elastic and mechanical properties of the intermetallic compound MgRh with a CsCl-type structure. Comparison of the calculated equilibrium lattice constant and experimental data shows good agreement. The elastic constants were determined from a linear fit of the calculated stress–strain function according to Hooke's law. From the elastic constants, the bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E, Poisson's ratio σ, anisotropy factor A and the ratio B/G for MgRh compound are obtained. The sound velocities and Debye temperature are also predicted from elastic constants. Finally, the linear response method has been used to calculate the thermodynamic properties. The temperature dependence of the enthalpy H, free energy F, entropy S, and heat capacity at constant volume Cv of MgRh crystal in a quasi-harmonic approximation have been obtained from phonon density of states and discussed for the first report. This is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of these properties.

  19. Improving of Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Alloys by Removing Intermetallic Compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seri, Osami [Muroran it., Hokkaido (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    It is well known that iron is one of the most common impurity elements sound in aluminum and its alloys. Iron in the aluminum forms an intermetallic compounds such as FeAl{sub 3}. The FeAl{sub 3} particles on the aluminum surface are one of the most detrimental phases to the corrosion process and anodizing procedure for aluminum and its alloys. Trial and error surface treatment will be carried out to find the preferential and effective removal of FeAl{sub 3} particles on the surfaces without dissolution of aluminum matrix around the particles. One of the preferable surface treatments for the aim of getting FeAl{sub 3} free surface was an electrochemical treatment such as cathodic current density of -2 kAm{sup -2} in a 20-30 mass% HNO{sub 3} solution for the period of 300s. The corrosion characteristics of aluminum surface with FeAl{sub 3} free particles are examined in a 0.1 kmol/m{sup 3} NaCl solution. It is found that aluminum with free FeAl{sub 3} particles shows higher corrosion resistance than aluminum with FeAl{sub 3} particles.

  20. Behavior of aluminum oxide, intermetallics and voids in Cu-Al wire bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H.; Liu, C.; Silberschmidt, V.V.; Pramana, S.S.; White, T.J.; Chen, Z.; Acoff, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale interfacial evolution in Cu-Al wire bonds during isothermal annealing from 175 deg. C to 250 deg. C was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The native aluminum oxide film (∼5 nm thick) of the Al pad migrates towards the Cu ball during annealing. The formation of intermetallic compounds (IMC) is controlled by Cu diffusion, where the kinetics obey a parabolic growth law until complete consumption of the Al pad. The activation energies to initiate crystallization of CuAl 2 and Cu 9 Al 4 are 60.66 kJ mol -1 and 75.61 kJ mol -1 , respectively. During IMC development, Cu 9 Al 4 emerges as a second layer and grows together with the initial CuAl 2 . When Al is completely consumed, CuAl 2 transforms to Cu 9 Al 4 , which is the terminal product. Unlike the excessive void growth in Au-Al bonds, only a few voids nucleate in Cu-Al bonds after long-term annealing at high temperatures (e.g., 250 o C for 25 h), and their diameters are usually in the range of tens of nanometers. This is due to the lower oxidation rate and volumetric shrinkage of Cu-Al IMC compared with Au-Al IMC.

  1. Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

    2009-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

  2. Anisotropic behavior and complex colinear magnetic structures of cerium and actinide intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, B.R.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of the experimental situation and degree of theoretical understanding for the occurrence of complex colinear magnetic structures in cerium and actinide intermetallics of NaCl structure. In doing this, emphasis is on the qualitative nature of the anisotropic effects necessary to understand the behavior. With this in mind we focus on the I to IA magnetic structure transition, and indeed more simply, on the occurrence of the IA magnetic structure which appears for CeBi, UAs, and some of the mixed uranium monopnictide-monochalcogenides. We show how the experimental observations involving properties related to the IA magnetic structure indicate important qualitative features of the physical mechanism involved. Through discussion of the possible analogue to the situation in UO 2 , the idea is introduced that magnetoelastic effects involving internal rearrangement modes may play a key role in the occurrence of the IA structure. Internal rearrangement modes are modes where one ionic species remains at its site in the undistorted crystal structure, and the other species is displaced from its position in the undistorted structure. We show that in a very natural way one can anticipate the possible occurrence of an internal rearrangement mode having a four-layer, periodic displacement sequence for planes for one species in the NaCl structure crystals, while the other species remains undisplaced. The presence of such a static lattice mode is susceptible to direct experimental observation. (author)

  3. Phase equilibria of Al3(Ti,V,Zr) intermetallic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.I.; Han, S.Z.; Choi, S.K.; Lee, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Trialuminides such as DO 22 -structured Al 3 Ti are promising candidates as potential materials for elevated temperature applications because of their attractive high temperature strength and excellent oxidation resistance along with their low density. However, in the tetragonal structure, slip systems are restricted due to low symmetry and the primary deformation mode is twinning. And, therefore, monolithic trialuminide compounds have been very impractical to be used as structural materials. When transition elements such as Ti, V and Zr which constitute trialuminides are alloyed in aluminum, they have low solubilities and low diffusion coefficients in the Al matrix. If precipitated as trialuminide intermetallics, they maintain a small lattice mismatch with the Al matrix, which reduces the interfacial energy between matrix and precipitates. As a result, these precipitates would have a large coarsening resistance in the matrix. As most of the previous works have been concentrated on the microstructural stability and mechanical properties, thermochemical properties will be treated in this work. In this study, phase equilibria and diagrams of Al 3 (Ti,V,Zr) systems will be experimentally determined and then thermodynamically analyzed with a hope to extend to the Al-Al 3 (Ti,V,Zr) composite system. This approach will then be used as a guide for alloy design of Al-Al 3 (Ti,V,Zr) composite system

  4. Neutron irradiation effects on intermetallic precipitates in Zircaloy as a function of fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etoh, Y.; Shimada, S.

    1993-01-01

    Intermetallic precipitates in Zircaloy-2 and -4, recrystallized at the α-phase temperature, have been examined using analytical electron microscopy. The specimens were irradiated in BWRs up to a fast neutron fluence of 1.4x10 26 n/m 2 (E>1 MeV). Neutron irradiation induces a crystalline-to-amorphous transition, depleting Fe in the amorphous phase of Zr(Fe, Cr) 2 precipitates in the alloys. Amorphization starts from the periphery of the precipitates and all of them are totally amorphized at higher fluences than 1.2x10 26 n/m 2 . The width of the Fe-depleted zone increases in proportion to the 0.45 power of fluence. This result indicates that diffusion of Fe is the rate-controlling process for Fe depletion in Zr(Fe, Cr) 2 precipitates. Dissolution of Zr 2 (Fe, Ni) precipitates in Zircaloy-2 occurs during neutron irradiation. At a high fluence, such as 1.2x10 26 n/m 2 , Zr 2 (Fe, Ni) precipitates are almost completely dissolved into the matrix and the dissolution rate of Fe is faster than that of Ni. (orig.)

  5. Localized corrosion in AA2099-T83 aluminum–lithium alloy: The role of intermetallic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Y., E-mail: myl@cqut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing, 400054 (China); Zhou, X., E-mail: xiaorong.zhou@manchester.ac.uk [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Huang, W. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing, 400054 (China); Thompson, G.E. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.; Luo, C.; Sun, Z. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing, 100095 (China)

    2015-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of intermetallic particles and their role in the process of localized corrosion in AA2099-T83 aluminum–lithium alloy has been investigated. It was found that both high- and low-copper containing Al–Fe–Mn–Cu-(Li) particles could result in superficial pits on the alloy, and the high level of lithium in the high-copper-containing particles rendered them electrochemically more active than the low-copper-containing particles. Additionally, severe localized corrosion was found not to be directly related to the distribution of constituent particles in the alloy. The findings are not only relevant to the understanding of corrosion mechanism but also beneficial to the evaluation of thermomechanical treatments of the alloy. - Highlights: • Lithium was detected in the high-copper-containing Al–Fe–Mn–Cu particles. • The high-copper-containing particles were relatively more active. • Localized corrosion induced by constituent particles was superficial. • Severe localized corrosion in the alloy propagated via grain/subgrain boundaries. • Severe localized corrosion was not related to constituent particles.

  6. Shock response of Ni/Al reactive inter-metallic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukara, Mathew; Germann, Timothy; Kober, Edward; Strachan, Alejandro

    2014-03-01

    Intermolecular reactive composites find diverse applications in defense, microelectronics and medicine, where strong, localized sources of heat are required. Motivated by experimental work which has shown that high-energy ball milling can significantly improve the reactivity as well as the ease of ignition of Ni/Al inter-metallic composites, we present large scale (~41 million atom) molecular dynamics simulations of shock-induced chemistry in porous, polycrystalline, lamellar Ni/Al nano-composites, which are designed to capture the microstructure that is obtained post milling. Shock propagation in these porous, lamellar materials is observed to be extremely diffuse, leading to substantial inhomogeneity in the local stress states of the material. We describe the importance of pores as sites of initiation, where local temperatures can rise to several thousands of degrees, and chemical mixing is accelerated by vortex formation and jetting in the pore. We also follow the evolution of the chemistry after the shock passage by allowing the sample to ``cook'' under the shock induced pressures and temperatures for up to 0.5 ns. Multiple ``tendril-like'' reaction fronts, born in the cauldron of the pores, propagate rapidly through the sample, consuming it within a nanosecond. US Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Contract No. HDTRA1-10-1-0119.

  7. Data on a Laves phase intermetallic matrix composite in situ toughened by ductile precipitates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Alexander J; Bhowmik, Ayan; Purkayastha, Surajit; Jones, Nicholas G; Giuliani, Finn; Clegg, William J; Dye, David; Stone, Howard J

    2017-10-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Laves phase intermetallic matrix composite in situ toughened by ductile precipitates" (Knowles et al.) [1]. The composite comprised a Fe 2 (Mo, Ti) matrix with bcc (Mo, Ti) precipitated laths produced in situ by an aging heat treatment, which was shown to confer a toughening effect (Knowles et al.) [1]. Here, details are given on a focused ion beam (FIB) slice and view experiment performed on the composite so as to determine that the 3D morphology of the bcc (Mo, Ti) precipitates were laths rather than needles. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (S(TEM)) micrographs of the microstructure as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) maps are presented that identify the elemental partitioning between the C14 Laves matrix and the bcc laths, with Mo rejected from the matrix into laths. A TEM selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) and key is provided that was used to validate the orientation relation between the matrix and laths identified in (Knowles et al.) [1] along with details of the transformation matrix determined.

  8. Influence of low Co substitution on magnetoelastic properties of HoFe11Ti intermetallic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motevalizadeh, L.; Tajabor, N.; Sanavi Khoshnoud, D.; Fruchart, D.; Pourarian, F.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal expansion and magnetostriction of HoFe 11−x Co x Ti (x=0, 0.3, 0.7 and 1) intermetallic compounds were measured, using the strain gauge method in the temperature range 77–590 K under applied magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. Results show that for samples with x=0 and 0.3, both linear thermal expansion and linear thermal expansion coefficient exhibit anomalies below the Curie temperature. Below room temperature, the spontaneous volume magnetostriction decreases with Co content. For all compounds studied, the anisotropic magnetostriction shows similar behaviour in the measured temperature range. The magnetostriction compensation occurs above room temperature in all samples. The volume magnetostriction shows a linear dependence on the applied field and by approaching the Curie temperature this trend changes to parastrictive behaviour. The results of the spontaneous magnetostriction are discussed based on the local magnetic moment model. The contribution of magnetostriction attributed to the magnetic sublattices R and T (Fe or Co) is discussed. - Highlights: ► Magnetostriction of HoFe 11−x Co x Ti have been measured by using strain gauge method. ► The measurement was carried in 77–590 K under applied magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. ► Spontaneous volume magnetostriction and Invar effect decrease with Co substitution. ► Ho sublattice has negative contribution to spontaneous volume magnetostriction. ► Absolute values of anisotropic magnetostriction decrease slightly with Co content.

  9. Joining of Ni-TiC FGM and Ni-Al Intermetallics by Centrifugal Combustion Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, Tatsuya; Matsuura, Kiyotaka; Iguchi, Manabu; Mizuma, Kiminori

    2008-01-01

    A centrifugal combustion synthesis (CCS) process has been investigated to join a Ni-Al intermetallic compound and a Ni-TiC cermet. The cermet, a tubular graphite mold, and a green compact of reactants consisting of Al, Ni and NiO were set in a centrifugal caster. When the combustion synthesis reaction was induced in the centrifugal force field, a synthesized molten Ni-Al alloy flowed into the graphite mold and joined to the cermet. The soundness of the joint interface depended on the volume percentage of TiC phase in the cermet. A lot of defects were formed near the interface between the Ni-TiC cermet and the cast Ni-Al alloy when the volume percentage of TiC was 50% or higher. For this kind of cermet system, using a functionally graded cermet such as Ni-10 vol.%TiC/Ni-25 vol.%TiC/Ni-50 vol.%TiC overcame this difficulty. The four-point bending strength of the joined specimen consisting of the three-layered FGM cermet and cast Ni-29 mol%Al alloy was 1010 MPa which is close to the result for a Ni-29 mol%Al alloy specimen

  10. Calorimetric study of the intermetallic compounds UAl2 and PuAl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainor, R.J.; Brodsky, M.B.; Knapp, G.S.

    1975-01-01

    Results of low temperature specific heat measurements are presented on the strongly paramagnetic intermetallic compounds UAl 2 and PuAl 2 in the temperature intervals 0.9 to 20 0 K, respectively. These compounds are characterized by very narrow 5f bands near the Fermi energy. The low-temperature properties of UAl 2 and PuAl 2 are dominated by long lived spin fluctuations within these narrow bands. In UAl 2 a nearly field-independent T 3 logT contribution dominates the specific heat below 10 0 K, consistent with the predictions of ferromagnetic spin-fluctuation theory. The specific heat, static susceptibility, and electrical resistivity are mutually consistent with T/sub sf/ = 25 +- 10 0 K, where T/sub sf/ is the characteristic spin-fluctuation temperature of the system. Below 20 0 K, the specific heat of PuAl 2 contains a very large linear term, C greater than or approximately equal to 260T (mJ/mole- 0 K), which is approximately four times the magnitude of the measured susceptibility, when both quantities are expressed in the same units. The specific heat of PuAl 2 exhibits no anomalous behavior below 10 0 K, where a resistivity anomaly has been previously obser []ed. The properties of PuAl 2 are qualitatively discussed in terms of antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations. (auth)

  11. Microstructure evolution and hardness change in ordered Ni3V intermetallic alloy by energetic ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, A.; Kaneno, Y.; Semboshi, S.; Yoshizaki, H.; Saitoh, Y.; Okamoto, Y.; Iwase, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ni 3 V bulk intermetallic compounds with ordered D0 22 structure were irradiated with 16 MeV Au ions at room temperature. The irradiation induced phase transformation was examined by means of the transmission electron microscope (TEM), the extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurement (EXAFS) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD). We also measured the Vickers hardness for unirradiated and irradiated specimens. The TEM observation shows that by the Au irradiation, the lamellar microstructures and the super lattice spot in diffraction pattern for the unirradiated specimen disappeared. This TEM result as well as the result of XRD and EXAFS measurements means that the intrinsic D0 22 structure of Ni 3 V changes into the A1 (fcc) structure which is the lattice structure just below the melting point in the thermal equilibrium phase diagram. The lattice structure change from D0 22 to A1 (fcc) accompanies a remarkable decrease in Vickers microhardness. The change in crystal structure was discussed in terms of the thermal spike and the sequential atomic displacements induced by the energetic heavy ion irradiation

  12. Improving of Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Alloys by Removing Intermetallic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri, Osami

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that iron is one of the most common impurity elements sound in aluminum and its alloys. Iron in the aluminum forms an intermetallic compounds such as FeAl 3 . The FeAl 3 particles on the aluminum surface are one of the most detrimental phases to the corrosion process and anodizing procedure for aluminum and its alloys. Trial and error surface treatment will be carried out to find the preferential and effective removal of FeAl 3 particles on the surfaces without dissolution of aluminum matrix around the particles. One of the preferable surface treatments for the aim of getting FeAl 3 free surface was an electrochemical treatment such as cathodic current density of -2 kAm -2 in a 20-30 mass% HNO 3 solution for the period of 300s. The corrosion characteristics of aluminum surface with FeAl 3 free particles are examined in a 0.1 kmol/m 3 NaCl solution. It is found that aluminum with free FeAl 3 particles shows higher corrosion resistance than aluminum with FeAl 3 particles

  13. Data on a Laves phase intermetallic matrix composite in situ toughened by ductile precipitates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Knowles

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Laves phase intermetallic matrix composite in situ toughened by ductile precipitates” (Knowles et al. [1]. The composite comprised a Fe2(Mo, Ti matrix with bcc (Mo, Ti precipitated laths produced in situ by an aging heat treatment, which was shown to confer a toughening effect (Knowles et al. [1]. Here, details are given on a focused ion beam (FIB slice and view experiment performed on the composite so as to determine that the 3D morphology of the bcc (Mo, Ti precipitates were laths rather than needles. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (S(TEM micrographs of the microstructure as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX maps are presented that identify the elemental partitioning between the C14 Laves matrix and the bcc laths, with Mo rejected from the matrix into laths. A TEM selected area diffraction pattern (SADP and key is provided that was used to validate the orientation relation between the matrix and laths identified in (Knowles et al. [1] along with details of the transformation matrix determined.

  14. Applications of Ni3Al Based Intermetallic Alloys—Current Stage and Potential Perceptivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Jozwik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of current and prospective applications of Ni3Al based intermetallic alloys—modern engineering materials with special properties that are potentially useful for both structural and functional purposes. The bulk components manufactured from these materials are intended mainly for forging dies, furnace assembly, turbocharger components, valves, and piston head of internal combustion engines. The Ni3Al based alloys produced by a directional solidification are also considered as a material for the fabrication of jet engine turbine blades. Moreover, development of composite materials with Ni3Al based alloys as a matrix hardened by, e.g., TiC, ZrO2, WC, SiC and graphene, is also reported. Due to special physical and chemical properties; it is expected that these materials in the form of thin foils and strips should make a significant contribution to the production of high tech devices, e.g., Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS or Microtechnology-based Energy and Chemical Systems (MECS; as well as heat exchangers; microreactors; micro-actuators; components of combustion chambers and gasket of rocket and jet engines as well components of high specific strength systems. Additionally, their catalytic properties may find an application in catalytic converters, air purification systems from chemical and biological toxic agents or in a hydrogen “production” by a decomposition of hydrocarbons.

  15. First-principles screening of structural properties of intermetallic compounds on martensitic transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohwi; Ikeda, Yuji; Tanaka, Isao

    2017-11-01

    Martensitic transformation with good structural compatibility between parent and martensitic phases are required for shape memory alloys (SMAs) in terms of functional stability. In this study, first-principles-based materials screening is systematically performed to investigate the intermetallic compounds with the martensitic phases by focusing on energetic and dynamical stabilities as well as structural compatibility with the parent phase. The B2, D03, and L21 crystal structures are considered as the parent phases, and the 2H and 6M structures are considered as the martensitic phases. In total, 3384 binary and 3243 ternary alloys with stoichiometric composition ratios are investigated. It is found that 187 alloys survive after the screening. Some of the surviving alloys are constituted by the chemical elements already widely used in SMAs, but other various metallic elements are also found in the surviving alloys. The energetic stability of the surviving alloys is further analyzed by comparison with the data in Materials Project Database (MPD) to examine the alloys whose martensitic structures may cause further phase separation or transition to the other structures.

  16. First principle studies of electronic and magnetic properties of Lanthanide-Gold (RAu) binary intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Sardar [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara, 18800 Pakistan (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara, 18800 Pakistan (Pakistan); Ahmad, Rashid, E-mail: rashmad@gmail.com [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara, 18800 Pakistan (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara, 18800 Pakistan (Pakistan); Jalali-Asadabadi, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan (UI), Hezar Gerib Avenue, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ali, Zahid [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara, 18800 Pakistan (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara, 18800 Pakistan (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara, 18800 Pakistan (Pakistan); Vice Chancellor, Abbott Abad University of Science and Technology, Abbott Abad (Pakistan)

    2017-01-15

    In this article we explore the electronic and magnetic properties of RAu intermetallics (R=Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) for the first time. These properties are calculated by using GGA, GGA+U and hybrid density functional theory (HF) approaches. Our calculations show that HF provides superior results, consistent to the experimentally reported data. The chemical bonding between rare-earth and gold atoms within these compounds are explained on the basis of spin dependent electronic clouds in different planes, which shows predominantly ionic and metallic nature between Au and R atoms. The Cohesive energies of RAu compounds show direct relation with the melting points. Spin-dependent electronic band structure demonstrates that all these compounds are metallic in nature. The magnetic studies show that HoAu and LuAu are stable in non-magnetic structure, PrAu is stable in ferromagnetic phase and CeAu, NdAu, SmAu, GdAu, TbAu, DyAu, ErAu, TmAu, YbAu are anti-ferromagnetic materials.

  17. Electride and superconductivity behaviors in Mn5Si3-type intermetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoqing; Wang, Bosen; Xiao, Zewen; Lu, Yangfan; Kamiya, Toshio; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Hosono, Hideo

    2017-08-01

    Electrides are unique in the sense that they contain localized anionic electrons in the interstitial regions. Yet they exist with a diversity of chemical compositions, especially under extreme conditions, implying generalized underlying principles for their existence. What is rarely observed is the combination of electride state and superconductivity within the same material, but such behavior would open up a new category of superconductors. Here, we report a hexagonal Nb5Ir3 phase of Mn5Si3-type structure that falls into this category and extends the electride concept into intermetallics. The confined electrons in the one-dimensional cavities are reflected by the characteristic channel bands in the electronic structure. Filling these free spaces with foreign oxygen atoms serves to engineer the band topology and increase the superconducting transition temperature to 10.5 K in Nb5Ir3O. Specific heat analysis indicates the appearance of low-lying phonons and two-gap s-wave superconductivity. Strong electron-phonon coupling is revealed to be the pairing glue with an anomalously large ratio between the superconducting gap Δ0 and Tc, 2Δ0/kBTc = 6.12. The general rule governing the formation of electrides concerns the structural stability against the cation filling/extraction in the channel site.

  18. Characterization of ceramics and intermetallics fabricated by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, J.B.

    1989-05-01

    Three efforts aimed at investigating the process of self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) for the fabrication of structural ceramics and intermetallics are summarized. Of special interest was the influence of processing variables such as exothermic dopants, gravity, and green state morphology in materials produced by SHS. In the first effort directed toward the fabrication of SiC, exothermic dopants of yttrium and zirconium were added to SiO2 or SiO2 + NiO plus carbon powder mix and processed by SHS. This approach was unsuccessful since it did not produce the desired product of crystalline SiC. In the second effort, the influence of gravity was investigated by examining Ni-Al microstructures which were produced by SHS combustion waves traveling with and opposite the gravity direction. Although final composition and total porosities of the combusted Ni-Al compounds were found to be gravity independent, larger pores were created in those specimens which were combusted opposite to the gravity force direction. Finally, it was found that green microstructure has a significant effect on the appearance of the combusted piece. Severe pressing laminations were observed to arrest the combustion front for TiC samples

  19. Intermetallic Compound Growth and Stress Development in Al-Cu Diffusion Couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishler, M.; Ouvarov-Bancalero, V.; Chae, Seung H.; Nguyen, Luu; Kim, Choong-Un

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports experimental observations evidencing that the intermetallic compound phase interfaced with Cu in the Al-Cu diffusion couple is most likely α2-Cu3Al phase, not γ-Cu9Al4 phase as previously assumed, and that its growth to a critical thickness may result in interface failure by stress-driven fracture. These conclusions are made based on an interdiffusion study of a diffusion couple made of a thick Cu plate coated with ˜ 2- μm-thick Al thin film. The interface microstructure and lattice parameter were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. Specimens aged at temperature between 623 K (350°C) and 723 K (450°C) for various hours produced consistent results supporting the main conclusions. It is found that disordered α2-Cu3Al phase grows in a similar manner to solid-state epitaxy, probably owing to its structural similarity to the Cu lattice. The increase in the interface strain that accompanies the α2-Cu3Al phase growth ultimately leads to interface fracture proceeding from crack initiation and growth along the interface. This mechanism provides the most consistent explanation for interface failures observed in other studies.

  20. Moessbauer Study of the Ball Milling Disordering Process of FeAl Intermetallic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleszak, Dariusz; Bruna, Pere; Crespo, Daniel; Pradell, Trinitat

    2005-01-01

    Structural changes during ball milling of ordered Fe50Al50 intermetallic compounds were studied. X-Ray diffraction allowed the computation of a Long Range Order parameter (LRO) which dropped to zero after a short milling time. The initial B2 ordered structure gradually transforms into a disordered BCC structure, with a final crystallite size of about 25 nm. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used for obtaining a Chemical Short Range Order parameter (CSRO). Using a semiempirical n-body noncentral potential a model of the partially disordered B2 structure was built allowing computing the distribution of Quadrupole Splitting during the disordering process. Comparison between experimental and simulated Moessbauer spectra shows a maximum of disorder in the system for 5h milling, related to the highest value of the lattice spacing and the broader quadrupole hyperfine distribution. However, after milling for times longer than 5h, there is a change on the behavior of the experimental data that cannot be explained by the simple disordering process

  1. Nonparametric e-Mixture Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Ken; Hino, Hideitsu; Akaho, Shotaro; Murata, Noboru

    2016-12-01

    This study considers the common situation in data analysis when there are few observations of the distribution of interest or the target distribution, while abundant observations are available from auxiliary distributions. In this situation, it is natural to compensate for the lack of data from the target distribution by using data sets from these auxiliary distributions-in other words, approximating the target distribution in a subspace spanned by a set of auxiliary distributions. Mixture modeling is one of the simplest ways to integrate information from the target and auxiliary distributions in order to express the target distribution as accurately as possible. There are two typical mixtures in the context of information geometry: the [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text]-mixtures. The [Formula: see text]-mixture is applied in a variety of research fields because of the presence of the well-known expectation-maximazation algorithm for parameter estimation, whereas the [Formula: see text]-mixture is rarely used because of its difficulty of estimation, particularly for nonparametric models. The [Formula: see text]-mixture, however, is a well-tempered distribution that satisfies the principle of maximum entropy. To model a target distribution with scarce observations accurately, this letter proposes a novel framework for a nonparametric modeling of the [Formula: see text]-mixture and a geometrically inspired estimation algorithm. As numerical examples of the proposed framework, a transfer learning setup is considered. The experimental results show that this framework works well for three types of synthetic data sets, as well as an EEG real-world data set.

  2. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class of closed skew-normal distributions. Some basic properties are derived and a class of closed skew. t distributions is obtained. Our suggested family of distributions is skewed and has heavy tails too, so it is appropriate for robust analysis. Our proposed special sequential Monte Carlo methods use a random mixture of the closed skew-normal distributions to approximate a target distribution. Hence it is possible to handle skewed and heavy tailed data simultaneously. These methods are illustrated with numerical experiments. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  3. Preparation of conducting solid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spokas, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    The application of conducting plastic mixtures to the fundamental problem of radiation dosimetry is briefly reviewed. A particular approach to achieving formulations with the necessary characteristics is described. A number of successful mixtures are defined for a number of different specific dosimetry situations. To obtain high quality stable materials requires intense blending and working of the materials at elevated temperatures. One machine that succeeds in this task is the Shonka plastics mixer-extruder. The Shonka mixer is described in complete detail. The procedures used in preparing representative formulations with this device are presented. A number of properties of successful conducting mixtures so prepared are summarized. The conditions required for molding such material are given. Several special welding methods for specific application with these formulations have been devised and are described

  4. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online.

  5. Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures: A Review of Mixtures Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bjarnason, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    .... Recent advances in disciplines such as genomics, proteomics, metabonomics and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling should assist in the hazard assessment of complex chemical mixtures. However, the process of regulatory assessment of these types of exposures will remain both complex and difficult.

  6. Stability of molybdenum nanoparticles in Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder during multiple reflow and their influence on interfacial intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A., E-mail: haseeb@um.edu.my; Arafat, M.M., E-mail: arafat_mahmood@yahoo.com; Johan, Mohd Rafie, E-mail: mrafiej@um.edu.my

    2012-02-15

    This work investigates the effects of molybdenum nanoparticles on the growth of interfacial intermetallic compound between Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder and copper substrate during multiple reflow. Molybdenum nanoparticles were mixed with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder paste by manual mixing. Solder samples were reflowed on a copper substrate in a 250 Degree-Sign C reflow oven up to six times. The molybdenum content of the bulk solder was determined by inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. It is found that upon the addition of molybdenum nanoparticles to Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder, the interfacial intermetallic compound thickness and scallop diameter decreases under all reflow conditions. Molybdenum nanoparticles do not appear to dissolve or react with the solder. They tend to adsorb preferentially at the interface between solder and the intermetallic compound scallops. It is suggested that molybdenum nanoparticles impart their influence on the interfacial intermetallic compound as discrete particles. The intact, discrete nanoparticles, by absorbing preferentially at the interface, hinder the diffusion flux of the substrate and thereby suppress the intermetallic compound growth. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mo nanoparticles do not dissolve or react with the SAC solder during reflow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of Mo nanoparticles results smaller IMC thickness and scallop diameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mo nanoparticles influence the interfacial IMC through discrete particle effect.

  7. Formation of intermetallic phases in AlSi7Fe1 alloy processed under microgravity and forced fluid flow conditions and their influence on the permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, S.; Ratke, L.; Zimmermann, G.; Budenkova, O.

    2016-03-01

    Ternary Al-6.5wt.%Si-0.93wt.%Fe alloy samples were directionally solidified on-board of the International Space Station ISS in the ESA payload Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) equipped with Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) under both purely diffusive and stimulated convective conditions induced by a rotating magnetic field. Using different analysis techniques the shape and distribution of the intermetallic phase β-Al5SiFe in the dendritic microstructure was investigated, to study the influence of solidification velocity and fluid flow on the size and spatial arrangement of intermetallics. Deep etching as well as 3-dimensional computer tomography measurements characterized the size and the shape of β-Al5SiFe platelets: Diffusive growth results in a rather homogeneous distribution of intermetallic phases, whereas forced flow promotes an increase in the amount and the size of β-Al5SiFe platelets in the centre region of the samples. The β-Al5SiFe intermetallics can form not only simple platelets, but also be curved, branched, crossed, interacting with dendrites and porosity located. This leads to formation of large and complex groups of Fe-rich intermetallics, which reduce the melt flow between dendrites leading to lower permeability of the mushy zone and might significantly decrease feeding ability in castings.

  8. Homogeneous (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 intermetallic compound joints rapidly formed in asymmetrical Ni/Sn/Cu system using ultrasound-induced transient liquid phase soldering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z L; Dong, H J; Song, X G; Zhao, H Y; Tian, H; Liu, J H; Feng, J C; Yan, J C

    2018-04-01

    Homogeneous (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 intermetallic compound (IMC) joints were rapidly formed in asymmetrical Ni/Sn/Cu system by an ultrasound-induced transient liquid phase (TLP) soldering process. In the traditional TLP soldering process, the intermetallic joints formed in Ni/Sn/Cu system consisted of major (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 and minor Cu 3 Sn IMCs, and the grain morphology of (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 IMCs subsequently exhibited fine rounded, needlelike and coarse rounded shapes from the Ni side to the Cu side, which was highly in accordance with the Ni concentration gradient across the joints. However, in the ultrasound-induced TLP soldering process, the intermetallic joints formed in Ni/Sn/Cu system only consisted of the (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 IMCs which exhibited an uniform grain morphology of rounded shape with a remarkably narrowed Ni concentration gradient. The ultrasound-induced homogeneous intermetallic joints exhibited higher shear strength (61.6 MPa) than the traditional heterogeneous intermetallic joints (49.8 MPa). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiscale modeling of the influence of Fe content in a Al-Si-Cu alloy on the size distribution of intermetallic phases and micropores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junsheng; Lee, Peter D.; Li Mei; Allison, John

    2010-01-01

    A multiscale model was developed to simulate the formation of Fe-rich intermetallics and pores in quaternary Al-Si-Cu-Fe alloys. At the microscale, the multicomponent diffusion equations were solved for multiphase (liquid-solid-gas) materials via a finite difference framework to predict microstructure formation. A fast and robust decentered plate algorithm was developed to simulate the strong anisotropy of the solid/liquid interfacial energy for the Fe-rich intermetallic phase. The growth of porosity was controlled by local pressure drop due to solidification and interactions with surrounding solid phases, in addition to hydrogen diffusion. The microscale model was implemented as a subroutine in a commercial finite element package, producing a coupled multiscale model. This allows the influence of varying casting conditions on the Fe-rich intermetallics, the pores, and their interactions to be predicted. Synchrotron x-ray tomography experiments were performed to validate the model by comparing the three-dimensional morphology and size distribution of Fe-rich intermetallics as a function of Fe content. Large platelike Fe-rich β intermetallics were successfully simulated by the multiscale model and their influence on pore size distribution in shape castings was predicted as a function of casting conditions.

  10. The atomic structure of low-index surfaces of the intermetallic compound InPd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuirk, G. M.; Ledieu, J.; Gaudry, É.; Weerd, M.-C.; Fournée, V. de, E-mail: vincent.fournee@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour (UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine), Parc de Saurupt, F-54011 Nancy Cedex (France); Hahne, M.; Gille, P. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Crystallography Section, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstrasse 41, D-80333 München (Germany); Ivarsson, D. C. A.; Armbrüster, M. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Materials for Innovative Energy Concepts, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Ardini, J.; Held, G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AD (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Maccherozzi, F. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Bayer, A. [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstraße 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Lowe, M. [Surface Science Research Centre and Department of Physics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Pussi, K. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Diehl, R. D. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    The intermetallic compound InPd (CsCl type of crystal structure with a broad compositional range) is considered as a candidate catalyst for the steam reforming of methanol. Single crystals of this phase have been grown to study the structure of its three low-index surfaces under ultra-high vacuum conditions, using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). During surface preparation, preferential sputtering leads to a depletion of In within the top few layers for all three surfaces. The near-surface regions remain slightly Pd-rich until annealing to ∼580 K. A transition occurs between 580 and 660 K where In segregates towards the surface and the near-surface regions become slightly In-rich above ∼660 K. This transition is accompanied by a sharpening of LEED patterns and formation of flat step-terrace morphology, as observed by STM. Several superstructures have been identified for the different surfaces associated with this process. Annealing to higher temperatures (≥750 K) leads to faceting via thermal etching as shown for the (110) surface, with a bulk In composition close to the In-rich limit of the existence domain of the cubic phase. The Pd-rich InPd(111) is found to be consistent with a Pd-terminated bulk truncation model as shown by dynamical LEED analysis while, after annealing at higher temperature, the In-rich InPd(111) is consistent with an In-terminated bulk truncation, in agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the relative surface energies. More complex surface structures are observed for the (100) surface. Additionally, individual grains of a polycrystalline sample are characterized by micro-spot XPS and LEED as well as low-energy electron microscopy. Results from both individual grains and “global” measurements are interpreted based on comparison to our single crystals findings, DFT calculations and previous literature.

  11. Modeling the anomalous flow behavior of Ni3Al intermetallic single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.S.; Parthasarathy, T.A.; Dimiduk, D.M.; Uchic, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we present a new constitutive model for Ni3Al and Ni3(Al, X) alloys that was developed to represent many of the unusual plastic flow behavior found in L12 intermetallics while maintaining consistency with the experimentally-observed evolution of dislocation substructure. In particular, we sought to develop a model that would not only predict the anomalous increase of the yield strength with increasing temperature, but would also capture other important flow characteristics such as extremely high work-hardening rates that change anomalously with temperature, and a flow stress that is partially to fully reversible with temperature. For this model, we have treated work-hardening as arising from two different sources. Thermally-reversible work hardening is accounted for using the description of screw dislocation motion proposed by Caillard, which involves exhaustion of mobile dislocations by cross-slip locking of the dislocation core and athermal unlocking. Thermally-irreversible work hardening is accounted for using an approach consistent with the theoretical framework proposed by Ezz and Hirsch, which involves both the multiplication of Frank-Reed sources and the interaction of edge-dislocation segments with cross-slip locking events and the dislocation forest. Both work-hardening contributions were incorporated into the rate formulation for thermally-activated plastic flow proposed by Kocks, Argon and Ashby. We will show simulation results for the flow response of Ni3(Al, X) crystals over a wide range of temperatures in the anomalous flow regime, and we will compare these findings with experimental data

  12. Investigation of the oxidative processes in intermetallic Sm Co5 powder during heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talijan, Nadezda M.; Milutinovic-Nikolic, Aleksandra; Stajic-Trosic, Jasna T.; Jovanovic, Zarko D.

    1996-01-01

    Understanding of the thermal stability of intermetallic Sm Co 5 powder is essential for designing the working atmosphere in all phases of the technological procedure in the production of sintered Sm Co 5 magnets to obtain maximal magnetic properties. The thermal stability of the Sm Co 5 powder with defined chemical composition and particle size was investigated in the interval from 20 to 900 deg C. Commercial Sm Co 5 powder was used in this experiment. The powder was milled in anhydrous toluene in an agate mortar to fine powder of quality used in the production of sintered magnets. All the experiments were carried out with powder of an average particle size of 7.23μm, established by SEM. THe thermal stability of the Sm Co 5 powder in static air atmosphere was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) using a DuPont Thermal Analyzer. Investigation of the behaviour of Sm Co 5 powder during heating was carried out using new samples of Sm Co 5 powder for each of the investigated temperature cycles. It was found by TGA that up to 200 deg C, the oxidation of Sm Co 5 was negligible. X-ray diffraction of the thermogravimetric experimental residue of the Sm Co 5 powder, heated at 240 deg C, yielded only the presence of the Sm Co 5 phase. By X-ray diffraction different crystal forms were identified depending on the maximal heating temperature. The following phases were identified: Sm 2 O 3 , Co, Co O, Co 3 O 4 and Sm Co O 3 . According to TG and X-ray results, for each of the investigated temperatures, the corresponding chemical reactions were established. The experimental data from both the thermal and X-ray investigations confirm that the phases of pressing and aligning the Sm Co 5 powder, in the process of producing sintered Sm Co 5 magnets, may be performed without a protective atmosphere. (author)

  13. Statistical thermodynamics -- A tool for understanding point defects in intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipser, H.; Krachler, R.

    1996-01-01

    The principles of the derivation of statistical-thermodynamic models to interpret the compositional variation of thermodynamic properties in non-stoichiometric intermetallic compounds are discussed. Two types of models are distinguished: the Bragg-Williams type, where the total energy of the crystal is taken as the sum of the interaction energies of all nearest-neighbor pairs of atoms, and the Wagner-Schottky type, where the internal energy, the volume, and the vibrational entropy of the crystal are assumed to be linear functions of the numbers of atoms or vacancies on the different sublattices. A Wagner-Schottky type model is used for the description of two examples with different crystal structures: for β'-FeAl (with B2-structure) defect concentrations and their variation with composition are derived from the results of measurements of the aluminum vapor pressure, the resulting values are compared with results of other independent experimental methods; for Rh 3 Te 4 (with an NiAs-derivative structure) the defect mechanism responsible for non-stoichiometry is worked out by application of a theoretical model to the results of tellurium vapor pressure measurements. In addition it is shown that the shape of the activity curve indicates a certain sequence of superstructures. In principle, there are no limitations to the application of statistical thermodynamics to experimental thermodynamic data as long as these are available with sufficient accuracy, and as long as it is ensured that the distribution of the point defects is truly random, i.e. that there are no aggregates of defects

  14. Intermetallic nickel silicide nanocatalyst-A non-noble metal-based general hydrogenation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchuk, Pavel; Agostini, Giovanni; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Lund, Henrik; Agapova, Anastasiya; Junge, Henrik; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    Hydrogenation reactions are essential processes in the chemical industry, giving access to a variety of valuable compounds including fine chemicals, agrochemicals, and pharmachemicals. On an industrial scale, hydrogenations are typically performed with precious metal catalysts or with base metal catalysts, such as Raney nickel, which requires special handling due to its pyrophoric nature. We report a stable and highly active intermetallic nickel silicide catalyst that can be used for hydrogenations of a wide range of unsaturated compounds. The catalyst is prepared via a straightforward procedure using SiO 2 as the silicon atom source. The process involves thermal reduction of Si-O bonds in the presence of Ni nanoparticles at temperatures below 1000°C. The presence of silicon as a secondary component in the nickel metal lattice plays the key role in its properties and is of crucial importance for improved catalytic activity. This novel catalyst allows for efficient reduction of nitroarenes, carbonyls, nitriles, N-containing heterocycles, and unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. Moreover, the reported catalyst can be used for oxidation reactions in the presence of molecular oxygen and is capable of promoting acceptorless dehydrogenation of unsaturated N-containing heterocycles, opening avenues for H 2 storage in organic compounds. The generality of the nickel silicide catalyst is demonstrated in the hydrogenation of over a hundred of structurally diverse unsaturated compounds. The wide application scope and high catalytic activity of this novel catalyst make it a nice alternative to known general hydrogenation catalysts, such as Raney nickel and noble metal-based catalysts.

  15. Investigation of Y6Mn23 and YMn12 intermetallic alloys under high hydrogen pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipek, S. M.; Sato, R.; Kuriyama, N.; Tanaka, H.; Takeichi, N.

    2010-03-01

    Among three intermetallic compounds existing in Y-Mn system the YMn2 and Y6Mn23 can easily form interstitial hydrides while for YMn12 existence of hydride has never been reported. At moderate hydrogen pressure YMn2 and Y6Mn23 transform into YMn2H4.5 and Y6Mn23H25 respectively. At high hydrogen pressure the YMn2 (C15 or C14 parent structure) forms a unique YMn2H6 (s.g. Fm3m) complex hydride of fluorite structure in which one Mn atom Mn(1) and Y randomly occupy the 8c sites while second manganese (Mn2) in position 4a forms complex anion with 6 hydrogen atoms located in positions 24e. Formation of YMn2H6 independently of the structure of parent phase (C14 or C15) as well as occupation of the same site (8c) by Y and Mn(1) atoms suggested that also Y6Mn23 and YMn12 could transform into YMn2H6 - type hydride in which suitable number of Y atoms will be substituted by Mn(1) in the 8c positions. This assumption was confirmed by exposing R6Mn23 and RMn12 to 1 GPa of hydrogen pressure at 1000C. Formation of (RxMn2-x)MnH6 (where x = 18/29 or 3/13 for R6Mn23 and RMn12 hydrides respectively) was confirmed by XRD. Hydrogen concentration in both R6Mn23 and RMn12 based hydrides reached H/Me = 2 thus value two times higher than in R6Mn23H25.

  16. Investigation of Y6Mn23 and YMn12 intermetallic alloys under high hydrogen pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipek, S M; Sato, R; Kuriyama, N; Tanaka, H; Takeichi, N

    2010-01-01

    Among three intermetallic compounds existing in Y-Mn system the YMn 2 and Y 6 Mn 23 can easily form interstitial hydrides while for YMn 12 existence of hydride has never been reported. At moderate hydrogen pressure YMn 2 and Y 6 Mn 23 transform into YMn 2 H 4.5 and Y 6 Mn 23 H 25 respectively. At high hydrogen pressure the YMn 2 (C15 or C14 parent structure) forms a unique YMn 2 H 6 (s.g. Fm3m) complex hydride of fluorite structure in which one Mn atom Mn(1) and Y randomly occupy the 8c sites while second manganese (Mn2) in position 4a forms complex anion with 6 hydrogen atoms located in positions 24e. Formation of YMn 2 H 6 independently of the structure of parent phase (C14 or C15) as well as occupation of the same site (8c) by Y and Mn(1) atoms suggested that also Y 6 Mn 23 and YMn 12 could transform into YMn 2 H 6 - type hydride in which suitable number of Y atoms will be substituted by Mn(1) in the 8c positions. This assumption was confirmed by exposing R 6 Mn 23 and RMn 12 to 1 GPa of hydrogen pressure at 100 0 C. Formation of (R x Mn 2-x )MnH 6 (where x = 18/29 or 3/13 for R 6 Mn 23 and RMn 12 hydrides respectively) was confirmed by XRD. Hydrogen concentration in both R 6 Mn 23 and RMn 12 based hydrides reached H/Me = 2 thus value two times higher than in R 6 Mn 23 H 25 .

  17. Effects of Metallic Nanoparticles on Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds in Tin-Based Solders for Microelectronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Arafat, M. M.; Tay, S. L.; Leong, Y. M.

    2017-10-01

    Tin (Sn)-based solders have established themselves as the main alternative to the traditional lead (Pb)-based solders in many applications. However, the reliability of the Sn-based solders continues to be a concern. In order to make Sn-based solders microstructurally more stable and hence more reliable, researchers are showing great interest in investigating the effects of the incorporation of different nanoparticles into them. This paper gives an overview of the influence of metallic nanoparticles on the characteristics of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Sn-based solder joints on copper substrates during reflow and thermal aging. Nanocomposite solders were prepared by mechanically blending nanoparticles of nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn) and titanium (Ti) with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu and Sn-3.5Ag solder pastes. The composite solders were then reflowed and their wetting characteristics and interfacial microstructural evolution were investigated. Through the paste mixing route, Ni, Co, Zn and Mo nanoparticles alter the morphology and thickness of the IMCs in beneficial ways for the performance of solder joints. The thickness of Cu3Sn IMC is decreased with the addition of Ni, Co and Zn nanoparticles. The thickness of total IMC layer is decreased with the addition of Zn and Mo nanoparticles in the solder. The metallic nanoparticles can be divided into two groups. Ni, Co, and Zn nanoparticles undergo reactive dissolution during solder reflow, causing in situ alloying and therefore offering an alternative route of alloy additions to solders. Mo nanoparticles remain intact during reflow and impart their influence as discrete particles. Mechanisms of interactions between different types of metallic nanoparticles and solder are discussed.

  18. Magnetism in rare-earth metals and rare-earth intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, B.; Nordstroem, L.; Eriksson, O.; Brooks, M.S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Some of out recent local spin density electronic structure calculations for a number of ferromagnetic rare-earth systems are reviewed. A simplified model of the level densities for rare-earth (R) transition metal (M) intermetallic compounds, R m M n , is used to describe in a simple way the main features of their basic electronic structure. Explicit calculations for LuFe 2 and RFe 2 (R=Gd-Yb) systems are presented, where a method to treat simultaneously the localized 4f and the conduction electron spin magnetism is introduced. Thereby it becomes possible to calculate the K RM exchange coupling constant. This method is also used to study theoretically the permanent magnet material Nd 2 Fe 14 B. The electronic structure of the anomalous ferromagnets CeFe 2 and CeCo 5 is discussed and an induced 4f itinerant magnetism is predicted. The γ-α transition in cerium metal is considered, and results from calculations including orbital polarization are presented, where a volume collapse of 10% is obtained. On one side of the transition the 4f electrons are calculated to be essentially non-bonding (localized) and on the other side they are found to contribute to the metallic bonding and this difference in behaviour gives rise to the volume collapse. Recent calculations by Wills, Eriksson and Boring for the crystal structure changes in cerium metal under high pressure are discussed. Their successful results imply an itinerant picture for the 4f electrons in α-cerium. Consequently this strongly supports the view that the γ-α phase transformation is caused by a Mott transition of the 4f electrons. (orig.)

  19. Fracture toughness of Ceramic-Fiber-Reinforced Metallic-Intermetallic-Laminate (CFR-MIL) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchio, Kenneth S.; Jiang, Fengchun

    2016-01-01

    Novel Ceramic-Fiber-Reinforced-Metal-Intermetallic-Laminate (CFR-MIL) composites, Ti–Al 3 Ti–Al 2 O 3 –Al, were synthesized by reactive foil sintering in air. Microstructure controlled material architectures were achieved with continuous Al 2 O 3 fibers oriented in 0° and 90° layers to form fully dense composites in which the volume fractions of all four component phases can be tailored. Bend fracture specimens were cut from the laminate plates in divider orientation, and bend tests were performed to study the fracture behavior of CFR-MIL composites under three-point and four-point bending loading conditions. The microstructures and fractured surfaces of the CFR-MIL composites were examined using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to establish a correlation between the fracture toughness, fracture surface morphology and microstructures of CFR-MIL composites. The fracture and toughening mechanisms of the CFR-MIL composites are also addressed. The present experimental results indicate that the fracture toughness of CFR-MIL composites determined by three- and four-point bend loading configurations are quite similar, and increased significantly compared to MIL composites without ceramic fiber reinforcement. The interface cracking behavior is related to the volume fraction of the brittle Al 3 Ti phase and residual ductile Al, but the fracture toughness values appear to be insensitive to the ratio of these two phases. The toughness appears to be dominated by the ductility/strength of the Ti layers and the strength and crack bridging effect of the ceramic fibers.

  20. Thermal mixtures in stochastic mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, F [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica; Loffredo, M I [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1981-01-17

    Stochastic mechanics is extended to systems in thermal equilibrium. The resulting stochastic processes are mixtures of Nelson processes. Their Markov property is investigated in some simple cases. It is found that in order to inforce Markov property the algebra of observable associated to the present must be suitably enlarged.

  1. Characterization of bioactive mixtures oligogalacturonidos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mederos Torres, Yuliem; Hormaza Montenegro, Josefa; Reynaldo Escobar, Ines; Montesino Sequi, Raquel

    2011-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides are pectic oligosaccharides composed of lineal chains of D-galacturonic acid, linked by α (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Oligogalacturonides' mixtures are obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of pectins of diverse vegetal species. These oligosaccharides unchain a diverse biological activity in plants, which depends mainly on their polymerization degrees. The National Institute of Agricultural Science has a patent technology at national scale that lets to obtain a mixture of oligogalacturonides with different polymerization degree. In this work is presented the characterization of oligogalacturonides by spectrophotometric analysis attending to their uronic acids, reductor sugars, and neutral sugars content. Also the chromatographic profile of samples in study is obtained, using the derivatization with 2-aminobenzamide label and the separation by high pH anion exchange chromatography. It is achieved the separation of at least eight galacturonic acid oligomers with a variable degree of polymerization. On the other hand, the analysis by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed that mixtures were composed by galacturonic acid salts. Results indicated that starting from two pectic acids with different characteristics, mixtures of oligogalacturonides of similar chemical composition could be obtained, but they differ in the proportion that they are presented

  2. Ecological Assembly of Chemical Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human-environment interactions have a significant role in the formation of chemical mixtures in the environment and by extension in human tissues and fluids. These interactions, which include decisions to purchase and use products containing chemicals as well as behaviors and act...

  3. The effect of graphene on the intermetallic and joint strength of Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayappan, R.; Salleh, A.; Andas, J.

    2017-09-01

    Solder has been widely used in electronic industry as interconnection for electronic packaging. European Union and Japan have restricted the use of Sn-Pb solder as it contains lead which can harmful to human health and environment. Due to this, many researches have been done in order to find a suitable replacement for the lead solder. Although many lead-free solders are available, the Sn-3.5Ag solder with the addition of graphene seem to be a suitable candidate. In this study, a 0.07 wt% graphene nanosheet was added into the Sn-3.5Ag solder and this composite solder was prepared under powder metallurgy method. The solder was reacted with copper substrate at 250 °C for one minute. For joint strength analysis, two copper strips were soldered together. The solder joint was aged at temperature 100 °C for 500 hours. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to observe the interfacial reaction and Instron machine was used to determine the joint strength. Cu6Sn5 intermetallic layer was formed at the interface between the Cu substrate and the solders. Composite solder showed the retardation of the intermetallic growth compared to the plain solder. The thickness value of the intermetallic was used to calculate the growth rate the IMC. The graphene nanosheets added solder has lower growth rate which is 3.86 × 10-15 cm2/s compared to the plain solder 7.15 × 10-15 cm2/s. Shear strength analysis show that the composite solder has higher joint compared to the plain solder.

  4. Synthesis of Fe-Al-Ti Based Intermetallics with the Use of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kwiatkowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS technique was combined with direct synthesis to fabricate L21-ordered Fe-Al-Ti based intermetallic alloys. It was found that ternary Fe-Al-Ti alloys can be synthesized using the LENS technique from a feedstock composed of a pre-alloyed Fe-Al powder and elemental Ti powder. The obtained average compositions of the ternary alloys after the laser deposition and subsequent annealing were quite close to the nominal compositions, but the distributions of the elements in the annealed samples recorded over a large area were inhomogeneous. No traces of pure Ti were observed in the deposited alloys. Macroscopic cracking and porosity were observed in all investigated alloys. The amount of porosity in the samples was less than 1.2 vol. %. It seems that the porosity originates from the porous pre-alloyed Fe-Al powders. Single-phase (L21, two-phase (L21-C14 and multiphase (L21-A2-C14 Fe-Al-Ti intermetallic alloys were obtained from the direct laser synthesis and annealing process. The most prominent feature of the ternary Fe-Al-Ti intermetallics synthesized by the LENS method is their fine-grained structure. The grain size is in the range of 3–5 μm, indicating grain refinement effect through the highly rapid cooling of the LENS process. The Fe-Al-Ti alloys synthesized by LENS and annealed at 1000 °C in the single-phase B2 region were prone to an essential grain growth. In contrast, the alloys annealed at 1000 °C in the two-phase L21-C14 region exhibited almost constant grain size values after the high-temperature annealing.

  5. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujan, G.K.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Afifi, A.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu 6 Sn 5 from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping of flux

  6. Processing, Microstructure and Creep Behavior of Mo-Si-B-Based Intermetallic Alloys for Very High Temperature Structural Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay Vasudevan

    2008-03-31

    This research project is concerned with developing a fundamental understanding of the effects of processing and microstructure on the creep behavior of refractory intermetallic alloys based on the Mo-Si-B system. In the first part of this project, the compression creep behavior of a Mo-8.9Si-7.71B (in at.%) alloy, at 1100 and 1200 C was studied, whereas in the second part of the project, the constant strain rate compression behavior at 1200, 1300 and 1400 C of a nominally Mo-20Si-10B (in at.%) alloy, processed such as to yield five different {alpha}-Mo volume fractions ranging from 5 to 46%, was studied. In order to determine the deformation and damage mechanisms and rationalize the creep/high temperature deformation data and parameters, the microstructure of both undeformed and deformed samples was characterized in detail using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with back scattered electron imaging (BSE) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD)/orientation electron microscopy in the SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructure of both alloys was three-phase, being composed of {alpha}-Mo, Mo{sub 3}Si and T2-Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2} phases. The values of stress exponents and activation energies, and their dependence on microstructure were determined. The data suggested the operation of both dislocation as well as diffusional mechanisms, depending on alloy, test temperature, stress level and microstructure. Microstructural observations of post-crept/deformed samples indicated the presence of many voids in the {alpha}-Mo grains and few cracks in the intermetallic particles and along their interfaces with the {alpha}-Mo matrix. TEM observations revealed the presence of recrystallized {alpha}-Mo grains and sub-grain boundaries composed of dislocation arrays within the grains (in Mo-8.9Si-7.71B) or fine sub-grains with a high density of b = 1/2<111> dislocations (in Mo-20Si-10B), which

  7. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujan, G.K., E-mail: sgkumer@gmail.com; Haseeb, A.S.M.A., E-mail: haseeb@um.edu.my; Afifi, A.B.M., E-mail: amalina@um.edu.my

    2014-11-15

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping

  8. X-ray nano-diffraction study of Sr intermetallic phase during solidification of Al-Si hypoeutectic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manickaraj, Jeyakumar; Gorny, Anton; Shankar, Sumanth, E-mail: shankar@mcmaster.ca [Light Metal Casting Research Centre (LMCRC), Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street W, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Cai, Zhonghou [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-02-17

    The evolution of strontium (Sr) containing intermetallic phase in the eutectic reaction of Sr-modified Al-Si hypoeutectic alloy was studied with high energy synchrotron beam source for nano-diffraction experiments and x-ray fluorescence elemental mapping. Contrary to popular belief, Sr does not seem to interfere with the Twin Plane Re-entrant Edge (TPRE) growth mechanism of eutectic Si, but evolves as the Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sr phase during the eutectic reaction at the boundary between the eutectic Si and Al grains.

  9. Nanoporous alumina formed by self-organized two-step anodization of Ni3Al intermetallic alloy in citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Cieślak, Grzegorz; Norek, Małgorzata; Karczewski, Krzysztof; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Zasada, Dariusz; Polkowski, Wojciech; Jóźwik, Paweł; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Anodic porous alumina was formed by Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy anodization. ► The anodizations were conducted in 0.3 M citric acid. ► Nanopores geometry depends on anodizing voltage. ► No barrier layer was formed during anodization. - Abstract: Formation of the nanoporous alumina on the surface of Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy has been studied in details and compared with anodization of aluminum. Successful self-organized anodization of this alloy was performed in 0.3 M citric acid at voltages ranging from 2.0 to 12.0 V using a typical two-electrode cell. Current density records revealed different mechanism of the porous oxide growth when compared to the mechanism pertinent for the anodization of aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments confirmed the differences in anodic oxide growth. Surface and cross-sections of the Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy with anodic oxide were observed with field-emission scanning electron microscope and characterized with appropriate software. Nanoporous oxide growth rate was estimated from cross-sectional FE-SEM images. The lowest growth rate of 0.14 μm/h was found for the anodization at 0 °C and 2.0 V. The highest one – 2.29 μm/h – was noticed for 10.0 V and 30 °C. Pore diameter was ranging from 18.9 nm (2.0 V, 0 °C) to 32.0 nm (12.0 V, 0 °C). Interpore distance of the nanoporous alumina was ranging from 56.6 nm (2.0 V, 0 °C) to 177.9 nm (12.0 V, 30 °C). Pore density (number of pore occupying given area) was decreasing with anodizing voltage increase from 394.5 pores/μm 2 (2.0 V, 0 °C) to 94.9 pores/μm 2 (12.0 V, 0 °C). All the geometrical features of the anodic alumina formed by two-step self-organized anodization of Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy are depending on the operating conditions.

  10. Preparation and characterization of the Li(17)Pb(83) eutectic alloy and the LiPb intermetallic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauch, U.; Karcher, V.; Schulz, B.

    1986-01-01

    Li(17)Pb(83) and LiPb were prepared from the pure elements in amounts of several hundred grams. The resolidified samples were characterized by melting points (eutectic temperature), chemical analysis and metallography. Using differential thermal analysis the heats of fusion were determined and the behaviour of the intermetallic phase LiPb in vacuum and high purified He was studied. The results from these investigations were applied to characterize Li(17)Pb(83) prepared in high amounts for technical application as a potential liquid breeder material. (orig.)

  11. The nuclear quadrupole interaction of {sup 181}Ta in the intermetallic compound Hf{sub 2}Rh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanovic, N.; Koicki, S.; Cekic, B.; Manasijevic, M.; Koteski, V.; Marjanovic, D. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, Laboratory for Nuclear and Plasma Physics, PO Box 522, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1999-01-11

    The time differential perturbed angular correlation technique has been used to measure the electric field gradient at {sup 181}Ta impurities in the intermetallic compound Hf{sub 2}Rh. The results of the measurements show the presence of two independent quadrupole interactions. At room temperature the interaction frequencies are {omega}{sub Q1} = 58 Mrad s{sup -1} and {omega}{sub Q2} = 239 Mrad s{sup -1}. The electric field gradient V{sub 22}, the corresponding asymmetry parameter {eta} and the distribution parameter {delta} exhibit a pronounced temperature dependence from 78 to 1223 K. (author)

  12. Reliable and cost effective design of intermetallic Ni2Si nanowires and direct characterization of its mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Zeon Han; Joonhee Kang; Sung-Dae Kim; Si-Young Choi; Hyung Giun Kim; Jehyun Lee; Kwangho Kim; Sung Hwan Lim; Byungchan Han

    2015-01-01

    We report that a single crystal Ni2Si nanowire (NW) of intermetallic compound can be reliably designed using simple three-step processes: casting a ternary Cu-Ni-Si alloy, nucleate and growth of Ni2Si NWs as embedded in the alloy matrix via designing discontinuous precipitation (DP) of Ni2Si nanoparticles and thermal aging, and finally chemical etching to decouple the Ni2Si NWs from the alloy matrix. By direct application of uniaxial tensile tests to the Ni2Si NW we characterize its mechanica...

  13. The influence of the surface distribution of Al6(MnFe) intermetallic on the electrochemical response of AA5083 aluminium alloy in NaCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethencourt, M.; Botana, F.J.; Calvino, J.J.; Perez, J.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Marcos, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the behaviour against pitting corrosion of different samples of AA5083 aluminium alloy has been studied. A correlation between the microstructure of the samples and their susceptibility to pitting has been established. Metallographic analysis combined with SEM and EDS techniques have allowed us to detect three intermetallic compounds in the samples. The particle size distribution and surface density of each intermetallic phase have been evaluated for the three AA5083 alloy samples coming from different suppliers. Significant differences in the microstructure of the three samples have been found. Full immersion test carried out in 3.5% aerated aqueous solutions showed that pitting starts at the locations of the Al 6 (MnFe) intermetallic particles. As a consequence of this, the samples with higher Al 6 (MnFe) content showed a higher pit density on its surface. The results of cyclic polarisation tests showed also a good correlation with the microstructural parameters. (orig.)

  14. Effects of ductile phase volume fraction on the mechanical properties of Ti-Al3Ti metal-intermetallic laminate (MIL) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Richard D.; Jiang Fengchun; Kulin, Robb M.; Vecchio, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Residual Al improves the mechanical properties of Ti-Al 3 Ti MIL composites. → Residual Al can eliminate intermetallic centerline delaminations in MILs. → Low levels of residual Al increase fracture toughness in MIL composites. → MIL stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness can be optimized at low Al levels. - Abstract: Metal-intermetallic laminate (MIL) composites consisting of alternating layers of Ti, Al, and the intermetallic Al 3 Ti have been fabricated by reactive foil sintering in open air. Six initially identical stacks of alternating Ti-3Al-2.5 V and 1100-Al foils were processed for different lengths of time, yielding specimens with different metal and intermetallic volume fractions. Their mechanical properties have been investigated with an emphasis on the effect of residual Al at the intermetallic centerline on composite strength and fracture toughness, as well as fracture and failure modes. Samples were cut from each composite plate (in layer orientations parallel and perpendicular to the intended load direction) for mechanical testing in compression and four-point bending under quasi-static and high-rate loading conditions. Examination of the damaged specimens and their fracture surfaces by optical and scanning electron microscopy was performed to establish a correlation between the failure mechanisms present, composite strength, and microstructure. Results indicated that regardless of loading direction, cracks always initiated in the intermetallic region, rarely at the centerline, and crack propagation and failure were heavily influenced by the thickness of the residual aluminum layers. There is an ideal residual aluminum volume fraction that represents the amount of ductile reinforcement that maximizes the combined properties of strength, toughness and stiffness.

  15. Evolution of Fe based intermetallic phases in Al–Si hypoeutectic casting alloys: Influence of the Si and Fe concentrations, and solidification rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorny, Anton; Manickaraj, Jeyakumar; Cai, Zhonghou; Shankar, Sumanth

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Anomalous evolution of Fe based intermetallic phases in Al–Si–Fe alloys. •XRF coupled with nano-diffraction to confirm the nano-size Fe intermetallic phases. •Crystallography of the θ-Al 13 Fe 4 , τ 5 -Al 8 Fe 2 Si and τ 6 -Al 9 Fe 2 Si 2 phases. •Peritectic reactions involving the Fe intermetallic phases in Al–Si–Fe alloys. -- Abstract: Al–Si–Fe hypoeutectic cast alloy system is very complex and reported to produce numerous Fe based intermetallic phases in conjunction with Al and Si. This publication will address the anomalies of phase evolution in the Al–Si–Fe hypoeutectic casting alloy system; the anomaly lies in the peculiarities in the evolution and nature of the intermetallic phases when compared to the thermodynamic phase diagram predictions and past publications of the same. The influence of the following parameters, in various combinations, on the evolution and nature of the intermetallic phases were analyzed and reported: concentration of Si between 2 and 12.6 wt%, Fe between 0.05 and 0.5 wt% and solidification rates of 0.1, 1, 5 and 50 K s −1 . Two intermetallic phases are observed to evolve in these alloys under these solidification conditions: the τ 5 -Al 8 SiFe 2 and τ 6 -Al 9 Fe 2 Si 2 . The τ 5 -Al 8 SiFe 2 phase evolves at all levels of the parameters during solidification and subsequently transforms into the τ 6 -Al 9 Fe 2 Si 2 through a peritectic reaction when promoted by certain combinations of solidification parameters such as higher Fe level, lower Si level and slower solidification rates. Further, it is also hypothesized from experimental evidences that the θ-Al 13 Fe 4 binary phase precludes the evolution of the τ 5 during solidification and subsequently transforms into the τ 6 phase during solidification. These observations are anomalous to the publications as prior art and simulation predictions of thermodynamic phase diagrams of these alloys, wherein, only one intermetallic phases in the

  16. Mixtures in nonstable Levy processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, N Cufaro

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the Levy processes produced by means of two interconnected classes of nonstable, infinitely divisible distribution: the variance gamma and the Student laws. While the variance gamma family is closed under convolution, the Student one is not: this makes its time evolution more complicated. We prove that-at least for one particular type of Student processes suggested by recent empirical results, and for integral times-the distribution of the process is a mixture of other types of Student distributions, randomized by means of a new probability distribution. The mixture is such that along the time the asymptotic behaviour of the probability density functions always coincide with that of the generating Student law. We put forward the conjecture that this can be a general feature of the Student processes. We finally analyse the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process driven by our Levy noises and show a few simulations of it

  17. A metastable HCP intermetallic phase in Cu-Al bilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Limei

    2006-07-01

    For the present study, three kinds of layered Cu/Al films have been fabricated. The first kind of samples were multilayered Cu/Al films deposited by sputtering on (001)Si. The individual layer thicknesses were 100 nm, 200 nm and 400 nm, while the total film thickness of 800 nm was kept constant, thus leading to multilayer systems with 8, 4 and 2 layers, respectively. The second type of samples were Cu/Al bilayer films grown on (0001) sapphire by sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses of 400 nm. The third type of samples were bilayer films (100 nm Cu and 100 nm Al) deposited on (0001)sapphire by MBE at room temperature. Applying conventional transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, different epitaxial growth behaviors were found in these films. All multilayer films from the first type were polycrystalline. The second type of films show a (111) FCC texture and possess intermetallic phases at the interfaces. HRTEM investigations displayed that along [111]FCC, the atomic structure of the interlayer has an ABAB stacking sequence, which is identical with a hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure in [0001] direction, but not with the ABCABC stacking sequence of Cu and Al in [111]FCC. The lattice parameters of the HCP structure at the interlayer were determined from a model which gave the best agreement between the experimental and simulated images. The parameters are: a=b=0.256 nm, c=0.419 nm, ?=120 , with the space group of P6m2. Furthermore, lattice distortion analysis revealed that the lattice parameters of the HCP phase are increasing from the near-Cu-side to the near-Al-side. The chemical composition of the interlayer was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). EDS linescans were performed from pure Al to pure Cu layers. In order to examine the stability of this HCP phase, in-situ heating experiments were performed in the HRTEM at {proportional_to}600 C. Ex-situ heating experiments were performed at different temperatures to

  18. The mystery of perpendicular fivefold axes and the fourth dimension in intermetallic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert F; Lee, Stephen; Johnson, Jeffreys; Nebgen, Ben; Sha, Fernando; Xu, Jiaqi

    2008-01-01

    The structures of eight related known intermetallic structure types are the impetus to this paper: Li21Si5, Mg44Rh7, Zn13(Fe,Ni)2, Mg6Pd, Na6Tl, Zn91Ir11, Li13Na29Ba19, and Al69Ta39. All belong to the F43m space group, have roughly 400 atoms in their cubic unit cells, are built up at least partially from the gamma-brass structure, and exhibit pseudo-tenfold symmetric diffraction patterns. These pseudo-tenfold axes lie in the {110} directions, and thus present a paradox. The {110} set is comprised of three pairs of perpendicular directions. Yet no 3D point group contains a single pair of perpendicular fivefold axes (by Friedel's Law, a fivefold axis leads to a tenfold diffraction pattern). The current work seeks to resolve this paradox. Its resolution is based on the largest of all 4D Platonic solids, the 600-cell. We first review the 600-cell, building an intuition discussing 4D polyhedroids (4D polytopes). We then show that the positions of common atoms in the F43m structures lie close to the positions of vertices in a 3D projection of the 600-cell. For this purpose, we develop a projection method that we call intermediate projection. The introduction of the 600-cell resolves the above paradox. This 4D Platonic solid contains numerous orthogonal fivefold rotations. The six fivefold directions that are best preserved after projection prove to lie along the {110} directions of the F43m structures. Finally, this paper shows that at certain ideal projected cluster sizes related to one another by the golden mean (tau=(1+ radical 5)/2), constructive interference leading to tenfold diffraction patterns is optimized. It is these optimal values that predominate in actual F43m structures. Explicit comparison of experimental cluster sizes and theoretically derived cluster sizes shows a clear correspondence, both for isolated and crystalline pairs of projected 600-cells.

  19. Longitudinal recording on FePt and FePtX (X = B, Ni) intermetallic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning

    1999-11-01

    Near field recording on high coercivity FePt intermetallic compound media using a high Bsat write element was investigated. Untextured FePt media were prepared by magnetron sputtering on ZrO2 disks at a substrate temperature of 450°C, with post annealing at 450°C for 8 hrs. Both multilayer and cosputtered precursors produced the ordered tetragonal L10 phase with high coercivity between 5kOe and 12kOe. To improve readback noise decrease magnetic domain size, FePtB media were subsequently prepared by cosputtering. Over-write, roll-off, signal to noise ratio and non-linear transition shift (NLTS) ere measured by both metal in gap (MIG) and merged MR heads. FePtB media showed similar NLTS to commercial CoCrPtTa longitudinal media, but 5dB lower signal to noise ratio. By operating recording transducers in near contact, reasonable values of (>30dB) could be obtained. VSM Rotational Transverse Magnetization has been used for measuring the anisotropy field of magnetic thin films. Magnetization reversal during rotation of a 2D isotropic an applied field is discussed. The relationship between the transverse magnetization My and the applied field H was numerically solved. An excellent approximation for the transverse magnetization is found to be: My/Ms=A(1- H/Hk) 2.5, where A = 1.1434, and Hk is the anisotropy field. For curve fitting to experimental data, both A and Hk were used as fitting parameters. Comparison between a constructed torque hysteresis method and this VSM RTM method have been made theoretically and experimentally. Both results showed that VSM RTM will give better extrapolation of the anisotropy field. The torque measurement will slightly overestimate the anisotropy field. The anisotropy fields of FePt and FePtX (X = B, Ni) films were characterized using this VSM RTM technique with comparison to a CoCrTaPt disk. Anisotropy energy was derived. Hc/Hk was used as an indicator for coherent rotation of a single domain. Interactions between magnetic domains were

  20. Intermetallic and metal-rich phases in the system Li-Ba-In-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetana, Volodymyr; Vajenine, Grigori V.; Kienle, Lorenz; Duppel, Viola; Simon, Arndt

    2010-01-01

    Three new intermetallic phases, BaLi 2.1 In 1.9 , BaLi 1.12 In 0.98 , and BaLi 1.06 In 1.16 and two subnitrides Li 35 In 45 Ba 39 N 9 and LiIn 2 Ba 3 N 0.83 have been synthesized and their crystal structures have been determined. According to single crystal X-ray diffraction data BaLi 2.1 In 1.9 and BaLi 1.12 In 0.98 crystallize with hexagonal symmetry (BaLi 2.1 In 1.9 : P6 3 /mmc, a=10.410(2), c=8.364(2) A, Z=6, V=785.0(2) A 3 ) and BaLi 1.12 In 0.98 : P6/mmm, a=17.469(1), c=10.6409(7) A, Z=30, V=2813.5(8) A 3 ), while BaLi 1.06 In 1.16 has a rhombohedral structure (R-3c, a=18.894(3), c=85.289(17) A, Z=276, V=26368(8) A 3 ). BaLi 2.1 In 1.9 is isostructural with the known phase BaLi 4 . The phase BaLi 1.12 In 0.98 is structurally related to Na 8 K 23 Cd 12 In 48 , while BaLi 1.06 In 1.16 is isostructural with Li 33.3 Ba 13.1 Ca 3 . A sample containing structurally similar BaLi 1.12 In 0.98 and BaLi 1.02 In 1.16 was also investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Li 35 In 45 Ba 39 N 9 and LiIn 2 Ba 3 N 0.83 crystallize with tetragonal (I-42m, a=15.299(2), c=30.682(6) A, Z=2, V=7182(2) A 3 ) and cubic (Fd-3m, a=14.913(2) A, Z=8, V=3316.7(7) A 3 ) symmetry, respectively. While the first-mentioned subnitride belongs to the Li 80 Ba 39 N 9 structure type, the second extends the structural family of Ba 6 In 4.78 N 2.72 . The structural features of the new compounds are discussed in comparison to the known phases and the results of total energy calculations. - Graphical abstract: One-dimensional chain of face-sharing centered icosahedra in BaLi 2.1 In 1.9

  1. Anomalous magnetic aftereffect in Nd3(Fe,T)29 (T = Ti or Re) intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collocott, S.J.; Dunlop, J.B.; Gwan, P.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The intermetallic compounds Nd 3 (Fe,Ti) 29 and Nd 3 (Fe,Re) 29 order ferromagnetically with Curie Temperatures, T c , of 430 and 370 K respectively. They have a monoclinic crystal structure, space group A2/m (Nd 3 (Fe,Ti) 29 type) with two rare earth sites and eleven Fe(T) sites, which is an intermediate structure between the rhombohedral Th 2 Zn 17 and tetragonal ThMn 12 structures, and is closely related to hexagonal CaCu 5 . Ferromagnetic materials, depending on their magnetic prehistory, may exhibit a time dependent magnetisation. The term 'magnetic aftereffect' is used to describe this behaviour, which may fall into three categories: 1. Reversible or diffusion aftereffect which is associated with the diffusion of impurity atoms or holes within the ferromagnetic lattice. 2. The irreversible or fluctuation aftereffect, which results in a logarithmic time dependence of magnetisation, J(t)=J(0)+Sln(t+t 0 ), where S is the magnetic viscosity and t 0 a parameter to establish the origin of the time scale measurements. 3. Quantum tunnelling of magnetisation which is observed at very low temperatures. A range of magnetic aftereffects have been observed in both Nd 3 (Fe,Ti) 29 and Nd 3 (Fe,Re) 29 . Of particular interest is the case where the material is fully saturated by application of a field in the positive direction, the applied field is then reversed to trace out part of the major demagnetisation curve into the third quadrant, and thence along a recoil curve, such that in zero applied field the magnetisation is zero (H=0, J=0). (This corresponds to dc field magnetisation.) This magnetic prehistory results in two interesting effects; spontaneous remagnetisation e.g. remagnetisation without application of an external field, and thermal remagnetisation e.g. an increase in magnetisation as the temperature is increased. Additionally, the behaviour of the magnetic viscosity has been explored on the major demagnetisation curve as a function of temperature

  2. Understanding and Improving High-Temperature Structural Properties of Metal-Silicide Intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce S. Kang

    2005-10-10

    The objective of this project was to understand and improve high-temperature structural properties of metal-silicide intermetallic alloys. Through research collaboration between the research team at West Virginia University (WVU) and Dr. J.H. Schneibel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), molybdenum silicide alloys were developed at ORNL and evaluated at WVU through atomistic modeling analyses, thermo-mechanical tests, and metallurgical studies. In this study, molybdenum-based alloys were ductilized by dispersing MgAl2O4 or MgO spinel particles. The addition of spinel particles is hypothesized to getter impurities such as oxygen and nitrogen from the alloy matrix with the result of ductility improvement. The introduction of fine dispersions has also been postulated to improve ductility by acting as a dislocation source or reducing dislocation pile-ups at grain boundaries. The spinel particles, on the other hand, can also act as local notches or crack initiation sites, which is detrimental to the alloy mechanical properties. Optimization of material processing condition is important to develop the desirable molybdenum alloys with sufficient room-temperature ductility. Atomistic analyses were conducted to further understand the mechanism of ductility improvement of the molybdenum alloys and the results showed that trace amount of residual oxygen may be responsible for the brittle behavior of the as-cast Mo alloys. For the alloys studied, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted at different loading rates, and at room and elevated temperatures. Thermal cycling effect on the mechanical properties was also studied. Tensile tests for specimens subjected to either ten or twenty thermal cycles were conducted. For each test, a follow-up detailed fractography and microstructural analysis were carried out. The test results were correlated to the size, density, distribution of the spinel particles and processing time. Thermal expansion tests were carried out using thermo

  3. DOE-EPSCoR. Exchange interactions in epitaxial intermetallic layered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeClair, Patrick R. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Gary, Mankey J. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2015-05-25

    The goal of this research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the exchange interactions in epitaxial intermetallic alloy thin films and multilayers, including films and multilayers of Fe-Pt, Co-Pt and Fe-P-Rh alloys deposited on MgO and Al2O3 substrates. Our prior results have revealed that these materials have a rich variety of ferromagnetic, paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases which are sensitive functions of composition, substrate symmetry and layer thickness. Epitaxial antiferromagnetic films of FePt alloys exhibit a different phase diagram than bulk alloys. The antiferromagnetism of these materials has both spin ordering transitions and spin orienting transitions. The objectives include the study of exchange-inversion materials and the interface of these materials with ferromagnets. Our aim is to formulate a complete understanding of the magnetic ordering in these materials, as well as developing an understanding of how the spin structure is modified through contact with a ferromagnetic material at the interface. The ultimate goal is to develop the ability to tune the phase diagram of the materials to produce layered structures with tunable magnetic properties. The alloy systems that we will study have a degree of complexity and richness of magnetic phases that requires the use of the advanced tools offered by the DOE-operated national laboratory facilities, such as neutron and x-ray scattering to measure spin ordering, spin orientations, and element-specific magnetic moments. We plan to contribute to DOE’s mission of producing “Materials by Design” with properties determined by alloy composition and crystal structure. We have developed the methods for fabricating and have performed neutron diffraction experiments on some of the most interesting phases, and our work will serve to answer questions raised about the element-specific magnetizations using the magnetic x-ray dichroism techniques and interface magnetism in layered structures

  4. Deformation twinning in metals and ordered intermetallics-Ti and Ti-aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, M. H.; Fu, C. L.; Lee, J. K.

    1991-06-01

    The role of deformation twinning in the strength and ductility of metals and ordered intermetallic alloys is examined on the basis of crystallography, energetics and kinetics of deformation twinning. A systematic analysis is made by taking Ti, Ti3AI, TiAl, and A13Ti as four model systems. In comparison with profuse twinning in Ti, the intrinsic difficulty of twinning in Ti3A1 is rationalized in terms of the interchange shuffling mechanism. A fault (SISF) dragging mechanism based on the interaction torque explains the physical source for the low mobility of screw superdislocations in TiAl, which may lead to (111) [ 11bar{2}] twin nucleation. In TiAl and A13Ti alloys, the twin-slip (ordinary) conjugate relationship makes an important contribution to the strain compatibility for high-temperature plasticity. Potentially beneficial alloying additions to promote twinning are discussed. Les conséquences de la déformation par maclage sur la fracture et la ductilité des métaux et alliages intermétalliques ordonnés sont étudiées en fonction de la cristallographie, de l'énergie et de la cinétique des déformations par maclage. Une analyse systématique a été faite en considérant Ti, Ti3AI, TiAl et A13Ti comme quatre systèmes modèles. En comparaison avec le nombre important de maclages observés dans Ti, la difficulté intrinsèque des maclages dans Ti3AI est rationalisée en terme de mécanisme d'“interchange shuffling”. Un mécanisme de “dragging fault” basé sur l'interaction “torque” explique l'origine physique de la faible mobilité des superdislocations vissées dans TiAl qui peuvent conduire à la nucléation des macles (111) 112. Dans les alliages tels TiAl et A13Ti, la relation conjuguée entre la macle et le glissement (ordinaire) contribue de façon importante à la compatibilité des contraintes lors de la déformation plastique à haute température. Des effets bénéfiques potentiels liés à des éléments d'addition sur le processus

  5. Influence of Al grain boundaries segregations and La-doping on embrittlement of intermetallic NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, Anatoly I., E-mail: a_kovalev@sprg.ru; Wainstein, Dmitry L.; Rashkovskiy, Alexander Yu.

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • We investigated Al grain boundaries segregations in ordered pure and La-doped NiAl. • Structural segregation of Al decreases critical strain for brittle cracks nucleation. • La alloying sharply improves plasticity of NiAl intermetallic. • Metallicity of interatomic bonds on grain boundaries increases at La alloying. • We have experimentally measured by EELFS that La atoms are located in Al sublattice. - Abstract: The microscopic nature of intergranular fracture of NiAl was experimentally investigated by the set of electron spectroscopy techniques. The paper demonstrates that embrittlement of NiAl intermetallic compound is caused by ordering of atomic structure that leads to formation of structural aluminum segregations at grain boundaries (GB). Such segregations contain high number of brittle covalent interatomic bonds. The alloying by La increases the ductility of material avoiding Al GB enrichment and disordering GB atomic structure. The influence of La alloying on NiAl mechanical properties was investigated. GB chemical composition, atomic and electronic structure transformations after La doping were investigated by AES, XPS and EELFS techniques. To qualify the interatomic bonds metallicity the Fermi level (E{sub F}) position and electrons density (n{sub eff}) in conduction band were determined in both undoped and doped NiAl. Basing on experimental results the physical model of GB brittleness formation was proposed.

  6. Effect of Co on Si and Fe-containing intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Al-20Si-5Fe alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatih Kilicaslan, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Kastamonu University, Kastamonu (Turkey); Yilmaz, Fikret [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat (Turkey); Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, Cheonan 331717 (Korea, Republic of); Uzun, Orhan, E-mail: orhan.uzun@gop.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat (Turkey)

    2012-10-30

    The effects of cobalt addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-20Si-5Fe-XCo (X=0, 1, 3, and 5) alloys were reported in this study. The alloys were produced by both conventional sand casting and melt-spinning at 20 m/s disk velocity. Microstructures of the samples were investigated using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vickers micro-hardness tester was used for hardness measurements. Results showed that Co addition can alter morphology of Fe-bearing intermetallic compounds (IMCs) from long rod/needle-like structures to short rod-like ones, and lead to a more homogenous distribution in the microstructure. Addition of 5 wt% Co leads to a decrease in average size of the primary silicon phases in as-cast Al-Si alloys. In melt-spun alloys, with the addition of Co, the microstructure became finer and more homogenously distributed, while thickness of the featureless zone has seen great increase. The optimum Fe to Co ratio was found to be 1 for suppressing the undesirable effect of Fe-bearing acicular/needle-like intermetallic compounds.

  7. Effect of ternary alloying elements on microstructure and mechanical property of Nb-Si based refractory intermetallic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.Y.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, S.K.; Ra, T.Y.; Kim, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical property at room temperature and at 1773 K of Nb-Si based refractory intermetallic alloys were investigated in terms of compression and fracture toughness test. Mo and V were chosen as ternary alloying elements because of their high melting points, atomic sizes smaller than Nb. Both ternary alloying elements were found to have a significant role in modifying the microstructure from dispersed structure to eutectic-like structure in Nb solid solution/Nb 5 Si 3 intermetallic composites. The 0.2% offset yield strength at room temperature increased with increasing content of ternary elements in Nb solid solution and volume fraction of Nb 5 Si 3 . At 1773 K, Mo addition has a positive role in increasing the yield strength. On the other hand, V addition has a role in decreasing the yield strength. The fracture toughness of ternary alloys was superior to binary alloys. Details will be discussed in correlation with ternary alloying, volume fraction of constituent phase, and the microstructure. (orig.)

  8. Tracing crystal-field splittings in the rare-earth-based intermetallic CeIrIn5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. Y.; Wen, C. H. P.; Yao, Q.; Huang, K.; Ding, Z. F.; Shu, L.; Niu, X. H.; Zhang, Y.; Lai, X. C.; Huang, Y. B.; Zhang, G. B.; Kirchner, S.; Feng, D. L.

    2018-02-01

    Crystal electric field states in rare earth intermetallics show an intricate entanglement with the many-body physics that occurs in these systems and that is known to lead to a plethora of electronic phases. Here we attempt to trace different contributions to the crystal electric field (CEF) splittings in CeIrIn5, a heavy-fermion compound and member of the Ce M In5 (M = Co, Rh, Ir) family. To this end, we utilize high-resolution resonant angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and present a spectroscopic study of the electronic structure of this unconventional superconductor over a wide temperature range. As a result, we show how ARPES can be used in combination with thermodynamic measurements or neutron scattering to disentangle different contributions to the CEF splitting in rare earth intermetallics. We also find that the hybridization is stronger in CeIrIn5 than CeCoIn5 and the effects of the hybridization on the Fermi volume increase is much smaller than predicted. By providing experimental evidence for 4 f7/2 1 splittings which, in CeIrIn5, split the octet into four doublets, we clearly demonstrate the many-body origin of the so-called 4 f7/2 1 state.

  9. Effect of Co on Si and Fe-containing intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Al–20Si–5Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatih Kilicaslan, M.; Yilmaz, Fikret; Hong, Soon-Jik; Uzun, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    The effects of cobalt addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–20Si–5Fe–XCo (X=0, 1, 3, and 5) alloys were reported in this study. The alloys were produced by both conventional sand casting and melt-spinning at 20 m/s disk velocity. Microstructures of the samples were investigated using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vickers micro-hardness tester was used for hardness measurements. Results showed that Co addition can alter morphology of Fe-bearing intermetallic compounds (IMCs) from long rod/needle-like structures to short rod-like ones, and lead to a more homogenous distribution in the microstructure. Addition of 5 wt% Co leads to a decrease in average size of the primary silicon phases in as-cast Al–Si alloys. In melt-spun alloys, with the addition of Co, the microstructure became finer and more homogenously distributed, while thickness of the featureless zone has seen great increase. The optimum Fe to Co ratio was found to be 1 for suppressing the undesirable effect of Fe-bearing acicular/needle-like intermetallic compounds.

  10. Microstructural and Material Quality Effects on Rolling Contact Fatigue of Highly Elastic Intermetallic NiTi Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Thomas, Fransua; Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2017-01-01

    Rolling element bearings made from highly-elastic intermetallic materials (HIM)s, such as 60NiTi, are under development for applications that require superior corrosion and shock resistance. Compared to steel, intermetallics have been shown to have much lower rolling contact fatigue (RCF) stress capability in simplified 3-ball on rod (ASTM STP 771) fatigue tests. In the 3-ball tests, poor material quality and microstructural flaws negatively affect fatigue life but such relationships have not been established for full-scale 60NiTi bearings. In this paper, 3-ball-on-rod fatigue behavior of two quality grades of 60NiTi are compared to the fatigue life of full-scale 50mm bore ball bearings made from the same materials. 60NiTi RCF rods with material or microstructural flaws suffered from infant mortality failures at all tested stress levels while high quality 60NiTi rods exhibited no failures at lower stress levels. Similarly, tests of full-scale bearings made from flawed materials exhibited early surface fatigue and through crack type failures while bearings made from high quality material did not fail even in long-term tests. Though the full-scale bearing test data is yet preliminary, the results suggest that the simplified RCF test is a good qualitative predictor of bearing performance. These results provide guidance for materials development and to establish minimum quality levels required for successful bearing operation and life.

  11. Four-branched compounds coupled Si and iron-rich intermetallics in near eutectic Al-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yuying; Liu, Xiangfa; Jiang, Binggang; Bian, Xiufang

    2007-01-01

    Many four-branched compounds coupled Si and iron-rich intermetallics were observed in near eutectic Al-Si alloy modified with Al-P master alloy. Such four-branched compounds have never been reported before, but in our case it seems to be commonly observed. In this work the growth characterization of the four-branched compounds are scrutinized with a JXA-8800 electron microprobe (EPMA). More deep study of the formation of four-branched compounds is performed by SEM and TEM analysis. The characterization of the four-branched compounds is that of a primary silicon in the center with four iron-rich intermetallics around. Experimental results also show that the precipitation of primary silicon is the key factor for the formation of four-branched compounds. And WHS-theory explains the growth mechanism of the four-branched compounds. In detail, subsequent twinning within the primary silicon provides four-fold coordination sites on the surface, and then the α-Al(Fe,Mn)-Si phase nucleates on the surface of the primary silicon

  12. Fabrication of FeAl Intermetallic Foams by Tartaric Acid-Assisted Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Karczewski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron aluminides are intermetallics with interesting applications in porous form thanks to their mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. However, making porous forms of these materials is not easy due to their high melting points. We formed FeAl foams by elemental iron and aluminum powders sintering with tartaric acid additive. Tartaric acid worked as an in situ gas-releasing agent during the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of FeAl intermetallic alloy, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. The porosity of the formed foams was up to 36 ± 4%. In the core of the sample, the average equivalent circle diameter was found to be 47 ± 20 µm, while on the surface, it was 35 ± 16 µm; thus, the spread of the pore size was smaller than reported previously. To investigate functional applications of the formed FeAl foam, the pressure drop of air during penetration of the foam was examined. It was found that increased porosity of the material increased the flow of the air through the metallic foam.

  13. Determination of the enthalpy of formation of Ni-Al intermetallic compounds using differential scanning calorimetry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubaski, Evaldo Toniolo; Capocchi, Jose Deodoro Trani; Cintho, Osvaldo Mitsuyuki

    2010-01-01

    The compositions Ni20Al80, Ni25Al75, Ni40Al60, Ni50Al50, Ni60Al40 and Ni75Al25 (at. %) were heated in a calibrated thermal analysis equipment. All runs were conducted at a heating rate of 10 deg C/min under a dynamic argon atmosphere. Each composition was heated until the completion of the corresponding exothermic reaction responsible for intermetallic compound formation, and, also heated to 1480 deg C. The products obtained were characterized using X ray diffraction in order to identify the intermetallic compounds that were synthesized. Moreover, the results were evaluated using variance analysis. As a result, enthalpies of formation of Ni 2 Al 3 and Ni 3 Al compounds were determined by means of this methodology. Experimental values were 167 kJ/mol and 93 kJ/mol for Ni 2 Al 3 and Ni 3 Al, respectively. The former is 18% lower than the value found on literature, while the latter is 6% greater. (author)

  14. Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of NiAl intermetallics in a single mode applicator: Modeling and optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poli, G.; Sola, R.; Veronesi, P.

    2006-01-01

    The microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of NiAl intermetallics in a single mode applicator has been simulated numerically and performed with the aim of achieving the highest yields, energy efficiency and process reproducibility. The electromagnetic field modeling of the microwave system allowed to chose the proper experimental set-up and the materials more suitable for the application, minimising the reflected power and the risks of arcing. In all the experimental conditions tested, conversions of 3-5 g 1:1 atomic ratio Ni and Al powder compacts into NiAl ranged from 98.7% to 100%, requiring from 30 to 180 s with power from 500 to 1500 W. The optimisation procedure allowed to determine and quantify the effects of the main process variables on the ignition time, the NiAl yields and the specific energy consumption, leading to a fast, reproducible and cost-effective process of microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of NiAl intermetallics

  15. Platinum Iron Intermetallic Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Formed In Situ by High-Pressure Pyrolysis for Efficient Oxygen Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-supported PtFe alloy catalysts are synthesized by the one-step, high-temperature pyrolysis of Pt, Fe, and C precursors. As a result of the high temperature, the formed PtFe nanoparticles possess highly ordered, face-centered tetragonal, intermetallic structures with a mean size of ≈11.8 nm....... At 0.9 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, the PtFe nanoparticles show a 6.8 times higher specific activity than the reference Pt/C catalyst towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as well as excellent stability, most likely because of the durable intermetallic structure and the preleaching...... treatment of the catalyst. During these preliminary syntheses, we found that a portion of the PtFe nanoparticles is buried in the in situ formed carbon phase, which limits Pt utilization in the catalyst and results in a mass-specific activity equivalent to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. Moreover...

  16. Advancement of Compositional and Microstructural Design of Intermetallic γ-TiAl Based Alloys Determined by Atom Probe Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Thomas; Clemens, Helmut; Mayer, Svea

    2016-01-01

    Advanced intermetallic alloys based on the γ-TiAl phase have become widely regarded as most promising candidates to replace heavier Ni-base superalloys as materials for high-temperature structural components, due to their facilitating properties of high creep and oxidation resistance in combination with a low density. Particularly, recently developed alloying concepts based on a β-solidification pathway, such as the so-called TNM alloy, which are already incorporated in aircraft engines, have emerged offering the advantage of being processible using near-conventional methods and the option to attain balanced mechanical properties via subsequent heat-treatment. Development trends for the improvement of alloying concepts, especially dealing with issues regarding alloying element distribution, nano-scale phase characterization, phase stability, and phase formation mechanisms demand the utilization of high-resolution techniques, mainly due to the multi-phase nature of advanced TiAl alloys. Atom probe tomography (APT) offers unique possibilities of characterizing chemical compositions with a high spatial resolution and has, therefore, been widely used in recent years with the aim of understanding the materials constitution and appearing basic phenomena on the atomic scale and applying these findings to alloy development. This review, thus, aims at summarizing scientific works regarding the application of atom probe tomography towards the understanding and further development of intermetallic TiAl alloys. PMID:28773880

  17. Surface improvement and biocompatibility of TiAl{sub 24}Nb{sub 10} intermetallic alloy using rf plasma nitriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Rahman, A.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University (Egypt)], E-mail: ahmedphys96@hotmail.com; Maitz, M.F. [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf (Germany); Kassem, M.A. [Department of Materials and Metals Engineering, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); El-Hossary, F.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University (Egypt); Prokert, F.; Reuther, H.; Pham, M.T.; Richter, E. [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf (Germany)

    2007-09-30

    The present work describes the surface improvement and biocompatibility of TiAl{sub 24}Nb{sub 10} intermetallic alloy using rf plasma nitriding. The nitriding process was carried out at different plasma power from 400 W to 650 W where the other plasma conditions were fixed. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), tribometer and a nanohardness tester were employed to characterize the nitrided layer. Further potentiodynamic polarization method was used to describe the corrosion behavior of the un-nitrided and nitrided alloy. It has been found that the Vickers hardness (HV) and corrosion resistance values of the nitrided layers increase with increasing plasma power while the wear rates of the nitrided layers reduce by two orders of magnitude as compared to those of the un-nitrided layer. This improvement in surface properties of the intermetallic alloy is due to formation of a thin modified layer which is composed of titanium nitride in the alloy surface. Moreover, all modified layers were tested for their sustainability as a biocompatible material. Concerning the application area of biocompatibility, the present treated alloy show good surface properties especially for the nitrided alloy at low plasma power of 400 W.

  18. X-ray diffraction study of the phase purity, order and texture of ductile B2 intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulay, R.P.; Wollmershauser, J.A.; Heisel, M.A. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4745 (United States); Bei, H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Material Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Russell, A.M. [Iowa State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Agnew, S.R., E-mail: sra4p@virginia.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4745 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Representatives (AgY, CuY, AgEr, CuDy, MgY and MgCe) of the newly discovered family of ductile stoichiometric B2 intermetallic (metal-rare-earth element, MR) compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction, to determine if their anomalous ductility is related to an exceptional level of phase purity, lack of chemical ordering or a strong crystallographic texture. Brittle NiAl served as an anti-type in this study. We found that all of the rare-earth compounds, except MgY, have a significant volume fraction ({approx}5-20 vol.%) of second phases (M{sub 2}R intermetallics and R{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides), which has not been reported in previous studies of these materials. The most ductile of observed MR compounds, AgY, is highly ordered. A moderate texture was observed in AgY, which may explain its higher ductility (using polycrystal modeling) as compared to other MR compounds. However, the intrinsic polycrystalline ductility of these compounds in the randomly textured state (like that observed in CuY) still has no specific, definitive explanation.

  19. X-ray diffraction study of the phase purity, order and texture of ductile B2 intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulay, R.P.; Wollmershauser, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.; Bei, H.; Russell, A.M.; Agnew, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Representatives (AgY, CuY, AgEr, CuDy, MgY and MgCe) of the newly discovered family of ductile stoichiometric B2 intermetallic (metal-rare-earth element, MR) compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction, to determine if their anomalous ductility is related to an exceptional level of phase purity, lack of chemical ordering or a strong crystallographic texture. Brittle NiAl served as an anti-type in this study. We found that all of the rare-earth compounds, except MgY, have a significant volume fraction (∼5-20 vol.%) of second phases (M 2 R intermetallics and R 2 O 3 oxides), which has not been reported in previous studies of these materials. The most ductile of observed MR compounds, AgY, is highly ordered. A moderate texture was observed in AgY, which may explain its higher ductility (using polycrystal modeling) as compared to other MR compounds. However, the intrinsic polycrystalline ductility of these compounds in the randomly textured state (like that observed in CuY) still has no specific, definitive explanation.

  20. Consistency of the MLE under mixture models

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiahua

    2016-01-01

    The large-sample properties of likelihood-based statistical inference under mixture models have received much attention from statisticians. Although the consistency of the nonparametric MLE is regarded as a standard conclusion, many researchers ignore the precise conditions required on the mixture model. An incorrect claim of consistency can lead to false conclusions even if the mixture model under investigation seems well behaved. Under a finite normal mixture model, for instance, the consis...

  1. Dirichlet Process Parsimonious Mixtures for clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Chamroukhi, Faicel; Bartcus, Marius; Glotin, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The parsimonious Gaussian mixture models, which exploit an eigenvalue decomposition of the group covariance matrices of the Gaussian mixture, have shown their success in particular in cluster analysis. Their estimation is in general performed by maximum likelihood estimation and has also been considered from a parametric Bayesian prospective. We propose new Dirichlet Process Parsimonious mixtures (DPPM) which represent a Bayesian nonparametric formulation of these parsimonious Gaussian mixtur...

  2. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, Svatopluk; Trzcinski, Waldemar A.; Matyas, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E 0 , and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E 0 values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m -3 . Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of 'tertiary explosives' as well as samples that approach 'high explosives' in their performances and detonation velocities

  3. The behaviour of the lande factor and effective exchange parameter in a group of Pr intermetallics observed through reduced level scheme models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranke, P.J. von; Caldas, A.; Palermo, L.

    1993-01-01

    The present work constitutes a portion of a continuing series of studies dealing with models, in which we retain only the two lowest levels of the crystal field splitting scheme of rare-earth ion in rare-earth intermetallics. In these reduced level scheme models, the crystal field and the magnetic Hamiltonians are represented in matrix notation. These two matrices constitute the model Hamiltonian proposed in this paper, from which we derive the magnetic state equations of interest for this work. Putting into these equations a group of adequate experimental data found in the literature for a particular rare-earth intermetallic we obtain the Lande factor and effective exchange parameter related to this rare-earth intermetallic. This study will be applied to a group of Pr intermetallics, in cubic symmetry, in which the ground level may be a non-magnetic singlet level or a non-magnetic doublet level. In both cases, the first excited level is a triplet one. (orig.)

  4. Intermetallic GaPd2 Nanoparticles on SiO2 for Low-Pressure CO2 Hydrogenation to Methanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria; Sharafutdinov, Irek; Carvalho, Hudson W. P.

    2015-01-01

    A nanodispersed intermetallic GaPd2/SiO2 catalyst is prepared by simple impregnation of industrially relevant high-surface-area SiO2 with Pd and Ga nitrates, followed by drying, calcination, and reduction in hydrogen. The catalyst is tested for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol at ambient pressure, r...

  5. Intermetallic Al-, Fe-, Co- and Ni-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings Prepared by Cold Spray for Applications on Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchinsky, E.; Sobiesiak, A.; Maev, R.

    2018-02-01

    Conventional thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of a duplex structure with a metallic bond coat and a ceramic heat insulating topcoat. They possess the desired low thermal conductivity, but at the same time they are very brittle and sensitive to thermal shock and thermal cycling due to the inherently low coefficient of thermal expansion. Recent research activities are focused on the developing of multilayer TBC structures obtained using cold spraying and following annealing. Aluminum intermetallics have demonstrated thermal and mechanical properties that allow them to be used as the alternative TBC materials, while the intermetallic layers can be additionally optimized to achieve superior thermal physical properties. One example is the six layer TBC structure in which cold sprayed Al-based intermetallics are synthesized by annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. These multilayer coating systems demonstrated an improved thermal fatigue capability as compared to conventional ceramic TBC. The microstructures and properties of the coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS and mechanical tests to define the TBC material properties and intermetallic formation mechanisms.

  6. Magnetization and specific heat study of metamagnetism in Lu.sub.2./sub.Fe.sub.17./sub.-based intermetallic compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tereshina, Evgeniya; Andreev, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2010), 1205-1210 ISSN 0966-9795 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : rare-earth intermetallics * magnetic properties * single crystal growth Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2010

  7. Influence of Filler Alloy Composition and Process Parameters on the Intermetallic Layer Thickness in Single-Sided Cold Metal Transfer Welding of Aluminum-Steel Blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvayeh, Zahra; Vallant, Rudolf; Sommitsch, Christof; Götzinger, Bruno; Karner, Werner; Hartmann, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid components made of aluminum alloys and high-strength steels are typically used in automotive lightweight applications. Dissimilar joining of these materials is quite challenging; however, it is mandatory in order to produce multimaterial car body structures. Since especially welding of tailored blanks is of utmost interest, single-sided Cold Metal Transfer butt welding of thin sheets of aluminum alloy EN AW 6014 T4 and galvanized dual-phase steel HCT 450 X + ZE 75/75 was experimentally investigated in this study. The influence of different filler alloy compositions and welding process parameters on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, which forms between the weld seam and the steel sheet, was studied. The microstructures of the weld seam and of the intermetallic layer were characterized using conventional optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal that increasing the heat input and decreasing the cooling intensity tend to increase the layer thickness. The silicon content of the filler alloy has the strongest influence on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, whereas the magnesium and scandium contents of the filler alloy influence the cracking tendency. The layer thickness is not uniform and shows spatial variations along the bonding interface. The thinnest intermetallic layer (mean thickness < 4 µm) is obtained using the silicon-rich filler Al-3Si-1Mn, but the layer is more than twice as thick when different low-silicon fillers are used.

  8. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES FOR REFRIGERANT MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Geller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of models to predict viscosity and thermal conductivity of refrigerant mixtures is developed. A general model for viscosity and thermal conductivity use the three contributions sum form (the dilute-gas terms, the residual terms, and the liquid terms. The corresponding states model is recommended to predict the dense gas transport properties over a range of reduced density from 0 to 2. It is shown that the RHS model provides the most reliable results for the saturated-liquid and the compressed-liquid transport properties over a range of given temperatures from 0,5 to 0,95.

  9. Nonparametric Mixture of Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mian; Li, Runze; Wang, Shaoli

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by an analysis of US house price index data, we propose nonparametric finite mixture of regression models. We study the identifiability issue of the proposed models, and develop an estimation procedure by employing kernel regression. We further systematically study the sampling properties of the proposed estimators, and establish their asymptotic normality. A modified EM algorithm is proposed to carry out the estimation procedure. We show that our algorithm preserves the ascent property of the EM algorithm in an asymptotic sense. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to examine the finite sample performance of the proposed estimation procedure. An empirical analysis of the US house price index data is illustrated for the proposed methodology.

  10. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  11. Ignition, Combustion and Tuning of Nanocomposite Thermites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    silver nitrate and potassium 165 iodate or sodium iodate, using a modification of a literature method156. A solution of 30.97 g of AgNO3 in 125...Center Weapons Division (NAWCWD) by precipitation from aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and potassium iodate or sodium iodate, using a modification...adjustable wrench to tighten 1/2 turn past finger tight). -Attach one banana wire to the very top, other to the base. -Test for continuity. If you increase

  12. Vibrational relaxation in OCS mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, C.J.S.M.; Gait, P.D.; Simmie, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of vibrational relaxation times which may be used to show whether there is near resonant vibration-rotation energy transfer between OCS and H 2 , D 2 or HD. Vibrational relaxation times have been measured in OCS and OCS mixtures over the temperature range 360 to 1000 K using a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing the relaxation time of OCS is in the order 4 He 3 He 2 2 and HD. Along this series the effect of an increase in temperature changes from the case of speeding up the rate with 4 He to retarding it with D 2 , HD and H 2 . There is no measurable difference in the effectiveness of n-D 2 and o-D 2 and little, or no, difference between n-H 2 and p-H 2 . Thus the experimental results do not give clear evidence for rotational-vibration energy transfer between hydrogen and OCS. This contrasts with the situation for CO 2 + H 2 mixtures. (author)

  13. Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Hegde, Uday G.

    2012-01-01

    The subject presentation, entitled, Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment, was presented at the International Space Station (ISS) Increment 33/34 Science Symposium. This presentation provides an overview of an international collaboration between NASA and CNES to study the behavior of a dilute aqueous solution of Na2SO4 (5% w) at near-critical conditions. The Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) investigation, serves as important precursor work for subsequent Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) experiments. The SCWM investigation will be performed in DECLICs High Temperature Insert (HTI) for the purpose of studying critical fluid phenomena at high temperatures and pressures. The HTI includes a completely sealed and integrated test cell (i.e., Sample Cell Unit SCU) that will contain approximately 0.3 ml of the aqueous test solution. During the sequence of tests, scheduled to be performed in FY13, temperatures and pressures will be elevated to critical conditions (i.e., Tc = 374C and Pc = 22 MPa) in order to observe salt precipitation, precipitate agglomeration and precipitate transport in the presence of a temperature gradient without the influences of gravitational forces. This presentation provides an overview of the motivation for this work, a description of the DECLIC HTI hardware, the proposed test sequences, and a brief discussion of the scientific research objectives.

  14. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid in Water into g-Valerolactone over Bulk Structure of Inexpensive Intermetallic Ni-Sn Alloy Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A bulk structure of inexpensive intermetallic nickel-tin (Ni-Sn alloys catalysts demonstrated highly selective in the hydrogenation of levulinic acid in water into g-valerolactone. The intermetallic Ni-Sn catalysts were synthesized via a very simple thermochemical method from non-organometallic precursor at low temperature followed by hydrogen treatment at 673 K for 90 min. The molar ratio of nickel salt and tin salt was varied to obtain the corresponding Ni/Sn ratio of 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, and 0.75. The formation of Ni-Sn alloy species was mainly depended on the composition and temperature of H2 treatment. Intermetallics Ni-Sn that contain Ni3Sn, Ni3Sn2, and Ni3Sn4 alloy phases are known to be effective heterogeneous catalysts for levulinic acid hydrogenation giving very excellence g-valerolactone yield of >99% at 433 K, initial H2 pressure of 4.0 MPa within 6 h. The effective hydrogenation was obtained in H2O without the formation of by-product. Intermetallic Ni-Sn(1.5 that contains Ni3Sn2 alloy species demonstrated very stable and reusable catalyst without any significant loss of its selectivity. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved. Received: 26th February 2015; Revised: 16th April 2015; Accepted: 22nd April 2015  How to Cite: Rodiansono, R., Astuti, M.D., Ghofur, A., Sembiring, K.C. (2015. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid in Water into g-Valerolactone over Bulk Structure of Inexpensive Intermetallic Ni-Sn Alloy Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 192-200. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.8284.192-200Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.8284.192-200  

  15. Study of the structure and development of the set of reference materials of composition and structure of heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Chabina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of research: There are two sizes (several microns and nanodimensional of strengthening j'-phase in single-crystal heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys, used for making blades of modern gas turbine engines (GTD. For in-depth study of structural and phase condition of such alloys not only qualitative description of created structure is necessary, but quantitative analysis of alloy components geometrical characteristics. Purpose of the work: Development of reference material sets of heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloy composition and structure. Research methods: To address the measurement problem of control of structural and geometrical characteristics of single-crystal heat resisting and intermetallic alloys by analytical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis the research was carried out using certified measurement techniques on facilities, entered in the Register of Measurement Means of the Russian Federation. The research was carried out on microsections, foils and plates, cut in the plane {100}. Results: It is established that key parameters, defining the properties of these alloys are particle size of strengthening j' -phase, the layer thickness of j-phase between them and parameters of phases lattice. Metrological requirements for reference materials of composition and structure of heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys are formulated. The necessary and sufficient reference material set providing the possibility to determine the composition and structure parameters of single-crystal heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys is defined. The developed RM sets are certified as in-plant reference materials. Conclusion: The reference materials can be used for graduation of spectral equipment when conducting element analysis of specified class alloys; for calibration of means of measuring alloy structure parameters; for measurement of alloys phases lattice parameters; for structure reference pictures

  16. On the nature of the nanospikes obtained in the sonication of a molten mixture of bismuth and indium under silicone oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijay Bhooshan [Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Ezersky, Vladimir [Ilse Katz Institute of Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel); Gedanken, Aharon, E-mail: gedanken@mail.biu.ac.il [Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); National Cheng Kung University, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China); Porat, Ze' ev, E-mail: poratze@post.bgu.ac.il [Division of Chemistry, Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O.Box 9001, Be' er-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Institutes of Applied Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-07-05

    A molten mixture of bismuth and indium, immersed in hot silicone oil, was dispersed into nano- and micro spheres under ultrasonic irradiation. Examination of the composition of these spheres by X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement revealed that they were composed of intermetallic compounds, mainly BiIn and BiIn{sub 2}. TEM and SEM images showed that the surface of the spheres was covered with tiny spikes. Their chemical composition, as determined by EDS and electron diffraction, was found to be In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. We assume that upon formation they were composed of In, which was oxidized when exposed to air. - Highlights: • Ultrasonication of molten Bi–In caused dispersion into nano- and micro spheres. • The spheres were composed of intermetallic compounds, mainly BiIn and BiIn{sub 2}. • The spheres' surface was covered with tiny spikes. • The composition of the spikes was determined by EDS and ED to be In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Upon formation the spikes were composed of In, which was oxidized by air.

  17. Structural, electronic and elastic properties of RERu{sub 2} (RE=Pr and Nd) Laves phase intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, Deepika, E-mail: deepika89shrivastava@gmail.com; Sanyal, Sankar P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah university, Bhopal, 462026 (India)

    2016-05-06

    We have performed the first-principles calculations to study the structural, electronic and elastic properties of RERu{sub 2} (RE = Pr and Nd) Laves phase intermetallic compounds using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for exchange and correlation potential. The optimized lattices constant are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The electronic properties are analyzed in terms of band structures, total and partial density of states, which confirm their metallic character. The calculated elastic constants infer that these compounds are mechanically stable in C15 (MgCu{sub 2} type) structure and found to be ductile in nature.

  18. Influence of Al grain boundaries segregations and La-doping on embrittlement of intermetallic NiAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Anatoly I.; Wainstein, Dmitry L.; Rashkovskiy, Alexander Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The microscopic nature of intergranular fracture of NiAl was experimentally investigated by the set of electron spectroscopy techniques. The paper demonstrates that embrittlement of NiAl intermetallic compound is caused by ordering of atomic structure that leads to formation of structural aluminum segregations at grain boundaries (GB). Such segregations contain high number of brittle covalent interatomic bonds. The alloying by La increases the ductility of material avoiding Al GB enrichment and disordering GB atomic structure. The influence of La alloying on NiAl mechanical properties was investigated. GB chemical composition, atomic and electronic structure transformations after La doping were investigated by AES, XPS and EELFS techniques. To qualify the interatomic bonds metallicity the Fermi level (EF) position and electrons density (neff) in conduction band were determined in both undoped and doped NiAl. Basing on experimental results the physical model of GB brittleness formation was proposed.

  19. The solidification and structure of Al-17wt.%Si alloy modified with intermetallic phases containing Ti and Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piątkowski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the process of casting and solidification of Al-17wt.%Si alloy that have been modified with composite powdercontaining the intermetallic phases of Ti and Fe. The chemical and phase composition of the applied modifier was described with thefollowingformula:FeAlx–TiAlx–Al2O3. Applying the method of thermal analysis ATD, the characteristic parameters of the solidificationprocess were determined, and exo-and endothermic effects of the modifying powder on the run of the silumin solidification curves wereobserved. By the methods of light, scanning, and X-ray microscopy, the structure of alloy and the chemical composition of the dispersionhardening precipitates were examined. A change in the morphology of Al-Si eutectic from the lamellar to fibrous type was reportedtogether with changes in the form of complex eutectics of an Al-Si-Ti and Al-Si-Fe type and size reduction of primary silicon crystals.

  20. Syntheses and properties of several metastable and stable hydrides derived from intermetallic compounds under high hydrogen pressure

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    Filipek, S.M., E-mail: sfilipek@unipress.waw.pl [Institute of High Pressure Physics PAS, ul. Sokolowska 29, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Paul-Boncour, V. [ICMPE-CMTR, CNRS-UPEC, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Liu, R.S. [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Jacob, I. [Unit Nuclear Eng., Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Tsutaoka, T. [Dept. of Sci. Educ., Grad. School of Educ., Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Budziak, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Morawski, A. [Institute of High Pressure Physics PAS, ul. Sokolowska 29, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Sugiura, H. [Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Zachariasz, P. [Institute of Electron Technology Cracow Division, ul. Zablocie 39, 30-701 Krakow (Poland); Dybko, K. [Institute of Physics, PAS, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Diduszko, R. [Tele and Radio Research Institute, ul. Ratuszowa 11, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    Brief summary of our former work on high hydrogen pressure syntheses of novel hydrides and studies of their properties is supplemented with new results. Syntheses and properties of a number of hydrides (unstable, metastable or stable in ambient conditions) derived under high hydrogen pressure from intermetallic compounds, like MeT{sub 2}, MeNi{sub 5}, Me{sub 7}T{sub 3}, Y{sub 6}Mn{sub 23} and YMn{sub 12} (where Me = zirconium, yttrium or rare earth; T = transition metal) are presented. Stabilization of ZrFe{sub 2}H{sub 4} due to surface phenomena was revealed. Unusual role of manganese in hydride forming processes is pointed out. Hydrogen induced phase transitions, suppression of magnetism, antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic and metal-insulator or semimetal-metal transitions are described. Equations of state (EOS) of hydrides submitted to hydrostatic pressures up to 30 GPa are presented and discussed.