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Sample records for thermal unit commitment

  1. An efficient chaos embedded hybrid approach for hydro-thermal unit commitment problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xiaohui; Ji, Bin; Yuan, Yanbin; Ikram, Rana M.; Zhang, Xiaopan; Huang, Yuehua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal unit commitment is considered in hydrothermal generation scheduling (SHTGS). • Two newly proposed promising optimization algorithms are combined to solving SHTGS. • The proposed method is enhanced by integrating a chaotic local search strategy. • Heuristic search strategies are applied to handle the constraints of the SHTGS. • The results verify the proposed method is feasible and efficient for handling SHTGS. - Abstract: This paper establishes a model to deal with the short-term hydrothermal generation scheduling (SHTGS) problem. The problem is composed of three interconnected parts: short-term hydrothermal coordination, thermal unit commitment and economic load dispatch. An efficient hybrid method composed of chaotic backtracking search optimization algorithm and binary charged system search algorithm (CBSA–BCSS) is proposed to solve this problem. In order to analyze the effect of the chaotic map on the performance of the method, three different chaotic maps are adopted to integrate into the proposed method and the corresponding consequences are achieved. Furthermore, efficient heuristic search strategies are adopted to handle with the complicated constraints of the SHTGS system. Finally, a hydrothermal unit commitment system is utilized to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the hybrid optimization method and the appropriation of the constraint handling strategies. The comparison of the solutions achieved by different methods shows that the proposed method has higher efficiency in terms of solving SHTGS problem

  2. Modeling and Optimization of the Medium-Term Units Commitment of Thermal Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Liao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Coal-fired thermal power plants, which represent the largest proportion of China’s electric power system, are very sluggish in responding to power system load demands. Thus, a reasonable and feasible scheme for the medium-term optimal commitment of thermal units (MOCTU can ensure that the generation process runs smoothly and minimizes the start-up and shut-down times of thermal units. In this paper, based on the real-world and practical demands of power dispatch centers in China, a flexible mathematical model for MOCTU that uses equal utilization hours for the installed capacity of all thermal power plants as the optimization goal and that considers the award hours for MOCTU is developed. MOCTU is a unit commitment (UC problem with characteristics of large-scale, high dimensions and nonlinearity. For optimization, an improved progressive optimality algorithm (IPOA offering the advantages of POA is adopted to overcome the drawback of POA of easily falling into the local optima. In the optimization process, strategies of system operating capacity equalization and single station operating peak combination are introduced to move the target solution from the boundary constraints along the target isopleths into the feasible solution’s interior to guarantee the global optima. The results of a case study consisting of nine thermal power plants with 27 units show that the presented algorithm can obtain an optimal solution and is competent in solving the MOCTU with high efficiency and accuracy as well as that the developed simulation model can be applied to practical engineering needs.

  3. Optimal Thermal Unit Commitment Solution integrating Renewable Energy with Generator Outage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivasakthi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concern of global climate changes, the promotion of renewable energy sources, primarily wind generation, is a welcome move to reduce the pollutant emissions from conventional power plants. Integration of wind power generation with the existing power network is an emerging research field. This paper presents a meta-heuristic algorithm based approach to determine the feasible dispatch solution for wind integrated thermal power system. The Unit Commitment (UC process aims to identify the best feasible generation scheme of the committed units such that the overall generation cost is reduced, when subjected to a variety of constraints at each time interval. As the UC formulation involves many variables and system and operational constraints, identifying the best solution is still a research task. Nowadays, it is inevitable to include power system reliability issues in operation strategy. The generator failure and malfunction are the prime influencing factor for reliability issues hence they have considered in UC formulation of wind integrated thermal power system. The modern evolutionary algorithm known as Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO algorithm is applied to solve the intended UC problem. The potential of the GWO algorithm is validated by the standard test systems. Besides, the ramp rate limits are also incorporated in the UC formulation. The simulation results reveal that the GWO algorithm has the capability of obtaining economical resolutions with good solution quality.

  4. Smart house-based optimal operation of thermal unit commitment for a smart grid considering transmission constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlader, Harun Or Rashid; Matayoshi, Hidehito; Noorzad, Ahmad Samim; Muarapaz, Cirio Celestino; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a smart house-based power system for thermal unit commitment programme. The proposed power system consists of smart houses, renewable energy plants and conventional thermal units. The transmission constraints are considered for the proposed system. The generated power of the large capacity renewable energy plant leads to the violated transmission constraints in the thermal unit commitment programme, therefore, the transmission constraint should be considered. This paper focuses on the optimal operation of the thermal units incorporated with controllable loads such as Electrical Vehicle and Heat Pump water heater of the smart houses. The proposed method is compared with the power flow in thermal units operation without controllable loads and the optimal operation without the transmission constraints. Simulation results show the validation of the proposed method.

  5. Thermal Unit Commitment Scheduling Problem in Utility System by Tabu Search Embedded Genetic Algorithm Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Christober Asir Rajan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. This also means that it is desirable to find the optimal unit commitment in the power system for the next H hours. A 66-bus utility power system in India demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach; extensive studies have also been performed for different IEEE test systems consist of 24, 57 and 175 buses. Numerical results are shown comparing the cost solutions and computation time obtained by different intelligence and conventional methods.

  6. Optimal day-ahead wind-thermal unit commitment considering statistical and predicted features of wind speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yanan; Dong, Jizhe; Ding, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A day–ahead wind–thermal unit commitment model is presented. • Wind speed transfer matrix is formed to depict the sequential wind features. • Spinning reserve setting considering wind power accuracy and variation is proposed. • Verified study is performed to check the correctness of the program. - Abstract: The increasing penetration of intermittent wind power affects the secure operation of power systems and leads to a requirement of robust and economic generation scheduling. This paper presents an optimal day–ahead wind–thermal generation scheduling method that considers the statistical and predicted features of wind speeds. In this method, the statistical analysis of historical wind data, which represents the local wind regime, is first implemented. Then, according to the statistical results and the predicted wind power, the spinning reserve requirements for the scheduling period are calculated. Based on the calculated spinning reserve requirements, the wind–thermal generation scheduling is finally conducted. To validate the program, a verified study is performed on a test system. Then, numerical studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method are conducted.

  7. Fuzzy Array Approach to Unit Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Eliasson, Bo

    1996-01-01

    The paper investigates the unit commitment problem of Swedish power company Sydkraft as a constraint satisfaction problem. The power system is a simplified system with nuclear, thermal, and hydro generators as well as power interchange. In this paper we focus on soft constraints, for instance...

  8. Unit commitment with probabilistic reserve: An IPSO approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tsung-Ying; Chen, Chun-Lung

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for solution of the nonlinear optimal scheduling problem. This algorithm is named the iteration particle swarm optimization (IPSO). A new index, called iteration best, is incorporated into particle swarm optimization (PSO) to improve the solution quality and computation efficiency. IPSO is applied to solve the unit commitment with probabilistic reserve problem of a power system. The outage cost as well as fuel cost of thermal units was considered in the unit commitment program to evaluate the level of spinning reserve. The optimal scheduling of on line generation units was reached while minimizing the sum of fuel cost and outage cost. A 48 unit power system was used as a numerical example to test the new algorithm. The optimal scheduling of on line generation units could be reached in the testing results while satisfying the requirement of the objective function

  9. Unit Commitment With Dynamic Cycling Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Troy, Niamh; Flynn, Damian; Milligan, Michael R.; et al.

    2012-01-01

    Increased competition in the electricity sector and the integration of variable renewable energy sources is resulting in more frequent cycling of thermal plant. Thus, the wear-and-tear to generator components and the related costs are a growing concern for plant owners and system operators alike. This paper presents a formulation that can be implemented in a MIP dispatch model to dynamically model cycling costs based on unit operation. When implemented for a test system, the results show that...

  10. An unit commitment model for hydrothermal systems; Um modelo de unit commitment para sistemas hidrotermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Thiago de Paula; Luciano, Edson Jose Rezende; Nepomuceno, Leonardo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: ra611191@feb.unesp.br, edson.joserl@uol.com.br, leo@feb.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    A model of Unit Commitment to hydrothermal systems that includes the costs of start/stop of generators is proposed. These costs has been neglected in a good part of the programming models for operation of hydrothermal systems (pre-dispatch). The impact of the representation of costs in total production costs is evaluated. The proposed model is solved by a hybrid methodology, which involves the use of genetic algorithms (to solve the entire part of the problem) and sequential quadratic programming methods. This methodology is applied to the solution of an IEEE test system. The results emphasize the importance of representation of the start/stop in the generation schedule.

  11. Solving unit commitment and economic load dispatch problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) and Unit Commitment (UC) are very important applications to predict the optimized cost of load in a power system. UC determines working states for existing generating units under some operational constraints and then optimizing the operation cost for all running units w.r.t. load demand ...

  12. An evolutionary programming based simulated annealing method for solving the unit commitment problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christober Asir Rajan, C. [Department of EEE, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry 605014 (India); Mohan, M.R. [Department of EEE, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2007-09-15

    This paper presents a new approach to solve the short-term unit commitment problem using an evolutionary programming based simulated annealing method. The objective of this paper is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. This also means that it is desirable to find the optimal generating unit commitment in the power system for the next H hours. Evolutionary programming, which happens to be a global optimisation technique for solving unit commitment Problem, operates on a system, which is designed to encode each unit's operating schedule with regard to its minimum up/down time. In this, the unit commitment schedule is coded as a string of symbols. An initial population of parent solutions is generated at random. Here, each schedule is formed by committing all the units according to their initial status (''flat start''). Here the parents are obtained from a pre-defined set of solution's, i.e. each and every solution is adjusted to meet the requirements. Then, a random recommitment is carried out with respect to the unit's minimum down times. And SA improves the status. The best population is selected by evolutionary strategy. The Neyveli Thermal Power Station (NTPS) Unit-II in India demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach; extensive studies have also been performed for different power systems consists of 10, 26, 34 generating units. Numerical results are shown comparing the cost solutions and computation time obtained by using the Evolutionary Programming method and other conventional methods like Dynamic Programming, Lagrangian Relaxation and Simulated Annealing and Tabu Search in reaching proper unit commitment. (author)

  13. Fat Tail Model for Simulating Test Systems in Multiperiod Unit Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Marmolejo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of Chambers-Mallows-Stuck method for simulating stable random variables in the generation of test systems for economic analysis in power systems. A study that focused on generating test electrical systems through fat tail model for unit commitment problem in electrical power systems is presented. Usually, the instances of test systems in Unit Commitment are generated using normal distribution, but in this work, simulations data are based on a new method. For simulating, we used three original systems to obtain the demand behavior and thermal production costs. The estimation of stable parameters for the simulation of stable random variables was based on three generally accepted methods: (a regression, (b quantiles, and (c maximum likelihood, choosing one that has the best fit of the tails of the distribution. Numerical results illustrate the applicability of the proposed method by solving several unit commitment problems.

  14. Thunderstorm Algorithm for Determining Unit Commitment in Power System Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nur Afandi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Solving the unit commitment problem is an important task in power system operation for deciding a balanced power production between various types of generating units under technical constraints and environmental limitations. This paper presents a new intelligent computation method, called the Thunderstorm Algorithm (TA, for searching the optimal solution of the integrated economic and emission dispatch (IEED problem as the operational assessment for determining unit commitment. A simulation using the IEEE-62 bus system showed that TA has smooth convergence and is applicable for solving the IEED problem. The IEED’s solution is associated with the total fuel consumption and pollutant emission. The proposed TA method seems to be a viable new approach for finding the optimal solution of the IEED problem.

  15. Unit Commitment for Systems With Significant Wind Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuohy, Aidan; Meibom, Peter; Denny, E.

    2009-01-01

    The stochastic nature of wind alters the unit commitment and dispatch problem. By accounting for this uncertainty when scheduling the system, more robust schedules are produced, which should, on average, reduce expected costs. In this paper, the effects of stochastic wind and load on the unit...... commitment and dispatch of power systems with high levels of wind power are examined. By comparing the costs, planned operation and performance of the schedules produced, it is shown that stochastic optimization results in less costly, of the order of 0.25%, and better performing schedules than deterministic...... optimization. The impact of planning the system more frequently to account for updated wind and load forecasts is then examined. More frequent planning means more up to date forecasts are used, which reduces the need for reserve and increases performance of the schedules. It is shown that mid-merit and peaking...

  16. Neural networks as a tool for unit commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne-Hansen, Peter; Rønne-Hansen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Some of the fundamental problems when solving the power system unit commitment problem by means of neural networks have been attacked. It has been demonstrated for a small example that neural networks might be a viable alternative. Some of the major problems solved in this initiating phase form...... a basis for the analysis of real life sized problems. These will be investigated in the near future...

  17. A PSO based Artificial Neural Network approach for short term unit commitment problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFTAB AHMAD

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Unit commitment (UC is a non-linear, large scale, complex, mixed-integer combinatorial constrained optimization problem. This paper proposes, a new hybrid approach for generating unit commitment schedules using swarm intelligence learning rule based neural network. The training data has been generated using dynamic programming for machines without valve point effects and using genetic algorithm for machines with valve point effects. A set of load patterns as inputs and the corresponding unit generation schedules as outputs are used to train the network. The neural network fine tunes the best results to the desired targets. The proposed approach has been validated for three thermal machines with valve point effects and without valve point effects. The results are compared with the approaches available in the literature. The PSO-ANN trained model gives better results which show the promise of the proposed methodology.

  18. Dataset for case studies of hydropower unit commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwen Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the data all needed for nine case studies of hydropower unit commitment, which determines the optimal operating zones and generating discharges of units after the quarter-hourly releases and water heads are derived by the operation of cascaded hydropower reservoirs. The power output function and feasible operating zones of units are provided, and optimization solvers are used to acquire the results in detail for the case studies, including the quarter-hourly generating discharges, power generations, as well as operating zones of individual units. Performance indices, including the spillage, energy production, and the low-efficiency generating rate, are summarized for all case studies and can be readily used for comparison between algorithms in future.

  19. UNIT COMMITMENT: A NEW TRUNCATED METHOD OF UNIT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Data obtained from the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) has been used to test the efficacy of this approach. ... every unit in the system must be respected. Some of these ..... Analysis of Power System Reliability. 2.Edwin K. W, Machat, ...

  20. Hidden power system inflexibilities imposed by traditional unit commitment formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-España, Germán; Ramírez-Elizondo, Laura; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Quality and accuracy of traditional-energy- and power-based UCs are evaluated. • Real-time performance evaluation simulating “perfect” stochastic UCs. • Ideal energy-based stochastic UC formulations impose hidden system inflexibilities. • A deterministic power-based UC may outperform an ideal energy-based stochastic UC. • Power-based UC overcomes flaws of energy-based UC: lower cost and wind curtailment. - Abstract: Approximations made in traditional day-ahead unit commitment model formulations can result in suboptimal or even infeasible schedules for slow-start units and inaccurate predictions of actual costs and wind curtailment. With increasing wind penetration, these errors will become economically more significant. Here, we consider inaccuracies from three approximations: the use of hourly intervals in which energy production from each generator is modeled as being constant; the disregarding of startup and shutdown energy trajectories; and optimization based on expected wind profiles. The results of unit commitment formulations with those assumptions are compared to models that: (1) use a piecewise-linear power profiles of generation, load and wind, instead of the traditional stepwise energy profiles; (2) consider startup/shutdown trajectories; and (3) include many possible wind trajectories in a stochastic framework. The day-ahead hourly schedules of slow-start generators are then evaluated against actual wind and load profiles using a model real-time dispatch and quick-start unit commitment with a 5 min time step. We find that each simplification usually causes expected generation costs to increase by several percentage points, and results in significant understatement of expected wind curtailment and, in some cases, load interruptions. The inclusion of startup and shutdown trajectories often yielded the largest improvements in schedule performance.

  1. Multi-area unit commitment with ramp-rate limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.; Shahidehpour, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that there are two tasks considered in power system generation scheduling. One is the unit commitment which determines the unit start up and shut down schedules in order to minimize the system fuel expenditure. The other is the economic dispatch which assigns the system load demand to the committed generating units for minimizing the power generation cost. The economic operation attracts a great deal of attention as a modest reduction in percentage fuel cost leads to a large saving in the system operation costs. Many studies for power system generation scheduling have successfully applied various mathematical algorithms such as Lagrangian relaxation, dynamic programming, and artificial intelligence techniques e.g., expert systems, artificial neural networks (ANN), etc. The AI techniques have incorporated the system practical operational policies in the mathematical techniques to improve system models considerably. The mechanism of ANN simulates the learning process of the human brain. One class of ANN learns the knowledge through examples, or training facts, composed by various inputs and their corresponding outputs. The extent of the intelligibility of ANN depends upon the diversity of the training facts. For an input which is not in the training facts, the trained ANN can estimate an output based on its previous knowledge about the problem

  2. Unit commitment solution using agglomerative and divisive cluster algorithm : an effective new methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, N.M.; Reddy, K.R. [G. Narayanamma Inst. of Technology and Science, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Ramana, N.V. [JNTU College of Engineering, Jagityala (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Thermal power plants consist of several generating units with different generating capacities, fuel cost per MWH generated, minimum up/down times, and start-up or shut-down costs. The Unit Commitment (UC) problem in power systems involves determining the start-up and shut-down schedules of thermal generating units to meet forecasted load over a future short term for a period of one to seven days. This paper presented a new approach for the most complex UC problem using agglomerative and divisive hierarchical clustering. Euclidean costs, which are a measure of differences in fuel cost and start-up costs of any two units, were first calculated. Then, depending on the value of Euclidean costs, similar type of units were placed in a cluster. The proposed methodology has 2 individual algorithms. An agglomerative cluster algorithm is used while the load is increasing, and a divisive cluster algorithm is used when the load is decreasing. A search was conducted for an optimal solution for a minimal number of clusters and cluster data points. A standard ten-unit thermal unit power system was used to test and evaluate the performance of the method for a period of 24 hours. The new approach proved to be quite effective and satisfactory. 15 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Symmetry Breaking in MILP Formulations for Unit Commitment Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo

    2015-12-11

    This paper addresses the study of symmetry in Unit Commitment (UC) problems solved by Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulations, and using Linear Programming based Branch & Bound MILP solvers. We propose three sets of symmetry breaking constraints for UC MILP formulations exhibiting symmetry, and its impact on three UC MILP models are studied. The case studies involve the solution of 24 instances by three widely used models in the literature, with and without symmetry breaking constraints. The results show that problems that could not be solved to optimality within hours can be solved with a relatively small computational burden if the symmetry breaking constraints are assumed. The proposed symmetry breaking constraints are also compared with the symmetry breaking methods included in two MILP solvers, and the symmetry breaking constraints derived in this work have a distinct advantage over the methods in the MILP solvers.

  4. Symmetry Breaking in MILP Formulations for Unit Commitment Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo; Novais, Augusto Q.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the study of symmetry in Unit Commitment (UC) problems solved by Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulations, and using Linear Programming based Branch & Bound MILP solvers. We propose three sets of symmetry breaking constraints for UC MILP formulations exhibiting symmetry, and its impact on three UC MILP models are studied. The case studies involve the solution of 24 instances by three widely used models in the literature, with and without symmetry breaking constraints. The results show that problems that could not be solved to optimality within hours can be solved with a relatively small computational burden if the symmetry breaking constraints are assumed. The proposed symmetry breaking constraints are also compared with the symmetry breaking methods included in two MILP solvers, and the symmetry breaking constraints derived in this work have a distinct advantage over the methods in the MILP solvers.

  5. [Organizational commitment and job satisfaction: an exploratory study in family health units in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Isabel; Veloso, Ana; Silva, Isabel Soares; Costa, Patricio

    2017-05-18

    This study explored the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction among workers in family health units. Six family health units in the North of Portugal participated, including 105 health professionals (physicians, nurses, and clinical secretaries). The study used the Portuguese adaptations of the Organizational Commitment Scale by Meyer & Allen (1997) and the Job Satisfaction Survey (Spector, 1985). The results suggest a positive association between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. The professionals are moderately satisfied and committed to the family health units; the most satisfactory aspects are the nature of the work, relationship to coworkers, and communication, while pay is the most unsatisfactory. The affective component of the commitment appears, highlighting the professionals' involvement in (and identification with) the family health units project. The linear regression model proved significant, and organizational commitment explains 22.7% of the variance in job satisfaction. For this sample, organizational commitment predicts job satisfaction.

  6. Integrating generation and transmission networks reliability for unit commitment solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilzadeh, S.; Shayeghi, H.; Hadadian, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new method with integration of generation and transmission networks reliability for the solution of unit commitment (UC) problem. In fact, in order to have a more accurate assessment of system reserve requirement, in addition to unavailability of generation units, unavailability of transmission lines are also taken into account. In this way, evaluation of the required spinning reserve (SR) capacity is performed by applying reliability constraints based on loss of load probability and expected energy not supplied (EENS) indices. Calculation of the above parameters is accomplished by employing a novel procedure based on the linear programming which it also minimizes them to achieve optimum level of the SR capacity and consequently a cost-benefit reliability constrained UC schedule. In addition, a powerful solution technique called 'integer-coded genetic algorithm (ICGA)' is being used for the solution of the proposed method. Numerical results on the IEEE reliability test system show that the consideration of transmission network unavailability has an important influence on reliability indices of the UC schedules

  7. Stochastic Unit Commitment via Progressive Hedging - Extensive Analysis of Solution Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoudis, Christos; Pinson, Pierre; Zugno, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the massive deployment of renewable power production units over the last couple of decades, the use of stochastic optimization methods to solve the unit commitment problem has gained increasing attention. Solving stochastic unit commitment problems in large-scale power systems requires h...

  8. Unit Commitment Towards Decarbonized Network Facing Fixed and Stochastic Resources Applying Water Cycle Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba-Allah I. ElAzab

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a trustworthy unit commitment study to schedule both Renewable Energy Resources (RERs with conventional power plants to potentially decarbonize the electrical network. The study has employed a system with three IEEE thermal (coal-fired power plants as dispatchable distributed generators, one wind plant, one solar plant as stochastic distributed generators, and Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs which can work either loads or generators based on their charging schedule. This paper investigates the unit commitment scheduling objective to minimize the Combined Economic Emission Dispatch (CEED. To reduce combined emission costs, integrating more renewable energy resources (RER and PEVs, there is an essential need to decarbonize the existing system. Decarbonizing the system means reducing the percentage of CO2 emissions. The uncertain behavior of wind and solar energies causes imbalance penalty costs. PEVs are proposed to overcome the intermittent nature of wind and solar energies. It is important to optimally integrate and schedule stochastic resources including the wind and solar energies, and PEVs charge and discharge processes with dispatched resources; the three IEEE thermal (coal-fired power plants. The Water Cycle Optimization Algorithm (WCOA is an efficient and intelligent meta-heuristic technique employed to solve the economically emission dispatch problem for both scheduling dispatchable and stochastic resources. The goal of this study is to obtain the solution for unit commitment to minimize the combined cost function including CO2 emission costs applying the Water Cycle Optimization Algorithm (WCOA. To validate the WCOA technique, the results are compared with the results obtained from applying the Dynamic Programming (DP algorithm, which is considered as a conventional numerical technique, and with the Genetic Algorithm (GA as a meta-heuristic technique.

  9. Improved gravitational search algorithm for unit commitment considering uncertainty of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Bin; Yuan, Xiaohui; Chen, Zhihuan; Tian, Hao

    2014-01-01

    With increasing wind farm integrations, unit commitment (UC) is more difficult to solve because of the intermittent and fluctuation nature of wind power. In this paper, scenario generation and reduction technique is applied to simulate the impacts of its uncertainty on system operation. And then a model of thermal UC problem with wind power integration (UCW) is established. Combination of quantum-inspired binary gravitational search algorithm (GSA) and scenario analysis method is proposed to solve UCW problem. Meanwhile, heuristic search strategies are used to handle the constraints of thermal unit for each scenario. In addition, a priority list of thermal units based on the weight between average full-load cost and maximal power output is utilized during the optimization process. Moreover, two UC test systems with and without wind power integration are used to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method as well as the performance of the algorithm. The results are analyzed in detail, which demonstrate the model and the proposed method is practicable. The comparison with other methods clearly shows that the proposed method has higher efficiency for solving UC problems with and even without wind farm integration. - Highlights: • Impact of wind fluctuation on unit commitment problem (UCW) is investigated. • Quantum-inspired gravitational search algorithm (QBGSA) is used to optimize UC. • A new method combines QBGSA with scenario analysis is proposed to solve UCW. • Heuristic search strategies are applied to handle the constraints of the UCW. • The results verify the proposed method is feasible and efficient for handling UCW

  10. Smart Grid Cost-Emission Unit Commitment via Co-Evolutionary Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the uncertainty of wind, solar and load; smart charging and discharging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs to and from various energy sources; and the coordination of wind, solar power, PHEVs and cost-emission are considered in the smart grid unit commitment (UC. First, a multi-scenario simulation is used in which a set of valid scenarios is considered for the uncertainties of wind and solar energy sources and load. Then the UC problem for the set of scenarios is decomposed into the optimization of interactive agents by multi-agent technology. Agents’ action is represented by a genetic algorithm with adaptive crossover and mutation operators. The adaptive co-evolution of agents is reached by adaptive cooperative multipliers. Finally, simulation is implemented on an example of a power system containing thermal units, a wind farm, solar power plants and PHEVs. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Thermal units, wind, solar power and PHEVs are mutually complementarily by the adaptive cooperative mechanism. The adaptive multipliers’ updating strategy can save more computational time and further improve the efficiency.

  11. Solving unit commitment and economic load dispatch problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Department of Electrical Power and Machines, Faculty of engineering, Ain shams ... intricate basic leadership process and it is hard to build up any thorough ... These pre-committed schedules are optimized by BAT algorithm thus .... and the current best location (solution) is x0 which is situated in the wake of looking at.

  12. Apollo telescope mount thermal systems unit thermal vacuum test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks, H. F.; Hueter, U.; Wise, J. H.; Bachtel, F. D.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount's thermal systems unit was utilized to conduct a full-scale thermal vacuum test to verify the thermal design and the analytical techniques used to develop the thermal mathematical models. Thermal vacuum test philosophy, test objectives configuration, test monitoring, environment simulation, vehicle test performance, and data correlation are discussed. Emphasis is placed on planning and execution of the thermal vacuum test with particular attention on problems encountered in conducting a test of this maguitude.

  13. A variant of the dynamic programming algorithm for unit commitment of combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Hakonen, Henri; Lahdelma, Risto

    2008-01-01

    introduce in this paper the DP-RSC1 algorithm, which is a variant of the dynamic programming (DP) algorithm based on linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the units and sequential commitment of units one by one. The time complexity of DP-RSC1 is proportional to the number of generating units...

  14. Multi-objective unit commitment problem using Cuckoo search ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Many solution strategies are available to solve the highly non-smooth problem. ... So, artificial intelligence techniques like, neural ..... For instance, let us assume that the Ton and Toff for a hypothetical thermal power ...... Energy Convers, Vol.

  15. Effect of the accuracy of price forecasting on profit in a Price Based Unit Commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Van Den Bosch, Pieterjan; D'haeseleer, William

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses and quantifies the so-called loss of profit (i.e., the sub-optimality of profit) that can be expected in a Price Based Unit Commitment (PBUC), when incorrect price forecasts are used. For this purpose, a PBUC model has been developed and utilized, using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). Simulations are used to determine the relationship between the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) of a certain price forecast and the loss of profit, for four different types of power plants. A Combined Cycle (CC) power plant and a pumped storage unit show highest sensitivity to incorrect forecasts. A price forecast with a MAPE of 15%, on average, yields 13.8% and 12.1% profit loss, respectively. A classic thermal power plant (coal fired) and cascade hydro unit are less affected by incorrect forecasts, with only 2.4% and 2.0% profit loss, respectively, at the same price forecast MAPE. This paper further demonstrates that if price forecasts show an average bias (upward or downward), using the MAPE as measure of the price forecast might not be sufficient to quantify profit loss properly. Profit loss in this case has been determined as a function of both shift and MAPE of the price forecast. (author)

  16. Neural Based Tabu Search method for solving unit commitment problem with cooling-banking constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Asir Christober Gnanakkan Charles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to solve short-term unit commitment problem (UCP using Neural Based Tabu Search (NBTS with cooling and banking constraints. The objective of this paper is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. This also means that it is desirable to find the optimal generating unit commitment in the power system for next H hours. A 7-unit utility power system in India demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach; extensive studies have also been performed for different IEEE test systems consist of 10, 26 and 34 units. Numerical results are shown to compare the superiority of the cost solutions obtained using the Tabu Search (TS method, Dynamic Programming (DP and Lagrangian Relaxation (LR methods in reaching proper unit commitment.

  17. Stochastic Unit Commitment Based on Multi-Scenario Tree Method Considering Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Hyung Jo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of renewable energy, it is difficult to schedule unit commitment (UC in a power system because of the uncertainty associated with various factors. In this paper, a new solution procedure based on a multi-scenario tree method (MSTM is presented and applied to the proposed stochastic UC problem. In this process, the initial input data of load and wind power are modeled as different levels using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE. The load and wind scenarios are generated using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS that considers forecasting errors. These multiple scenarios are applied in the MSTM for solving the stochastic UC problem, including not only the load and wind power uncertainties, but also sudden outages of the thermal unit. When the UC problem has been formulated, the simulation is conducted for 24-h period by using the short-term UC model, and the operating costs and additional reserve requirements are thus obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed solution approach is demonstrated through a case study based on a modified IEEE-118 bus test system.

  18. A Comparative Study of Three Different Mathematical Methods for Solving the Unit Commitment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kurban

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The unit commitment (UC problem which is an important subject in power system engineering is solved by using Lagragian relaxation (LR, penalty function (PF, and augmented Lagrangian penalty function (ALPF methods due to their higher solution quality and faster computational time than metaheuristic approaches. This problem is considered to be a nonlinear programming-(NP- hard problem because it is nonlinear, mixed-integer, and nonconvex. These three methods used for solving the problem are based on dual optimization techniques. ALPF method which combines the algorithmic aspects of both LR and PF methods is firstly used for solving the UC problem. These methods are compared to each other based on feasible schedule for each stage, feasible cost, dual cost, duality gap, duration time, and number of iterations. The numerical results show that the ALPF method gives the best duality gap, feasible and dual cost instead of worse duration time and the number of iterations. The four-unit Tuncbilek thermal plant which is located in Kutahya region in Turkey is chosen as a test system in this study. The programs used for all the analyses are coded and implemented using general algebraic modeling system (GAMS.

  19. Reviving the United States' Commitment to Pakistan and Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Steve Young

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As President Obama is in the midst of deciding whether additional U.S.combat forces are needed in Afghanistan in addition to the 21,000 troops recently committed, he must realize that additional armed forces are only a stopgap measure in Afghanistan's downward spiral into an 'undergoverned' failed state. Similarly, as Pakistan's fragile and fractured civilian government continues to appease the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP, an umbrella organization of Pakistani Pashtun tribesmen with Taliban cultural values led by Baitullah Mehsud and others, it comes closer to the concept of a "misgoverned" failed state, possessing a small arsenal of nuclear arms. The problem for the U.S. administration is that neither of these countries can be allowed to fall further into disrepair. At the same time each requires a different and unique approach to the threat of "Talibanization" that faces each country—the control of territory within each country by Islamic radicals seeking to impose their ultraconservative interpretation of shar'ia law onto the general populace. Generally acknowledged is the belief that what has tentatively worked in Iraq, that is, the additional U.S. troops and employment of former Sunni insurgents to help fight foreign fighters associated with al-Qaida, will not work in either Afghanistan or Pakistan. While a regional approach to the conflict in these two countries is warranted, Afghanistan and Pakistan are on two different economic, social, and political playing fields. Hence, there cannot be a one-size-fits-all solution for the two countries, especially one that draws on the Iraq playbook. In addition to its internal political problems, Pakistan also faces the issue of al-Qaida and Taliban training camps positioned in its literal back yard, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA or Tribal Areas. Resolution of the War on Terror cannot come to fruition without addressing the problems that exist in the Tribal Areas. This largely

  20. Practical Robust Optimization Method for Unit Commitment of a System with Integrated Wind Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchao Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unit commitment, one of the significant tasks in power system operations, faces new challenges as the system uncertainty increases dramatically due to the integration of time-varying resources, such as wind. To address these challenges, we propose the formulation and solution of a generalized unit commitment problem for a system with integrated wind resources. Given the prespecified interval information acquired from real central wind forecasting system for uncertainty representation of nodal wind injections with their correlation information, the proposed unit commitment problem solution is computationally tractable and robust against all uncertain wind power injection realizations. We provide a solution approach to tackle this problem with complex mathematical basics and illustrate the capabilities of the proposed mixed integer solution approach on the large-scale power system of the Northwest China Grid. The numerical results demonstrate that the approach is realistic and not overly conservative in terms of the resulting dispatch cost outcomes.

  1. An Efficient Robust Solution to the Two-Stage Stochastic Unit Commitment Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Ignacio; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a reformulation of the scenario-based two-stage unitcommitment problem under uncertainty that allows finding unit-commitment plansthat perform reasonably well both in expectation and for the worst caserealization of the uncertainties. The proposed reformulation is based onpart...

  2. Column Generation for Transmission Switching of Electricity Networks with Unit Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer; Philpott, Andy B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the problem of finding the minimum cost dispatch and commitment of power generation units in a transmission network with active switching.We use the term active switching to denote the use of switches to optimize network topology in an operational context. We propose a Dantzig...

  3. Multi-objective unit commitment with wind penetration and emission concerns under stochastic and fuzzy uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuming; Zhou, Xianzhong; Watada, Junzo

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the ever increasing renewable penetration in power generation systems, which entails modern unit commitment problems with modelling and computation burdens. This study aims to simulate the impacts of manifold uncertainties on system operation with emission concerns. First, probability theory and fuzzy set theory are applied to jointly represent the uncertainties such as wind generation, load fluctuation and unit outage that interleaved in unit commitment problems. Second, a Value-at-Risk-based multi-objective approach is developed as a bridge of existing stochastic and robust unit commitment optimizations, which not only captures the inherent conflict between operation cost and supply reliability, but also provides easy-to-adjust robustness against worst-case scenarios. Third, a multi-objective algorithm that integrates fuzzy simulation and particle swarm optimization is developed to achieve approximate Pareto-optimal solutions. The research effectiveness is exemplified by two case studies: The comparison between test systems with and without generation uncertainty demonstrates that this study is practicable and can suggest operational insights of generation mix systems. The sensitivity analysis on Value-at-Risk proves that our method can achieve adequate tradeoff between performance optimality and robustness, thus help system operators in making informed decisions. Finally, the model and algorithm comparisons also justify the superiority of this research. - Highlights: • Probability theory and fuzzy set theory are used to describe different uncertainties. • A Value-at-Risk-based multi-objective unit commitment model is proposed. • An improved multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed. • The model achieves adequate trade-off between performance optimality and robustness. • The algorithm can obtain convergent and diversified Pareto fronts.

  4. Thermal performance of a PCM thermal storage unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Ming; Bruno, Frank; Saman, Wasim [Sustainable Energy Centre, Inst. for Sustainable Systems and Technologies, Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    The thermal performance of a PCM thermal storage unit (TSU) is studied numerically and experimentally. The TSU under analysis consists of several flat slabs of phase change material (PCM) with melting temperature of -26.7 C. Liquid heat transfer fluid (HTF) passes between the slabs to charge and discharge the storage unit. A one dimensional mathematical model was employed to analyze the transient thermal behavior of the storage unit during the melting and freezing processes. The model takes into consideration the temperature variations in the wall along the flow direction of the HTF. The paper compares the experimental and numerical simulation results in terms of HTF outlet temperatures during the melting period. (orig.)

  5. Unit commitment with wind power generation: integrating wind forecast uncertainty and stochastic programming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Zavala, V. M.; Rocklin, M.; Lee, S.; Anitescu, M. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Univ. of Chicago); (New York Univ.)

    2009-10-09

    We present a computational framework for integrating the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in stochastic unit commitment/energy dispatch formulations that account for wind power uncertainty. We first enhance the WRF model with adjoint sensitivity analysis capabilities and a sampling technique implemented in a distributed-memory parallel computing architecture. We use these capabilities through an ensemble approach to model the uncertainty of the forecast errors. The wind power realizations are exploited through a closed-loop stochastic unit commitment/energy dispatch formulation. We discuss computational issues arising in the implementation of the framework. In addition, we validate the framework using real wind speed data obtained from a set of meteorological stations. We also build a simulated power system to demonstrate the developments.

  6. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics.

  7. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics. PMID:27222741

  8. Network-constrained AC unit commitment under uncertainty: A Benders' decomposition approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasri, Amin; Kazempour, Seyyedjalal; Conejo, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    . The proposed model is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, whose first-stage refers to the day-ahead market, and whose second-stage represents real-time operation. The proposed Benders’ approach allows decomposing the original problem, which is mixed-integer nonlinear and generally...... intractable, into a mixed-integer linear master problem and a set of nonlinear, but continuous subproblems, one per scenario. In addition, to temporally decompose the proposed ac unit commitment problem, a heuristic technique is used to relax the inter-temporal ramping constraints of the generating units...

  9. Novel methods for Solving Economic Dispatch of Security-Constrained Unit Commitment Based on Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sangang

    2017-09-01

    There are two stages in solving security-constrained unit commitment problems (SCUC) within Lagrangian framework: one is to obtain feasible units’ states (UC), the other is power economic dispatch (ED) for each unit. The accurate solution of ED is more important for enhancing the efficiency of the solution to SCUC for the fixed feasible units’ statues. Two novel methods named after Convex Combinatorial Coefficient Method and Power Increment Method respectively based on linear programming problem for solving ED are proposed by the piecewise linear approximation to the nonlinear convex fuel cost functions. Numerical testing results show that the methods are effective and efficient.

  10. Day-Ahead Coordination of Vehicle-to-Grid Operation and Wind Power in Security Constraints Unit Commitment (SCUC)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Abdollahi; Majid Moazzami

    2015-01-01

    In this paper security constraints unit commitment (SCUC) in the presence of wind power resources and electrical vehicles to grid is presented. SCUC operation prepare an optimal time table for generation unit commitment in order to maximize security, minimize operation cost and satisfy the constraints of networks and units in a period of time, as one of the most important research interest in power systems. Today, the relationship between power network and energy storage systems is interested...

  11. Integration of renewable generation uncertainties into stochastic unit commitment considering reserve and risk: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Hao; Srinivasan, Dipti; Khosravi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The uncertainties of renewable energy have brought great challenges to power system commitment, dispatches and reserve requirement. This paper presents a comparative study on integration of renewable generation uncertainties into SCUC (stochastic security-constrained unit commitment) considering reserve and risk. Renewable forecast uncertainties are captured by a list of PIs (prediction intervals). A new scenario generation method is proposed to generate scenarios from these PIs. Different system uncertainties are considered as scenarios in the stochastic SCUC problem formulation. Two comparative simulations with single (E1: wind only) and multiple sources of uncertainty (E2: load, wind, solar and generation outages) are investigated. Five deterministic and four stochastic case studies are performed. Different generation costs, reserve strategies and associated risks are compared under various scenarios. Demonstrated results indicate the overall costs of E2 is lower than E1 due to penetration of solar power and the associated risk in deterministic cases of E2 is higher than E1. It implies the superimposed effect of uncertainties during uncertainty integration. The results also demonstrate that power systems run a higher level of risk during peak load hours, and that stochastic models are more robust than deterministic ones. - Highlights: • An extensive comparative study for renewable integration is presented. • A novel scenario generation method is proposed. • Wind and solar uncertainties are represented by a list of prediction intervals. • Unit commitment and dispatch costs are discussed considering reserve and risk.

  12. Optimal unit commitment of the power system in Bulgaria during the transitional period to power wholesale market (cont..)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoilov, D.

    2001-01-01

    The first part of the parer considers the general problem of optimal yearly unit commitment in the new economical conditions in Bulgaria. The second part deals with non-convex problem , taking into account some costs for starting and stopping of power systems. The transition from yearly commitment to weekly or daily dispatching is commented

  13. Optimisasi Unit Commitment Mempertimbangkan Fungsi Biaya Tidak Mulus Dengan Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Prastikha Hadhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Setiap unit pembangkit yang beroperasi untuk memenuhi permintaan beban mempunyai jadwal operasi yang berbeda-beda. Hal ini disebabkan oleh perbedaan karakteristik input-output yang khas dari setiap unit. Untuk memperoleh biaya total pembangkitan yang ekonomis dibutuhkan penjadwalan nyala-padam unit pembangkit yang terhubung pada sistem tenaga listrik, yang dikenal sebagai unit commitment (UC. Penjadwalan unit pembangkit pada suatu sistem tenaga listrik memiliki banyak pertimbangan, seperti cadangan berputar (spinning reserve, waktu menyala minimal (minimum up time, waktu padam minimal (minimum down time, rentang daya output unit pembangkit dan lain-lain. Selain itu, fungsi biaya pembangkitan unit yang mengoperasikan katup uap untuk mengimbangi perubahan beban menyebabkan persamaan fungsi biaya menjadi tidak mulus. Fungsi biaya tidak mulus mempersulit penjadwalan ekonomis unit pembangkit. Tugas akhir ini mengajukan Firefly Algorithm (FA untuk menyelesaikan penjadwalan UC. FA merupakan algoritma yang sederhana, tetapi handal dalam menyelesaikan permasalahan optimisasi. UC yang diajukan menggunakan fungsi biaya tidak mulus. Dengan metode tersebut, diharapkan permasalahan penjadwalan unit pembangkit dapat terselesaikan dengan baik dan optimal sehingga memperoleh biaya total pembangkitan yang ekonomis.

  14. Improved Genetic Algorithm-Based Unit Commitment Considering Uncertainty Integration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Hyung Jo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In light of the dissemination of renewable energy connected to the power grid, it has become necessary to consider the uncertainty in the generation of renewable energy as a unit commitment (UC problem. A methodology for solving the UC problem is presented by considering various uncertainties, which are assumed to have a normal distribution, by using a Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the constructed scenarios for load, wind, solar, and generator outages, a combination of scenarios is found that meets the reserve requirement to secure the power balance of the power grid. In those scenarios, the uncertainty integration method (UIM identifies the best combination by minimizing the additional reserve requirements caused by the uncertainty of power sources. An integration process for uncertainties is formulated for stochastic unit commitment (SUC problems and optimized by the improved genetic algorithm (IGA. The IGA is composed of five procedures and finds the optimal combination of unit status at the scheduled time, based on the determined source data. According to the number of unit systems, the IGA demonstrates better performance than the other optimization methods by applying reserve repairing and an approximation process. To account for the result of the proposed method, various UC strategies are tested with a modified 24-h UC test system and compared.

  15. EP BASED PSO METHOD FOR SOLVING PROFIT BASED MULTI AREA UNIT COMMITMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. VENKATESAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to solve the profit based multi area unit commitment problem (PBMAUCP using an evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization (EPPSO method. The objective of this paper is to maximize the profit of generation companies (GENCOs with considering system social benefit. The proposed method helps GENCOs to make a decision, how much power and reserve should be sold in markets, and how to schedule generators in order to receive the maximum profit. Joint operation of generation resources can result in significant operational cost savings. Power transfer between the areas through the tie lines depends upon the operating cost of generation at each hour and tie line transfer limits. The tie line transfer limits were considered as a set of constraints during optimization process to ensure the system security and reliability. The overall algorithm can be implemented on an IBM PC, which can process a fairly large system in a reasonable period of time. Case study of four areas with different load pattern each containing 7 units (NTPS and 26 units connected via tie lines have been taken for analysis. Numerical results showed comparing the profit of evolutionary programming-based particle swarm optimization method (EPPSO with conventional dynamic programming (DP, evolutionary programming (EP, and particle swarm optimization (PSO method. Experimental results shows that the application of this evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization method have the potential to solve profit based multi area unit commitment problem with lesser computation time.

  16. A new three-stage method for solving unit commitment problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanmohammadi, S.; Amiri, M.; Haque, M. Tarafdar [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, P.O. Box 51665-343, Tabriz (Iran)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents a new Three-Stage (THS) approach for solving Unit Commitment (UC) problem. The proposed method has a simple procedure to get at favorite solutions in a feasible duration of time by producing a primal schedule of status of units at the first step. In the second step the operating units take hourly values by doing Economic Dispatch (ED) on them via a hybrid serial algorithm of Artificial Intelligence (AI) including Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Nelder-Mead (NM) algorithms. In spite of the acceptable solutions obtained by these two stages, the presented method takes another step called the solution modification process (SMP) to reach a more suitable solution. The simulation results over some standard cases of UC problem confirm that this method produces robust solutions and generally gets appropriate near-optimal solutions. (author)

  17. Research on unit commitment with large-scale wind power connected power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ran; Zhang, Baoqun; Chi, Zhongjun; Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Yang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale integration of wind power generators into power grid brings severe challenges to power system economic dispatch due to its stochastic volatility. Unit commitment including wind farm is analyzed from the two parts of modeling and solving methods. The structures and characteristics can be summarized after classification has been done according to different objective function and constraints. Finally, the issues to be solved and possible directions of research and development in the future are discussed, which can adapt to the requirements of the electricity market, energy-saving power generation dispatching and smart grid, even providing reference for research and practice of researchers and workers in this field.

  18. Application of enhanced discrete differential evolution approach to unit commitment problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xiaohui; Su Anjun; Nie Hao; Yuan Yanbin; Wang Liang

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a discrete binary differential evolution (DBDE) approach to solve the unit commitment problem (UCP). The proposed method is enhanced by priority list based on the unit characteristics and heuristic search strategies to handle constraints effectively. The implementation of the proposed method for UCP consists of three stages. Firstly, the DBDE based on priority list is applied for unit scheduling when neglecting the minimum up/down time constraints. Secondly, repairing strategies are used to handle the minimum up/down time constraints and decommit excess spinning reserve units. Finally, heuristic unit substitution search and gray zone modification algorithm are used to improve optimal solution further. Furthermore, the effects of two crucial parameters on performance of the DBDE for solving UCP are studied as well. To verify the advantages of the method, the proposed method is tested and compared to the other methods on the systems with the number of units in the range of 10-100. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method is superior to other methods reported in the literature.

  19. Scalable unit commitment by memory-bounded ant colony optimization with A{sup *} local search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saber, Ahmed Yousuf; Alshareef, Abdulaziz Mohammed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-07-15

    Ant colony optimization (ACO) is successfully applied in optimization problems. Performance of the basic ACO for small problems with moderate dimension and searching space is satisfactory. As the searching space grows exponentially in the large-scale unit commitment problem, the basic ACO is not applicable for the vast size of pheromone matrix of ACO in practical time and physical computer-memory limit. However, memory-bounded methods prune the least-promising nodes to fit the system in computer memory. Therefore, the authors propose memory-bounded ant colony optimization (MACO) in this paper for the scalable (no restriction for system size) unit commitment problem. This MACO intelligently solves the limitation of computer memory, and does not permit the system to grow beyond a bound on memory. In the memory-bounded ACO implementation, A{sup *} heuristic is introduced to increase local searching ability and probabilistic nearest neighbor method is applied to estimate pheromone intensity for the forgotten value. Finally, the benchmark data sets and existing methods are used to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. (author)

  20. Incorporating Wind Power Forecast Uncertainties Into Stochastic Unit Commitment Using Neural Network-Based Prediction Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hao; Srinivasan, Dipti; Khosravi, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Penetration of renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar power, into power systems significantly increases the uncertainties on system operation, stability, and reliability in smart grids. In this paper, the nonparametric neural network-based prediction intervals (PIs) are implemented for forecast uncertainty quantification. Instead of a single level PI, wind power forecast uncertainties are represented in a list of PIs. These PIs are then decomposed into quantiles of wind power. A new scenario generation method is proposed to handle wind power forecast uncertainties. For each hour, an empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) is fitted to these quantile points. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate scenarios from the ECDF. Then the wind power scenarios are incorporated into a stochastic security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) model. The heuristic genetic algorithm is utilized to solve the stochastic SCUC problem. Five deterministic and four stochastic case studies incorporated with interval forecasts of wind power are implemented. The results of these cases are presented and discussed together. Generation costs, and the scheduled and real-time economic dispatch reserves of different unit commitment strategies are compared. The experimental results show that the stochastic model is more robust than deterministic ones and, thus, decreases the risk in system operations of smart grids.

  1. Relative Importance of Human Resource Practices on Affective Commitment and Turnover Intention in South Korea and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoon Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of perceived HR practices on affective commitment and turnover intention. This study explored which HR practices were relatively more important in predicting affective commitment and turnover intention. A total of 302 employees from the United States and 317 from South Korea completed the same questionnaires for assessing the aforementioned relationships. The results illustrated that among perceived HR practices, internal mobility had the most significant association with turnover intention in both the United States and South Korea. While internal mobility was a stronger predictor of affective commitment for the United States sample, training was the most important variable for predicting affective commitment in South Korea. The second purpose of the study was to examine whether individuals’ positive affect influences the relationship between perceived HR practices and affective commitment and turnover intention. In the United States, positive affect moderated the relationship between perceived HR practices and affective commitment and turnover intention such that the relationships were stronger for individuals reporting high positive affect relative to those reporting low positive affect. However, these relationships were not significant in South Korea. We discuss the implications of these results, study limitations, and practical suggestions for future research.

  2. Analytical modeling for thermal errors of motorized spindle unit

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Teng; Gao, Weiguo; Zhang, Dawei; Zhang, Yifan; Chang, Wenfen; Liang, Cunman; Tian, Yanling

    2017-01-01

    Modeling method investigation about spindle thermal errors is significant for spindle thermal optimization in design phase. To accurately analyze the thermal errors of motorized spindle unit, this paper assumes approximately that 1) spindle linear thermal error on axial direction is ascribed to shaft thermal elongation for its heat transfer from bearings, and 2) spindle linear thermal errors on radial directions and angular thermal errors are attributed to thermal variations of bearing relati...

  3. A multi-period, multi-regional generation expansion planning model incorporating unit commitment constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltsaklis, Nikolaos E.; Georgiadis, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A short-term structured investment planning model has been developed. • Unit commitment problem is incorporated into the long-term planning horizon. • Inherent intermittency of renewables is modelled in a comprehensive way. • The impact of CO_2 emission pricing in long-term investment decisions is quantified. • The evolution of system’s marginal price is evaluated for all the planning horizon. - Abstract: This work presents a generic mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model that integrates the unit commitment problem (UCP), i.e., daily energy planning with the long-term generation expansion planning (GEP) framework. Typical daily constraints at an hourly level such as start-up and shut-down related decisions (start-up type, minimum up and down time, synchronization, soak and desynchronization time constraints), ramping limits, system reserve requirements are combined with representative yearly constraints such as power capacity additions, power generation bounds of each unit, peak reserve requirements, and energy policy issues (renewables penetration limits, CO_2 emissions cap and pricing). For modelling purposes, a representative day (24 h) of each month over a number of years has been employed in order to determine the optimal capacity additions, electricity market clearing prices, and daily operational planning of the studied power system. The model has been tested on an illustrative case study of the Greek power system. Our approach aims to provide useful insight into strategic and challenging decisions to be determined by investors and/or policy makers at a national and/or regional level by providing the optimal energy roadmap under real operating and design constraints.

  4. Theoretical Investigation of Combined Use of PSO, Tabu Search and Lagrangian Relaxation methods to solve the Unit Commitment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahbi Marrouchi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Solving the Unit Commitment problem (UCP optimizes the combination of production units operations and determines the appropriate operational scheduling of each production units to satisfy the expected consumption which varies from one day to one month. Besides, each production unit is conducted to constraints that render this problem complex, combinatorial and nonlinear. In this paper, we proposed a new strategy based on the combination three optimization methods: Tabu search, Particle swarm optimization and Lagrangian relaxation methods in order to develop a proper unit commitment scheduling of the production units while reducing the production cost during a definite period. The proposed strategy has been implemented on a the IEEE 9 bus test system containing 3 production unit and the results were promising compared to strategies based on meta-heuristic and deterministic methods.

  5. Model-based investigation of the electricity market. Unit commitment and power plant investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ninghong

    2013-01-01

    The German Federal Government published its energy concept in September 2010 with a description of the road into the era of renewable energies. Therefore, the future renewable energy installed in Germany is expected to consist mostly of wind and solar, which are subject to intermittency of supply and significant fluctuations. The growing portion of energy generation by fluctuating sources is turning to a big challenge for the power plant unit commitment and the investment decisions as well. In this thesis, a fundamental electricity market model with combined modeling of these two aspects is developed. This model is subsequently applied to the German electricity market to investigate what kind of power plant investments are indispensable, considering the steadily increasing portion of energy generation from fluctuating sources, to ensure a reliable energy supply in a cost-effective way in the future. In addition, current energy policy in Germany regarding the use of renewable energy and nuclear energy is analyzed.

  6. Improving Deterministic Reserve Requirements for Security Constrained Unit Commitment and Scheduling Problems in Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyu

    Traditional deterministic reserve requirements rely on ad-hoc, rule of thumb methods to determine adequate reserve in order to ensure a reliable unit commitment. Since congestion and uncertainties exist in the system, both the quantity and the location of reserves are essential to ensure system reliability and market efficiency. The modeling of operating reserves in the existing deterministic reserve requirements acquire the operating reserves on a zonal basis and do not fully capture the impact of congestion. The purpose of a reserve zone is to ensure that operating reserves are spread across the network. Operating reserves are shared inside each reserve zone, but intra-zonal congestion may block the deliverability of operating reserves within a zone. Thus, improving reserve policies such as reserve zones may improve the location and deliverability of reserve. As more non-dispatchable renewable resources are integrated into the grid, it will become increasingly difficult to predict the transfer capabilities and the network congestion. At the same time, renewable resources require operators to acquire more operating reserves. With existing deterministic reserve requirements unable to ensure optimal reserve locations, the importance of reserve location and reserve deliverability will increase. While stochastic programming can be used to determine reserve by explicitly modelling uncertainties, there are still scalability as well as pricing issues. Therefore, new methods to improve existing deterministic reserve requirements are desired. One key barrier of improving existing deterministic reserve requirements is its potential market impacts. A metric, quality of service, is proposed in this thesis to evaluate the price signal and market impacts of proposed hourly reserve zones. Three main goals of this thesis are: 1) to develop a theoretical and mathematical model to better locate reserve while maintaining the deterministic unit commitment and economic dispatch

  7. A Three-Stage Birandom Program for Unit Commitment with Wind Power Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of large-scale wind power adds a significant uncertainty to power system planning and operating. The wind forecast error is decreased with the forecast horizon, particularly when it is from one day to several hours ahead. Integrating intraday unit commitment (UC adjustment process based on updated ultra-short term wind forecast information is one way to improve the dispatching results. A novel three-stage UC decision method, in which the day-ahead UC decisions are determined in the first stage, the intraday UC adjustment decisions of subfast start units are determined in the second stage, and the UC decisions of fast-start units and dispatching decisions are determined in the third stage is presented. Accordingly, a three-stage birandom UC model is presented, in which the intraday hours-ahead forecasted wind power is formulated as a birandom variable, and the intraday UC adjustment event is formulated as a birandom event. The equilibrium chance constraint is employed to ensure the reliability requirement. A birandom simulation based hybrid genetic algorithm is designed to solve the proposed model. Some computational results indicate that the proposed model provides UC decisions with lower expected total costs.

  8. Unit commitment and investment valuation of flexible biogas plants in German power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochloff, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Biogas plants contribute a significant share of renewable energy sources (RES) to the electricity system. Most of them are designed to supply constant power generation. In the future biogas plants will most likely become more flexible, scheduling their power generation with respect to market prices. For this purpose power units need extended electrical capacity to convert the continuously produced gas as well as the gas held in storage. When constructing extended capacity at biogas plants, the flexibility premium is the main focus for about 8000 plants which were constructed before August 2014. Additional incomes as a result of selling at higher market prices have been considered, too. However, their relationship to the electrical capacity and storage size of biogas plants was unknown as was the impact on investment valuation. This work has shown how biogas plants with extended capacity can be analyzed when they are operated in power markets, in particular the power spot market and the control reserve markets. Models on the basis of unit commitment have been developed in order to obtain optimized schedules and financial parameters, such as gross income and net present value (NPV), when biogas plants with extended capacity capitalize on prices in each market. The models developed consider several use cases that describe possible ways of participating in German power markets, switching between static and variable gas supply, providing secondary and tertiary control reserve, and claiming the market and flexibility premium. Mixed integer linear programs (MILP) have been developed for the unit commitment of each use case. The model for the unit commitment of providing control reserve with biogas plants made significant progress compared to the state of the art and has been published in (Hochloff, Braun 2014). There are two ways to make use of this model. First of all, the model could be applied to plan daily schedules for the operation of gas plants located at a gas

  9. Unit commitment and investment valuation of flexible biogas plants in German power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochloff, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Biogas plants contribute a significant share of renewable energy sources (RES) to the electricity system. Most of them are designed to supply constant power generation. In the future biogas plants will most likely become more flexible, scheduling their power generation with respect to market prices. For this purpose power units need extended electrical capacity to convert the continuously produced gas as well as the gas held in storage. When constructing extended capacity at biogas plants, the flexibility premium is the main focus for about 8000 plants which were constructed before August 2014. Additional incomes as a result of selling at higher market prices have been considered, too. However, their relationship to the electrical capacity and storage size of biogas plants was unknown as was the impact on investment valuation. This work has shown how biogas plants with extended capacity can be analyzed when they are operated in power markets, in particular the power spot market and the control reserve markets. Models on the basis of unit commitment have been developed in order to obtain optimized schedules and financial parameters, such as gross income and net present value (NPV), when biogas plants with extended capacity capitalize on prices in each market. The models developed consider several use cases that describe possible ways of participating in German power markets, switching between static and variable gas supply, providing secondary and tertiary control reserve, and claiming the market and flexibility premium. Mixed integer linear programs (MILP) have been developed for the unit commitment of each use case. The model for the unit commitment of providing control reserve with biogas plants made significant progress compared to the state of the art and has been published in (Hochloff, Braun 2014). There are two ways to make use of this model. First of all, the model could be applied to plan daily schedules for the operation of gas plants located at a gas

  10. Modelling high level system design and unit commitment for a microgrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, A.D. [Centre for Energy Policy and Technology, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Leach, M.A. [Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    This article develops a linear programming cost minimisation model for the high level system design and corresponding unit commitment of generators and storage within a microgrid; a set of energy resources working co-operatively to create a cost effective, reliable and environmentally friendly energy provision system. Previous work in this area is used as a basis for formulation of a new approach to this problem, with particular emphasis on why a microgrid is different to centralised generation or other grid-connected decentralised energy resources. Specifically, the model explicitly defines the amount of time that the microgrid would be expected to operate autonomously, and restricts flow of heat between microgrid participants to defined cases. The model developed is applied to a set of United Kingdom commercial load profiles, under best current estimates of energy prices and technology capital costs, to determine investment attractiveness of the microgrid. Sensitivity analysis of results to variations in energy prices is performed. The results broadly indicate that a microgrid can offer an economic proposition, although it is necessarily slightly more expensive than regular grid-connected decentralised generation. The analysis results have raised important questions regarding a fair method for settlement between microgrid participants, and game theory has been identified as a suitable tool to analyse aspects of this situation. (author)

  11. Modelling high level system design and unit commitment for a microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, A.D.; Leach, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a linear programming cost minimisation model for the high level system design and corresponding unit commitment of generators and storage within a microgrid; a set of energy resources working co-operatively to create a cost effective, reliable and environmentally friendly energy provision system. Previous work in this area is used as a basis for formulation of a new approach to this problem, with particular emphasis on why a microgrid is different to centralised generation or other grid-connected decentralised energy resources. Specifically, the model explicitly defines the amount of time that the microgrid would be expected to operate autonomously, and restricts flow of heat between microgrid participants to defined cases. The model developed is applied to a set of United Kingdom commercial load profiles, under best current estimates of energy prices and technology capital costs, to determine investment attractiveness of the microgrid. Sensitivity analysis of results to variations in energy prices is performed. The results broadly indicate that a microgrid can offer an economic proposition, although it is necessarily slightly more expensive than regular grid-connected decentralised generation. The analysis results have raised important questions regarding a fair method for settlement between microgrid participants, and game theory has been identified as a suitable tool to analyse aspects of this situation. (author)

  12. Training and Organizational Commitment among Nurses in New Zealand and United States Public Hospitals Experiencing Industry and Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Kenneth; Kang, Dae-seok

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between employee attitudes towards training and organizational commitment among a sample of nurses in New Zealand and the United States. Results show that perceived access to training, training frequency, motivation to learn from training, benefits of training, and supervisory support for training were…

  13. Security-Constrained Unit Commitment in AC Microgrids Considering Stochastic Price-Based Demand Response and Renewable Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Najafi, Hamid Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a stochastic model for scheduling of AC security‐constrained unit commitment associated with demand response (DR) actions is developed in an islanded residential microgrid. The proposed model maximizes the expected profit of microgrid operator and minimizes the total customers...

  14. Restriction techniques for the unit-commitment problem with total procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleta, Mariusz; Toczylowski, Eugeniusz

    2008-01-01

    Many discrete optimization problems may be solved much easier, if the solution space can be restricted in a convenient way. For a given specific problem, the restriction techniques can be helpful if an available optimization solver, perceived as a black box, is capable of solving quickly only reduced subproblems of a limited size. For the family of hard unit-commitment problems we investigate a hierarchical search algorithm, which is based on decomposition of the problem into two subproblems. The upper-level subproblem is a relatively small decision 'kernel' of the problem that can be solved approximately by a search algorithm. We define an appropriate restricted decision space for this subproblem. The lower-level subproblem is an appropriate restriction of the original problem that can be solved efficiently by a dedicated solver. Our approach was analyzed on a set of historical data from the Polish electrical balancing market and the best known solutions were improved by the average of about 2-5%

  15. Committed Vulnerability to Extreme Weather Events in the United States (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    Despite improvements in disaster risk management in the United States, a trend toward increasing economic losses from extreme weather events has been observed. This trend has been attributed to growth in socioeconomic exposure to extremes driven by the concentration of population and wealth on hazardous landscapes. As geographic patterns of demography and economic development are associated with strong path dependence, the United States is ';locked-in' to future increases in exposure and associated economic losses in the decades ahead, irrespective of the influence of climate change. To understand the influence of path dependence on past and future losses, an index of potential socioeconomic exposure was developed at the U.S. county level based upon population size and inflation-adjusted wealth proxies. Since 1960, exposure has increased preferentially in the U.S. Southeast, particularly coastal and urban counties and Southwest relative to the Great Plains and Northeast. Projected changes in exposure from 2009 to 2054 based upon scenarios of future demographic and economic change suggest a long-term commitment to increasing, but spatially heterogeneous, exposure to extremes, independent of climate change. The implications of this path dependence are examined in the context of several natural hazards. Annualized county-level losses from 1960-2008 for five climate-related natural hazards were normalized to 2009 values and then scaled based upon projected changes in exposure and two different estimates of the exposure elasticity of losses. Results indicate that losses from extreme events will grow by a factor of 1.3-1.7 and 1.8-3.9 by 2025 and 2050, respectively, with the exposure elasticity representing a major source of uncertainty. At more local scales, however, such as rapidly growing metropolitan areas, losses are anticipated to grow more rapidly. As such, improving understanding of the societal implications of the extreme weather events of the future

  16. A decomposition method for network-constrained unit commitment with AC power flow constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yang; Zhong, Haiwang; Xia, Qing; Kang, Chongqing; Xie, Le

    2015-01-01

    To meet the increasingly high requirement of smart grid operations, considering AC power flow constraints in the NCUC (network-constrained unit commitment) is of great significance in terms of both security and economy. This paper proposes a decomposition method to solve NCUC with AC power flow constraints. With conic approximations of the AC power flow equations, the master problem is formulated as a MISOCP (mixed integer second-order cone programming) model. The key advantage of this model is that the active power and reactive power are co-optimised, and the transmission losses are considered. With the AC optimal power flow model, the AC feasibility of the UC result of the master problem is checked in subproblems. If infeasibility is detected, feedback constraints are generated based on the sensitivity of bus voltages to a change in the unit reactive power generation. They are then introduced into the master problem in the next iteration until all AC violations are eliminated. A 6-bus system, a modified IEEE 30-bus system and the IEEE 118-bus system are used to validate the performance of the proposed method, which provides a satisfactory solution with approximately 44-fold greater computational efficiency. - Highlights: • A decomposition method is proposed to solve the NCUC with AC power flow constraints • The master problem considers active power, reactive power and transmission losses. • OPF-based subproblems check the AC feasibility using parallel computing techniques. • An effective feedback constraint interacts between the master problem and subproblem. • Computational efficiency is significantly improved with satisfactory accuracy

  17. Day-Ahead Coordination of Vehicle-to-Grid Operation and Wind Power in Security Constraints Unit Commitment (SCUC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Abdollahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper security constraints unit commitment (SCUC in the presence of wind power resources and electrical vehicles to grid is presented. SCUC operation prepare an optimal time table for generation unit commitment in order to maximize security, minimize operation cost and satisfy the constraints of networks and units in a period of time, as one of the most important research interest in power systems. Today, the relationship between power network and energy storage systems is interested for many researchers and network operators. Using Electrical Vehicles (PEVs and wind power for energy production is one of the newest proposed methods for replacing fossil fuels.One of the effective strategies for analyzing of the effects of Vehicle 2 Grid (V2G and wind power in optimal operation of generation is running of SCUC for power systems that are equipped with V2G and wind power resources. In this paper, game theory method is employed for deterministic solution of day-ahead unit commitment with considering security constraints in the simultaneous presence of V2G and wind power units. This problem for two scenarios of grid-controlled mode and consumer-controlled mode in three different days with light, medium and heavy load profiles is analyzed. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the presence of V2G and wind power for decreasing of generation cost and improving operation indices of power systems.

  18. Corrective economic dispatch and operational cycles for probabilistic unit commitment with demand response and high wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Rasoul; Golestaneh, Faranak; Gooi, Hoay Beng; Lin, Jeremy; Bavafa, Farhad; Terzija, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Suggesting a new UC mixing a probabilistic security and incentive demand response. • Investigating the effects of uncertainty on UC using chance-constraint programming. • Proposing an efficient spinning reserve satisfaction based on a new ED correction. • Presenting a new operational cycles way to convert binary variable to discrete one. - Abstract: We propose a probabilistic unit commitment problem with incentive-based demand response and high level of wind power. Our novel formulation provides an optimal allocation of up/down spinning reserve. A more efficient unit commitment algorithm based on operational cycles is developed. A multi-period elastic residual demand economic model based on the self- and cross-price elasticities and customers’ benefit function is used. In the proposed scheme, the probability of residual demand falling within the up/down spinning reserve imposed by n − 1 security criterion is considered as a stochastic constraint. A chance-constrained method, with a new iterative economic dispatch correction, wind power curtailment, and commitment of cheaper units, is applied to guarantee that the probability of loss of load is lower than a pre-defined risk level. The developed architecture builds upon an improved Jaya algorithm to generate feasible, robust and optimal solutions corresponding to the operational cost. The proposed framework is applied to a small test system with 10 units and also to the IEEE 118-bus system to illustrate its advantages in efficient scheduling of generation in the power systems.

  19. Thermal Performance of ATLAS Laser Thermal Control System Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Robinson, Franklin; Patel, Deepak; Ottenstein, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The second Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite mission currently planned by National Aeronautics and Space Administration will measure global ice topography and canopy height using the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System {ATLAS). The ATLAS comprises two lasers; but only one will be used at a time. Each laser will generate between 125 watts and 250 watts of heat, and each laser has its own optimal operating temperature that must be maintained within plus or minus 1 degree Centigrade accuracy by the Laser Thermal Control System (LTCS) consisting of a constant conductance heat pipe (CCHP), a loop heat pipe (LHP) and a radiator. The heat generated by the laser is acquired by the CCHP and transferred to the LHP, which delivers the heat to the radiator for ultimate rejection. The radiator can be exposed to temperatures between minus 71 degrees Centigrade and minus 93 degrees Centigrade. The two lasers can have different operating temperatures varying between plus 15 degrees Centigrade and plus 30 degrees Centigrade, and their operating temperatures are not known while the LTCS is being designed and built. Major challenges of the LTCS include: 1) A single thermal control system must maintain the ATLAS at 15 degrees Centigrade with 250 watts heat load and minus 71 degrees Centigrade radiator sink temperature, and maintain the ATLAS at plus 30 degrees Centigrade with 125 watts heat load and minus 93 degrees Centigrade radiator sink temperature. Furthermore, the LTCS must be qualification tested to maintain the ATLAS between plus 10 degrees Centigrade and plus 35 degrees Centigrade. 2) The LTCS must be shut down to ensure that the ATLAS can be maintained above its lowest desirable temperature of minus 2 degrees Centigrade during the survival mode. No software control algorithm for LTCS can be activated during survival and only thermostats can be used. 3) The radiator must be kept above minus 65 degrees Centigrade to prevent ammonia from freezing using no more

  20. Effects of Sexual Harassment on Job Satisfaction, Retention, Cohesion, Commitment and Unit Effectiveness: The Case of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    quid pro quo ). Examples of questions that were used in previous studies to measure crude/offensive behavior, as well as, other forms of sexual ...includes, but is not limited to, harassment in which submission is made a condition of employment (or quid pro quo ). Global or organizational...Effects of Sexual Harassment on Job Satisfaction, Retention, Cohesion, Commitment and Unit Effectiveness: The Case of the Air Force Dr. Brenda

  1. Two-Stage Robust Security-Constrained Unit Commitment with Optimizable Interval of Uncertain Wind Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because wind power spillage is barely considered, the existing robust unit commitment cannot accurately analyze the impacts of wind power accommodation on on/off schedules and spinning reserve requirements of conventional generators and cannot consider the network security limits. In this regard, a novel double-level robust security-constrained unit commitment formulation with optimizable interval of uncertain wind power output is firstly proposed in this paper to obtain allowable interval solutions for wind power generation and provide the optimal schedules for conventional generators to cope with the uncertainty in wind power generation. The proposed double-level model is difficult to be solved because of the invalid dual transform in solution process caused by the coupling relation between the discrete and continuous variables. Therefore, a two-stage iterative solution method based on Benders Decomposition is also presented. The proposed double-level model is transformed into a single-level and two-stage robust interval unit commitment model by eliminating the coupling relation, and then this two-stage model can be solved by Benders Decomposition iteratively. Simulation studies on a modified IEEE 26-generator reliability test system connected to a wind farm are conducted to verify the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed model and solution method.

  2. A dynamic regrouping based sequential dynamic programming algorithm for unit commitment of combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Hakonen, Henri; Lahdelma, Risto

    2009-01-01

    efficiency of the plants. We introduce in this paper the DRDP-RSC algorithm, which is a dynamic regrouping based dynamic programming (DP) algorithm based on linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the units, sequential commitment of units in small groups. Relaxed states of the plants are used to reduce...... the dimension of the UC problem and dynamic regrouping is used to improve the solution quality. Numerical results based on real-life data sets show that this algorithm is efficient and optimal or near-optimal solutions with very small optimality gap are obtained....

  3. Commitment and dispatch of heat and power units via affinely adjustable robust optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    compromising computational tractability. We perform an extensive numerical study based on data from the Copenhagen area in Denmark, which highlights important features of the proposed model. Firstly, we illustrate commitment and dispatch choices that increase conservativeness in the robust optimization...... and conservativeness of the solution. Finally, we perform a thorough comparison with competing models based on deterministic optimization and stochastic programming. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Robust Unit Commitment Considering the Temporal and Spatial Correlations of Wind Farms Using a Data-Adaptive Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yipu; Ai, Xiaomeng; Wen, Jinyu

    2018-01-01

    . In this paper, a novel data-adaptive robust optimization method for the unit commitment is proposed for the power system with wind farms integrated. The extreme scenario extraction and the two stage robust optimization are combined in the proposed method. The data-adaptive set consisting of a few extreme...... scenarios is derived to reduce the conservativeness by considering the temporal and spatial correlations of multiple wind farms. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed data-adaptive robust optimization algorithm is less conservative than the current two-stage optimization approaches while maintains...

  5. Mixed Inter Second Order Cone Programming Taking Appropriate Approximation for the Unit Commitment in Hybrid AC-DC Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Bo; Ai, Xiaomeng; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development and deployment of voltage source converter (VSC) based HVDC, the traditional power system is evolving to the hybrid AC-DC grid. New optimization methods are urgently needed for these hybrid AC-DC power systems. In this paper, mixed-integer second order cone programming...... (MISOCP) for the hybrid AC-DC power systems is proposed. The second order cone (SOC) relaxation is adopted to transform the AC and DC power flow constraints to MISOCP. Several IEEE test systems are used to validate the proposed MISCOP formulation of the optimal power flow (OPF) and unit commitment (UC...

  6. A comprehensive study of economic unit commitment of power systems integrating various renewable generations and plug-in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhile; Li, Kang; Niu, Qun; Xue, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new UCsRP problem with flexible integrations is established. • A novel multi-zone sampling method is proposed for scenarios generation. • A meta-heuristic solving tool is introduced for solving the UCsRP problem. • A comprehensive study is conducted considering multiple weathers and seasons. • The economic effects of various scenarios are evaluated and compared. - Abstract: Significant penetration of renewable generations (RGs) and mass roll-out of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) will pay a vital role in delivering the low carbon energy future and low emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) that are responsible for the global climate change. However, it is of considerable difficulties to precisely forecast the undispatchable and intermittent wind and solar power generations. The uncoordinated charging of PEVs imposes further challenges on the unit commitment in modern grid operations. In this paper, all these factors are comprehensively investigated for the first time within a novel hybrid unit commitment framework, namely UCsRP, which considers a wide range of scenarios in renewable generations and demand side management of dispatchable PEVs load. UCsRP is however an extremely challenging optimisation problem not only due to the large scale, mixed integer and nonlinearity, but also due to the double uncertainties relating to the renewable generations and PEV charging and discharging. In this paper, a meta-heuristic solving tool is introduced for solving the UCsRP problem. A key to improve the reliability of the unit commitment is to generate a range of scenarios based on multiple distributions of renewable generations under different prediction errors and extreme predicted value conditions. This is achieved by introducing a novel multi-zone sampling method. A comprehensive study considering four different cases of unit commitment problems with various weather and season scenarios using real power system data are conducted and solved, and smart

  7. A Multi-Objective Unit Commitment Model for Setting Carbon Tax to Reduce CO2 Emission: Thailand's Electricity Generation Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchjarin Intalar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tax policy is a cost-effective instrument for emission reduction. However, setting the carbon tax is one of the challenging task for policy makers as it will lead to higher price of emission-intensive sources especially the utility price. In a large-scale power generation system, minimizing the operational cost and the environmental impact are conflicting objectives and it is difficult to find the compromise solution. This paper proposes a methodology of finding a feasible carbon tax rate on strategic level using the operational unit commitment model. We present a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model to solve the unit commitment problem and consider the environmental impacts. The methodology of analyzing of the effect of carbon tax rates on the power generation, operating cost, and CO2 emission is also provided. The trade-off relationship between total operating cost and total CO2 emission is presented in the Pareto-optimal curve to analyze the feasible carbon tax rate that is influencing on electricity operating cost. The significant outcome of this paper is a modeling framework for the policy makers to determine the possible carbon tax that can be imposed on the electricity generation.

  8. Penerapan Batas Ramp-Rate dengan Menggunakan Kombinasi Metode FDP (Forward Dynamic Programming dan QP (Quadratic Programming Pada Unit Commitment-Economic Dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Fahmi Andriyanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan akan energi listrik terus menigkat seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi. meningkatnya beban listrik ini harus diimbangi dengan penambahan daya yang dibangkitkan. Hal ini sangat berpengaruh pada penjadwalan unit pembangkit yang harus ditentukan dengan baik agar didapatkan pembangkitan yang optimal. Pada Tugas Akhir ini mengambil topik mengenai unit commitment dan economic dispatch dengan mempertimbangkan nilai dari batasan generator (ramp-rate. Metode yang digunakan adalah complete enumeration dengan forward dynamic programming pada unit commitment dan quadratic programming pada economic dispatch. Metode - metode tersebut diterapkan dalam pemrograman matlab sehingga dapat dijadikan suatu program perhitungan unit commitment dan economic dispatch dengan mempertimbangkan nilai batasan ramp-rate. Dengan metode tersebut, diharapkan permasalahan penjadwalan unit pembangkit dapat terselesaikan dengan baik dan optimal sehingga memperoleh total biaya pembangkitan yang ekonomis.

  9. Canada's national report on climate change: Actions to meet commitments under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, countries must adopt measures to mitigate climate change, adapt to its possible effects, increase public awareness and scientific understanding of climate change and possible responses, and work together in all of these areas. A review is provided of action being currently taken by Canadian governments, non-governmental organizations, communities, and the private sector to meet domestic and international climate change commitments. Projections indicate that climate change could result in significant changes to many of Canada's natural ecosystems, with equally significant economic and social consequences. Canadian demand for energy is the chief cause of Canada's man-made emissions of greenhouse gases. As a first step in meeting its commitment, Canada is developing and implementing measures to limit greenhouse gas emissions, mainly in the area of energy efficiency, energy conservation, and switching to energy sources that are less carbon-intensive. Progress in limiting such emissions will be assessed via emissions inventories, examination of climatic change indicators, forecasting future energy-related emissions of the three primary greenhouse gases, and use of case studies to assess the effectiveness of emissions control measures. Other components of Canadian activities include increasing public awareness of climate change, sponsoring research on the subject, reviewing environmental policies, and international cooperation. 59 refs., 36 figs., 23 tabs

  10. The distribution of committed dose equivalents to workers exposed to tritium in the luminising industry in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    In the United Kingdom tritium has become almost the only radionuclide that is used in luminising. Two distinct methods of luminising are used, one involving the use of tritium gas and the other involving the use of tritium activated luminous paint. All major luminisers have voluntarily taken part in urine monitoring programmes. The analyses have been carried out by the National Radiological Protection Board and estimates of committed dose equivalent have been made from the results. The work presented is an analysis of the committed dose equivalents received by all the individuals monitored in the years 1974, 1975 and 1976. It is shown that doses follow, in general, a lognormal distribution modified only at the high dose end by what must be described as dose management. Further evidence for dose management is seen when the pattern of dose versus time are analysed for selected individuals. It is shown that the maximum permissible dose as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, is only rarely exceeded. It is also shown that there is a substantial difference in the degree of exposure between workers involved in gaseous tritium luminising and workers using paint luminising. A comparison is made between exposure in gaseous tritium luminising and exposure in another common use of gaseous tritium, ie. the filling of electronic devices with tritium gas. It is shown that exposure is very much less in the electronic device work

  11. Probability-Weighted LMP and RCP for Day-Ahead Energy Markets using Stochastic Security-Constrained Unit Commitment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; O' Malley, M.

    2012-06-01

    Variable renewable generation resources are increasing their penetration on electric power grids. These resources have weather-driven fuel sources that vary on different time scales and are difficult to predict in advance. These characteristics create challenges for system operators managing the load balance on different timescales. Research is looking into new operational techniques and strategies that show great promise on facilitating greater integration of variable resources. Stochastic Security-Constrained Unit Commitment models are one strategy that has been discussed in literature and shows great benefit. However, it is rarely used outside the research community due to its computational limits and difficulties integrating with electricity markets. This paper discusses how it can be integrated into day-ahead energy markets and especially on what pricing schemes should be used to ensure an efficient and fair market.

  12. A Convex Model of Risk-Based Unit Commitment for Day-Ahead Market Clearing Considering Wind Power Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ning; Kang, Chongqing; Xia, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The integration of wind power requires the power system to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate its forecast errors. In the market clearing process, the scheduling of flexibility relies on the manner in which the wind power uncertainty is addressed in the unit commitment (UC) model. This paper...... and are considered in both the objective functions and the constraints. The RUC model is shown to be convex and is transformed into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem using relaxation and piecewise linearization. The proposed RUC model is tested using a three-bus system and an IEEE RTS79 system...... that the risk modeling facilitates a strategic market clearing procedure with a reasonable computational expense....

  13. Thermal performance analysis of a phase change thermal storage unit for space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halawa, E.; Saman, W. [Institute for Sustainable Systems and Technologies School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes SA 5095 (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive numerical study on the thermal performance of an air based phase change thermal storage unit (TSU) for space heating. The unit is designed for integration into space heating and cooling systems. The unit consists of a number of one dimensional phase change material (PCM) slabs contained in a rectangular duct where air passes between the slabs. The numerical analysis was based on an experimentally validated model. A parametric study has been carried out including the study on the effects of charge and discharge temperature differences, air mass flow rate, slab thicknesses, air gaps and slab dimensions on the air outlet temperatures and heat transfer rates of the thermal storage unit. The paper introduces and discusses quantities called charge and discharge temperature differences which play an important role in the melting and freezing processes. (author)

  14. The application of civil commitment law and practices to a case of delusional disorder: a cross-national comparison of legal approaches in the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Philip; Goldstein, Robert Lloyd

    2006-01-01

    Legal approaches to civil commitment in the United States and the United Kingdom are compared. A concise overview of the historical evolution of civil commitment in both countries precedes a discussion of the present scheme of commitment standards in each system. These current standards in U.S. and U.K. jurisdictions are then applied to a hypothetical case of delusional disorder. A discussion of the constructive use of civil commitment in patients with delusional disorder who may be dangerous focuses on its value as a preventive measure against potential harm to self or others, as well as the pros and cons of coercive assessment and treatment. Despite the many differences in approach to commitment, the authors concur that in both countries the patient with delusional disorder was committable before the commission of a serious criminal offense.

  15. What drives political commitment for nutrition? A review and framework synthesis to inform the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Hawkes, Corinna; Wingrove, Kate; Parkhurst, Justin; Thow, Anne Marie; Walls, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Generating country-level political commitment will be critical to driving forward action throughout the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition (2016–2025). In this review of the empirical nutrition policy literature, we ask: what factors generate, sustain and constrain political commitment for nutrition, how and under what circumstances? Our aim is to inform strategic ‘commitment-building’ actions. Method We adopted a framework synthesis method and realist review protocol. An initial framework was derived from relevant theory and then populated with empirical evidence to test and modify it. Five steps were undertaken: initial theoretical framework development; search for relevant empirical literature; study selection and quality appraisal; data extraction, analysis and synthesis and framework modification. Results 75 studies were included. We identified 18 factors that drive commitment, organised into five categories: actors; institutions; political and societal contexts; knowledge, evidence and framing; and, capacities and resources. Irrespective of country-context, effective nutrition actor networks, strong leadership, civil society mobilisation, supportive political administrations, societal change and focusing events, cohesive and resonant framing, and robust data systems and available evidence were commitment drivers. Low-income and middle-income country studies also frequently reported international actors, empowered institutions, vertical coordination and capacities and resources. In upper-middle-income and high-income country studies, private sector interference frequently undermined commitment. Conclusion Political commitment is not something that simply exists or emerges accidentally; it can be created and strengthened over time through strategic action. Successfully generating commitment will likely require a core set of actions with some context-dependent adaptations. Ultimately, it will necessitate strategic actions by cohesive

  16. What drives political commitment for nutrition? A review and framework synthesis to inform the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Hawkes, Corinna; Wingrove, Kate; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyl; Parkhurst, Justin; Thow, Anne Marie; Walls, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Generating country-level political commitment will be critical to driving forward action throughout the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition (2016-2025). In this review of the empirical nutrition policy literature, we ask: what factors generate, sustain and constrain political commitment for nutrition, how and under what circumstances? Our aim is to inform strategic 'commitment-building' actions. We adopted a framework synthesis method and realist review protocol. An initial framework was derived from relevant theory and then populated with empirical evidence to test and modify it. Five steps were undertaken: initial theoretical framework development; search for relevant empirical literature; study selection and quality appraisal; data extraction, analysis and synthesis and framework modification. 75 studies were included. We identified 18 factors that drive commitment, organised into five categories: actors; institutions; political and societal contexts; knowledge, evidence and framing; and, capacities and resources. Irrespective of country-context, effective nutrition actor networks, strong leadership, civil society mobilisation, supportive political administrations, societal change and focusing events, cohesive and resonant framing, and robust data systems and available evidence were commitment drivers. Low-income and middle-income country studies also frequently reported international actors, empowered institutions, vertical coordination and capacities and resources. In upper-middle-income and high-income country studies, private sector interference frequently undermined commitment. Political commitment is not something that simply exists or emerges accidentally; it can be created and strengthened over time through strategic action. Successfully generating commitment will likely require a core set of actions with some context-dependent adaptations. Ultimately, it will necessitate strategic actions by cohesive, resourced and strongly led nutrition actor

  17. Fuzzy Stochastic Unit Commitment Model with Wind Power and Demand Response under Conditional Value-At-Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafu Yin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of wind power and demand response integrated into the grid, the combined uncertainties from wind power and demand response have been a challenging concern for system operators. It is necessary to develop an approach to accommodate the combined uncertainties in the source side and load side. In this paper, the fuzzy stochastic conditional value-at-risk criterions are proposed as the risk measure of the combination of both wind power uncertainty and demand response uncertainty. To improve the computational tractability without sacrificing the accuracy, the fuzzy stochastic chance-constrained goal programming is proposed to transfer the fuzzy stochastic conditional value-at-risk to a deterministic equivalent. The operational risk of forecast error under fuzzy stochastic conditional value-at-risk assessment is represented by the shortage of reserve resource, which can be further divided into the load-shedding risk and the wind curtailment risk. To identify different priority levels for the different objective functions, the three-stage day-ahead unit commitment model is proposed through preemptive goal programming, in which the reliability requirement has the priority over the economic operation. Finally, a case simulation is performed on the IEEE 39-bus system to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed model.

  18. An empirical study on measuring the effect of layoff on job satisfaction and employee commitment: A case study of detergent producer unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Tajzadeh-Namin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the necessary actions in many organizations is to reduce the number of workers in an attempt to restructure business activities. However, layoff could have negative consequences since many employees may decide to leave since they lose their tolerance. The layoff must be accompanied with some supportive plans to reduce stress among the remaining workers and increase their commitment for long-term work. The present study of this paper considers the effects of layoff on job satisfaction and commitment among the remaining employees of a detergent producer unit. The results indicate that a good supportive program including wage increase, family support, health care plans, etc. could significantly improve employee long-term commitments and it leads to job satisfaction.

  19. A Comparative Study of Fuzzy Logic, Genetic Algorithm, and Gradient-Genetic Algorithm Optimization Methods for Solving the Unit Commitment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahbi Marrouchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the continuous increase of the population and the perpetual progress of industry, the energy management presents nowadays a relevant topic that concerns researchers in electrical engineering. Indeed, in order to establish a good exploitation of the electrical grid, it is necessary to solve technical and economic problems. This can only be done through the resolution of the Unit Commitment Problem. Unit Commitment Problem allows optimizing the combination of the production units’ states and determining their production planning, in order to satisfy the expected consumption with minimal cost during a specified period which varies usually from 24 hours to one week. However, each production unit has some constraints that make this problem complex, combinatorial, and nonlinear. This paper presents a comparative study between a strategy based on hybrid gradient-genetic algorithm method and two strategies based on metaheuristic methods, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithm, in order to predict the combinations and the unit commitment scheduling of each production unit in one side and to minimize the total production cost in the other side. To test the performance of the optimization proposed strategies, strategies have been applied to the IEEE electrical network 14 busses and the obtained results are very promising.

  20. Investigation of thermal management materials for automotive electronic control units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, Sabuj; Ekere, Ndy; Best, Chris; Bhatti, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Today's electronics packages are smaller and more powerful than ever before. This leads to ever increasing thermal challenges for the systems designer. The automotive electronic control unit (ECU) package faces the same challenge of thermal management as the industry in general. This is coupled with the latest European Union legislation (Euro 6 standard) which forced the ECU manufacturers to completely re-design their ECU platform with improved hardware and software capability. This will result in increased power densities and therefore, the ability to dissipate heat will be a key factor. A higher thermal conductivity (TC) material for the ECU housing (than the currently used Aluminium) could improve heat dissipation from the ECU. This paper critically reviews the state-of-the-art in thermal management materials which may be applicable to an automotive ECU. This review shows that of the different materials currently available, the Al/SiC composites in particular have very good potential for automotive ECU application. In terms of metal composites processing, the liquid metal infiltration process is recommended as it has a lower processing cost and it also has the ability to produce near net-shape materials.

  1. Thermal Storage Systems Assessment for Energy Sustainability in Housing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania I. Lagunes Vega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve greater enhancements in energy sustainability for housing, the function and efficiency of two different passive cooling systems were studied: encapsulated water in recycled bottles of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polystyrene plates, in comparison with standard concrete slab systems, which are customarily used in housing. Experiments were placed over a tile surface, in which temperature changes were monitored for a period of 20 days from 08:00 to 20:00. The efficiency of passive thermal storage systems was endorsed through statistical analysis using the “SPSS” software. This resulted in a 17% energy saving, thus promoting energy sustainability in housing units, which reduces the use of electrical appliances required to stabilize conditions to achieve optimum thermal comfort for the human body inside a house, therefore, reducing electrical power consumption, CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and generating savings. Due to the complexity of a system with temperature changes, a fractal analysis was performed for each experimental system, using the “Benoit” software (V.1.3 with self-compatible tools of rescaled range (R/S and a wavelets method, showing that the thermal fluctuations on the tiles with the thermal storage system adapt to the rescaled range analysis and the regular tiles adapt to the wavelets method.

  2. Thermal unit availability modeling in a regional simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamayee, Z.A.; Port, J.; Robinett, W.

    1983-01-01

    The System Analysis Model (SAM) developed under the umbrella of PNUCC's System Analysis Committee is capable of simulating the operation of a given load/resource scenario. This model employs a Monte-Carlo simulation to incorporate uncertainties. Among uncertainties modeled is thermal unit availability both for energy simulation (seasonal) and capacity simulations (hourly). This paper presents the availability modeling in the capacity and energy models. The use of regional and national data in deriving the two availability models, the interaction between the two and modifications made to the capacity model in order to reflect regional practices is presented. A sample problem is presented to show the modification process. Results for modeling a nuclear unit using NERC-GADS is presented

  3. Unit thermal performance of atmospheric spray cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.W.; Jain, M.; Chaturvedi, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal performance of an open atmospheric spray pond or canal depends on the direct-contact evaporative cooling of an individual spray unit (spray nozzle or module) and the interference caused by local heating and humidification. Droplet parameters may be combined into a dimensionless group, number of transfer units (NTU) or equivalent, whereas large-scale air-vapor dynamics determine interference through the local wet-bulb temperature. Quantity NTU were implied from field experiments for a floating module used in steam-condenser spray canals. Previous data were available for a fixed-pipe nozzle assembly used in spray ponds. Quantity NTU were also predicted using the Ranz-Marshall correlations with the Sauter-mean diameter used as the characteristic length. Good agreement with experiments was shown for diameters of 1--1.1 cm (module) and 1.9 mm

  4. Revitalization of Tuzla Thermal Power Plant's Unit 3 (100 MW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakovic, A.; Praso, N.

    1998-01-01

    Power Plant Revitalization is a highly ranged concept essentially aimed at continued operations of the generating unit at, or near, rated capacities for the rest of the economic life of the plant or even for an extended life. In essence, the need to rehabilitate may arise due to reasons such as low availability factor, low efficiency, increasing operating and maintenance costs, loss of reliability, drop in safety of plant and personnel, poor maintainability or environmental requirements. The term revitalization is therefore normally used in the context to cover the range of activities including repairing components, replacing equipment, modifying systems, adding new system and equipment and perhaps restoration to rated capacities. This exercise on already complex power generation process will naturally require the application of various technologies in order to ensure a safe and efficient installation of electricity supply. In normal conditions of producing and consumption of electricity (load demands) in order to answer the question of what kind of revitalization to undertake it is necessary to state at the very beginning: - whether it is necessary, from the point of equipment wear-out, to revitalize all equipment at once (one-phase revitalization), or - whether it is possible to postpone the revitalization of a part of equipment for the next period (phased revitalization). Both concepts have some specific advantages and disadvantages. In essence the decision-making process between these two approaches, three basic conditions should be considered: technical-technological adequacy, energy-economy adequacy and financial adequacy. This paper covers general considerations, approach and methodology implemented during the revitalization the Tuzla Thermal Power Plant's Unit 3 (100MW) which was imposed by urgent demands of the Power System, the war conditions and financial possibilities including: - General data on TPP Tuzla and Unit 3 - Scope of work and economic effects

  5. The viability of neural network for modeling the impact of individual job satisfiers on work commitment in Indian manufacturing unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therasa Chandrasekar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an exposition about application of neural networks in the context of research to find out the contribution of individual job satisfiers towards work commitment. The purpose of the current study is to build a predictive model to estimate the normalized importance of individual job satisfiers towards work commitment of employees working in TVS Group, an Indian automobile company. The study is based on the tool developed by Spector (1985 and Sue Hayday (2003.The input variable of the study consists of nine independent individual job satisfiers which includes Pay, Promotion, Supervision, Benefits, Rewards, Operating procedures, Co-workers, Work-itself and Communication of Spector (1985 and dependent variable as work commitment of Sue Hayday (2003.The primary data has been collected using a closed-ended questionnaire based on simple random sampling approach. This study employed the multilayer Perceptron neural network model to envisage the level of job satisfiers towards work commitment. The result from the multilayer Perceptron neural network model displayed with four hidden layer with correct classification rate of 70% and 30% for training and testing data set. The normalized importance shows high value for coworkers, superior satisfaction and communication and which acts as most significant attributes of job satisfiers that predicts the overall work commitment of employees.

  6. Chaotic artificial immune approach applied to economic dispatch of electric energy using thermal units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Coelho, Leandro dos; Mariani, Viviana Cocco

    2009-01-01

    The economic dispatch problem (EDP) is an optimization problem useful in power systems operation. The objective of the EDP of electric power generation, whose characteristics are complex and highly non-linear, is to schedule the committed generating unit outputs so as to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost while satisfying system constraints. Recently, as an alternative to the conventional mathematical approaches, modern heuristic optimization techniques have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution in EDPs. As special mechanism to avoid being trapped in local minimum, the ergodicity property of chaotic sequences has been used as optimization technique in EDPs. Based on the chaos theory, this paper discusses the design and validation of an optimization procedure based on a chaotic artificial immune network approach based on Zaslavsky's map. The optimization approach based on chaotic artificial immune network is validated for a test system consisting of 13 thermal units whose incremental fuel cost function takes into account the valve-point loading effects. Simulation results and comparisons show that the chaotic artificial immune network approach is competitive in performance with other optimization approaches presented in literature and is also an attractive tool to be used on applications in the power systems field.

  7. Transmutor demo unit and thermal into electrical energy transformation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Fiedler, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the three circuits layout of the transmutor the heat is transferred from the primary through the secondary circuits by a favourable heat carrier into the tertiary circuit where the thermal into electrical energy transformation in turbo-generator comes into force. Properties as well as parameters of the heat carrier in the secondary circuit affect basically both the conceptual layout of the tertiary circuit and consequently investments costs for its realization and the effectiveness of the transformation of thermal into electrical energy. For several heat carriers considered for the transmutor secondary circuit particular tertiary circuit concepts for the demonstration transmutor unit of approx. 15 W thermal power rate are analyzed, layout features and possibilities of turbogenerator selection are commented and investment costs as well as effectiveness of thermal into electrical energy transformation are estimated. Some of the results are as follows: (i) Heat carrier properties influence thermodynamics of the TDU water/steam cycle substantially. One of the dominant parameters is the melting (freezing) temperature of the heat carrier. (ii) Heat carrier properties influence investment costs of components of the TDU tertiary circuit substantially. Dominantly influenced are costs of the steam generator, steam turbine and high pressure regeneration system. (iii) If the heat carrier has to be a molten salt than a salt with a low melting temperature is recommended to be selected, for example KHF2. (iv) Eutectic alloy Pb-Bi as the heat carrier serves changes to design the TDU with efficient thermodynamics, with acceptable low investment costs of the tertiary as well as secondary circuit components and with an acceptable level of the nuclear safety

  8. An Optimized Thermal Analysis of Electronic Unit Used in Aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.; Mir, F.; Farooq, M.; Farooq, M.

    2014-01-01

    In a field where change and growth is inevitable, new electronic packaging problems continuously arise. Smaller, but more powerful devices are prone to overheating causing intermittent system failures, corrupted signals and outright system failure. Current study is focused on the analysis of the optimized working of electronic equipment from thermal point of view. In order to achieve the objective, an approach was developed for the thermal analysis of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) including the heat dissipation of its electronic components and then removal of the heat in a sophisticated manner by considering the conduction and convection modes of heat transfer. Mathematical modeling was carried out for a certain problem to address the thermal design, and then a program was developed in MATLAB for the solution of model by using Newton-Raphson method. The proposed unit is to be mounted on an aircraft having suspected thermal characteristics owing to abrupt changes in pressure and temperature as aircraft moves quickly from a lower altitude to higher altitude. In current study, dominant mode of heat transfer was conduction revealing that the major portion of heat transfer takes place by copper cladding and that heat conduction along the length of PCB can be improved enormously by using even thin layer of copper. The results confirmed that temperatures of all the electronic components were within derated values. Meanwhile, it was known that convection also plays a significant role in the reduction of temperatures of the components. The reduction in nodal temperature was in the range of 13 to 42 %. Furthermore, altitude variation from sea level to 15240 m (above sea level) caused the reduction in pressure from 1atm to 0.1095 atm. Consequently, the temperature of the electronic components increased from 73.25 degree C to 83.83 degree C for first node 'a', and from 66.04 degree C to 68.47 degree C for last node 'n' because of the decrease in the convective heat transfer

  9. Fuzzy Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juels, Ari

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce fuzzy commitment, one of the earliest and simplest constructions geared toward cryptography over noisy data. The chapter also explores applications of fuzzy commitment to two problems in data security: (1) secure management of biometrics, with a focus on iriscodes, and (2) use of knowledge-based authentication (i.e., personal questions) for password recovery.

  10. Feasibility randomized-controlled trial of online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for patients with complex chronic pain in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W; Chilcot, J; Guildford, B; Daly-Eichenhardt, A; McCracken, L M

    2018-04-28

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has growing support for chronic pain. However, more accessible treatment delivery is needed. This study evaluated the feasibility of online ACT for patients with complex chronic pain in the United Kingdom to determine whether a larger trial is justified. Participants with chronic pain and clinically meaningful disability and distress were randomly assigned to ACT online plus specialty medical pain management, or specialty medical management alone. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, and 3- and 9-month post-randomization. Primary feasibility outcomes included recruitment, retention and treatment completion rates. Secondary outcomes were between-groups effects on treatment outcomes and psychological flexibility. Of 139 potential participants, 63 were eligible and randomized (45% recruitment rate). Retention rates were 76-78% for follow-up assessments. Sixty-one per cent of ACT online participants completed treatment. ACT online was less often completed by employed (44%) compared to unemployed (80%) participants. Fifty-six per cent of ACT online participants rated themselves as 'much improved' or better on a global impression of change rating, compared to only 20 per cent of control participants. Three-month effects favouring ACT online were small for functioning, medication and healthcare use, committed action and decentring, medium for mood, and large for acceptance. Small-to-medium effects were maintained for functioning, healthcare use and committed action at 9 months. Online ACT for patients with chronic pain in the United Kingdom appears feasible to study in a larger efficacy trial. Some adjustments to treatment and trial procedures are warranted, particularly to enhance engagement among employed participants. This study supports the feasibility of online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for chronic pain in the United Kingdom and a larger efficacy trial. Refinements to treatment delivery, particularly to

  11. Thermal Environment Evaluation in Commercial Kitchens of United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The differences between type (fast food, dining, etc.) and climatic zone can have an influence on the environment conditions and on th......The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The differences between type (fast food, dining, etc.) and climatic zone can have an influence on the environment conditions...... of defining the values of thermal comfort parameters in kitchens. It can also help to evaluate if the standardized methods are applicable for such non-uniform environment, like commercial kitchens. By using an established method and procedure for evaluating the indoor thermal comfort in commercial kitchens...... more than 100 kitchens environments in the United States were investigated in summer and winter. Results show the influence due to type of kitchen (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic region. Physical measurement confirmed that communally the workers are exposed to a warm or hot environment...

  12. Thermal performance of a multiple PCM thermal storage unit for free cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosaffa, A.H.; Infante Ferreira, C.A.; Talati, F.; Rosen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Numerical analysis on the performance of a thermal storages as free cooling system. ► Employing multiple PCMs to enhance heat transfer rate in thermal storages. ► Using an effective heat capacity method, the phase change parameters are determined. ► The effect of the slabs size and air channel thickness on COP is investigated. - Abstract: As demand for refrigeration and air conditioning increased during the last decade, the opportunities have expanded for using thermal energy storage (TES) systems in an economically advantageous manner in place of conventional cooling plants. Many cool storage systems use phase change materials (PCMs) and achieve peak load shifting in buildings. This work presents numerical investigations of the performance enhancement of a free cooling system using a TES unit employing multiple PCMs. The TES unit is composed of a number of rectangular channels for the flowing heat transfer fluid, separated by PCM slabs. Using the effective heat capacity method, the melting and solidification of the PCM is solved. The forced convective heat transfer inside the channels is analyzed by solving the energy equation, which is coupled with the heat conduction equation in the container wall. The effect of design parameters such as PCM slab length, thickness and fluid passage gap on the storage performance is also investigated using an energy based optimization. The results show that a system which can guarantee comfort conditions for the climate of Tabriz, Iran has an optimum COP of 7.0. This could be achieved by a combination of CaCl 2 ·6H 2 O with RT25 with the optimum air channel thickness of 3.2 mm, length of 1.3 m and PCM slab thickness of 10 mm

  13. Estimation of annual committed effective dose due to radioactivity of curative drinking thermal spring waters in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirican, A.; Shahin, M.; Serefinoglu, M.; Erden, P.E.; Shahin, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : Spa customers protection against natural radioactivity in curative drinking thermal water is not regulated in Europe and Turkey. For this reason, a technical cooperation project was conducted to provide a report containing radioactivity measurement results, dosimetric calculations and analysis of the radiation protection regulations to be applied in spas

  14. Thermal desorption treatability test conducted with VAC*TRAX Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act, requiring the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment standards. In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity, where off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed waste with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of mixed waste. DOE-AL manages nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment units (MTUs) to treat waste at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed wastes must remove the hazardous component (i.e., meet RCRA treatment standards) and contain the radioactive component in a form that will protect the worker, public, and environment. On the basis of the recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (DOE-GJPO) include thermal desorption (TD), evaporative oxidation, and waste water evaporation

  15. Heat transfer and thermal storage performance of an open thermosyphon type thermal storage unit with tubular phase change material canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ping-Yang; Hu, Bo-Wen; Liu, Zhen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel open heat pipe thermal storage unit is design to improve its performance. • Mechanism of its operation is phase-change heat transfer. • Tubular canisters with phase change material were placed in thermal storage unit. • Experiment and analysis are carried out to investigate its operation properties. - Abstract: A novel open thermosyphon-type thermal storage unit is presented to improve design and performance of heat pipe type thermal storage unit. In the present study, tubular canisters filled with a solid–liquid phase change material are vertically placed in the middle of the thermal storage unit. The phase change material melts at 100 °C. Water is presented as the phase-change heat transfer medium of the thermal storage unit. The tubular canister is wrapped tightly with a layer of stainless steel mesh to increase the surface wettability. The heat transfer mechanism of charging/discharging is similar to that of the thermosyphon. Heat transfer between the heat resource or cold resource and the phase change material in this device occurs in the form of a cyclic phase change of the heat-transfer medium, which occurs on the surface of the copper tubes and has an extremely high heat-transfer coefficient. A series of experiments and theoretical analyses are carried out to investigate the properties of the thermal storage unit, including power distribution, start-up performance, and temperature difference between the phase change material and the surrounding vapor. The results show that the whole system has excellent heat-storage/heat-release performance

  16. Design study on the efficiency of the thermal scheme of power unit of thermal power plants in hot climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlov, A.; Dorokhov, Y.; Rybakov, B.; Nenashev, A.

    2017-11-01

    At the stage of pre-proposals unit of the thermal power plants for regions with a hot climate requires a design study on the efficiency of possible options for the structure of the thermal circuit and a set of key parameters. In this paper, the thermal circuit of the condensing unit powerfully 350 MW. The main feature of the external conditions of thermal power plants in hot climates is the elevated temperature of cooling water of the turbine condensers. For example, in the Persian Gulf region as the cooling water is sea water. In the hot season of the year weighted average sea water temperature of 30.9 °C and during the cold season to 22.8 °C. From the turbine part of the steam is supplied to the distillation-desalination plant. In the hot season of the year heat scheme with pressure fresh pair of 23.54 MPa, temperature 570/560 °C and feed pump with electric drive (EDP) is characterized by a efficiency net of 0.25% higher than thermal schem with feed turbine pump (TDP). However, the supplied power unit with PED is less by 11.6 MW. Calculations of thermal schemes in all seasons of the year allowed us to determine the difference in the profit margin of units of the TDP and EDP. During the year the unit with the TDP provides the ability to obtain the profit margin by 1.55 million dollars more than the unit EDP. When using on the market subsidized price of electricity (Iran) marginal profit of a unit with TDP more at 7.25 million dollars.

  17. Canada's national report on actions to meet commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Current actions by Canadian governments, non-governmental organizations, communities, and the private sector to meet domestic and international climate change commitments are reviewed. The possible impacts of climate change on Canada are discussed and Canadian greenhouse gas emissions are assessed in terms of factors such as climate, geography, land use, economic structure, and energy production and consumption. Canada's draft National Action Strategy on Global Warming provides a framework for actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions. Measures already taken include those aimed at increasing energy efficiency and energy conservation or encouraging a switch to less carbon-intensive energy sources. Other measures include information and education initiatives, regulation, research and development, and economic instruments. Actions have already been taken in the transportation, electricity generation, residential/commercial, resource/manufacturing industry, and waste management sectors. Canada is also involved in international studies and agreements to limit global greenhouse gas emissions. Four tools are used to assess progress in limiting emissions: emission inventories, climate change indicators, an emissions outlook, and case studies. The emissions outlook presented shows that energy-related greenhouse gas emissions will increase 10.6% from 1990 to 2000, reaching the equivalent of 538.2 megatonnes of CO 2 . A case study shows that current and planned measures to limit greenhouse gas emissions associated with space heating requirements in new single-family homes will reduce emissions in this area 18% from what they would otherwise be in the year 2000. 58 refs., 44 figs., 21 tabs

  18. A fuzzy chance-constrained program for unit commitment problem considering demand response, electric vehicle and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ning; Hu, Zhaoguang; Han, Xue

    2015-01-01

    As a form of renewable and low-carbon energy resource, wind power is anticipated to play an essential role in the future energy structure. Whereas, its features of time mismatch with power demand and uncertainty pose barriers for the power system to utilize it effectively. Hence, a novel unit com...... system operation more eco-friendly and economical....

  19. Model-based investigation of the electricity market. Unit commitment and power plant investments; Modellgestuetzte Untersuchung des Elektrizitaetsmarktes. Kraftwerkseinsatzplanung und -investitionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ninghong

    2013-08-08

    The German Federal Government published its energy concept in September 2010 with a description of the road into the era of renewable energies. Therefore, the future renewable energy installed in Germany is expected to consist mostly of wind and solar, which are subject to intermittency of supply and significant fluctuations. The growing portion of energy generation by fluctuating sources is turning to a big challenge for the power plant unit commitment and the investment decisions as well. In this thesis, a fundamental electricity market model with combined modeling of these two aspects is developed. This model is subsequently applied to the German electricity market to investigate what kind of power plant investments are indispensable, considering the steadily increasing portion of energy generation from fluctuating sources, to ensure a reliable energy supply in a cost-effective way in the future. In addition, current energy policy in Germany regarding the use of renewable energy and nuclear energy is analyzed.

  20. Thermal Analysis of a Power Conditioning Unit for a Howitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    contact resistance Interface ( mA2 -K / W) AL-PCB 0.000389 AL-AL (thermal grease) 0.000083 AL-power chips 0.003891 AL-power chips (thermal grease...1120 W/ mA2 . Figure 3 shows the view of the box that the source of the solar radiation sees. The inside of the box is cluttered with cables, wiring, and...temperature (130°F) and a conservative convective heat transfer coefficient (5 W/ mA2 ) to all of the outer surfaces. These outer surfaces would

  1. A Bi-Level Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Solving Unit Commitment Problems with Wind-EVs Coordinated Dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Zhang, Bo

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the grid faces much more challenges caused by wind power and the accessing of electric vehicles (EVs). Based on the potentiality of coordinated dispatch, a model of wind-EVs coordinated dispatch was developed. Then, A bi-level particle swarm optimization algorithm for solving the model was proposed in this paper. The application of this algorithm to 10-unit test system carried out that coordinated dispatch can benefit the power system from the following aspects: (1) Reducing operating costs; (2) Improving the utilization of wind power; (3) Stabilizing the peak-valley difference.

  2. CFD investigations of data centers’ thermal performance for different configurations of CRACs units and aisles separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Nada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermal performance of data centers is numerically studied for different configurations of computer room air conditioning (CRAC units and physical separations of cold and hot aisles. Temperature distribution, air flow characteristics and thermal management of data centers racks array are predicted and evaluated for the different arrangements. Measureable performance indices: supply/return heat index (SHI/RHI, return temperature index (RTI and return cooling index (RCI are used to measure the thermal management effectiveness of data center racks. The results showed that: (i hot air recirculation, cold air bypass and the measurable performance indices of the racks strongly depend on the racks location in the racks array, (ii the CRACs units layout affects the thermal managements of the racks array especially the sides and middle racks in the array, and (iii using cold aisle containments enhances the thermal performance of the data center.

  3. CORRELATIONS OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY BETWEEN STRATIGRAPHIC UNITS IN THE BROADER AREA OF ZAGREB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Kovačić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity (KTV of geological formations is one of the parameters responsible for the propagation of the heat under the earth surface. During geothermal investigations in the broader area of the Croatian capital of Zagreb the thermal conductivity was measured on the rock samples from the surface and the boreholes. The results of the measurements are presented in this work and used as a basis for calculations of the thermal conductivity of distinct geological formations within the investigated area. It was found out that the values of the thermal conductivity of the rocks in the investigated area vary greatly. The measurements are within the well known scope for certain rock types. The thermal conductivity of the rocks from the Tertiary units corresponds with the average values being typical for such kind of rocks, while the basement carbonate rocks are characterized by the values being by 1 W/K-1m-1 higher than the average. After comparing the thermal conductivity of the stratigraphic units in the broader area of Zagreb it has been established that the values of the thermal conductivity of geological formations in the investigated area are also very different, and that they generally rise with their age. The relative relationships show that the Quaternary, Pliocene and Tertiary sedimentary rocks act as thermal insulators, while Triassic rocks behave as the heat conductor (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. Thermal Analysis of a Thermal Energy Storage Unit to Enhance a Workshop Heating System Driven by Industrial Residual Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Various energy sources can be used for room heating, among which waste heat utilization has significantly improved in recent years. However, the majority of applicable waste heat resources are high-grade or stable thermal energy, while the low-grade or unstable waste heat resources, especially low-temperature industrial residual water (IRW, are insufficiently used. A thermal energy storage (TES unit with paraffin wax as a phase change material (PCM is designed to solve this problem in a pharmaceutical plant. The mathematical models are developed to simulate the heat storage and release processes of the TES unit. The crucial parameters in the recurrence formulae are determined: the phase change temperature range of the paraffin wax used is 47 to 56 °C, and the latent heat is 171.4 kJ/kg. Several thermal behaviors, such as the changes of melting radius, solidification radius, and fluid temperature, are simulated. In addition, the amount of heat transferred, the heat transfer rate, and the heat storage efficiency are discussed. It is presented that the medicine production unit could save 10.25% of energy consumption in the investigated application.

  5. Thermal Efficiency of Cogeneration Units with Multi-Stage Reheating for Russian Municipal Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Lisin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the layout of an optimum process for supplying heat to Russian municipal heating systems operating in a market environment. We analyze and compare the standard cogeneration unit design with two-stage reheating of service water coming from controlled extraction locations and layouts that employ three in-line reheaters with heat the supply controlled by a rotary diaphragm and qualitative/quantitative methods (so-called “uncontrolled extraction”. Cogeneration unit designs are benchmarked in terms of their thermal efficiency expressed as a fuel consumption rate. The specific fuel consumption rate on electricity production is viewed as a key parameter of thermal efficiency.

  6. Effect of light-curing units on the thermal expansion of resin nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Kil; Hur, Bock; Ko, Ching-Chang; García-Godoy, Franklin; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2010-12-01

    To examine the thermal expansion of resin nanocomposites after light-curing using different light-curing units. Four different resin nanocomposites and four different light-curing units [quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH), light emitting diode (LED), laser, and plasma arc] were chosen. Metal dies were filled with resin to make specimens and light-cured. The light intensity and light-curing time of the QTH and LED light-curing units were 1000 mW/cm2 and 40 seconds, 700 mW/cm2 and 40 seconds for the laser, and 1600 mW/cm2 and 3 seconds for the plasma arc. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was evaluated using a thermomechanical analyzer (TMA) at temperatures ranging from 30-80 degrees C. The CTE of the resin nanocomposites tested ranged from 28.5 to 65.8 (x 10(-6)/ degrees C), depending on the product and type of light-curing unit used. Among the specimens, Grandio showed the lowest CTE. The specimens cured using the plasma arc unit (Apollo 95E) showed the highest CTE. There was a linear correlation between the CTE and filler content (vol%) (R: -0.94-0.99 depending on the light-curing unit). The results may suggest a careful selection of the light-curing unit because there was more expansion in the specimens cured using the plasma arc unit than those cured by the other units.

  7. Effect of biomimetic non-smooth unit morphology on thermal fatigue behavior of H13 hot-work tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chao; Zhou, Hong; Cong, Dalong; Wang, Chuanwei; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhihui; Ren, Luquan

    2012-06-01

    The thermal fatigue behavior of hot-work tool steel processed by a biomimetic coupled laser remelting process gets a remarkable improvement compared to untreated sample. The 'dowel pin effect', the 'dam effect' and the 'fence effect' of non-smooth units are the main reason of the conspicuous improvement of the thermal fatigue behavior. In order to get a further enhancement of the 'dowel pin effect', the 'dam effect' and the 'fence effect', this study investigated the effect of different unit morphologies (including 'prolate', 'U' and 'V' morphology) and the same unit morphology in different sizes on the thermal fatigue behavior of H13 hot-work tool steel. The results showed that the 'U' morphology unit had the optimum thermal fatigue behavior, then the 'V' morphology which was better than the 'prolate' morphology unit; when the unit morphology was identical, the thermal fatigue behavior of the sample with large unit sizes was better than that of the small sizes.

  8. Effect of CRAC units layout on thermal management of data center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, S.A.; Said, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CFD study of thermal management in data centers. • Effects of layout arrangements of the CRACs units relative to the racks array on data center performance. • Design guide liens for data centers energy efficiency improvements. - Abstract: Comprehensive numerical studies of thermal management of data centers were presented by several investigators for different geometric and operating conditions of data centers. In the present work, a technical note regarding the effect of the computer room air conditioning (CRAC) units layout arrangements is presented. Two arrangements of CRAC units layouts are investigated; namely locating CRACs units in line with the racks row and locating the CRACs units perpendicular to the rack row. Temperature distributions, air flow characteristics particularly air recirculation and bypass and thermal management in data centers are evaluated in terms of the measureable overall performance parameters: supply/return heat indices (SHI/RHI) and return temperature indices (RTI). The results showed that locating CRAC units perpendicular to the racks row has the following effects: (i) enhances the uniformity of the air flow from the perforated tiles along the rack row, (ii) reduces the hot air recirculation at the ends racks of the row and the cold air bypass at the middle rack of the row and (iii) enhances the data center performance parameters RTI, SHI and RHI.

  9. ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE THERMAL DESORPTION UNIT - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELI ECO Logic International, Inc.'s Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) is specifically designed for use with Eco Logic's Gas Phase Chemical Reduction Process. The technology uses an externally heated bath of molten tin in a hydrogen atmosphere to desorb hazardous organic compounds fro...

  10. A nitrogen triple-point thermal storage unit for cooling a SQUID magnetometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.P.; Meenderink, D.J.; Reincke, H.A.; Venhorst, G.C.F.; Holland, H.J.; Brake, ter H.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to achieve turnkey operation, the use is planned of cryocoolers to cool a SQUID magnetometer system. To minimize the magnetical and mech. interference from the coolers, they are switched off during the actual measurements. Consequently, a thermal storage unit (TSU) is required with

  11. A nitrogen triple-point thermal storage unit for cooling a SQUID magnetometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.P.; Meenderink, D.J.; Reincke, H.A.; Venhorst, G.C.F.; Venhorst, G.C.F.; Holland, Herman J.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to achieve turnkey operation, we plan to use cryocoolers to cool a SQUID magnetometer system. To minimize the magnetical and mechanical interference from the coolers, we intend to switch them off during the actual measurements. Consequently, a thermal storage unit (TSU) is required with

  12. Analysis of Thermal Design of Heating Units with Meteorological Climate Peculiarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminenko, A. S.; Elistratova, Y. V.; Pererva, M. I.; Moiseev, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    This article is devoted to the analysis of thermal design of heating units, one of the compulsory calculations of heating systems, which ensures their stable and efficient operation. The article analyses the option of a single-pipe heating system with shifted end-capping areas and the overhead supply main; the difference is shown in the calculation results between heat balance equation of the heating unit and calculation of the actual heat flux (heat transfer coefficient) taking into account deviation from the standardized (technical passport) operating conditions. The calculation of the thermal conditions of residential premises is given, the deviation of the internal air temperature is shown taking into account the discrepancy between the calculation results for thermal energy.

  13. Thermal sensitivity and thermally enhanced radiosensitivity of murine bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    This study was to evaluate thermal response of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming unit (CFU-GM) in vitro and to investigate the difference of thermally enhanced radiosensitivity on cell survivals of CFU-GM between in vitro and in vivo. In in vitro heating exposure, bone marrow suspensions, obtained from mouse femora or tibiae, were incubated; and in vivo heating exposure, the lower half-body of mice were immersed in a circulating hot water bath. For irradiation schedules, cell suspensions were irradiated in vitro or in vivo (whole-body irradiation). Thermal sensitivity curve, obtained by in vivo heating exposure, showed a shoulder region at short exposures followed by an exponential decline during longer heating exposures. The Arrhenius curve showed a break at 42.3deg C and inactivation enthalpy was 1836 kJ/mol (438 kcal/mole) below the break point and 704 kJ/mole (168 kcal/mole) above the point. When bone marrow suspensions, obtained after either in vitro or in vivo irradiation, were heated in vitro at 42deg C for 60 min, supura-additive effect on cell survivals was observed by in vivo irradiation, but not observed by in vitro irradiation. Thermal enhancement ratio (TER), defined as D 0 of combined in vivo irradiation and in vitro heating divided by D 0 of the sole in vivo irradiation, was 1.12. In vivo heating following in vivo irradiation also showed supra-additive effect, giving TER of 1.66. These findings indicated that murine marrow CFU-GM is sensitive to hyperthermia and that thermal radiosensitization is never negligible when hyperthermia is employed with preceding X-irradiation. Thus, combined use of radiotherapy and hyperthermia may decrease bone marrow function. (N.K.)

  14. Design and study of water supply system for supercritical unit boiler in thermal power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zenghui

    2018-04-01

    In order to design and optimize the boiler feed water system of supercritical unit, the establishment of a highly accurate controlled object model and its dynamic characteristics are prerequisites for developing a perfect thermal control system. In this paper, the method of mechanism modeling often leads to large systematic errors. Aiming at the information contained in the historical operation data of the boiler typical thermal system, the modern intelligent identification method to establish a high-precision quantitative model is used. This method avoids the difficulties caused by the disturbance experiment modeling for the actual system in the field, and provides a strong reference for the design and optimization of the thermal automation control system in the thermal power plant.

  15. Thermal characteristics of a medium-level concentration photovoltaic unit with evaporation cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotov, Yuri V.; Reyz, Michael A.; Fisher, Yossi

    2009-08-01

    The results of thermal analysis and experiments are presented for a 1-kW brand new medium-level (8X) concentration photovoltaic (CPV) unit that is cooled by evaporation and built as an elongated floating solar unit. The unit keeps the silicon PV elements at low and stable temperature around the clock, significantly outperforms competitors' systems in terms of the power output and the life span of identical PV elements. It is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that the PV element temperature level exceeds the temperature level of water in the water basin (used as a heat sink) by just a few degrees.

  16. Stochastic risk-averse coordinated scheduling of grid integrated energy storage units in transmission constrained wind-thermal systems within a conditional value-at-risk framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat; Saboori, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, wind power resources have been integrated in the power systems increasingly. Besides confirmed benefits, utilization of large share of this volatile source in power generation portfolio has been faced system operators with new challenges in terms of uncertainty management. It is proved that energy storage systems are capable to handle projected uncertainty concerns. Risk-neutral methods have been proposed in the previous literature to schedule storage units considering wind resources uncertainty. Ignoring risk of the cost distributions with non-desirable properties may result in experiencing high costs in some unfavorable scenarios with high probability. In order to control the risk of the operator decisions, this paper proposes a new risk-constrained two-stage stochastic programming model to make optimal decisions on energy storage and thermal units in a transmission constrained hybrid wind-thermal power system. Risk-aversion procedure is explicitly formulated using the conditional value-at-risk measure, because of possessing distinguished features compared to the other risk measures. The proposed model is a mixed integer linear programming considering transmission network, thermal unit dynamics, and storage devices constraints. The simulations results demonstrate that taking the risk of the problem into account will affect scheduling decisions considerably depend on the level of the risk-aversion. - Highlights: • Risk of the operation decisions is handled by using risk-averse programming. • Conditional value-at-risk is used as risk measure. • Optimal risk level is obtained based on the cost/benefit analysis. • The proposed model is a two-stage stochastic mixed integer linear programming. • The unit commitment is integrated with ESSs and wind power penetration.

  17. Experimental and numerical investigation of a tube-in-tank latent thermal energy storage unit using composite PCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Z.N.; Zhang, P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A tube-in-tank latent thermal energy storage (LTES) unit using composite PCM is built. • Thermal performances of the LTES unit are experimentally and numerically studied. • Thermal performances of the LTES unit under different operation conditions are comparatively studied. • A 3D numerical model is established to study the heat transfer mechanisms of the LTES unit. - Abstract: Paraffin is a commonly used phase change material (PCM) which has been frequently applied for thermal energy storage. A tube-in-tank latent thermal energy storage (LTES) unit using paraffin as PCM is built in the present study, which can be used in many applications. In order to enhance the thermal performance of the LTES unit, the composite PCM is fabricated by embedding copper foam into pure paraffin. The performances of the LTES unit with the composite PCM during the heat charging and discharging processes are investigated experimentally, and a series of experiments are carried out under different inlet temperatures and inlet flow velocities of the heat transfer fluid (HTF). The temperature evolutions of the LTES unit are obtained during the experiments, and the time-durations, mean powers and energy efficiencies are estimated to evaluate the performance of the LTES unit. Meanwhile, a three-dimensional (3D) mathematical model based on enthalpy-porosity and melting/solidification models is established to investigate the heat transfer mechanisms of the LTES unit and the detailed heat transfer characteristics of the LTES unit are obtained. It can be concluded that the LTES unit with the composite PCM shows good heat transfer performance, and larger inlet flow velocity of the HTF and larger temperature difference between the HTF and PCM can enhance the heat transfer and benefit the thermal energy utilization. Furthermore, a LTES system with larger thermal energy storage capacity can be easily assembled by several such LTES units, which can meet versatile demands in

  18. Multi-sphere unit cell model to calculate the effective thermal conductivity in pebble bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Antwerpen, W.; Rousseau, P.G.; Du Toit, C.G.

    2010-01-01

    A proper understanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer, fluid flow and pressure drop through a packed bed of spheres is of utmost importance in the design of a high temperature Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR). While the gas flows predominantly in the axial direction through the bed, the total effective thermal conductivity is a lumped parameter that characterises the total heat transfer in the radial direction through the packed bed. The study of the effective thermal conductivity is important because it forms an intricate part of the self-acting decay heat removal chain, which is directly related to the PBR safety case. The effective thermal conductivity is the summation of various heat transport phenomena. These are the enhanced thermal conductivity due to turbulent mixing as the fluid passes through the voids between pebbles, heat transfer due to the movement of the solid spheres and thermal conduction and thermal radiation between the spheres in a stagnant fluid environment. In this study, the conduction and radiation between the spheres are investigated. Firstly, existing correlations for the effective thermal conductivity are investigated, with particular attention given to its applicability in the near-wall region. Several phenomena in particular are examined namely: conduction through the spheres, conduction through the contact area between the spheres, conduction through the gas phase and radiation between solid surfaces. A new approach to simulate the effective thermal conductivity for randomly packed beds is then presented, namely the so-called Multi-sphere Unit Cell Model. The model is validated by comparing the results with that obtained in experiments. (authors)

  19. Study of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, A.P.; Lacroix, M.

    2003-01-01

    A study is performed of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions. This unit is employed to maintain the temperature inside the refrigerated compartment of a truck below 265 K. The system consists of parallel plates filled with a phase change material (PCM) that absorbs heat from the flow of warm moist air. A mathematical model for the system is first presented and, next, validated with numerical and experimental data. It is then exploited to assess the effects of design parameters and operating conditions on the performance of the system. The recommended thickness and distance separating the PCM plates are found to be 50x10 -3 and 30x10 -3 m, respectively. The results indicate that the performance of the unit is enhanced by turbulent air flow in spite of the increased pressure loss and accentuated frost growth. The unit also performs well even when the surrounding relative humidity is 100%

  20. Development of Thermal Performance Analysis Computer Program on Turbine Cycle of Yoggwang 3,4 Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.Y.; Choi, K.H.; Jee, M.H.; Chung, S.I. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    The objective of the study ''Development of Thermal Performance Analysis Computer Program on Turbine Cycle of Yonggwang 3,4 Units'' is to utilize computerized program to the performance test of the turbine cycle or the analysis of the operational status of the thermal plants. In addition, the result can be applicable to the analysis of the thermal output at the abnormal status and be a powerful tool to find out the main problems for such cases. As a results, the output of this study can supply the way to confirm the technical capability to operate the plants efficiently and to obtain the economic gains remarkably. (author). 27 refs., 73 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. A structural and thermal packaging approach for power processing units for 30-cm ion thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloy, J. E.; Sharp, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) is currently being studied for possible use in a number of near earth and planetary missions. The thruster subsystem for these missions would consist of 30 centimeter ion thrusters with Power Processor Units (PPU) clustered in assemblies of from two to ten units. A preliminary design study of the electronic packaging of the PPU has been completed at Lewis Research Center of NASA. This study evaluates designs meeting the competing requirements of low system weight and overall mission flexibility. These requirements are evaluated regarding structural and thermal design, electrical efficiency, and integration of the electrical circuits into a functional PPU layout.

  2. Energy efficiency and pollution control for thermal units in the Egyptian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said Abdel-wahab; Ismail, W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Energy conservation and environmental protection project (ECEP) is a Usaid sponsored project. Its main objective is to promote energy conservation and pollution protection in the egyptian industry through a group of demonstrated projects. One of the implemented activities is the boilers and furnaces tune-up program, which aims to increase energy efficiency and reduce pollution. To achieve this objective. (ECEP) distributed 100 electronic portable exhaust gas analyzers to cover eight industrial sectors at six different geographical locations in egypt. These analyzers were used to measure the contents of exhaust gases to help operators tune up their equipment on regular basis. The result is that the firing thermal units operate at the highest possible combustion efficiency to reduce the amount of fuel consumption as well as pollution emissions. The analyzer used measures two types of temperature, five different stack gases, draft and smoke density. moreover it computes the efficiency of combustion as well as Co2 and excess air percentage. Thermal units that rested by these analyzers were consuming a huge amount of fossil fuel from different types. The average combustion efficiency for thermal units tested was improved by 14%, 15% and 28% for boilers, furnaces and diesel respectively

  3. Thermal behavior of latent thermal energy storage unit using two phase change materials: Effects of HTF inlet temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouzi Benmoussa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a numerical study of the thermal behavior of shell-and-tube latent thermal energy storage (LTES unit using two phase change materials (PCMs. The heat transfer fluid (HTF flow through the inner tube and transfer the heat to PCMs. First, a mathematical model is developed based on the enthalpy formulation and solved through the governing equations. Second, the effects of HTF inlet temperature on the unsteady temperature evolution of PCMs, the total energy stored evolution as well as the total melting time is studied. Numerical results show that for all HTF inlet temperature, melting rate of PCM1 is the fastest and that of PCM2 is the slowest; increasing the HTF inlet temperature considerably increases the temperature evolution of PCMs. The maximum energy stored is observed in PCM2 with high melting temperature and high specific heat; heat storage capacity is large for high HTF inlet temperature. When the HTF inlet temperature increases from 338 K to 353 K, decreasing degree of melting time of PCM2 is the biggest from 1870 s to 490 s, which reduces about 73.8%; decreasing degree of melting time of PCM1 is the smallest from 530 s to 270 s, which reduces about 49.1%.

  4. Postmarket Requirements and Commitments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides information to the public on postmarket requirements and commitments. The phrase postmarket requirements and commitments refers to studies and clinical...

  5. Effect of unit size on thermal fatigue behavior of hot work steel repaired by a biomimetic laser remelting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Dalong; Li, Zhongsheng; He, Qingbing; Chen, Dajun; Chen, Hanbin; Yang, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong

    2018-01-01

    AISI H13 hot work steel with fatigue cracks was repaired by a biomimetic laser remelting (BLR) process in the form of lattice units with different sizes. Detailed microstructural studies and microhardness tests were carried out on the units. Studies revealed a mixed microstructure containing martensite, retained austenite and carbide particles with ultrafine grain size in units. BLR samples with defect-free units exhibited superior thermal fatigue resistance due to microstructure strengthening, and mechanisms of crack tip blunting and blocking. In addition, effects of unit size on thermal fatigue resistance of BLR samples were discussed.

  6. Career Commitment in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Diane L.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal, repeated-measures descriptive survey used to measure career commitment and its relationship to turnover and work performance in 320 newly employed registered nurses at one hospital found that career commitment is not a stable phenomenon. The direct association between career commitment and turnover and with job performance is weak.…

  7. Small Business Commitment | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Commitment Small Business Commitment Central to NREL's mission is our commitment to small business through a comprehensive and mature outreach program that combines proven techniques with the latest technology and best business practices. For More Information Contact Us Please email Rexann

  8. Practical Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunghi, T.; Kaniewski, J.; Bussières, F.; Houlmann, R.; Tomamichel, M.; Wehner, S.D.C.; Zbinden, H

    2015-01-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Alice wishes to commit a secret bit to Bob. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through an asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is, however, possible when Alice and

  9. Experience in connecting the power generating units of thermal power plants to automatic secondary frequency regulation within the united power system of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A. V.; Komarov, A. N.; Safronov, A. N.; Barsukov, I. V.

    2009-01-01

    The principles of central control of the power generating units of thermal power plants by automatic secondary frequency and active power overcurrent regulation systems, and the algorithms for interactions between automatic power control systems for the power production units in thermal power plants and centralized systems for automatic frequency and power regulation, are discussed. The order of switching the power generating units of thermal power plants over to control by a centralized system for automatic frequency and power regulation and by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation is presented. The results of full-scale system tests of the control of power generating units of the Kirishskaya, Stavropol, and Perm GRES (State Regional Electric Power Plants) by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation at the United Power System of Russia on September 23-25, 2008, are reported.

  10. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, L [ed.

    1985-09-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  11. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, L.

    1985-09-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures

  12. Startup of Pumping Units in Process Water Supplies with Cooling Towers at Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, V. V., E-mail: vberlin@rinet.ru; Murav’ev, O. A., E-mail: muraviov1954@mail.ru; Golubev, A. V., E-mail: electronik@inbox.ru [National Research University “Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Aspects of the startup of pumping units in the cooling and process water supply systems for thermal and nuclear power plants with cooling towers, the startup stages, and the limits imposed on the extreme parameters during transients are discussed.

  13. Analysis of Structural Units and Their Influence on Thermal Degradation of Alkali Lignins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Hua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical structures of four alkali lignins isolated from poplar, fir, straw, and bagasse were investigated. To explore the relationship between the structural units and the thermal decomposition behavior, the system was tested by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The results indicated that the carbon content of poplar lignin (PL was higher than that of others. Fir lignin (FL exhibited the highest guaiacol units, while the other three lignins were abundant in syringol units. The thermal decomposition characteristics and pyrolysis products of the four lignins were influenced by the material structural and composition. The DTG curves showed that the initial temperatures and major degradation temperatures of woody lignins(FL and PL) with complex inherent structures were shifted to the high temperature zoom compared with that of non-woody (BL and SL)lignins. Py-GC/MS analysis showed that guaiacol-type phenolic compounds were predominant pyrolysis products derived from the four lignins. The yield of guaiacol-type phenols could reach 82.87%. Moreover, the BL had selectively on phenol-type compounds with yield of 27.89%.

  14. RETRAN applications in pressurized thermal shock analysis of turkey point units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpa, J.; Fatemi, A.S.; Mathavan, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology to assess the impact of overcooling transients on vessel wall integrity with respect to pressurized thermal shock conditions has been developed at Florida Power and Light Company for the Turkey Point Nuclear Units. Small break loss-of-coolant and small steamline break events have been simulated with the RETRAN code. Highly conservative assumptions, such as engineered safeguards with minimum temperature and maximum flow, have been made to maximize cooldown and thermal stress in the vessel wall. Temperatures, pressures, and flows obtained with RETRAN provide input for stress and fracture mechanics analyses that evaluate reactor vessel integrity. The results of the RETRAN analyses compare well with generic calculations performed by the Westinghouse Owners Group for a similar type of plant

  15. Computer simulation with TRNSYS for a mobile refrigeration system incorporating a phase change thermal storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Saman, Wasim; Bruno, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A mobile refrigeration system incorporating phase change thermal storage was simulated using TRNSYS. • A TRNSYS component of a phase change thermal storage unit was created and linked to other components from TRNSYS library. • The temperature in the refrigerated space can be predicted using this TRNSYS model under various conditions. • A mobile refrigeration system incorporating PCM and an off-peak electric driven refrigeration unit is feasible. • The phase change material with the lowest melting temperature should be selected. - Abstract: This paper presents a new TRNSYS model of a refrigeration system incorporating phase change material (PCM) for mobile transport. The PCTSU is charged by an off-vehicle refrigeration unit and the PCM provides cooling when discharging and the cooling released is utilized to cool down the refrigerated space. The advantage of this refrigeration system compared to a conventional system is that it consumes less energy and produces significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. A refrigeration system for a typical refrigerated van is modelled and simulations are performed with climatic data from four different locations. The main components of the TRNSYS model are Type 88 (cooling load estimation) and Type 300 (new PCTSU component), accompanied by other additional components. The results show that in order to maintain the temperature of the products at −18 °C for 10 h, a total of 250 kg and 390 kg of PCM are required for no door opening and 20 door openings during the transportation, respectively. In addition, a parametric study is carried out to evaluate the effects of location, size of the refrigerated space, number of door openings and melting temperature of the PCM on the thermal performance

  16. Thermal response of a can handling unit (CHU) to a postulated plutonium hydride burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crea, B.A.; Heard, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    A series of analyses were performed to support the design of the Can Handling Unit (CHU). The subject analyses focused on determining the time to repressurize a subatmospheric storage can containing plutonium metal versus the initial hole size and the transient thermal response to a postulated chemical reaction of 150 grams of plutonium hydride. Limiting the amount of gaseous reactants either by inerting the CHU or using a very small hole size for the initial opening appears to be a viable method of controlling the rate of the exothermic chemical reactions and system temperatures

  17. Continuous grasp algorithm applied to economic dispatch problem of thermal units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna Neto, Julio Xavier [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Undergraduate Program at Mechatronics Engineering; Bernert, Diego Luis de Andrade; Coelho, Leandro dos Santos [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS], e-mail: leandro.coelho@pucpr.br

    2010-07-01

    The economic dispatch problem (EDP) is one of the fundamental issues in power systems to obtain benefits with the stability, reliability and security. Its objective is to allocate the power demand among committed generators in the most economical manner, while all physical and operational constraints are satisfied. The cost of power generation, particularly in fossil fuel plants, is very high and economic dispatch helps in saving a significant amount of revenue. Recently, as an alternative to the conventional mathematical approaches, modern heuristic optimization techniques such as simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, neural networks, ant colony, and tabu search have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution in EDPs. On other hand, continuous GRASP (C-GRASP) is a stochastic local search meta-heuristic for finding cost-efficient solutions to continuous global optimization problems subject to box constraints. Like a greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP), a C-GRASP is a multi-start procedure where a starting solution for local improvement is constructed in a greedy randomized fashion. The C-GRASP algorithm is validated for a test system consisting of fifteen units, test system that takes into account spinning reserve and prohibited operating zones constrains. (author)

  18. Optical Coating Performance and Thermal Structure Design for Heat Reflectors of JWST Electronic Control Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Manuel A.; Threat, Felix; Garrison, Matt; Perrygo, Chuck; Bousquet, Robert; Rashford, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) consists of an infrared-optimized Optical Telescope Element (OTE) that is cooled down to 40 degrees Kelvin. A second adjacent component to the OTE is the Integrated Science Instrument Module, or ISIM. This module includes the electronic compartment, which provides the mounting surfaces and ambient thermally controlled environment for the instrument control electronics. Dissipating the 200 watts generated from the ISIM structure away from the OTE is of paramount importance so that the spacecraft's own heat does not interfere with the infrared light detected from distant cosmic sources. This technical challenge is overcome by a thermal subsystem unit that provides passive cooling to the ISIM control electronics. The proposed design of this thermal radiator consists of a lightweight structure made out of composite materials and low-emittance metal coatings. In this paper, we will present characterizations of the coating emittance, bidirectional reflectance, and mechanical structure design that will affect the performance of this passive cooling system.

  19. Self-scheduling and bidding strategies of thermal units with stochastic emission constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laia, R.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Melíco, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The management of thermal power plants is considered for different emission allowance levels. • The uncertainty on electricity price is considered by a set of scenarios. • A stochastic MILP approach allows devising the bidding strategies and hedging against price uncertainty and emission allowances. - Abstract: This paper is on the self-scheduling problem for a thermal power producer taking part in a pool-based electricity market as a price-taker, having bilateral contracts and emission-constrained. An approach based on stochastic mixed-integer linear programming approach is proposed for solving the self-scheduling problem. Uncertainty regarding electricity price is considered through a set of scenarios computed by simulation and scenario-reduction. Thermal units are modelled by variable costs, start-up costs and technical operating constraints, such as: forbidden operating zones, ramp up/down limits and minimum up/down time limits. A requirement on emission allowances to mitigate carbon footprint is modelled by a stochastic constraint. Supply functions for different emission allowance levels are accessed in order to establish the optimal bidding strategy. A case study is presented to illustrate the usefulness and the proficiency of the proposed approach in supporting biding strategies

  20. Nuclear thermal source transfer unit, post-blast soil sample drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, Ralph S.; Valencia, Matthew J

    2017-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory states that its mission is ''To solve national security challenges through scientific excellence.'' The Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) programs exists to engage undergraduate students in STEM work by providing opportunity to work at DOE facilities. As an undergraduate mechanical engineering intern under the SULI program at Los Alamos during the fall semester of 2016, I had the opportunity to contribute to the mission of the Laboratory while developing skills in a STEM discipline. I worked with Technology Applications, an engineering group that supports non-proliferation, counter terrorism, and emergency response missions. This group specializes in tool design, weapons engineering, rapid prototyping, and mission training. I assisted with two major projects during my appointment Los Alamos. The first was a thermal source transportation unit, intended to safely contain a nuclear thermal source during transit. The second was a soil drying unit for use in nuclear postblast field sample collection. These projects have given me invaluable experience working alongside a team of professional engineers. Skills developed include modeling, simulation, group design, product and system design, and product testing.

  1. Nuclear thermal source transfer unit, post-blast soil sample drying system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ralph S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Valencia, Matthew J [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-03

    Los Alamos National Laboratory states that its mission is “To solve national security challenges through scientific excellence.” The Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) programs exists to engage undergraduate students in STEM work by providing opportunity to work at DOE facilities. As an undergraduate mechanical engineering intern under the SULI program at Los Alamos during the fall semester of 2016, I had the opportunity to contribute to the mission of the Laboratory while developing skills in a STEM discipline. I worked with Technology Applications, an engineering group that supports non-proliferation, counter terrorism, and emergency response missions. This group specializes in tool design, weapons engineering, rapid prototyping, and mission training. I assisted with two major projects during my appointment Los Alamos. The first was a thermal source transportation unit, intended to safely contain a nuclear thermal source during transit. The second was a soil drying unit for use in nuclear postblast field sample collection. These projects have given me invaluable experience working alongside a team of professional engineers. Skills developed include modeling, simulation, group design, product and system design, and product testing.

  2. Evaluation of thermal and photovoltaic solar systems in agricultural production units, Northern Huetar Region, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás de Jesús Guzmán Hernández

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dependence on fossil fuels urges society to seek for clean energy alternatives, in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of solar energy used for water heating and electricity generation. The study was conducted at the dairy of the Technology Institute of Costa Rica, San Carlos Headquarter, from May 15 to April 2016. The data related to the amount of the electricity produced and the temperature reached by water was obtained from the installed photovoltaic and thermal systems, the data was recorded by a computerized register. The obtained information about electricity production allowed researchers to calculate the amount of carbon dioxide equivalent that was not emitted into the atmosphere, and also the acquired economic saving on consumption. The use of these systems allowed the production unit have a self- sufficient source of electrical energy percentage, actually around 30 to 40% of the total electrical consumption. According to the energy production, the solar thermal system was capable to increase water temperature between 20 to 37 °C, temperature that represents more than 70% of the energy needed in order to reach the required water temperature (70 °C for cleaning and sanitizing the milking equipment, and also an economical saving around $90 per month was achieved. The results showed that these systems allow to improve the economical and productive efficiency of agricultural production units in the Northern Huetar Region of Costa Rica.

  3. Thermal and economical optimization of air conditioning units with vapor compression refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanaye, S.; Malekmohammadi, H.R. [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-09-01

    A new method of thermal and economical optimum design of air conditioning units with vapor compression refrigeration system, is presented. Such a system includes compressor, condenser, evaporator, centrifugal and axial fans. Evaporator and condenser temperatures, their heating surface areas (frontal surface area and number of tubes), centrifugal and axial fan powers, and compressor power are among the design variables. The data provided by manufacturers for fan (volume flow rate versus pressure drop) and compressor power (using evaporator and condenser temperatures) was used to choose these components directly from available data for consumers. To study the performance of the system under various situations, and implementing the optimization procedure, a simulation program including all thermal and geometrical parameters was developed. The objective function for optimization was the total cost per unit cooling load of the system including capital investment for components as well as the required electricity cost. To find the system design parameters, this objective function was minimized by Lagrange multipliers method. The effects of changing the cooling load on optimal design parameters were studied. (author)

  4. Assessment of optical performance of three non-tracking, non-imaging, external compound parabolic concentrators designed for high temperature solar thermal collector units

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to perform a preliminary optical assessment of the external compound parabolic concentrator (XCPC) component in three concentrating solar thermal units. Each solar thermal unit consists an optical element (the non-imaging concentrating reflector) and a thermal element (the evacuated glass tube solar absorber). The three concentrating solar thermal units discussed in this work are DEWAR 58, a direct flow all-glass dewar, DEWAR 47 an indirect flow ...

  5. Color photographic index of fall Chinook salmon embryonic development and accumulated thermal units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Boyd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the relationship between accumulated thermal units and developmental stages of Chinook salmon embryos can be used to determine the approximate date of egg fertilization in natural redds, thus providing insight into oviposition timing of wild salmonids. However, few studies have documented time to different developmental stages of embryonic Chinook salmon and no reference color photographs are available. The objectives of this study were to construct an index relating developmental stages of hatchery-reared fall Chinook salmon embryos to time and temperature (e.g., degree days and provide high-quality color photographs of each identified developmental stage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fall Chinook salmon eggs were fertilized in a hatchery environment and sampled approximately every 72 h post-fertilization until 50% hatch. Known embryonic developmental features described for sockeye salmon were used to describe development of Chinook salmon embryos. A thermal sums model was used to describe the relationship between embryonic development rate and water temperature. Mean water temperature was 8.0 degrees C (range; 3.9-11.7 degrees C during the study period. Nineteen stages of embryonic development were identified for fall Chinook salmon; two stages in the cleavage phase, one stage in the gastrulation phase, and sixteen stages in the organogenesis phase. The thermal sums model used in this study provided similar estimates of fall Chinook salmon embryonic development rate in water temperatures varying from 3.9-11.7 degrees C (mean=8 degrees C to those from several other studies rearing embryos in constant 8 degrees C water temperature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The developmental index provides a reasonable description of timing to known developmental stages of Chinook salmon embryos and was useful in determining developmental stages of wild fall Chinook salmon embryos excavated from redds in the Columbia River. This index

  6. The energy efficiency ratio of heat storage in one shell-and-one tube phase change thermal energy storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Liang-Bi; He, Ya-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A parameter to indicate the energy efficiency ratio of PCTES units is defined. • The characteristics of the energy efficiency ratio of PCTES units are reported. • A combined parameter of the physical properties of the working mediums is found. • Some implications of the energy efficiency ratio in design of PCTES units are analyzed. - Abstract: From aspect of energy consuming to pump heat transfer fluid, there is no sound basis on which to create an optimum design of a thermal energy storage unit. Thus, it is necessary to develop a parameter to indicate the energy efficiency of such unit. This paper firstly defines a parameter that indicates the ratio of heat storage of phase change thermal energy storage unit to energy consumed in pumping heat transfer fluid, which is called the energy efficiency ratio, then numerically investigates the characteristics of this parameter. The results show that the energy efficiency ratio can clearly indicate the energy efficiency of a phase change thermal energy storage unit. When the fluid flow of a heat transfer fluid is in a laminar state, the energy efficiency ratio is larger than in a turbulent state. The energy efficiency ratio of a shell-and-tube phase change thermal energy storage unit is more sensitive to the outer tube diameter. Under the same working conditions, within the heat transfer fluids studied, the heat storage property of the phase change thermal energy storage unit is best for water as heat transfer fluid. A combined parameter is found to indicate the effects of both the physical properties of phase change material and heat transfer fluid on the energy efficiency ratio

  7. Analytical solutions for evaluating the thermal performances of wet air cooling coils under both unit and non-unit Lewis Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liang; Chan, M.Y.; Deng, S.M.; Xu, X.G.

    2010-01-01

    Analytical solutions for evaluating the thermal performances of both chilled water wet cooling coils and direct expansion (DX) wet cooling coils, respectively, under both unit and non-unit Lewis Factors are developed and reported in this paper. The analytical solution was validated by comparing its predictions with those from numerically solving the fundamental governing equations of heat and mass transfer taking place in a wet cooling coil. With the analytical solutions, the distributions of air temperature and humidity ratio along air flow direction in a wet cooling coil can be predicted, and the differences in the thermal performances of the cooling coils under both unit and non-unit Lewis Factors can be identified. The analytical solutions, on one hand, can be a low-cost replacement to numerically solving the fundamental heat and mass transfer governing equations, and on the other hand, is able to deal with evaluating thermal performance for wet air cooling coils operated under both unit and non-unit Lewis Factors.

  8. Commitment Without Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne; Elliott, Sinikka; Umberson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The majority of Americans will marry in their lifetimes, and for many, marriage symbolizes the transition into long-term commitment. However, many Americans cannot legally marry. This article analyzes in-depth interviews with gays and lesbians in long-term partnerships to examine union formation and commitment-making histories. Using a life course perspective that emphasizes historical and biographical contexts, the authors examine how couples conceptualize and form committed relationships despite being denied the right to marry. Although previous studies suggest that commitment ceremonies are a way to form same-sex unions, this study finds that because of their unique social, historical, and biographical relationship to marriage and ceremonies, long-term same-sex couples do not follow normative commitment-making trajectories. Instead, relationships can transition more ambiguously to committed formations without marriage, public ceremony, clear-cut act, or decision. Such an understanding of commitment making outside of marriage has implications for theorizing alternative forms of union making. PMID:21814298

  9. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor accident with THALES code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kazuichiro; Soda, Kunihisa

    1991-10-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has established a Task Group in the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) to perform an analysis of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident as a standard problem to benchmark severe accident computer codes and to assess the capability of the codes. The TMI-2 Analysis Exercise was performed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) using the THALES (Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant, Emergency Core Cooling and Severe Core Damage) - PM1/TMI code. The purpose of the analysis is to verify the capability of THALES-PM1/TMI code to describe accident progression in the actual plant. The present paper describes the final result of the TMI-2 Analysis Exercise performed at JAERI. (author)

  10. Program THEK energy production units of average power and using thermal conversion of solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    General studies undertaken by the C.N.R.S. in the field of solar power plants have generated the problem of building energy production units in the medium range of electrical power, in the order of 100 kW. Among the possible solutions, the principle of the use of distributed heliothermal converters has been selected as being, with the current status of things, the most advantageous solution. This principle consists of obtaining the conversion of concentrated radiation into heat by using a series of heliothermal conversion modules scattered over the ground; the produced heat is collected by a heat-carrying fluid circulating inside a thermal loop leading to a device for both regulation and storage.

  11. Research on optimization of combustion efficiency of thermal power unit based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongyang

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve the economic performance and reduce pollutant emissions of thermal power units, the characteristics of neural network in establishing boiler combustion model are analyzed based on the analysis of the main factors affecting boiler efficiency by using orthogonal method. In addition, on the basis of this model, the genetic algorithm is used to find the best control amount of the furnace combustion in a certain working condition. Through the genetic algorithm based on real number encoding and roulette selection is concluded: the best control quantity at a condition of furnace combustion can be combined with the boiler combustion system model for neural network training. The precision of the neural network model is further improved, and the basic work is laid for the research of the whole boiler combustion optimization system.

  12. Development of the NSSS thermal-hydraulic program for YGN unit 1 simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Doo; Jeong, Jae Jun; Lee, Won Jae; Chung, Bub Dong; Ha, Kwi Seok; Kang, Kyung Ho

    2000-09-01

    The NSSS thermal-hydraulic programs installed in the domestic full-scope power plant simulators were provided in early 1980s by foreign vendors. Because of limited computational capability at that time, they usually adopt very simplified physical models for a real-time simulation of NSSS thermal-hydraulic phenomena, which entails inaccurate results and the possibility of so-called 'negative training', especially for complicated two-phase flows in the reactor coolant system. To resolve the problem, we developed a realistic NSSS T/H program (named 'ARTS' code) for use in YongGwang Nuclear Unit 1 full-scope simulator. The best-estimate code RETRAN03, developed by EPRI and approved by USNRC, was selected as a reference code of ARTS. For the development of ARTS, the followings have been performed: -Improvement of the robustness of RETRAN - Improvement of the real-time simulation capability of RETRAN - Optimum input data generation for the NSSS simulation - New model development that cannot be efficiently modeled by RETRAN - Assessment of the ARTS code. The systematic assessment of ARTS has been conducted in both personal computers (Windows 98, Visual fortran) and the simulator development environment (Windows NT, GSE simulator development tool). The results were resonable in terms of accuracy, real-time simulation and robustness.

  13. A warm thermal enclave in the late Pleistocene of the south-eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dale A; Rich, Fredrick J; Schneider, Vincent; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean

    2009-05-01

    Physical and biological evidence supports the probable existence of an enclave of relatively warm climate located between the Southern Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean in the United States during the Last Glacial Maximum. The region supported a mosaic of forest and prairie habitats inhabited by a "Floridian" ice-age biota. Plant and vertebrate remains suggest an ecological gradient towards Cape Hatteras (35 degreesN) wherein forests tended to replace prairies, and browsing proboscideans tended to replace grazing proboscideans. Beyond 35 degreesN, warm waters of the Gulf Stream were deflected towards the central Atlantic, and a cold-facies biota replaced "Floridian" biota on the Atlantic coastal plain. Because of niche diversity and relatively benign climate, biodiversity may have been greater in the south-eastern thermal enclave than in other unglaciated areas of North America. However, the impact of terminal Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions may also have been shorter and more severe in the enclave than further north. A comparison with biotic changes that occurred in North America approximately 55 million years (ma) ago at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum suggests that similar processes of change took place under both ice-house and greenhouse climates.

  14. Development of the NSSS thermal-hydraulic program for YGN unit 1 simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Doo; Jeong, Jae Jun; Lee, Won Jae; Chung, Bub Dong; Ha, Kwi Seok; Kang, Kyung Ho

    2000-09-01

    The NSSS thermal-hydraulic programs installed in the domestic full-scope power plant simulators were provided in early 1980s by foreign vendors. Because of limited computational capability at that time, they usually adopt very simplified physical models for a real-time simulation of NSSS thermal-hydraulic phenomena, which entails inaccurate results and the possibility of so-called 'negative training', especially for complicated two-phase flows in the reactor coolant system. To resolve the problem, we developed a realistic NSSS T/H program (named 'ARTS' code) for use in YongGwang Nuclear Unit 1 full-scope simulator. The best-estimate code RETRAN03, developed by EPRI and approved by USNRC, was selected as a reference code of ARTS. For the development of ARTS, the followings have been performed: -Improvement of the robustness of RETRAN - Improvement of the real-time simulation capability of RETRAN - Optimum input data generation for the NSSS simulation - New model development that cannot be efficiently modeled by RETRAN - Assessment of the ARTS code. The systematic assessment of ARTS has been conducted in both personal computers (Windows 98, Visual fortran) and the simulator development environment (Windows NT, GSE simulator development tool). The results were resonable in terms of accuracy, real-time simulation and robustness

  15. Lead-Bismuth Eutectic cooled experimental Accelerator Driven System. Windowless target unit thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, F.; Ferri, R.; Moreau, V.

    2004-01-01

    A main concern related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy is the safe management of nuclear wastes, with particular attention to long-lived fission products. An increasing attention has recently been addressed to transmutation systems (Accelerator Driven System: ADS) able to 'burn' the actinides and some of the long-lived fission products (High-Level Waste: HLW), transforming them in short or medium-lived wastes that may be easier managed and stored in the geological disposal, with the consequent easier acceptability by population. An ADS consists of a subcritical-core coupled with an accelerator by means of a target. This paper deals with the thermal-hydraulic analysis, performed with STAR-CD and RELAP5 codes for the windowless target unit of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) cooled experimental ADS (XADS), both to assess its behaviour during operational and accident sequences and to provide input data for the thermal-mechanical analyses. It also reports a description of modifications properly implemented in the codes used for the assessment of this kind of plants. (author)

  16. Ring thermal shield piping modification at Pickering Nuclear Generating Station 'A' Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.; Cobanoglu, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Each of the four Pickering Nuclear Generating Station A (PNGSA) CANDU units was constructed with its reactor and dump tank surrounded by a concrete Calandria Vault (CV). The Ring Thermal Shield (RTS) system at PNGSA units is a water cooled structure with internal cooling channels with the purpose of attenuating excessive heat flux from the calandria shell to the end shield rings and adjoining concrete (Figure 1). In newer CANDU units the reactor calandria vessel is surrounded by a large water filled shield tank which eliminates the requirement for the RTS system. The RTS structures are situated in the space between the calandria and the vault walls. Each RTS is assembled from eight flat sided carbon steel segments, tilted towards the calandria and supported from the end shield rings. Cooling water to the RTS is supplied by carbon steel cooling pipes with a portion of the pipe run embedded in the vault walls. Flow through each RTS is divided into two independent circuits, having an inlet and an outlet cooling line. There are four locations of RTS inlet and outlet cooling lines. The inlet lines are located at the bottom and the outlet lines at the top of the RTS. The 'L' shaped section of RTS inlet and outlet cooling lines, from the RTS waterbox to the start of embedded portion at the concrete wall, had become defective due to corrosion induced by excessive Moisture levels in the calandria vaults. An on-line leak sealing capability was developed and placed in service in all four PNGSA units. However, a leak found during the 1994 Unit 1 outage was too large,to seal with the current capability, forcing Ontario Hydro (OH) to develop a method to replace the corroded pipes. The repair project was subject to some lofty performance targets. All tools had to be able to withstand dose rates of up to 3000 Rem/hour. These tools, along with procedures and personnel had to successfully repair the RTS system within 6 months otherwise a costly outage extension would result. This

  17. DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A.; Pirie, D.; Horton, K.; Garbeil, H.; Pilger, E.; Ramm, H.; Hoblitt, R.; Thornber, C.; Ripepe, M.; Marchetti, E.; Poggi, P.

    2005-01-01

    During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ???US$10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican??? cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1?? field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60?? FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican???-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ???3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1?? and 15?? FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US$5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units

  18. DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew; Pirie, Dawn; Horton, Keith; Garbeil, Harold; Pilger, Eric; Ramm, Hans; Hoblitt, Rick; Thornber, Carl; Ripepe, Maurizio; Marchetti, Emanuele; Poggi, Pasquale

    2005-05-01

    During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ˜US10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican™ cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1° field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60° FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican™-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ˜3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1° and 15° FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units

  19. 48 CFR 750.7106-4 - Informal commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foreign policy interests of the United States by assuring persons that they will be treated fairly and... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS Extraordinary Contractual Actions To Protect Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7106-4 Informal commitments. Informal commitments may be...

  20. Alzheimer's: From Caring to Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Home Current issue contents Alzheimer's: From Caring to Commitment From Caring to Commitment ... Caring to Commitment During her sister’s battle with Alzheimer’s, Anne Murphy stayed by her side and continues ...

  1. Experimental investigation of novel indirect solar cooker with indoor PCM thermal storage and cooking unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H.M.S.; El-Ghetany, H.H.; Nada, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, a novel indirect solar cooker with outdoor elliptical cross section, wickless heat pipes, flat-plate solar collector and integrated indoor PCM thermal storage and cooking unit is designed, constructed and tested under actual meteorological conditions of Giza, Egypt. Two plane reflectors are used to enhance the insolation falling on the cooker's collector, while magnesium nitrate hexahydrate (T m = 89 deg. C, latent heat of fusion 134 kJ/kg) is used as the PCM inside the indoor cooking unit of the cooker. It is found that the average daily enhancement in the solar radiation incident on the collector surface by the south and north facing reflectors is about 24%. Different experiments have been performed on the solar cooker without load and with different loads at different loading times to study the possibility of benefit from the virtues of the elliptical cross section wickless heat pipes and PCMs in indirect solar cookers to cook food at noon and evening and to keep food warm at night and in early morning. The results indicate that the present solar cooker can be used successfully for cooking different kinds of meals at noon, afternoon and evening times, while it can be used for heating or keeping meals hot at night and early morning

  2. Third age university, social and institucional commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Moritz da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article brings reflections on the social commitment of permanent education programs for the elderly, at the universities, in the face of their institutional commitment to the plans. It was possible to rescue the responsibility concepts, social commitment and identify the elderly in the university, within the federal legislation, through bibliographical and documentary research. There was a survey of permanent education programs with at least 20 years, in 2016. It was carried out for the elderly in the 63 Brazilian Federal, and Public Universities and 17 cases were found. Thus, nine Pro-Rectors of Extension and a Unit Director accepted to participate in interviews by Skype or telephone, in the second semester of 2016, fulfilling the objective of describing the university authorities’ vision on the type of institutional support for such programs’ operation. Although it is possible to realize their relevance to the environment and the university, the institutional commitment is still far short of what is necessary.

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE ECO LOGIC THERMAL DESORPTION UNIT - MIDDLEGROUND LANDFILL - BAY CITY, MI - ELI ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECO Logic has developed a thermal desorption unit 0"DU) for the treatment of soils contaminated with hazardous organic contaminants. This TDU has been designed to be used in conjunction with Eco Logic's patented gas-phase chemical reduction reactor. The Eco Logic reactor is the s...

  4. Synthesis, Structure, and Rigid Unit Mode-like Anisotropic Thermal Expansion of BaIr2In9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calta, Nicholas P; Han, Fei; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2015-09-08

    This Article reports the synthesis of large single crystals of BaIr2In9 using In flux and their characterization by variable-temperature single-crystal and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, resistivity, and magnetization measurements. The title compound adopts the BaFe2Al9-type structure in the space group P6/mmm with room temperature unit cell parameters a = 8.8548(6) Å and c = 4.2696(4) Å. BaIr2In9 exhibits anisotropic thermal expansion behavior with linear expansion along the c axis more than 3 times larger than expansion in the ab plane between 90 and 400 K. This anisotropic expansion originates from a rigid unit mode-like mechanism similar to the mechanism of zero and negative thermal expansion observed in many anomalous thermal expansion materials such as ZrW2O8 and ScF3.

  5. Numerical modelling and experimental studies of thermal behaviour of building integrated thermal energy storage unit in a form of a ceiling panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworski, Maciej; Łapka, Piotr; Furmański, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concept of heat storage in ventilation ducts is described. • Ceiling panel as a part of ventilation system is made of a composite with PCM. • A set-up for experimental investigation of heat storage unit was built. • Numerical model of heat transfer in the storage unit was developed. • Numerical code was validated on the base of experimental measurements. - Abstract: Objective: The paper presents a new concept of building integrated thermal energy storage unit and novel mathematical and numerical models of its operation. This building element is made of gypsum based composite with microencapsulated PCM. The proposed heat storage unit has a form of a ceiling panel with internal channels and is, by assumption, incorporated in a ventilation system. Its task is to reduce daily variations of ambient air temperature through the absorption (and subsequent release) of heat in PCM, without additional consumption of energy. Methods: The operation of the ceiling panel was investigated experimentally on a special set-up equipped with temperature sensors, air flow meter and air temperature control system. Mathematical and numerical models of heat transfer and fluid flow in the panel account for air flow in the panel as well as real thermal properties of the PCM composite, i.e.: thermal conductivity variation with temperature and hysteresis of enthalpy vs. temperature curves for heating and cooling. Proposed novel numerical simulator consists of two strongly coupled sub models: the first one – 1D – which deals with air flowing through the U-shaped channel and the second one – 3D – which deals with heat transfer in the body of the panel. Results: Spatial and temporal air temperature variations, measured on the experimental set-up, were used to validate numerical model as well as to get knowledge of thermal performance of the panel operating in different conditions. Conclusion: Preliminary results of experimental tests confirmed the ability of

  6. Multi-criteria sustainability analysis of thermal power plant Kolubara-A Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Škobalj, P.; Kijevčanin, M.; Afgan, N.; Jovanović, M.; Turanjanin, V.; Vučićević, B.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a possible approach for creating business decisions based on multi-criteria analysis. Seven options for a possible revitalization of the thermal power plant “Kolubara”-A Unit No. 2 with energy indicators of sustainable development (EISD) are presented in this paper. The chosen EISD numerically express the essential features of the analyzed options, while the sustainability criteria indicate the option quality within the limits of these indicators. In this paper, the criteria for assessing the sustainability options are defined based on several aspects: economic, social, environmental and technological. In the process of assessing the sustainability of the considered options the Analysis and Synthesis of Parameters under Information Deficiency (ASPID) method was used. In this paper, the EISD show that production and energy consumption are closely linked to economic, environmental and other indicators, such as economic and technological development of local communities with employment being one of the most important social parameter. Multi-criteria analysis for the case study of the TPP “Kolubara”-A clearly indicated recommendations to decision makers on the choice of the best available options in dependence on the energy policy. - Highlights: • Options for sustainable generation of electricity have been proposed. • Energy Indicators of Sustainable Development have been formed. • ASPID methodology has been implemented.

  7. Trial production of ceramic heat storage unit and study on thermal properties and thermal characteristics of the heat storage unit. Mixed salts of Na2CO3, MgCl2 and CaCl2 as heat storage medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki

    1998-12-01

    Heat storage technique of high temperature and high density latent heat can be applied to an accumulator of heat generated by nuclear power plant in the night and to a thermal load absorber. For the practical use of the heat storage technique, it is important to improve heat exchange characteristics between heat storage medium, such as molten salts, and heat transfer fluid because of low thermal conductivity of the molten salts, to improve durability among molten salt and structure materials and to develop the molten salt with stable thermal properties for a long period. Considering the possibility for the improvement of heat exchange characteristics of phase change heat storage system by absorbing molten salt in porous ceramics with high thermal conductivity, high temperature proof and high resistance to corrosion, several samples of the ceramics heat storage unit were made. Basic characteristics of the samples (strength, thermal properties, temperature characteristics during phase change) were measured experimentally and analytically to study the utility and applicability of the samples for the heat storage system. The results show that the heat storage unit should be used in inactive gas condition because water in the air absorbed in the molten salts would yield degeneration of properties and deterioration of strength and that operation temperature should be confined near fusion temperature because some molten salts would be vaporized and mass would be decreased in considerable high temperature. The results also show that when atmospheric temperature changes around the melting temperature, change in ceramic temperature becomes small. This result suggests the possibility that ceramic heat storage unit could be used as thermal load absorber. (J.P.N.)

  8. The Fold of Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raastrup Kristensen, Anders; Pedersen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper serves two purposes. First, a rereading of Douglas McGregor’s An uneasy look at performance appraisal serves to show how McGregor’s conceptualization of commitment as a question of integrating personal goals with organizational purpose has helped shape founding the modern understanding...

  9. Employee organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Života

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of research on organizational commitment as a type of attitudes that show the identification level of employees with their organizations and their willingness to leave them. The research has been conducted with intention to determine the level of organizational commitment on the territory of Novi Sad, as well as to question whether there is a difference between certain categories of examinees for each commitment base. The research comprised 237 examinees employed in organizations on the territory of Novi Sad. Status of independent variables have gained: gender, years of working experience, educational level, working experience in one or more organizations and estimation of level of personal potentials utility. The questionnaire used is taken from the Greenberg and Baron's 'Behaviour in Organizations', p. 170, done according to set of questions by Meyer and Allen, in 1991. The data have been worked on by calculating arithmetic mean, and by application of Pearson Chi-square test. The results have shown that there is a below average level of organizational (AS=2.88, with the most intensive continual (AS=3.23, and the least intensive normative organizational dedication (AS=2.41. The gender of examinees does not represent relevant source of differences in the levels of each type of three mentioned commitment. Years of working experience and level of educational attainment represent a significant source of differences for continual (YWE: Pearson Chi-square = 30,38; df = 8; p = .000 (LEA: Pearson Chi-square = 7,381; df = 2; p = .05 and normative (YWE: Pearson Chi- square = 20,67; df = 8; p = .000 (LEA: Pearson Chi-square = 10,79; df = 2; p = .00 base of commitment. Work in one or more organizations has shown as a significant source of differences in the level of continual commitment (Pearson Chi-square = 7, 59; df = 2; p = .05. The level of affective commitment is statistically significantly related only to the estimation

  10. Affective Commitment among Student Affairs Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…

  11. From controlled to committed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, J C

    1996-02-01

    Most of us agree that people are our most important resource. Yet we spend a minimal amount of time learning more about human behavior, communication, and how our attitudes and behavior impact employee performance. Instead we rely on traditional methods of negative reinforcement in an attempt to control our areas of responsibility. While these methods can render some short-term success, managers and organizations that succeed during these times of change and fierce competition will be those that take the time to understand and capture the power of a committed workforce. The committed workforce is energized, not simply compliant, as a result of having basic human needs for achievement satisfied, belonging to a group, and receiving recognition for its contributions. Committed workers typically describe the manager as one who has the ability to give them a great degree of control over their area of influence. We all know that we don't change our leadership style like we change clothes. Old habits die hard. it takes a personal commitment and lots of practice to rid outselves of habits and behavior that no longer serve our departments and facilities. This commitment, however, is crucial to survival. As managers, we must cope with increasing ambiguity and uncertainty in the workplace. To survive these challenges, we must improve our interpersonal skills and ability to successfully bring out the best in others. I believe that success will continue for managers who not only increase their knowledge and technical ability, but who also inspire their workers to move forward with a collective sense of enthusiasm and purpose.

  12. A simplistic analytical unit cell based model for the effective thermal conductivity of high porosity open-cell metal foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X H; Kuang, J J; Lu, T J; Han, F S; Kim, T

    2013-01-01

    We present a simplistic yet accurate analytical model for the effective thermal conductivity of high porosity open-cell metal foams saturated in a low conducting fluid (air). The model is derived analytically based on a realistic representative unit cell (a tetrakaidecahedron) under the assumption of one-dimensional heat conduction along highly tortuous-conducting ligaments at high porosity ranges (ε ⩾ 0.9). Good agreement with existing experimental data suggests that heat conduction along highly conducting and tortuous ligaments predominantly defines the effective thermal conductivity of open-cell metal foams with negligible conduction in parallel through the fluid phase. (paper)

  13. Percolation cooling of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 lower head by way of thermal cracking and gap formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    Two partial models have been developed to elucidate the Three Mile Island Unit 2 lower head coolability by water percolation from above into the thermally cracking debris bed and into a gap between the debris and the wall The bulk permeability of the cracked top crust is estimated based on simple...... fracture mechanics and application of Poiseuille's law to the fractures. The gap is considered as an abstraction representing an initially rugged interface, which probably expanded by thermal deformation and cracking in connection with the water ingress. The coupled flow and heat conduction problem...

  14. Factors influencing job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Liana M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influencing job satisfaction and the perspective of frontline medical imaging staff in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The sample consisted of 359 registered radiologic technologists who were working as staff technologists in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The results of the study suggest that satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators influences overall satisfaction with the work environment and job and commitment to the employer.

  15. Impact of thermal power generation units on floristic diversity of Kota and its environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Shuchita; Dadhich, K.

    2001-01-01

    The emissions from thermal power plants have great phytotoxic effects on plants due to changes in their morphology and physiology. A floristic study has been conducted near the Thermal Power Station at Kota in Rajasthan to estimate the impact of emissions from the thermal power plant on biota. It is observed that the whole vegetation, especially the perennial trees and shrubs, growing near the station were severely damaged due to effects of air pollutants emitted from the Thermal Power Station. Analysis of the fly ash reveals its composition as composed of silica, alumina, iron oxide etc. (author)

  16. Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

  17. Canada's commitment to nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Murray J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives a broad update on all facets of the Canadian nuclear industry and demonstrates Canada's continuing commitment to nuclear technology. Canada has developed a global leadership position in nuclear technology for power generation, uranium production and isotope supply. This commitment is being further enhanced by successes in international markets with Candu technology, new uranium mine developments in our province of Saskatchewan, and expanding isotope capabilities including the construction of two new production reactors. Korea's economy is benefiting through collaboration with Canada's leading nuclear companies, both in Korea and Canada. These collaborations have the potential to expand considerably with the implementation of the Kyoto Framework Convention on Climate Change and the anticipated increased demand for new nuclear power generation installations in all major global markets. Much has been publicized about the situation surrounding Ontario Hydro Nuclear and its nuclear recovery program. This paper gives the background and highlights the actions within Ontario and Ontario Hydro designed to ensure the long term recovery of all twenty nuclear units in Ontario. The presentation at the conference will bring the audience completely up-to-date on recent events. (author)

  18. Sustainability Marketing Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...... took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability......Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...

  19. Preliminary thermal/hydraulic sizing calculations for duplex tube evaporator/superheater (interchangeable units). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waszink, R.P.; Hwang, J.Y.; Efferding, L.E.

    1974-06-01

    This is a preliminry thermal/hydraulic report reflecting work under Subtask 6.2 of Ref. 1.1. This report is an extension of the previous thermal/hydraulic design report. Parts of this report have been transmitted to GE. The detailed design basis, listed by source, is given. Additional details are discussed

  20. A basic study on Thermosyphon-type thermal storage unit (TSU) using Nanofluid as the heat transfer medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang-Fei; Wang, Ping-Yang; Liu, Zhen-hua

    2017-11-01

    This study proposed a novel thermosyphon-type thermal storage unit using water-based CuO nanofluid as the phase-change heat transfer medium. Seven tubular canisters containing solid-liquid phase-change material (PCM) with peak melting temperature of 100 °C were placed vertically into the center of the TSU which is a vertical cylindrical vessel made of stainless steel. Coat formed by depositing nanoparticles during the phase-change process was adopted to increase the wettability of the heat transfer surfaces of the canisters. We investigated the phase-change heat transfer, as well as the heat-storage and heat-release properties, of the TSU through experimental and computational analysis. Our results demonstrate that this thermal storage unit construction can propose good heat transfer and heat-storage/heat-release performance. The coating of nanoparticles onto the heat transfer surfaces increases the surface wettability and improves both the evaporation and condensation heat transfer. The main thermal resistance in the TSU results from the conductive heat transfer inside of the PCM. All phase-change thermal resistance of liquid film in charging and discharging processes can be ignored in this TSU.

  1. A basic study on Thermosyphon-type thermal storage unit (TSU) using Nanofluid as the heat transfer medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang-Fei; Wang, Ping-Yang; Liu, Zhen-hua

    2018-05-01

    This study proposed a novel thermosyphon-type thermal storage unit using water-based CuO nanofluid as the phase-change heat transfer medium. Seven tubular canisters containing solid-liquid phase-change material (PCM) with peak melting temperature of 100 °C were placed vertically into the center of the TSU which is a vertical cylindrical vessel made of stainless steel. Coat formed by depositing nanoparticles during the phase-change process was adopted to increase the wettability of the heat transfer surfaces of the canisters. We investigated the phase-change heat transfer, as well as the heat-storage and heat-release properties, of the TSU through experimental and computational analysis. Our results demonstrate that this thermal storage unit construction can propose good heat transfer and heat-storage/heat-release performance. The coating of nanoparticles onto the heat transfer surfaces increases the surface wettability and improves both the evaporation and condensation heat transfer. The main thermal resistance in the TSU results from the conductive heat transfer inside of the PCM. All phase-change thermal resistance of liquid film in charging and discharging processes can be ignored in this TSU.

  2. The thermal fatigue resistance of vermicular cast iron coupling with H13 steel units by cast-in process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chengtao; Zhou, Hong; Lin, Peng Yu; Sun, Na; Guo, Qingchun; Zhang, Peng; Yu, Jiaxiang; Liu, Yan; Wang, Mingxing; Ren, Luquan

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on improving the thermal fatigue resistance on the surface of vermicular cast iron coupling with inserted H13 steel blocks that had different cross sections, by cast-in processing. The microstructure of bionic units was examined by scanning electron microscope. Micro-hardness and thermal fatigue resistance of bionic samples with varied cross sections and spacings were investigated, respectively. Results show that a marked metallurgical bonding zone was produced at interface between the inserted H13 steel block and the parent material - a unique feature of the bionic structure in the vermicular cast iron samples. The micro-hardness of the bionic samples has been significantly improved. Thermal resistance of the samples with the circular cross section was the highest and the bionics sample with spacing of 2 mm spacing had a much longer thermal fatigue life, thus resulting in the improvement for the thermal fatigue life of the bionic samples, due to the efficient preclusion for the generation and propagation of crack at the interface of H13 block and the matrix.

  3. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lindberg@abo.fi; Molin, Camilla, E-mail: camilla.molin@abo.fi; Hupa, Mikko, E-mail: mikko.hupa@abo.fi

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • We review the thermal treatment methods for ashes and residues from WtE plants. • We review the results from extensive laboratory work on vitrification, melting and vaporization of ash. • We analyze the results from the extensive patent literature on thermal treatment. • We review industrial concepts for thermal treatment of ash. - Abstract: Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field.

  4. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, Daniel; Molin, Camilla; Hupa, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We review the thermal treatment methods for ashes and residues from WtE plants. • We review the results from extensive laboratory work on vitrification, melting and vaporization of ash. • We analyze the results from the extensive patent literature on thermal treatment. • We review industrial concepts for thermal treatment of ash. - Abstract: Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field

  5. Factors Contributing to Personal Commitment in Chinese Interethnic Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmiao Zhong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interethnic relationships are increasingly common in many societies, yet interethnic couples have a higher divorce rate compared to intraethnic couples. Given these facts and the dearth of research, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to couples’ commitment in interethnic relationships. This study investigated the personal commitment of Chinese interethnic couples in the United Kingdom and the United States. Specifically, whether love, dyadic adjustment and “couple cultural identity” (i.e. acculturation to the partner and couple’s similarity on individualism/collectivism would predict personal commitment and whether each variable would account for unique variance in personal commitment of the participants. Thirty-seven Chinese/non-Chinese heterosexual couples participated in the study and significant relationships between love and personal commitment, dyadic adjustment and personal commitment were found. Also, couple cultural identity was important for women’s personal commitment. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling showed that partners in interethnic relationships defined personal commitment in different ways with men emphasizing love and dyadic adjustment, and women emphasizing love and acculturation to their partner. The discovery of the importance of couple cultural identity in contributing to personal commitment, besides love and dyadic adjustment, helps researchers to gain a greater understanding of such relationships and to extend the research on interethnic relationships.

  6. Organizational commitment of military physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay

    2009-09-01

    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics.

  7. Committed dose equivalent per intake of unit activity of radionuclides, for four age-groups, concerning the members of the public for the environmental impact evaluation's of radioactive releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.; Brofferio, C.; Sacripanti, A.

    1983-01-01

    In the present work, with the aim of estimating more realistically the committed dose equivalent for the members of the public in the environmental impact evaluation's of nuclear plants, the authors supply a methodology for calculating the committed dose equivalents for inhalation and ingestion, and the values for fiftheen organs and sixi-three radionuclides, concerning four specific age-groups on the ground of data published by Icrp n.30 part 1, 2, 3

  8. Processes for CO2 capture. Context of thermal waste treatment units. State of the art. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, A.; Roizard, D.; Favre, E.; Dufour, A.

    2013-01-01

    For most of industrial sectors, Greenhouse Gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) are considered as serious pollutants and have to be controlled and treated. The thermal waste treatment units are part of industrial CO 2 emitters, even if they represent a small part of emissions (2,5 % of GHG emissions in France) compared to power plants (13 % of GHG emissions in France, one third of worldwide GHG emissions) or shaper industries (20 % of GHG emissions in France). Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) can be a solution to reduce CO 2 emissions from industries (power plants, steel and cement industries...). The issues of CCS applied to thermal waste treatment units are quite similar to those related to power plants (CO 2 flow, flue gas temperature and pressure conditions). The problem is to know if the CO 2 produced by waste treatment plants can be captured thanks to the processes already available on the market or that should be available by 2020. It seems technically possible to adapt CCS post-combustion methods to the waste treatment sector. But on the whole, CCS is complex and costly for a waste treatment unit offering small economies of scale. However, regulations concerning impurities for CO 2 transport and storage are not clearly defined at the moment. Consequently, specific studies must be achieved in order to check the technical feasibility of CCS in waste treatment context and clearly define its cost. (authors)

  9. Demonstration Testing of a Thermal Desorption Unit to Receive and Treat Waste with Unlimited Concentration of PCBs - 13437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Timothy L. [EnergySolutions, 423 West 300 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States); Palmer, Carl R. [TD.X Associates LP, 148 South Dowlen Road, PMB 700, Beaumont, TX 77707 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    For the last nine years, EnergySolutions and TD*X Associates LP have teamed up to provide the most comprehensive organic removal treatment process in the radioactive waste industry. The high performance thermal desorption unit (HP-TDU) located at the EnergySolutions Clive facility in Utah has successfully processed over 1,850 tons of organically contaminated radioactive mixed waste. Products from the HP-TDU system include a radioactively contaminated dry solid material that can be disposed in the on-site landfill and an organic condensate with high thermal energy content that is generally below background radiation and capable of free-release to a non-radioactive incinerator. Over the years, Permits and approvals have been obtained through the state of Utah, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region 8, and USEPA headquarters that enable the treatment of several waste categories including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, combustion-coded (CMBST) compounds, volatile metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The unit has recently successfully completed Demonstration Testing for PCB concentrations up to 660,000 ppm (parts per million). Solid processed material from this Demonstration Testing was less than two ppm PCBs in three separate treatment runs; reprocessing or additional treatment was not needed to meet this limit. Through post-demonstration permitting, the system is unlimited in scope as approval has been given to receive and solidify up to pure PCBs down to this processing limit concentration to complete treatment of mixed waste. (authors)

  10. A PERFORMANCE MODELING AND DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR A FEED WATER UNIT OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The present paper discusses the performance modeling and decision support system for a feed water unit of a thermal power plant using the concept of performance analysis and modeling. A feed water unit ensures a proper supply of water for the sound functioning of a thermal power plant. The decision support system for a feed water unit has been developed with the help of performance modeling using a probabilistic approach. After drawing a transition diagram, differential equations are generated. After that, steady state probabilities are determined. Some decision matrices are also developed, which provide various performance levels for different combinations of failure and repair rates of all subsystems. Based upon various availability values obtained in decision matrices and plots of failure rates / repair rates of various subsystems, the performance of each subsystem is analyzed, and maintenance decisions are made for all subsystems.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Vertoningsanalise en –modellering word gedoen vir die toevoerwatersisteem van ‘n termiese kragstasie. Toevoerwater is ‘n belangrike factor vir die doeltreffende bedryf van ‘n kragstasie. Die vertoningsanalise en –model is probalisties van aard. ‘n Toestandoorgangsdiagram en bypassende differensiaalvergelykings word gebruik, gevolg deur bepaling van die bestandige sisteemtoestand. Bykomende aandag word gegee aan relevante subsisteme. Die vertoning van subsisteme word gebasseer op verskeie beskikbaarheidswaardes om sodoende instandhouding to optimiseer.

  11. Effects of acoustic ceiling units on the cooling performance of thermally activated building systems (TABS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacarte, Luis Marcos Domínguez; Rage, Niels; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2017-01-01

    Europe, with a building stock responsible for about 40% of the total energy use, needs to reduce the primary energy use in buildings in order to meet the 2020 energy targets of the European Union. High temperature cooling and low temperature heating systems, and as an example, Thermally Activated...

  12. Thermal Energy Storage for the Small Packaged Terminal Air Conditioning Unit. Quarterly progress report, February 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    To finalize the IceBear design for full-scale production, build two preproduction prototypes, and confirm cost projections for production and market analysis. The 5 tasks being carried out are: Task 1--Finalize thermal energy storage tank design; Task 2--Finalize internal heat exchanger; Task 3--Finalize refrigerant management and control components; Task 4--Preproduction prototype laboratory testing; and Task 5--Reporting.

  13. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Daniel; Molin, Camilla; Hupa, Mikko

    2015-03-01

    Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of Loaded Thermal Storage Unit with a Commercial Phase Change Materials based on Energy and Exergy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nasrallh Olimat

    2017-11-01

    Article History: Received July 6th 2017; Received in revised form September 15th 2017; Accepted 25th Sept 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Olimat, A.N., Awad, A.S., Al-Gathain, F.M., and Shaban, N.A.. (2017 Performance of Loaded Thermal Storage Unit With A Commercial Phase Change Materials Based on Energy and Exergy Analysis. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(3,283-290. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.3.283-290

  15. Dimensionality of Organizational Commitment in Volunteer Workers: Chamber of Commerce Board Members and Role Fulfillment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawley, David D.; Stephens, Robert D.; Stephens, David B.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the multi-dimensionality of organizational commitment of volunteer chamber of commerce board members using the Meyer and Allen (1997) scale. The effect of organizational commitment on desirable board member roles is also tested. Theory is developed by uniting past research in both organizational commitment and employee…

  16. Work values and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, A

    1978-06-01

    Dubin, Champoux and Porter (1975) found a strong relationship between central life interests of workers and their commitment to the organization. This paper extends their findings by investigating the relationship between work values, defined as the Protestant Ethic of the worker, and commitment to the organization. A distinction is made between moral and calculative commitment, and it is shown that work values are related more to moral than calculative involvement.

  17. Committed equivalent organ doses and committed effective doses from intakes of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed equivalent doses to individual organs for intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu m AMAD particles of 359 nuclides by infants aged 3 months, by children aged 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, and by adults. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on the way committed doses increase with the integration period is given in NRPB-M289. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  18. Thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system by utilizing waste energy rejected from a chiller unit of an ice rink

    OpenAIRE

    Kuyumcu Muhammed Enes; Yumrutaş Recep

    2017-01-01

    This study deals with the thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system in which the waste energy rejected from the chiller unit of an ice rink is used as an energy source. The system consists of a swimming pool and an ice rink coupled by a chiller unit. The swimming pool and the ice rink both indoor types and were constructed in city of Gaziantep, Turkey. The thermal energy requirement for each section is determined by thermal analysis of each component of the system. Effec...

  19. Thermal characteristics of spent activated carbon generated from air cleaning units in korean nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yang So

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To identify the feasibility of disposing of spent activated carbon as a clearance level waste, we performed characterization of radioactive pollution for spent activated carbon through radioisotope analysis; results showed that the C-14 concentrations of about half of the spent activated carbon samples taken from Korean NPPs exceeded the clearance level limit. In this situation, we selected thermal treatment technology to remove C-14 and analyzed the moisture content and thermal characteristics. The results of the moisture content analysis showed that the moisture content of the spent activated carbon is in the range of 1.2–23.9 wt% depending on the operation and storage conditions. The results of TGA indicated that most of the spent activated carbon lost weight in 3 temperature ranges. Through py-GC/MS analysis based on the result of TGA, we found that activated carbon loses weight rapidly with moisture desorption reaching to 100°C and desorbs various organic and inorganic carbon compounds reaching to 200°C. The result of pyrolysis analysis showed that the experiment of C-14 desorption using thermal treatment technology requires at least 3 steps of heat treatment, including a heat treatment at high temperature over 850°C, in order to reduce the C-14 concentration below the clearance level.

  20. Thermal characteristics of spent activated carbon generated from air cleaning units in Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hang Rae; So, Ji Yang [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To identify the feasibility of disposing of spent activated carbon as a clearance level waste, we performed characterization of radioactive pollution for spent activated carbon through radioisotope analysis; results showed that the C-14 concentrations of about half of the spent activated carbon samples taken from Korean NPPs exceeded the clearance level limit. In this situation, we selected thermal treatment technology to remove C-14 and analyzed the moisture content and thermal characteristics. The results of the moisture content analysis showed that the moisture content of the spent activated carbon is in the range of 1.2–23.9 wt% depending on the operation and storage conditions. The results of TGA indicated that most of the spent activated carbon lost weight in 3 temperature ranges. Through py-GC/MS analysis based on the result of TGA, we found that activated carbon loses weight rapidly with moisture desorption reaching to 100°C and desorbs various organic and inorganic carbon compounds reaching to 200°C. The result of pyrolysis analysis showed that the experiment of C-14 desorption using thermal treatment technology requires at least 3 steps of heat treatment, including a heat treatment at high temperature over 850°C, in order to reduce the C-14 concentration below the clearance level.

  1. Operable Unit 7-13/14 in situ thermal desorption treatability study work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Nickelson, D.; Hyde, R.

    1999-01-01

    This Work Plan provides technical details for conducting a treatability study that will evaluate the application of in situ thermal desorption (ISTD) to landfill waste at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). ISTD is a form of thermally enhanced vapor vacuum extraction that heats contaminated soil and waste underground to raise its temperature and thereby vaporize and destroy most organics. An aboveground vapor vacuum collection and treatment system then destroys or absorbs the remaining organics and vents carbon dioxide and water to the atmosphere. The technology is a byproduct of an advanced oil-well thermal extraction program. The purpose of the ISTD treatability study is to fill performance-based data gaps relative to off-gas system performance, administrative feasibility, effects of the treatment on radioactive contaminants, worker safety during mobilization and demobilization, and effects of landfill type waste on the process (time to remediate, subsidence potential, underground fires, etc.). By performing this treatability study, uncertainties associated with ISTD as a selected remedy will be reduced, providing a better foundation of remedial recommendations and ultimate selection of remedial actions for the SDA

  2. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnley, Stephen; Phillips, Rhiannon; Coleman, Terry; Rampling, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. → For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. → For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. → For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

  3. 24 CFR 232.510 - Commitment and commitment fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND... of Fire Safety Equipment Fees and Charges § 232.510 Commitment and commitment fee. (a) Issuance of...

  4. Assessment of extent and degree of thermal damage to polymeric materials in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes assumptions and procedures used to perform thermal damage analysis caused by post loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) hydrogen deflagration at Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor. Examination of available photographic evidence yields data on the extent and range of thermal and burn damage. Thermal damage to susceptible material in accessible regions of the reactor building was distributed in non-uniform patterns. No clear explanation for non-uniformity was found in examined evidence, e.g., burned materials were adjacent to materials that appear similar but were not burned. Because these items were in proximity to vertical openings that extend the height of the reactor building, the authors assume the unburned materials preferentially absorbed water vapor during periods of high, local steam concentration. A control pendant from the polar crane located in the top of the reactor building sustained asymmetric burn damage of decreasing degree from top to bottom. Evidence suggests the polar-crane pendant side that experienced heaviest damage was exposed to intense radiant energy from a transient fire plume in the reactor containment volume. Simple hydrogen-fire-exposure tests and heat transfer calculations approximate the degree of damage found on inspected materials from the containment building and support for an estimated 8% pre-fire hydrogen

  5. Assessment of extent and degree of thermal damage to polymeric materials in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.

    1985-06-01

    This paper describes assumptions and procedures used to perform thermal damage analysis caused by post loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) hydrogen deflagration at Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor. Examination of available photographic evidence yields data on the extent and range of thermal and burn damage. Thermal damage to susceptible material in accessible regions of the reactor building was distributed in non-uniform patterns. No clear explanation for non-uniformity was found in examined evidence, e.g., burned materials were adjacent to materials that appear similar but were not burned. Because these items were in proximity to vertical openings that extend the height of the reactor building, we assume the unburned materials preferentially absorbed water vapor during periods of high, local steam concentration. A control pendant from the polar crane located in the top of the reactor building sustained asymmetric burn damage of decreasing degree from top to bottom. Evidence suggests the polar-crane pendant side that experienced heaviest damage was exposed to intense radiant energy from a transient fire plume in the reactor containment volume. Simple hydrogen-fire-exposure tests and heat transfer calculations approximate the degree of damage found on inspected materials from the containment building and support for an estimated 8% pre-fire hydrogen

  6. Thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system by utilizing waste energy rejected from a chiller unit of an ice rink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuyumcu Muhammed Enes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system in which the waste energy rejected from the chiller unit of an ice rink is used as an energy source. The system consists of a swimming pool and an ice rink coupled by a chiller unit. The swimming pool and the ice rink both indoor types and were constructed in city of Gaziantep, Turkey. The thermal energy requirement for each section is determined by thermal analysis of each component of the system. Effects of different design parameters such as ceiling insulation thickness, ceiling emissivity, Carnot efficiency factor and size of the ice rink on the thermal energy requirements and coefficient of performance of the chiller unit are investigated. As a result of analyses of the system, the minimum ice rink area is determined in order to meet annual total heat energy demand of the olympic-sized swimming pool.

  7. Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.

  8. Efficiency limits of rehabilitation of the Thermal Power Plant Turceni units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, D.; Stoenescu, R.; Balcan, I.; Panait, L.; Pressel, S.; Ghioca, L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper analyses the efficiency limits of the programs A 2 and A 3 of rehabilitation of the TPP Turceni units considering the current economic situation and the power and energy balances in the Romania's National Power System. Starting from the current net income and also, taking into account the performances which can be reached by the units to be rehabilitated, according to the guarantee figures provided by the German Consortium ABB-DBE, one is determined the maximum investment for rehabilitation so that the adjusted net income to be equal to the expenses and adjusted investments (reverse method). (author). 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Contexts as Shared Commitments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eGarcía-Carpintero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary semantics assumes two different notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989, on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originated in Stalnaker (1978, on which contexts are sets of propositions that are common ground. The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility to account for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980 point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014 defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions, but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend.

  10. Multi-purpose canister storage unit and transfer cask thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, R.A.; Niemer, K.A.; Lindner, C.N.

    1997-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) generated at commercial nuclear power plants throughout the US is a concern because of continued delays in obtaining a safe, permanent disposal facility. Most utilities maintain their SNF in wet storage pools; however, after decades of use, many pools are filled to capacity. Unfortunately, DOE's proposed final repository at Yucca Mountain is at least 10 years from completion, and commercial power utilities have few options for SNF storage in the interim. The Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) system, sponsored by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is a viable solution to the interim storage problem. The system is designed for interim dry storage, transport, and ultimate disposal of commercial SNF. The MPC system consists of four separate components: an MPC, Transfer Cask, Storage Unit, and Transport Cask. The SNF assemblies are loaded and sealed inside the helium-filled steel MPC. Once sealed, the MPC is not reopened, eliminating the need to re-handle the individual spent fuel assemblies. The MPC is transferred, using the MPC Transfer Cask, into a cylindrical, reinforced-concrete Storage Unit for on-site dry storage. The MPC may be removed from the Storage Unit at any time and transferred into the MPC Transport Cask for transport to the final repository. This paper discusses the analytical approach used to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics of an MPC containing SNF assemblies in the MPC Transfer Cask and Storage Unit

  11. Organizational Climate and Teacher Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Stephen Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of school climate and teacher commitment in elementary schools in Alabama. A total of 67 elementary schools were surveyed and 1353 teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The instruments used in this study were the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ).…

  12. Quantity, Quality, and Availability of Waste Heat from United States Thermal Power Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-07-21

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJ(th) of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.

  13. Considerations in civil commitment of individuals with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiola, Alan A; Dolan, David

    2016-01-01

    Several states currently have enacted laws that allow for civil commitment for individuals diagnosed with severe substance use disorders. Civil commitment or involuntary commitment refers to the legal process by which individuals with mental illness are court-ordered into inpatient and/or outpatient treatment programs. Although initially civil commitment laws were intended for individuals with severe mental illness, these statutes have been extended to cover individuals with severe substance use disorders. Much of the recent legislation allowing for civil commitment of individuals with substance use disorders has come about in response to the heroin epidemic and is designed to provide an alternative to the unrelenting progression of opioid use disorders. Civil commitment also provides an opportunity for individuals with opioid use disorders to make informed decisions regarding ongoing or continued treatment. However, civil commitment also raises concerns regarding the potential violation of 14th Amendment rights, specifically pertaining to abuses of deprivation of liberty or freedom, which are guaranteed under the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution. This commentary examines these issues while supporting the need for effective brief civil commitment legislation in all states.

  14. Statistical secrecy and multibit commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Pedersen, Torben P.; Pfitzmann, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    nothing about it. One definition is based on the L1-norm distance between probability distributions, the other on information theory. We prove that the two definitions are essentially equivalent. We also show that statistical counterparts of definitions of computational secrecy are essentially equivalent......We present and compare definitions of "statistically hiding" protocols, and we propose a novel statistically hiding commitment scheme. Informally, a protocol statistically hides a secret if a computationally unlimited adversary who conducts the protocol with the owner of the secret learns almost...... to our main definitions. Commitment schemes are an important cryptologic primitive. Their purpose is to commit one party to a certain value, while hiding this value from the other party until some later time. We present a statistically hiding commitment scheme allowing commitment to many bits...

  15. The determination of parameters for thermal unit pricing and economic interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, D.W.; Pickles, R.; McPhail, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    When an interchange of energy occurs between adjoining utilities which is not the subject of a predetermined fixed price agreement but is related to the immediate cost of generating and transmitting the power, the purchaser and seller need to know the cost of the power before agreeing to the interchange. A working party from three Maritime utilities was set up to reveiw areas of interchange energy pricing between them and in particular standardize the following aspects: test procedure for a unit heat rate over its load range; maintenance and operating costs; provision for contingency costs; start up costs of units; and a pricing formula considering the above items. The three utilities are Nova Scotia Power Corporation, Maritime Electric, and New Brunswick Power Commission. Details are presented of the three utility's methods of determining heat rate, operating factor, total fuel cost, transmission loss, operations and maintenance costs, gas turbine parameters, pricing formulae, and start up costs. 2 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Assess and Predict Automatic Generation Control Performances for Thermal Power Generation Units Based on Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yang, Zijiang; Gao, Song; Liu, Jinbiao

    2018-02-01

    Automatic generation control(AGC) is a key technology to maintain real time power generation and load balance, and to ensure the quality of power supply. Power grids require each power generation unit to have a satisfactory AGC performance, being specified in two detailed rules. The two rules provide a set of indices to measure the AGC performance of power generation unit. However, the commonly-used method to calculate these indices is based on particular data samples from AGC responses and will lead to incorrect results in practice. This paper proposes a new method to estimate the AGC performance indices via system identification techniques. In addition, a nonlinear regression model between performance indices and load command is built in order to predict the AGC performance indices. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through industrial case studies.

  17. Investigation of the Dynamic Melting Process in a Thermal Energy Storage Unit Using a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dynamic melting process of the phase change material (PCM in a vertical cylindrical tube-in-tank thermal energy storage (TES unit was investigated through numerical simulations and experimental measurements. To ensure good heat exchange performance, a concentric helical coil was inserted into the TES unit to pipe the heat transfer fluid (HTF. A numerical model using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach was developed based on the enthalpy-porosity method to simulate the unsteady melting process including temperature and liquid fraction variations. Temperature measurements using evenly spaced thermocouples were conducted, and the temperature variation at three locations inside the TES unit was recorded. The effects of the HTF inlet parameters were investigated by parametric studies with different temperatures and flow rate values. Reasonably good agreement was achieved between the numerical prediction and the temperature measurement, which confirmed the numerical simulation accuracy. The numerical results showed the significance of buoyancy effect for the dynamic melting process. The system TES performance was very sensitive to the HTF inlet temperature. By contrast, no apparent influences can be found when changing the HTF flow rates. This study provides a comprehensive solution to investigate the heat exchange process of the TES system using PCM.

  18. Transient analysis of a thermal storage unit involving a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, E. I.; Pitts, D. R.; Humphries, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The transient response of a single cell of a typical phase change material type thermal capacitor has been modeled using numerical conductive heat transfer techniques. The cell consists of a base plate, an insulated top, and two vertical walls (fins) forming a two-dimensional cavity filled with a phase change material. Both explicit and implicit numerical formulations are outlined. A mixed explicit-implicit scheme which treats the fin implicity while treating the phase change material explicitly is discussed. A band algorithmic scheme is used to reduce computer storage requirements for the implicit approach while retaining a relatively fine grid. All formulations are presented in dimensionless form thereby enabling application to geometrically similar problems. Typical parametric results are graphically presented for the case of melting with constant heat input to the base of the cell.

  19. Thermal Analysis for Environmental Qualification of Kori Nuclear power plant unit 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kwi Hyun; Byun, Choong Sup; Song, Dong Soo

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows the temperature profiles of safety related electrical equipment exposed to MSLB inside containment. It must be demonstrated that the LOCA qualification conditions exceed or are equivalent to the maximum calculated MSLB conditions. COPATTA as Bechtel's vendor code is used for the containment pressure and temperature prediction in power uprating project for Kori 3,4 and Yonggwang 1,2 nuclear power plants(NPPs). However, CONTEMPT-LT/028 is used for calculating the containment pressure and temperatures in equipment qualification project for the same NPPs. Power uprating code that is, COPATTA benchmarking study performed in six equipment at saturation temperature and surface temperature. Specially, thermal analysis carefully investigate that view point environmental qualification and NUREG- 0588 be mentioned in regard to safety-related heat sink it boundary condition or geometry information

  20. Thermal Analysis for Environmental Qualification of Kori Nuclear power plant unit 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Kwi Hyun [ENERGEO Inc., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Choong Sup; Song, Dong Soo [KEPRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    This paper shows the temperature profiles of safety related electrical equipment exposed to MSLB inside containment. It must be demonstrated that the LOCA qualification conditions exceed or are equivalent to the maximum calculated MSLB conditions. COPATTA as Bechtel's vendor code is used for the containment pressure and temperature prediction in power uprating project for Kori 3,4 and Yonggwang 1,2 nuclear power plants(NPPs). However, CONTEMPT-LT/028 is used for calculating the containment pressure and temperatures in equipment qualification project for the same NPPs. Power uprating code that is, COPATTA benchmarking study performed in six equipment at saturation temperature and surface temperature. Specially, thermal analysis carefully investigate that view point environmental qualification and NUREG- 0588 be mentioned in regard to safety-related heat sink it boundary condition or geometry information.

  1. 78 FR 49787 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ..., standards and technical regulations, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, government procurement, trade... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... with its WTO commitments. SUMMARY: The interagency Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) will convene a...

  2. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part D. 36Cl measurements in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, Tore; Men, Ping; Marchetti, Alfredo A.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Roberts, James A.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    A large number of measurements were performed in the United States of 36 Cl in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of 36 Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results of these measurements are presented in this section and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. (J.P.N.)

  3. Thermal-economic optimization of an air-cooled heat exchanger unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinia Kashani, Amir Hesam; Maddahi, Alireza; Hajabdollahi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamic modeling and optimal design of an air-cooled heat exchanger (ACHE) unit are developed in this study. For this purpose, ε–NTU method and mathematical relations are applied to estimate the fluids outlet temperatures and pressure drops in tube and air sides. The main goal of this study is minimizing of two conflicting objective functions namely the temperature approach and the minimum total annual cost, simultaneously. For this purpose, fast and elitist non-dominated sorting genetic-algorithm (NSGA-II) is applied to minimize the objective functions by considering ten design parameters. In addition, a set of typical constraints, governing on the ACHE unit design, is subjected to obtain more practical optimum design points. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis of change in the objective functions, when the optimum design parameters vary, is conducted and the degree of each parameter on conflicting objective functions has been investigated. Finally, a selection procedure of the best optimum point is introduced and final optimum design point is determined. -- Highlights: ► Multi-objective optimization of air-cooled heat exchanger. ► Considering ten new design parameters in this type of heat exchanger. ► A detailed cost function is used to estimate the heat exchanger investment cost. ► Presenting a mathematical relation for optimum total cost vs. temperature approach. ► The sensitivity analysis of parameters in the optimum situation

  4. Global Thermal Power Plants Database: Unit-Based CO2, SO2, NOX and PM2.5 Emissions in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D.; Qiang, Z.; Davis, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    There are more than 30,000 thermal power plants now operating worldwide, reflecting a tremendously diverse infrastructure that includes units burning oil, natural gas, coal and biomass and ranging in capacity from 1GW. Although the electricity generated by this infrastructure is vital to economic activities across the world, it also produces more CO2 and air pollution emissions than any other industry sector. Here we present a new database of global thermal power-generating units and their emissions as of 2010, GPED (Global Power Emissions Database), including the detailed unit information of installed capacity, operation year, geographic location, fuel type and control measures for more than 70000 units. In this study, we have compiled, combined, and harmonized the available underlying data related to thermal power-generating units (e.g. eGRID of USA, CPED of China and published Indian power plants database), and then analyzed the generating capacity, capacity factor, fuel type, age, location, and installed pollution-control technology in order to determine those units with disproportionately high levels of emissions. In total, this work is of great importance for improving spatial distribution of global thermal power plants emissions and exploring their environmental impacts at global scale.

  5. An Innovative Strategy for Accurate Thermal Compensation of Gyro Bias in Inertial Units by Exploiting a Novel Augmented Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Fontanella

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative model for integrating thermal compensation of gyro bias error into an augmented state Kalman filter. The developed model is applied in the Zero Velocity Update filter for inertial units manufactured by exploiting Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS gyros. It is used to remove residual bias at startup. It is a more effective alternative to traditional approach that is realized by cascading bias thermal correction by calibration and traditional Kalman filtering for bias tracking. This function is very useful when adopted gyros are manufactured using MEMS technology. These systems have significant limitations in terms of sensitivity to environmental conditions. They are characterized by a strong correlation of the systematic error with temperature variations. The traditional process is divided into two separated algorithms, i.e., calibration and filtering, and this aspect reduces system accuracy, reliability, and maintainability. This paper proposes an innovative Zero Velocity Update filter that just requires raw uncalibrated gyro data as input. It unifies in a single algorithm the two steps from the traditional approach. Therefore, it saves time and economic resources, simplifying the management of thermal correction process. In the paper, traditional and innovative Zero Velocity Update filters are described in detail, as well as the experimental data set used to test both methods. The performance of the two filters is compared both in nominal conditions and in the typical case of a residual initial alignment bias. In this last condition, the innovative solution shows significant improvements with respect to the traditional approach. This is the typical case of an aircraft or a car in parking conditions under solar input.

  6. An Innovative Strategy for Accurate Thermal Compensation of Gyro Bias in Inertial Units by Exploiting a Novel Augmented Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Rita; Accardo, Domenico; Moriello, Rosario Schiano Lo; Angrisani, Leopoldo; Simone, Domenico De

    2018-05-07

    This paper presents an innovative model for integrating thermal compensation of gyro bias error into an augmented state Kalman filter. The developed model is applied in the Zero Velocity Update filter for inertial units manufactured by exploiting Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) gyros. It is used to remove residual bias at startup. It is a more effective alternative to traditional approach that is realized by cascading bias thermal correction by calibration and traditional Kalman filtering for bias tracking. This function is very useful when adopted gyros are manufactured using MEMS technology. These systems have significant limitations in terms of sensitivity to environmental conditions. They are characterized by a strong correlation of the systematic error with temperature variations. The traditional process is divided into two separated algorithms, i.e., calibration and filtering, and this aspect reduces system accuracy, reliability, and maintainability. This paper proposes an innovative Zero Velocity Update filter that just requires raw uncalibrated gyro data as input. It unifies in a single algorithm the two steps from the traditional approach. Therefore, it saves time and economic resources, simplifying the management of thermal correction process. In the paper, traditional and innovative Zero Velocity Update filters are described in detail, as well as the experimental data set used to test both methods. The performance of the two filters is compared both in nominal conditions and in the typical case of a residual initial alignment bias. In this last condition, the innovative solution shows significant improvements with respect to the traditional approach. This is the typical case of an aircraft or a car in parking conditions under solar input.

  7. 75 FR 57159 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... economy of the United States constituted by the grave acts of terrorism and threats of terrorism committed by foreign terrorists, including the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, in New York and... security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States, the national emergency declared on September 23...

  8. 76 FR 58999 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, Or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... economy of the United States constituted by the grave acts of terrorism and threats of terrorism committed by foreign terrorists, including the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, in New York and... security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States, the national emergency declared on September 23...

  9. Percolation Cooling of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Lower Head by Way of Thermal Cracking and Gap Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    Two partial models have been developed to elucidate the Three Mile Island Unit 2 lower head coolability by water percolation from above into the thermally cracking debris bed and into a gap between the debris and the wall. The bulk permeability of the cracked top crust is estimated based on simple fracture mechanics and application of Poiseuille's law to the fractures. The gap is considered as an abstraction representing an initially rugged interface, which probably expanded by thermal deformation and cracking in connection with the water ingress. The coupled flow and heat conduction problem for the top crust is solved in slab geometry based on the two-phase Darcy equations together with quasi-steady mass and energy conservation equations. The resulting water penetration depth is in good agreement with the depth of the so-called loose debris bed. The lower-head and bottom-crust problem is treated analogously by a two-dimensional axisymmetric model. The notion of a gap is maintained as a useful concept in the flow analysis. Simulations show that a central hot spot with a peak wall temperature of 1075 to 1100 deg. C can be obtained, but the quenching rates are not satisfactory. It is concluded that a three-dimensional model with an additional mechanism to explain the sudden water ingress to the hot spot center would be more appropriate

  10. Resonance region neutronics of unit cells in fast and thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, A.A.; Driscoll, M.J.; Deutsch, O.L.

    1977-05-01

    A method has been developed for generating resonance-self-shielded cross sections based upon an improved equivalence theorem, which appears to allow extension of the self-shielding-factor (Bondarenko f-factor) method, now mainly applied to fast reactors, to thermal reactors as well. The method is based on the use of simple prescriptions for the ratio of coolant-to-fuel region-averaged fluxes, in the equations defining cell averaged cross sections. Linearization of the dependence of these functions on absorber optical thickness is found to be a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of an equivalence theorem. Results are given for cylindrical, spherical and slab geometries. The functional form of the flux ratio relations is developed from theoretical considerations, but some of the parameters are adjusted to force-fit numerical results. Good agreement over the entire range of fuel and coolant optical thicknesses is demonstrated with numerical results calculated using the ANISN program in the S 8 P 1 option

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of a thermal storage unit under the influence of nano-particles added to the phase change material and/or the working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Mehran; Keshavarz, Ali; Mehrabian, Mozaffar Ali

    2012-11-01

    The thermal storage unit consists of two concentric cylinders where the working fluid flows through the internal cylinder and the annulus is filled with a phase change material. The system carries out a cyclic operation; each cycle consists of two processes. In the charging process the hot working fluid enters the internal cylinder and transfers heat to the phase change material. In the discharging process the cold working fluid enters the internal cylinder and absorbs heat from the phase change material. The differential equations governing the heat transfer between the two media are solved numerically. The numerical results are compared with the experimental results available in the literature. The performance of an energy storage unit is directly related to the thermal conductivity of nano-particles. The energy consumption of a residential unit whose energy is supplied by a thermal storage system can be reduced by 43 % when using nano-particles.

  12. The dimensionality of professional commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey J. Bagraim

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the dimensionality of professional commitment amongst a sample of 240 South African actuaries. Data were obtained, via a mailed questionnaire, from members of the South African Actuarial Society employed in the financial services industry. Statistical analysis conducted on the data showed that the 3-component model first proposed by Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993) is appropriate for understanding professional commitment amongst South African professionals. The analysis also ...

  13. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Sevincer, A. Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    According to alcohol myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participan...

  14. The Effect of Fuel Mass Fraction on the Combustion and Fluid Flow in a Sulfur Recovery Unit Thermal Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Lang Yeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur recovery unit (SRU thermal reactors are negatively affected by high temperature operation. In this paper, the effect of the fuel mass fraction on the combustion and fluid flow in a SRU thermal reactor is investigated numerically. Practical operating conditions for a petrochemical corporation in Taiwan are used as the design conditions for the discussion. The simulation results show that the present design condition is a fuel-rich (or air-lean condition and gives acceptable sulfur recovery, hydrogen sulfide (H2S destruction, sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions and thermal reactor temperature for an oxygen-normal operation. However, for an oxygen-rich operation, the local maximum temperature exceeds the suggested maximum service temperature, although the average temperature is acceptable. The high temperature region must be inspected very carefully during the annual maintenance period if there are oxygen-rich operations. If the fuel mass fraction to the zone ahead of the choke ring (zone 1 is 0.0625 or 0.125, the average temperature in the zone behind the choke ring (zone 2 is higher than the zone 1 average temperature, which can damage the downstream heat exchanger tubes. If the zone 1 fuel mass fraction is reduced to ensure a lower zone 1 temperature, the temperature in zone 2 and the heat exchanger section must be monitored closely and the zone 2 wall and heat exchanger tubes must be inspected very carefully during the annual maintenance period. To determine a suitable fuel mass fraction for operation, a detailed numerical simulation should be performed first to find the stoichiometric fuel mass fraction which produces the most complete combustion and the highest temperature. This stoichiometric fuel mass fraction should be avoided because the high temperature could damage the zone 1 corner or the choke ring. A higher fuel mass fraction (i.e., fuel-rich or air-lean condition is more suitable because it can avoid deteriorations of both zone 1

  15. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Timur Sevincer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to alcohol-myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participants were sober again (i.e., not myopic anymore they failed to act on their goal commitment. In line with alcohol-myopia theory, strong goal commitment as a result of alcohol intake was mediated by intoxicated (vs. sober participants disproportionally focusing on the desirability rather than the feasibility of their goal. Further supporting alcohol-myopia theory, when the low feasibility of attaining a particular goal was experimentally made salient (either explicitly or implicitly by subliminal priming, intoxicated participants felt less committed than those who consumed a placebo. We discuss these effects of acute alcohol intake in the context of research on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on goal commitment.

  16. Thermal recovery characteristics of Kori-unit 1 linde 80 weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, S. H.; Hong, J. H.; Kuk, I. H.; Kim, I. S.

    1997-01-01

    The recovery activation energy, the order of reaction and the characteristic recovery rate constant were determined by isochronal (573K -823K) and isothermal (723K - 775K) annealing experiments on specimens made from a broken half of a Kori-Unit 1 surveillance weld specimen (fluence: 1.21 x 10 23 n/m 2 , E (1MeV, Cu: 0.29 wt%) to investigate the recovery characteristics of a high copper weld of neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Vickers microhardness tests were conducted to trace the recovery behavior after heat treatments. The results were analyzed in terms of recovery stages, behavior of responsible defects and recovery kinetics. It was shown that recovery occurred through two annealing stages (stage I: 673K - 753K, stage II: 753K - 823K) with recovery activation energies of 2.68 eV and 2.83 eV for stage I and II, respectively. The isothermal hardness recovery at 723 K and 775 K coincided with the ratio of the characteristic rate constant for each recovery stage. The order of reaction was 2 for both recovery stages. The recovery activation energies of present specimens are approximately equal to that of copper diffusion in α-iron in the presence of vacancies, suggesting that recovery may occur through the diffusion of copper atoms. The present results strongly support the copper precipitate coarsening model. (author)

  17. Commitment to leakless pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locheed, T.

    1993-01-01

    The landscape has changed radically in recent years. Not too long ago, Eli Lilly and Co.'s Clinton Laboratories plant in Clinton, IN, buried its solvent storage tanks because the company's insurer required the practice. At the time, tank burial was considered the safest way to handle the solvents. One of the materials stored in those tanks, methylene chloride (or dichloromethane, DCM), was considered a virtual godsend: it was clean, safe and inexpensive. More recently, DCM has acquired a tarnished reputation and a place on the EPA's most wanted list because of its extensive use in the United States (the EPA also regulates other solvents that Lilly uses, including acetone, toluene and methanol). As well as taking aim at fugitive emissions, more properly known as equipment leaks, the Clean Air Act Amendments specify that companies cannot store such chemicals underground in single-wall tanks any longer; secondary containment is the order of the day

  18. Committed warming inferred from observations and an energy balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, R.; Mauritsen, T.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the lifetime of CO2 and thermal inertia of the ocean, the Earth's climate is not equilibrated with anthropogenic forcing. As a result, even if fossil fuel emissions were to suddenly cease, some level of committed warming is expected due to past emissions. Here, we provide an observational-based quantification of this committed warming using the instrument record of global-mean warming, recently-improved estimates of Earth's energy imbalance, and estimates of radiative forcing from the fifth IPCC assessment report. Compared to pre-industrial levels, we find a committed warming of 1.5K [0.9-3.6, 5-95 percentile] at equilibrium, and of 1.3K [0.9-2.3] within this century. However, when assuming that ocean carbon uptake cancels remnant greenhouse gas-induced warming on centennial timescales, committed warming is reduced to 1.1K [0.7-1.8]. Conservatively, there is a 32% risk that committed warming already exceeds the 1.5K target set in Paris, and that this will likely be crossed prior to 2053. Regular updates of these observationally-constrained committed warming estimates, though simplistic, can provide transparent guidance as uncertainty regarding transient climate sensitivity inevitably narrows and understanding the limitations of the framework is advanced.

  19. Market potential for solar thermal energy supply systems in the United States industrial and commercial sectors: 1990--2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report revises and extends previous work sponsored by the US DOE on the potential industrial market in the United States for solar thermal energy systems and presents a new analysis of the commercial sector market potential. Current and future industrial process heat demand and commercial water heating, space heating and space cooling end-use demands are estimated. The PC Industrial Model (PCIM) and the commercial modules of the Building Energy End-Use Model (BEEM) used by the DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA) to support the recent National Energy Strategy (NES) analysis are used to forecast industrial and commercial end-use energy demand respectively. Energy demand is disaggregated by US Census region to account for geographic variation in solar insolation and regional variation in cost of alternative natural gas-fired energy sources. The industrial sector analysis also disaggregates demand by heat medium and temperature range to facilitate process end-use matching with appropriate solar thermal energy supply technologies. The commercial sector analysis disaggregates energy demand by three end uses: water heating, space heating, and space cooling. Generic conceptual designs are created for both industrial and commercial applications. Levelized energy costs (LEC) are calculated for industrial sector applications employing low temperature flat plate collectors for process water preheat; parabolic troughs for intermediate temperature process steam and direct heat industrial application; and parabolic dish technologies for high temperature, direct heat industrial applications. LEC are calculated for commercial sector applications employing parabolic trough technologies for low temperature water and space heating. Cost comparisons are made with natural gas-fired sources for both the industrial market and the commercial market assuming fuel price escalation consistent with NES reference case scenarios for industrial and commercial sector gas markets

  20. State commitment to public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranski, S.C.; Serie, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how New York's approach to developing a new low-level radioactive waste disposal facility demonstrates a commitment to responsibility for waste generated within its borders. There is a strong, legislated commitment to meeting federal milestones and starting from scratch to select a suitable site and disposal method. Equally strong is the state's commitment to meaningful public participation. A statewide program is underway, including public information and education and interactive techniques. The public participation program is fully integrated with the technical and policy activities of the New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission at all levels. The program is designed to progressively tailor techniques and coverage to the steps in site and method selection, and will focus most intensively on the communities where four sites are selected for full characterization

  1. Fundamental research on the gravity assisted heat pipe thermal storage unit (GAHP-TSU) with porous phase change materials (PCMs) for medium temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bo-wen; Wang, Qian; Liu, Zhen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel gravity-assisted heat pipe thermal storage unit (GAHP-TSU) is presented and tested. • Composite granular solid–liquid PCM is piled up as the porous medium layer in GAHP-TSU. • GAHP-TSU avoids the major obstacle of low thermal conductivity of the PCM. • GAHP-TSU enables the thermal storage unit with outstanding heat transfer performance. - Abstract: In this study, a novel gravity-assisted heat pipe type thermal storage unit (GAHP-TSU) has been presented for the potential application in solar air conditioning and refrigeration systems, in which composite granular solid–liquid PCMs compounded by RT100 and high-density polyethylene with phase change temperature of 100 °C are piled up as a porous PCMs medium layer. Water is used as heat transfer fluid in the GAHP-TSU. The heat transfer mechanism of heat storage/release in the GAHP-TSU is similar to that of the gravity-assisted heat pipe, which is superior to traditional direct-contact or indirect-contact thermal storage units. The properties of start-up, heat transfer characteristics on the stages of heat absorption and release of the GAHP-TSU are studied in detailed, including necessary calculations based on heat transfer theory. The results show that the whole system is almost isothermal at the temperature over 70 °C and the heat transfer properties are excellent both for heat absorption and release stages. The GAHP-TSU device with low thermal conductivity of the PCMs is promising in potential industry applications

  2. Marketing service relationships: the role of commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, M.G.M.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Birgelen, van M.

    1998-01-01

    As with all relationships, it is commonly agreed on that partners in business must have a high degree of commitment towards their relationship. If commitment is lacking, the relationship will soon come to an end. Affective commitment, that is commitment based on attraction between partners, is to be

  3. Pledges of Commitment and Cooperation in Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan Deer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We use experimental methods to investigate whether pledges of commitment can improve cooperation in endogenously-formed partnerships facing a social dilemma. Treatments vary in terms of the individual’s: (1 opportunity to commit to their partner; (2 the cost of dissolving committed partnerships; and (3 the distribution of these dissolution costs between partners. Our findings show that pledges of commitment alone can increase cooperation and welfare in committed partnerships. The introduction of relatively large and equally split costs yields similar gains. In contrast, when costs to dissolve committed partnerships fall solely on the individual choosing to break up, pledges of commitment fail to improve cooperation and welfare.

  4. Management Commitment to Safety, Teamwork, and Hospital Worker Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42 work units in a multi-site hospital system were examined. Results underscored the particular importance of teamwork on worker injuries as well as the importance of management commitment to safety as relating to teamwork. To improve worker safety, organizational leaders and unit managers should work to maintain environments wherein teamwork can thrive.

  5. Thermal and stress analyses of the reactor pressure vessel lower head of the Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Onizawa, K.; Kurihara, R.; Kawasaki, S.; Soda, K.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal and stress analyses were performed using the finite element analysis code ABAQUS to clarify the factors which caused tears in the stainless steel liner of the reactor pressure vessel lower head of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor pressure vessel during the accident on 28 March 1979. The present analyses covered the events which occurred after approximately 20 tons of molten core material were relocated to the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel. They showed that the tensile stress was highest in the case where the relocated core material consisting of homogeneous UO 2 debris was assumed to attack the lower head and the debris was then quenched. The peak tensile stress was in the vicinity of the welded zone of the penetration nozzle. This result agrees with the findings from the examination of the TMI-2 reactor pressure vessel that major tears in the stainless steel liner were observed around two penetration nozzles of the lower head. (author)

  6. Pledges of commitment and cooperation in partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Lachlan Deer; Ralph-C. Bayer

    2015-01-01

    We use experimental methods to investigate whether pledges of commitment can improve cooperation in endogenously-formed partnerships facing a social dilemma. Treatments vary in terms of the individual's: (1) opportunity to commit to their partner; (2) the cost of dissolving committed partnerships; and (3) the distribution of these dissolution costs between partners. Our findings show that pledges of commitment alone can increase cooperation and welfare in committed partnerships. The introduct...

  7. Quality Improvement with Trustee Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle; Seymour, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    Total Quality Management is a comprehensive system for developing organizationwide participation in planning for and implementing continuous improvement in critical processes. In colleges, trustees can be central to the success of the method through their commitment and the development of supportive policy and procedures. (MSE)

  8. Commitment Profiles and Employee Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Laura; Vandenberghe, Christian; Vandenberg, Robert; Bentein, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We examined how affective (AC), normative (NC), perceived sacrifice (PS), and few alternatives (FA) commitments combine to form profiles and determine turnover intention and turnover. We theorized that three mechanisms account for how profiles operate, i.e., the degree to which membership is internally regulated, the perceived desirability and…

  9. When a Patient Commits Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Karol A.

    1980-01-01

    Suicide is a tragic and upsetting event which sometimes occurs when a person is in some form of therapy. This paper advocates a process after a patient commits suicide which allows for a thorough and orderly working through of the event by involved treatment personnel. (Author)

  10. Cheat Sensitive Quantum Bit Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We give an example of an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive non-relativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  11. Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    2004-04-16

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We describe an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive nonrelativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  12. Parenting--Challenge and Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, Eleanore Braun

    1973-01-01

    This is a revised version of the National Council on Family Relations Presidential address delivered November 3, 1972, Portland Oregon. This address concerned the new constitution and reorganization of N.C.F.R. and a plea for reexamination of the membership's commitment to family issues. (JC)

  13. Idiosyncratic Deals and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between idiosyncratic deals and organizational commitment. In particular, it examines how two individual differences which reflect self-worth (core self-evaluations and age) moderate that relationship. We predicted that employees with feelings of high self-worth will expect and will feel entitled to these…

  14. Physical Education Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hayri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine physical education teachers' organizational commitment levels. The sample consisted of 204 physical education teachers working in the city center of Konya in the 2011 to 2012 academic year. The respondents were randomly selected in this research. Data collected for this research by using the Scale for…

  15. Faculty Organizational Commitment and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly; Bell, Alli

    2012-01-01

    Building on a theoretical framework that links characteristics of individuals and their work settings to organizational commitment (OC) and citizenship behavior, this study considers why faculty may be disengaging from institutional service. Analyses of survey data collected from a state system of higher education suggest that job characteristics,…

  16. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-30

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  17. Research of electrosurgical unit with novel antiadhesion composite thin film for tumor ablation: Microstructural characteristics, thermal conduction properties, and biological behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yun-Dun; Lin, Li-Hsiang; Chiang, Hsi-Jen; Ou, Keng-Liang; Cheng, Han-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use surface functionalization to evaluate the antiadhesion property and thermal injury effects on the liver when using a novel electrosurgical unit with nanostructured-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC-Cu) thin films for tumor ablations. The physical and chemical properties of DLC-Cu thin films were characterized by contact angle goniometer, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. Three-dimensional (3D) hepatic models were reconstructed using magnetic resonance imaging to simulate a clinical electrosurgical operation. The results indicated a significant increase of the contact angle on the nanostructured DLC-Cu thin films, and the antiadhesion properties were also observed in an animal model. Furthermore, the surgical temperature in the DLC-Cu electrosurgical unit was found to be significantly lower than the untreated unit when analyzed using 3D models and thermal images. In addition, DLC-Cu electrodes caused a relatively small injury area and lateral thermal effect. The results indicated that the nanostructured DLC-Cu thin film coating reduced excessive thermal injury and tissue adherence effect in the liver. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A study on the relationship between emotional intelligence, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Saman Chehrazi; Mehrdad Hoseini Shakib; Mohammad Hosein Askari Azad

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a casual structure model between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior by using organizational commitment as mediator variable. The study is accomplished among 324 employees of united bus company in city of Tehran, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study has confirmed that emotional intelligence influenced on organizational citizenship behavior and commitment. The study also confirms that organizational commitment influenced on organiza...

  19. The impact of middle manager affective commitment on perceived improvement program implementation success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Ashley-Kay; Tucker, Anita L; Singer, Sara J

    Recent literature suggests that middle manager affective commitment (emotional attachment, identification, and involvement) to an improvement program may influence implementation success. However, less is known about the interplay between middle manager affective commitment and frontline worker commitment, another important driver of implementation success. We contribute to this research by surveying middle managers who directly manage frontline workers on nursing units. We assess how middle manager affective commitment is related to their perceptions of implementation success and whether their perceptions of frontline worker support mediate this relationship. We also test whether a set of organizational support factors foster middle manager affective commitment. We adapt survey measures of manager affective commitment to our research context of hospitals. We surveyed 67 nurse managers from 19 U.S. hospitals. We use hierarchical linear regression to assess relationships among middle manager affective commitment to their units' falls reduction program and their perceptions of three constructs related to the program: frontline worker support, organizational support, and implementation success. Middle manager affective commitment to their unit's falls reduction program is positively associated with their perception of implementation success. This relationship is mediated by their perception of frontline worker support for the falls program. Moreover, middle managers' affective commitment to their unit's falls program mediates the relationship between perceived organizational support for the program and perceived implementation success. We, through this research, offer an important contribution by providing empirical support of factors that may influence successful implementation of an improvement program: middle manager affective commitment, frontline worker support, and organizational support for an improvement program. Increasing levels of middle manager affective

  20. The thermal-mechanical behavior of fuel pins during power's maneuvering regime at stationary core loading on 2nd unit of KHNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieremenko, M.; Ovdiyenko, Y.; Khalimonchuk, V.

    2007-01-01

    Results of thermal-mechanical behaviour of fuel pins during daily power's maneuvering regime that were proposed for second unit of Khmelnitsky NPP are presented. Calculations were performed for campaign's moments 100 and 160 fpd and for different type of regulation. Additionally calculations were performed for campaign 7. It is the design variant of the campaign and reactor core contains the high burnt fuel. Calculations of macro-core parameters (Kq, Kv) was performed by spatial computer code DYN3D. Calculations of micro-core parameters (fuel pin power) was performed by computer code DERAB. Calculations of thermal-mechanical behaviour of fuel pins was performed by computer code TRANSURANUS (Authors)

  1. Effects of Gender on Engineering Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anne M.

    Engineering has been one of the most difficult fields for 'women to enter and in which to succeed. Although the percentage of female engineers has Increased, women are still seriously underrcpresented in the workforce. This study examined the effect offender on career commitment, success, satisfaction, and involvement in engineering, and the effect of personality and work environment on these variables. Alumni from an engineering school in the northeastern United States were surveyed. The questionnaire was analyzed using statistical and descriptive methods to determine relationships among these variables. Women's commitment scores were lower than men's when controlled for other variables, including satisfaction and involvement. Men had longer tenure as engineers than women, even when controlled for year of graduation, professional engineering status, and number of children. Women did not leave engineering in different proportions than men, but they did earn significantly less despite controlling for year of graduation and number of hours worked weekly. Some gender differences in workplace experience were also found, including having colleagues act protectively, being mistaken for secretaries, and seeing men progress faster in their careers than equally qualified women.

  2. World Tourism Organization - 30 years of commitment to environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackleford, P

    1985-01-01

    The paper traces 30 years of commitment to environmental values of tourism by the intergovernmental World Tourism Organization. Such commitment was almost unfashionable in the 1950s but gradually what began as an article of faith was vindicated by results of market research showing that the protection, enhancement and improvement of man's physical and human environment were among the fundamental requirements for the harmonious development of tourism. The establishment of the United Nations Environmental Program at last gave WTO a partner with the necessary authority with which the world body could walk towards mutually agreed goals.

  3. World Tourism Organization - 30 years of commitment to environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackleford, P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper traces 30 years of commitment to environmental values of tourism by the intergovernmental World Tourism Organization. Such commitment was almost unfashionable in the 1950s but gradually what began as an article of faith was vindicated by results of market research showing that the protection, enhancement and improvement of man's physical and human environment were among the fundamental requirements for the harmonious development of tourism. The establishment of the United Nations Environmental Program at last gave WTO a partner with the necessary authority with which the world body could walk towards mutually agreed goals.

  4. Committed effective doses at various times after intakes of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed effective doses at nine times after intake from intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu 1 AMAD particles by adults. Data are given for various chemical forms of 359 nuclides. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on committed equivalent doses to organs is given in NRPB-M288. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  5. Treating Inpatients with Comorbid Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders: A Comparison of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Connie L.; Zettle, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Inpatients involuntarily committed to a chemical dependency unit and exhibiting a co-occurring depressive disorder received either individual sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) or treatment as usual (TAU) within the context of an ongoing 12-step program. Results indicated significant, but equivalent, reductions in levels of…

  6. Parameter effect of a phase change thermal energy storage unit with one shell and one finned tube on its energy efficiency ratio and heat storage rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Liang-Bi; He, Ya-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The parameter effect on the performance of PCTES unit using fins is reported. • The configurations of PCTES unit using fins in optimum performance are suggested. • Two parameters to indicate the effects of PCM and tube material properties are found. • The working conditions of PCTES unit using fins in optimum performance are analyzed. - Abstract: The performance of a phase change thermal energy storage (PCTES) unit using circular finned tube is affected by many parameters. Thorough studies of the parameter effect on the performance of PCTES unit are strongly required in its optimum design process. Based on a reported energy efficiency ratio and a newly defined parameter named the heat storage rate, the parameter effect on the performance of PCTES unit using circular finned tube is numerically investigated. When the fin pitch is greater than 4 times of the inner radius of the tube, the fin height and the fin thickness have little effect on the energy efficiency ratio and the heat storage rate. When the fin pitch is small, the performance of PCTES unit becomes better using large fin height and width. The energy efficiency ratio and the heat storage rate are more sensitive to the outer tube diameter. The performance of PCTES unit using circular finned tube is best when water is used as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). When the fluid flow of HTF is in a laminar state, the energy efficiency ratio and the heat storage rate are larger than that in a turbulent state.

  7. Development of a Real-Time Thermal Performance Diagnostic Monitoring system Using Self-Organizing Neural Network for Kori-2 Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1996-01-01

    In this work, a PC-based thermal performance monitoring system is developed for the nuclear power plants. the system performs real-time thermal performance monitoring and diagnosis during plant operation. Specifically, a prototype for the Kori-2 nuclear power unit is developed and examined is very difficult because the system structure is highly complex and the components are very much inter-related. In this study, some major diagnostic performance parameters are selected in order to represent the thermal cycle effectively and to reduce the computing time. The Fuzzy ARTMAP, a self-organizing neural network, is used to recognize the characteristic pattern change of the performance parameters in abnormal situation. By examination, the algorithm is shown to be ale to detect abnormality and to identify the fault component or the change of system operation condition successfully. For the convenience of operators, a graphical user interface is also constructed in this work. 5 figs., 3 tabs., 11 refs. (Author)

  8. Effect of primary and secondary parameters on analytical estimation of effective thermal conductivity of two phase materials using unit cell approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Chidambara Raja; P, Karthikeyan; Kumaraswamidhas, L. A.; M, Ramu

    2018-05-01

    Most of the thermal design systems involve two phase materials and analysis of such systems requires detailed understanding of the thermal characteristics of the two phase material. This article aimed to develop geometry dependent unit cell approach model by considering the effects of all primary parameters (conductivity ratio and concentration) and secondary parameters (geometry, contact resistance, natural convection, Knudsen and radiation) for the estimation of effective thermal conductivity of two-phase materials. The analytical equations have been formulated based on isotherm approach for 2-D and 3-D spatially periodic medium. The developed models are validated with standard models and suited for all kind of operating conditions. The results have shown substantial improvement compared to the existing models and are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Boards: Independent and Committed Directors?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Volonté

    2011-01-01

    Regulators, proxy advisors and shareholders are regularly calling for independent directors. However, at the same time, independent directors commonly engage in numerous outside activities potentially reducing their time and commitment with the particular firm. Using Tobin's Q as an approximation of market valuation and controlling for endogeneity, our empirical analysis reveals that neither is independence positively related to firm performance nor are outside activities negatively related t...

  10. An Alternative Approach to Mapping Thermophysical Units from Martian Thermal Inertia and Albedo Data Using a Combination of Unsupervised Classification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriita Jones

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal inertia and albedo provide information on the distribution of surface materials on Mars. These parameters have been mapped globally on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES onboard the Mars Global Surveyor. Two-dimensional clusters of thermal inertia and albedo reflect the thermophysical attributes of the dominant materials on the surface. In this paper three automated, non-deterministic, algorithmic classification methods are employed for defining thermophysical units: Expectation Maximisation of a Gaussian Mixture Model; Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA; and Maximum Likelihood. We analyse the behaviour of the thermophysical classes resulting from the three classifiers, operating on the 2007 TES thermal inertia and albedo datasets. Producing a rigorous mapping of thermophysical classes at ~3 km/pixel resolution remains important for constraining the geologic processes that have shaped the Martian surface on a regional scale, and for choosing appropriate landing sites. The results from applying these algorithms are compared to geologic maps, surface data from lander missions, features derived from imaging, and previous classifications of thermophysical units which utilized manual (and potentially more time consuming classification methods. These comparisons comprise data suitable for validation of our classifications. Our work shows that a combination of the algorithms—ISODATA and Maximum Likelihood—optimises the sensitivity to the underlying dataspace, and that new information on Martian surface materials can be obtained by using these methods. We demonstrate that the algorithms used here can be applied to define a finer partitioning of albedo and thermal inertia for a more detailed mapping of surface materials, grain sizes and thermal behaviour of the Martian surface and shallow subsurface, at the ~3 km scale.

  11. The dimensionality of professional commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Bagraim

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dimensionality of professional commitment amongst a sample of 240 South African actuaries. Data were obtained, via a mailed questionnaire, from members of the South African Actuarial Society employed in the financial services industry. Statistical analysis conducted on the data showed that the 3-component model first proposed by Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993 is appropriate for understanding professional commitment amongst South African professionals. The analysis also showed that South African actuaries are highly committed to their profession. Opsomming Hierdie artikel ondersoek die dimensionaliteit van professionele toewyding by ‘n steekproef van 240 Suid-Afrikaanse aktuarisse. Die data is verkry deur ‘n posvraelys aan lede van die Suid-Afrikaanse Aktuariële Vereniging wat in die finansiële dienstesektor werksaam was. Statistiese ontledings wat uitgevoer is op die data dui aan dat die driekomponentmodel, aanvanklik voorgestel deur Meyer, Allen en Smith (1993, geskik is om professionele toewyding by Suid-Afrikaanse beroepslui te verstaan. Die ontleding dui verder aan dat Suid-Afrikaanse aktuarisse hoogs toegewyd is aan hulle professie.

  12. A study on the relationship between emotional intelligence, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Chehrazi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a casual structure model between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior by using organizational commitment as mediator variable. The study is accomplished among 324 employees of united bus company in city of Tehran, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study has confirmed that emotional intelligence influenced on organizational citizenship behavior and commitment. The study also confirms that organizational commitment influenced on organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, the study has confirmed that there were significant relationships between emotional intelligence and its dimensions with organizational citizenship behavior and organizational commitment of employees.

  13. Job insecurity, organisational commitment and work engagement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    understanding the concept of job insecurity as represented by two core ... commitment as a unidimensional construct based on employees' emotional .... outcomes such as increased job satisfaction, organisational commitment, motivation.

  14. Antecedents and Consequences of Affective Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Odekerken-Schröder, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the impact of three psychological antecedents (position involvement, volitional choice and informational complexity) on affective commitment in a financial service setting. Furthermore, this study addresses the consequences of affective commitment on

  15. How do different types of community commitment influence brand commitment? The mediation of brand attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Zhi-min; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-11-01

    Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management.

  16. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance, and Commitments § 203.7 Commitment process. For single family mortgage programs that are not...

  17. Commitment among Arab Adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Adital Tirosh; Azaiza, Faisal

    1998-01-01

    Examines 662 Arab adolescents' commitments to their own self-development, family, Arab people, and village along with the order in which these commitments are structured. Reveals that the two prevalent patterns of adolescent commitment, individualistic and collectivistic, demonstrate the adolescents' struggle with these value systems and the…

  18. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firm commitments. 200.47 Section 200.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Commitment Applications § 200.47 Firm commitments. A valid firm...

  19. Building commitment in a sports class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens Christian

    The literature has traditionally considered commitment as an individual characteristic or condition of the individual. This means that one is inclined to think that it is those who have commitment who have the opportunity to become excellent performers within their sport. But what if commitment...

  20. Organizational and Client Commitment among Contracted Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M.; Morrow, Paula C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines affective commitment to employing and client organizations among long-term contracted employees, a new and growing employment classification. Drawing on organizational commitment and social exchange literatures, we propose two categories of antecedents of employee commitment to client organizations. We tested our hypotheses…

  1. High thermal conductivity materials for thermal management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broido, David A.; Reinecke, Thomas L.; Lindsay, Lucas R.

    2018-05-29

    High thermal conductivity materials and methods of their use for thermal management applications are provided. In some embodiments, a device comprises a heat generating unit (304) and a thermally conductive unit (306, 308, 310) in thermal communication with the heat generating unit (304) for conducting heat generated by the heat generating unit (304) away from the heat generating unit (304), the thermally conductive unit (306, 308, 310) comprising a thermally conductive compound, alloy or composite thereof. The thermally conductive compound may include Boron Arsenide, Boron Antimonide, Germanium Carbide and Beryllium Selenide.

  2. Thermal hydraulic conditions inducing incipient cracking in the 900 MWe unit 93 D reactor coolant pump shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bore, C.

    1995-01-01

    From 1987, 900 MWe plant operating feedback revealed cracking in the lower part of the reactor coolant pump shafts, beneath the thermal ring. Metallurgical examinations established that this was due to a thermal fatigue phenomenon known as thermal crazing, occurring after a large number of cycles. Analysis of thermal hydraulic conditions initiating the cracks does not allow exact quantification of the thermal load inducing cracking. Only qualitative analyses are thus possible, the first of which, undertaken by the pump manufacturer, Jeumont Industrie, showed that the cracks could not be due to the major transients (stop-start, injection cut-off), which were too few in number. Another explanation was then put forward: the thermal ring, shrunk onto the shaft it is required to protect against thermal shocks, loosens to allow an alternating downflow of cold water from the shaft seals and an upflow of hot water from the primary system. However, approximate calculations showed that the flow involved would be too slight to initiate the cracking observed. A more stringent analysis undertaken with the 2D flow analysis code MELODIE subsequently refuted the possibility of alternating flows beneath the ring establishing that only a hot water upflow occurred due to a 'viscosity pump' phenomenon. Crack initiation was finally considered to be due to flowrate variations beneath the ring, with the associated temperature fluctuations. This flowrate fluctuation could be due to an unidentified transient phenomenon or to a variation in pump operating conditions. This analysis of the hydraulic conditions initiating the cracks disregards shaft surface residual stresses. These are tensile stresses and show that loads less penalizing than those initially retained could cause incipient cracking. Thermal ring modifications to reduce these risks were proposed and implemented. In addition, final metallurgical treatment of the shafts was altered and implemented. In addition, final metallurgical

  3. Assessment of Extent and Degree of Thermal Damage to Polymeric Materials in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N. J.

    1984-02-01

    Thermal damage to susceptible materials in accessible regions of the TMI-2 reactor building shows damage-distribution patterns that indicate non-uniform intensity of exposure. No clear explanation for non-uniformity is found in existing evidence; e.g., in some regions a lack of thermally susceptible materials frustrates analysis. Elsewhere, burned materials are present next to materials that seem similar but appear unscathed-leading to conjecture that the latter materials preferentially absorb water vapor during periods of high local steam concentration. Most of the polar crane pendant shows heavy burns on one half of its circumferential surface. This evidence suggests that the polar crane pendant side that experienced heaviest burn damage was exposed to intense radiant energy from a transient fire plume in the reactor containment volume. Tests and simple heat-transfer calculations based on pressure and temperature records from the accident show that the atmosphere inside the reactor building was probably 8% hydrogen in air, a value not inconsistent with the extent of burn damage. Burn-pattern geography indicates uniform thermal exposure in the dome volume to the 406-ft level (about 6 ft below the polar crane girder), partial thermal exposure in the volume between the 406- and 347-ft levels as indicated by the polar crane cable, and lack of damage to most thermally susceptible materials in the west quadrant of the reactor building; some evidence of thermal exposure Is seen in the free volume between the 305- and 347-ft levels. (author)

  4. Commitment to self-rewards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    People often overcome self-control problems by promising to reward themselves for accomplishing a task. Such strategies based on self-administered rewards however require the person to believe that she would indeed deny herself the reward if she should fail to achieve the desired outcome. Drawing...... on Koszegi and Rabin's (2006) model of endogenous reference point formation, we show how a rational forward-looking individual can achieve such internal commitment. But our results also demonstrate the limitations of self regulation based on self-rewards....

  5. Commitment to Self-Rewards

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Alexander K.; Nafziger, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Self-administered rewards are ubiquitous. They serve as incentives for personal accomplish¬ments and are widely recommended as tools for overcoming self-control problems. However, it seems puzzling why self-rewards can work: the prospect of a reward has a motivating force only if the threat of self-denial of the reward after low performance is credible. We explain how a rational forward-looking individual may achieve commitment to self-rewards, by applying Köszegi and Rabin's (2006) model of ...

  6. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  7. INPO and the industry: a commitment to excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colvin, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Utilities in the United States have undergone major changes in their attitudes and methods of operating nuclear stations in the 6 yr since the accident at Three Mile Island. These changes reflect a strong commitment by the US utility industry to excellence in nuclear plant operations. Fundamental in this commitment was the formation of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), an organization created by the industry in the United States to serve as a focus and catalyst for these changes. With membership in INPO, nuclear utilities make a commitment to strive for excellence in the construction and operation of their nuclear plants. INPO has programs to help utilities in their efforts to achieve excellence. The most visible are the INPO evaluation programs. By the end of 1985, INPO will have evaluated most operating plants at least four times. Construction project evaluations are also being conducted. Twenty-one construction evaluations will have been conducted by the end of the year. Through each of its programs, INPO seeks to promote excellence and to help those operating and building nuclear plants in their commitment to excellence

  8. Outcomes of patients who commit suicide by burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castana, O; Kourakos, P; Moutafidis, M; Stampolidis, N; Triantafyllou, V; Pallantzas, Ath; Filippa, E; Alexandropoulos, C

    2013-03-31

    Cases in which people use fire when attempting or committing suicide are not common but nevertheless constitute a cause of admission to burns units worldwide. Usually these people are suffering from stress and have been diagnosed as mentally ill. Schizophrenia, depression, and personality disorders are the most frequently diagnosed conditions. The psychological problems appear to have been overlooked by the family or not to have been presented to them. The aim of this study is to present the clinical features, characteristics, and outcomes of patients burned during a suicide attempt. The role of the psychiatrist is important, starting in the emergency room. The incidence of patients committing self-injury by burning appears to be higher in women burn patients. Deceased patients usually have a larger extent of burns and a higher incidence of other injuries and require more surgical procedures and longer hospitalization times. The problems for burn unit staff and qualified psychiatric care are discussed.

  9. Outcomes of patients who commit suicide by burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castana, O.; Kourakos, P.; Moutafidis, M.; Stampolidis, N.; Triantafyllou, V.; Pallantzas, Ath.; Filippa, E.; Alexandropoulos, C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cases in which people use fire when attempting or committing suicide are not common but nevertheless constitute a cause of admission to burns units worldwide. Usually these people are suffering from stress and have been diagnosed as mentally ill. Schizophrenia, depression, and personality disorders are the most frequently diagnosed conditions. The psychological problems appear to have been overlooked by the family or not to have been presented to them. The aim of this study is to present the clinical features, characteristics, and outcomes of patients burned during a suicide attempt. The role of the psychiatrist is important, starting in the emergency room. The incidence of patients committing self-injury by burning appears to be higher in women burn patients. Deceased patients usually have a larger extent of burns and a higher incidence of other injuries and require more surgical procedures and longer hospitalization times. The problems for burn unit staff and qualified psychiatric care are discussed. PMID:23966897

  10. The impact of selected organizational variables and managerial leadership on radiation therapists' organizational commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akroyd, Duane; Legg, Jeff; Jackowski, Melissa B.; Adams, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of selected organizational factors and the leadership behavior of supervisors on radiation therapists' commitment to their organizations. The population for this study consists of all full time clinical radiation therapists registered by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) in the United States. A random sample of 800 radiation therapists was obtained from the ARRT for this study. Questionnaires were mailed to all participants and measured organizational variables; managerial leadership variable and three components of organizational commitment (affective, continuance and normative). It was determined that organizational support, and leadership behavior of supervisors each had a significant and positive affect on normative and affective commitment of radiation therapists and each of the models predicted over 40% of the variance in radiation therapists organizational commitment. This study examined radiation therapists' commitment to their organizations and found that affective (emotional attachment to the organization) and normative (feelings of obligation to the organization) commitments were more important than continuance commitment (awareness of the costs of leaving the organization). This study can help radiation oncology administrators and physicians to understand the values their radiation therapy employees hold that are predictive of their commitment to the organization. A crucial result of the study is the importance of the perceived support of the organization and the leadership skills of managers/supervisors on radiation therapists' commitment to the organization.

  11. The impact of selected organizational variables and managerial leadership on radiation therapists' organizational commitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akroyd, Duane [Department of Adult and Community College Education, College of Education, Campus Box 7801, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)], E-mail: duane_akroyd@ncsu.edu; Legg, Jeff [Department of Radiologic Sciences, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Jackowski, Melissa B. [Division of Radiologic Sciences, University of North Carolina School of Medicine 27599 (United States); Adams, Robert D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine 27599 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of selected organizational factors and the leadership behavior of supervisors on radiation therapists' commitment to their organizations. The population for this study consists of all full time clinical radiation therapists registered by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) in the United States. A random sample of 800 radiation therapists was obtained from the ARRT for this study. Questionnaires were mailed to all participants and measured organizational variables; managerial leadership variable and three components of organizational commitment (affective, continuance and normative). It was determined that organizational support, and leadership behavior of supervisors each had a significant and positive affect on normative and affective commitment of radiation therapists and each of the models predicted over 40% of the variance in radiation therapists organizational commitment. This study examined radiation therapists' commitment to their organizations and found that affective (emotional attachment to the organization) and normative (feelings of obligation to the organization) commitments were more important than continuance commitment (awareness of the costs of leaving the organization). This study can help radiation oncology administrators and physicians to understand the values their radiation therapy employees hold that are predictive of their commitment to the organization. A crucial result of the study is the importance of the perceived support of the organization and the leadership skills of managers/supervisors on radiation therapists' commitment to the organization.

  12. An empirical investigation on relationship between social capital and organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alikhani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between social capital and organizational commitment. The study considers the relationship between social capital with three components of organizational commitment; namely, affective commitment, continuous and normative commitment. The study has been applied among a sample of 292 regular employees who worked for an Iranian bank located in city of Tehran, Iran. The implementation of Pearson correlation has indicated that there were positive and meaningful relationships between social capital and affective commitment (r = 0.197, Sig. = 0.01, continuous (r = 0.308, Sig. = 0.01 and normative commitment (r = 0.423, Sig. = 0.01. In addition, the study has detected that women had more commitment on their organization than men did. The proposed study of this paper has also considered a regression model where organizational commitment is dependent variable and trust and communication are considered as independent variables. According to the results of regression analysis, an increase of one unit in trust and social capital communication will increase organizational commitment by 0.189 and 0.204, respectively.

  13. A study about the contribution of the α-β phase transition of quartz to thermal cycle damage of a refractory used in fluidized catalytic cracking units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. A. Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of refractories used in fluidized catalytic cracking units (FCC-units is responsible for high costs of maintenance for the petrochemical industry. This is commonly associated with coke deposition during the production of light hydrocarbons. However, other mechanisms responsible for causing damage may also occur, such as the generation of cracks by expansive phase transition. The aim of the work herein was to study the contribution of the a-b phase transition of quartz particles to the deterioration of a commercial aluminosilicate refractory used in a riser by the means of slow thermal cycles. Such damage may occur if the working temperature of the equipment fluctuates around the a-b transition temperature (573 °C. The current study considered the material with and without coke impregnation to evaluate the combined effect of coke presence and phase transition. To evaluate the damage, it was used the Young's modulus as a function of temperature by applying the Impulse Excitation Technique under controlled atmosphere. An equipment recently developed by the authors research group was applied. Specimens were prepared and submitted to slow thermal cycles of temperatures up to 500 °C and up to 700 °C, with a heating rate of 2 °C/min. Part of the specimens was previously impregnated with coke by a reactor using propen. To complete the evaluation, characterization by X-ray diffraction, as well as by dilatometry and scanning electron microscopy were performed. The findings of this study showed that the presence of quartz particles determine the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the material, as well as the thermocycling damage resistance. In spite of the fact that the a-b phase transition stiffens the material during the heating stage, it increases the damage by slow thermal cycling. The coke impregnation increases the resistance to slow thermal cycles, however it decreases the resistance to the damage evolution.

  14. Beijing: a conference of commitments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S

    1996-05-01

    The author of this article holds the view that the Declaration and Platform for Action at the UN Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995 was the product of the most highly participatory process ever organized under the auspices of the UN. The Declaration and Platform expressed the strongest views on gender equality, empowerment, and justice that governments have ever endorsed. These documents were the consolidation of gains made by women in previous UN conferences. The 135-page Platform can be used at all levels of decision making. Governments and international can be held accountable for its provisions. The Platform exposes the problems violence and exploitation against women and girls as well as the revelation that environmental destruction is due to an unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in developed countries. Conference participants included about 3000 nongovernmental groups (NGOs). The Women's Linkage Caucus and WEDO served to facilitate the advocacy process by providing briefings on text still under negotiation and providing on-line recommendations from the 1995 and 1994 Commission on the Status of Women preparatory committee meetings. A scoreboard that tracked government's commitment at the 1995 preparatory committee meetings was reinstated in Beijing. The information was conveyed on the Internet. The European Union is credited with diluting the language about government commitment to the Platform. Governments are still given responsibility for implementation, and the need for political will is stressed (paragraph 293). Paragraph 297 indicates the process for implementation of the Platform and coordination with NGOs. Although the Platform recognizes the importance of women's groups and other NGOs, the responsibility for implementation is still given to governments.

  15. Analysis of the Opportunity for an Increase in the Thermal Power of Power Generating Units of Nuclear Power Plants (Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Chernousenko, Olga Yuriivna; Nikulenkova, Tetiana Volodymyrivna; Nikulenkov, Anatolii Hennadiiovych

    2017-01-01

    For Ukraine the realization of available reserves to increase the power of operating power units of nuclear plants is a vital problem the solution of which would allow us to increase electric power output. A special role is also played by economic priorities; in particular an increase in power by 1 kW is ten times cheaper in comparison with the construction of 1 kW of new power facilities. One more factor is the world experience in the field of an increase in the thermal power of operating po...

  16. Factors Affecting Organizational Commitment in Navy Corpsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Kewley, Stephanie; Dell'Acqua, Renée G; Thomsen, Cynthia J

    2017-07-01

    Organizational commitment is a psychological state that has a strong impact on the likelihood that employees will remain with an organization. Among military personnel, organizational commitment is predictive of a number of important outcomes, including reenlistment intentions, job performance, morale, and perceived readiness. Because of the unique challenges and experiences associated with military service, it may be that organizational commitment is even more critical in the military than in civilian populations. Despite the essential role that they play in protecting the health of other service members, little is known about the factors that influence Navy Corpsmen's organizational commitment. This study investigated demographic and psychosocial factors that may be associated with organizational commitment among Corpsmen. Surveys of organizational commitment and possible demographic and psychosocial correlates of organizational commitment were completed by 1,597 male, active duty Navy Corpsmen attending Field Medical Training Battalion-West, Camp Pendleton, California. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors of organizational commitment. Of the 12 demographic and psychosocial factors examined, 6 factors emerged as significant predictors of organizational commitment in the final model: preservice motivation to be a Corpsman, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, confidence regarding promotions, occupational self-efficacy, social support for a Corpsman career, and lower depression. Importantly, a number of the factors that emerged as significant correlates of organizational commitment in this study are potentially modifiable. These factors include confidence regarding promotions, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, and occupational self-efficacy. It is recommended that military leaders and policy-makers take concrete steps to address these factors, thereby strengthening

  17. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  18. Disaggregated Futures and Options Commitments of Traders

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — The Disaggregated Futures and Options Commitments of Traders dataset provides a breakdown of each week's open interest for agriculture, energy, metals, lumber, and...

  19. Family Commitment and Work Characteristics among Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, Paul O; Ragland, Denise; Castleberry, Ashley N; Payakachat, Nalin

    2015-12-17

    Factors associated with family commitment among pharmacists in the south central U.S. are explored. In 2010, a cross-sectional mailed self-administered 70 item survey of 363 active licensed pharmacists was conducted. This analysis includes only 269 (74%) participants who reported being married. Outcome measures were family commitment (need for family commitment, spouse's family commitment), work-related characteristics (work challenge, stress, workload, flexibility of work schedule), and job and career satisfaction. Married participants' mean age was 48 (SD = 18) years; the male to female ratio was 1:1; 73% worked in retail settings and 199 (74%) completed the family commitment questions. Females reported a higher need for family commitment than males ( p = 0.02) but there was no significant difference in satisfaction with the commitment. Work challenge and work load were significantly associated with higher need for family commitment ( p work status, and practice setting. Higher work challenge was associated with higher career satisfaction. Higher job related stress was associated with lower job satisfaction. High work challenge and work load may negatively impact family function since married pharmacists would need higher family commitment from their counterparts. The impact of work-family interactions on pharmacy career satisfaction should be further investigated.

  20. Work engagement, organizational commitment, self efficacy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... Work engagement, organizational commitment and self-efficacy will create a positive ... effective training, counseling, effective communication and leadership skills.

  1. Family Commitment and Work Characteristics among Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O. Gubbins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors associated with family commitment among pharmacists in the south central U.S. are explored. In 2010, a cross-sectional mailed self-administered 70 item survey of 363 active licensed pharmacists was conducted. This analysis includes only 269 (74% participants who reported being married. Outcome measures were family commitment (need for family commitment, spouse’s family commitment, work-related characteristics (work challenge, stress, workload, flexibility of work schedule, and job and career satisfaction. Married participants’ mean age was 48 (SD = 18 years; the male to female ratio was 1:1; 73% worked in retail settings and 199 (74% completed the family commitment questions. Females reported a higher need for family commitment than males (p = 0.02 but there was no significant difference in satisfaction with the commitment. Work challenge and work load were significantly associated with higher need for family commitment (p < 0.01, when controlled for age, gender, number of dependents, work status, and practice setting. Higher work challenge was associated with higher career satisfaction. Higher job related stress was associated with lower job satisfaction. High work challenge and work load may negatively impact family function since married pharmacists would need higher family commitment from their counterparts. The impact of work-family interactions on pharmacy career satisfaction should be further investigated.

  2. Disaggregated Futures-Only Commitments of Traders

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — The Disaggregated Futures-Only Commitments of Traders dataset provides a breakdown of each week's open interest for agriculture, energy, metals, lumber, and...

  3. Committed dose equivalent in the practice of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.; Piechowski, J.

    1985-01-01

    In the case of internal exposure, the dose is not received at the moment of exposure, as happens with external exposure, since the incorporated radionuclide irradiates the various organs and tissues during the time it is present in the body. By definition, the committed dose equivalent corresponds to the received dose integrated over 50 years from the date of intake. In order to calculate it, one has to know the intake activity and the value of the committed dose equivalent per unit of intake activity. The uncertainties of the first parameter are such that the committed dose equivalent can only be regarded as an order of magnitude and not as a very accurate quantity. The use of it is justified, however, for, like the dose equivalent for external exposure, it expresses the risk of stochastic effects for the individual concerned since these effects, should they appear, would do so only after a latent period which is generally longer than the dose integration time. Moreover, the use of the committed dose equivalent offers certain advantages for dosimetric management, especially when it is simplified. A practical problem which may arise is that the annual dose limit is apparently exceeded by virtue of the fact that one is taking account, in the first year, of doses which will actually be received only in the following years. These problems are rare enough in practice to be dealt with individually in each case. (author)

  4. Temperature increase at the light guide tip of 15 contemporary LED units and thermal variation at the pulpal floor of cavities: an infrared thermographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M; DeVito-Moraes, A; Francci, C; Moraes, R; Pereira, T; Froes-Salgado, N; Yamazaki, L; Silva, L; Zezell, D

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive investigation on the temperature increase at the light guide tip of several commercial light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing units (LCUs) and the associated thermal variation (ΔT) at the pulpal floor of dental cavities was carried out. In total, 15 LEDs from all generations were investigated, testing a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) unit as a reference. The irradiance level was measured with a power meter, and spectral distribution was analyzed using a spectrometer. Temperature increase at the tip was measured with a type-K thermocouple connected to a thermometer, while ΔT at the pulpal floor was measured by an infrared photodetector in class V cavities, with a 1-mm-thick dentin pulpal floor. The relationship among measured irradiance, ΔT at the tip, and ΔT at the pulpal floor was investigated using regression analyses. Large discrepancies between the expected and measured irradiances were detected for some LCUs. Most of the LCUs showed an emission spectrum narrower than the QTH unit, with emission peaks usually between 450 and 470 nm. The temperature increase at the tip followed a logarithmic growth for LCUs with irradiance ≥1000 mW/cm(2), with ΔT at the tip following the measured irradiance linearly (R(2)=0.67). Linear temperature increase at the pulpal floor over the 40-second exposure time was observed for several LCUs, with linear association between ΔT at the pulpal floor and measured irradiance (R(2)=0.39) or ΔT at the tip (R(2)=0.28). In conclusion, contemporary LED units show varied irradiance levels that affect the temperature increase at the light guide tip and, as a consequence, the thermal variation at the pulpal floor of dental cavities.

  5. Committed, engaged e applied anthropology - Committed, engaged and applied anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luigi Palmisano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropology has become very popular over the past decades. We have witnessed a proliferation of anthropologists and anthropologies but the theoretical debate and the epistemological reflection of the discipline have come to a full stop. It seems that anthropology has reduced itself to a tekhne among many others, characterizing itself – according to the author – as «Atlantic anthropology», a protocolar anthropology in thrall to the dominating ideologies of the financial markets. The renewed discussion on the concepts of development and cooperation – concepts which have deeply marked the past three decades of social sciences and the current crystallization of anthropology – that is of contemporary economy, represents an opportunity to revivify and deepen the impact of anthropological theory. It is an epistemological and political impact with remarkable social and scientific consequences which is mostly detectable in one of the declinations of anthropology, i.e. applied anthropology, when and if intended as committed anthropology that founds its methodology and its way of being on fieldwork: a continuous dialogue with “alterity” in which the only thinkable “alienity” is represented by the tekhne and by the financial markets which support and promulgate it as omnipresent and almighty verbum.

  6. An examination of the role of perceived support and employee commitment in employee-customer encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Christian; Bentein, Kathleen; Michon, Richard; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Tremblay, Michel; Fils, Jean-François

    2007-07-01

    The authors examined the relationships between perceived organizational support, organizational commitment, commitment to customers, and service quality in a fast-food firm. The research design matched customer responses with individual employees' attitudes, making this study a true test of the service provider-customer encounter. On the basis of a sample of matched employee-customer data (N = 133), hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that perceived organizational support had both a unit-level and an employee-level effect on 1 dimension of service quality: helping behavior. Contrary to affective organizational commitment, affective commitment to customers enhanced service quality. The 2 sub-dimensions of continuance commitment to the organization--perceived high sacrifice and perceived lack of alternatives--exerted effects opposite in sign: The former fostered service quality, whereas the latter reduced it. The implications of these findings are discussed within the context of research on employee-customer encounters.

  7. Financial analysis on the proposed renewable heat incentive for residential houses in the United Kingdom: A case study on the solar thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Bakar, Siti Hawa; Muhammad-Sukki, Firdaus; Ramirez-Iniguez, Roberto; Munir, Abu Bakar; Mohd Yasin, Siti Hajar; Mallick, Tapas Kumar; McLennan, Campbell; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

    2014-01-01

    This short communication paper focuses on the renewable heat incentive (RHI) scheme in the United Kingdom (UK); and in particular, on its implication on domestic installations of solar thermal systems (STSs). First, a short review on the STS in the UK is provided. Then, a detailed description of the RHI is discussed. A financial analysis is presented afterwards, analysing the impact of the RHI scheme on the applicants, in terms of the net present value and the internal rate of return. From the financial analysis it has been found that the RHI scheme for domestic installations is only attractive if a longer period of RHI payment, i.e. 17 years, or a higher RHI rate i.e. £0.32 per kW h is implemented. The current proposal from the UK government is not financially viable, and as a result, it may hinder the penetration of domestic solar thermal systems in the residential sector in the UK. - Highlights: • A short review on solar thermal system (STS) is presented. • The renewable heat incentive (RHI) scheme is discussed. • A financial analysis is evaluated under the RHI scheme in the UK. • The analysis indicates the current proposal is not desirable to consumers

  8. Effects of Ethical Climate on Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment, and Job Satisfaction of Auditor in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of the ethical climate on the organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction of Malaysian auditors. Using a survey questionnaire comprising instruments about the ethical climate, organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction, 263 usable responses were received. To achieve the objectives, mean scores, standard deviations, correlations and multiple regressions were performed. The study revealed that a significant positive influence of a caring ethical climate on professional and organizational commitment as well as job satisfaction existed. There was also a positive significant association between the law and code ethical climate and professional commitment. On the other hand, the study discovered that the instrumental ethical climate type had a significant negative relationship with organizational commitment and job satisfaction. A significant negative relationship was also revealed between the independent ethical climate type and organizational and professional commitment. A significant negative relationship between the rules ethical climate and job satisfaction was also discovered.

  9. Thermal performance evaluation of a latent heat storage unit for late evening cooking in a solar cooker having three reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddhi, D.; Sharma, A. [Devi Ahilya University, Indore (India). School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Thermal Energy Storage Laboratory; Sharma, S.D. [Mie University, Tsu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Architecture

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, a phase change material (PCM) storage unit for a solar cooker was designed and developed to store energy during sunshine hours. The stored energy was utilised to cook food in the late evening. Commercial grade acetanilide (melting point 118.9 {sup o}C, latent heat of fusion 222 kJ/kg) was used as a latent heat storage material. Evening cooking experiments were conducted with different loads and loading times during the winter season. The experimental results showed that late evening cooking is possible in a solar cooker having three reflectors to enhance the incident solar radiation with the PCM storage unit. (author)

  10. Effects of Ethical Climate on Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment, and Job Satisfaction of Auditor in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Suhaiza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of the ethical climate on the organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction of Malaysian auditors. Using a survey questionnaire comprising instruments about the ethical climate, organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction, 263 usable responses were received. To achieve the objectives, mean scores, standard deviations, correlations and multiple regressions were performed. The study re...

  11. [Influence of organizational commitment and professional nurses in conflict resolution strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Paula; Albuquerque, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCE: The changes in the health area and the set of structural changes in the nursing profession and career interfere in the dynamics and stability of the future of the nurses. To study the influence of organizational and professional commitment of the nurses in the strategies of conflict resolution. This is a quantitative, transversal and non-experimental research, following a descriptive-correlational way. Non-probabilistic sample of 102 nurses to perform duties in Health Units, mostly female (82.4%) with a mean age of 39.33 years and standard deviation 9.226. The measuring instrument consists of three scales calibrated and validated for the portuguese population: Organizational Commitment Questionnaire, Professional Commitment Scale and Inventory Strategies for Conflict Resolution, which assesses how individuals deal with conflict situations before higher (Form A), subordinate (Form B) and colleagues (Form C). Nurses demonstrate a moderate organizational commitment and higher affective commitment and normative commitment to the instrumental. Nurses demonstrate a moderate professional commitment and the results show that nurses have higher values on the dimensions of that interest and challenge the relevance dimension of nursing as a profession. The organizational commitment influences the adoption of strategies of conflict resolution as a conflict situation arises with the boss, subordinates or colleagues. The higher the level of organizational commitment higher the level of professional commitment. Nurses more engaged professionally demonstrate strategies that use more integrative and compromise in conflict resolution whether against the boss, subordinates or colleagues. The results ensure the need to promote and stimulate the affective commitment by the positive consequences it entails the organization and the profession. The organizational performance benefits from the stimulation of the conflict under certain conditions and that the constructive

  12. Decision to commit crime: rational or nonrational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn D. Walters

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to prove the necessity to take into account the influence of emotions on decision making to describe a combined model of the decision making process which unites rational and irrational components of choice in crime commitment. Methods dialectic systemic historicallegal formaljuridical methods summarization. Results the paper gives a complex analysis of the criminal decisionmaking process and reveals the factors increasing the probability of antisocial actions. The value of the combined cognitiveemotive model is that emotions can give more significant information to the decisionmaker than reasoning. Scientific novelty the author proposes a theory of decision making which says that a person chooses to act or not to act under hedonistic or moral emotions while the irrelevant emotions are increased and the relevant ones are suppressed by cognitive and situational factors serving as a basis for criminal decision making. Practical significance studying the role of emotions in the criminal and noncriminal decision making will significantly contribute to the development of criminology. The research results will be useful for researchers and lawenforcement bodies as well as for all those who are interested in the issues of crime control and prevention.

  13. Host-country policy – commitment or no-commitment: a theoretical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a model of foreign entry strategy and examines welfare of the host-country under two situations - (i) where host-country government commits to the tax policy, (ii) where host-country government does not commit to the tax policy. It turns out that under the non-committed

  14. Employee commitment and performance of manufacturing firms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    445) between job satisfaction and employee organizational commitment. Multiple regression revealed that pay and job promotion are the important elements that influence employee commitment. It is recommended that manufacturing organizations should emphasize pay and job promotion to enhance higher employee ...

  15. Making Commitments to Racial Justice Actionable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Rasha; Ferrel, Thomas; Godbee, Beth; Simpkins, Neil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we articulate a framework for making our commitments to racial justice actionable, a framework that moves from narrating confessional accounts to articulating our commitments and then acting on them through both self-work and work-with-others, a dialectic possibility we identify and explore. We model a method for moving beyond…

  16. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  17. Understanding the Links between Work Commitment Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Rick D.; Lapierre, Laurent M.; Hausdorf, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    In a study of 852 nurses, work involvement (value of work in their lives) affected organizational and occupational commitment through its effect on job involvement. Job involvement indirectly affected intention to leave the organization or occupation. Work and job involvement and orgnanizational and occupational commitment were determined to be…

  18. 7 CFR 3550.70 - Conditional commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., dealer-contractor, or seller must: (1) Have an adequate ownership interest in the property, as defined in... approval of an affirmative marketing plan. (b) Limitations. Conditional commitments for new or... as bad weather, materials shortages, or marketing difficulties. Conditional commitments may be...

  19. The Influence of Culture on Teacher Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Razak, Nordin; Darmawan, I. Gusti Ngurah; Keeves, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Culture is believed to be an important factor that influences various aspects of human life, such as behaviour, thinking, perceptions and attitudes. This article examines the similarities and differences in the influence of culture on teacher commitment in three types of Malaysian primary schools. Since commitment to teaching has rarely been…

  20. On Entry Deterrence and Imperfectly Observable Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We analyse a simple entry-deterrence game, where a `Potential Intruder' only imperfectly observes the decision of an `Incumbent' to commit or to not commit to fight any entry by the Potential Intruder. Our game generalises the one studied in Bonanno (1992) by allowing for a richer information tec...

  1. Juvenile Court Commitment Rates: The National Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosin, Michael

    There is less geographic variation in the commitment rate of juvenile offenders than is commonly assumed. Apparently, judges across the country develop a similar standard of what percentage of youths they face should be committed. This standard may be similar across the country because it represents broadly shared ideals. However, there is much…

  2. Education on the Internet: Anonymity vs. Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Hubert L.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that learning a skill requires the kind of commitment which is undermined by the Press (the Public) and the Internet, citing Soren Kierkegaard's "The Present Age", and states that learning by apprenticeship is impossible in cyberspace. Includes: aesthetic sphere--commitment to the enjoyment of sheer information; ethical…

  3. The Behavioral Expression of Organizational Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Donna M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored within empirical study context complexity of organizational commitment construct and respondent-generated behavioral manifestations of job attitude among plant workers (N=156). Found each commitment dimension related differently to work outcomes and that none of the dimensions was able to predict absenteeism or tardiness. (Author/CM)

  4. A recursive economic dispatch algorithm for assessing the cost of thermal generator schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.P.; Doan, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops an efficient, recursive algorithm for determining the economic power dispatch of thermal generators within the unit commitment environment. A method for incorporating the operation limits of all on-line generators and limits due to ramping generators is developed in the paper. The developed algorithm is amenable for computer implementation using the artificial intelligence programming language, Prolog. The performance of the developed algorithm is demonstrated through its application to evaluate the costs of dispatching 13 thermal generators within a generator schedule in a 24-hour schedule horizon

  5. Dual or dueling culture and commitment: The impact of a tri-hospital merger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Janice M

    2003-04-01

    This article addresses differences in RNs' commitment to their employing hospital versus the umbrella corporate organization, and the role of organizational culture during a tri-hospital merger. This study is the first to investigate the construct of dual commitment in healthcare organizations. Fiscal restraints, decreasing reimbursement, and increasing competition have made organizational mergers and acquisitions prevalent. As corporate culture changes, organizational variables previously related to organizational commitment may no longer apply. RNs employed on general nursing units at 3 hospitals involved in a merger process completed 2 versions of Mowday's Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Commitment to hospital and corporate system were examined. Semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and analysis of company documents assessed the organizational culture changes that have occurred. Thirty-one percent of the nurses returned completed questionnaires; 9 were interviewed. RNs from the acquiring hospital demonstrated a significantly stronger commitment to the corporate system than the nurses from the acquired hospitals. The RNs at all 3 hospitals showed significantly greater commitment to their own particular hospital than to the umbrella corporate system. Moderate level of commitment reflected uncertainty of job status, work overload, and feelings of unappreciation. These attitudes prevent nurses from exerting efforts on behalf of the organization.

  6. Organizational culture and organizational commitment: Serbian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Siniša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the impact of certain dimensions of organizational culture (Future Orientation, Power Distance, Human Orientation and Performance Orientation on organizational commitment in companies in Serbia. Through a survey, responses were obtained from a total of N = 400 middle managers from 129 companies. The results show a statistically significant correlation between the observed dimensions of organizational culture and organizational commitment dimensions. Also, there is a statistically significant predictive effect of certain dimensions of organizational culture on the dimensions of organizational commitment. The biggest influences on the dimensions of organizational commitment have dimensions Future Orientation - FO and Performance Orientation - PO. On the other hand, under the most affected dimension of organizational culture is the dimension of organizational commitment Organizational identification - OCM1.

  7. Transient thermal response of a packed bed for energy storage unit utilizing phase change material: experimental and numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemansour, A.

    2006-01-01

    The present work concerns the numerical and experimental study of the transient response of a packed bed latent heat thermal energy storage system. Experiments were carried out to measures the transient temperature distributions inside a cylindrical bed, which is randomly packed with spheres having uniform sizes and encapsulated the paraffin wax as a phase change material (PCM), with air as a working fluid. A two-dimensional separate phases formulation is used to develop a numerical analysis of the transient response of the bed, considering the influence of both axial and radial thermal dispersion. The fluid energy equation was transformed by finite difference approximation and solved by alternating direction implicit scheme, while the PCM energy equation was solved using fully explicit scheme. This analysis can be applied for both charging and recovery modes and a broad range of Reynolds numbers. Measurements of both fluid and PCM temperature were conducted at different axial and radial positions and at different operating parameters. Experimental measurements of temperature distribution compare favorably with the numerical results over a broad range of Reynolds numbers.(Author)

  8. Application of Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) to treat low-toxicity mineral oil base cuttings in Barinas District, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon, Ruben [Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela); Luzardo, Janeth; Alcoba, Alcides [M-I SWACO, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The potential environmental impact of oil-based drill cuttings is generating increased scrutiny in the oil and gas industry. If left untreated, oil-based cuttings not only increase the risk of environmental liabilities, but also affect revenue, as drilling generates wastes that in most cases require special treatment before disposal. Consequently, the oil industry is looking for technologies to help minimize environmental liabilities. Accordingly, the Barinas District of PDVSA has started a pilot trial to treat oil-based drilling cuttings by applying thermal desorption technology. The main objective of this technology is recovering trapped hydrocarbons, while minimizing wastes and preparing solids to be disposed of through a mobile treatment plant. This novel technology has been used worldwide to treat organic pollutants in soil. Thermal desorption is a technology based on the application of heat in soils polluted with organic compounds. With this technology, target temperatures vary according to the type and concentration of detected pollutants along with its characterization, in such a way that compounds are disposed of by volatilization. As part of the integral waste management development along with the pilot trial for hydrocarbon-contaminated solid waste treatment, trials on soils were undertaken by applying process-generated ashes in equally-sized bins, with different mixtures (ashes, ashes organic material, ashes-organic material-sand, ashes-land). The resulting process offers an immediate soil remediation and final disposal solution for toxic and dangerous waste. (author)

  9. The Factors of Strategic Leadership on Commitment: An Empirical Banking in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliansyah Noor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at obtaining information related to possibility whether organizational commitment is affected by training, organization culture, and ethical practice. The data which had been analyzed by multi regression analysis after all variables had been put into principal factor analysis. In this research employees were chosen as a unit analysis and 120 samples selected randomly.The result of this study shows that organization commitment is positively affected by training, organization culture and ethical practice. Implications of organization commitment might have been effected by training, organization culture and ethical practice as a strategic leadership.

  10. Development and convergence : a bottom-up analysis for the differentiation of future commitments under the Climate Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, Heleen

    2002-01-01

    A key issue in climate negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is how future commitments can be differentiated amongst countries. This thesis focuses on a more systematic differentiation of such commitments to support international decision making in

  11. Assessment of thermal damage to polymeric materials by hydrogen deflagration in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.

    1985-05-01

    Thermal damage to susceptible material in accessible regions of the reactor building was distributed in non-uniform patterns. No clear explanation for non-uniformity was found in examined evidence, e.g., burned materials were adjacent to materials that appear similar but were not burned. Because these items were in proximity to vertical openings that extend the height of the reactor building, we assume the unburned materials preferentially absorbed water vapor during periods of high, local steam concentration. Simple hydrogen-fire-exposure tests and heat transfer calculations duplicate the degree of damage found on inspected materials from the containment building. These data support estimated 8% pre-fire hydrogen concentration predictions based on various hydrogen production mechanisms

  12. Factors associated with the goal commitment of radiography departments' staff in organizational change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenroos, Eija [Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Degree Programme in Radiography and Radiotherapy, Mannerheimintie 172, 00300 Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: eija.gronroos@metropolia.fi; Pajukari, Arja [MHS, Hus-Roentgen, PL 809, 00029 Hus (Finland)], E-mail: arja.pajukari@hus.fi; Matinheikki-Kokko, Kaija [Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Mannerheimintie 172, 00300 Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to examine factors associated with the goal commitment of radiography departments' staff. The associations studied are (1) organizational change, (2) work-related factors, (3) psychosocial work environment, and (4) intention to leave. Method: The follow-up study was performed between 2005 and 2007 in co-operation with 10 radiography departments of two Finnish municipalities. In 2005 the response rate was 60% (n = 97/163) and in 2007 it was 49% (n = 73/150). Results: The goal commitment had dropped during the organizational change from 3.96 in 2005 to 3.60 in 2007 (scale 1-5) (p = 0.001). Best predictors for the goal commitment of radiography departments' staff were having children (OR 4.4) and perceiving functional environment clearly (OR 2.6). Correlation between the goal commitment and intention to leave of the staff was -0.32 (p = 0.01). Conclusion: From the viewpoint of the commitment of the radiography departments' staff, the trend of uniting quite independent health care units into larger entities seems not to be beneficial. This study reveals that commitment to one's work unit is most of all a question of stability and job security. This is a fact the leadership of the radiography departments should take into account, appreciate and support to assure the tenure and productivity of their workforce.

  13. Factors associated with the goal commitment of radiography departments' staff in organizational change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenroos, Eija; Pajukari, Arja; Matinheikki-Kokko, Kaija

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to examine factors associated with the goal commitment of radiography departments' staff. The associations studied are (1) organizational change, (2) work-related factors, (3) psychosocial work environment, and (4) intention to leave. Method: The follow-up study was performed between 2005 and 2007 in co-operation with 10 radiography departments of two Finnish municipalities. In 2005 the response rate was 60% (n = 97/163) and in 2007 it was 49% (n = 73/150). Results: The goal commitment had dropped during the organizational change from 3.96 in 2005 to 3.60 in 2007 (scale 1-5) (p = 0.001). Best predictors for the goal commitment of radiography departments' staff were having children (OR 4.4) and perceiving functional environment clearly (OR 2.6). Correlation between the goal commitment and intention to leave of the staff was -0.32 (p = 0.01). Conclusion: From the viewpoint of the commitment of the radiography departments' staff, the trend of uniting quite independent health care units into larger entities seems not to be beneficial. This study reveals that commitment to one's work unit is most of all a question of stability and job security. This is a fact the leadership of the radiography departments should take into account, appreciate and support to assure the tenure and productivity of their workforce.

  14. The Impact of Trust on Organization Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kimberly; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the global economy continues to spawn competitive forces, organizations have sought to become more competitive by cutting costs, eliminating non-value added work, and using more automation. Jobs have become broader and more flexible leading to a leaner workforce with higher-level knowledge and skills and more responsibility for day-to-day decisions. More than ever, organizations depend on employees as the innovators and designers of products and processes and as a source of strategic advantage. Therefore employee commitment among knowledge workers is needed to maintain organizational viability. It would seem that stronger relationships due to greater dependency, involvement, and investment would develop between employers and high-technology workers resulting in more committed employees. However, the opposite has been evidenced as key knowledge workers are changing jobs frequently. This may be due to a perceived lack of commitment by management to its employees. The notion of exchange may dominate the development of organizational commitment whereby an individual decides what to give a firm (commitment, extra effort, better performance, etc.) based on what the firm gives them (e.g., trust and security). It is the relationship between an employee's organizational commitment and the responding level of trust in the organization that is examined in this paper. An experiment is described that will seek to identify this relationship. Preliminary results are expected to show a positive relationship whereby employee commitment is positively correlated with organizational trust.

  15. The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermann, Anders; Clark, Peter U; Marzeion, Ben; Milne, Glenn A; Pollard, David; Radic, Valentina; Robinson, Alexander

    2013-08-20

    Global mean sea level has been steadily rising over the last century, is projected to increase by the end of this century, and will continue to rise beyond the year 2100 unless the current global mean temperature trend is reversed. Inertia in the climate and global carbon system, however, causes the global mean temperature to decline slowly even after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, raising the question of how much sea-level commitment is expected for different levels of global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels. Although sea-level rise over the last century has been dominated by ocean warming and loss of glaciers, the sensitivity suggested from records of past sea levels indicates important contributions should also be expected from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Uncertainties in the paleo-reconstructions, however, necessitate additional strategies to better constrain the sea-level commitment. Here we combine paleo-evidence with simulations from physical models to estimate the future sea-level commitment on a multimillennial time scale and compute associated regional sea-level patterns. Oceanic thermal expansion and the Antarctic Ice Sheet contribute quasi-linearly, with 0.4 m °C(-1) and 1.2 m °C(-1) of warming, respectively. The saturation of the contribution from glaciers is overcompensated by the nonlinear response of the Greenland Ice Sheet. As a consequence we are committed to a sea-level rise of approximately 2.3 m °C(-1) within the next 2,000 y. Considering the lifetime of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, this imposes the need for fundamental adaptation strategies on multicentennial time scales.

  16. Escalation of Commitment in the Surgical ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, Carla C; Robinson, Celia N; Awad, Samir S

    2017-04-01

    Escalation of commitment is a business term that describes the continued investment of resources into a project even after there is objective evidence of the project's impending failure. Escalation of commitment may be a contributor to high healthcare costs associated with critically ill patients as it has been shown that, despite almost certain futility, most ICU costs are incurred in the last week of life. Our objective was to determine if escalation of commitment occurs in healthcare settings, specifically in the surgical ICU. We hypothesize that factors previously identified in business and organizational psychology literature including self-justification, accountability, sunk costs, and cognitive dissonance result in escalation of commitment behavior in the surgical ICU setting resulting in increased utilization of resources and cost. A descriptive case study that illustrates common ICU narratives in which escalation of commitment can occur. In addition, we describe factors that are thought to contribute to escalation of commitment behaviors. Escalation of commitment behavior was observed with self-justification, accountability, and cognitive dissonance accounting for the majority of the behavior. Unlike in business decisions, sunk costs was not as evident. In addition, modulating factors such as personality, individual experience, culture, and gender were identified as contributors to escalation of commitment. Escalation of commitment occurs in the surgical ICU, resulting in significant expenditure of resources despite a predicted and often known poor outcome. Recognition of this phenomenon may lead to actions aimed at more rational decision making and may contribute to lowering healthcare costs. Investigation of objective measures that can help aid decision making in the surgical ICU is warranted.

  17. A Stochastic Unit Commitment Model for a Local CHP Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Local CHP development in Denmark has during the 90’s been characterised by large growth primarily due to government subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs. In line with the liberalisation process in the EU, Danish local CHPs of a certain size must operate on market terms from 2005. This paper...

  18. Syncrude's commitment to Aboriginal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loader, R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Syncrude's program designed to maintain good relations with Aboriginal communities in all areas where Syncrude operation impact upon Aboriginal peoples and their traditional ways of life are described. The program extends from employment through education to business and community development, the preservation of traditional lifestyles, and the protection of the environment. As examples, some 13 per cent of Syncrude's workforce is made up of Aboriginal people, at an average annual salary of $58,000. The company offers $ 2,000 each, specifically to Aboriginal persons, wanting to further their education particularly in disciplines related to oil sands. A five-year $ 500,000 program has been established by Syncrude at the University of Alberta specifically for Aboriginal people to pursue careers in engineering, medicine , education and business. Other career programs are also offered through Keyano College, Athabasca University and the Northern Alberta Development Council, and there is a strong commitment by the company to encouraging adults to go back to school and for kids to stay in school. Last year the company spent $ 54 million with Aboriginal-owned and operated businesses; the company also support several programs to foster the appreciation of Aboriginal culture not only in Alberta but throughout the country. Environment is the fifth and final element of the Aboriginal Development Program. It involves consultation and working with local communities on environmental matters involving issues ranging from land reclamation to emission reduction. Some six million dollars are spent annually on reclaiming land and reintroducing native animal and plant species wherever possible. An outstanding example of this is the Wood Bison Trail on 210 hectares of reclaimed land managed by the Fort McKay First Nations. It is readily acknowledged that dealing with Aboriginal concerns has not been an easy road to travel and that there are still many things to do. Nevertheless, there

  19. Collective dose commitments from nuclear power programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.

    1977-01-01

    The concepts of collective dose and collective dose commitment are discussed, particularly regarding their use to compare the relative importance of the exposure from several radiation sources and to predict future annual doses from a continuing practice. The collective dose commitment contributions from occupational exposure and population exposure due to the different components of the nuclear power fuel cycle are evaluated. A special discussion is devoted to exposures delivered over a very long time by released radionuclides of long half-lives and to the use of the incomplete collective dose commitment. The maximum future annual ''per caput'' doses from present and projected nuclear power programmes are estimated

  20. ENSURING THERMAL REGIME FOR THE SUPPLY DISTRIBUTED DEVICES IN THE COMPOSITION OF THE SHIP'S SECONDARY POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS ON THE BASE OF THE STANDARDIZED UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article deals with the problem of constructing the power supply devices in the composition of the ship's secondary power systems based on standardized blocks and securing their thermal regime.Methods. It is stated that with the advent of modern power electronics multifunctional components the secondary power supply developers got possibilities to improve the quality of secondary power supply and to upgrade the existing systems.Results. The advantages of unified power units, having a function of parallel operation are revealed. Heat transfer processes in a vertical channel with free convection, and the calculation of the minimum width of the channel, which provides efficient heat removal have been analyzed.Conclusion.A model is proposed for determining the minimum distance between the blocks without deterioration of heat transfer in the channel formed by the walls of adjacent blocks.

  1. Operational analysis of the coupling between a multi-effect distillation unit with thermal vapor compression and a Rankine cycle power block using variable nozzle thermocompressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega-Delgado, Bartolomé; Cornali, Matteo; Palenzuela, Patricia; Alarcón-Padilla, Diego C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Variable nozzle steam ejectors are used for operation flexibility of MED plants. •The power block breaking points have been investigated by simulations in Thermoflex. •An operational model of the MED-TVC process is developed for part load operation. •Efficiency and fresh water production are studied at nominal and partial loads. -- Abstract: In Multi-Effect Distillation with Thermal Vapor Compression (MED-TVC) plants, fixed steam ejectors are usually designed for constant motive steam pressures. When these distillation units are integrated into Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants, the available motive steam pressure is normally lower than the design value (due to the partial load operation of the power cycle under different solar radiation conditions), being the efficiency of the steam ejectors drastically reduced. Also, it has a negative impact on the fresh water production from the desalination plant because of a decrease in the mass flow of the motive steam. All this can be avoided by using variable nozzle steam ejectors, which can adjust the mass flow rate of steam according to the variable pressure so that they are always operating with the maximum efficiency and therefore they can maintain the freshwater production of the desalination plant near to the nominal value. This work presents a study of the coupling between CSP plants and MED-TVC units using variable nozzle steam ejectors in a wide range of operating conditions (on and off-design). For this purpose, simulations of a Rankine cycle power block in a typical commercial CSP plant have been firstly performed at different thermal loads to investigate the operational limits that allow keeping the motive steam mass flow rates constant. Then, the efficiency and fresh water production of an MED-TVC unit coupled to the different extractions available at the CSP plant have been studied in a wide range of operating conditions, covering both nominal and partial loads. To this end, an

  2. Thermal springs list for the United States; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Key to Geophysical Records Documentation No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.W.; Grim, P.J.; Ikelman, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    The compilation has 1702 thermal spring locations in 23 of the 50 States, arranged alphabetically by State (Postal Service abbreviation) and degrees of latitude and longitude within the State. It shows spring name, surface temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius; USGS Professional Paper 492 number, USGS Circular 790 number, NOAA number, north to south on each degree of latitude and longitude of the listed. USGS 1:250,000-scale (AMS) map; and the USGS topographic map coverage, 1:63360- or 1:62500-scale (15-minute) or 1:24000-scale (7.5-minute) quadrangle also included is an alphabetized list showing only the spring name and the State in which it is located. Unnamed springs are omitted. The list includes natural surface hydrothermal features: springs, pools, mud pots, mud volcanoes, geysers, fumaroles, and steam vents at temperature of 20{sup 0}C (68[sup 0}F) or greater. It does not include wells or mines, except at sites where they supplement or replace natural vents presently or recently active, or, in some places, where orifices are not distinguishable as natural or artificial. The listed springs are located on the USGS 1:250,000 (AMS) topographic maps. (MHR)

  3. Green Suppliers Network Supply Chain Commitment Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online form to show your company desires to be a Green Suppliers Network supply chain. Expresses an intent to: commit to engage at least five suppliers to complete an assessment process within a 12-month period and more.

  4. Organisational commitment and responses to planned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review Volume 15 Number 3 2011 ... This type of change is said to address surface-level issues and avoids threats to deep- .... instrumentality, and commitment to the organisation based on moral attachment by.

  5. Identification of Determinants of Organizational Commitment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commitment. In this setting, factors such as the loyalty employees feel are based on a .... Organizational structure characteristics like size span of control, .... working environment (ii) Tools and equipment (iii) Working methods (iv) Security.

  6. JOB ANXIETY, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND JOB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and work experience with job satisfaction. ... were more likely to perceive the appraisal as unfair and inappropriate (Desai and ... Working freedom, salary and fringe benefits are the major factors ..... Men, women and attitudinal commitment:.

  7. Work Engagement, Organizational Commitment, Self Efficacy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work engagement, organizational commitment and self-efficacy will create a positive attitude in records ... counseling, effective communication and leadership skills. This study therefore ...... self-efficacy and self-esteem: Toward theoretical and ...

  8. Organisational Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Turnover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated organisational commitment, job satisfaction and turnover intentions among records management personnel in Ondo State Civil Service, Akure, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to draw 240 subjects from a population size of 275 records management personnel.

  9. Gauging the Commitment of Clandestine Group Members

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downs, Doneda D

    2006-01-01

    .... Until a few years ago, most research on individual commitment and organizational cohesion has been based primarily on questionnaires and open observations on groups that desire to be understood...

  10. 76 FR 50286 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...., subsidies, standards and technical regulations, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, government procurement... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for comments and notice of public hearing concerning China's compliance with its WTO...

  11. Competency management: Balancing between commitment and control

    OpenAIRE

    Heinsman, Hanneke; de Hoogh, Annebel H. B.; Koopman, Paul L.; van Muijen, Jaap J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between commitment and control approaches and the use of competency management by adopting the theory of planned behavior. Questionnaires were filled out by 43 human resource experts working in different organizations. We expected components of the theory of planned behavior to mediate the relationship between commitment and control approaches and the use of competency management (behavior). Regression analysis showed that perceived behavioral control...

  12. COMMITMENT A Psychological Tie and Moral Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Research When I think of commitment, it is a feeling and an action with a strong moral component. However, as I began researching commitment it became...characteristics of “being committed” must be independent of behavior. One mechanism of doing this is through the analysis of bargaining and side bets .27...Becker uses Schelling’s example of bargaining to buy a house to explain side bets . In this scenario, you offer $16,000, but the seller counters with

  13. Quantum bit commitment with misaligned reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrow, Aram; Oliveira, Roberto; Terhal, Barbara M.

    2006-01-01

    Suppose that Alice and Bob define their coordinate axes differently, and the change of reference frame between them is given by a probability distribution μ over SO(3). We show that this uncertainty of reference frame is of no use for bit commitment when μ is uniformly distributed over a (sub)group of SO(3), but other choices of μ can give rise to a partially or even arbitrarily secure bit commitment

  14. Interpersonal Conflict and Organizational Commitment Among Licensed Practical Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loes, Chad N; Tobin, Mary B

    The shortage of nursing professionals in the United States is unquestionable. This shortage, which is predicted to continue into the foreseeable future, is a particularly salient problem within the nursing profession. This is especially true for long-term care facility administrators who not only are faced with the challenge of increasing numbers of aging residents but also regularly struggle with turnover among more cost-effective nursing staff, such as licensed practical nurses (LPNs). The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether perceived interpersonal conflict influences organizational commitment among LPNs. To accomplish this, we analyzed responses from 1165 LPNs throughout a Midwestern state who were queried on their perceptions of interpersonal conflict and organizational commitment in their work settings. Considering a wide range of potential confounding influences such as age and years working as an LPN, for example, we found that higher perceived interpersonal conflict was associated with significantly lower levels of organizational commitment. The implications of these findings, along with recommendations for nurse administrators to reduce LPN turnover, are discussed in the article.

  15. Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2014-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and organisational commitment. Motivation for the study: Managers have to rethink ways of improving productivity and performance at work, due to the diverse, and in some instances escalating, needs of employees (e.g. financial support to uphold their interest in and enjoyment of working. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative approach was employed to gather the data for the study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design. The sample (n = 415 consisted of working employees from various companies and positions in Gauteng, South Africa. Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment. Further, psychological meaningfulness predicts work engagement, whilst psychological meaningfulness and work engagement predict organisational commitment. Practical/managerial implications: Employers identifying their employees’ commitment patterns and mapping out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organisational goals will yield positive work outcomes (e.g. employees who are creative, seek growth or challenges for themselves. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the literature through highlighting the impact that meaningful work has on sustaining employee commitment to the organisation.

  16. Commitment and Switching Intentions: Customers and Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Werneck Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the relationship between a customer’s brand switching intentions and his commitment to a brand. Based on a literature review, constructs related to customer brand commitment were identified (affective and continuance commitment, trust, satisfaction, switching costs and alternative attractiveness and their roles in the formation of brand switching intentions hypothesized. Through a cross-sectional survey, a sample of 201 smartphone users was collected to test the proposed relationships. Data analysis was carried out via structural equations modeling, with direct effects of trust, satisfaction, switching costs and alternative attractiveness upon the different kinds of commitment being verified. Furthermore, both types of brand commitment (affective and continuance were found to negatively impact a customer’s intention to switch brands. Regarding enterprise customer strategies, the research findings suggest that, if firms are able to track customer brand commitment, they could use such knowledge to develop better relationship strategies, minimizing customer defection and further developing customer value to the company.

  17. The Artistic Commitment of Kenyon Cox: An American Neoclassical Artist

    OpenAIRE

    SMITH, Marc S.

    2016-01-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, the United States had undergone deep transformations. The second Industrial Revolution had created huge amounts of new wealth and power. This led to an alteration of the urban social fabric and to a repositioning of the country on the international scene.Since the 1870s, the American Renaissance had been a vehicle for the diffusion of new values and new concepts. As a broad neoclassical movement in the arts, it was committed to a rewriting of the country’...

  18. The Influence of Transformational Leadership on Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment,and Employee Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnis Atmojo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research has four main objectives; first, to prove and analyze the influence of transformational leadership towards employee job satis faction; Second, to prove and analyze the influence of transformational leadership towards organizational commitment; Third, to prove and analyze the influence of transformationalleadership towards employee performance; Fourth, to prove and analyze the influence of organization commitment towards the employee performance. This research involved 146 members of middle management as our research sample namely Head of Department, Plantation Manager, Plant Manager, Head of Bureau/Division, Head Assistant, Head of Strategic Business Unit (SBU, Chief Engineer and Head of Hospital Service. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM was used to test and analyze relationship among the research variables. Research findings are transformational leadership significantly influences job satisfaction, transformational leadership significantly influences the organization commitment. The job satisfaction is shown to have significant influence on employee performance, and organization commitment significantly influences the employee performance.

  19. Organizational commitment of a health profession faculty: dimensions, correlates and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Dennis M; Henkin, Alan B

    2004-06-01

    Health professions depend on their faculties to prepare new practitioners, conduct research and provide essential services. Organizational commitment is an important aspect of faculty effectiveness and job performance, and may impact on turnover, absenteeism and interpersonal trust. A survey of organizational commitment, including faculty demographics and workplace variables, was conducted. Respondents were full- and part-time chiropractic faculty working in the United States and Canada. More than 54% of the study population (n = 609) completed and returned the instrument. A large majority of the respondents were male (68.4%) and employed full-time (81.6%). Almost half (47.5%) of the respondents were assigned to the area of patient care at their institutions. This study provides an initial assessment of organizational commitment among chiropractic faculty. Tenure in higher education, gender and age were found to be the most important predictors of organizational commitment.

  20. Relationship between organizational culture and commitment of employees in health care centers in west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Yadollah; Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh; Soltanian, Alireza; Behzadifar, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Presence of committed personnel in each organization not only reduces their absenteeism, delays, and displacements but also leads to a dramatic increase in performance and efficiency of an organization, mental freshness of employees, better manifestation of noble objectives, and organizational mission as well as fulfillment of personal goals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment of employees in administrative units of health care centers in the cities of Hamedan Province based on the Denison model in 2015. In this cross-sectional study, 177 employees in administrative units of health care centers in the cities of Hamedan Province were selected by a multistage stratified sampling method. The data collection instruments included the standardized Denison organizational culture survey and organizational commitment questionnaire by Meyer and Allen. Data were analyzed by IBM-SPSS version 21 using descriptive statistics and Pearson product-moment coefficient. Among the 12 indicators of organizational culture, the highest mean scores were assigned to empowerment (16.74), organizational learning (16.41), vision (16.4), and strategic direction (16.35); respectively. Furthermore, the indicators of capability development (14.2), core values (15.31), team orientation (15.45), and goals (15.46) received the lowest mean scores in this respect. Among the four dimensions of organizational culture, the highest mean score was related to "mission" in organizational culture and the lowest score was associated with "involvement." Meyer and Allen's organizational commitment model also had three components in which affective commitment in this study obtained the highest score (26.63) and continuance commitment received the lowest score (24.73). In this study, there was a significant correlation between all the components of organizational culture and organizational commitment of employees in

  1. 78 FR 1211 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice 2012-0558] Application for Final Commitment...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  2. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis of composite resins with CQ and PPD as photo-initiators photoactivated by QTH and LED units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, William Cunha; Silva, Cristina Gomes; Frollini, Elisabete; Souza-Junior, Eduardo Jose Carvalho; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal and mechanical properties of the composite resins containing the photo-initiators camphorquinone (CQ) and/or phenyl-propanodione (PPD) when photoactivated with halogen lamp (XL2500/3M-ESPE), monowave (UltraBlueIS/DMC) and polywave (UltraLume5/Ultradent) LED units. A blend of BisGMA, UDMA, BisEMA and TEGDMA was prepared with the same wt% of photo-initiators CQ and/or PPD and 65wt% of silaneted filler particles. Compression strength (CS), diametral tensile strength (DTS) and diametral modulus (DM) were tested. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was made and the lost residual monomer were verified. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) was used for to analyze the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the storage modulus in 37°C. Degree of conversion (DC) was accomplished in the same samples of DMA using middle-infrared spectroscopy (mid-IR). CQ, CQ/PPD and PPD obtained the same results for all mechanical properties (CS, DTS and DM), lost residual monomer and storage modulus in 37°C, regardless LCU used. The results of Tg showed that the combination PPD-UltraLume5 produced the highest values. DC showed that the combination CQ-UltraLume5 resulted in the highest values and PPD-XL2500 in the lowest DC values. The study shows that PPD is not only effective photosensitizers, but also photocrosslinking agents for dental composite resins with a similar efficiency to CQ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Three Mile Island Unit 1 Main Steam Line Break Three-Dimensional Neutronics/Thermal-Hydraulics Analysis: Application of Different Coupled Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, Francesco; Moreno, Jose Luis Gago; Galassi, Giorgio Maria; Grgic, Davor; Spadoni, Antonino

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the double ended main steam line break (MSLB) accident assumed to occur in the Babcock and Wilcox Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1) has been carried out at the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione of the University of Pisa, Italy, in cooperation with the University of Zagreb, Croatia. The overall activity has been completed within the framework of the participation in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development-Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations-Nuclear Science Committee pressurized water reactor MSLB benchmark.Thermal-hydraulic system codes (various versions of Relap5), three-dimensional (3-D) neutronics codes (Parcs, Quabbox, and Nestle), and one subchannel code (Cobra) have been adopted for the analysis. Results from the following codes (or code versions) are assumed as reference:1. Relap5/mod3.2.2, beta version, coupled with the 3-D neutron kinetics Parcs code parallel virtual machine (PVM) coupling2. Relap5/mod3.2.2, gamma version, coupled with the 3-D neutron kinetics Quabbox code (direct coupling)3. Relap5/3D code coupled with the 3-D neutron kinetics Nestle code.The influence of PVM and of direct coupling is also discussed.Boundary and initial conditions of the system, including those relevant to the fuel status, have been supplied by Pennsylvania State University in cooperation with GPU Nuclear Corporation (the utility, owner of TMI) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The comparison among the results obtained by adopting the same thermal-hydraulic nodalization and the coupled code version is discussed in this paper.The capability of the control rods to recover the accident has been demonstrated in all the cases as well as the capability of all the codes to predict the time evolution of the assigned transient. However, one stuck control rod caused some 'recriticality' or 'return to power' whose magnitude is largely affected by boundary and initial conditions

  4. Does smoking cannabis affect work commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyggen, Christer

    2012-07-01

      This study aimed to examine the associations between cannabis use and work commitment.   We used a 25-year panel survey initiated in 1985 with follow-ups in 1987, 1989, 1993, 2003 and 2010. Registered data from a range of public registers were matched with individual responses for the entire period.   The panel survey was a nation-wide study set in Norway.   A total of 1997 respondents born between 1965 and 1968 were included in the panel.   Work involvement scale (WIS) was used to assess work commitment. Involvement with cannabis was based on self-reported smoking of cannabis within the last 12 months and exposure to cannabis through friends. This information was categorized into 'abstaining', 'exposed', 'experimented' and 'involved'. Control measures included socio-economic background, mental health (HSCL-10), education, work satisfaction, unemployment, receipt of social assistance, consumption of alcohol, alcohol-related problems and use of other illicit drugs.   The level of work commitment was associated with involvement with cannabis. In 1993, when the respondents were in their mid-20s, those who were involved or had experimented with cannabis displayed lower levels of work commitment than those who were abstaining or merely exposed to cannabis through friends (P labour market experiences, mental health and family characteristics (P Norway the use of cannabis is associated with a reduction in work commitment among adults. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Influence of Teacher Empowerment on Teachers' Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogler, Ronit; Somech, Anit

    2004-01-01

    The present study focuses on the relationship between teacher empowerment and teachers' organizational commitment, professional commitment (PC) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). It examines which subscales of teacher empowerment can best predict these outcomes. The data were collected through a questionnaire returned by a sample of…

  6. Perceived Sacrifice and Few Alternatives Commitments: The Motivational Underpinnings of Continuance Commitment's Subdimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Christian; Panaccio, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Using work on self-concepts and Conservation of Resources theory, the present research examined the motivational underpinnings of continuance commitment's subcomponents of perceived sacrifice and few alternatives. Study 1 (N=208) found job scope to be positively related to perceived sacrifice commitment, and negatively related to few alternatives…

  7. Romantic Relationship Commitment and Its Linkages with Commitment to Parents and Friends during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan; van Duin, Jet; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This five-wave longitudinal study examines linkages between adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationship commitment and the development of adolescents' perceptions of commitment to parents and friends. A total of 218 early-to-middle adolescents (39.0 percent boys) and 185 middle-to-late adolescents (30.8 percent boys) participated.…

  8. Exploring the differential impact of individual and organizational factors on organizational commitment of physicians and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedaner, Felix; Kuntz, Ludwig; Enke, Christian; Roth, Bernhard; Nitzsche, Anika

    2018-03-15

    Physician and nursing shortages in acute and critical care settings require research on factors which might drive their commitment, an important predictor of absenteeism and turnover. However, the degree to which the commitment of a physician or a nurse is driven by individual or organizational characteristics in hospitals remains unclear. In addition, there is a need for a greater understanding of how antecedent-commitment relationships differ between both occupational groups. Based on recent findings in the literature and the results of a pilot study, we investigate the degree to which selected individual and organizational characteristics might enhance an employee's affective commitment working in the field of neonatal intensive care. Moreover, our aim is to examine the different antecedent-commitment relationships across the occupational groups of nurses and physicians. Information about individual factors affecting organizational commitment was derived from self-administered staff questionnaires, while additional information about organizational structures was taken from hospital quality reports and a self-administered survey completed by hospital department heads. Overall, 1486 nurses and 540 physicians from 66 Neonatal Intensive Care Units participated in the study. We used multilevel modeling to account for different levels of analysis. Although organizational characteristics can explain differences in an employee's commitment, the differences can be largely explained by his or her individual characteristics and work experiences. Regarding occupational differences, individual support by leaders and colleagues was shown to influence organizational commitment more strongly in the physicians' group. In contrast, the degree of autonomy in the units and perceived quality of care had a larger impact on the nurses' organizational commitment. With the growing number of hospitals facing an acute shortage of highly-skilled labor, effective strategies on the

  9. Policy Uncertainty, Investment and Commitment Periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Today's investment decisions in key sectors such as energy, forestry or transport have significant impacts on the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the coming decades. Given the economic and environmental long-term implications of capital investment and retirement, a climate mitigation regime should aim to encourage capital investment in climate-friendly technologies. Many factors affect technology choice and the timing of investment, including investor expectations about future prices and policies. Recent international discussions have focused on the importance of providing more certainty about future climate policy stringency. The design of commitment periods can play a role in creating this environment. This paper assesses how the length of commitment periods influences policy uncertainty and investment decisions. In particular, the paper analyses the relationship between commitment period length and near term investment decisions in climate friendly technology.

  10. Organizational identification and commitment: correlates of sense of belonging and affective commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Ma Celeste; Jiménez García, Gemma

    2012-03-01

    The general purpose of this work is to analyze the overlap between organizational identification and commitment. Specifically, our study focuses on the analysis of the differences and similarities between sense of belonging (a dimension of organizational identification) and affective commitment (a dimension of organizational commitment). In order to do this, we analyzed their discriminant validity and raised their relationship with variables that previous research had showed like precedent and subsequent variables of them: value congruence, perceived support, organizational citizenship behavior, and intention to continue in the organization. A total of 292 people at one organization completed surveys measuring the variables previously described. The results showed that sense of belonging and affective commitment are different concepts and they have different relationships with relation to precedent and subsequent variables. Affective commitment seems to be more useful than sense of belonging to predict organizational citizenship behavior aimed at the organization and intention to continue. Some practical implications are described.

  11. Interaction between daily load demand curve and management of hydro-thermal generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granelli, G.; Montagna, M.; Pasini, G.; Innorta, M.; Marannino, P.

    1993-01-01

    The influence that the behaviour of the daily load demand curve has on the management of a hydro-thermal generation system is considered. The aim of this paper is to show the improvements that can be achieved by suitable load management techniques capable of flattening the load demand curve. The analysis is carried out by using a hydro-thermal scheduling program and a thermal unit dynamic dispatch procedure. The possibility of properly re-committing the available thermal units is also taken into account. The economical and technical convenience of shutting down less economical thermal units operating near the lower generations limits is verified. Finally, some considerations are made about the possible use of the thermal generation incremental costs as a tool for planning the end users' kWh prices, even in the short term. The results refer to a system with characteristics similar to those of the Italian one. In determining the daily load demand curves, the characteristics of load demand in Italy as well as in other European countries are taken into account

  12. 28 CFR 522.11 - Civil contempt commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil contempt commitments. 522.11..., CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.11 Civil contempt commitments. Inmates can come into Bureau custody for civil contempt commitments in two ways: (a) The U.S...

  13. Commitment Elements Reframed (Antecedents & Consequences) for Organizational Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornes, Sandra L.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify theories of commitment in the workplace to develop a framework that helps the field create higher levels of commitment, productivity, and satisfaction. The paper is organized into five main sections: the method, commitment in the workplace, mapping workplace commitment, and the implications for HRD and…

  14. Ni(NH32(NO32—A 3-D Network through Bridging Nitrate Units Isolated from the Thermal Decomposition of Nickel Hexammine Dinitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Breternitz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel nitrate diammine, Ni(NH32(NO32, can be synthesised from the thermal decomposition of nickel nitrate hexammine, Ni[(NH36](NO32. The hexammine decomposes in two distinct major stages; the first releases 4 equivalents of ammonia while the second involves the release of NOx, N2, and H2O to yield NiO. The intermediate diammine compound can be isolated following the first deammoniation step or synthesised as a single phase from the hexammine under vacuum. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXD experiments have allowed the structure of Ni(NH32(NO32 to be solved for the first time. The compound crystallises in orthorhombic space group Pca21 (a = 11.0628 (5 Å, b = 6.0454 (3 Å, c = 9.3526 (4 Å; Z = 4 and contains 11 non-hydrogen atoms in the asymmetric unit. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy demonstrates that the bonding in the ammine is consistent with the structure determined by PXD.

  15. Optimization of the level and range of working temperature of the PCM in the gypsum-microencapsulated PCM thermal energy storage unit for summer conditions in Central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łapka, P.; Jaworski, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper thermal energy storage (TES) unit in a form of a ceiling panel made of gypsum-microencapsulated PCM composite with internal U-shaped channels was considered and optimal characteristics of the microencapsulated PCM were determined. This panel may be easily incorporated into, e.g., an office or residential ventilation system in order to reduce daily variations of air temperature during the summer without additional costs related to the consumption of energy for preparing air parameters to the desired level. For the purpose of the analysis of heat transfer in the panel, a novel numerical simulator was developed. The numerical model consists of two coupled parts, i.e., the 1D which deals with the air flowing through the U-shaped channel and the 3D which deals with heat transfer in the body of the panel. The computational tool was validated based on the experimental study performed on the special set-up. Using this tool an optimization of parameters of the gypsum-microencapsulated PCM composite was performed in order to determine its most appropriate properties for the application under study. The analyses were performed for averaged local summer conditions in Warsaw, Poland.

  16. An Approach for Measuring the Sorptive Behavior of Odorants Using a Multifunction Thermal Desorber Unit: Preliminary Tests on Reduced Sulfur Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Woo Joo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the sorptive behavior of reduced sulfur compounds (RSC was investigated using a combination of thermal desorber (TD unit and gas chromatography (GC. To examine the sorptive properties of RSC on textile materials, two types of experiments were conducted under experimental conditions favorable for sorptive processes. In all the experiments, gaseous standards of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were supplied to initiate the adsorption processes on textile pieces. The textile pieces were then forced to release those adsorbed RSC under a fixed condition. It was found that the extent of adsorption, if evaluated quantitatively, occurred at approximately 1/1000 to 1/100 of the level of RSC standards supplied originally to induce adsorption. It also indicated that RSC adsorption was affected very sensitively by the initial exposure durations to induce RSC adsorption with an exponential decrease in relative recovery (RR values with increasing exposure time. The relative sorptive patterns, when compared between different RSCs, were affected most sensitively by such factors as molecular weight and/or physical contact conditions.

  17. THE ASSOCIATION OF ISLAMIC BASED CARING MODEL AND COMMITMENT TO ORGANIZATION IN STAFF NURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuda Ayu Timorita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strong organizational commitment is needed by hospitals to attract and retain nursing staffs in order to consistently deliver good quality of nursing services. The decrease in organizational commitment among nurses can cause many losses to the organization, including increased organizational spending, breakdown in patient care, and cause performance trends that appear not for the benefit of the organization or unit, but more for personal self-interest. Objective: To analyze the relationship of the application of Islamic Based Caring (IBC model with organizational commitment among nurses. Methods: This was a correlation analytic research with cross sectional design. There were 108 nurses selected using a propotionate stratified random sampling. Islamic Based Caring was measured using a questionnaire developed based on the theory of Suhartini Ismail (2016, and organizational commitment was measured using a questionnaire developed based on the concept of Caldwell, O’Reilly & Chatmann (1990 and Mowday, Porter dan Steers (1982 in Asmaningrum (2009. Logistic regression and forward stepwise (conditional method were used for data analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant correlation of a healing presence (p=0.000, caring relationship (p=0.010, caring environment (p=0.045 and belief in God (p=0.000. Belief in God (Allah SWT has the highest correlation (OR=6.660 with organizational commitment among nurses. Conclusion: There is a positive and significant relationship between the implementation of Islamic Based Caring with the organization's commitment among nurses.

  18. Measuring Asian nurses' organizational commitment: a critical analysis of the psychometric properties of two organizational commitment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2013-01-01

    To analyze and compare the psychometric properties and cultural attributes of the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and the Organizational Commitment Scale to determine their appropriateness for measuring commitment of Asian nurses, the biggest portion of international nurses. The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was cross-culturally cross-validated when compared with the Organizational Commitment Scale. Both instruments were not tested on Asian nurses. More studies are needed to validate the cultural properties of the Organizational Commitment Scale. Healthcare administrators can use culturally validated instruments, which concern cultural context, including languages and cultural values, to understand Asian nurses' organizational commitment and further lower turnover behavior among them. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Competency management : Balancing between commitment and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsman, H.; Hoogh, de A.H.B.; Muijen, van J.J.; Koopman, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between commitment and control approaches and the use of competency management by adopting the theory of planned behavior. Questionnaires were filled out by 43 human resource experts working in different organizations. We expected components of the theory of

  20. New Commitment Options: Compatibility with Emissions Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This paper considers different options for quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments from the standpoint of their technical compatibility with emissions trading. These are dynamic targets, binding targets with price caps, non-binding targets, sector-wide targets/mechanisms, action targets, allowances and endowments, and long-term permits. This paper considers these options from the standpoint of their compatibility with emissions trading.

  1. Evolution of collective commitment during teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, R

    In this paper we aim to describe dynamic aspects of social and collective attitudes in teams of agents involved in Cooperative Problem Solving (CPS). Particular attention is given to the strongest motivational attitude, collective commitment, and its evolution during team action. First, building on

  2. Reflections: The Worldwide Commitment to Educational Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Comments on articles appearing in the 2001 theme issue of Sociology of Education. Considers the nature and impact of the widespread cultural commitment to educational equality. Discusses other aspects of education not emphasized in this issue, such as the implications of racial inequality, credentialism, and educational organization (CAJ)

  3. Race, Commitment to Deviance, and Spoiled Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony R.

    1976-01-01

    Data generated by 234 young black and white inmates in 1971 challenge the assumption that spoiled identity is a necessary, socially invariant outcome of deviant commitment and self-definition. For blacks, the relationship between criminal self-typing and stability and esteem is negative but inconsequential; for whites, the relationship is negative…

  4. Sport commitment in adolescent soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Belando Pedreño

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to contribute to the postulates of the self-determination theory, the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation by Vallerand, and social goals. A structural regression model was estimated to analyze the relations between social goals (responsibility and relationships, praise for autonomous behavior, satisfaction of the basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation in commitment to sport. A sample of 264 young Spanish soccer players aged between 14 and 16 (M =14.74, SD =.77 participated in the study. Structural Equation Modeling results showed that the social responsibility goal, the social relationship goal and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived competence. Furthermore, the relationship goal also predicted the need for relatedness. Satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for competence and relatedness predicted intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation positively predicted future commitment to sport. These results highlighted the importance of social goals, praise for autonomous behavior and psychological mediators in encouraging greater commitment in young soccer players. Future research should focus on the coach’s role in generating greater commitment to sport through the development of intervention methodologies based on social goals.

  5. Factors Predicting Faculty Commitment to the University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjortoft, Nancy

    This paper examines the effect of faculty rank, satisfaction with salary, working conditions, institutional reputation, perceived influence on institutional policies, participation in meetings, and perceived governance on organizational commitment (at both the departmental and institutional level) using a representative sample of 4,925 faculty.…

  6. Predicting volunteer commitment in environmental stewardship programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ryan; Rachel Kaplan; Robert E. Grese

    2001-01-01

    The natural environment benefits greatly from the work of volunteers in environmental stewardship programmes. However, little is known about volunteers' motivations for continued participation in these programmes. This study looked at the relationship between volunteer commitment and motivation, as well as the effect that volunteering has on participants'...

  7. Children's Developing Commitments to Joint Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Katharina; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated young children's commitment to a joint goal by assessing whether peers in collaborative activities continue to collaborate until all received their rewards. Forty-eight 2.5- and 3.5-year-old children worked on an apparatus dyadically. One child got access to her reward early. For the partner to benefit as well, this child…

  8. Packaging of Sin Goods - Commitment or Exploitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia

    to such self-control problems, and possibly exploit them, by offering different package sizes. In a competitive market, either one or three (small, medium and large) packages are offered. In contrast to common intuition, the large, and not the small package is a commitment device. The latter serves to exploit...

  9. Influencing Organizational Commitment through Office Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Paula C.; McElroy, James C.; Scheibe, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the effects of office redesign on work-related outcomes has been largely a theoretical and yielded mixed and conflicting findings. Expanding on individual reactions to office design changes as specified by social interference theory, we propose that office redesign affects organizational commitment and this relationship is…

  10. Organizational Commitment through Organizational Socialization Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filstad, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…

  11. Resistance, Justice, and Commitment to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rex D.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on individual responses to organizational change by exploring the relationships among individual resistance, organizational justice, and commitment to change following organizational change implementations in three organizations. To accomplish this, Web-based questionnaires were used to gather individual-level quantitative…

  12. Organizational Justice and Commitment in Interscholastic Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three organizational justice dimensions on the commitment of high school student athletes (N = 480) to continue playing a referent sport. The athletes were asked to complete an instrument designed to assess their perceived levels of justice displayed by their coaches in three justice…

  13. Non-linear Capital Taxation Without Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Farhi; Christopher Sleet; Iván Werning; Sevin Yeltekin

    2012-01-01

    We study efficient non-linear taxation of labour and capital in a dynamic Mirrleesian model incorporating political economy constraints. Policies are chosen sequentially over time, without commitment. Our main result is that the marginal tax on capital income is progressive, in the sense that richer agents face higher marginal tax rates. Copyright , Oxford University Press.

  14. An Analysis of Organisational Commitment by Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate organisational commitment in the era of the new psychological contract, or the psychological environment created by an economic down turn in Zimbabwe. The psychological contract that exists between employees and organisations is brittle due to many organisational changes ...

  15. From commitment to practice: the EU response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne van Selm

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Events in North Africa in 2011 transformed the pattern of boat arrivals in Europe – significantly in terms of the motivations of those arriving but with smaller numbers than might have been anticipated. The EU’s response indicates that more is needed to translate a commitment to solidarity from limited aid and statements of principle into practical reality

  16. Personal factors affecting organizational commitment of records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated personal factors affecting organizational commitment among records management personnel in the state universities in Nigeria. Simple cluster sampling with equal allocation method was used to select 180 records management personnel from the study population. A five item organizational ...

  17. The Relationship of Parenting Styles to Commitment to the Church among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Roger L.; Wisbey, Randall L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of parenting style experiences during childhood has on the religious commitment of young adults. Surveyed Seventh-day Adventist young adults (n=653) in United States and Canada. Reveals that the affectionate constraint parenting style produced the largest percentage of members. Includes references. (CMK)

  18. 75 FR 65615 - Conditional Commitment for a Federal Loan Guarantee for Project Financing for Southwest Intertie...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Conditional Commitment for a Federal Loan Guarantee for Project Financing for... based on the analysis in the Final Environmental Impact Statement for Project Financing for Southwest... support of debt financing for transmission infrastructure investment projects located in the United States...

  19. Formalizing the Relationship Between Commitment and Basic Cryptographic Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sree Vivek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive which offers the functionality of both digital signature and encryption with lower combined computational cost. On the other hand, commitment scheme allows an entity to commit to a value, where the entity reveals the committed value later during a decommit phase. In this paper, we explore the connection between commitment schemes, public key encryption, digital signatures and signcryption. We establish formal relationship between commitment and the other primitives. Our main result is that we show signcryption can be used as a commitment scheme with appropriate security notions. We show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is IND-CCA2 secure, then the hiding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Similarly, we show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is unforgeable, then the relaxed biding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Moreover, we prove that if the underlying signcryption scheme is NM-CCA2, then the commitment scheme is non-malleable.

  20. Commitment tracking in the licensing renewal process: A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurican, Gregory M.; Breslauer, Stephen K.

    1991-01-01

    The NRC's proposed 10 CFR 54 defines 'Current licensing basis' as inclusive of all licensee commitments. During the last five years, the regulatory commitment tracking group (RCTG) has been developing guidance for member utilities to track such commitments. The RCTG guidance for commitment tracking assists utilities in developing a system to store and maintain commitments related to the CLB. But a majority believe it unlikely that any one commitment tracking system will capture all commitments contained in the proposed definition of a 'Current Licencing Basis'. For future renewal applications the NRC proposes that utilities must identify and compile all licensing basis commitments. In addition, utilities 'shall maintain...(them) in an auditable and retrievable form'. Some utilities are already compiling and tracking licensing basis commitments; others are not. (author)

  1. Validating Teacher Commitment Scale Using a Malaysian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Mee Thien

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to validate an integrative Teacher Commitment scale using rigorous scale validation procedures. An adapted questionnaire with 17 items was administered to 600 primary school teachers in Penang, Malaysia. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA with SPSS 19.0 and AMOS 19.0, respectively. The results support Teacher Commitment as a multidimensional construct with its four underlying dimensions: Commitment to Student, Commitment to Teaching, Commitment to School, and Commitment to Profession. A validated Teacher Commitment scale with 13 items measured can be proposed to be used as an evaluative tool to assess the level to which teachers are committed to their students’ learning, teaching, school, and profession. The Teacher Commitment scale would also facilitate the identifications of factors that influence teachers’ quality of work life and school effectiveness. The practical implications, school cultural influence, and methodological limitations are discussed.

  2. Involuntary Outpatient Commitment and the Elusive Pursuit of Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Marvin S; Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W

    2017-02-01

    Involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC)-also referred to as 'assisted outpatient treatment' or 'community treatment orders'-are civil court orders whereby persons with serious mental illness and repeated hospitalisations are ordered to adhere to community-based treatment. Increasingly, in the United States, OPC is promoted to policy makers as a means to prevent violence committed by persons with mental illness. This article reviews the background and context for promotion of OPC for violence prevention and the empirical evidence for the use of OPC for this goal. Relevant publications were identified for review in PubMed, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, personal communications, and relevant Internet searches of advocacy and policy-related publications. Most research on OPC has focussed on outcomes such as community functioning and hospital recidivism and not on interpersonal violence. As a result, research on violence towards others has been limited but suggests that low-level acts of interpersonal violence such as minor, noninjurious altercations without weapon use and arrests can be reduced by OPC, but there is no evidence that OPC can reduce major acts of violence resulting in injury or weapon use. The impact of OPC on major violence, including mass shootings, is difficult to assess because of their low base rates. Effective implementation of OPC, when combined with intensive community services and applied for an adequate duration to take effect, can improve treatment adherence and related outcomes, but its promise as an effective means to reduce serious acts of violence is unknown.

  3. Unprecedented climate events: Historical changes, aspirational targets, and national commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Singh, Deepti; Mankin, Justin S.

    2018-01-01

    The United Nations Paris Agreement creates a specific need to compare consequences of cumulative emissions for pledged national commitments and aspirational targets of 1.5° to 2°C global warming. We find that humans have already increased the probability of historically unprecedented hot, warm, wet, and dry extremes, including over 50 to 90% of North America, Europe, and East Asia. Emissions consistent with national commitments are likely to cause substantial and widespread additional increases, including more than fivefold for warmest night over ~50% of Europe and >25% of East Asia and more than threefold for wettest days over >35% of North America, Europe, and East Asia. In contrast, meeting aspirational targets to keep global warming below 2°C reduces the area experiencing more than threefold increases to 90% of North America, Europe, East Asia, and much of the tropics—still exhibit sizable increases in the probability of record-setting hot, wet, and/or dry events. PMID:29457133

  4. Competition with Variety Seeking and Habitual Consumption: Price Commitment or Quality Commitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates price and quality competition in a market where consumers seek variety and habit formation. Variety seeking is modeled as a decrease in the willingness to pay for product purchased on the previous occasion while habitual consumption may increase future marginal utility. We compare two competing strategies: price commitment and quality commitment. With a three-stage Hotelling-type model, we show that variety seeking intensifies while habitual consumption softens the competition. With price commitment, firms supply lower quality levels in period 1 and higher quality levels in period 2, while, with quality commitment, firms charge higher prices in period 1 and lower prices in period 2. However, the habitual consumption brings the opposite effect. In addition, with quality commitment variety seeking leads to a lower profit and a higher consumer surplus, while habitual consumption leads to the opposite results. On the other side, with price commitment these behaviors have no effect on the consumer surplus, although they still lower down the firm profits. Finally, we also identify conditions under which one strategy outperforms the other.

  5. Intelligence, democracy, and international environmental commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obydenkova, Anastassia; Salahodjaev, Raufhon

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of nations' commitment to environmental protection at the international level by focusing on the role of national intelligence and the level of democracy. The national intelligence is measured by nation's IQ scores. The findings based on a sample of 152 nations provide strong evidence that intelligence has statistically significant impact on ratification of international environmental agreements, and the countries with IQ 10-points above global average are 23% more likely to sign multilateral environmental agreements than others. The findings also demonstrate that it is the combination of high-level of intelligence of nations and democracy, that likely result in international environmental commitments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of Murine Natural Killer Cell Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Huntington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NK cells can derive from the same precursors as B and T cells, however to achieve lineage specificity, several transcription factors need to be activated or annulled. While a few important transcription factors have identified for NK genesis the mechanisms of how this is achieved is far from resolved. Adding to the complexity of this, NK cells are found and potentially develop in diverse locations in vivo and it remains to be addressed if a common NK cell precursor seeds diverse niches and how transcription factors may differentially regulate NK cell commitment in distinct microenvironments. Here we will summarise some recent findings in NK cell commitment and discuss how a NK cell transcriptional network might be organised, while addressing some misconceptions and anomalies along the way.

  7. Commitment to personal values and guilt feelings in dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Alberto, Laura; Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Vara, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Caregivers' commitment to personal values is linked to caregivers' well-being, although the effects of personal values on caregivers' guilt have not been explored to date. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between caregivers´ commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Participants were 179 dementia family caregivers. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to describe sociodemographic variables and assess stressors, caregivers' commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Commitment to values was conceptualized as two factors (commitment to own values and commitment to family values) and 12 specific individual values (e.g. education, family or caregiving role). Hierarchical regressions were performed controlling for sociodemographic variables and stressors, and introducing the two commitment factors (in a first regression) or the commitment to individual/specific values (in a second regression) as predictors of guilt. In terms of the commitment to values factors, the analyzed regression model explained 21% of the variance of guilt feelings. Only the factor commitment to family values contributed significantly to the model, explaining 7% of variance. With regard to the regression analyzing the contribution of specific values to caregivers' guilt, commitment to the caregiving role and with leisure contributed negatively and significantly to the explanation of caregivers' guilt. Commitment to work contributed positively to guilt feelings. The full model explained 30% of guilt feelings variance. The specific values explained 16% of the variance. Our findings suggest that commitment to personal values is a relevant variable to understand guilt feelings in caregivers.

  8. 77 FR 47382 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice 2012-0345] Application for Final Commitment...: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  9. 78 FR 67144 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2013-0050] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP086418XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United...) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has...

  10. Kantianism and Its Commitment to Non Naturalism

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Kantian ethics has a strong following amongst the philosophical community when it comes to morality and ethics. Many Kantians, including Christine Korsgaard, subscribe to the view that Kantianism is opposed to Non-Naturalism. This view, while understandable, is incorrect. In fact, the Kantian approach to ethics has a strong commitment to Non-Naturalism in its metaphysical construction. The purpose of this paper is to prove this dependence by showing the inferences and concepts of Kantianism...

  11. Requirements as Goals and Commitments Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Amit K.; Mylopoulos, John; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; Giorgini, Paolo; Singh, Munindar P.

    In traditional software engineering research and practice, requirements are classified either as functional or non-functional. Functional requirements consist of all functions the system-to-be ought to support, and have been modeled in terms of box-and-arrow diagrams in the spirit of SADT. Non-functional requirements include desired software qualities for the system-to-be and have been described either in natural language or in terms of metrics. This orthodoxy was challenged in the mid-90 s by a host of proposals that had a common theme: all requirements are initially stakeholder goals and ought to be elicited, modeled and analyzed as such. Through systematic processes, these goals can be refined into specifications of functions the system-to-be needs to deliver, while actions assigned to external actors need to be executed. This view is dominating Requirements Engineering (RE) research and is beginning to have an impact on RE practice. We propose a next step along this line of research, by adopting the concept of conditional commitment as companion concept to that of goal. Goals are intentional entities that capture the needs and wants of stakeholders. Commitments, on the other hand, are social concepts that define the willingness and capability of an actor A to fulfill a predicate ϕ for the benefit of actor B, provided B (in return) fulfills predicate ψ for the benefit of actor A. In our conceptualization, goals are mapped to collections of commitments rather than functions, qualities, or actor assignments. We motivate the importance of the concept of commitment for RE through examples and discussion. We also contrast our proposal with state-of-the-art requirements modeling and analysis frameworks, such as KAOS, MAP, i * and Tropos.

  12. Generation Y: Arbeitsbezogene Erwartungen und affektives Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Giry, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Die Erwartungen der Generation Y zu kennen, ist wichtig für Unternehmen, die Leistungsträger aus dieser Generation langfristig binden wollen. Die affektive Bindung der Generation Y gegenüber einer Organisation, der Zusammenhang zwischen der Erfüllung arbeitsbezogener Erwartungen und affektivem Commitment sowie der Fluktuationsneigung der Generation Y werden empirisch überprüft. Die Generation Y hat hohe Erwartungen an Unternehmenswerte und Unternehmenskultur. Es wurden Zusammenhänge zwischen ...

  13. Limited Commitment Models of the Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Thomas; Tim Worrall

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview of models of long-term self-enforcing labour con- tracts in which risk-sharing is the dominant motive for contractual solutions. A base model is developed which is sufficiently general to encompass the two-agent problem central to most of the literature, including variable hours. We consider two-sided limited commitment and look at its implications for aggregate labour market variables. We consider the implications for empirical testing and the available empirical evide...

  14. Optimal Taxation in a Limited Commitment Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Yena Park

    2012-01-01

    This article studies optimal Ramsey taxation when risk sharing in private insurance markets is imperfect due to limited enforcement. In a limited commitment economy, there are externalities associated with capital and labour because individuals do not take into account that their labour and saving decisions affect aggregate labour and capital supply and wages, and thus the value of autarky. Therefore, a Ramsey government has an additional goal, which is to internalize these externalities of l...

  15. Professional Commitment and Professional Marginalism in Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikov A.I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews teachers' attitudes towards the teaching profession which can be expressed both in professional commitment and in professional marginalism. The dominance of professional marginalism could affect destructively the students as well as the teacher’s personality, hence the issues related to the content of personal position of a marginal and the rate of marginalism among teachers. It was suggested that marginalism could be revealed in the study of professional commitment. The study involved 81 teachers of Sverdlovsk secondary schools aged 21—60 years with work experience ranging from 1 month to 39 years. The Professional Commitment Questionnaire was used as the study technique. The results showed that negative emotional attitude towards the profession and reluctance to leave the profession were grouped as a separate factor. The dispersion factor was 12,5%. The factor loadings ranged from 0.42 to 0.84. The study proved that professional marginalism in teachers includes dissatisfaction with work, feelings of resentment against profession and an unwillingness to leave the profession.

  16. Impact of committed individuals on vaccination behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Tao; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2012-11-01

    We study how the presence of committed vaccinators, a small fraction of individuals who consistently hold the vaccinating strategy and are immune to influence, impact the vaccination dynamics in well-mixed and spatially structured populations. For this purpose, we develop an epidemiological game-theoretic model of a flu-like vaccination by integrating an epidemiological process into a simple agent-based model of adaptive learning, where individuals (except for those committed ones) use anecdotal evidence to estimate costs and benefits of vaccination. We show that the committed vaccinators, acting as “steadfast role models” in the populations, can efficiently avoid the clustering of susceptible individuals and stimulate other imitators to take vaccination, hence contributing to the promotion of vaccine uptake. We substantiate our findings by making comparative studies of our model on a full lattice and on a randomly diluted one. Our work is expected to provide valuable information for decision-making and design more effective disease-control strategy.

  17. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

  18. Commitment bias : mistaken partner selection or ancient wisdom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Back, Istvan H.

    Evidence across the social and behavioral sciences points to psychological mechanisms that facilitate the formation and maintenance of interpersonal commitment. In addition, evolutionary simulation studies suggest that a tendency for increased, seemingly irrational commitment is an important trait

  19. 48 CFR 1501.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to present its claim to the General Accounting Office in accordance with the instructions contained... commitments, whether oral or written and without regard to dollar value. Examples of unauthorized commitments...

  20. 28 CFR 522.14 - Inmates serving civil contempt commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmates serving civil contempt... ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.14 Inmates serving civil contempt commitments. We treat inmates serving civil contempt commitments in...

  1. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  2. Predicting Organizational Commitment from Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, Cemalettin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from…

  3. Survey of generational aspects of nurse faculty organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Lara; Candela, Lori; Gutierrez, Antonio P

    2011-01-01

    To describe organizational commitment and generational differences in nursing faculty. The study provides new knowledge on generational differences in organizational commitment among nursing faculty with regard to work values, perceived organizational support, perceived person-organization fit, developmental experiences, and global job satisfaction. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used with random stratified sampling procedures. Surveys measuring organizational commitment and related constructs were sent electronically to 4886 faculty, yielding a 30% response rate. Significant differences were noted between generations of faculty regarding organizational commitment and related measures. Include specific strategies for fostering commitment from each generation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantum bit commitment with cheat sensitive binding and approximate sealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Bing; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Wan, Zong-Jie

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a cheat-sensitive quantum bit commitment scheme based on single photons, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob. Here, Bob’s probability of success at cheating as obtains the committed bit before the opening phase becomes close to \\frac{1}{2} (just like performing a guess) as the number of single photons used is increased. And if Alice alters her committed bit after the commitment phase, her cheating will be detected with a probability that becomes close to 1 as the number of single photons used is increased. The scheme is easy to realize with present day technology.

  5. Group covariant protocols for quantum string commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2006-01-01

    We study the security of quantum string commitment (QSC) protocols with group covariant encoding scheme. First we consider a class of QSC protocol, which is general enough to incorporate all the QSC protocols given in the preceding literatures. Then among those protocols, we consider group covariant protocols and show that the exact upperbound on the binding condition can be calculated. Next using this result, we prove that for every irreducible representation of a finite group, there always exists a corresponding nontrivial QSC protocol which reaches a level of security impossible to achieve classically

  6. Compulsory outpatient treatment can prevent involuntary commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene Nørregård; Svensson, Eva Maria Birgitta; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    Compulsory outpatient treatment (co-pt) has been possible in Denmark since 2010. The aim is to secure necessary treatment, reduce involuntary commitment and improve quality of life for patients with a severe psychiatric illness. Co-pt has been brought into use in 33 cases. This case report...... describes a patient with paranoid schizophrenia who several times developed severe psychotic symptoms shortly after discharge due to lack of compliance with treatment. Within one year of co-pt the patient was not admitted to hospital and improved in overall functioning. After terminating co-pt the patient...

  7. Uniminuto and his social commitment to childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Esperanza Bustos Sierra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly describes some of the conceptualizations of childhood education that have been evolving along time and that have contributed to an understanding of children as rights holders, leading to the emergence of different social, political, and academic movements, which make their determination evident in the creation of national and international organizations to guarantee the children’s well-being. UNIMINUTO responds to its social commitment with the creation of the undergraduate program in childhood pedagogy as an alternative of vocational training that will make the existence of society possible.

  8. Safety climate and safety behaviors in the construction industry: The importance of co-workers commitment to safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwatka, Natalie V; Rosecrance, John C

    2016-06-16

    There is growing empirical evidence that as safety climate improves work site safety practice improve. Safety climate is often measured by asking workers about their perceptions of management commitment to safety. However, it is less common to include perceptions of their co-workers commitment to safety. While the involvement of management in safety is essential, working with co-workers who value and prioritize safety may be just as important. To evaluate a concept of safety climate that focuses on top management, supervisors and co-workers commitment to safety, which is relatively new and untested in the United States construction industry. Survey data was collected from a cohort of 300 unionized construction workers in the United States. The significance of direct and indirect (mediation) effects among safety climate and safety behavior factors were evaluated via structural equation modeling. Results indicated that safety climate was associated with safety behaviors on the job. More specifically, perceptions of co-workers commitment to safety was a mediator between both management commitment to safety climate factors and safety behaviors. These results support workplace health and safety interventions that build and sustain safety climate and a commitment to safety amongst work teams.

  9. On Commitments and Other Uncertainty Reduction Tools in Joint Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate the proposal that a central function of commitments within joint action is to reduce various kinds of uncertainty, and that this accounts for the prevalence of commitments in joint action. While this idea is prima facie attractive, we argue that it faces two serious problems. First, commitments can only reduce uncertainty if they are credible, and accounting for the credibility of commitments proves not to be straightforward. Second, there are many other ways in which uncertainty is commonly reduced within joint actions, which raises the possibility that commitments may be superfluous. Nevertheless, we argue that the existence of these alternative uncertainty reduction processes does not make commitments superfluous after all but, rather, helps to explain how commitments may contribute in various ways to uncertainty reduction.

  10. Boudot's Range-Bounded Commitment Scheme Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhengjun; Liu, Lihua

    Checking whether a committed integer lies in a specific interval has many cryptographic applications. In Eurocrypt'98, Chan et al. proposed an instantiation (CFT Proof). Based on CFT, Boudot presented a popular range-bounded commitment scheme in Eurocrypt'2000. Both CFT Proof and Boudot Proof are based on the encryption E(x, r)=g^xh^r mod n, where n is an RSA modulus whose factorization is unknown by the prover. They did not use a single base as usual. Thus an increase in cost occurs. In this paper, we show that it suffices to adopt a single base. The cost of the modified Boudot Proof is about half of that of the original scheme. Moreover, the key restriction in the original scheme, i.e., both the discrete logarithm of g in base h and the discrete logarithm of h in base g are unknown by the prover, which is a potential menace to the Boudot Proof, is definitely removed.

  11. Rationales for the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, John C. (Editor); Merceret, Francis J. (Editor); Krider, E. Philip; O'Brien, T. Paul; Dye, James E.; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Cummins, Kenneth; Christian, Hugh J.; Madura, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Since natural and triggered lightning are demonstrated hazards to launch vehicles, payloads, and spacecraft, NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD) follow the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) for launches from Federal Ranges. The LLCC were developed to prevent future instances of a rocket intercepting natural lightning or triggering a lightning flash during launch from a Federal Range. NASA and DoD utilize the Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP) to establish and develop robust rationale from which the criteria originate. The rationale document also contains appendices that provide additional scientific background, including detailed descriptions of the theory and observations behind the rationales. The LLCC in whole or part are used across the globe due to the rigor of the documented criteria and associated rationale. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) adopted the LLCC in 2006 for commercial space transportation and the criteria were codified in the FAA's Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for Safety of an Expendable Launch Vehicle (Appendix G to 14 CFR Part 417, (G417)) and renamed Lightning Flight Commit Criteria in G417.

  12. Commit* to change? A call to end the publication of the phrase 'commit* suicide'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Emma; Padmanathan, Prianka; Knipe, Duleeka

    2016-12-06

    Background. Countering stigma is a fundamental facet of suicide prevention efforts.  Integral to this is the promotion of accurate and sensitive language.  The phrase 'commit* suicide' has prompted marked opposition primarily due to the connotations of immorality and illegality.  Methods. The study investigated the frequency of the use of the wordstem 'commit', in relation to self-harm and suicidal behaviours, in the three leading suicide-specific academic journals between 2000 and 2015.  Results. One third (34%) of articles published since the year 2000 used the word 'commit*' when describing an act of self-harm or suicide. Over half of these articles (57%) used the phrase on more than one occasion, with 6% using it more than 10 times in the same manuscript. The percentage of papers utilising the word 'commit*' has fluctuated over time, but there is a promising downward trend in the use of this phrase from 33% in 2000 to 13% in 2015 ( p suicide. Whilst we call for collective responsibility amongst academics and clinicians, editors hold a unique position in ensuring that outdated, inaccurate and stigma-laden terms are expunged from the scientific literature.

  13. Commitment and the New Employment Relationship : Exploring a Forgotten Perspective: Employers Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torka, Nicole; Looise, Jan Kees; van Riemsdijk, Maarten

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we have endeavoured to integrate the concept 'employers’ commitment' into the understanding of the new employment relationship. HRM scholars and practitioners assume that changes in (international) market and employee characteristics lead to a transformation of the employer-employee

  14. Commitment to COT verification improves patient outcomes and financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Paul M; Brundage, Susan I; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Spain, David A

    2009-07-01

    After an unsuccessful American College of Surgery Committee on Trauma visit, our level I trauma center initiated an improvement program that included (1) hiring new personnel (trauma director and surgeons, nurse coordinator, orthopedic trauma surgeon, and registry staff), (2) correcting deficiencies in trauma quality assurance and process improvement programs, and (3) development of an outreach program. Subsequently, our trauma center had two successful verifications. We examined the longitudinal effects of these efforts on volume, patient outcomes and finances. The Trauma Registry was used to derive data for all trauma patients evaluated in the emergency department from 2001 to 2007. Clinical data analyzed included number of admissions, interfacility transfers, injury severity scores (ISS), length of stay, and mortality for 2001 to 2007. Financial performance was assessed for fiscal years 2001 to 2007. Data were divided into patients discharged from the emergency department and those admitted to the hospital. Admissions increased 30%, representing a 7.6% annual increase (p = 0.004), mostly due to a nearly fivefold increase in interfacility transfers. Severe trauma patients (ISS >24) increased 106% and mortality rate for ISS >24 decreased by 47% to almost half the average of the National Trauma Database. There was a 78% increase in revenue and a sustained increase in hospital profitability. A major hospital commitment to Committee on Trauma verification had several salient outcomes; increased admissions, interfacility transfers, and acuity. Despite more seriously injured patients, there has been a major, sustained reduction in mortality and a trend toward decreased intensive care unit length of stay. This resulted in a substantial increase in contribution to margin (CTM), net profit, and revenues. With a high level of commitment and favorable payer mix, trauma center verification improves outcomes for both patients and the hospital.

  15. An industry-wide commitment to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, L.

    1992-01-01

    As part of its ongoing effort to further enhance its environmental, health, and safety effort. Neste committed itself to the international chemical industry's Responsible Care programme last year. Neste's involvement with the programme will supplement the Corporation's internal environmental and safety operating principles Neste's Responsible Care work is based around a set of 10 guiding principles set out by the European Chemical Industry Federation (CEFIC). In addition to corporate-level targets, divisions and units have drawn up more detailed and specific coals for their own operations. Neste Chemicals' production plants, for example have developed action plans covering the next 3-5 years. A network of divisional RC coordinators and unit or site-specific RC contact personnel has also been established Progress will be measured by indicators covering areas such as emission levels, energy use, amount of recycled waste, noise, and training Concrete benefits have already been achieved thanks simply to the start of the systematic measurement and collation of RC-related information

  16. A study on relationship between social entrepreneurship and organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Hemmati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, organizational commitment has been a major concern in different types of business activities including banking industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the relationship between social entrepreneurship and organizational commitment. The proposed study of this paper adapts a standard questionnaire developed by Meyer and Allen [Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991. A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 1(1, 61-89]. Cronbach alpha has been calculated for affective commitment, employee engagement and normative commitment as 0.77, 0.79 and 0.61, respectively. The results of survey indicate that affective commitment, employee engagement and normative commitment have positively influenced organizational commitment, significantly. In addition, Freedman test has indicated that normative commitment is number one priority with mean rank of 2.85 followed by affective commitment with mean rank of 2.47 and employee engagement with the mean rank of 2.26.

  17. Career commitment and job performance of Jordanian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrayyan, Majd T; Al-Faouri, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Career commitment and job performance are complex phenomena that have received little attention in nursing research. A survey was used to assess nurses' career commitment and job performance, and the relationship between the two concepts. Predictors of nurses' career commitment and job performance were also studied. A convenience sample of 640 Jordanian registered nurses was recruited from 24 teaching, governmental, and private hospitals. Nurses "agreed" on the majority of statements about career commitment, and they reported performing "well" their jobs. Using total scores, nurses were equal in their career commitment but they were different in their job performance; the highest mean was scored for nurses in private hospitals. Using the individual items of subscales, nurses were willing to be involved, on their own time, in projects that would benefit patient care. The correlation of the total scores of nurses' career commitment and job performance revealed the presence of a significant and positive relationship (r = .457). Nurses' job performance, gender, and marital status were the best predictors of nurses' career commitment: they explained 21.8% of variance of nurses' career commitment. Nurses' career commitment, time commitment, marital status, and years of experience in nursing were the best predictors of nurses' job performance: they explained 25.6% of variance of nurses' job performance. The lowest reported means of nurses' job performance require managerial interventions.

  18. The organizational commitment of emergency physicians in Spanish public hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noval de la Torre, A; Bulchand Gidumal, J; Melián González, S

    2016-12-30

    Background. There are not too many studies that deal with the organizational commitment of emergency physicians. This commitment has been shown to impact organizational performance. The aim of this paper is to analyse the degree of commitment of the emergency physicians in Spanish public hospitals and the factors that may influence it. Method. Online survey using SurveyMonkey to emergency physicians in Spanish public hospitals. Results. Two hundred and five questionnaires were received, 162 from physicians and 43 from heads of the emergency service. Results show an intermediate level of commitment, with affective commitment showing the lowest level and continuance commitment showing the highest level. The capabilities of the physician have an influence on their affective commitment; specific training in emergency procedures and seniority has an influence on their continuance commitment; and the opinion they hold about the organization of their service influences affective commitment. Conclusions. Emergency physicians show an average involvement in the hospital in which they work (average 3.8 on a range of 1 to 5), feel an average affection for it (3.4), and have a high intention to keep working there (4.0). The resources the hospital has due to its level do not have an influence on this commitment, while the training and perceptions of the service do have an influence.

  19. Complicating food security: Definitions, discourses, commitments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ramp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Food security is now commonly seen as one of the defining global issues of the century, intertwined with population and consumption shifts, climate change, environmental degradation, water scarcity, and the geopolitics attending globalization. Some analysts suggest that food security threats are so urgent that philosophical scruples must be set aside in order to concentrate all resources on developing and implementing radical strategies to avert a looming civilizational crisis. This article suggests that definitions of food security invoke commitments and have consequences, and that continued critical and conceptual attention to the language employed in food security research and policy is warranted.

  20. China's renewable energy policy: Commitments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Yin Haitao; Li Shoude

    2010-01-01

    The passing of the Renewable Energy Law (REL) in 2005 demonstrated China's commitment to renewable energy development. In the 3 years after the REL, China's renewable electricity capacity grew rapidly. From 2006 to 2008, China's wind capacity installation more than doubled every year for 3 years in a row. However, three facts prevent us from being optimistic about China's renewable electricity future. First, considered as a share of total capacity, renewable electricity capacity is decreasing instead of increasing. This is due simply to the rapid growth of fossil fuel capacity. Second, a significant amount of renewable generation capacity is wasted because it is not connected to the electricity grid. Finally, renewable electricity plants are running at a low level of efficiency. Based on an in-depth analysis of China's existing renewable energy policy, we suggest that these challenges should be dealt with by introducing a market-based mandatory renewable portfolio requirement coupled with strong regulatory monitoring of grid enterprises.

  1. Bit-commitment-based quantum coin flipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Ashwin; Shor, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we focus on a special framework for quantum coin-flipping protocols, bit-commitment-based protocols, within which almost all known protocols fit. We show a lower bound of 1/16 for the bias in any such protocol. We also analyze a sequence of multiround protocols that tries to overcome the drawbacks of the previously proposed protocols in order to lower the bias. We show an intricate cheating strategy for this sequence, which leads to a bias of 1/4. This indicates that a bias of 1/4 might be optimal in such protocols, and also demonstrates that a more clever proof technique may be required to show this optimality

  2. Improvement of thermal exchange between feedstock and effluent in a hydrocarbon processing unit under hydrogen atmosphere by partial recycling of the product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orieux, A.

    1990-01-19

    Heat exchange is improved in light naphta hydroisomerization and catalytic reforming by recirculation of a part of the product in the thermal exchange zone at a temperature higher than the dew point of the effluent under hydrogen atmosphere and preferentially as a temperature lower than the temperature of the recycled product.

  3. Committed effective dose from thoron daughters inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.P.; Pecequilo, B.R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Mankind's interest in natural radiation exposure levels has increased over the past fifty years and it is now recognized that the most significant contributors to human irradiation by natural sources are the short-lived decay products of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn). Despite the thoron short half-life of 55 s, effective dose from inhalation of thoron an its progeny ( 212 Pb and 212 Bi) must be considered, owing to the high thorium background in countries like Brazil, China and India, for example. The indoor committed effective dose was assessed by air sampling at the thorium purification plant and the nuclear materials storage site of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares; Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 21 glass fiber filter samples was analyzed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry in order to obtain the 212 Pb and 212 Bi activities. The equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) varied from 0.3 Bq/m 3 to 6.8 Bq/m 3 for the storage site air samples and from 9.9 Bq/m 3 to 249.8 Bq/m 3 for the thorium purification plant air samples. As retention studies indicate a biological half-life of a few hours inhaled thoron progeny in the human lungs, the main fraction of the potential alpha energy (PAEC) deposited is absorbed in the lungs, meaning negligible to the effective dose the contribution of the dose in other times. The committed effective dose due thoron progeny was performed by compartimental analysis following the ICRP 66 lung compartimental model and ICRP 67 lead compartimental model. The values obtained varied from 0.03 mSv/a to 0.67 mSv/a for the storage site air samples and from 0.12 mSv/a to 6.00 mSv/a for the thorium purification plant air samples. (author)

  4. The commitment of human cells to senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years ago, it was demonstrated by Leonard Hayflick that human diploid fibroblasts grown in culture have a finite lifespan. Since that time, innumerable experiments have been published to discover the mechanism(s) that are responsible for this 'Hayflick limit' to continuous growth. Much new information has been gained, but there are certain features of this experimental system which have not been fully understood. One is the fact that different populations of the foetal lung strains WI-38 and MRC-5 have a range in division potential of at least a millionfold. The commitment theory of cellular aging, published more than 30 years ago, is able to explain this, but it has been consistently ignored. The theory predicts that bottlenecks, which are transient reductions in population size, can significantly reduce lifespan, or increase variability of lifespans. Computer simulations specify the effects of bottlenecks on longevity, and these were confirmed in two series of experiments. Commitment to senescence may be the loss of telomerase, which leads to the erosion of telomeres and the inability to grow indefinitely. Many experiments have been done with skin fibroblasts from human donors of different age, and it was originally thought that in vitro lifespan was inversely correlated with donor age. In these experiments, a single skin biopsy produces a population of cells that are grown to senescence. However, there is no reason to believe that skin fibroblasts are less variable in their in vitro lifespan than foetal lung strains, in which case the data points with skin cells are so variable that they may completely obscure any inverse correlation between culture lifespans and donor age.

  5. Sociosexual orientation, commitment, and infidelity: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Brent A; Clark, Eddie M; Weidler, Daniel J; Bullock, Melinda; Hackathorn, Jana; Blankmeyer, Katheryn

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with an unrestricted sociosexual orientation (SO) are less committed to their romantic relationships and more likely to engage in infidelity. Furthermore, commitment is negatively associated with tendencies to cheat. However, no previous research has examined the possible mediating role of commitment in the relationship between SO and infidelity. The current study examined whether commitment mediated the relationship between SO and willingness to engage in three types of cheating behaviors (Ambiguous, Deceptive, and Explicit). Results suggested that commitment partially mediated the relationship between SO and infidelity, such that unrestricted individuals had lower commitment, which in turn led to a greater likelihood of cheating. Implications of this association and directions for future research are discussed.

  6. Philanthropic Commitment Traits for Waqf in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Khadijah, A. M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Philanthropic commitment in the form of waqf is important particularly among younger working adults in ensuring sustainable flow of funds for charitable purposes. One of the vital usages of such funds is funding for higher education. A question is raised on the commitment of younger adults in such giving. This study examines waqf commitment traits among waqif (waqf contributors for higher education funding. The specific objective of this study is to measure the factors that influence the waqif to contribute their property or income into waqf for higher education fund. For the purpose of this study, 400 questionnaires have been distributed to working young adult respondents in the Klang Valley area. Waqf commitment attributes comprising of Religiosity, Trust, Altruism, Personal Characteristics, SelfImage, Psychological Benefits, Social Norms and Personal Satisfaction are examined. The findings reveal that Religiosity, Altruism, Personal Satisfaction and Commitment are significant attributes in explaining waqf commitment. However, Trust and Social Norm are not significant.

  7. ANTECEDENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF BANKING SECTOR EMPLOYEES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to check the association of factors like work environment, job security,pay satisfaction and participation in decision making; with organizational commitment of theemployees, working in the banking sector of Pakistan. Two hundred and fifteen (215 responses toquestionnaire-based survey were collected from managerial and non-managerial employees, andanalyzed. The analysis showed positive correlations between the dependent and independentvariables. The relation between job security and organizational commitment was the most significant,indicating that a secure job can yield higher level of commitment. Work environment also had asignificant relation with organizational commitment, showing that a healthy and friendly workenvironment may enhance an employee’s commitment towards his work and organization. Paysatisfaction and participation in decision-making had low correlations with organizationalcommitment. Age and tenure seemed to affect the commitment of employees, with highercommitment shown for higher age and tenure; whereas gender did not show significant change incommitment level of employees.

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT ANDORGANIZATIONAL SILENCE: A CONCEPTUAL DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitnat Nazlı Sayğan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the affective commitment that is oneof the components oforganizational commitment put forth by Allen and Meyer (Allen, Meyer 1996will be differentiated from the other commitment components. The importance ofcreating an emotional commitment to organizations will be examined and theorganizational factors needed to form organizational commitment will beinvestigated. Also, organizational silence is a situation that the company avoided.In the study, the reasons and the drawbacks of silence are focused on and thefactors that cause employees to remain silent are discussed.The aim of this study is intended to manifest the relationship of ‘organizationalsilence' with affective commitment’ which is one ofthe components of‘organizational commitment’ on the basis of literature. In this study, a negativecorrelation between affective commitment and organizational silence is suggested

  9. Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H

    2013-11-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented.

  10. Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: Affective Commitment Predictors in a Group of Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Maria Santa

    Job satisfaction and organizational commitment have long been identified as relevant factors for the well-being of individuals within an organization and the success of the organization itself. As the well-being can be, in principle, considered as emergent from the influence of a number of factors, the main goal of a theory of organizations is to identify these factors and the role they can play. In this regard job satisfaction and organizational commitment have been often identified with structural factors allowing an organization to be considered as a system, or a wholistic entity, rather than a simple aggregate of individuals. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that job satisfaction has a significant, direct effect on determining individuals' attachment to an organization and a significant but indirect effect on their intention to leave a company. However, a complete assessment of the role of these factors in establishing and keeping the emergence of an organization is still lacking, due to shortage of measuring instruments and to practical difficulties in interviewing organization members. The present study aims to give a further contribution to what is currently known about the relationship between job satisfaction and affective commitment by using a group of professionals, all at management level. A questionnaire to measure these constructs, following a pilot study, was designed and administered to 1042 participants who were all professionals and had the title of industrial manager or director. The factors relating to job satisfaction and the predictive value of these factors (to predict an employee's emotional involvement with their organization) were simultaneously tested by a confirmative factorial model. The results were generalized with a multi-sample procedure by using models of structural equations. This procedure was used to check whether these factors could be considered or not as causes producing the measured affective commitment. The results

  11. A study on relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Khalili

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between organizational culture and organization commitment. The study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring organizational commitment originally developed by Meyer and Allen (1991) [Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 1(1), 61-89.] and the other one for organizational culture developed by Denison and Spreitzer (1991)...

  12. [Psychological commitment: adaptive functions, paradoxes, modalities and components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault-Labbé, Anne

    2017-12-01

    The process of psychological commitment, its adaptive functions and some of the difficulties that go along with it are specific. A description of the multimodal model of commitment provides an illustration of how motivational, affective, cognitive and behavioural mechanisms can be combined. These lead to different ways of entering into the commitment, with differing consequences on how the individual functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Balancing organizational and professional commitments in Professional Service Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Becker, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Due to their potential to positively influence sales quality and performance and reduce employee turnover in service organizations, HR practices targeting employee commitment have received considerable attention in the HRM literature in recent years. Parallel to this, there has been increasing...... financial investment firms. Our findings suggest that in professional service firms, HR practices encourage high levels of organizational commitment primarily and most often through their influence on professional commitment and that HR practices related to flexible work design are essential in creating...

  14. Environmental Policy and Capital Movements: The Role of Government Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Marsiliani, Laura; Renström, Thomas I

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between environmental protection and international capital movements, when tax policy is endogenous (through voting). A two-period general equilibrium model of a small open economy is specified to compare the effects of two different constitutions (commitment or no commitment in tax policy), as well as income inequality. Under the commitment regime, the equilibrium is characterised by a lower labour tax, higher environmental tax and less capital moving abr...

  15. Which serial killers commit suicide? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; White, John

    2012-11-30

    In a sample of 483 serial killers, 6.2% were documented to have committed suicide. Those who committed suicide were found to come from more dysfunctional homes characterized by more psychiatric disturbance in the parents. The sexual acts involved in the murders by the suicides seemed to be more deviant in some aspects, such as committing more bizarre sexual acts or more often taping the murder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional Flexibility in Women's Commitment-Skepticism Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Brown

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available If a woman overestimates her romantic partner's commitment, the cost to her fitness—reproduction without an investing partner—can be considerable. Error Management Theory predicts that women have an evolved bias to be skeptical of men's commitment in a relationship, which reduces the likelihood of making a costly false positive error. However, because error probabilities are inversely related, this commitment-skepticism bias simultaneously increases the likelihood of missed opportunities, or false negatives. False positives when gauging a partner's commitment are the more costly error for women, but missing an opportunity to secure a genuinely high-quality mate can also be quite costly. We predicted and found that women's mating cognitions are functionally flexible, such that women do not exhibit the commitment-skepticism bias when faced with behavioral evidence that a male partner is willing to commit (Study 1. This suggests that relationship-enhancing behaviors are one contextual cue that may lessen the bias. However, not all relationship-enhancing behaviors are equally diagnostic of a person's true commitment intent. When comparing men and women's commitment thresholds, we found that women require more behavioral evidence than men do to feel certain of their partner's commitment to them (Study 2.

  17. Regulatory commitment management and the managing of licensing documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxey, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Regulatory Commitment Management (RCM) Project was designed to strengthen Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric's (BG ampersand E's) ability to identify, implement, and maintain regulatory commitments. The first part of this project involved the development of a clear commitment management process. The second part was the development of a tool that enhances the ability to retrieve information from documents, and the third part of the project dealt with the actual identification of historical commitments. This paper represents the first opportunity for BG ampersand E to discuss some of the success of the second part and the preliminary findings of the third part of the project

  18. Non-interactive and Reusable Non-malleable Commitment Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Groth, Jens

    2003-01-01

    version based on the strong RSA assumption. For UC commitments, we show that existence of a UC commitment scheme in the CRS model (interactive or not) implies key exchange and - for a uniform reference string - even implies oblivious transfer. This indicates that UC commitment is a strictly stronger...... primitive than NM. Finally, we show that our strong RSA based construction can be used to improve the most efficient known UC commitment scheme so it can work with a CRS of size independent of the number of players, without loss of efficiency....

  19. BENEFICIAL COALITIONS: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Winkler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Presently, knowledge is considered as the most strategic resource of organizations. The literature on the subject often raises the issues of commitment. The purpose of the article was to discuss the associations between knowledge management and employee commitment. The article presents the stages of knowledge management and describes the category of commitment, taking account of several criteria. In the opinion of the authors, from the point of view of knowledge management particular importance can be attained to the way qualifications, skills, predispositions and knowledge of employees will be used, which, in turn, depends on "quality" of their commitment (its type, intensity, dimension and direction in achieving organizational goals.

  20. Solar energy in Germany: a national commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of solar energy in Germany: national energy plan and share of solar energy in the German energy mix, the photovoltaic industry: a dynamic industry which creates jobs, 2006-2012 evolution of photovoltaic power plant costs, solar thermal resource potentialities and effective exploitation

  1. Education: Commodity, Come-On, or Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-07-01

    July 4, and the glass art shown on pages 812-816, remind us that freedom is fragile. Through their governments, citizens of democracies have traditionally made strong commitments to education on grounds that without it individuals would not be able to act responsibly and to make wise decisions in voting booths and public meetings. All citizens have a stake in everyone's education, because a better-educated citizenry benefits all of society. In this country such a commitment has produced a system of public schools and public universities that offers opportunities to many who otherwise could not afford a level of education commensurate with their talents. But there are signs that this commitment to public education is flagging. Many students, teachers, and administrators view education as merely a way to enhance personal prosperity. How often have you heard the statistic that a college education pays for itself through increased earning power, even if it costs $20,000-30,000 per year? Investing in education pays off just as investing in the stock market does, provided you wait long enough. Attending a better school gets you a better job and a better income. In other words, a certified level of education is a commodity-something that is useful and can be turned to commercial advantage. Viewing education as a commodity has several consequences. First, if education is a means to better employment rather than better citizenship, why should anyone pay for it other than the person who benefits? Why should I pay taxes to help someone else get a better job when I could be spending the money for my own benefit? Education as a commodity makes such attitudes reasonable, though not commendable, and the result is lessened support for public education. Second, those who supply education as an economic good should be rewarded, and those who are much better at educating should be rewarded much more. Hence the fear of Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College, Columbia University

  2. Modelling of a thermally activated building system (TABS) combined with free-hanging acoustic ceiling units using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacarte, Luis Marcos Domínguez; Fan, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    . The active surfaces of TABS need to be as exposed as possible, but exposing bare concrete surfaces has a negative impact on the acoustic quality in the premises. Acoustic solutions capable of providing optimal acoustic comfort while allowing the heat exchange between the TABS and the room are desirable...... of the heat exchange between the TABS and the room and the occupants. The simulations are validated by comparison with full scale measurements in laboratory conditions. The study shows that for equivalent sound absorption levels, free-hanging vertical sound absorbers have a lower impact on the heat exchange......Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) have proven to be an energy-efficient solution to achieve optimal indoor thermal environment in buildings. This solution uses the building mass to store heat and by means of water pipes embedded in the concrete slabs adjust the temperature in the premises...

  3. Commit* to change? A call to end the publication of the phrase ‘commit* suicide’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Emma; Padmanathan, Prianka; Knipe, Duleeka

    2016-01-01

    Background. Countering stigma is a fundamental facet of suicide prevention efforts.  Integral to this is the promotion of accurate and sensitive language.  The phrase ‘commit* suicide’ has prompted marked opposition primarily due to the connotations of immorality and illegality.  Methods. The study investigated the frequency of the use of the wordstem ‘commit’, in relation to self-harm and suicidal behaviours, in the three leading suicide-specific academic journals between 2000 and 2015.  Results. One third (34%) of articles published since the year 2000 used the word ‘commit*’ when describing an act of self-harm or suicide. Over half of these articles (57%) used the phrase on more than one occasion, with 6% using it more than 10 times in the same manuscript. The percentage of papers utilising the word ‘commit*’ has fluctuated over time, but there is a promising downward trend in the use of this phrase from 33% in 2000 to 13% in 2015 ( p suicide. Whilst we call for collective responsibility amongst academics and clinicians, editors hold a unique position in ensuring that outdated, inaccurate and stigma-laden terms are expunged from the scientific literature. PMID:28286872

  4. Representations of spacetime: Formalism and ontological commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Jonathan Stanley

    This dissertation consists of two parts. The first is on the relation between formalism and ontological commitment in the context of theories of spacetime, and the second is on scientific realism. The first part begins with a look at how the substantivalist/relationist debate over the ontological status of spacetime has been influenced by a particular mathematical formalism, that of tensor analysis on differential manifolds (TADM). This formalism has motivated the substantivalist position known as manifold substantivalism. Chapter 1 focuses on the hole argument which maintains that manifold substantivalism is incompatible with determinism. I claim that the realist motivations underlying manifold substantivalism can be upheld, and the hole argument avoided, by adopting structural realism with respect to spacetime. In this context, this is the claim that it is the structure that spacetime points enter into that warrants belief and not the points themselves. In Chapter 2, an elimination principle is defined by means of which a distinction can be made between surplus structure and essential structure with respect to formulations of a theory in two distinct mathematical formulations and some prior ontological commitments. This principle is then used to demonstrate that manifold points may be considered surplus structure in the formulation of field theories. This suggests that, if we are disposed to read field theories literally, then, at most, it should be the essential structure common to all alternative formulations of such theories that should be taken literally. I also investigate how the adoption of alternative formalisms informs other issues in the philosophy of spacetime. Chapter 3 offers a realist position which takes a semantic moral from the preceding investigation and an epistemic moral from work done on reliability. The semantic moral advises us to read only the essential structure of our theories literally. The epistemic moral shows us that such structure

  5. 78 FR 20317 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... supplying information that competitors could use to compete with companies in the United States. DATES... or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP087223XX and AP087223XA AGENCY: Export-Import...''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial...

  6. The Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Organizational Commitment in Nonprofit Long Term Care Organizations: The Direct Care Worker Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jeanette A.

    2015-01-01

    The United States population is rapidly aging, and retaining direct care workers (DCWs) will continue to be a workforce concern for the industry in addressing the demand for long term care services. To date, scant literature exists that addresses the DCW perspective of leadership behaviors and their influence on organizational commitment. To…

  7. Doctoral Students in Music Education: Occupational Identity, Career Intent and Commitment, and Confidence for Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine music education doctoral students' shifting occupational identity beliefs, career intent and commitment, and overall confidence for teaching in higher education. A total of 124 music education doctoral students, enrolled at 29 institutions of higher education in the United States, completed a onetime,…

  8. 75 FR 16824 - Notice of Modifications to U.S. Commitments Under the World Trade Organization Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ....S. Commitments Under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement To Implement... of the United States of America and the Government of Canada on Government Procurement (Canada-U.S..., steel, and manufactured products in procurement above $7,804,000 for construction services through...

  9. How Providing Mentoring Relates to Career Success and Organizational Commitment: A Study in the General Managerial Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozionelos, Nikos; Bozionelos, Giorgos; Kostopoulos, Konstantinos; Polychroniou, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the relationship of mentoring provided with career success and organizational commitment in the general managerial population. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 194 native British who were employed in a variety of jobs, professions and industries in the United Kingdom. Findings: Mentoring…

  10. 78 FR 33090 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ...-haul passenger service from Australia to other countries. To the extent that Ex-Im Bank is reasonably... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2013-0030] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP087980XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United...

  11. 78 FR 20913 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... the transaction: To support the export of U.S. manufactured commercial aircraft to China. Brief non... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2013-0024] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 million: AP087801XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United...

  12. 77 FR 61750 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... export of a U.S.-manufactured satellite and associated services to China (Hong Kong). Brief non-proprietary description of the anticipated use of the items being exported: The U.S. exports will be used to... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice 2012-0528] Application for Final Commitment...

  13. 75 FR 45693 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ..., government procurement, trade-related investment measures, taxes and charges levied on imports and exports... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for comments and notice of public hearing concerning China's compliance with its WTO...

  14. 77 FR 50206 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ..., government procurement, trade-related investment measures, taxes and charges levied on imports and exports... Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for comments and notice of public hearing concerning China's compliance with its WTO...

  15. How the negotiators tackled the 'hot air' issue for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-02-01

    In 1997, when the Kyoto Protocol was approved, developed countries set their greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction commitments in relation to a 'base year' level. For the Kyoto Protocol, the year 1990 was chosen in most cases. However, irrespective of GHG mitigation action, the countries of the former Soviet Union have seen their emissions of greenhouse gases significantly decreasing after the collapse of the USSR. Given that their emissions were and still are today far below the commitments they established in 1997, these countries have a significant surplus of allowances referred to as 'hot air'. Before the COP 18 that took place in Doha (Qatar) late 2012, many countries and observers raised concern about this 'hot air'. Typically, there were two separate questions: What should we do with the accumulated surplus from the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (CP1)? And will a new 'hot air' be created during the second commitment period (CP2)? This analysis explores the implications of the decisions made in Doha, using the case of Ukraine to illustrate responses to the questions raised. Indeed, as the European Union regulation forbids European countries to use CP1 units to achieve CP2 targets, Ukraine is the principal country committing to CP2 with a substantial reserve of CP1 units

  16. CERN Confirms commitment to Open Access

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Library Information desk.At a meeting on the Wednesday before Easter, the Executive Committee endorsed a policy of open access to all the laboratory's results, as expressed in the document ‘Continuing CERN action on Open Access' (http://cds.cern.ch/record/828991/files/open-2005-006.pdf), released by its Scientific Information Policy Board (SIPB) earlier in the month. "This underlines CERN's commitment to sharing the excitement of fundamental research with as wide an audience as possible", said Guido Altarelli, current SIPB chairman. Open Access to scientific knowledge is today the goal of an increasing component of the worldwide scientific community. It is a concept, made possible by new electronic tools, which would bring enormous benefits to all readers by giving them free access to research results. CERN has implicitly supported such moves from its very beginning. Its Convention (http://cds.cern.ch/record/330625/files/cm-p00046871.pdf), adopted in 1953, requires openness, stipulating that "......

  17. Cellular commitment in the developing cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Hassan; Del Bigio, Marc R.; Alizadeh, Javad; Ghavami, Saeid; Zachariah, Robby M.; Rastegar, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian cerebellum is located in the posterior cranial fossa and is critical for motor coordination and non-motor functions including cognitive and emotional processes. The anatomical structure of cerebellum is distinct with a three-layered cortex. During development, neurogenesis and fate decisions of cerebellar primordium cells are orchestrated through tightly controlled molecular events involving multiple genetic pathways. In this review, we will highlight the anatomical structure of human and mouse cerebellum, the cellular composition of developing cerebellum, and the underlying gene expression programs involved in cell fate commitments in the cerebellum. A critical evaluation of the cell death literature suggests that apoptosis occurs in ~5% of cerebellar cells, most shortly after mitosis. Apoptosis and cellular autophagy likely play significant roles in cerebellar development, we provide a comprehensive discussion of their role in cerebellar development and organization. We also address the possible function of unfolded protein response in regulation of cerebellar neurogenesis. We discuss recent advancements in understanding the epigenetic signature of cerebellar compartments and possible connections between DNA methylation, microRNAs and cerebellar neurodegeneration. Finally, we discuss genetic diseases associated with cerebellar dysfunction and their role in the aging cerebellum. PMID:25628535

  18. Facility's employment practices reflect affirmative action commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, J W; Madden, M J

    1984-04-01

    The U.S. bishops' statements on racism over the last 40 years have addressed the structural as well as the personal aspects of racial discrimination. They have noted its persistence, described it as a moral and religious problem, and called for aggressive action among Catholics to combat it. "Meaningful equality" for blacks, however, remains a distant dream, the U.S. Supreme Court noted in a recent case involving institutional discrimination, because of the basically disadvantaged position into which blacks are born. As statistics on health, education, work, and standard of living illustrate, the socioeconomic opportunities available to blacks are markedly lower than those available to white Americans. Despite these odds, efforts to improve blacks' chances of contributing to society--through affirmative action programs--have achieved striking results in industry. Hospitals, as major workplaces, likewise should focus greater attention on developing and extending minority employment and advancement programs. Catholic health care facilities especially should evaluate their commitments to affirmative action. Increased efforts to eliminate discrimination in all aspects of a hospital's relationships with the business community as well as with its own employees will cause them to be recognized as symbols of justice not only in the workplace but also in society.

  19. Nurses’ commitment to respecting patient dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raee, Zahra; Abedi, Heidarali; Shahriari, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although respecting human dignity is a cornerstone of all nursing practices, industrialization has gradually decreased the attention paid to this subject in nursing care. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate nurses’ commitment to respecting patient dignity in hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in hospitals of Isfahan. Overall, 401 inpatients were selected by cluster sampling and then selected simple random sampling from different wards. Data were collected through a questionnaire containing the components of patient dignity, that is, patient-nurse relationships, privacy, and independence. All items were scored based on a five-point Likert scale. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. P < 0.05 were considered significant in all analyses. Findings: Most patients (91%) scored their relationships with nurses as good. Moreover, 91.8% of the participants described privacy protection as moderate/good. Only 6.5% of the subjects rated it as excellent. The majority of the patients (84.4%) believed their independence was maintained. These subjects also approved of taking part in decision-making. Conclusion: According to our findings, nurses respected patient dignity to an acceptable level. However, the conditions were less favorable in public hospitals and emergency departments. Nursing authorities and policy makers are thus required to introduce appropriate measures to improve the existing conditions. PMID:28546981

  20. Nurses' commitment to respecting patient dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raee, Zahra; Abedi, Heidarali; Shahriari, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Although respecting human dignity is a cornerstone of all nursing practices, industrialization has gradually decreased the attention paid to this subject in nursing care. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate nurses' commitment to respecting patient dignity in hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in hospitals of Isfahan. Overall, 401 inpatients were selected by cluster sampling and then selected simple random sampling from different wards. Data were collected through a questionnaire containing the components of patient dignity, that is, patient-nurse relationships, privacy, and independence. All items were scored based on a five-point Likert scale. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. P < 0.05 were considered significant in all analyses. Most patients (91%) scored their relationships with nurses as good. Moreover, 91.8% of the participants described privacy protection as moderate/good. Only 6.5% of the subjects rated it as excellent. The majority of the patients (84.4%) believed their independence was maintained. These subjects also approved of taking part in decision-making. According to our findings, nurses respected patient dignity to an acceptable level. However, the conditions were less favorable in public hospitals and emergency departments. Nursing authorities and policy makers are thus required to introduce appropriate measures to improve the existing conditions.