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Sample records for thermal sensory thresholds

  1. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation modulates small fiber-dependent sensory thresholds in Parkinson's disease.

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    Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Galhardoni, Ricardo; Ferreira, Karine S L; Brandão Paiva, Anderson Rodrigues; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Alvarenga, Luciana; Myczkowski, Martin L; Marcolin, Marco Antonio; de Siqueira, Silvia R D T; Fonoff, Erich; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2012-05-01

    The effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) rarely have been investigated. Among these, sensory disturbances, including chronic pain (CP), are frequent in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes induced by deep brain stimulation in the perception of sensory stimuli, either noxious or innocuous, mediated by small or large nerve fibers. Sensory detection and pain thresholds were assessed in 25 PD patients all in the off-medication condition with the stimulator turned on or off (on- and off-stimulation conditions, respectively). The relationship between the changes induced by surgery on quantitative sensory testing, spontaneous CP, and motor abilities were studied. Quantitative sensory test results obtained in PD patients were compared with those of age-matched healthy subjects. Chronic pain was present in 72% of patients before vs 36% after surgery (P=.019). Compared with healthy subjects, PD patients had an increased sensitivity to innocuous thermal stimuli and mechanical pain, but a reduced sensitivity to innocuous mechanical stimuli. In addition, they had an increased pain rating when painful thermal stimuli were applied, particularly in the off-stimulation condition. In the on-stimulation condition, there was an increased sensitivity to innocuous thermal stimuli but a reduced sensitivity to mechanical or thermal pain. Pain provoked by thermal stimuli was reduced when the stimulator was turned on. Motor improvement positively correlated with changes in warm detection and heat pain thresholds. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation contributes to relieve pain associated with PD and specifically modulates small fiber-mediated sensations. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of acupuncture duration on analgesia and peripheral sensory thresholds

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    Schulteis Gery

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture provides a means of peripheral stimulation for pain relief. However, the detailed neuronal mechanisms by which acupuncture relieves pain are still poorly understood and information regarding optimal treatment settings is still inadequate. Previous studies with a short burst of unilateral electroacupuncture (EA in the Tendinomuscular Meridians (TMM treatment model for pain demonstrated a transient dermatomally correlated bilateral analgesic effect with corresponding peripheral modality-specific sensory threshold alterations. However, the impact of EA duration on the analgesic effect in this particular treatment model is unknown. To obtain mechanistically and clinically important information regarding EA analgesia, this current prospective cross-over study assesses the effects of EA duration on analgesia and thermal sensory thresholds in the TMM treatment model. Methods Baseline peripheral sensory thresholds were measured at pre-marked testing sites along the medial aspects (liver and spleen meridians of bilateral lower extremities. A 5-second hot pain stimulation was delivered to the testing sites and the corresponding pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS scores were recorded. Three different EA (5Hz stimulation durations (5, 15 and 30 minutes were randomly tested at least one week apart. At the last 10 seconds of each EA session, 5 seconds of subject specific HP stimulation was delivered to the testing sites. The corresponding pain and EA VAS scores of de qi sensation (tingling during and after the EA were recorded. The measurements were repeated immediately, 30 and 60 minutes after the EA stimulation. A four-factor repeat measures ANOVA was used to assess the effect of stimulation duration, time, location (thigh vs. calf and side (ipsilateral vs. contralateral of EA on sensory thresholds and HP VAS scores. Results A significant (P Conclusion Longer durations of EA stimulation provide a more sustainable analgesic benefit

  3. The Effect of High-Frequency Stimulation on Sensory Thresholds in Chronic Pain Patients.

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    Youn, Youngwon; Smith, Heather; Morris, Brian; Argoff, Charles; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2015-01-01

    High-frequency stimulation (HFS) has recently gained attention as an alternative to parameters used in traditional spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Because HFS is paresthesia free, the gate theory of pain control as a basis of SCS has been called into question. The mechanism of action of HFS remains unclear. We compare the effects of HFS and traditional SCS on quantitative sensory testing parameters to provide insight into how HFS modulates the nervous system. Using quantitative sensory testing, we measured thermal detection and pain thresholds and mechanical detection and pressure pain thresholds, as well as vibratory detection, in 20 SCS patients off stimulation (OFF), on traditional stimulation (ON) and on HFS in a randomized order. HFS significantly increased the mechanical detection threshold compared to OFF stimulation (p < 0.001) and traditional SCS (p = 0.01). Pressure pain detection and vibratory detection thresholds also significantly increased with HFS compared to ON states (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively). In addition, HFS significantly decreased 10- and 40-gram pinprick detection compared to OFF states (both p = 0.01). No significant differences between OFF, ON and HFS states were seen in thermal and thermal pain detection. HFS is a new means of modulating chronic pain. The mechanism by which HFS works seems to differ from that of traditional SCS, offering a new platform for innovative advancements in treatment and a greater potential to treat patients by customizing waveforms. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The threshold of cortical electrical stimulation for mapping sensory and motor functional areas.

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    Guojun, Zhang; Duanyu, Ni; Fu, Paul; Lixin, Cai; Tao, Yu; Wei, Du; Liang, Qiao; Zhiwei, Ren

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the threshold of cortical electrical stimulation (CES) for functional brain mapping during surgery for the treatment of rolandic epilepsy. A total of 21 patients with rolandic epilepsy who underwent surgical treatment at the Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery between October 2006 and March 2008 were included in this study. Their clinical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The thresholds of CES for motor response, sensory response, and after discharge production along with other threshold-related factors were investigated. The thresholds (mean ± standard deviation) for motor response, sensory response, and after discharge production were 3.48 ± 0.87, 3.86 ± 1.31, and 4.84 ± 1.38 mA, respectively. The threshold for after discharge production was significantly higher than those of both the motor and sensory response (both pstimulation frequency of 50 Hz and a pulse width of 0.2 ms, the threshold of sensory and motor responses were similar, and the threshold of after discharge production was higher than that of sensory and motor response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of skin sensory thresholds using pre-programmed or single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

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    Kang, Jong Ho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the sensory thresholds of healthy subjects using pre-programmed or single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. [Subjects] Ninety healthy adult subjects were randomly assigned to pre-programmed or single-frequency stimulation groups, each consisting of 45 participants. [Methods] Sensory thresholds were measured in the participants' forearms using von Frey filaments before and after pre-programmed or single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and the result in values were analyzed. [Results] Significant increases in sensory threshold after stimulation were observed in both groups. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in sensory thresholds after stimulation or in the magnitude of threshold increases following stimulation. [Conclusion] Our results show that there are no differences between sensory threshold increases induced by pre-programmed and single-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

  6. Thermal quantitative sensory testing to assess the sensory effects of three local anesthetic solutions in a randomized trial of interscalene blockade for shoulder surgery.

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    Sermeus, Luc A; Hans, Guy H; Schepens, Tom; Bosserez, Nathalie M-L; Breebaart, Margaretha B; Smitz, Carine J; Vercauteren, Marcel P

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether quantitative sensory testing (QST) with thermal stimulations can quantitatively measure the characteristics of an ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block (US-ISB). This was a prospective randomized trial in patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia and US-ISB. Participants and observers were blinded for the study. We assigned the study participants to one of three groups: 0.5% levobupivacaine 15 mL, 0.5% levobupivacaine 15 mL with 1:200,000 epinephrine, and 0.75% ropivacaine 15 mL. We performed thermal QST within dermatomes C4, C5, C6, and C7 before infiltration and 30 min, six hours, ten hours, and 24 hr after performing the US-ISB. In addition, we used QST, a semi-objective quantitative testing method, to measure the onset, intensity, duration, extent, and functional recovery of the sensory block. We also measured detection thresholds for cold/warm sensations and cold/heat pain. Detection thresholds for all thermal sensations within the ipsilateral C4, C5, C6, and C7 dermatomes increased rapidly (indicating the development of a hypoesthetic state) and reached a steady state after 30 min. This lasted for approximately ten hours and returned to normal detection thresholds by 24 hr. There were no differences detected between the three groups at 24 hr when we compared warm sensation thresholds on one dermatome. Visual inspection of the pooled results per dermatome suggests the ability of QST to detect clinically relevant differences in block intensity per dermatome. Quantitative sensory testing can be useful as a method for detecting the presence and characteristics of regional anesthesia-induced sensory block and may be used for the evaluation of clinical protocols. The three local anesthetic solutions exhibited a similar anesthetic effect. The results support the use of QST to assess block characteristics quantitatively under clinical research conditions. This trial was registered at

  7. Degree of skin denervation and its correlation to objective thermal sensory test in leprosy patients.

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    Ismael Alves Rodrigues Júnior

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy is an infectious disease affecting skin and peripheral nerves resulting in increased morbidity and physical deformities. Early diagnosis provides opportune treatment and reduces its complications, relying fundamentally on the demonstration of impaired sensation in suggestive cutaneous lesions. The loss of tactile sensitivity in the lesions is preceded by the loss of thermal sensitivity, stressing the importance of the thermal test in the suspicious lesions approach. The gold-standard method for the assessment of thermal sensitivity is the quantitative sensory test (QST. Morphological study may be an alternative approach to access the thin nerve fibers responsible for thermal sensitivity transduction. The few studies reported in leprosy patients pointed out a rarefaction of thin dermo-epidermal fibers in lesions, but used semi-quantitative evaluation methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work aimed to study the correlation between the degree of thermal sensitivity impairment measured by QST and the degree of denervation in leprosy skin lesions, evaluated by immunohistochemistry anti-PGP 9.5 and morphometry. Twenty-two patients were included. There were significant differences in skin thermal thresholds among lesions and contralateral skin (cold, warm, cold induced pain and heat induced pain. The mean reduction in the density of intraepidermal and subepidermal fibers in lesions was 79.5% (SD = 19.6 and 80.8% (SD = 24.9, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed a good correlation between intraepidermal and subepidermal fibers deficit, but no correlation between these variables and those accounting for the degree of impairment in thermal thresholds, since the thin fibers rarefaction was homogeneously intense in all patients, regardless of the degree of sensory deficit. We believe that the homogeneously intense denervation in leprosy lesions should be objective of further investigations focused on its

  8. Effect of low-frequency deep brain stimulation on sensory thresholds in Parkinson's disease.

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    Belasen, Abigail; Rizvi, Khizer; Gee, Lucy E; Yeung, Philip; Prusik, Julia; Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Hanspal, Era; Paiva, Priscilla; Durphy, Jennifer; Argoff, Charles E; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Chronic pain is a major distressing symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that is often undertreated. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) delivers high-frequency stimulation (HFS) to patients with PD and has been effective in pain relief in a subset of these patients. However, up to 74% of patients develop new pain concerns while receiving STN DBS. Here the authors explore whether altering the frequency of STN DBS changes pain perception as measured through quantitative sensory testing (QST). METHODS Using QST, the authors measured thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds in 19 patients undergoing DBS via HFS, low-frequency stimulation (LFS), and off conditions in a randomized order. Testing was performed in the region of the body with the most pain and in the lower back in patients without chronic pain. RESULTS In the patients with chronic pain, LFS significantly reduced heat detection thresholds as compared with thresholds following HFS (p = 0.029) and in the off state (p = 0.010). Moreover, LFS resulted in increased detection thresholds for mechanical pressure (p = 0.020) and vibration (p = 0.040) compared with these thresholds following HFS. Neither LFS nor HFS led to changes in other mechanical thresholds. In patients without chronic pain, LFS significantly increased mechanical pain thresholds in response to the 40-g pinprick compared with thresholds following HFS (p = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS Recent literature has suggested that STN LFS can be useful in treating nonmotor symptoms of PD. Here the authors demonstrated that LFS modulates thermal and mechanical detection to a greater extent than HFS. Low-frequency stimulation is an innovative means of modulating chronic pain in PD patients receiving STN DBS. The authors suggest that STN LFS may be a future option to consider when treating Parkinson's patients in whom pain remains the predominant complaint.

  9. Agreeable smellers and sensitive neurotics--correlations among personality traits and sensory thresholds.

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    Croy, Ilona; Springborn, Maria; Lötsch, Jörn; Johnston, Amy N B; Hummel, Thomas

    2011-04-27

    Correlations between personality traits and a wide range of sensory thresholds were examined. Participants (N = 124) completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI) and underwent assessment of olfactory, trigeminal, tactile and gustatory detection thresholds, as well as examination of trigeminal and tactile pain thresholds. Significantly enhanced odor sensitivity in socially agreeable people, significantly enhanced trigeminal sensitivity in neurotic subjects, and a tendency for enhanced pain tolerance in highly conscientious participants was revealed. It is postulated that varied sensory processing may influence an individual's perception of the environment; particularly their perception of socially relevant or potentially dangerous stimuli and thus, varied with personality.

  10. Effects of acupuncture on sensory perception: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Baeumler, Petra I; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Takayama, Shin; Simang, Michael; Seki, Takashi; Irnich, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acupuncture on sensory perception has never been systematically reviewed; although, studies on acupuncture mechanisms are frequently based on the idea that changes in sensory thresholds reflect its effect on the nervous system. Pubmed, EMBASE and Scopus were screened for studies investigating the effect of acupuncture on thermal or mechanical detection or pain thresholds in humans published in English or German. A meta-analysis of high quality studies was performed. Out of 3007 identified articles 85 were included. Sixty five studies showed that acupuncture affects at least one sensory threshold. Most studies assessed the pressure pain threshold of which 80% reported an increase after acupuncture. Significant short- and long-term effects on the pressure pain threshold in pain patients were revealed by two meta-analyses including four and two high quality studies, respectively. In over 60% of studies, acupuncture reduced sensitivity to noxious thermal stimuli, but measuring methods might influence results. Few but consistent data indicate that acupuncture reduces pin-prick like pain but not mechanical detection. Results on thermal detection are heterogeneous. Sensory threshold changes were equally frequent reported after manual acupuncture as after electroacupuncture. Among 48 sham-controlled studies, 25 showed stronger effects on sensory thresholds through verum than through sham acupuncture, but in 9 studies significant threshold changes were also observed after sham acupuncture. Overall, there is a lack of high quality acupuncture studies applying comprehensive assessments of sensory perception. Our findings indicate that acupuncture affects sensory perception. Results are most compelling for the pressure pain threshold, especially in pain conditions associated with tenderness. Sham acupuncture can also cause such effects. Future studies should incorporate comprehensive, standardized assessments of sensory profiles in order to fully characterize its

  11. Agreeable smellers and sensitive neurotics--correlations among personality traits and sensory thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Croy

    Full Text Available Correlations between personality traits and a wide range of sensory thresholds were examined. Participants (N = 124 completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI and underwent assessment of olfactory, trigeminal, tactile and gustatory detection thresholds, as well as examination of trigeminal and tactile pain thresholds. Significantly enhanced odor sensitivity in socially agreeable people, significantly enhanced trigeminal sensitivity in neurotic subjects, and a tendency for enhanced pain tolerance in highly conscientious participants was revealed. It is postulated that varied sensory processing may influence an individual's perception of the environment; particularly their perception of socially relevant or potentially dangerous stimuli and thus, varied with personality.

  12. Quantitative Sensory Testing in Patients With Postthoracotomy Pain Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Kim; Ringsted, Thomas K; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    -retest variability of thermal thresholds in patients (n=14) with the postthoracotomy pain syndrome. METHODS:: Sensory mapping with a metal roller (25°C) on the surgical side delineated an area with cool sensory dysfunction. In this area and in a contralateral area, 4 prespecified sites (2.6 cm) were outlined...... was demonstrated, the much lower within-patient than between-patient variances facilitated estimations of highly statistical significant, within-patient differences in thermal thresholds. DISCUSSION:: In patients with postthoracotomy pain syndrome, several statistical methods indicated an excessively high......, in addition to the maximum pain site on the surgical side. In these total 9 sites, warmth detection threshold, cool detection threshold, and heat pain threshold were assessed. RESULTS:: Comparisons of thermal test-retest assessments did not demonstrate any significant intraside differences. The SDs...

  13. Agreeable Smellers and Sensitive Neurotics – Correlations among Personality Traits and Sensory Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Springborn, Maria; Lötsch, Jörn; Johnston, Amy N. B.; Hummel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Correlations between personality traits and a wide range of sensory thresholds were examined. Participants (N = 124) completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI) and underwent assessment of olfactory, trigeminal, tactile and gustatory detection thresholds, as well as examination of trigeminal and tactile pain thresholds. Significantly enhanced odor sensitivity in socially agreeable people, significantly enhanced trigeminal sensitivity in neurotic subjects, and a tendency for enhanced pain tolerance in highly conscientious participants was revealed. It is postulated that varied sensory processing may influence an individual's perception of the environment; particularly their perception of socially relevant or potentially dangerous stimuli and thus, varied with personality. PMID:21556139

  14. Thermal thresholds and catastrophizing in individuals with chronic pain after whiplash injury.

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    Raak, Ragnhild; Wallin, Mia

    2006-10-01

    Thermal sensitivity, thermal pain thresholds, and catastrophizing were examined in individuals with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and in healthy pain-free participants. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was used to measure skin sensitivity to cold and warmth and cold and heat pain thresholds over both the thenar eminence and the trapezius muscle (TrM) in 17 participants with WAD (age 50.8 +/- 11.3 years) and 18 healthy participants (age 44.8 +/- 10.2 years). The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was used to determine pain coping strategies, and visual analogue scales were used for self-assessment of current background pain in individuals in the WAD group as well as experienced pain intensity and unpleasantness after QST and sleep quality in all participants. There were significant differences in warmth threshold and cold and heat pain thresholds of the TrM site between the WAD and pain-free groups. Significant differences between the two groups were also found for the catastrophizing dimension of helplessness in the PCS and in self-assessed quality of sleep. A correlational analysis showed that current background pain is significantly correlated with both cold discrimination and cold pain threshold in the skin over the TrM in individuals with WAD. These findings imply that thermal sensitivity is an important factor to consider in providing nursing care to individuals with WAD. Because biopsychosocial factors also influence the experience of pain in individuals with WAD, the role of nurses includes not only the description of the pain phenomenon but also the identification of relieving and aggravating factors.

  15. Intraindividual Variability and Long-Term Changes of Thermal Quantitative Sensory Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Thomas; Sothynathan, Isaivani; Sindrup, Søren H

    2015-01-01

    Thermal threshold examinations are widely used in the clinical setting and in studies to assess the function of the peripheral sensory nervous system. Little is known about the variation from one side of the body to the other and the long-term temporal changes and variability. In this study, 134...... and foot. Bilateral stimulations resulted in relative intertrial variations ranging from 19% to 40%. There was no significant temporal change for repeated measures. Analysis of the individual measurements of each subject at baseline and at 26 weeks, however, resulted in relatively large intertrial...

  16. Effects of Spinal Cord Stimulation on Pain Thresholds and Sensory Perceptions in Chronic Pain Patients.

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    Ahmed, Shihab U; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lucy; St Hillary, Kristin; Cohen, Abigail; Vo, Trang; Houghton, Mary; Mao, Jianren

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been in clinical use for nearly four decades. In earliest observations, researchers found a significant increase in pain threshold during SCS therapy without changes associated with touch, position, and vibration sensation. Subsequent studies yielded diverse results regarding how SCS impacts pain and other sensory thresholds. This pilot study uses quantitative sensory testing (QST) to objectively quantify the impact of SCS on warm sensation, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance. Nineteen subjects with an indwelling SCS device for chronic pain were subjected to QST with heat stimuli. QST was performed on an area of pain covered with SCS-induced paresthesia and an area without pain and without paresthesia, while the SCS was turned off and on. The temperature at which the patient detected warm sensation, heat pain, and maximal tolerable heat pain was used to define the thresholds. We found that all three parameters, the detection of warm sensation, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance, were increased during the period when SCS was on compared with when it was off. This increase was observed in both painful and non-painful sites. The observed pain relief during SCS therapy seems to be related to its impact on increased sensory threshold as detected in this study. The increased sensory threshold on areas without pain and without the presence of SCS coverage may indicate a central (spinal and/or supra-spinal) influence from SCS. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  17. Differences in two-point discrimination and sensory threshold in the blind between braille and text reading: a pilot study.

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    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kang, Ji-Hye; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated two-point discrimination (TPD) and the electrical sensory threshold of the blind to define the effect of using Braille on the tactile and electrical senses. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight blind participants were divided equally into a text-reading and a Braille-reading group. We measured tactile sensory and electrical thresholds using the TPD method and a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator. [Results] The left palm TPD values were significantly different between the groups. The values of the electrical sensory threshold in the left hand, the electrical pain threshold in the left hand, and the electrical pain threshold in the right hand were significantly lower in the Braille group than in the text group. [Conclusion] These findings make it difficult to explain the difference in tactility between groups, excluding both palms. However, our data show that using Braille can enhance development of the sensory median nerve in the blind, particularly in terms of the electrical sensory and pain thresholds.

  18. Quantitative Sensory Testing and Current Perception Threshold Testing in Patients With Chronic Pain Following Lower Extremity Fracture.

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    Griffioen, Mari A; Greenspan, Joel D; Johantgen, Meg; Von Rueden, Kathryn; O'Toole, Robert V; Dorsey, Susan G; Renn, Cynthia L

    2018-01-01

    Chronic pain is a significant problem for patients with lower extremity injuries. While pain hypersensitivity has been identified in many chronic pain conditions, it is not known whether patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fracture report pain hypersensitivity in the injured leg. To quantify and compare peripheral somatosensory function and sensory nerve activation thresholds in persons with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures with a cohort of persons with no history of lower extremity fractures. This was a cross-sectional study where quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing were conducted on the injured and noninjured legs of cases and both legs of controls. A total of 14 cases and 28 controls participated in the study. Mean time since injury at the time of testing for cases was 22.3 (standard deviation = 12.1) months. The warmth detection threshold ( p = .024) and nerve activation thresholds at 2,000 Hz ( p sensory nerve function at the site of injury in patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures using quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing.

  19. Sensorial differences according to sex and ages.

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    da Silva, L A; Lin, S M; Teixeira, M J; de Siqueira, J T T; Jacob Filho, W; de Siqueira, S R D T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate age and sex differences in orofacial sensory detection. One hundred and twenty-six (126) healthy subjects were divided into five groups according to their ages. They were assessed with a quantitative sensory testing protocol for gustative, olfactory, thermal (cold/warm), mechanical (tactile/vibration/electric), and pain (deep/superficial) detection thresholds. The corneal reflex was also evaluated. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA, chi-squared, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The groups of subjects over 61 years old had higher olfactory (P sweet P = 0.004, salty P = 0.007, sour P = 0.006), thermal (warm P sweet P = 0.020, salty P = 0.002, sour P < 0.001, and bitter P = 0.002), olfactory (P = 0.010), warm (P < 0.001) and deep (P < 0.001), and superficial pain (P = 0.008) detection thresholds than men, and men from all age groups had lower vibratory detection thresholds (P = 0.006) than women. High sensory detection thresholds were observed in subjects over the 6th decade of life, and women had a more accurate sensory perception than men. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Does sensory stimulation threshold affect lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation outcomes? A prospective clinical correlational study.

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    Cohen, Steven P; Strassels, Scott A; Kurihara, Connie; Lesnick, Ivan K; Hanling, Steven R; Griffith, Scott R; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Nguyen, Conner

    2011-11-01

    Radiofrequency facet denervation is one of the most frequently performed procedures for chronic low back pain. Although sensory stimulation is generally used as a surrogate measure to denote sufficient proximity of the electrode to the nerve, no study has examined whether stimulation threshold influences outcome. We prospectively recorded data in 61 consecutive patients undergoing lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation who experienced significant pain relief after medial branch blocks. For each nerve lesioned, multiple attempts were made to maximize sensory stimulation threshold (SST). Mean SST was calculated on the basis of the lowest stimulation perceived at 0.1-V increments for each medial branch. A positive outcome was defined as a ≥50% reduction in back pain coupled with a positive satisfaction score lasting ≥3 months. The relationship between mean SST and denervation outcomes was evaluated via a receiver's operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and stratifying outcomes on the basis of various cutoff values. No correlation was noted between mean SST and pain relief at rest (Pearson's r=-0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.24 to 0.23, P=0.97), with activity (r=-0.17, 95% CI: -0.40 to 0.07, P=0.20), or a successful outcome. No optimal SST could be identified. There is no significant relationship between mean SST during lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation and treatment outcome, which may be due to differences in general sensory perception. Because stimulation threshold was optimized for each patient, these data cannot be interpreted to suggest that sensory testing should not be performed, or that high sensory stimulation thresholds obtained on the first attempt should be deemed acceptable.

  1. Pain and sensory detection threshold response to acupuncture is modulated by coping strategy and acupuncture sensation.

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    Lee, Jeungchan; Napadow, Vitaly; Park, Kyungmo

    2014-09-01

    Acupuncture has been shown to reduce pain, and acupuncture-induced sensation may be important for this analgesia. In addition, cognitive coping strategies can influence sensory perception. However, the role of coping strategy on acupuncture modulation of pain and sensory thresholds, and the association between acupuncture sensation and these modulatory effects, is currently unknown. Electroacupuncture (EA) was applied at acupoints ST36 and GB39 of 61 healthy adults. Different coping conditions were experimentally designed to form an active coping strategy group (AC group), who thought they could control EA stimulation intensity, and a passive coping strategy group (PC group), who did not think they had such control. Importantly, neither group was actually able to control EA stimulus intensity. Quantitative sensory testing was performed before and after EA, and consisted of vibration (VDT), mechanical (MDT), warm (WDT), and cold (CDT) detection thresholds, and pressure (PPT), mechanical (MPT), heat (HPT) and cold (CPT) pain thresholds. Autonomic measures (e.g. skin conductance response, SCR) were also acquired to quantify physiological response to EA under different coping conditions. Subjects also reported the intensity of any acupuncture-induced sensations. Coping strategy was induced with successful blinding in 58% of AC subjects. Compared to PC, AC showed greater SCR to EA. Under AC, EA reduced PPT and CPT. In the AC group, improved pain and sensory thresholds were correlated with acupuncture sensation (VDTchange vs. MI: r=0.58, CDTchange vs. tingling: r=0.53, CPTchange vs. tingling; r=0.55, CPTchange vs. dull; r=0.55). However, in the PC group, improved sensory thresholds were negatively correlated with acupuncture sensation (CDTchange vs. intensity sensitization: r=-0.52, WDTchange vs. fullness: r=-0.57). Our novel approach was able to successfully induce AC and PC strategies to EA stimulation. The interaction between psychological coping strategy and

  2. Hydrodynamic sensory threshold in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) for artificial flatfish breathing currents.

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    Niesterok, Benedikt; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2017-07-01

    Harbour seals have the ability to detect benthic fish such as flatfish using the water currents these fish emit through their gills (breathing currents). We investigated the sensory threshold in harbour seals for this specific hydrodynamic stimulus under conditions which are realistic for seals hunting in the wild. We used an experimental platform where an artificial breathing current was emitted through one of eight different nozzles. Two seals were trained to search for the active nozzle. Each experimental session consisted of eight test trials of a particular stimulus intensity and 16 supra-threshold trials of high stimulus intensity. Test trials were conducted with the animals blindfolded. To determine the threshold, a series of breathing currents differing in intensity was used. For each intensity, three sessions were run. The threshold in terms of maximum water velocity within the breathing current was 4.2 cm s -1 for one seal and 3.7 cm s -1 for the other. We measured background flow velocities from 1.8 to 3.4 cm s -1 Typical swimming speeds for both animals were around 0.5 m s -1 Swimming speed differed between successful and unsuccessful trials. It appears that swimming speed is restricted for the successful detection of a breathing current close to the threshold. Our study is the first to assess a sensory threshold of the vibrissal system for a moving harbour seal under near-natural conditions. Furthermore, this threshold was defined for a natural type of stimulus differing from classical dipole stimuli which have been widely used in threshold determination so far. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Pre-operative pain and sensory function in groin hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Hansen, Jeanette B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    (rho=-0.413, p=0.049), indicating a paradoxical association between level of mechanical pain threshold and magnitude of spontaneous pain. No other sensory modality was significantly correlated to pain intensity. New/increased pain during repetitive pinprick stimulation (wind-up) was seen in 3 patients...... mechanism. AIMS: To investigate the correlation between pre-operative pain intensity and sensory functions in the groin hernia area. METHODS: Patients with unilateral groin hernia were examined preoperatively by quantitative sensory testing (thermal, mechanical, and pressure [detection and pain thresholds...... pain is not related to findings of hyperalgesia or other changes in sensory function that may support pain-induced pre-operative neuroplasticity as a pathogenic mechanism for the development of persistent postherniotomy pain....

  4. High pain sensitivity is distinct from high susceptibility to non-painful sensory input at threshold level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Thomas; Springborn, Maria; Croy, Ilona; Kaiser, Jochen; Lötsch, Jörn

    2011-04-01

    Individuals may differ considerably in their sensitivity towards various painful stimuli supporting the notion of a person as stoical or complaining about pain. Molecular and functional imaging research provides support that this may extend also to other sensory qualities. Whether a person can be characterized as possessing a generally high or low sensory acuity is unknown. This was therefore assessed with thresholds to painful and non-painful stimuli, with a focus on chemical stimuli that besides pain may evoke clearly non-painful sensations such as taste or smell. In 36 healthy men and 78 women (ages 18 to 52 years), pain thresholds to chemo-somatosensory (intranasal gaseous CO(2)) and electrical stimuli (cutaneous stimulation) were significantly correlated (ρ(2)=0.2268, psensory qualities, i.e., for the rose-like odor phenyl ethyl alcohol and gustatory thresholds for sour (citric acid) and salty (NaCl). Similarly, pain clusters showed no differences in thresholds to other stimuli. Moreover, no clustering was obtained for thresholds to both painful and non-painful stimuli together. Thus, individuals could not be characterized as highly sensitive (or insensitive) to all chemical stimuli no matter of evoking pain. This suggests that pain is primarily a singular sensory perception distinct from others such as olfaction or taste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Response, thermal regulatory threshold and thermal breakdown threshold of restrained RF-exposed mice at 905 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, S [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Eom, S J [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Schuderer, J [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstrasse 43, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland); Apostel, U [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Nicolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Tillmann, T [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Nicolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Dasenbrock, C [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Nicolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Kuster, N [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-11-07

    The objective of this study was the determination of the thermal regulatory and the thermal breakdown thresholds for in-tube restrained B6C3F1 and NMRI mice exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at 905 MHz. Different levels of the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR 0, 2, 5, 7.2, 10, 12.6 and 20 W kg{sup -1}) have been applied to the mice inside the 'Ferris Wheel' exposure setup at 22 {+-} 2 {sup 0}C and 30-70% humidity. The thermal responses were assessed by measurement of the rectal temperature prior, during and after the 2 h exposure session. For B6C3F1 mice, the thermal response was examined for three different weight groups (20 g, 24 g, 29 g), both genders and for pregnant mice. Additionally, NMRI mice with a weight of 36 g were investigated for an interstrain comparison. The thermal regulatory threshold of in-tube restrained mice was found at SAR levels between 2 W kg{sup -1} and 5 W kg{sup -1}, whereas the breakdown of regulation was determined at 10.1 {+-} 4.0 W kg{sup -1}(K = 2) for B6C3F1 mice and 7.7 {+-} 1.6 W kg{sup -1}(K = 2) for NMRI mice. Based on a simplified power balance equation, the thresholds show a clear dependence upon the metabolic rate and weight. NMRI mice were more sensitive to thermal stress and respond at lower SAR values with regulation and breakdown. The presented data suggest that the thermal breakdown for in-tube restrained mice, whole-body exposed to radiofrequency fields, may occur at SAR levels of 6 W kg{sup -1}(K = 2) at laboratory conditions.

  6. Sensory Alterations in Patients with Isolated Idiopathic Dystonia: An Exploratory Quantitative Sensory Testing Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paracka, Lejla; Wegner, Florian; Blahak, Christian; Abdallat, Mahmoud; Saryyeva, Assel; Dressler, Dirk; Karst, Matthias; Krauss, Joachim K

    2017-01-01

    Abnormalities in the somatosensory system are increasingly being recognized in patients with dystonia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sensory abnormalities are confined to the dystonic body segments or whether there is a wider involvement in patients with idiopathic dystonia. For this purpose, we recruited 20 patients, 8 had generalized, 5 had segmental dystonia with upper extremity involvement, and 7 had cervical dystonia. In total, there were 13 patients with upper extremity involvement. We used Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) at the back of the hand in all patients and at the shoulder in patients with cervical dystonia. The main finding on the hand QST was impaired cold detection threshold (CDT), dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA), and thermal sensory limen (TSL). The alterations were present on both hands, but more pronounced on the side more affected with dystonia. Patients with cervical dystonia showed a reduced CDT and hot detection threshold (HDT), enhanced TSL and DMA at the back of the hand, whereas the shoulder QST only revealed increased cold pain threshold and DMA. In summary, QST clearly shows distinct sensory abnormalities in patients with idiopathic dystonia, which may also manifest in body regions without evident dystonia. Further studies with larger groups of dystonia patients are needed to prove the consistency of these findings.

  7. Analysis of Sensory/Active Piezoelectric Composite Structures in Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1996-01-01

    Although there has been extensive development of analytical methods for modeling the behavior of piezoelectric structures, only a limited amount of research has been performed concerning the implications of thermal effects on both the active and sensory response of smart structures. Thermal effects become important when the piezoelectric structure has to operate in either extremely hot or cold temperature environments. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to extend the previously developed discrete layer formulation of Saravanos and Heyliger to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response in modern smart composite beams. The mechanics accounts for thermal effects which may arise in the elastic and piezoelectric media at the material level through the constitutive equations. The displacements, electric potentials, and temperatures are introduced as state variables, allowing them to be modeled as variable fields through the laminate thickness. This unified representation leads to an inherent capability to model both the active compensation of thermal distortions in smart structures and the resultant sensory voltage when thermal loads are applied. The corresponding finite element formulation is developed and numerical results demonstrate the ability to model both the active and sensory modes of composite beams with heterogeneous plies with attached piezoelectric layers under thermal loadings.

  8. The Sensory Difference Threshold of Menthol Odor in Flavored Tobacco Determined by Combining Sensory and Chemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüsemann, Erna J Z; Cremers, Johannes W J M; Visser, Wouter F; Punter, Pieter H; Talhout, Reinskje

    2017-03-01

    Cigarettes are an often-used consumer product, and flavor is an important determinant of their product appeal. Cigarettes with strong nontobacco flavors are popular among young people, and may facilitate smoking initiation. Discriminating flavors in tobacco is important for regulation purposes, for instance to set upper limits to the levels of important flavor additives. We provide a simple and fast method to determine the human odor difference threshold for flavor additives in a tobacco matrix, using a combination of chemical and sensory analysis. For an example, the human difference threshold for menthol odor, one of the most frequently used tobacco flavors, was determined. A consumer panel consisting of 20 women compared different concentrations of menthol-flavored tobacco to unflavored cigarette tobacco using the 2-alternative forced choice method. Components contributing to menthol odor were quantified using headspace GC-MS. The sensory difference threshold of menthol odor corresponded to a mixture of 43 (37-50)% menthol-flavored tobacco, containing 1.8 (1.6-2.1) mg menthol, 2.7 (2.3-3.1) µg menthone, and 1.0 (0.9-1.2) µg neomenthyl acetate per gram of tobacco. Such a method is important in the context of the European Tobacco Product Directive, and the US Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Control Act, that both prohibit cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco with a characterizing flavor other than tobacco. Our method can also be adapted for matrices other than tobacco, such as food. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation modulates conscious perception of sensory function in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Rubens G; Galhardoni, Ricardo; Teixeira, Manoel J; Dos Santos Ghilardi, Maria G; Silva, Valquiria; Myczkowski, Martin L; Marcolin, Marco A; Barbosa, Egberto R; Fonoff, Erich T; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is used to treat refractory motor complications in Parkinson disease (PD), but its effects on nonmotor symptoms remain uncertain. Up to 80% of patients with PD may have pain relief after STN-DBS, but it is unknown whether its analgesic properties are related to potential effects on sensory thresholds or secondary to motor improvement. We have previously reported significant and long-lasting pain relief after DBS, which did not correlate with motor symptomatic control. Here we present secondary data exploring the effects of DBS on sensory thresholds in a controlled way and have explored the relationship between these changes and clinical pain and motor improvement after surgery. Thirty-seven patients were prospectively evaluated before STN-DBS and 12 months after the procedure compared with healthy controls. Compared with baseline, patients with PD showed lower thermal and mechanical detection and higher cold pain thresholds after surgery. There were no changes in heat and mechanical pain thresholds. Compared with baseline values in healthy controls, patients with PD had higher thermal and mechanical detection thresholds, which decreased after surgery toward normalization. These sensory changes had no correlation with motor or clinical pain improvement after surgery. These data confirm the existence of sensory abnormalities in PD and suggest that STN-DBS mainly influenced the detection thresholds rather than painful sensations. However, these changes may depend on the specific effects of DBS on somatosensory loops with no correlation to motor or clinical pain improvement.

  10. Effect of surgery on sensory threshold and somatosensory evoked potentials after skin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, C; Hansen, O B; Kehlet, H

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the effect of surgical injury on cutaneous sensitivity and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) to dermatomal electrical stimulation in 10 patients undergoing hysterectomy. Forty-eight hours after surgery, sensory threshold increased from 2.2 (SEM 0.3) mA to 4.4 (1.1) mA (P less...

  11. Neurosensory sequelae assessed by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds after local cold injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Daniel; Burström, Lage; Lilliesköld, Victoria Heldestad; Nilsson, Tohr; Nordh, Erik; Wahlström, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Local freezing cold injuries are common in the north and sequelae to cold injury can persist many years. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) can be used to assess neurosensory symptoms but has previously not been used on cold injury patients. To evaluate neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds and by symptom descriptions. Fifteen patients with a local freezing cold injury in the hands or feet, acquired during military training, were studied with QST by assessment of vibrotactile (VPT), warmth (WPT) and cold (CPT) perception thresholds 4 months post-injury. In addition, a follow-up questionnaire, focusing on neurovascular symptoms, was completed 4 months and 4 years post-injury. QST demonstrated abnormal findings in one or both affected hands for VPT in 6 patients, for WPT in 4 patients and for CPT in 1 patient. In the feet, QST was abnormal for VPT in one or both affected feet in 8 patients, for WPT in 6 patients and for CPT in 4 patients. Freezing cold injury related symptoms, e.g. pain/discomfort when exposed to cold, cold sensation and white fingers were common at 4 months and persisted 4 years after the initial injury. Neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury, in terms of abnormal thermal and/or vibration perception thresholds, may last at least 4 months after the initial injury. Symptoms such as pain/discomfort at cold exposure, cold sensations and white fingers may persist at least 4 years after the initial injury.

  12. Characteristics of the local cutaneous sensory thermoneutral zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    Skin temperature detection thresholds have been used to measure human cold and warm sensitivity across the temperature continuum. They exhibit a sensory zone within which neither warm nor cold sensations prevail. This zone has been widely assumed to coincide with steady-state local skin temperatures between 32 and 34°C, but its underlying neurophysiology has been rarely investigated. In this study we employ two approaches to characterize the properties of sensory thermoneutrality, testing for each whether neutrality shifts along the temperature continuum depending on adaptation to a preceding thermal state. The focus is on local spots of skin on the palm. Ten participants (age: 30.3 ± 4.8 yr) underwent two experiments. Experiment 1 established the cold-to-warm inter-detection threshold range for the palm’s glabrous skin and its shift as a function of 3 starting skin temperatures (26, 31, or 36°C). For the same conditions, experiment 2 determined a thermally neutral zone centered around a thermally neutral point in which thermoreceptors’ activity is balanced. The zone was found to be narrow (~0.98 to ~1.33°C), moving with the starting skin temperature over the temperature span 27.5–34.9°C (Pearson r = 0.94; P cold-to-warm inter-threshold range (~2.25 to ~2.47°C) but is only half as wide. These findings provide the first quantitative analysis of the local sensory thermoneutral zone in humans, indicating that it does not occur only within a specific range of steady-state skin temperatures (i.e., it shifts across the temperature continuum) and that it differs from the inter-detection threshold range both quantitatively and qualitatively. These findings provide insight into thermoreception neurophysiology. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Contrary to a widespread concept in human thermoreception, we show that local sensory thermoneutrality is achievable outside the 32–34°C skin temperature range. We propose that sensory adaption underlies a new mechanism of temperature

  13. Laser heat stimulation of tiny skin areas adds valuable information to quantitative sensory testing in postherpetic neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Marcel; Spohn, Dorothee; Ritter, Alexander; Rolke, Roman; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Patients suffering from postherpetic neuralgia often complain about hypo- or hypersensation in the affected dermatome. The loss of thermal sensitivity has been demonstrated by quantitative sensory testing as being associated with small-fiber (Aδ- and C-fiber) deafferentation. We aimed to compare laser stimulation (radiant heat) to thermode stimulation (contact heat) with regard to their sensitivity and specificity to detect thermal sensory deficits related to small-fiber dysfunction in postherpetic neuralgia. We contrasted detection rate of laser stimuli with 5 thermal parameters (thresholds of cold/warm detection, cold/heat pain, and sensory limen) of quantitative sensory testing. Sixteen patients diagnosed with unilateral postherpetic neuralgia and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects were tested. Quantitative sensory testing and laser stimulation of tiny skin areas were performed in the neuralgia-affected skin and in the contralateral homologue of the neuralgia-free body side. Across the 5 thermal parameters of thermode stimulation, only one parameter (warm detection threshold) revealed sensory abnormalities (thermal hypoesthesia to warm stimuli) in the neuralgia-affected skin area of patients but not in the contralateral area, as compared to the control group. In contrast, patients perceived significantly less laser stimuli both in the affected skin and in the contralateral skin compared to controls. Overall, laser stimulation proved more sensitive and specific in detecting thermal sensory abnormalities in the neuralgia-affected skin, as well as in the control skin, than any single thermal parameter of thermode stimulation. Thus, laser stimulation of tiny skin areas might be a useful diagnostic tool for small-fiber dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pre-operative pain and sensory function in groin hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Hansen, Jeanette B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although persistent postherniotomy occurs in 5-10% of patients, pathogenic mechanisms remain debatable. Since pre-operative pain has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for persistent postherniotomy pain, pre-operative alterations in nociceptive function may be a potential pathogenic...... mechanism. AIMS: To investigate the correlation between pre-operative pain intensity and sensory functions in the groin hernia area. METHODS: Patients with unilateral groin hernia were examined preoperatively by quantitative sensory testing (thermal, mechanical, and pressure [detection and pain thresholds...... (7%), all whom experienced no pain or pain less than weekly. Only cool detection thresholds were significantly lower between the hernia vs. contralateral side (poperative groin hernia...

  15. Thermal Limits and Thresholds of Red Sea Biota

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica

    2018-01-01

    tropical systems. This has major consequences for organisms that may already find themselves at their thermal limits. The aim of this project was to define the thermal limits and thresholds of certain Red Sea species. Firstly, to better understand

  16. Feasibility and repeatability of cold and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in normal dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Jessica D.; Williams, Morika D.; Freire, Mila; Griffith, Emily H.; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility and inter-session repeatability of cold and mechanical quantitative sensory testing (QST) were assessed in 24 normal dogs. Cold thermal latencies were evaluated using a thermal probe (0 °C) applied to three pelvic limb sites. Mechanical thresholds were measured using an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer (EVF) and a blunt-probed pressure algometer (PA) applied to the dorsal aspect of the metatarsus. All QST trials were performed with dogs in lateral recumbency. Collection of cold QST data was easy (feasible) in 19/24 (79%) dogs. However, only 18.4%, 18.9% and 13.2% of cold QST trials elicited a response at the medial tibia, third digital pad and plantar metatarsal regions, respectively. Collection of mechanical QST data was easy (feasible) in 20/24 (83%) dogs for both EVF and PA. At consecutive sampling times, approximately 2 weeks apart, the average EVF sensory thresholds were 414 ± 186 g and 379 ± 166 g, respectively, and the average PA sensory thresholds were 1089 ± 414 g and 1028 ± 331 g, respectively. There was no significant difference in inter-session or inter-limb threshold values for either mechanical QST device. The cold QST protocol in this study was achievable, but did not provide consistently quantifiable results. Both mechanical QST devices tested provided repeatable, reliable sensory threshold measurements in normal, client-owned dogs. These findings contribute to the validation of the EVF and PA as tools to obtain repeated QST data over time in dogs to assess somatosensory processing changes. PMID:24268475

  17. Cross-Excitation in Peripheral Sensory Ganglia Associated with Pain Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Omoto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the absence of synaptic contacts, cross-excitation of neurons in sensory ganglia during signal transmission is considered to be chemically mediated and appears increased in chronic pain states. In this study, we modulated neurotransmitter release in sensory neurons by direct application of type A botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/A to sensory ganglia in an animal model of neuropathic pain and evaluated the effect of this treatment on nocifensive. Unilateral sciatic nerve entrapment (SNE reduced the ipsilateral hindpaw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation and reduced hindpaw withdrawal latency to thermal stimulation. Direct application of BoNT/A to the ipsilateral L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG was localized in the cell bodies of the DRG and reversed the SNE-induced decreases in withdrawal thresholds within 2 days of BoNT/A administration. Results from this study suggest that neurotransmitter release within sensory ganglia is involved in the regulation of pain-related signal transmission.

  18. Effect of thermal insulation on the electrical characteristics of NbOx threshold switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziwen; Kumar, Suhas; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Nishi, Yoshio

    2018-02-01

    Threshold switches based on niobium oxide (NbOx) are promising candidates as bidirectional selector devices in crossbar memory arrays and building blocks for neuromorphic computing. Here, it is experimentally demonstrated that the electrical characteristics of NbOx threshold switches can be tuned by engineering the thermal insulation. Increasing the thermal insulation by ˜10× is shown to produce ˜7× reduction in threshold current and ˜45% reduction in threshold voltage. The reduced threshold voltage leads to ˜5× reduction in half-selection leakage, which highlights the effectiveness of reducing half-selection leakage of NbOx selectors by engineering the thermal insulation. A thermal feedback model based on Poole-Frenkel conduction in NbOx can explain the experimental results very well, which also serves as a piece of strong evidence supporting the validity of the Poole-Frenkel based mechanism in NbOx threshold switches.

  19. Embodied thermal environments: an examination of older-people's sensory experiences in a variety of residential types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, Victoria; Guy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Thermal sensations of space, namely temperature, humidity and the movement of air, can be difficult to separate from other sensory information such as the sound of fans or ventilation equipment, or the smell of damp or cool fresh air. Despite this factor, efforts to reduce the consumption of energy through the installation of low-carbon technologies including sealed whole-building systems frequently isolate the thermal environment and fail to recognise and respond to the influence of other sensory information on personal preferences and behaviours. Older people represent an increasing proportion of the UK's population, can be faced with a range of physiological challenges associated with ageing, and sometimes have long-established personal preferences. Drawing from data collected across the Conditioning Demand Project, this paper explores the embodied nature of older people's experiences of low-carbon and more traditional thermal technologies in private residences, extra-care housing and residential care-homes, focussing specifically upon auditory and olfactory stimulus. Exploring the management of the sensory experience across these settings, we analyse each case to inform the development of new design and policy approaches to tackling housing for older people. In doing so, we further build connections between energy research and debates around sensory urbanism. -- Highlights: •Some thermal technologies present particular sensory issues and problems for older people. •Older people use a range of sensory stimuli in evaluating and controlling thermal environments. •Older people use non-thermal sensory information when selecting between thermal technologies. •Sensory information plays an important role in thermal technology maintenance

  20. Thermal and mechanical pain sensitization in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilaqua-Grossi, Debora; Zanin, Marilia; Benedetti, Camila; Florencio, Lidiane; Oliveira, Anamaria

    2018-02-26

    The aim was to assess sensitization using quantitative sensory testing in mechanical and thermal modes in individuals with and without osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Pain thresholds were correlated with functionality, symptoms of depression and intensity of pain. Thirty control volunteers and 30 patients with OA of the knee were assessed. Punctate pain thresholds using Von Frey filaments and thermal pain thresholds using a Thermal Sensory Analyzer were evaluated in the periarticular region of the knee and forearm. Using a digital pressure algometer, pressure pain thresholds were assessed in the periarticular region of the knee and on the root exit zone on the lumbar and sacral spine. Punctate, pressure, and thermal pain thresholds differed significantly between participants with and without OA (p pain sensitization. Pressure pain thresholds also showed moderate and negative correlations with data on functionality, symptoms of depression and intensity of pain (-0.36  -0.56), contributing up to 30% of their variability. Allodynia and hyperalgesia were demonstrated in the OA group, suggesting central sensitization in patients with mild to moderate severity of joint damage. Correlation between mechanical hypersensitivity and psychosocial factors seems to be small, despite of its significance.

  1. Evidence for thermally assisted threshold switching behavior in nanoscale phase-change memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gallo, Manuel; Athmanathan, Aravinthan; Krebs, Daniel; Sebastian, Abu

    2016-01-01

    In spite of decades of research, the details of electrical transport in phase-change materials are still debated. In particular, the so-called threshold switching phenomenon that allows the current density to increase steeply when a sufficiently high voltage is applied is still not well understood, even though there is wide consensus that threshold switching is solely of electronic origin. However, the high thermal efficiency and fast thermal dynamics associated with nanoscale phase-change memory (PCM) devices motivate us to reassess a thermally assisted threshold switching mechanism, at least in these devices. The time/temperature dependence of the threshold switching voltage and current in doped Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 nanoscale PCM cells was measured over 6 decades in time at temperatures ranging from 40 °C to 160 °C. We observe a nearly constant threshold switching power across this wide range of operating conditions. We also measured the transient dynamics associated with threshold switching as a function of the applied voltage. By using a field- and temperature-dependent description of the electrical transport combined with a thermal feedback, quantitative agreement with experimental data of the threshold switching dynamics was obtained using realistic physical parameters

  2. Sensory threshold neuromuscular electrical stimulation fosters motor imagery performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, Tiffany; Iturrate, Iñaki; Pereira, Michael; Perdikis, Serafeim; Millán, José Del R

    2018-04-21

    Motor imagery (MI) has been largely studied as a way to enhance motor learning and to restore motor functions. Although it is agreed that users should emphasize kinesthetic imagery during MI, recordings of MI brain patterns are not sufficiently reliable for many subjects. It has been suggested that the usage of somatosensory feedback would be more suitable than standardly used visual feedback to enhance MI brain patterns. However, somatosensory feed-back should not interfere with the recorded MI brain pattern. In this study we propose a novel feedback modality to guide subjects during MI based on sensory threshold neuromuscular electrical stimulation (St-NMES). St-NMES depolarizes sensory and motor axons without eliciting any muscular contraction. We hypothesize that St-NMES does not induce detectable ERD brain patterns and fosters MI performance. Twelve novice subjects were included in a cross-over design study. We recorded their EEG, comparing St-NMES with visual feed-back during MI or resting tasks. We found that St-NMES not only induced significantly larger desynchronization over sensorimotor areas (p<0.05) but also significantly enhanced MI brain connectivity patterns. Moreover, classification accuracy and stability were significantly higher with St-NMES. Importantly, St-NMES alone did not induce detectable artifacts, but rather the changes in the detected patterns were due to an increased MI performance. Our findings indicate that St-NMES is a promising feedback in order to foster MI performance and cold be used for BMI online applications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Thermal and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in Chinese patients with burning mouth syndrome--a probable neuropathic pain condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xueyin; Zhang, Jinglu; Fan, Yuan; Svensson, Peter; Wang, Kelun

    2015-01-01

    To explore the hypothesis that burning mouth syndrome (BMS) probably is a neuropathic pain condition, thermal and mechanical sensory and pain thresholds were tested and compared with age- and gender-matched control participants using a standardized battery of psychophysical techniques. Twenty-five BMS patients (men: 8, women: 17, age: 49.5 ± 11.4 years) and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy control participants were included. The cold detection threshold (CDT), warm detection threshold (WDT), cold pain threshold (CPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), mechanical detection threshold (MDT) and mechanical pain threshold (MPT), in accordance with the German Network of Neuropathic Pain guidelines, were measured at the following four sites: the dorsum of the left hand (hand), the skin at the mental foramen (chin), on the tip of the tongue (tongue), and the mucosa of the lower lip (lip). Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA with repeated measures to compare the means within and between groups. Furthermore, Z-score profiles were generated, and exploratory correlation analyses between QST and clinical variables were performed. Two-tailed tests with a significance level of 5 % were used throughout. CDTs (P < 0.02) were significantly lower (less sensitivity) and HPTs (P < 0.001) were significantly higher (less sensitivity) at the tongue and lip in BMS patients compared to control participants. WDT (P = 0.007) was also significantly higher at the tongue in BMS patients compared to control subjects . There were no significant differences in MDT and MPT between the BMS patients and healthy subjects at any of the four test sites. Z-scores showed that significant loss of function can be identified for CDT (Z-scores = -0.9±1.1) and HPT (Z-scores = 1.5±0.4). There were no significant correlations between QST and clinical variables (pain intensity, duration, depressions scores). BMS patients had a significant loss of thermal function but not

  4. Test-retest studies in quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Petersen, M A; Bischoff, J M

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) investigates the graded psychophysical response to controlled thermal, mechanical, electrical or chemical stimuli, allowing quantification of clinically relevant perception and pain thresholds. The methods are ubiquitously used in experimental and clinical pain...... research, and therefore, the need for uniform assessment procedures has been emphasised. However, varying consistency and transparency in the statistical methodology seem to occur in the QST literature. Sixteen publications, evaluating aspects of QST variability, from 2010 to 2012, were critically reviewed...

  5. Fatigue threshold studies in Fe, Fe-Si, and HSLA steel: Part II. Thermally activated behavior of the effective stress intensity at threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.; Esaklul, K.; Gerberich, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that closure mechanisms alone cannot fully explain increasing fatigue thresholds with decreasing test temperature. Implications are that fatigue crack propagation near threshold is a thermally activated process. The effective threshold stress intensity correlate to the thermal component of the flow stress. A fractographic study of the fatigue surface was performed. Water vapor in room air promotes the formation of oxide and intergranular crack growth. At lower temperatures, a brittle-type cyclic cleavage fatigue surface was observed but the ductile process persisted even at 123 K. Arrest marks found on all three modes of fatigue crack growth suggest that fatigue crack growth controlled by the subcell structure near threshold. The effective fatigue threshold may be related to the square root of (one plus the strain rate sensitivity)

  6. Effect of butorphanol on thermal nociceptive threshold in healthy pony foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, K T; Elfenbein, J R; Robertson, S A; Sanchez, L C

    2013-07-01

    Pain management is an important component of foal nursing care, and no objective data currently exist regarding the analgesic efficacy of opioids in foals. To evaluate the somatic antinociceptive effects of 2 commonly used doses of intravenous (i.v.) butorphanol in healthy foals. Our hypothesis was that thermal nociceptive threshold would increase following i.v. butorphanol in a dose-dependent manner in both neonatal and older pony foals. Seven healthy neonatal pony foals (age 1-2 weeks), and 11 healthy older pony foals (age 4-8 weeks). Five foals were used during both age periods. Treatments, which included saline (0.5 ml), butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg bwt) and butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg bwt), were administered i.v. in a randomised crossover design with at least 2 days between treatments. Response variables included thermal nociceptive threshold, skin temperature and behaviour score. Data within each age period were analysed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA, followed by a Holm-Sidak multiple comparison procedure if warranted. There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in thermal threshold, relative to Time 0, following butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg bwt) administration in both age groups. No significant time or treatment effects were apparent for skin temperature. Significant time, but not treatment, effects were evident for behaviour score in both age groups. Butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg bwt, but not 0.05 mg/kg bwt) significantly increased thermal nociceptive threshold in neonatal and older foals without apparent adverse behavioural effects. Butorphanol shows analgesic potential in foals for management of somatic painful conditions. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  7. Minimizing the source of nociception and its concurrent effect on sensory hypersensitivity: An exploratory study in chronic whiplash patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratford Paul

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical zygapophyseal joints may be a primary source of pain in up to 60% of individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD and may be a contributing factor for peripheral and centrally mediated pain (sensory hypersensitivity. Sensory hypersensitivity has been associated with a poor prognosis. The purpose of the study was to determine if there is a change in measures indicative of sensory hypersensitivity in patients with chronic WAD grade II following a medial branch block (MBB procedure in the cervical spine. Methods Measures of sensory hypersensitivity were taken via quantitative sensory testing (QST consisting of pressure pain thresholds (PPT's and cold pain thresholds (CPT's. In patients with chronic WAD (n = 18, the measures were taken at three sites bilaterally, pre- and post- MBB. Reduced pain thresholds at remote sites have been considered an indicator of central hypersensitivity. A healthy age and gender matched comparison group (n = 18 was measured at baseline. An independent t-test was applied to determine if there were any significant differences between the WAD and normative comparison groups at baseline with respect to cold pain and pressure pain thresholds. A dependent t-test was used to determine whether there were any significant differences between the pre and post intervention cold pain and pressure pain thresholds in the patients with chronic WAD. Results At baseline, PPT's were decreased at all three sites in the WAD group (p Conclusions The patients with chronic WAD showed evidence of widespread sensory hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli. The WAD group revealed decreased sensory hypersensitivity following a decrease in their primary source of pain stemming from the cervical zygapophyseal joints.

  8. The Measurement of the Sensory Recovery Period in Zygoma and Blow-Out Fractures with Neurometer Current Perception Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Daemyung; Yun, Taebin; Kim, Junhyung; Choi, Jaehoon; Jeong, Woonhyeok; Chu, Hojun; Lee, Soyoung

    2016-09-01

    Facial hypoesthesia is one of the most troublesome complaints in the management of facial bone fractures. However, there is a lack of literature on facial sensory recovery after facial trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the facial sensory recovery period for facial bone fractures using Neurometer. Sixty-three patients who underwent open reduction of zygomatic and blowout fractures between December 2013 and July 2015 were included in the study. The facial sensory status of the patients was repeatedly examined preoperatively and postoperatively by Neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) until the results were normalized. Among the 63 subjects, 30 patients had normal Neurometer results preoperatively and postoperatively. According to fracture types, 17 patients with blowout fracture had a median recovery period of 0.25 months. Twelve patients with zygomatic fracture had a median recovery period of 1.00 month. Four patients with both fracture types had a median recovery period of 0.625 months. The median recovery period of all 33 patients was 0.25 months. There was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period between types and subgroups of zygomatic and blowout fractures. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period according to Neurometer results and the patients' own subjective reports. Neurometer CPT is effective for evaluating and comparing preoperative and postoperative facial sensory status and evaluating the sensory recovery period in facial bone fracture patients.

  9. Hand-arm vibration syndrome: clinical characteristics, conventional electrophysiology and quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolke, Roman; Rolke, Silke; Vogt, Thomas; Birklein, Frank; Geber, Christian; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Letzel, Stephan; Voelter-Mahlknecht, Susanne

    2013-08-01

    Workers exposed to vibrating tools may develop hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). We assessed the somatosensory phenotype using quantitative sensory testing (QST) in comparison to electrophysiology to characterize (1) the most sensitive QST parameter for detecting sensory loss, (2) the correlation of QST and electrophysiology, and (3) the frequency of a carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in HAVS. QST, cold provocation tests, fine motor skills, and median nerve neurography were used. QST included thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds. Thirty-two patients were examined (54 ± 11 years, 91% men) at the more affected hand compared to 16 matched controls. Vibration detection threshold was the most sensitive parameter to detect sensory loss that was more pronounced in the sensitivity range of Pacinian (150 Hz, x12) than Meissner's corpuscles (20 Hz, x3). QST (84% abnormal) was more sensitive to detect neural dysfunction than conventional electrophysiology (37% abnormal). Motor (34%) and sensory neurography (25%) were abnormal in HAVS. CTS frequency was not increased (9.4%). Findings are consistent with a mechanically-induced, distally pronounced motor and sensory neuropathy independent of CTS. HAVS involves a neuropathy predominantly affecting large fibers with a sensory damage related to resonance frequencies of vibrating tools. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vibration sensory thresholds depend on pressure of applied stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, L M; Hockaday, T D

    1987-01-01

    Vibration sensory thresholds (VSTs) were estimated in 40 healthy subjects and 8 with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A vibrameter and a biothesiometer were used at four sites and at differing pressures. In normal subjects, with the vibrameter at 200 g, mean VST +/- SE for all sites was 1.87 micron +/- 0.22 and at 400 g dropped to 1.08 micron +/- 0.15 (P less than .0001). In 20 of these subjects with a biothesiometer at 200 and 400 g, mean VST fell from 12.8 +/- 1.5 to 11.1 +/- 1.1 (arbitrary units) (P = .01) when the greater pressure was applied. In the 8 subjects with peripheral neuropathy, with the vibrameter at 200 and 400 g, respectively, mean VST fell from 70.7 +/- 26 to 7.2 +/- 1.8. VST in these subjects was estimated again after 1 mo and showed strong correlations with the previous values. Biothesiometer results correlated with vibrameter results at all sites. Thus, VST decreases as the pressure of the applied stimulus is increased and this effect appears to be more marked in peripheral neuropathy. This has important consequences in monitoring this condition.

  11. Objective sensory evaluation of the spread of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Lara; Schwartzman, Robert J; Ahmad, Ayesha; Erwin, Kirsten; Alexander, Guillermo M

    2013-01-01

    The spread of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been well documented. Many severe refractory long-standing patients have total body pain (TBP) that evolved from a single extremity injury. The purpose of this study was to document by objective sensory threshold testing the extent of body area involvement in 20 long-standing patients with CRPS who have TBP. A comparison of sensory threshold testing parameters between 20 long-standing refractory patients with CRPS who have TBP versus 10 healthy participants. Twenty patients with CRPS who stated that they suffered from total body pain were chosen from the Drexel University College of Medicine CRPS database. They were compared to 10 healthy participants that were age and gender matched to the patients with CRPS. The sensory parameters tested were: skin temperature; static and mechanical allodynia; thermal allodynia; mechanical hyperalgesia; after sensations following all sensory tests. The sites chosen for testing in the patients with CRPS were the most painful area in each of 8 body regions that comprised the total body area. Five patients with CRPS had signs of CRPS over 100% of their body (20%). One patient had pain over 87% and another had pain over 90% of their body area. The average percentage of body involvement was 62% (range 37% - 100%). All patients with CRPS had at least one sensory parameter abnormality in all body regions. All patients with CRPS had lower pain thresholds for static allodynia in all body areas, while 50% demonstrated a lower threshold for dynamic allodynia in all body regions compared to the healthy participants. Cold allodynia had a higher median pain rating on the Likert pain scale in all body areas versus healthy participants except for the chest, abdomen, and back. Eighty-five percent of the patients with CRPS had a significantly lower pain threshold for mechanical hyperalgesia in all body areas compared to the healthy participants. After sensations occurred after all sensory

  12. Thermal Limits and Thresholds of Red Sea Biota

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica

    2018-05-01

    As ocean temperatures continue to rise, the effect of temperature on marine organisms becomes highly relevant. The Red Sea is the warmest sea and is rapidly warming with current surface temperatures (28 – 34 °C) already exceeding those of most tropical systems. This has major consequences for organisms that may already find themselves at their thermal limits. The aim of this project was to define the thermal limits and thresholds of certain Red Sea species. Firstly, to better understand the thermal regimes of the Red Sea, we looked at decadal trends in maximum sea surface temperature across the basin. Then, we tested the thermal capacities of Red Sea mangroves and zooplankton, two key ecological groups, by performing thermal stress experiments in the laboratory. We found that the Red Sea basin is warming faster than the global average (0.17 °C decade-1), the thermal limit of mangrove propagules is between 33 and 35 °C, and the limits among the most common zooplankton groups range from 30 to 36 °C. This project gives us a better understanding of how organisms respond to extreme temperatures and how they may be affected in a future, warmer, ocean.

  13. Clinical Interpretation of Quantitative Sensory Testing as a Measure of Pain Sensitivity in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brandow, Amanda M.; Panepinto, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) display significantly lower mean/median thermal and mechanical pain thresholds compared to controls. This suggests impaired pain sensitivity where stimuli produce exaggerated pain. Despite these mean/median differences, clinicians need to understand if patients meet criteria for impaired pain sensitivity. We defined thresholds for impaired cold, heat, and mechanical pain sensitivity in SCD patients. Using quantitative sensory testing (QST) we assessed c...

  14. Fatigue threshold studies in Fe, Fe-Si, and HSLA steel: Part II. thermally activated behavior of the effective stress intensity at threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W.; Esaklul, K.; Gerberich, W. W.

    1984-05-01

    It is shown that closure mechanisms alone cannot fully explain increasing fatigue thresholds with decreasing test temperature for a sequence of Fe-Si binary alloys and an HSLA steel. Implications are that fatigue crack propagation near threshold is a thermally activated process. The effective threshold stress intensity, which was obtained by subtracting the closure portion from the fatigue threshold, was examined. This effective stress intensity was found to correlate very well to the thermal component of the flow stress. A detailed fractographic study of the fatigue surface was performed. Water vapor in the room air was found to promote the formation of oxide and intergranular crack growth. At lower temperature, a brittle-type cyclic cleavage fatigue surface was observed but the ductile process persisted even at 123 K. Arrest marks were found on all three modes of fatigue crack growth. The regular spacings between these lines and dislocation modeling suggested that fatigue crack growth was controlled by the subcell structure near threshold. A model based on the slip-off of dislocations was examined. From this, it is shown that the effective fatigue threshold may be related to the square root of (one plus the strain rate sensitivity).

  15. Minimizing the source of nociception and its concurrent effect on sensory hypersensitivity: an exploratory study in chronic whiplash patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Geoff M; Smith, Ashley D; Hooper, Allen; Stratford, Paul; Schneider, Kathryn J; Westaway, Michael D; Frizzell, Bevan; Olson, Lee

    2010-02-09

    The cervical zygapophyseal joints may be a primary source of pain in up to 60% of individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and may be a contributing factor for peripheral and centrally mediated pain (sensory hypersensitivity). Sensory hypersensitivity has been associated with a poor prognosis. The purpose of the study was to determine if there is a change in measures indicative of sensory hypersensitivity in patients with chronic WAD grade II following a medial branch block (MBB) procedure in the cervical spine. Measures of sensory hypersensitivity were taken via quantitative sensory testing (QST) consisting of pressure pain thresholds (PPT's) and cold pain thresholds (CPT's). In patients with chronic WAD (n = 18), the measures were taken at three sites bilaterally, pre- and post- MBB. Reduced pain thresholds at remote sites have been considered an indicator of central hypersensitivity. A healthy age and gender matched comparison group (n = 18) was measured at baseline. An independent t-test was applied to determine if there were any significant differences between the WAD and normative comparison groups at baseline with respect to cold pain and pressure pain thresholds. A dependent t-test was used to determine whether there were any significant differences between the pre and post intervention cold pain and pressure pain thresholds in the patients with chronic WAD. At baseline, PPT's were decreased at all three sites in the WAD group (p < 0.001). Cold pain thresholds were increased in the cervical spine in the WAD group (p < 0.001). Post-MBB, the WAD group showed significant increases in PPT's at all sites (p < 0.05), and significant decreases in CPT's at the cervical spine (p < 0.001). The patients with chronic WAD showed evidence of widespread sensory hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli. The WAD group revealed decreased sensory hypersensitivity following a decrease in their primary source of pain stemming from the cervical

  16. The effects of electroacupuncture on analgesia and peripheral sensory thresholds in patients with burn scar pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuignet, Olivier; Pirlot, A; Ortiz, S; Rose, T

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to observe if the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) on analgesia and peripheral sensory thresholds are transposable from the model of heat pain in volunteers to the clinical setting of burn scar pain. After severe burns, pathological burn scars (PPBS) may occur with excruciating pain that respond poorly to treatment and prevent patients from wearing their pressure garments, thereby leading to unesthetic and function-limiting scars. EA might be of greater benefit in terms of analgesia and functional recovery, should it interrupt this vicious circle by counteracting the peripheral hyperalgesia characterizing PPBS. Therefore we enrolled 32 patients (22 males/10 females) aged of 46±11 years with clinical signs of PPBS and of neuropathic pain despite treatment. The study protocol consisted in 3 weekly 30-min sessions of standardized EA with extra individual needles in accordance to Traditional Chinese Medicine, in addition of previous treatments. We assessed VAS for pain and quantitative sensory testing (QST) twice: one week before and one after protocol. QST measured electrical thresholds for non-nociceptive A-beta fibers, nociceptive A-delta and C fibers in 2 dermatomes, respectively from the PPBS and from the contralateral pain-free areas. Based on heat pain studies, EA consisted in sessions at the extremity points of the main meridian flowing through PPBS (0.300s, 5Hz, sub noxious intensity, 15min) and at the bilateral paravertebral points corresponding to the same metameric level, 15min. VAS reduction of 3 points or below 3 on a 10 points scale was considered clinically relevant. Paired t-test compared thresholds (mean [SD]) and Wilcoxon test compared VAS (median [IQR]) pre and after treatment, significant ppatients - even those from the subgroup of non-responders to pain - that is worth to be mentioned and requires further studies to be confirmed. This observational study is the first that confirms the effects of acupuncture on

  17. Approaches to Outdoor Thermal Comfort Thresholds through Public Space Design: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Santos Nouri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Köppen Geiger (KG classification system, this review article examines existing studies and projects that have endeavoured to address local outdoor thermal comfort thresholds through Public Space Design (PSD. The review is divided into two sequential stages, whereby (1 overall existing approaches to pedestrian thermal comfort thresholds are reviewed within both quantitative and qualitative spectrums; and (2 the different techniques and measures are reviewed and framed into four Measure Review Frameworks (MRFs, in which each type of PSD measure is presented alongside its respective local scale urban specificities/conditions and their resulting thermal attenuation outcomes. The result of this review article is the assessment of how current practices of PSD within three specific subcategories of the KG ‘Temperate’ group have addressed microclimatic aggravations such as elevated urban temperatures and Urban Heat Island (UHI effects. Based upon a bottom-up approach, the interdisciplinary practice of PSD is hence approached as a means to address existing and future thermal risk factors within the urban public realm in an era of potential climate change.

  18. Trigeminal pain and quantitative sensory testing in painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arap, Astrid; Siqueira, Silvia R D T; Silva, Claudomiro B; Teixeira, Manoel J; Siqueira, José T T

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate patients with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and painful peripheral neuropathy in order to investigate oral complaints and facial somatosensory findings. Case-control study; 29 patients (12 women, mean age 57.86 yo) with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and 31 age-gender-matched controls were evaluated with a standardized protocol for general characteristics, orofacial pain, research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders, visual analogue scale and McGill Pain questionnaire, and a systematic protocol of quantitative sensory testing for bilateral facial sensitivity at the areas innervated by the trigeminal branches, which included the thermal detection by ThermoSensi 2, tactile evaluation with vonFrey filaments, and superficial pain thresholds with a superficial algometer (Micromar). Statistical analysis was performed with Wilcoxon, chi-square, confidence intervals and Spearman (ppain was reported by 55.2% of patients, and the most common descriptor was fatigue (50%); 17.2% had burning mouth. Myofascial temporomandibular disorders were diagnosed in 9 (31%) patients. The study group showed higher sensory thresholds of pain at the right maxillary branch (p=0.017) but sensorial differences were not associated with pain (p=0.608). Glycemia and HbA(1c) were positively correlated with the quantitative sensory testing results of pain (ppain thresholds were correlated with higher glycemia and glycated hemoglobin (p=0.027 and p=0.026). There was a high prevalence of orofacial pain and burning mouth was the most common complaint. The association of loss of pain sensation and higher glycemia and glycated hemoglobin can be of clinical use for the follow-up of DM complications. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuropathic pain: is quantitative sensory testing helpful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumova, Elena K; Geber, Christian; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system and is characterised by a combination of positive and negative sensory symptoms. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) examines the sensory perception after application of different mechanical and thermal stimuli of controlled intensity and the function of both large (A-beta) and small (A-delta and C) nerve fibres, including the corresponding central pathways. QST can be used to determine detection, pain thresholds and stimulus-response curves and can thus detect both negative and positive sensory signs, the second ones not being assessed by other methods. Similarly to all other psychophysical tests QST requires standardised examination, instructions and data evaluation to receive valid and reliable results. Since normative data are available, QST can contribute also to the individual diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in the case of isolated small-fibre neuropathy, in contrast to the conventional electrophysiology which assesses only large myelinated fibres. For example, detection of early stages of subclinical neuropathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus can be helpful to optimise treatment and identify diabetic foot at risk of ulceration. QST assessed the individual's sensory profile and thus can be valuable to evaluate the underlying pain mechanisms which occur in different frequencies even in the same neuropathic pain syndromes. Furthermore, assessing the exact sensory phenotype by QST might be useful in the future to identify responders to certain treatments in accordance to the underlying pain mechanisms.

  20. A critical experimental study of the classical tactile threshold theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Leonel E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tactile sense is being used in a variety of applications involving tactile human-machine interfaces. In a significant number of publications the classical threshold concept plays a central role in modelling and explaining psychophysical experimental results such as in stochastic resonance (SR phenomena. In SR, noise enhances detection of sub-threshold stimuli and the phenomenon is explained stating that the required amplitude to exceed the sensory threshold barrier can be reached by adding noise to a sub-threshold stimulus. We designed an experiment to test the validity of the classical vibrotactile threshold. Using a second choice experiment, we show that individuals can order sensorial events below the level known as the classical threshold. If the observer's sensorial system is not activated by stimuli below the threshold, then a second choice could not be above the chance level. Nevertheless, our experimental results are above that chance level contradicting the definition of the classical tactile threshold. Results We performed a three alternative forced choice detection experiment on 6 subjects asking them first and second choices. In each trial, only one of the intervals contained a stimulus and the others contained only noise. According to the classical threshold assumptions, a correct second choice response corresponds to a guess attempt with a statistical frequency of 50%. Results show an average of 67.35% (STD = 1.41% for the second choice response that is not explained by the classical threshold definition. Additionally, for low stimulus amplitudes, second choice correct detection is above chance level for any detectability level. Conclusions Using a second choice experiment, we show that individuals can order sensorial events below the level known as a classical threshold. If the observer's sensorial system is not activated by stimuli below the threshold, then a second choice could not be above the chance

  1. Do multiple body modifications alter pain threshold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamotová, A; Hrabák, P; Hříbek, P; Rokyta, R

    2017-12-30

    In recent years, epidemiological data has shown an increasing number of young people who deliberately self-injure. There have also been parallel increases in the number of people with tattoos and those who voluntarily undergo painful procedures associated with piercing, scarification, and tattooing. People with self-injury behaviors often say that they do not feel the pain. However, there is no information regarding pain perception in those that visit tattoo parlors and piercing studios compared to those who don't. The aim of this study was to compare nociceptive sensitivity in four groups of subjects (n=105, mean age 26 years, 48 women and 57 men) with different motivations to experience pain (i.e., with and without multiple body modifications) in two different situations; (1) in controlled, emotionally neutral conditions, and (2) at a "Hell Party" (HP), an event organized by a piercing and tattoo parlor, with a main event featuring a public demonstration of painful techniques (burn scars, hanging on hooks, etc.). Pain thresholds of the fingers of the hand were measured using a thermal stimulator and mechanical algometer. In HP participants, information about alcohol intake, self-harming behavior, and psychiatric history were used in the analysis as intervening variables. Individuals with body modifications as well as without body modifications had higher thermal pain thresholds at Hell Party, compared to thresholds measured at control neutral conditions. No such differences were found relative to mechanical pain thresholds. Increased pain threshold in all HP participants, irrespectively of body modification, cannot be simply explained by a decrease in the sensory component of pain; instead, we found that the environment significantly influenced the cognitive and affective component of pain.

  2. Supra-threshold scaling, temporal summation, and after-sensation: relationships to each other and anxiety/fear

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Michael E; Bialosky, Joel E; Bishop, Mark D; Price, Donald D; George, Steven Z

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of thermal pain testing from three types of quantitative sensory testing (ie, supra-threshold stimulus response scaling, temporal summation, and after-sensation) at three anatomical sites (ie, upper extremity, lower extremity, and trunk). Pain ratings from these procedures were also compared with common psychological measures previously shown to be related to experimental pain responses and consistent with fear-avoidance models of pain. Results indicat...

  3. Is heat pain detection threshold associated with the area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Sejer; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2016-01-01

    role in the development of secondary hyperalgesia; however, a possible association of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization and other heat pain models remains unknown. Our aim with this study is to investigate how close the heat pain detection threshold is associated...... with the size of the area of secondary hyperalgesia induced by the clinical heat pain model: Brief thermal sensitization. METHODS AND DESIGN: We aim to include 120 healthy participants. The participants will be tested on two separate study days with the following procedures: i) Brief thermal sensitization, ii......) heat pain detection threshold and iii) pain during thermal stimulation. Additionally, the participants will be tested with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires. We conducted statistical simulations based on data from our previous study, to estimate...

  4. Thermalization threshold in models of 1D fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Subroto; Modak, Ranjan; Ramswamy, Sriram

    2013-03-01

    The question of how isolated quantum systems thermalize is an interesting and open one. In this study we equate thermalization with non-integrability to try to answer this question. In particular, we study the effect of system size on the integrability of 1D systems of interacting fermions on a lattice. We find that for a finite-sized system, a non-zero value of an integrability breaking parameter is required to make an integrable system appear non-integrable. Using exact diagonalization and diagnostics such as energy level statistics and the Drude weight, we find that the threshold value of the integrability breaking parameter scales to zero as a power law with system size. We find the exponent to be the same for different models with its value depending on the random matrix ensemble describing the non-integrable system. We also study a simple analytical model of a non-integrable system with an integrable limit to better understand how a power law emerges.

  5. Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Kristina M; Martin, Alison; Lydiate, Jessica; MacDermid, Joy C; Galea, Victoria; MacIntyre, Norma J

    2012-05-10

    Arthritis of the hand can limit a person's ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception.

  6. Cross-sensory facilitation reveals neural interactions between visual and tactile motion in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eGori

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies show that the human brain integrates information across the different senses and that stimuli of one sensory modality can enhance the perception of other modalities. Here we study the processes that mediate cross-modal facilitation and summation between visual and tactile motion. We find that while summation produced a generic, non-specific improvement of thresholds, probably reflecting higher-order interaction of decision signals, facilitation reveals a strong, direction-specific interaction, which we believe reflects sensory interactions. We measured visual and tactile velocity discrimination thresholds over a wide range of base velocities and conditions. Thresholds for both visual and tactile stimuli showed the characteristic dipper function, with the minimum thresholds occurring at a given pedestal speed. When visual and tactile coherent stimuli were combined (summation condition the thresholds for these multi-sensory stimuli also showed a dipper function with the minimum thresholds occurring in a similar range to that for unisensory signals. However, the improvement of multisensory thresholds was weak and not directionally specific, well predicted by the maximum likelihood estimation model (agreeing with previous research. A different technique (facilitation did, however, reveal direction-specific enhancement. Adding a non-informative pedestal motion stimulus in one sensory modality (vision or touch selectively lowered thresholds in the other, by the same amount as pedestals in the same modality. Facilitation did not occur for neutral stimuli like sounds (that would also have reduced temporal uncertainty, nor for motion in opposite direction, even in blocked trials where the subjects knew that the motion was in the opposite direction showing that the facilitation was not under subject control. Cross-sensory facilitation is strong evidence for functionally relevant cross-sensory integration at early levels of sensory

  7. Type III Nrg1 back signaling enhances functional TRPV1 along sensory axons contributing to basal and inflammatory thermal pain sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Sarah E; Luca, Edlira; Pertot, Elyse; Role, Lorna W; Talmage, David A

    2011-01-01

    Type III Nrg1, a member of the Nrg1 family of signaling proteins, is expressed in sensory neurons, where it can signal in a bi-directional manner via interactions with the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbB RTKs). Type III Nrg1 signaling as a receptor (Type III Nrg1 back signaling) can acutely activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PtdIns3K) signaling, as well as regulate levels of α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, along sensory axons. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation-permeable ion channel found in primary sensory neurons that is necessary for the detection of thermal pain and for the development of thermal hypersensitivity to pain under inflammatory conditions. Cell surface expression of TRPV1 can be enhanced by activation of PtdIns3K, making it a potential target for regulation by Type III Nrg1. We now show that Type III Nrg1 signaling in sensory neurons affects functional axonal TRPV1 in a PtdIns3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for Type III Nrg1 have specific deficits in their ability to respond to noxious thermal stimuli and to develop capsaicin-induced thermal hypersensitivity to pain. Cumulatively, these results implicate Type III Nrg1 as a novel regulator of TRPV1 and a molecular mediator of nociceptive function.

  8. Type III Nrg1 back signaling enhances functional TRPV1 along sensory axons contributing to basal and inflammatory thermal pain sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Canetta

    Full Text Available Type III Nrg1, a member of the Nrg1 family of signaling proteins, is expressed in sensory neurons, where it can signal in a bi-directional manner via interactions with the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbB RTKs. Type III Nrg1 signaling as a receptor (Type III Nrg1 back signaling can acutely activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PtdIns3K signaling, as well as regulate levels of α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, along sensory axons. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 is a cation-permeable ion channel found in primary sensory neurons that is necessary for the detection of thermal pain and for the development of thermal hypersensitivity to pain under inflammatory conditions. Cell surface expression of TRPV1 can be enhanced by activation of PtdIns3K, making it a potential target for regulation by Type III Nrg1. We now show that Type III Nrg1 signaling in sensory neurons affects functional axonal TRPV1 in a PtdIns3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for Type III Nrg1 have specific deficits in their ability to respond to noxious thermal stimuli and to develop capsaicin-induced thermal hypersensitivity to pain. Cumulatively, these results implicate Type III Nrg1 as a novel regulator of TRPV1 and a molecular mediator of nociceptive function.

  9. Normal Values and Reproducibilitiy of Electric Current Perception Threshold in Sensory Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Salman-Roghani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Routine electrodiagnosis (EMG-NCS has some shortcomings in the evaluation of peripheral nervous system, auch as autonomous nervous system evaluation, in pure sensory radiculopathies and acute hyperesthetic stages of neuropathies. Quantitative sensory testings such as current perception threshold (CPT with electrical stimulations are suggested for above mentioned pathologies. Ttest results should be compared with a normal value of similar identical population. This study is conducted to determine normal value and reproducibility of CPT in the Iranian population. Materials & Methods: Fifty normal volunteers (32 men, 18 woman in the range of 20-40 years without exclusion criteria (such as neuro- musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes mellitus and alcoholism were recruited with simple randomized selection and CPT test was conducted on C8 (4th finger and L5 (1st Toedermatomes. To determine test’s reproducibility, 6 persons (4 men, 2 women were examined 3 times a day, 2 day per week. Collected data were analyzed to determine mean and standard deviation. Results: Normal values of CPT test was defined as one standard deviation from mean of our CPT data. These values are in C8 dermatome 2000 Hz: 2.04± 47 250 Hz: 0.75±0.25 5 Hz: 0.76±0.3 and for L5 dermatome 2000Hz: 2.83± 0.73 250 Hz: 1.24 ± 45 5Hz: 0.76± 0.3 To determine our results reproducibility and reliability, Alpha- cronbach (existed in SPSS software was used and %98.5 & 99% were obtained for C8 & L5 dermatomes respectively. Conclusion: Our findings are about C8 & L5 dermatomes which could be used as a normal Values for such dermatomes. Regarding to its good correlation with international results we can use international references as a normal Valueswith consideration of each clinic’s reproducibility should be assessed individually.

  10. Interaction of hyperalgesia and sensory loss in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huge, Volker; Lauchart, Meike; Förderreuther, Stefanie; Kaufhold, Wibke; Valet, Michael; Azad, Shahnaz Christina; Beyer, Antje; Magerl, Walter

    2008-07-23

    Sensory abnormalities are a key feature of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). In order to characterise these changes in patients suffering from acute or chronic CRPS I, we used Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) in comparison to an age and gender matched control group. 61 patients presenting with CRPS I of the upper extremity and 56 healthy subjects were prospectively assessed using QST. The patients' warm and cold detection thresholds (WDT; CDT), the heat and cold pain thresholds (HPT; CPT) and the occurrence of paradoxical heat sensation (PHS) were observed. In acute CRPS I, patients showed warm and cold hyperalgesia, indicated by significant changes in HPT and CPT. WDT and CDT were significantly increased as well, indicating warm and cold hypoaesthesia. In chronic CRPS, thermal hyperalgesia declined, but CDT as well as WDT further deteriorated. Solely patients with acute CRPS displayed PHS. To a minor degree, all QST changes were also present on the contralateral limb. We propose three pathomechanisms of CRPS I, which follow a distinct time course: Thermal hyperalgesia, observed in acute CRPS, indicates an ongoing aseptic peripheral inflammation. Thermal hypoaesthesia, as detected in acute and chronic CRPS, signals a degeneration of A-delta and C-fibres, which further deteriorates in chronic CRPS. PHS in acute CRPS I indicates that both inflammation and degeneration are present, whilst in chronic CRPS I, the pathomechanism of degeneration dominates, signalled by the absence of PHS. The contralateral changes observed strongly suggest the involvement of the central nervous system.

  11. Subgroups based on thermal and pressure pain thresholds in women with chronic whiplash display differences in clinical presentation – an explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Börsbo B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Björn Börsbo,1,2 Gunilla M Liedberg,3 Mia Wallin,1,3 Björn Gerdle1,41Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden; 2Clinical Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden; 3Department of Social and Welfare Studies, University of Linköping, Norrköping, Sweden; 4Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, UHL, Östergötland County Council, Linköping, SwedenPurpose: To investigate the presence of subgroups in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD based on pain thresholds for pressure (PPT, cold (CPT, and heat (HPT and to compare these subgroups with respect to symptomatology, disability, and health aspects. Methods: Two groups of female subjects – patients with chronic WAD (n = 28 and healthy controls (CON; n = 29 – were investigated. Quantitative sensory testing (QST for thermal thresholds and algometry for PPT at four sites in the body (over the trapezius and tibialis anterior bilaterally were determined. Habitual pain intensities, psychological strain, disability, and health aspects were registered using a questionnaire.Results: A cluster analysis based on PPT, CPT, and HPT identified two subgroups of chronic WAD: one sensitive subgroup (s-WAD; n = 21, and one less sensitive subgroup (ls-WAD; n = 6. S-WAD displayed widespread hyperalgesia, whereas ls-WAD had localized hyperalgesia in the neck area, with tendencies to supernormal values in remote areas of the body. Generally, s-WAD had a significantly worse situation than the CON with respect to symptomatology, disability, and health aspects. The ls-WAD group was intermediary between s-WAD and CON in these aspects.Conclusion: Different explanations, eg, severity of the pain condition per se, etiological factors, and pre-trauma differences in pain sensitivity, may exist for the differences in pain thresholds between the two subgroups. Future research should investigate the role of pain thresholds in the chronic

  12. What Temperature of Coffee Exceeds the Pain Threshold? Pilot Study of a Sensory Analysis Method as Basis for Cancer Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirler, Julia; Winkler, Gertrud; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2018-06-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluates "very hot (>65 °C) beverages" as probably carcinogenic to humans. However, there is a lack of research regarding what temperatures consumers actually perceive as "very hot" or as "too hot". A method for sensory analysis of such threshold temperatures was developed. The participants were asked to mix a very hot coffee step by step into a cooler coffee. Because of that, the coffee to be tasted was incrementally increased in temperature during the test. The participants took a sip at every addition, until they perceive the beverage as too hot for consumption. The protocol was evaluated in the form of a pilot study using 87 participants. Interestingly, the average pain threshold of the test group (67 °C) and the preferred drinking temperature (63 °C) iterated around the IARC threshold for carcinogenicity. The developed methodology was found as fit for the purpose and may be applied in larger studies.

  13. What Temperature of Coffee Exceeds the Pain Threshold? Pilot Study of a Sensory Analysis Method as Basis for Cancer Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dirler

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC evaluates “very hot (>65 °C beverages” as probably carcinogenic to humans. However, there is a lack of research regarding what temperatures consumers actually perceive as “very hot” or as “too hot”. A method for sensory analysis of such threshold temperatures was developed. The participants were asked to mix a very hot coffee step by step into a cooler coffee. Because of that, the coffee to be tasted was incrementally increased in temperature during the test. The participants took a sip at every addition, until they perceive the beverage as too hot for consumption. The protocol was evaluated in the form of a pilot study using 87 participants. Interestingly, the average pain threshold of the test group (67 °C and the preferred drinking temperature (63 °C iterated around the IARC threshold for carcinogenicity. The developed methodology was found as fit for the purpose and may be applied in larger studies.

  14. Interaction of hyperalgesia and sensory loss in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Huge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sensory abnormalities are a key feature of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS. In order to characterise these changes in patients suffering from acute or chronic CRPS I, we used Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST in comparison to an age and gender matched control group. METHODS: 61 patients presenting with CRPS I of the upper extremity and 56 healthy subjects were prospectively assessed using QST. The patients' warm and cold detection thresholds (WDT; CDT, the heat and cold pain thresholds (HPT; CPT and the occurrence of paradoxical heat sensation (PHS were observed. RESULTS: In acute CRPS I, patients showed warm and cold hyperalgesia, indicated by significant changes in HPT and CPT. WDT and CDT were significantly increased as well, indicating warm and cold hypoaesthesia. In chronic CRPS, thermal hyperalgesia declined, but CDT as well as WDT further deteriorated. Solely patients with acute CRPS displayed PHS. To a minor degree, all QST changes were also present on the contralateral limb. CONCLUSIONS: We propose three pathomechanisms of CRPS I, which follow a distinct time course: Thermal hyperalgesia, observed in acute CRPS, indicates an ongoing aseptic peripheral inflammation. Thermal hypoaesthesia, as detected in acute and chronic CRPS, signals a degeneration of A-delta and C-fibres, which further deteriorates in chronic CRPS. PHS in acute CRPS I indicates that both inflammation and degeneration are present, whilst in chronic CRPS I, the pathomechanism of degeneration dominates, signalled by the absence of PHS. The contralateral changes observed strongly suggest the involvement of the central nervous system.

  15. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pain sensitivity of children with Down syndrome and their siblings: quantitative sensory testing versus parental reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Abraham J; Tibboel, Dick; van Dijk, Monique

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare thermal detection and pain thresholds in children with Down syndrome with those of their siblings. Sensory detection and pain thresholds were assessed in children with Down syndrome and their siblings using quantitative testing methods. Parental questionnaires addressing developmental age, pain coping, pain behaviour, and chronic pain were also utilized. Forty-two children with Down syndrome (mean age 12y 10mo) and 24 siblings (mean age 15y) participated in this observational study. The different sensory tests proved feasible in 13 to 29 (33-88%) of the children with Down syndrome. These children were less sensitive to cold and warmth than their siblings, but only when measured with a reaction time-dependent method, and not with a reaction time-independent method. Children with Down syndrome were more sensitive to heat pain, and only 6 (14%) of them were able to adequately self-report pain, compared with 22 (92%) of siblings (pChildren with Down syndrome will remain dependent on pain assessment by proxy, since self-reporting is not adequate. Parents believe that their children with Down syndrome are less sensitive to pain than their siblings, but this was not confirmed by quantitative sensory testing. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  17. Is heat pain detection threshold associated with the area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization? A study of healthy volunteers - design and detailed plan of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Morten Sejer; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2016-05-31

    Several factors are believed to influence the development and experience of pain. Human clinical pain models are central tools, in the investigation of basic physiologic pain responses, and can be applied in patients as well as in healthy volunteers. Each clinical pain model investigates different aspects of the human pain response. Brief thermal sensitization induces a mild burn injury, resulting in development of primary hyperalgesia at the site of stimulation, and secondary hyperalgesia surrounding the site of stimulation. Central sensitization is believed to play an important role in the development of secondary hyperalgesia; however, a possible association of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization and other heat pain models remains unknown. Our aim with this study is to investigate how close the heat pain detection threshold is associated with the size of the area of secondary hyperalgesia induced by the clinical heat pain model: Brief thermal sensitization. We aim to include 120 healthy participants. The participants will be tested on two separate study days with the following procedures: i) Brief thermal sensitization, ii) heat pain detection threshold and iii) pain during thermal stimulation. Additionally, the participants will be tested with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires. We conducted statistical simulations based on data from our previous study, to estimate an empirical power of 99.9 % with α of 0.05. We define that an R(2) heat stimulation, and thus may be a biomarker of an individual's pain sensitivity. The number of studies investigating secondary hyperalgesia is growing; however basic knowledge of the physiologic aspects of secondary hyperalgesia in humans is still incomplete. We therefore find it interesting to investigate if HPDT, a known quantitative sensory test, is associated with areas of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization Clinicaltrials

  18. Effect of morphine, methadone, hydromorphone or oxymorphone on the thermal threshold, following intravenous or buccal administration to cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pypendop, Bruno H; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Ilkiw, Jan E

    2016-11-01

    To determine the effects of morphine, methadone, hydromorphone or oxymorphone on the thermal threshold in cats, following buccal and intravenous (IV) administration. Randomized crossover study. Six healthy adult female ovariohysterectomized cats weighing 4.5 ± 0.4 kg. Morphine sulfate (0.2 mg kg -1 IV or 0.5 mg kg -1 buccal), methadone hydrochloride (0.3 mg kg -1 IV or 0.75 mg kg -1 buccal), hydromorphone hydrochloride (0.1 mg kg -1 IV or 0.25 mg kg -1 buccal) or oxymorphone hydrochloride (0.1 mg kg -1 IV or 0.25 mg kg -1 buccal) were administered. All cats were administered all treatments. Skin temperature and thermal threshold were measured in duplicate prior to drug administration, and at various times up to 8 hours after drug administration. The difference between thermal threshold and skin temperature (ΔT) was analyzed. Administration of methadone and hydromorphone IV resulted in significant increases in ΔT at 40 minutes after drug administration. Buccal administration of methadone resulted in significant increases in thermal threshold, although no significant difference from baseline measurement was detected at any time point. IV administration of morphine and oxymorphone, and buccal administration of morphine, hydromorphone and oxymorphone did not cause significant thermal antinociception. At the doses used in this study, IV administration of methadone and hydromorphone, and buccal administration of methadone resulted in transient thermal antinociception. The results of this study do not allow us to predict the usefulness of these drugs for providing analgesia in clinical patients. © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  19. Cortical and Sensory Causes of Individual Differences in Selective Attention Ability Among Listeners With Normal Hearing Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2017-10-17

    This review provides clinicians with an overview of recent findings relevant to understanding why listeners with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs) sometimes suffer from communication difficulties in noisy settings. The results from neuroscience and psychoacoustics are reviewed. In noisy settings, listeners focus their attention by engaging cortical brain networks to suppress unimportant sounds; they then can analyze and understand an important sound, such as speech, amidst competing sounds. Differences in the efficacy of top-down control of attention can affect communication abilities. In addition, subclinical deficits in sensory fidelity can disrupt the ability to perceptually segregate sound sources, interfering with selective attention, even in listeners with NHTs. Studies of variability in control of attention and in sensory coding fidelity may help to isolate and identify some of the causes of communication disorders in individuals presenting at the clinic with "normal hearing." How well an individual with NHTs can understand speech amidst competing sounds depends not only on the sound being audible but also on the integrity of cortical control networks and the fidelity of the representation of suprathreshold sound. Understanding the root cause of difficulties experienced by listeners with NHTs ultimately can lead to new, targeted interventions that address specific deficits affecting communication in noise. http://cred.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=2601617.

  20. High-resolution modeling of thermal thresholds and environmental influences on coral bleaching for local and regional reef management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Naoki H; Yamano, Hiroya

    2018-01-01

    Coral reefs are one of the world's most threatened ecosystems, with global and local stressors contributing to their decline. Excessive sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) can cause coral bleaching, resulting in coral death and decreases in coral cover. A SST threshold of 1 °C over the climatological maximum is widely used to predict coral bleaching. In this study, we refined thermal indices predicting coral bleaching at high-spatial resolution (1 km) by statistically optimizing thermal thresholds, as well as considering other environmental influences on bleaching such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation, water turbidity, and cooling effects. We used a coral bleaching dataset derived from the web-based monitoring system Sango Map Project, at scales appropriate for the local and regional conservation of Japanese coral reefs. We recorded coral bleaching events in the years 2004-2016 in Japan. We revealed the influence of multiple factors on the ability to predict coral bleaching, including selection of thermal indices, statistical optimization of thermal thresholds, quantification of multiple environmental influences, and use of multiple modeling methods (generalized linear models and random forests). After optimization, differences in predictive ability among thermal indices were negligible. Thermal index, UV radiation, water turbidity, and cooling effects were important predictors of the occurrence of coral bleaching. Predictions based on the best model revealed that coral reefs in Japan have experienced recent and widespread bleaching. A practical method to reduce bleaching frequency by screening UV radiation was also demonstrated in this paper.

  1. Implications of Sensory Stimulation in Self-Destructive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Stephen M.

    1984-01-01

    The author extends the self stimulatory theory of self destructive behavior in autistic, schizophrenic, and mentally retarded individuals to suggest that damage of the skin's nerve structure lowers the tactile sensory threshold for physical input and enables individuals to obtain sensory stimulation by repeatedly depressing the damaged area. (CL)

  2. Stratifying patients with peripheral neuropathic pain based on sensory profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollert, Jan; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    In a recent cluster analysis, it has been shown that patients with peripheral neuropathic pain can be grouped into 3 sensory phenotypes based on quantitative sensory testing profiles, which are mainly characterized by either sensory loss, intact sensory function and mild thermal hyperalgesia and...... populations that need to be screened to reach a subpopulation large enough to conduct a phenotype-stratified study. The most common phenotype in diabetic polyneuropathy was sensory loss (83%), followed by mechanical hyperalgesia (75%) and thermal hyperalgesia (34%, note that percentages are overlapping...

  3. Test-retest Agreement and Reliability of Quantitative Sensory Testing 1 Year After Breast Cancer Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske Kvanner

    2015-01-01

    .5 SD) than within-patient variation (0.23 to 3.55 SD). There were no significant differences between pain and pain-free patients. The individual test-retest variability was higher on the operated side compared with the nonoperated side. DISCUSSION: The QST protocol reliability allows for group......OBJECTIVES: Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess sensory dysfunction and nerve damage by examining psychophysical responses to controlled, graded stimuli such as mechanical and thermal detection and pain thresholds. In the breast cancer population, 4 studies have used QST to examine...... persistent pain after breast cancer treatment, suggesting neuropathic pain being a prominent pain mechanism. However, the agreement and reliability of QST has not been described in the postsurgical breast cancer population, hindering exact interpretation of QST studies in this population. The aim...

  4. Quantitative sensory testing somatosensory profiles in patients with cervical radiculopathy are distinct from those in patients with nonspecific neck-arm pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampin, Brigitte; Slater, Helen; Hall, Toby; Lee, Gabriel; Briffa, Noelle Kathryn

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the somatosensory profiles of patients with cervical radiculopathy and patients with nonspecific neck-arm pain associated with heightened nerve mechanosensitivity (NSNAP). Sensory profiles were compared to healthy control (HC) subjects and a positive control group comprising patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) of thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, pain sensitivity and responsiveness to repetitive noxious mechanical stimulation was performed in the maximal pain area, the corresponding dermatome and foot of 23 patients with painful C6 or C7 cervical radiculopathy, 8 patients with NSNAP in a C6/7 dermatomal pain distribution, 31 HC and 22 patients with FM. For both neck-arm pain groups, all QST parameters were within the 95% confidence interval of HC data. Patients with cervical radiculopathy were characterised by localised loss of function (thermal, mechanical, vibration detection Ppain area and dermatome (thermal detection, vibration detection, pressure pain sensitivity Ppain groups demonstrated increased cold sensitivity in their maximal pain area (Ppain groups differed from patients with FM, the latter characterised by a widespread gain of function in most nociceptive parameters (thermal, pressure, mechanical pain sensitivity Ppain characteristics between the 2 neck-arm pain groups, distinct sensory profiles were demonstrated for each group. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The ADP receptor P2Y1 is necessary for normal thermal sensitivity in cutaneous polymodal nociceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowski Michael P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P2Y1 is a member of the P2Y family of G protein-coupled nucleotide receptors expressed in peripheral sensory neurons. Using ratiometric calcium imaging of isolated dorsal root ganglion neurons, we found that the majority of neurons responding to adenosine diphosphate, the preferred endogenous ligand, bound the lectin IB4 and expressed the ATP-gated ion channel P2X3. These neurons represent the majority of epidermal afferents in hairy skin, and are predominantly C-fiber polymodal nociceptors (CPMs, responding to mechanical stimulation, heat and in some cases cold. Results To characterize the function of P2Y1 in cutaneous afferents, intracellular recordings from sensory neuron somata were made using an ex vivo preparation in which the hindlimb skin, saphenous nerve, DRG and spinal cord were dissected in continuum, and cutaneous receptive fields characterized using digitally-controlled mechanical and thermal stimuli in male wild type mice. In P2Y1-/- mice, CPMs showed a striking increase in mean heat threshold and a decrease in mean peak firing rate during a thermal ramp from 31-52°C. A similar change in mean cold threshold was also observed. Interestingly, mechanical testing of CPMs revealed no significant differences between P2Y1-/- and WT mice. Conclusions These results strongly suggest that P2Y1 is required for normal thermal signaling in cutaneous sensory afferents. Furthermore, they suggest that nucleotides released from peripheral tissues play a critical role in the transduction of thermal stimuli in some fiber types.

  6. Radiofrequency contact currents: sensory responses and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavet, Robert; Tell, R.A.; Olsen, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    The process of setting science-based exposure standards (or guidelines) for radiofrequency (RF) contact current exposure has been disadvantaged by a lack of relevant data. The authors first review the essential features and results of the available studies and illustrate the apparent discrepancies among them. Then, they examine the manner in which current was administered in these studies and suggest as to how the physical relationship of a contacting finger to the current electrode may play a role in affecting sensory thresholds specific to those configurations. A major factor in this analysis relates to whether current density is uniformly distributed across the contact area or whether an electrode's 'edge effects' enhance currents with a net effect of decreasing apparent thresholds, when expressed as the bulk current entering a subject. For an exposure with a clear hazard potential, thresholds of human sensory response to RF currents require further investigation. (authors)

  7. A Non-Invasive Bladder Sensory Test Supports a Role for Dysmenorrhea Increasing Bladder Noxious Mechanosensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    TU, Frank F.; EPSTEIN, Aliza E.; POZOLO, Kristen E.; SEXTON, Debra L.; MELNYK, Alexandra I.; HELLMAN, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Catheterization to measure bladder sensitivity is aversive and hinders human participation in visceral sensory research. Therefore, we sought to characterize the reliability of sonographically-estimated female bladder sensory thresholds. To demonstrate this technique’s usefulness, we examined the effects of self-reported dysmenorrhea on bladder pain thresholds. Methods Bladder sensory threshold volumes were determined during provoked natural diuresis in 49 healthy women (mean age 24 ± 8) using three-dimensional ultrasound. Cystometric thresholds (Vfs – first sensation, Vfu – first urge, Vmt – maximum tolerance) were quantified and related to bladder urgency and pain. We estimated reliability (one-week retest and interrater). Self-reported menstrual pain was examined in relationship to bladder pain, urgency and volume thresholds. Results Average bladder sensory thresholds (mLs) were Vfs (160±100), Vfu (310±130), and Vmt (500±180). Interrater reliability ranged from 0.97–0.99. One-week retest reliability was Vmt = 0.76 (95% CI 0.64–0.88), Vfs = 0.62 (95% CI 0.44–0.80), and Vfu = 0.63, (95% CI 0.47–0.80). Bladder filling rate correlated with all thresholds (r = 0.53–0.64, p dysmenorrhea pain had increased bladder pain and urgency at Vfs and increased pain at Vfu (p’s dysmenorrhea pain was unrelated to bladder capacity. Discussion Sonographic estimates of bladder sensory thresholds were reproducible and reliable. In these healthy volunteers, dysmenorrhea was associated with increased bladder pain and urgency during filling but unrelated to capacity. Plausibly, dysmenorrhea sufferers may exhibit enhanced visceral mechanosensitivity, increasing their risk to develop chronic bladder pain syndromes. PMID:23370073

  8. Supra-threshold scaling, temporal summation, and after-sensation: relationships to each other and anxiety/fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Robinson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Robinson1, Joel E Bialosky2, Mark D Bishop2, Donald D Price3, Steven Z George21Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Dentistry and Neurosciences, University of Florida,  Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: This study investigated the relationship of thermal pain testing from three types of quantitative sensory testing (ie, supra-threshold stimulus response scaling, temporal summation, and after-sensation at three anatomical sites (ie, upper extremity, lower extremity, and trunk. Pain ratings from these procedures were also compared with common psychological measures previously shown to be related to experimental pain responses and consistent with fear-avoidance models of pain. Results indicated that supra-threshold stimulus response scaling, temporal summation, and after-sensation, were significantly related to each other. The site of stimulation was also an important factor, with the trunk site showing the highest sensitivity in all three quantitative sensory testing procedures. Supra-threshold response measures were highly related to measures of fear of pain and anxiety sensitivity for all stimulation sites. For temporal summation and after-sensation, only the trunk site was significantly related to anxiety sensitivity, and fear of pain, respectively. Results suggest the importance of considering site of stimulation when designing and comparing studies. Furthermore, psychological influence on quantitative sensory testing is also of importance when designing and comparing studies. Although there was some variation by site of stimulation, fear of pain and anxiety sensitivity had consistent influences on pain ratings.Keywords: experimental pain, temporal summation, after-sensation, fear/avoidance, anxiety

  9. Distribution of sensory taste thresholds for phenylthiocarbamide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability to taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), a bitter organic compound has been described as a bimodal autosomal trait in both genetic and anthropological studies. This study is based on the ability of a person to taste PTC. The present study reports the threshold distribution of PTC taste sensitivity among some Muslim ...

  10. Variability of pudendal and median nerve sensory perception thresholds in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    Normative current perception thresholds (CPTs) are used for the evaluation of sensory function in a variety of diseases. To evaluate the reproducibility of CPT measurements with sinusoidal current in healthy volunteers. Neuroselective CPT evaluations of the median and pudendal nerve in healthy volunteers were repeated with 1 week interval (T1 and T2). In the study group (N = 41) no difference between genders for age (MW-U: P = 0.91) and BMI (t-test: P = 0.18) were found. No significant difference between T1 and T2 was found (Paired t-test: all P-values > 0.05), although the intraclass correlation for each person was low. The variability of measures for the pudendal nerve was: ICC 2 kHz: 0.41; 250 Hz: 0.30; 5 Hz: 0.38, and for the median nerve respectively: 0.58; 0.46; 0.40. Normal CPTs were shown for the pudendal nerve: 2 kHz: 51%; 250 Hz: 76%; 5 Hz: 71%, and median nerve respectively: 78%; 98%; 80%. The pudendal nerve showed more deviating values compared to the median nerve. Both nerves showed deviating values. CPT values with sinusoidal current assessed with 1 week interval, showed a weak intraclass correlation. This finding limits the use of CPT values with this current for longitudinal studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Late Lutetian Thermal Maximum—Crossing a Thermal Threshold in Earth's Climate System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, T.; Röhl, U.; Donner, B.; Frederichs, T.; Kordesch, W. E. C.; Bohaty, S. M.; Hodell, D. A.; Laskar, J.; Zeebe, R. E.

    2018-01-01

    Recognizing and deciphering transient global warming events triggered by massive release of carbon into Earth's ocean-atmosphere climate system in the past are important for understanding climate under elevated pCO2 conditions. Here we present new high-resolution geochemical records including benthic foraminiferal stable isotope data with clear evidence of a short-lived (30 kyr) warming event at 41.52 Ma. The event occurs in the late Lutetian within magnetochron C19r and is characterized by a ˜2°C warming of the deep ocean in the southern South Atlantic. The magnitudes of the carbon and oxygen isotope excursions of the Late Lutetian Thermal Maximum are comparable to the H2 event (53.6 Ma) suggesting a similar response of the climate system to carbon cycle perturbations even in an already relatively cooler climate several million years after the Early Eocene Climate Optimum. Coincidence of the event with exceptionally high insolation values in the Northern Hemisphere at 41.52 Ma might indicate that Earth's climate system has a thermal threshold. When this tipping point is crossed, rapid positive feedback mechanisms potentially trigger transient global warming. The orbital configuration in this case could have caused prolonged warm and dry season leading to a massive release of terrestrial carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system initiating environmental change.

  12. Multi-Sensory Integration Impairment in Patients with Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyoungwon; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Ryu, Hokyoung

    2017-11-02

    Paper-and-pencil-based psychometric tests are the gold standard for diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction in liver disease. However, they take time, can be affected by demographic factors, and lack ecological validity. This study explored multi-sensory integration ability to discriminate cognitive dysfunction in cirrhosis. Thirty-two healthy controls and 30 cirrhotic patients were recruited. The sensory integration test presents stimuli from two different modalities (e.g., image/sound) with a short time lag, and subjects judge which stimuli appeared first. Repetitive tests reveal the sensory integration capability. Performance in the sensory integration test, psychometric tests, and functional near-infrared spectroscopy for patients was compared to controls. Sensory integration capability, the perceptual threshold to discriminate the time gap between an image and sound stimulus, was significantly impaired in cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) compared to controls (p integration test showed good correlation with psychometric tests (NCT-A, r = 0.383, p = 0.002; NCT-B, r = 0.450, p integration test was not affected. The sensory integration test, where a cut-off value for the perceptual threshold was 133.3ms, recognized MHE patients at 90% sensitivity and 86.5% specificity.

  13. Repeatability of quantitative sensory testing in healthy cats in a clinical setting with comparison to cats with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Elena S; Clements, Dylan N

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of quantitative sensory tests (QSTs) in a group of healthy untrained cats (n = 14) and to compare the results with those from cats with osteoarthritis (n = 7). Methods Peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse were measured on a pressure plate system. Thermal sensitivity was assessed using a temperature-controlled plate at 7°C and 40°C. Individual paw lifts and overall duration of paw lifts were counted and measured for each limb. Paw withdrawal thresholds were measured using manual and electronic von Frey monofilaments (MVF and EVF, respectively) applied to the metacarpal or metatarsal pads. All measurements were repeated twice to assess repeatability of the tests. Results In healthy cats all tests were moderately repeatable. When compared with cats with osteoarthritis the PVF was significantly higher in healthy hindlimbs in repeat 1 but not in repeat 2. Cats with osteoarthritis of the forelimbs showed a decrease in the frequency of paw lifts on the 7°C plate compared with cats with healthy forelimbs, and the duration of paw lifts was significantly less than healthy forelimbs in the first repeat but not in the second repeat. Osteoarthritic limbs had significantly lower paw withdrawal thresholds with both MVF and EVF than healthy limbs. Conclusions and relevance QSTs are moderately repeatable in untrained cats. Kinetic gait analysis did not permit differentiation between healthy limbs and those with osteoarthritis, but thermal sensitivity testing (cold) does. Sensory threshold testing can differentiate osteoarthritic and healthy limbs, and may be useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of this condition in cats in the clinical setting.

  14. Crocodylians evolved scattered multi-sensory micro-organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During their evolution towards a complete life cycle on land, stem reptiles developed both an impermeable multi-layered keratinized epidermis and skin appendages (scales) providing mechanical, thermal, and chemical protection. Previous studies have demonstrated that, despite the presence of a particularly armored skin, crocodylians have exquisite mechanosensory abilities thanks to the presence of small integumentary sensory organs (ISOs) distributed on postcranial and/or cranial scales. Results Here, we analyze and compare the structure, innervation, embryonic morphogenesis and sensory functions of postcranial, cranial, and lingual sensory organs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Our molecular analyses indicate that sensory neurons of crocodylian ISOs express a large repertoire of transduction channels involved in mechano-, thermo-, and chemosensory functions, and our electrophysiological analyses confirm that each ISO exhibits a combined sensitivity to mechanical, thermal and pH stimuli (but not hyper-osmotic salinity), making them remarkable multi-sensorial micro-organs with no equivalent in the sensory systems of other vertebrate lineages. We also show that ISOs all exhibit similar morphologies and modes of development, despite forming at different stages of scale morphogenesis across the body. Conclusions The ancestral vertebrate diffused sensory system of the skin was transformed in the crocodylian lineages into an array of discrete multi-sensory micro-organs innervated by multiple pools of sensory neurons. This discretization of skin sensory expression sites is unique among vertebrates and allowed crocodylians to develop a highly-armored, but very sensitive, skin. PMID:23819918

  15. Pudendal and median nerve sensory perception threshold: a comparison between normative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques

    2014-12-01

    For the evaluation of sensory innervation, normative data are necessary as a comparison. To compare our current perception thresholds (CPTs) with normative data from other research. Healthy volunteers were assessed for 2000, 250, and 5 Hz CPTs of the median and pudendal nerve and data were compared with other studies. Normative data in the studied group n = 41 (male: 21; female: 20) for the median nerve, 2 kHz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz were respectively: 241.85 ± 67.72 (140-444); 106.27 ± 39.12 (45-229); 82.05 ± 43.40 (13-271). Pudendal nerve CPTs 250 Hz were: 126.44 ± 69.46 (6-333). For men 2 kHz: 349.95 ± 125.76 (100-588); 5 Hz: 132.67 ± 51.81 (59-249) and women 2 kHz:226.20 ± 119.65 (64-528); 5 Hz: 92.45 ± 44.66 (35-215). For the median nerve no statistical differences for gender were shown. For the pudendal nerve, only 250 Hz showed no difference for gender (t-test: 0.516). Comparison of our data with CPTs of other normative data showed no agreement for the pudendal nerve. For the median nerve only 2 kHz showed agreement in three studies and for 5 Hz with one study. Comparing normative data of multiple studies shows a variety of results and poor agreement. Therefore, referring to normative data of other studies should be handled with caution.

  16. Quantitative sensory testing in classical trigeminal neuralgia-a blinded study in patients with and without concomitant persistent pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younis, Samaira; Maarbjerg, Stine; Reimer, Maren

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria of the third International Classification of Headache Disorders state that there should be no neurological deficits in patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) at clinical examination. However, studies demonstrating sensory abnormalities at bedside examination in TN...... scores were calculated to process frequency analyses and Z-profiles. We found increased mechanical detection threshold on the symptomatic side (47.2% vs 0%, P = 0.008), asymptomatic side (33.3% vs 0%, P = 0.011), and hand (36% vs 0%, P ... increased mechanical detection threshold on the symptomatic side compared with the asymptomatic side (-2.980 vs -2.166, P = 0.040). Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia was detected bilaterally in the face and the hand. Trigeminal neuralgia patients with concomitant persistent pain tended to have higher mean...

  17. Psychophysical sensory examination in individuals with a history of methylmercury exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaoka, Shigeru; Fujino, Tadashi; Sekikawa, Tomoko; Miyaoka, Tetsu

    2004-01-01

    Paresthesias are the first symptom that people report following toxic doses of methylmercury. The authors conducted a psychophysical study of tactile sensation to evaluate the somatosensory abilities of subjects living in a methylmercury-polluted area around Minamata City, Japan. The authors examined control subjects and methylmercury-exposed subjects with and without numbness. A history of methylmercury exposure was taken and a neurological examination performed. Aluminum-oxide abrasive papers were used as stimuli in a psychophysical sensory examination of fine-surface-texture discrimination. Difference thresholds from 3 μm were calculated by the two-alternative, forced-choice technique. Difference thresholds in control subjects were also calculated for comparison. The difference threshold was 6.3 μm in exposed subjects with sensory symptoms, 4.9 μm in exposed subjects without sensory symptoms, and 2.7 μm in control subjects. Acuity of fine-surface-texture discrimination was disturbed not only in subjects with clinical complaints of hand numbness, but also in subjects without hand numbness who lived in the district where methylmercury exposure occurred. Sensory testing using a psychophysical test of fine-surface-texture discrimination in this population suggests that the number of individuals affected by methylmercury exposure in the polluted area was greater than previously reported

  18. Absence of sensory function in the reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Michael R; Fischer-Rasmussen, Torsten; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    Cruciate ligaments provide sensory information that cause excitatory as well as inhibitory effects to the activity of the muscles around the knee. The aim of the study was to determine whether these muscular reflexes are reestablished after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-construction. Wire...... and the sensory threshold was determined. Stimulus amplitudes were increased to 1.5-2.0 times the sensory threshold, and inhibitory reflexes could be elicited from PCL in the quadriceps during active extension and in the hamstrings muscles during active flexion in all patients. Subsequently the ACL re...... amplitudes necessary to elicit reflexes from the ACL re-constructions were 2, 9 times higher than amplitudes that elicited reflexes from the PCL. Sensation and afferent reflex activity required a much stronger stimulus in the ACL graft compared to normal PCL. We suggest that the reason...

  19. Temperature thresholds and thermal requirements for development of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Beatriz Maria; Muñiz, Mariano; Barrios, Laura; Fereres, Alberto

    2007-08-01

    Early detection of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on lettuce is of primary importance for its effective control. Temperature thresholds for development of this pest were estimated using developmental rates [r(T)] at different constant temperatures (8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 26, and 28 degrees C). Observed developmental rates data and temperature were fitted to two linear (Campbell and Muñiz and Gil) and a nonlinear (Lactin) models. Lower temperature threshold estimated by the Campbell model was 3.6 degrees C for apterous, 4.1 degrees C for alates, and 3.1 degrees C for both aphid adult morphs together. Similar values of the lower temperature threshold were obtained with the Muñiz and Gil model, for apterous (4.0 degrees C), alates (4.2 degrees C), and both adult morphs together (3.7 degrees C) of N. ribisnigri. Thermal requirements of N. ribisnigri to complete development were estimated by Campbell and Muñiz and Gil models for apterous in 125 and 129 DD and for both adult morphs together in 143 and 139 DD, respectively. For complete development from birth to adulthood, the alate morph needed 15-18 DD more than the apterous morph. The lower temperature threshold determined by the Lactin model was 5.3 degrees C for alates, 2.3 degrees C for apterous, and 1.9 degrees C for both adult morphs together. The optimal and upper temperature thresholds were 25.2 and 33.6 degrees C, respectively, for the alate morph, 27 and 35.9 degrees C, respectively, for the apterous morph, and 26.1 and 35.3 degrees C, respectively, for the two adult morphs together. The Campbell model provided the best fit to the observed developmental rates data of N. ribisnigri. This information could be incorporated in forecasting models of this pest.

  20. Chronic Widespread Back Pain is Distinct From Chronic Local Back Pain: Evidence From Quantitative Sensory Testing, Pain Drawings, and Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Andreas; Eich, Wolfgang; Janke, Susanne; Leisner, Sabine; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Tesarz, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    Whether chronic localized pain (CLP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP) have different mechanisms or to what extent they overlap in their pathophysiology is controversial. The study compared quantitative sensory testing profiles of nonspecific chronic back pain patients with CLP (n=48) and CWP (n=29) with and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients (n=90) and pain-free controls (n = 40). The quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German-Research-Network-on-Neuropathic-Pain" was used to measure evoked pain on the painful area in the lower back and the pain-free hand (thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, vibration threshold, pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli). Ongoing pain and psychometrics were captured with pain drawings and questionnaires. CLP patients did not differ from pain-free controls, except for lower pressure pain threshold (PPT) on the back. CWP and FMS patients showed lower heat pain threshold and higher wind-up ratio on the back and lower heat pain threshold and cold pain threshold on the hand. FMS showed lower PPT on back and hand, and higher comorbidity of anxiety and depression and more functional impairment than all other groups. Even after long duration CLP presents with a local hypersensitivity for PPT, suggesting a somatotopically specific sensitization of nociceptive processing. However, CWP patients show widespread ongoing pain and hyperalgesia for different stimuli that is generalized in space, suggesting the involvement of descending control systems, as also suggested for FMS patients. Because mechanisms in nonspecific chronic back pain with CLP and CWP differ, these patients should be distinguished in future research and allocated to different treatments.

  1. Thermal grill-evoked sensations of heat correlate with cold pain threshold and are enhanced by menthol and cinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, B; Rucker, F; Laubender, R P; Carr, R W

    2013-05-01

    Thunberg's thermal grill produces a sensation of strong heat upon skin contact with spatially interlaced innocuous warm and cool stimuli. To examine the classes of peripheral axons that might contribute to this illusion, the effects of topical l-menthol, an activator of TRPM8, and cinnamaldehyde, a TRPA1 agonist, on the magnitude of thermal sensations were examined during grill stimulation in healthy volunteers. Under control conditions, cutaneous grill stimulation (interlaced 20/40 °C) evoked a sensation of heat, and for individual subjects, the magnitude of this heat sensation was positively correlated with cold pain threshold (CPT). Menthol increased the CPT and enhanced the magnitude of grill-evoked heat. Cinnamaldehyde intensified warm sensations, reduced heat pain threshold and also enhanced grill-evoked heat. Both TRPM8-expressing and TRPA1-expressing afferent axons can affect grill-evoked thermal sensations. The enhancement of grill-evoked sensations of temperature with menthol and cinnamaldehyde may provide an additional clinically relevant means of testing altered thermal sensitivity, which is often affected in neuropathic patient groups. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  2. Quantitative sensory testing in the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS): reference data for the trunk and application in patients with chronic postherpetic neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Doreen B; Krumova, Elena K; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baron, Ralf; Toelle, Thomas; Birklein, Frank; Eich, Wolfgang; Geber, Christian; Gerhardt, Andreas; Weiss, Thomas; Magerl, Walter; Maier, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Age- and gender-matched reference values are essential for the clinical use of quantitative sensory testing (QST). To extend the standard test sites for QST-according to the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain-to the trunk, we collected QST profiles on the back in 162 healthy subjects. Sensory profiles for standard test sites were within normal interlaboratory differences. QST revealed lower sensitivity on the upper back than the hand, and higher sensitivity on the lower back than the foot, but no systematic differences between these trunk sites. Age effects were significant for most parameters. Females exhibited lower pressure pain thresholds (PPT) than males, which was the only significant gender difference. Values outside the 95% confidence interval of healthy subjects (considered abnormal) required temperature changes of >3.3-8.2 °C for thermal detection. For cold pain thresholds, confidence intervals extended mostly beyond safety cutoffs, hence only relative reference data (left-right differences, hand-trunk differences) were sufficiently sensitive. For mechanical detection and pain thresholds, left-right differences were 1.5-2.3 times more sensitive than absolute reference data. The most sensitive parameter was PPT, where already side-to-side differences >35% were abnormal. Compared to trunk reference data, patients with postherpetic neuralgia exhibited thermal and tactile deficits and dynamic mechanical allodynia, mostly without reduced mechanical pain thresholds. This pattern deviates from other types of neuropathic pain. QST reference data for the trunk will also be useful for patients with postthoracotomy pain or chronic back pain. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensory Evaluation and Oxidative Stability of a Suncream Formulated with Thermal Spring Waters from Ourense (NW Spain and Sargassum muticum Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Balboa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate four thermal spring waters from Ourense and a Sargassum muticum extract as cosmetic ingredients for the preparation of a suncream. The thermal spring waters were tested for their suitability as an aqueous phase main component, and the algal extract was added as an antioxidant instead of using synthetic preservatives in the cosmetic formula. The emulsion was tested for lipid oxidation during a period of 9 months and for consumer acceptance by performing a sensory test on controls and blanks. Further, color parameters were considered, and a pH determination was performed. The S. muticum extract protected from primary and secondary oxidation as efficiently as Fucus sp. or α-tocopherol extracts. In addition, the sensorial test revealed that consumers preferred suncreams prepared with the S. muticum extract and with thermal spring water from O Tinteiro and A Chavasqueira. The pH of the suncreams varied with the selection of the ingredients, and no oscillations in colorimetric values were visually observed. Our results indicate that the algal extract and the thermal spring waters from Ourense are potential cosmetic ingredients, since they showed effectiveness as antioxidant ingredients, and the suncreams were well accepted by consumers.

  4. Neurological Assessment Using a Quantitative Sensory Test in Patients with Chronic Unilateral Orofacial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Talal H; Blinkhorn, Antony; Karami, Zahra

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) has been used in clinical and experimental settings to establish sensory assessment for different types of pains, and may be a useful tool for the assessment of orofacial pain, but this premise needs to be tested. The aim of the study was to evaluate responses to thermal stimuli between painful and non-painful facial sites in subjects with orofacial pain using QST. A total of 60 participants (5o females: 28-83 years; 10 males: 44-81 years) with unilateral orofacial pain were recruited from the Orofacial Pain Clinic at the Pain Management and Research Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The study followed the methods of limits of the German Research Network testing four modalities of thermal thresholds, the Warm Sensation, the Cold Sensation, the Heat Pain and the Cold Pain using a TSA-II Neurosensory Analyser. The results were compared to the results from the unaffected side of the same patient on the same area and a single t test statistical analysis was performed, where a p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. The Mean Difference for Cold Sensation between the pain side and the non-pain side was 0.48 °C ± 1.5 (t= 2.466, p=0.017), 0.68 °C ± 2.04 for Warm Sensation (t= -2.573, p= 0.013), 2.56 °C ± 2.74 for Cold Pain (t= 7.238, pPain (t= -3.639, p=0.001). The study showed that QST methods using thermal stimuli could be used to evaluate sensory dysfunction in orofacial pain patients using the specific parameters of cool and warm sensation, and cold and hot pain.

  5. Absence of sensory function in the reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Michael R; Fischer-Rasmussen, Torsten; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    -constructions were stimulated. The sensory threshold was 3.4 times higher in the ACL than in the PCL. Stimulus amplitudes were increased to 1.5-2.0 times the sensory threshold, and a typical inhibitory reflex could be elicited in 9 patients. The latency was the same as for the reflex from the PCL. The stimulus......Cruciate ligaments provide sensory information that cause excitatory as well as inhibitory effects to the activity of the muscles around the knee. The aim of the study was to determine whether these muscular reflexes are reestablished after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-construction. Wire...... electrodes were inserted during arthroscopy into the normal posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and the reconstructed ACL in 11 patients who had a successful ACL re-construction 8 months to 12 years earlier. After the anesthesia had subsided, the PCL was stimulated electrically through the electrodes...

  6. Odour Detection Threshold Determination of Volatile Compounds in Topical Skin Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe; Taylor, Robert

    2018-01-01

    determination and also odour description by a trained sensory panel. In one case, the odour detection threshold value was 50 times higher (less detectable) in skin care products than in water, whereas for other volatile compounds the odour detection threshold value was only 1.5 times higher. The odour...

  7. Thermal injury lowers the threshold for radiation-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Jonathan D; Williams, Jacqueline P; O'Banion, M Kerry; Olschowka, John A

    2013-10-01

    The consequences of radiation exposure alone are relatively well understood, but in the wake of events such as the World War II nuclear detonations and accidents such as Chernobyl, other critical factors have emerged that can substantially affect patient outcome. For example, ~70% of radiation victims from Hiroshima and Nagasaki received some sort of additional traumatic injury, the most common being thermal burn. Animal data has shown that the addition of thermal insult to radiation results in increased morbidity and mortality. To explore possible synergism between thermal injury and radiation on brain, C57BL/6J female mice were exposed to either 0 or 5 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. Irradiation was immediately followed by a 10% total-body surface area full thickness thermal burn. Mice were sacrificed 6 h, 1 week or 6 month post-injury and brains and plasma were harvested for histology, mRNA analysis and cytokine ELISA. Plasma analysis revealed that combined injury synergistically upregulates IL-6 at acute time points. Additionally, at 6 h, combined injury resulted in a greater upregulation of the vascular marker, ICAM-1 and TNF-α mRNA. Enhanced activation of glial cells was also observed by CD68 and Iba1 immunohistochemistry at all time points. Additionally, doublecortin staining at 6 months showed reduced neurogenesis in all injury conditions. Finally, using a novel object recognition test, we observed that only mice with combined injury had significant learning and memory deficits. These results demonstrate that thermal injury lowers the threshold for radiation-induced neuroinflammation and long-term cognitive dysfunction.

  8. A universal mirror wave-mode threshold condition for non-thermal space plasma environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Leubner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fluctuations are recognized in a large variety of space plasmas by increasingly high resolution, in situ observations as mirror wave mode structures. A typical requirement for the excitation of mirror modes is a dominant perpendicular pressure in a high-beta plasma environment. Contrary, we demonstrate from a realistic kinetic analysis how details of the velocity space distributions are of considerable significance for the instability threshold. Introducing the most common characteristics of observed ion and electron distributions by a mixed suprathermal-loss-cone, we derive a universal mirror instability criterion from an energy principle for collisionless plasmas. As a result, the transition from two temperature Maxwellians to realistic non-thermal features provides a strong source for the generation of mirror wave mode activity, reducing drastically the instability threshold. In particular, a number of space-related examples illuminate how the specific structure of the velocity space distribution dominates as a regulating excitation mechanism over the effects related to changes in the plasma parameters.

  9. Sensory symptom profiles and co-morbidities in painful radiculopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Mahn

    Full Text Available Painful radiculopathies (RAD and classical neuropathic pain syndromes (painful diabetic polyneuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia show differences how the patients express their sensory perceptions. Furthermore, several clinical trials with neuropathic pain medications failed in painful radiculopathy. Epidemiological and clinical data of 2094 patients with painful radiculopathy were collected within a cross sectional survey (painDETECT to describe demographic data and co-morbidities and to detect characteristic sensory abnormalities in patients with RAD and compare them with other neuropathic pain syndromes. Common co-morbidities in neuropathic pain (depression, sleep disturbance, anxiety do not differ considerably between the three conditions. Compared to other neuropathic pain syndromes touch-evoked allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia are relatively uncommon in RAD. One distinct sensory symptom pattern (sensory profile, i.e., severe painful attacks and pressure induced pain in combination with mild spontaneous pain, mild mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, was found to be characteristic for RAD. Despite similarities in sensory symptoms there are two important differences between RAD and other neuropathic pain disorders: (1 The paucity of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia might be explained by the fact that the site of the nerve lesion in RAD is often located proximal to the dorsal root ganglion. (2 The distinct sensory profile found in RAD might be explained by compression-induced ectopic discharges from a dorsal root and not necessarily by nerve damage. These differences in pathogenesis might explain why medications effective in DPN and PHN failed to demonstrate efficacy in RAD.

  10. Sensory dysfunction in fibromyalgia patients with implications for pathogenic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, E; Ekholm, J; Hansson, P

    1996-12-01

    This study, addressing etiologic and pathogenic aspects of fibromyalgia (FM), aimed at examining whether sensory abnormalities in FM patients are generalized or confined to areas with spontaneous pain. Ten female FM patients and 10 healthy, age-matched females participated. The patients were asked to rate the intensity of ongoing pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS) at the site of maximal pain, the homologous contralateral site and two homologous sites with no or minimal pain. Quantitative sensory testing was performed for assessment of perception thresholds in these four sites. Von Frey filaments were used to test low-threshold mechanoreceptive function. Pressure pain sensitivity was assessed with a pressure algometer and thermal sensitivity with a Thermotest. In addition the stimulus-response curve of pain intensity as a function of graded nociceptive heat stimulation was studied at the site of maximal pain and at the homologous contralateral site. FM patients had increased sensitivity to non-painful warmth (P painful sites and a tendency to increased sensitivity to non-painful cold (P pain (P pain (P pain (P tested sites. The stimulus-response curve was parallely shifted to the left of the curve obtained from controls (P pain (P pain compared to the homologous contralateral site. These findings could be explained in terms of sensitization of primary afferent pathways or as a dysfunction of endogenous systems modulating afferent activity. However, the generalized increase in sensitivity found in FM patients was unrelated to spontaneous pain and thus most likely due to a central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. The additional hyperphenomena related to spontaneous pain are probably dependent on disinhibition/facilitation of nociceptive afferent input from normal (or ischemic) muscles.

  11. Quality stability and sensory attributes of apple juice processed by thermosonication, pulsed electric field and thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Alifdalino; Farid, Mohammed; Silva, Filipa Vm

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide, apple juice is the second most popular juice, after orange juice. It is susceptible to enzymatic browning spoilage by polyphenoloxidase, an endogenous enzyme. In this study, Royal Gala apple juice was treated by thermosonication (TS: 1.3 W/mL, 58 ℃, 10 min), pulsed electric field (PEF: 24.8 kV/cm, 60 pulses, 169 µs treatment time, 53.8 ℃) and heat (75 ℃, 20 min) and stored at 3.0 ℃ and 20.0 ℃ for 30 days. A sensory analysis was carried out after processing. The polyphenoloxidase activity, antioxidant activity and total color difference of the apple juice were determined before and after processing and during storage. The sensory analysis revealed that thermosonication and pulsed electric field juices tasted differently from the thermally treated juice. Apart from the pulsed electric field apple juice stored at room temperature, the processed juice was stable during storage, since the pH and soluble solids remained constant and fermentation was not observed. Polyphenoloxidase did not reactivate during storage. Along storage, the juices' antioxidant activity decreased and total color difference increased (up to 6.8). While the antioxidant activity increased from 86 to 103% with thermosonication and was retained after pulsed electric field, thermal processing reduced it to 67%. The processing increased the total color difference slightly. No differences in the total color difference of the juices processed by the three methods were registered after storage. Thermosonication and pulsed electric field could possibly be a better alternative to thermal preservation of apple juice, but refrigerated storage is recommended for pulsed electric field apple juice.

  12. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  13. Stability and selectivity of a chronic, multi-contact cuff electrode for sensory stimulation in human amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Daniel W; Schiefer, Matthew A; Keith, Michael W; Anderson, J Robert; Tyler, Dustin J

    2015-04-01

    Stability and selectivity are important when restoring long-term, functional sensory feedback in individuals with limb-loss. Our objective is to demonstrate a chronic, clinical neural stimulation system for providing selective sensory response in two upper-limb amputees. Multi-contact cuff electrodes were implanted in the median, ulnar, and radial nerves of the upper-limb. Nerve stimulation produced a selective sensory response on 19 of 20 contacts and 16 of 16 contacts in subjects 1 and 2, respectively. Stimulation elicited multiple, distinct percept areas on the phantom and residual limb. Consistent threshold, impedance, and percept areas have demonstrated that the neural interface is stable for the duration of this on-going, chronic study. We have achieved selective nerve response from multi-contact cuff electrodes by demonstrating characteristic percept areas and thresholds for each contact. Selective sensory response remains consistent in two upper-limb amputees for 1 and 2 years, the longest multi-contact sensory feedback system to date. Our approach demonstrates selectivity and stability can be achieved through an extraneural interface, which can provide sensory feedback to amputees.

  14. Can quantitative sensory testing predict responses to analgesic treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosen, K; Fischer, I W D; Olesen, A E; Drewes, A M

    2013-10-01

    The role of quantitative sensory testing (QST) in prediction of analgesic effect in humans is scarcely investigated. This updated review assesses the effectiveness in predicting analgesic effects in healthy volunteers, surgical patients and patients with chronic pain. A systematic review of English written, peer-reviewed articles was conducted using PubMed and Embase (1980-2013). Additional studies were identified by chain searching. Search terms included 'quantitative sensory testing', 'sensory testing' and 'analgesics'. Studies on the relationship between QST and response to analgesic treatment in human adults were included. Appraisal of the methodological quality of the included studies was based on evaluative criteria for prognostic studies. Fourteen studies (including 720 individuals) met the inclusion criteria. Significant correlations were observed between responses to analgesics and several QST parameters including (1) heat pain threshold in experimental human pain, (2) electrical and heat pain thresholds, pressure pain tolerance and suprathreshold heat pain in surgical patients, and (3) electrical and heat pain threshold and conditioned pain modulation in patients with chronic pain. Heterogeneity among studies was observed especially with regard to application of QST and type and use of analgesics. Although promising, the current evidence is not sufficiently robust to recommend the use of any specific QST parameter in predicting analgesic response. Future studies should focus on a range of different experimental pain modalities rather than a single static pain stimulation paradigm. © 2013 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  15. Gender-dependent behavioral and sensory effects of a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, A M; Oshiro, W M; Haykal-Coates, N; Kodavanti, P R; Bushnell, P J

    2001-02-01

    Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with behavioral and cognitive deficits in humans and animal models. Perinatal exposure to PCBs has also been associated with sensory deficits in animal models. These effects were hypothesized to be mediated in part by ortho-substituted PCBs, which do not or weakly bind to the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. The present studies were designed to determine whether perinatal exposure to Aroclor 1254, a commercial mixture of > 99% ortho-substituted PCBs, would affect cognitive and sensory function in Long-Evans rats. Adult male and female offspring of female rats fed Aroclor 1254 (Lot #124-191; doses of 0, 1, or 6 mg/kg/day; gestational day 6 through postnatal day 21; n = eight/group) were trained to perform a signal detection task capable of assessing sensory thresholds. Training included autoshaping and operant conditioning. Thresholds for detecting a 1-s light stimulus were determined under background illuminations ranging from 2 lux to complete darkness. Female rats exposed to Aroclor 1254 autoshaped more rapidly than control females, at a rate akin to control males. Control females had lower thresholds than control males at all levels of background illumination. These differences were abolished by Aroclor 1254, which reduced thresholds in males and increased thresholds in females. These data extend previous findings of gender-specific effects of PCBs on neurobehavioral development to measures of acquisition and sensory function.

  16. Detection thresholds of macaque otolith afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiong-Jie; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2012-06-13

    The vestibular system is our sixth sense and is important for spatial perception functions, yet the sensory detection and discrimination properties of vestibular neurons remain relatively unexplored. Here we have used signal detection theory to measure detection thresholds of otolith afferents using 1 Hz linear accelerations delivered along three cardinal axes. Direction detection thresholds were measured by comparing mean firing rates centered on response peak and trough (full-cycle thresholds) or by comparing peak/trough firing rates with spontaneous activity (half-cycle thresholds). Thresholds were similar for utricular and saccular afferents, as well as for lateral, fore/aft, and vertical motion directions. When computed along the preferred direction, full-cycle direction detection thresholds were 7.54 and 3.01 cm/s(2) for regular and irregular firing otolith afferents, respectively. Half-cycle thresholds were approximately double, with excitatory thresholds being half as large as inhibitory thresholds. The variability in threshold among afferents was directly related to neuronal gain and did not depend on spike count variance. The exact threshold values depended on both the time window used for spike count analysis and the filtering method used to calculate mean firing rate, although differences between regular and irregular afferent thresholds were independent of analysis parameters. The fact that minimum thresholds measured in macaque otolith afferents are of the same order of magnitude as human behavioral thresholds suggests that the vestibular periphery might determine the limit on our ability to detect or discriminate small differences in head movement, with little noise added during downstream processing.

  17. Comparative effect of high pressure processing and traditional thermal treatment on the physicochemical, microbiology, and sensory analysis of olive jam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado-Adamez, J.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of the processing by high hydrostatic pressures (HPP was assessed as an alternative to the thermal treatment of pasteurization in olive jam. The effects of both treatments on the product after processing were compared and stability during storage under refrigeration was assessed through the characterization of physicochemical, microbiological and sensory aspects. To assess the effect of processing, two HPP treatments (450 and 600MPa and thermal pasteurization (80 °C for 20 min were applied, comparing them with the unprocessed product. HPP 600MPa versus the rest of treatments showed a reduction in microorganisms, greater clarity and less browning, and sensory acceptance. The shelf-life of the refrigerated product would indicate the feasibility of the application of the HPP technology for food with similar shelf-life to that obtained with the traditional treatment of pasteurization, but with a better sensory quality.En el presente trabajo se valoró el efecto del procesado por altas presiones hidrostáticas (HPP como método alternativo al tratamiento térmico de pasteurización en la mermelada de aceitunas. Para ello se comparó el efecto de ambos tratamientos sobre el producto procesado y se evaluó su estabilidad durante el almacenamiento en refrigeración, mediante la caracterización de los aspectos físico-químicos, microbiológicos, y sensoriales. Para evaluar el efecto del procesado, se aplicaron dos tratamientos de HPP (450 y 600MPa y otro de pasteurización térmica (80 °C durante 20 min, comparándose con el producto no procesado. Las muestras tratadas con HPP 600MPa presentaron, frente al resto de tratamientos una reducción en la presencia de microorganismos, mayor claridad y menor pardeamiento, y una mayor aceptación sensorial. El estudio de la vida útil del producto en refrigeración, indicaría la viabilidad de la aplicación de la tecnología de HPP para obtener alimentos con vida útil similar

  18. Bioclimatic Thresholds, Thermal Constants and Survival of Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Response to Constant Temperatures on Hibiscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus ( Hibiscus rosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P . solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai’s linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P . solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P . solenopsis . The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P . solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P . solenopsis on its host plants. PMID:24086597

  19. Bioclimatic thresholds, thermal constants and survival of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in response to constant temperatures on hibiscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai's linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants.

  20. Accumulation of Inertial Sensory Information in the Perception of Whole Body Yaw Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesti, Alessandro; de Winkel, Ksander; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2017-01-01

    While moving through the environment, our central nervous system accumulates sensory information over time to provide an estimate of our self-motion, allowing for completing crucial tasks such as maintaining balance. However, little is known on how the duration of the motion stimuli influences our performances in a self-motion discrimination task. Here we study the human ability to discriminate intensities of sinusoidal (0.5 Hz) self-rotations around the vertical axis (yaw) for four different stimulus durations (1, 2, 3 and 5 s) in darkness. In a typical trial, participants experienced two consecutive rotations of equal duration and different peak amplitude, and reported the one perceived as stronger. For each stimulus duration, we determined the smallest detectable change in stimulus intensity (differential threshold) for a reference velocity of 15 deg/s. Results indicate that differential thresholds decrease with stimulus duration and asymptotically converge to a constant, positive value. This suggests that the central nervous system accumulates sensory information on self-motion over time, resulting in improved discrimination performances. Observed trends in differential thresholds are consistent with predictions based on a drift diffusion model with leaky integration of sensory evidence.

  1. Comparison of skin barrier function and sensory nerve electric current perception threshold between IgE-high extrinsic and IgE-normal intrinsic types of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T; Ishida, K; Mukumoto, S; Yamada, Y; Imokawa, G; Kabashima, K; Kobayashi, M; Bito, T; Nakamura, M; Ogasawara, K; Tokura, Y

    2010-01-01

    Background Two types of atopic dermatitis (AD) have been proposed, with different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this seemingly heterogeneous disorder. The extrinsic type shows high IgE levels presumably as a consequence of skin barrier damage and feasible allergen permeation, whereas the intrinsic type exhibits normal IgE levels and is not mediated by allergen-specific IgE. Objectives To investigate the relationship between pruritus perception threshold and skin barrier function of patients with AD in a comparison between the extrinsic and intrinsic types. Methods Enrolled in this study were 32 patients with extrinsic AD, 17 with intrinsic AD and 24 healthy individuals. The barrier function of the stratum corneum was assessed by skin surface hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and pruritus perception was evaluated by the electric current perception threshold (CPT) of sensory nerves upon neuroselective transcutaneous electric stimulation. Results Skin surface hydration was significantly lower and TEWL was significantly higher in extrinsic AD than intrinsic AD or normal controls. Although there was no statistically significant difference in CPT among extrinsic AD, intrinsic AD and normal controls, CPT was significantly correlated with skin surface hydration and inversely with TEWL in intrinsic AD and normal controls, but not extrinsic AD. Finally, CPT was correlated with the visual analogue scale of itch in the nonlesional skin of patients with extrinsic but not intrinsic AD. Conclusions Patients with extrinsic AD have an impaired barrier, which increases the pre-existing pruritus but rather decreases sensitivity to external stimuli. In contrast, patients with intrinsic AD retain a normal barrier function and sensory reactivity to external pruritic stimuli.

  2. Nociceptive responses to thermal and mechanical stimulations in awake pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Herskin, Mette S.

    2013-01-01

    body sizes (30 and 60 kg) were exposed to thermal (CO(2) laser) and mechanical (pressure application measurement device) stimulations to the flank and the hind legs in a balanced order. The median response latency and the type of behavioural response were recorded. RESULTS: Small pigs exhibited...... animal studies in a large species require further examination. This manuscript describes the initial development of a porcine model of cutaneous nociception and focuses on interactions between the sensory modality, body size and the anatomical location of the stimulation site. METHODS: Pigs of different...... significantly lower pain thresholds (shorter latency to response) than large pigs to thermal and mechanical stimulations. Stimulations at the two anatomical locations elicited very distinct sets of behavioural responses, with different levels of sensitivity between the flank and the hind legs. Furthermore...

  3. Asymptomatic loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers with preserved thermal detection thresholds after repeated exposure to severe cold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Thomas; Wirenfeldt, Martin; Svendsen, Toke K.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cold-induced peripheral neuropathy has been described in individuals exposed to severe cold resulting in pain, hypersensitivity to cold, hyperhidrosis, numbness, and skin changes. Nerve conduction studies and thermal detection thresholds are abnormal in symptomatic patients......-induced peripheral neuropathy may be prevalent in subjects living in or near polar regions which could have implications for the recruitment of healthy subjects....

  4. High-Frequency Repetitive Sensory Stimulation as Intervention to Improve Sensory Loss in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Marianne; Dinse, Hubert R; Mainka, Tina; Tegenthoff, Martin; Maier, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Achieving perceptual gains in healthy individuals or facilitating rehabilitation in patients is generally considered to require intense training to engage neuronal plasticity mechanisms. Recent work, however, suggested that beneficial outcome similar to training can be effectively acquired by a complementary approach in which the learning occurs in response to mere exposure to repetitive sensory stimulation (rSS). For example, high-frequency repetitive sensory stimulation (HF-rSS) enhances tactile performance and induces cortical reorganization in healthy subjects and patients after stroke. Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) show impaired tactile performance associated with shrinkage of cortical maps. We here investigated the feasibility and efficacy of HF-rSS, and low-frequency rSS (LF-rSS) to enhance tactile performance and reduce pain intensity in 20 patients with CRPS type I. Intermittent high- or low-frequency electrical stimuli were applied for 45 min/day to all fingertips of the affected hand for 5 days. Main outcome measures were spatial two-point-discrimination thresholds and mechanical detection thresholds measured on the tip of the index finger bilaterally. Secondary endpoint was current pain intensity. All measures were assessed before and on day 5 after the last stimulation session. HF-rSS applied in 16 patients improved tactile discrimination on the affected hand significantly without changes contralaterally. Current pain intensity remained unchanged on average, but decreased in four patients by ≥30%. This limited pain relief might be due to the short stimulation period of 5 days only. In contrast, after LF-rSS, tactile discrimination was impaired in all four patients, while detection thresholds and pain were not affected. Our data suggest that HF-rSS could be used as a novel approach in CRPS treatment to improve sensory loss. Longer treatment periods might be required to induce consistent pain relief.

  5. Quantitative sensory testing and pain-evoked cytokine reactivity: comparison of patients with sickle cell disease to healthy matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; Carroll, C Patrick; Kiley, Kasey; Han, Dingfen; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Swedberg, Lauren; Edwards, Robert R; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder associated with significant morbidity, which includes severe episodic pain, and, often, chronic pain. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SCD report enhanced sensitivity to thermal detection and pain thresholds and have altered inflammatory profiles, yet no studies to date have examined biomarker reactivity after laboratory-induced pain. We sought to examine this relationship in patients with SCD compared to healthy control participants. We completed quantitative sensory testing in 83 patients with SCD and sequential blood sampling in 27 of them, whom we matched (sex, age, race, body mass index, and education) to 27 healthy controls. Surprisingly, few quantitative sensory testing differences emerged between groups. Heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold at the trapezius, thumb, and quadriceps, and thermal temporal summation at 45°C differed between groups in the expected direction, whereas conditioned pain modulation and pain ratings to hot water hand immersion were counterintuitive, possibly because of tailoring the water temperature to a perceptual level; patients with SCD received milder temperatures. In the matched subsample, group differences and group-by-time interactions were observed in biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, and neuropeptide Y. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest amplified pain-evoked proinflammatory cytokine reactivity among patients with SCD relative to carefully matched controls. Future research is warranted to evaluate the impact of enhanced pain-related cytokine response and whether it is predictive of clinical characteristics and the frequency/severity of pain crises in patients with SCD.

  6. Postural strategies and sensory integration: no turning point between childhood and adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Mallau

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the sensory integration to postural control in children and adolescents from 5 to 15 years of age. We adopted the working hypothesis that considerable body changes occurring during these periods may lead subjects to under-use the information provided by the proprioceptive pathway and over-use other sensory systems such as vision to control their orientation and stabilize their body. It was proposed to determine which maturational differences may exist between the sensory integration used by children and adolescents in order to test the hypothesis that adolescence may constitute a specific phase in the development of postural control. This hypothesis was tested by applying an original protocol of slow oscillations below the detection threshold of the vestibular canal system, which mainly serves to mediate proprioceptive information, to the platform on which the subjects were standing. We highlighted the process of acquiring an accurate sensory and anatomical reference frame for functional movement. We asked children and adolescents to maintain a vertical stance while slow sinusoidal oscillations in the frontal plane were applied to the support at 0.01 Hz (below the detection threshold of the semicircular canal system and at 0.06 Hz (above the detection threshold of the semicircular canal system with their eyes either open or closed. This developmental study provided evidence that there are mild differences in the quality of sensory integration relative to postural control in children and adolescents. The results reported here confirmed the predominance of vision and the gradual mastery of somatosensory integration in postural control during a large period of ontogenesis including childhood and adolescence. The youngest as well as the oldest subjects adopted similar qualitative damping and segmental stabilization strategies that gradually improved with age without reaching an adult's level. Lastly, sensory

  7. Comparison of thermal activity thresholds of the spider mite predators Phytoseiulus macropilis and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Megan R; Bale, Jeffrey S

    2013-04-01

    The lower and upper thermal activity thresholds of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were compared with those of its prey Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and one of the alternative commercially available control agents for T. urticae, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Adult female P. macropilis retained ambulatory function (CTmin) and movement of appendages (chill coma) at significantly lower temperatures (8.2 and 0.4 °C, respectively) than that of P. persimilis (11.1 and 3.3 °C) and T. urticae (10.6 and 10.3 °C). As the temperature was raised, P. macropilis ceased walking (CTmax) and entered heat coma (42.7 and 43.6 °C), beyond the upper locomotory limits of P. persimilis (40.0 and 41.1 °C), but before T. urticae (47.3 and 48.7 °C). Walking speeds were investigated and P. persimilis was found to have significantly faster ambulation than P. macropilis and T. urticae across a range of temperatures. The lower thermal activity threshold data indicate that P. macropilis will make an effective biological control agent in temperate climates.

  8. Thermotactile perception thresholds measurement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Setsuo; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of posture, push force and rate of temperature change on thermotactile thresholds and to clarify suitable measuring conditions for Japanese people. Thermotactile (warm and cold) thresholds on the right middle finger were measured with an HVLab thermal aesthesiometer. Subjects were eight healthy male Japanese students. The effects of posture in measurement were examined in the posture of a straight hand and forearm placed on a support, the same posture without a support, and the fingers and hand flexed at the wrist with the elbow placed on a desk. The finger push force applied to the applicator of the thermal aesthesiometer was controlled at a 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 N. The applicator temperature was changed to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 degrees C/s. After each measurement, subjects were asked about comfort under the measuring conditions. Three series of experiments were conducted on different days to evaluate repeatability. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that warm thresholds were affected by the push force and the rate of temperature change and that cold thresholds were influenced by posture and push force. The comfort assessment indicated that the measurement posture of a straight hand and forearm laid on a support was the most comfortable for the subjects. Relatively high repeatability was obtained under measurement conditions of a 1 degrees C/s temperature change rate and a 0.5 N push force. Measurement posture, push force and rate of temperature change can affect the thermal threshold. Judging from the repeatability, a push force of 0.5 N and a temperature change of 1.0 degrees C/s in the posture with the straight hand and forearm laid on a support are recommended for warm and cold threshold measurements.

  9. High frequency repetitive sensory stimulation as intervention to improve sensory loss in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eDavid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving perceptual gains in healthy individuals, or facilitating rehabilitation in patients is generally considered to require intense training to engage neuronal plasticity mechanisms. Recent work, however, suggested that beneficial outcome similar to training can be effectively acquired by a complementary approach in which the learning occurs in response to mere exposure to repetitive sensory stimulation (rSS. For example, high-frequency repetitive sensory stimulation (HF-rSS enhances tactile performance and induces cortical reorganization in healthy subjects and patients after stroke. Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS show impaired tactile performance associated with shrinkage of cortical maps. We here investigated the feasibility and efficacy of HF-rSS, and low-frequency rSS (LF-rSS to enhance tactile performance and reduce pain intensity in 20 patients with CRPS type I. Intermittent high or low frequency electrical stimuli were applied for 45min/day to all fingertips of the affected hand for 5 days. Main outcome measures were spatial 2-point-discrimination thresholds and mechanical detection thresholds measured on the tip of the index finger bilaterally. Secondary endpoint was current pain intensity. All measures were assessed before and on day 5 after the last stimulation session. HF-rSS applied in 16 patients improved tactile discrimination on the affected hand significantly without changes contralaterally. Current pain intensity remained unchanged on average, but decreased in 4 patients by 30%. This limited pain relief might be due to the short stimulation period of 5 days only. In contrast, after LF-rSS, tactile discrimination was impaired in all 4 patients, while detection thresholds and pain were not affected. Our data suggest that HF-rSS could be used as a novel approach in CRPS treatment to improve sensory loss. Longer treatment periods might be required to induce consistent pain relief.

  10. Influence of attention focus on neural activity in the human spinal cord during thermal sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Patrick W; Coe, Brian C; Munoz, Doug P

    2011-01-01

    Perceptions of sensation and pain in healthy people are believed to be the net result of sensory input and descending modulation from brainstem and cortical regions depending on emotional and cognitive factors. Here, the influence of attention on neural activity in the spinal cord during thermal sensory stimulation of the hand was investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging by systematically varying the participants' attention focus across and within repeated studies. Attention states included (1) attention to the stimulus by rating the sensation and (2) attention away from the stimulus by performing various mental tasks of watching a movie and identifying characters, detecting the direction of coherently moving dots within a randomly moving visual field and answering mentally-challenging questions. Functional MRI results spanning the cervical spinal cord and brainstem consistently demonstrated that the attention state had a significant influence on the activity detected in the cervical spinal cord, as well as in brainstem regions involved with the descending analgesia system. These findings have important implications for the detection and study of pain, and improved characterization of the effects of injury or disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vibration perception threshold, complaints and sensory examination in diabetic-patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Naalt, J.; FIDLER, [No Value; OOSTERHUIS, HJGH

    The vibration perception threshold (VPT) was investigated by means of a biothesiometer among 40 patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The age as well as the duration of the disease affected the VPT. However, a correlation between the VPT and the rate of metabolic control measured

  12. The third-stimulus temporal discrimination threshold: focusing on the temporal processing of sensory input within primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leodori, Giorgio; Formica, Alessandra; Zhu, Xiaoying; Conte, Antonella; Belvisi, Daniele; Cruccu, Giorgio; Hallett, Mark; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) has been used in recent years to investigate time processing of sensory information, but little is known about the physiological correlates of somatosensory temporal discrimination. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the time interval required to discriminate between two stimuli varies according to the number of stimuli in the task. We used the third-stimulus temporal discrimination threshold (ThirdDT), defined as the shortest time interval at which an individual distinguishes a third stimulus following a pair of stimuli delivered at the STDT. The STDT and ThirdDT were assessed in 31 healthy subjects. In a subgroup of 10 subjects, we evaluated the effects of the stimuli intensity on the ThirdDT. In a subgroup of 16 subjects, we evaluated the effects of S1 continuous theta-burst stimulation (S1-cTBS) on the STDT and ThirdDT. Results show that ThirdDT is shorter than STDT. We found a positive correlation between STDT and ThirdDT values. As long as the stimulus intensity was within the perceivable and painless range, it did not affect ThirdDT values. S1-cTBS significantly affected both STDT and ThirdDT, although the latter was affected to a greater extent and for a longer period of time. We conclude that the interval needed to discriminate between time-separated tactile stimuli is related to the number of stimuli used in the task. STDT and ThirdDT are encoded in S1, probably by a shared tactile temporal encoding mechanism whose performance rapidly changes during the perception process. ThirdDT is a new method to measure somatosensory temporal discrimination. NEW & NOTEWORTHY To investigate whether the time interval required to discriminate between stimuli varies according to changes in the stimulation pattern, we used the third-stimulus temporal discrimination threshold (ThirdDT). We found that the somatosensory temporal discrimination acuity varies according to the number of stimuli in the

  13. Rectal sensory threshold for pain is a diagnostic marker of irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halac, Ugur; Noble, Angela; Faure, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the rectal sensory threshold for pain (RSTP) in children and adolescents with chronic abdominal pain. Fifty-one patients (25 girls; median age 14.2 years; range 8.4-17.6) with abdominal pain >2 months underwent a series of rectal distensions with an electronic barostat. RSTP and viscerosomatic referrals were assessed. Three months after the barostat, the final diagnosis was documented. Thirty-five patients had a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) (irritable bowel syndrome or functional abdominal pain), and 16 had an organic disease. RSTP was lower in the FGID group than in the organic disease group (25.4mm Hg vs 37.1mm Hg; P = .0002). At the cutoff of 30mm Hg, the RSTP measurement for the diagnosis of FGID had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 77%. Both groups similarly reported aberrant viscerosomatic projections. In children, RSTP is a diagnostic marker of irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain. Viscerosomatic referrals are similar in children with FGID and organic diseases.

  14. Thermal dependence of the current threshold in InGaAsN lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mon, E.; Suarez, N.; Sánchez, M.; Martin, Juan A.

    2008-01-01

    With active area of InGaAsN lasers are very attractive since they emit in the range of wavelengths of 1.3 to 1.5 pm (CET) bands of conduction of the active zone and cladding in this material [1] layers. In lasers with barriers of GaAs InGaAsN AEc around values are obtained 300 MeV, which guarantees a good confinement of electrons and reported To the order of 126 K values, however, these results have not been satisfactorily explained and there are conflicting reports about this parameter. This work simulates the thermal dependence of the current threshold of InGaAsN lasers including as main mechanisms of loss, leakage current, Auger recombination and recombination Mono [2], which was a good fit of the experimental results reported.

  15. Clinical neurophysiology and quantitative sensory testing in the investigation of orofacial pain and sensory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2004-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain represents a diagnostic and treatment challenge for the clinician. Some conditions, such as atypical facial pain, still lack proper diagnostic criteria, and their etiology is not known. The recent development of neurophysiological methods and quantitative sensory testing for the examination of the trigeminal somatosensory system offers several tools for diagnostic and etiological investigation of orofacial pain. This review presents some of these techniques and the results of their application in studies on orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Clinical neurophysiological investigation has greater diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity than clinical examination in the detection of the neurogenic abnormalities of either peripheral or central origin that may underlie symptoms of orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Neurophysiological testing may also reveal trigeminal pathology when magnetic resonance imaging has failed to detect it, so these methods should be considered complementary to each other in the investigation of orofacial pain patients. The blink reflex, corneal reflex, jaw jerk, sensory neurography of the inferior alveolar nerve, and the recording of trigeminal somatosensory-evoked potentials with near-nerve stimulation have all proved to be sensitive and reliable in the detection of dysfunction of the myelinated sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve or its central connections within the brainstem. With appropriately small thermodes, thermal quantitative sensory testing is useful for the detection of trigeminal small-fiber dysfunction (Adelta and C). In neuropathic conditions, it is most sensitive to lesions causing axonal injury. By combining different techniques for investigation of the trigeminal system, an accurate topographical diagnosis and profile of sensory fiber pathology can be determined. Neurophysiological and quantitative sensory tests have already highlighted some similarities among various orofacial pain conditions

  16. Heat pain detection threshold is associated with the area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Sejer; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization (BTS) of the skin and heat pain detection thresholds (HPDT) may both have predictive abilities in regards to pain sensitivity and clinical pain states. The association between HPDT and secondary hyperalgesia......, however, remains unsettled, and the dissimilarities in physiologic properties suggest that they may represent 2 distinctively different pain entities. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HPDT and BTS-induced secondary hyperalgesia. METHODS: A sample of 121 healthy male...... participants was included and tested on 2 separate study days with BTS (45°C, 3 minutes), HPDT, and pain during thermal stimulation (45°C, 1 minute). Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were quantified after monofilament pinprick stimulation. The pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) and hospital anxiety and depression...

  17. The Association of Sensory Responsiveness with Somatic Symptoms and Illness Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodic, Donja; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Lieb, Roselind; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2016-02-01

    Somatoform Disorders or Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders are a major public health problem.The pathophysiology underlying these disorders is not yet understood. The aim of this study was to explore if sensory responsiveness could contribute to a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying two key symptoms of Somatoform Disorders, namely somatic symptoms and illness anxiety. We measured vibrotactile perception thresholds with the HVLab Perception Meter and examined their association with somatic symptoms, illness anxiety and trait anxiety. A sample of 205 volunteers participated in the study. Sensory responsiveness was neither associated with somatic symptoms (β = -0.01; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.37, 0.39) nor trait anxiety (β = -0.07; 95% CI, -0.30, 0.07). However, lower vibrotactile perception thresholds were associated with increased scores of the overall illness anxiety scale (β = -0.65; 95% CI, -1.21, -0.14) and its constituent subscale disease conviction (β = -2.07; 95% CI, -3.94, -0.43). Our results suggest that increased sensory responsiveness is associated with illness anxiety and hence should be examined further as potential target within the etiopathology of somatoform disorders.

  18. Sensory abnormalities and masticatory function after microvascular decompression or balloon compression for trigeminal neuralgia compared with carbamazepine and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichida, Michelle Cristina; de Almeida, Antonio Nogueira; da Nobrega, Jose Claudio Marinho; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Siqueira, José Tadeu Tesseroli; de Siqueira, Silvia R D T

    2015-06-01

    Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (iTN) is a neurological condition treated with pharmacotherapy or neurosurgery. There is a lack of comparative papers regarding the outcomes of neurosurgery in patients with iTN. The objective of this study was to investigate sensory thresholds and masticatory function in 78 patients with iTN who underwent microvascular decompression (MVD) or balloon compression (BC), and compare these treatments with carbamazepine and 30 untreated healthy controls. The authors conducted a case-controlled longitudinal study. Patients were referred to 1 of 3 groups: MVD, BC, or carbamazepine. All patients were evaluated before and after treatment with a systematic protocol composed of a clinical orofacial questionnaire, Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders, Helkimo indices, and a quantitative sensory-testing protocol (gustative, olfactory, cold, warm, touch, vibration, superficial, and deep pain thresholds). Both MVD and BC were effective at reducing pain intensity (p = 0.012) and carbamazepine doses (p sweet (p = 0.014) and salty (p = 0.003) thresholds. The sour threshold decreased (p = 0.003) and cold and warm thresholds increased (p sensorial and motor deficits after BC need to be included as targets directly associated with the success of the surgery and need to be assessed and relieved as goals in the treatment of iTN.

  19. Nociceptive thermal threshold testing in horses – effect of neuroleptic sedation and neuroleptanalgesia at different stimulation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aim of the study was to compare the effect of neuroleptic sedation with acepromazine and neuroleptanalgesia with acepromazine and buprenorphine on thermal thresholds (TT) obtained at the nostrils and at the withers. The study was carried out as a randomized, blinded, controlled trial with cross-over design. Thermal thresholds were determined by incremental contact heat applied to the skin above the nostril (N) or the withers (W). Eleven horses were treated with saline (S), acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) (ACE) or acepromazine and buprenorphine (0.0075 mg/kg) (AB) intravenously (IV). Single stimulations were performed 15 minutes prior and 15, 45, 75, 105, 165, 225, 285, 405 and 525 minutes after treatment. Sedation score, gastrointestinal auscultation score and occurrence of skin lesions were recorded. Data were analysed with analysis of variance for repeated measurements. Results There were no significant differences in TT between N and W with all treatments. The TT remained constant after S and there was no difference in TT between S and ACE. After AB there was a significant increase above baseline in TT until 405 minutes after treatment. Restlessness occurred 30–90 minutes after AB in 7 horses. All horses had reduced to absent borborygmi after AB administration for 165 to 495 minutes. Conclusion Thermal stimulation at both described body areas gives comparable results in the assessment of cutaneous anti-nociception in horses. There is no differential influence of neuroleptic sedation or neuroleptanalgesia on TTs obtained at N or W. Buprenorphine combined with acepromazine has a long lasting anti-nociceptive effect associated with the typical opioid induced side effects in horses. PMID:23837730

  20. Heterogeneous sensory processing in persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2010-01-01

    hinders evaluation of potential subgroups for further investigation and/or treatment allocation. Thus we used a standardized QST protocol to evaluate sensory functions in PPP and pain-free control patients, to allow individual sensory characterization of pain patients from calculated Z-values. Seventy PPP...... patients with pain related impairment of everyday activities were compared with normative data from 40 pain-free postherniotomy patients operated>1 year previously. Z-values showed a large variation in sensory disturbances ranging from pronounced detection hypoesthesia (Z=6, cold) to pain hyperalgesia (Z......=-8, pressure). Hyperalgesia for various modalities were found in 80% of patients, with pressure hyperalgesia in approximately 65%, and cutaneous (mechanical or thermal) hyperalgesia in approximately 35% of patients. The paradoxical combination of tactile hypoesthesia and hyperalgesia was seen...

  1. The 'sensory tolerance limit': A hypothetical construct determining exercise performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureau, Thomas J; Romer, Lee M; Amann, Markus

    2018-02-01

    Neuromuscular fatigue compromises exercise performance and is determined by central and peripheral mechanisms. Interactions between the two components of fatigue can occur via neural pathways, including feedback and feedforward processes. This brief review discusses the influence of feedback and feedforward mechanisms on exercise limitation. In terms of feedback mechanisms, particular attention is given to group III/IV sensory neurons which link limb muscle with the central nervous system. Central corollary discharge, a copy of the neural drive from the brain to the working muscles, provides a signal from the motor system to sensory systems and is considered a feedforward mechanism that might influence fatigue and consequently exercise performance. We highlight findings from studies supporting the existence of a 'critical threshold of peripheral fatigue', a previously proposed hypothesis based on the idea that a negative feedback loop operates to protect the exercising limb muscle from severe threats to homeostasis during whole-body exercise. While the threshold theory remains to be disproven within a given task, it is not generalisable across different exercise modalities. The 'sensory tolerance limit', a more theoretical concept, may address this issue and explain exercise tolerance in more global terms and across exercise modalities. The 'sensory tolerance limit' can be viewed as a negative feedback loop which accounts for the sum of all feedback (locomotor muscles, respiratory muscles, organs, and muscles not directly involved in exercise) and feedforward signals processed within the central nervous system with the purpose of regulating the intensity of exercise to ensure that voluntary activity remains tolerable.

  2. Modification of electrical pain threshold by voluntary breathing-controlled electrical stimulation (BreEStim in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengai Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain has a distinct sensory and affective (i.e., unpleasantness component. BreEStim, during which electrical stimulation is delivered during voluntary breathing, has been shown to selectively reduce the affective component of post-amputation phantom pain. The objective was to examine whether BreEStim increases pain threshold such that subjects could have improved tolerance of sensation of painful stimuli. METHODS: Eleven pain-free healthy subjects (7 males, 4 females participated in the study. All subjects received BreEStim (100 stimuli and conventional electrical stimulation (EStim, 100 stimuli to two acupuncture points (Neiguan and Weiguan of the dominant hand in a random order. The two different treatments were provided at least three days apart. Painful, but tolerable electrical stimuli were delivered randomly during EStim, but were triggered by effortful inhalation during BreEStim. Measurements of tactile sensation threshold, electrical sensation and electrical pain thresholds, thermal (cold sensation, warm sensation, cold pain and heat pain thresholds were recorded from the thenar eminence of both hands. These measurements were taken pre-intervention and 10-min post-intervention. RESULTS: There was no difference in the pre-intervention baseline measurement of all thresholds between BreEStim and EStim. The electrical pain threshold significantly increased after BreEStim (27.5±6.7% for the dominant hand and 28.5±10.8% for the non-dominant hand, respectively. The electrical pain threshold significantly decreased after EStim (9.1±2.8% for the dominant hand and 10.2±4.6% for the non-dominant hand, respectively (F[1, 10] = 30.992, p = .00024. There was no statistically significant change in other thresholds after BreEStim and EStim. The intensity of electrical stimuli was progressively increased, but no difference was found between BreEStim and EStim. CONCLUSION: Voluntary breathing controlled electrical stimulation

  3. Design of a robotic device for assessment and rehabilitation of hand sensory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambercy, Olivier; Robles, Alejandro Juárez; Kim, Yeongmi; Gassert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the Robotic Sensory Trainer, a robotic interface for assessment and therapy of hand sensory function. The device can provide three types of well controlled stimuli: (i) angular displacement at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint using a remote-center-of-motion double-parallelogram structure, (ii) vibration stimuli at the fingertip, proximal phalange and palm, and (iii) pressure at the fingertip, while recording position, interaction force and feedback from the user over a touch screen. These stimuli offer a novel platform to investigate sensory perception in healthy subjects and patients with sensory impairments, with the potential to assess deficits and actively train detection of specific sensory cues in a standardized manner. A preliminary study with eight healthy subjects demonstrates the feasibility of using the Robotic Sensory Trainer to assess the sensory perception threshold in MCP angular position. An average just noticeable difference (JND) in the MCP joint angle of 2.46° (14.47%) was found, which is in agreement with previous perception studies. © 2011 IEEE

  4. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously.

  5. Nociceptive tuning by stem cell factor/c-Kit signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, Nevena; Frahm, Christina; Gassmann, Max; Griffel, Carola; Erdmann, Bettina; Birchmeier, Carmen; Lewin, Gary R; Garratt, Alistair N

    2007-12-06

    The molecular mechanisms regulating the sensitivity of sensory circuits to environmental stimuli are poorly understood. We demonstrate here a central role for stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor, c-Kit, in tuning the responsiveness of sensory neurons to natural stimuli. Mice lacking SCF/c-Kit signaling displayed profound thermal hypoalgesia, attributable to a marked elevation in the thermal threshold and reduction in spiking rate of heat-sensitive nociceptors. Acute activation of c-Kit by its ligand, SCF, resulted in a reduced thermal threshold and potentiation of heat-activated currents in isolated small-diameter neurons and thermal hyperalgesia in mice. SCF-induced thermal hyperalgesia required the TRP family cation channel TRPV1. Lack of c-Kit signaling during development resulted in hypersensitivity of discrete mechanoreceptive neuronal subtypes. Thus, c-Kit can now be grouped with a small family of receptor tyrosine kinases, including c-Ret and TrkA, that control the transduction properties of sensory neurons.

  6. Stochastic IMT (Insulator-Metal-Transition Neurons: An Interplay of Thermal and Threshold Noise at Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Parihar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks can harness stochasticity in multiple ways to enable a vast class of computationally powerful models. Boltzmann machines and other stochastic neural networks have been shown to outperform their deterministic counterparts by allowing dynamical systems to escape local energy minima. Electronic implementation of such stochastic networks is currently limited to addition of algorithmic noise to digital machines which is inherently inefficient; albeit recent efforts to harness physical noise in devices for stochasticity have shown promise. To succeed in fabricating electronic neuromorphic networks we need experimental evidence of devices with measurable and controllable stochasticity which is complemented with the development of reliable statistical models of such observed stochasticity. Current research literature has sparse evidence of the former and a complete lack of the latter. This motivates the current article where we demonstrate a stochastic neuron using an insulator-metal-transition (IMT device, based on electrically induced phase-transition, in series with a tunable resistance. We show that an IMT neuron has dynamics similar to a piecewise linear FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN neuron and incorporates all characteristics of a spiking neuron in the device phenomena. We experimentally demonstrate spontaneous stochastic spiking along with electrically controllable firing probabilities using Vanadium Dioxide (VO2 based IMT neurons which show a sigmoid-like transfer function. The stochastic spiking is explained by two noise sources - thermal noise and threshold fluctuations, which act as precursors of bifurcation. As such, the IMT neuron is modeled as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU process with a fluctuating boundary resulting in transfer curves that closely match experiments. The moments of interspike intervals are calculated analytically by extending the first-passage-time (FPT models for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU process to include a

  7. Low heat pain thresholds in migraineurs between attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J; Zuniga, Leslie; Chong, Catherine D

    2015-06-01

    Between attacks, migraine is associated with hypersensitivities to sensory stimuli. The objective of this study was to investigate hypersensitivity to pain in migraineurs between attacks. Cutaneous heat pain thresholds were measured in 112 migraineurs, migraine free for ≥ 48 hours, and 75 healthy controls. Pain thresholds at the head and at the arm were compared between migraineurs and controls using two-tailed t-tests. Among migraineurs, correlations between heat pain thresholds and headache frequency, allodynia symptom severity, and time interval until next headache were calculated. Migraineurs had lower pain thresholds than controls at the head (43.9 ℃ ± 3.2 ℃ vs. 45.1 ℃ ± 3.0 ℃, p = 0.015) and arm (43.2 ℃ ± 3.4 ℃ vs. 44.8 ℃ ± 3.3 ℃, p pain thresholds and headache frequency or allodynia symptom severity. For the 41 migraineurs for whom time to next headache was known, there were positive correlations between time to next headache and pain thresholds at the head (r = 0.352, p = 0.024) and arm (r = 0.312, p = 0.047). This study provides evidence that migraineurs have low heat pain thresholds between migraine attacks. Mechanisms underlying these lower pain thresholds could also predispose migraineurs to their next migraine attack, a hypothesis supported by finding positive correlations between pain thresholds and time to next migraine attack. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Short-term sensory and cutaneous vascular responses to therapeutic ultrasound in the forearms of healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Shaguftha Sultana; MacDermid, Joy C; Birmingham, Trevor; Grewal, Ruby; Farooq, Baseer

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound (US) is used for a variety of clinical pathologies and is thought to accelerate tissue repair and help with pain reduction via its thermal and nonthermal effects. The evidence on physiological effects of US on both sensory and vascular functions in humans is incomplete. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the short-term impact of two doses of US (3 MHz, 1:4, 0.25 W/cm(2), 5 min; 1 MHz, continuous, 0.8 W/cm(2), 3 min), on sensory and vascular responses in the healthy forearms. Twenty healthy subjects were recruited (mean age, 29.6 ± 8.8 years) for the study. Superficial blood flow (SBF) in the distal forearms was determined using the tissue viability imaging system. Sensory perception thresholds (SPT) were determined from ring finger (C7, C8) to assess A-beta (at 2,000 Hz) and C fiber function (at 5 Hz), using a Neurometer CPT/C device. Subject's two hands were randomly allocated to group order (AB/BA). Scores were obtained before and immediately after the application of US and control. Differences in these were analyzed using repeated measures. Both 3 MHz pulsed US and 1 MHz continuous US showed small to moderate (effect size = 0.12 to 0.68), statistically significant reductions in SBF (3 MHz, mean change = 2.8 AU and 1 MHz, mean change = 3.9 AU, p 0.05). Age and gender also had no effect on all outcome measures (p > 0.05). This study demonstrated minor reductions in skin blood flow, skin temperatures, and C fiber perception thresholds immediately after 3 MHz, and 1 MHz US. The responses observed may have been due to a thermo-cooling effect of the gel or due to the direct effect of US on C fibers of median and ulnar nerves. US had a negligible effect on A-beta fibres. This would suggest that future studies looking at physiological effects of US should move towards investigating larger dosages and study the effects in patient populations.

  9. Deficits in pain perception in borderline personality disorder: results from the thermal grill illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Chung, Boo Young; Richter, Ingmarie; Wicking, Manon; Foell, Jens; Mancke, Falk; Schmahl, Christian; Flor, Herta

    2015-10-01

    It is well documented that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by reduced pain sensitivity, which might be related to nonsuicidal self-injury and dissociative experiences in patients with BPD. However, it remains an open question whether this insensitivity relies at least partly on altered sensory integration or on an altered evaluation of pain or a combination of both. In this study, we used the thermal grill illusion (TGI), describing a painful sensation induced by the application of alternating cold and warm nonnoxious stimuli, in patients with either current or remitted BPD as well as matched healthy controls. Two additional conditions, applying warm or cold temperatures only, served as control. We further assessed thermal perception, discrimination, and pain thresholds. We found significantly reduced heat and cold pain thresholds for the current BPD group, as well as reduced cold pain thresholds for the remitted BPD group, as compared with the HC group. Current BPD patients perceived a less-intense TGI in terms of induced pain and unpleasantness, while their general ability to perceive this kind of illusion seemed to be unaffected. Thermal grill illusion magnitude was negatively correlated with dissociation and traumatization only in the current BPD patients. These results indicate that higher-order pain perception is altered in current BPD, which seems to normalize after remission. We discuss these findings against the background of neurophysiological evidence for the TGI in general and reduced pain sensitivity in BPD and suggest a relationship to alterations in N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotransmission.

  10. Sensory perception and lubrication properties of milk: Influence of fat content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chojnicka-Paszun, A.; de Jongh, H.H.J.; de Kruif, C.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073609609

    2012-01-01

    The sensory perception of homogenized milk with a fat content between 0.06 and 8% was correlated with its friction coefficient and viscosity. Above a threshold of 1% fat, there was a strong decrease in friction coefficient at low speeds, which is associated with shear-induced coalescence. Creamy

  11. Effect of electroacupuncture on thermal pain threshold and expression of calcitonin-gene related peptide, substance P and γ-aminobutyric acid in the cervical dorsal root ganglion of rats with incisional neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Li-Na; Liu, Jun-Ling; Tan, Lian-Hong; Yang, Hai-Long; Zhai, Xu; Yang, Yong-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    Acupuncture therapy effectively reduces post-surgical pain, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether expression of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the primary sensory neurons of cervical dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are involved in electroacupuncture (EA)-induced analgesia in a rat model of incisional neck pain. The pain model was established by making a longitudinal midline neck incision in 60 rats. Another 15 rats underwent sham surgery (normal group). Post-incision, 15 rats remained untreated (model group) and 45 rats underwent EA (frequency 2/100 Hz, intensity 1 mA) at bilateral LI18, LI4-PC6 or ST36-GB34 (n=15 each) for 30 min at 4 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours post-surgery, followed by thermal pain threshold (PT) measurement. 30 min later, the rats were euthanased and cervical (C3-6) DRGs removed for measurement of immunoreactivity and mRNA expression of SP/CGRP and the GABAergic neuronal marker glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67). Thermal PT was significantly lower in the model group versus the normal group and increased in the LI18 and LI4-PC6 groups but not the ST36-GB34 group compared with the model group. Additionally, EA at LI18 and LI4-PC6 markedly suppressed neck incision-induced upregulation of mRNA/protein expression of SP/CGRP, and upregulated mRNA/protein expression of GAD67 in the DRGs of C3-6 segments. EA at LI18/LI4-PC6 increases PT in rats with incisional neck pain, which is likely related to downregulation of pronociceptive mediators SP/CGRP and upregulation of the inhibitory transmitter GABA in the primary sensory neurons of cervical DRGs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Chronic Pain in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Utility of Sensory Quantitative Testing in Patients with Fibromyalgia Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, Alessandra; Clemenzi, Allessandro; Troisi, Elio; Pace, Luca; Casillo, Paolo; Catani, Sheila; Grasso, Maria Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Lower thermal and discomfort thresholds may predispose multiple sclerosis (MS) patients to chronic pain, but a possible effect of fibromyalgia (FM) comorbidity has never been investigated. Aims were to investigate the thermal and discomfort thresholds in the evaluation of pain intensity between MS patients with FM (PFM+) and MS patients with pain not associated to FM (PFM-). One hundred thirty three MS patients were investigated for chronic pain. FM was assessed according to the 1990 ACR diagnostic criteria. An algometer was used to measure the thresholds in the patients and 60 matched healthy subjects. Chronic pain was present in 88 (66.2%) patients; 12 (13.6%) had neuropathic pain, 22 (17.3%) were PFM+ and 65 (48.9%) PFM-. PFM+ were predominantly female (p = 0.03) and had a greater EDSS (p = 0.01) than NoP; no other significant differences emerged than PFM-. The thresholds were lower in MS patients than controls (p < 0.01), mainly in the PFM+. FM severity influenced the thermal threshold (p < 0.001), while the female gender influenced the discomfort threshold (p < 0.001). Thermal and discomfort thresholds were lower in patients than controls and were the lowest in PFM+. Their more severely impaired thermal threshold supports a neurophysiological basis of such association. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The contribution of cutaneous and kinesthetic sensory modalities in haptic perception of orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoli, Antonio; Solazzi, Massimiliano; Reiner, Miriam; Bergamasco, Massimo

    2011-06-30

    The aim of this study was to understand the integration of cutaneous and kinesthetic sensory modalities in haptic perception of shape orientation. A specific robotic apparatus was employed to simulate the exploration of virtual surfaces by active touch with two fingers, with kinesthetic only, cutaneous only and combined sensory feedback. The cutaneous feedback was capable of displaying the local surface orientation at the contact point, through a small plate indenting the fingerpad at contact. A psychophysics test was conducted with SDT methodology on 6 subjects to assess the discrimination threshold of angle perception between two parallel surfaces, with three sensory modalities and two shape sizes. Results show that the cutaneous sensor modality is not affected by size of shape, but kinesthetic performance is decreasing with smaller size. Cutaneous and kinesthetic sensory cues are integrated according to a Bayesian model, so that the combined sensory stimulation always performs better than single modalities alone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intracranial inertial cavitation threshold and thermal ablation lesion creation using MRI-guided 220-kHz focused ultrasound surgery: preclinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiyuan; Carlson, Carissa; Snell, John; Eames, Matt; Hananel, Arik; Lopes, M Beatriz; Raghavan, Prashant; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Yen, Chun-Po; Schlesinger, David; Kassell, Neal F; Aubry, Jean-Francois; Sheehan, Jason

    2015-01-01

    In biological tissues, it is known that the creation of gas bubbles (cavitation) during ultrasound exposure is more likely to occur at lower rather than higher frequencies. Upon collapsing, such bubbles can induce hemorrhage. Thus, acoustic inertial cavitation secondary to a 220-kHz MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) surgery is a serious safety issue, and animal studies are mandatory for laying the groundwork for the use of low-frequency systems in future clinical trials. The authors investigate here the in vivo potential thresholds of MRgFUS-induced inertial cavitation and MRgFUS-induced thermal coagulation using MRI, acoustic spectroscopy, and histology. Ten female piglets that had undergone a craniectomy were sonicated using a 220-kHz transcranial MRgFUS system over an acoustic energy range of 5600-14,000 J. For each piglet, a long-duration sonication (40-second duration) was performed on the right thalamus, and a short sonication (20-second duration) was performed on the left thalamus. An acoustic power range of 140-300 W was used for long-duration sonications and 300-700 W for short-duration sonications. Signals collected by 2 passive cavitation detectors were stored in memory during each sonication, and any subsequent cavitation activity was integrated within the bandwidth of the detectors. Real-time 2D MR thermometry was performed during the sonications. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, gradient-recalled echo, and diffusion-weighted imaging MRI was performed after treatment to assess the lesions. The piglets were killed immediately after the last series of posttreatment MR images were obtained. Their brains were harvested, and histological examinations were then performed to further evaluate the lesions. Two types of lesions were induced: thermal ablation lesions, as evidenced by an acute ischemic infarction on MRI and histology, and hemorrhagic lesions, associated with inertial cavitation. Passive cavitation signals exhibited 3 main patterns identified as

  15. Electrical stimulation enhances sensory recovery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua N; Olson, Jaret L; Morhart, Michael J; Chan, K Ming

    2015-06-01

    Brief postsurgical electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration in animal models following axotomy and crush injury. However, whether this treatment is beneficial in humans with sensory nerve injury has not been tested. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that ES would enhance sensory nerve regeneration following digital nerve transection compared to surgery alone. Patients with complete digital nerve transection underwent epineurial nerve repair. After coaptation of the severed nerve ends, fine wire electrodes were implanted before skin closure. Postoperatively, patients were randomized to receiving either 1 hour of 20Hz continuous ES or sham stimulation in a double-blinded manner. Patients were followed monthly for 6 months by a blinded evaluator to monitor physiological recovery of spatial discrimination, pressure threshold, and quantitative small fiber sensory testing. Functional disability was measured using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire. A total of 36 patients were recruited, with 18 in each group. Those in the ES group showed consistently greater improvements in all sensory modalities by 5 to 6 months postoperatively compared to the controls. Although there was a trend of greater functional improvements in the ES group, it was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). Postsurgical ES enhanced sensory reinnervation in patients who sustained complete digital nerve transection. The conferred benefits apply to a wide range of sensory functions. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  16. Effect of low frequency transcutaneous magnetic stimulation on sensory and motor transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Albert; Shukla, Shivshil; Lee, Jacquelyn; Metzger-Smith, Valerie; He, Yifan; Chen, Jeffrey; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injury diminishes fast conducting large myelinated afferent fibers transmission but enhances smaller pain transmitting fibers firing. This aberrant afferent neuronal behavior contributes to development of chronic post-traumatic peripheral neuropathic pain (PTP-NP). Non-invasive dynamic magnetic flux stimulation has been implicated in treating PTP-NP, a condition currently not adequately addressed by other therapies including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). The current study assessed the effect of low frequency transcutaneous magnetic stimulation (LFTMS) on peripheral sensory thresholds, nerve conduction properties, and TENS induced fast afferent slowing effect as measured by motor and sensory conduction studies in the ulnar nerve. Results indicated sham LFTMS with TENS (Sham + TENS) significantly (P = 0.02 and 0.007, respectively) reduces sensory conduction velocity (CV) and increases sensory onset latency (OL), and motor peak latency (PL) whereas, real LFTMS with TENS (Real + TENS) reverses effects of TENS on sensory CV and OL, and significantly (P = 0.036) increases the sensory PL. LFTMS alone significantly (P sensory PL and onset-to-peak latency. LFTMS appears to reverse TENS slowing effect on fast conducting fibers and casts a selective peripheral modulatory effect on slow conducting pain afferent fibers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A Cyfip2-Dependent Excitatory Interneuron Pathway Establishes the Innate Startle Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Kurt C; Jain, Roshan A; Wolman, Marc A; Echeverry, Fabio A; Nelson, Jessica C; Hayer, Katharina E; Miltenberg, Ben; Pereda, Alberto E; Granato, Michael

    2018-04-17

    Sensory experiences dynamically modify whether animals respond to a given stimulus, but it is unclear how innate behavioral thresholds are established. Here, we identify molecular and circuit-level mechanisms underlying the innate threshold of the zebrafish startle response. From a forward genetic screen, we isolated five mutant lines with reduced innate startle thresholds. Using whole-genome sequencing, we identify the causative mutation for one line to be in the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)-interacting protein cyfip2. We show that cyfip2 acts independently of FMRP and that reactivation of cyfip2 restores the baseline threshold after phenotype onset. Finally, we show that cyfip2 regulates the innate startle threshold by reducing neural activity in a small group of excitatory hindbrain interneurons. Thus, we identify a selective set of genes critical to establishing an innate behavioral threshold and uncover a circuit-level role for cyfip2 in this process. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. NEUTRON SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS USING MULTIPLE THRESHOLD DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, William W.; Duffey, Dick

    1963-11-15

    From American Nuclear Society Meeting, New York, Nov. 1963. The use of threshold detectors, which simultaneously undergo reactions with thermal neutrons and two or more fast neutron threshold reactions, was applied to measurements of the neutron spectrum in a reactor. A number of different materials were irradiated to determine the most practical ones for use as multiple threshold detectors. These results, as well as counting techniques and corrections, are presented. Some materials used include aluminum, alloys of Al -Ni, aluminum-- nickel oxides, and magesium orthophosphates. (auth)

  19. Sensory Neuropathy Due to Loss of Bcl-w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchesne, Stephanie L.; Karch, Christoph; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2010-01-01

    Small fiber sensory neuropathy is a common disorder in which progressive degeneration of small diameter nociceptors causes decreased sensitivity to thermal stimuli and painful sensations in the extremities. In the majority of patients, the cause of small fiber sensory neuropathy is unknown, and treatment options are limited. Here, we show that Bcl-w (Bcl-2l2) is required for the viability of small fiber nociceptive sensory neurons. Bcl-w −/− mice demonstrate an adult-onset progressive decline in thermosensation and a decrease in nociceptor innervation of the epidermis. This denervation occurs without cell body loss, indicating that lack of Bcl-w results in a primary axonopathy. Consistent with this phenotype, we show that Bcl-w, in contrast to the closely related Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, is enriched in axons of sensory neurons and that Bcl-w prevents the dying back of axons. Bcl-w −/− sensory neurons exhibit mitochondrial abnormalities, including alterations in axonal mitochondrial size, axonal mitochondrial membrane potential, and cellular ATP levels. Collectively, these data establish bcl-w −/− mice as an animal model of small fiber sensory neuropathy, and provide new insight regarding the role of bcl-w and of mitochondria in preventing axonal degeneration. PMID:21289171

  20. Analysis of odorous gases with simultaneous GC-MS and sensory determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orko, I.; Lehtomaeki, J.; Sandell, E.; Arnold, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Environmental Technology

    1995-12-31

    Industrial odorous off-gases can consist of hundreds of different compounds giving cause to odour annoyance in the vicinity of the odour-emitting plant. For the identification of the odorous components in the gas, traditional analytical methods are not always sufficient since the odour threshold values cannot often be found in literature. This report describes the development of a GC-MS sniffing port method for identifying odorous compounds in off-gases. In the method the sample is injected into a gas chromatograph and divided into two flows. The compounds in these sample flows are separated in two identical columns and detected simultaneously in a mass spectrometer and by sensory means. The olfactory detections are marked in the iongram and the odorous compounds are identified. Tenax TA adsorbent is generally used for collecting the odorous sample for analysis. The compounds are released from the adsorbent for analysis by thermal desorption. The report also describes a case study where the GC-MS sniffing port method was applied to a gaseous emission from a food factory. Over ten odorous compounds could be identified. (author)

  1. Thermal Thresholds of Phytoplankton Growth in Polar Waters and Their Consequences for a Warming Polar Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Coello-Camba, Alexandra

    2017-06-02

    Polar areas are experiencing the steepest warming rates on Earth, a trend expected to continue in the future. In these habitats, phytoplankton communities constitute the basis of the food web and their thermal tolerance may dictate how warming affects these delicate environments. Here, we compiled available data on thermal responses of phytoplankton growth in polar waters. We assembled 53 growth-vs.-temperature curves (25 from the Arctic, 28 from the Southern oceans), indicating the limited information available for these ecosystems. Half of the data from Arctic phytoplankton came from natural communities where low ambient concentrations could limit growth rates. Phytoplankton from polar waters grew faster under small temperature increases until reaching an optimum (TOPT), and slowed when temperatures increased beyond this value. This left-skewed curves were characterized by higher activation energies (Ea) for phytoplankton growth above than below the TOPT. Combining these thermal responses we obtained a community TOPT of 6.5°C (±0.2) and 5.2°C (±0.1) for Arctic and Southern Ocean phytoplankton communities, respectively. These threshold temperatures were already exceeded at 70°N during the first half of August 2013, evidenced by sea surface temperatures (SSTs, satellite data, http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov). We forecasted SSTs for the end of the twenty-first century by assuming an overall 3°C increase, equivalent to a low emission scenario. Our forecasts show that SSTs at 70°N are expected to exceed TOPT during summer by 2100, and during the first half of August at 75°N. While recent Arctic spring temperatures average 0.5°C and −0.7°C at 70°N and 75°N, respectively, they could increase to 2.8°C at 70°N and 2.2°C at 75°N as we approach 2100. Such temperature increases could lead to intense phytoplankton blooms, shortened by fast nutrient consumption. As SSTs increase, thermal thresholds for phytoplankton growth would be eventually exceeded during bloom

  2. Thermal Thresholds of Phytoplankton Growth in Polar Waters and Their Consequences for a Warming Polar Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Coello-Camba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Polar areas are experiencing the steepest warming rates on Earth, a trend expected to continue in the future. In these habitats, phytoplankton communities constitute the basis of the food web and their thermal tolerance may dictate how warming affects these delicate environments. Here, we compiled available data on thermal responses of phytoplankton growth in polar waters. We assembled 53 growth-vs.-temperature curves (25 from the Arctic, 28 from the Southern oceans, indicating the limited information available for these ecosystems. Half of the data from Arctic phytoplankton came from natural communities where low ambient concentrations could limit growth rates. Phytoplankton from polar waters grew faster under small temperature increases until reaching an optimum (TOPT, and slowed when temperatures increased beyond this value. This left-skewed curves were characterized by higher activation energies (Ea for phytoplankton growth above than below the TOPT. Combining these thermal responses we obtained a community TOPT of 6.5°C (±0.2 and 5.2°C (±0.1 for Arctic and Southern Ocean phytoplankton communities, respectively. These threshold temperatures were already exceeded at 70°N during the first half of August 2013, evidenced by sea surface temperatures (SSTs, satellite data, http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov. We forecasted SSTs for the end of the twenty-first century by assuming an overall 3°C increase, equivalent to a low emission scenario. Our forecasts show that SSTs at 70°N are expected to exceed TOPT during summer by 2100, and during the first half of August at 75°N. While recent Arctic spring temperatures average 0.5°C and −0.7°C at 70°N and 75°N, respectively, they could increase to 2.8°C at 70°N and 2.2°C at 75°N as we approach 2100. Such temperature increases could lead to intense phytoplankton blooms, shortened by fast nutrient consumption. As SSTs increase, thermal thresholds for phytoplankton growth would be eventually exceeded

  3. Thermal Thresholds of Phytoplankton Growth in Polar Waters and Their Consequences for a Warming Polar Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Coello-Camba, Alexandra; Agusti, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Polar areas are experiencing the steepest warming rates on Earth, a trend expected to continue in the future. In these habitats, phytoplankton communities constitute the basis of the food web and their thermal tolerance may dictate how warming affects these delicate environments. Here, we compiled available data on thermal responses of phytoplankton growth in polar waters. We assembled 53 growth-vs.-temperature curves (25 from the Arctic, 28 from the Southern oceans), indicating the limited information available for these ecosystems. Half of the data from Arctic phytoplankton came from natural communities where low ambient concentrations could limit growth rates. Phytoplankton from polar waters grew faster under small temperature increases until reaching an optimum (TOPT), and slowed when temperatures increased beyond this value. This left-skewed curves were characterized by higher activation energies (Ea) for phytoplankton growth above than below the TOPT. Combining these thermal responses we obtained a community TOPT of 6.5°C (±0.2) and 5.2°C (±0.1) for Arctic and Southern Ocean phytoplankton communities, respectively. These threshold temperatures were already exceeded at 70°N during the first half of August 2013, evidenced by sea surface temperatures (SSTs, satellite data, http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov). We forecasted SSTs for the end of the twenty-first century by assuming an overall 3°C increase, equivalent to a low emission scenario. Our forecasts show that SSTs at 70°N are expected to exceed TOPT during summer by 2100, and during the first half of August at 75°N. While recent Arctic spring temperatures average 0.5°C and −0.7°C at 70°N and 75°N, respectively, they could increase to 2.8°C at 70°N and 2.2°C at 75°N as we approach 2100. Such temperature increases could lead to intense phytoplankton blooms, shortened by fast nutrient consumption. As SSTs increase, thermal thresholds for phytoplankton growth would be eventually exceeded during bloom

  4. Association between the number of fungiform papillae on the tip of the tongue and sensory taste perception in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilani, Hannah; Ahrens, Wohlfgang; Buchecker, Kirsten; Russo, Paola; Hebestreit, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Background : To measure sensory taste perception in children with an accurate and reproducible method is challenging and objective measurement methods are scarce. Objective : Aim was to characterize sensory taste perception, by measuring the number of fungiform papillae (FP) and to investigate whether the number of FP is associated with sensitivity for bitter taste and with taste preferences for sweet, salty, fatty or umami in children between 8 and 11 years of age. Design : Number of FP was measured with a digital camera in 83 children in a German subsample of the IDEFICS study. Among those 56 children performed a taste threshold test for bitter and taste preference tests for sweet, salty, fatty and umami. The association between the number of FP and sensory taste perception was analysed. Results : There is a tendency towards a lower number of FP in children with a higher fat preference (30 vs. 25 papillae, p=0.06). Results show no association between the number of FP and neither the bitter taste thresholds nor taste preferences for sweet, salty and umami. Conclusion : Bitter taste threshold might be independent of the number of FP, while the perception of fat was associated with the number of FP.

  5. Infrared skin damage thresholds from 1319-nm continuous-wave laser exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Vincelette, Rebecca; Noojin, Gary D.; Clark, Clifton D.; Harbert, Corey A.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Shingledecker, Aurora D.; Kumru, Semih S.; Maughan, Justin; Kitzis, Naomi; Buffington, Gavin D.; Stolarski, David J.; Thomas, Robert J.

    2013-12-01

    A series of experiments were conducted in vivo using Yucatan miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) to determine thermal damage thresholds to the skin from 1319-nm continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Experiments employed exposure durations of 0.25, 1.0, 2.5, and 10 s and beam diameters of ˜0.6 and 1 cm. Thermal imagery data provided a time-dependent surface temperature response from the laser. A damage endpoint of fifty percent probability of a minimally visible effect was used to determine threshold for damage at 1 and 24 h postexposure. Predicted thermal response and damage thresholds are compared with a numerical model of optical-thermal interaction. Resultant trends with respect to exposure duration and beam diameter are compared with current standardized exposure limits for laser safety. Mathematical modeling agreed well with experimental data, predicting that though laser safety standards are sufficient for exposures <10 s, they may become less safe for very long exposures.

  6. When past is present: Substitutions of long-term memory for sensory evidence in perceptual judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Judith E.; Hutchinson, J. Benjamin; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    When perception is underdetermined by current sensory inputs, memories for related experiences in the past might fill in missing detail. To evaluate this possibility, we measured the likelihood of relying on long-term memory versus sensory evidence when judging the appearance of an object near the threshold of awareness. Specifically, we associated colors with shapes in long-term memory and then presented the shapes again later in unrelated colors and had observers judge the appearance of the...

  7. The effects of thermal stimulation on clinical and experimental itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruhstorfer, H; Hermanns, M; Latzke, L

    1986-02-01

    In order to substantiate accidental observations on the influence of skin temperature on itch, and to elucidate a possible involvement of thermoreceptors in itch generation, the effects of thermostimulation on clinical and experimental itch were studied. Eighteen patients with atopic dermatitis rated the intensity of spontaneous itch on one of their forearms before, during, and after its immersion in a waterbath of either 10 degrees C or 45 degrees C. In 40 normal subjects itch was elicited by histamine topically applied to a 7 cm2 skin area of the volar forearm. Before and after histamine application thermal thresholds were recorded. Then the skin area was heated or cooled at a rate of 0.5 degrees C/sec and itch intensity was continuously rated. Cooling abolished itch in all patients and in most of the normal subjects. Heating produced less clear effects: in two-thirds of both patients and normal subjects itch disappeared or was reduced whereas in the others itch was aggravated. Usually after the end of thermostimulation the opposite changes in itch intensity occurred. In the normal subjects thermal thresholds were not significantly influenced by histamine. Over a certain temperature range itch and thermal sensations could coexist as separate modalities. The results indicate that changes in skin temperature have a marked influence on itch intensity. Whereas cooling seems to act directly on the sensory receptors mediating itch, warm stimuli could have a central inhibitory effect. A direct role of thermoreceptors in the generation of itch is improbable.

  8. Growth, structural, optical, thermal and laser damage threshold studies of an organic single crystal: 1,3,5 – triphenylbenzene (TPB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, R. Subramaniyan; Babu, G. Anandha; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-01-01

    Good quality single crystals of pure hydrocarbon 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene (TPB) have been successfully grown using toluene as a solvent using controlled slow cooling solution growth technique. TPB crystallizes in orthorhombic structure with the space group Pna2 1 . The structural perfection of the grown crystal has been analysed by high resolution X-ray diffraction measurements. The range and percentage of the optical transmission are ascertained by recording the UV-vis spectrum. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to study its thermal properties. Powder second harmonic generation studies were carried out to explore its NLO properties. Laser damage threshold value has been determined using Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm.

  9. Uncovering sensory axonal dysfunction in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ying Sung

    Full Text Available This study investigated sensory and motor nerve excitability properties to elucidate the development of diabetic neuropathy. A total of 109 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited, and 106 were analyzed. According to neuropathy severity, patients were categorized into G0, G1, and G2+3 groups using the total neuropathy score-reduced (TNSr. Patients in the G0 group were asymptomatic and had a TNSr score of 0. Sensory and motor nerve excitability data from diabetic patients were compared with data from 33 healthy controls. Clinical assessment, nerve conduction studies, and sensory and motor nerve excitability testing data were analyzed to determine axonal dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. In the G0 group, sensory excitability testing revealed increased stimulus for the 50% sensory nerve action potential (P<0.05, shortened strength-duration time constant (P<0.01, increased superexcitability (P<0.01, decreased subexcitability (P<0.05, decreased accommodation to depolarizing current (P<0.01, and a trend of decreased accommodation to hyperpolarizing current in threshold electrotonus. All the changes progressed into G1 (TNSr 1-8 and G2+3 (TNSr 9-24 groups. In contrast, motor excitability only had significantly increased stimulus for the 50% compound motor nerve action potential (P<0.01 in the G0 group. This study revealed that the development of axonal dysfunction in sensory axons occurred prior to and in a different fashion from motor axons. Additionally, sensory nerve excitability tests can detect axonal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. These insights further our understanding of diabetic neuropathy and enable the early detection of sensory axonal abnormalities, which may provide a basis for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches.

  10. Pain Modulation after Oromucosal Cannabinoid Spray (SATIVEX® in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Study with Quantitative Sensory Testing and Laser-Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Turri

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC/cannabidiol (CBD (nabiximols or Sativex® is an oromucosal spray formulation containing THC and CBD at an approximately 1:1 fixed ratio. Its administration for the treatment of pain in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS has been established. MS patients generally complain of different kinds of pain, including spasticity-related and neuropathic pain. In this study, we compared and evaluated pain modulation and thermal/pain threshold of MS patients before and after THC/CBD administration. Methods. 19 MS patients underwent clinical examination, numerical rating scale (NRS, quantitative sensory testing (QST, and laser-evoked potentials (LEPs before and after 1 month of therapy. Psychophysiological and neurophysiological data were compared to sex- and age-matched controls. Results. Patients reported a significant reduction in pain. We found statistically significant differences in LEP parameters between patients and controls but no significant change in LEP measures after THC/CBD therapy. Cold and heat detection thresholds were altered in patients but did not change after THC/CBD therapy. There was a significant increase in cold pain threshold by hand stimulation and a significant reduction in abnormal cold perception thresholds. Conclusions. Our results indicate that Sativex® therapy provides pain relief in MS patients and suggest that it might modulate peripheral cold-sensitive TRP channels.

  11. Pain when walking: individual sensory profiles in the foot soles of torture victims - a controlled study using quantitative sensory testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prip Karen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With quantitative sensory testing (QST we recently found no differences in sensory function of the foot soles between groups of torture victims with or without exposure to falanga (beatings under the feet. Compared to matched controls the torture victims had hyperalgesia to deep mechano-nociceptive stimuli and hypoesthesia to non-noxious cutaneous stimuli. The purpose of the present paper was to extend the group analysis into individual sensory profiles of victims’ feet to explore possible relations between external violence (torture, reported pain, sensory symptoms and QST data to help clarify the underlying mechanisms. Methods We employed interviews and assessments of the pain and sensory symptoms and QST by investigators blinded to whether the patients, 32 male torture victims from the Middle East, had (n=15, or had not (n=17 been exposed to falanga. Pain intensity, area and stimulus dependence were used to characterize the pain. QST included thresholds for touch, cold, warmth, cold-pain, heat-pain, deep pressure pain and wind-up to cutaneous noxious stimuli. An ethnically matched control group was available.The normality criterion, from our control group data, was set as the mean +/− 1.28SD, thus including 80% of all values.QST data were transformed into three categories in relation to our normality range; hypoesthesia, normoesthesia or hyperesthesia/hyperalgesia. Results Most patients, irrespective of having been exposed to falanga or not, reported severe pain when walking. This was often associated with hyperalgesia to deep mechanical pressure. Hypoesthesia to mechanical stimuli co-occurred with numbness, burning and with deep mechanical hyperalgesia more often than not, but otherwise, a hypoesthesia to cutaneous sensory modalities did not co-occur systematically to falanga, pain or sensory symptoms. Conclusion In torture victims, there seem to be overriding mechanisms, manifested by hyperalgesia to pressure pain

  12. Ear surgery techniques results on hearing threshold improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Mokhtarinejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone conduction (BC threshold depression is not always by means of sensory neural hearing loss and sometimes it is an artifact caused by middle ear pathologies and ossicular chain problems. In this research, the influences of ear surgeries on bone conduction were evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial study. The ear surgery performed on 83 patients classified in four categories: Stapedectomy, tympanomastoid surgery and ossicular reconstruction partially or totally; Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (PORP and Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (TORP. Bone conduction thresholds assessed in frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz pre and post the surgery. Results: In stapedectomy group, the average of BC threshold in all frequencies improved approximately 6 dB in frequency of 2000 Hz. In tympanomastoid group, BC threshold in the frequency of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz changed 4 dB (P-value < 0.05. Moreover, In the PORP group, 5 dB enhancement was seen in 1000 and 2000 Hz. In TORP group, the results confirmed that BC threshold improved in all frequencies especially at 4000 Hz about 6.5 dB. Conclusion: In according to results of this study, BC threshold shift was seen after several ear surgeries such as stapedectomy, tympanoplasty, PORP and TORP. The average of BC improvement was approximately 5 dB. It must be considered that BC depression might happen because of ossicular chain problems. Therefore; by resolving middle ear pathologies, the better BC threshold was obtained, the less hearing problems would be faced.

  13. [Relationship between Occlusal Discomfort Syndrome and Occlusal Threshold].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Motohiro; Ono, Yumie; Hayama, Rika; Kataoka, Kanako; Ikuta, Ryuhei; Tamaki, Katsushi

    2016-03-01

    Occlusal dysesthesia has been defined as persistent uncomfortable feelings of intercuspal position continuing for more than 6 months without evidence of physical occlusal discrepancy. The problem often occurs after occlusal intervention by dental care. Although various dental treatments (e. g. occlusal adjustment, orthodontic treatment and prosthetic reconstruction) are attempted to solve occlusal dysesthesia, they rarely reach a satisfactory result, neither for patients nor dentists. In Japan, these symptoms are defined by the term "Occlusal discomfort syndrome" (ODS). The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of ODS with the simple occlusal sensory perceptive and discriminative test. Twenty-one female dental patients with ODS (mean age 55.8 ± 19.2 years) and 21 age- and gender-matched dental patients without ODS (mean age 53.1 ± 16.8 years) participated in the study. Upon grinding occlusal registration foils that were stacked to different thicknesses, participants reported the thicknesses at which they recognized the foils (recognition threshold) and felt discomfort (discomfort threshold). Although there was no significant difference in occlusal recognition thresholds between the two patient groups, the discomfort threshold was significantly smaller in the patients with ODS than in those without ODS. Moreover, the recognition threshold showed an age-dependent increase in patients without ODS, whereas it remained comparable between the younger (patient subgroups with ODS. These results suggest that occlusal discomfort threshold rather than recognition threshold is an issue in ODS. The foil grinding procedure is a simple and useful method to evaluate occlusal perceptive and discriminative abilities in patients with ODS.

  14. Influence and comparison of thermal, ultrasonic and thermo-sonic treatments on microbiological quality and sensory properties of rennet cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Božanić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonication and thermo-sonication belong to alternative, non-thermal food processing methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different ultrasound power inputs (240 W, 320 W, 400 W without and in combination with heat pre-treatment on microbial inactivation and sensory properties of rennet cheese whey in comparison with conventional pasteurization batch processes. Ultrasonication treatments had no impact on reduction of any group of studied microorganisms. Microbial inactivation caused by thermo-sonication treatments with pre-heating to 35 °C or 45 °C increased with nominal power input and/or exposure times and was probably due to the heat improved ultrasonic cavitation. Thermo-sonication treatments at nominal power input (400 W and preheating to 55 °C were the most effective resulting in greater microbial reduction compared to that observed by simulating pasteurization processes, but occurred probably due to developed heat solely. Sensory properties after ultrasonication and thermo-sonication were considerably improved in comparison with that after simulated pasteurization processes. Mouth feel of whey samples was considerably better, there was no occurrence of sediment and colour remained unchanged in almost all samples.

  15. Cranial nerve threshold for thermal injury induced by MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU): preliminary results on an optic nerve model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnof, Sagi; Zibly, Zion; Cohen, Zvi; Shaw, Andrew; Schlaff, Cody; Kassel, Neal F

    2013-04-01

    Future clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) are moving toward the management of different intracranial pathologies. We sought to validate the production, safety, and efficacy of thermal injury to cranial nerves generated by MRgHIFU. In this study, five female domestic pigs underwent a standard bifrontal craniectomy under general anesthesia. Treatment was then given using an MRgHIFU system to induce hyperthermic ablative sonication (6 to 10 s; 50 to 2000 J.) Histological analyses were done to confirm nerve damage; temperature measured on the optic nerve was approximately 53.4°C (range: 39°C to 70°C.) Histology demonstrated a clear definition between a necrotic, transitional zone, and normal tissue. MRgHIFU induces targeted thermal injury to nervous tissue within a specific threshold of 50°C to 60°C with the tissue near the sonication center yielding the greatest effect; adjacent tissue showed minimal changes. Additional studies utilizing this technology are required to further establish accurate threshold parameters for optic nerve thermo-ablation.

  16. Rapid Estimation of Gustatory Sensitivity Thresholds with SIAM and QUEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Höchenberger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive methods provide quick and reliable estimates of sensory sensitivity. Yet, these procedures are typically developed for and applied to the non-chemical senses only, i.e., to vision, audition, and somatosensation. The relatively long inter-stimulus-intervals in gustatory studies, which are required to minimize adaptation and habituation, call for time-efficient threshold estimations. We therefore tested the suitability of two adaptive yes-no methods based on SIAM and QUEST for rapid estimation of taste sensitivity by comparing test-retest reliability for sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride, and quinine hydrochloride thresholds. We show that taste thresholds can be obtained in a time efficient manner with both methods (within only 6.5 min on average using QUEST and ~9.5 min using SIAM. QUEST yielded higher test-retest correlations than SIAM in three of the four tastants. Either method allows for taste threshold estimation with low strain on participants, rendering them particularly advantageous for use in subjects with limited attentional or mnemonic capacities, and for time-constrained applications during cohort studies or in the testing of patients and children.

  17. Sensory function assessment of the human male lower urinary tract using current perception thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüpfer, Stephanie C; Liechti, Martina D; Gregorini, Flavia; De Wachter, Stefan; Kessler, Thomas M; Mehnert, Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of current perception threshold (CPT) measurement for sensory assessment of distinct locations in the male lower urinary tract (LUT). Twelve male subjects (>18 years) without LUT symptoms or medical comorbidities were eligible. CPTs were determined twice (interval: 7-20 days) at the bladder dome, trigone and the proximal, membranous, and distal urethra. Square wave electrical stimulation of 3 Hz/0.2 ms and 0.5 Hz/1 ms was applied using a transurethral 8F catheter placed under fluoroscopic control. Bladder volume was kept constant (60 mL) using a second 10F catheter. Repetitive measurements and reliability were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ANOVA revealed significant main effects for stimulation site (P = 0.008) and type of stimulation (P < 0.001) with lower CPTs for 0.5 Hz/1 ms compared to 3 Hz/0.2 ms. There was no significant effect for visit number (P = 0.061). CPTs were higher for bladder dome than for proximal (0.5 Hz/1 ms: P = 0.022; 3 Hz/0.2 ms: P = 0.022) and distal urethra (0.5 Hz/1 ms: P = 0.026; 3 Hz/0.2 ms: P = 0.030). Reliability of CPT measurements was excellent to good (ICC = 0.67-0.96) except for the bladder dome (5 Hz/1 ms: ICC = 0.45; 3 Hz/0.2 ms: ICC = 0.20) and distal urethra (3 Hz/0.2 ms: ICC = 0.57). CPTs can be reliably detected at different LUT locations. However, alert and compliant subjects are essential. CPTs of LUT may become a complementary assessment method providing information on responsiveness and sensitivity of afferent LUT nerves. This is especially relevant for urethral afferents, which are not covered by standard urodynamic investigations. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:469-473, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sensory processing patterns predict the integration of information held in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Matthew X; Stevenson, Ryan A; Wilson, Kristin E; Ouslis, Natasha E; Barense, Morgan D; Cant, Jonathan S; Ferber, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    Given the limited resources of visual working memory, multiple items may be remembered as an averaged group or ensemble. As a result, local information may be ill-defined, but these ensemble representations provide accurate diagnostics of the natural world by combining gist information with item-level information held in visual working memory. Some neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by sensory processing profiles that predispose individuals to avoid or seek-out sensory stimulation, fundamentally altering their perceptual experience. Here, we report such processing styles will affect the computation of ensemble statistics in the general population. We identified stable adult sensory processing patterns to demonstrate that individuals with low sensory thresholds who show a greater proclivity to engage in active response strategies to prevent sensory overstimulation are less likely to integrate mean size information across a set of similar items and are therefore more likely to be biased away from the mean size representation of an ensemble display. We therefore propose the study of ensemble processing should extend beyond the statistics of the display, and should also consider the statistics of the observer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Mapping Sensory Spots for Moderate Temperatures on the Back of Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Yang; Guixu Chen; Sikai Zhou; Danhong Han; Jingjing Xu; Shengyong Xu

    2017-01-01

    Thermosensation with thermoreceptors plays an important role in maintaining body temperature at an optimal state and avoiding potential damage caused by harmful hot or cold environmental temperatures. In this work, the locations of sensory spots for sensing moderate temperatures of 40–50 °C on the back of the hands of young Chinese people were mapped in a blind-test manner with a thermal probe of 1.0 mm spatial resolution. The number of sensory spots increased along with the testing temperatu...

  20. Repeated noxious stimulation of the skin enhances cutaneous pain perception of migraine patients in-between attacks: clinical evidence for continuous sub-threshold increase in membrane excitability of central trigeminovascular neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Sprecher, Elliot; Granovsky, Yelena; Yarnitsky, David

    2003-08-01

    Recent clinical studies showed that acute migraine attacks are accompanied by increased periorbital and bodily skin sensitivity to touch, heat and cold. Parallel pre-clinical studies showed that the underlying mechanism is sensitization of primary nociceptors and central trigeminovascular neurons. The present study investigates the sensory state of neuronal pathways that mediate skin pain sensation in migraine patients in between attacks. The assessments of sensory perception included (a) mechanical and thermal pain thresholds of the periorbital area, electrical pain threshold of forearm skin, (b) pain scores to phasic supra-threshold stimuli in the same modalities and areas as above, and (c) temporal summation of pain induced by applying noxious tonic heat pain and brief trains of noxious mechanical and electrical pulses to the above skin areas. Thirty-four pain-free migraine patients and 28 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Patients did not differ from controls in their pain thresholds for heat (44+/-2.6 vs. 44.6+/-1.9 degrees C), and electrical (4.8+/-1.6 vs. 4.3+/-1.6 mA) stimulation, and in their pain scores for supra-threshold phasic stimuli for all modalities. They did, however, differ in their pain threshold for mechanical stimulation, just by one von Frey filament (P=0.01) and in their pain scores of the temporal summation tests. Increased summation of pain was found in migraineurs for repeated mechanical stimuli (delta visual analog scale (VAS) +2.32+/-0.73 in patients vs. +0.16+/-0.83 in controls, P=0.05) and repeated electrical stimuli (delta VAS +3.83+/-1.91 vs -3.79+/-2.31, P=0.01). Increased summation corresponded with more severe clinical parameters of migraine and tended to depend on interval since last migraine attack. The absence of clinically or overt laboratory expressed allodynia suggests that pain pathways are not sensitized in the pain-free migraine patients. Nevertheless, the increased temporal summation, and the slight

  1. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Collective motion in animal groups from a neurobiological perspective: the adaptive benefits of dynamic sensory loads and selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, B H; Anderson, J J; Goodwin, R A

    2009-12-21

    We explore mechanisms associated with collective animal motion by drawing on the neurobiological bases of sensory information processing and decision-making. The model uses simplified retinal processes to translate neighbor movement patterns into information through spatial signal integration and threshold responses. The structure provides a mechanism by which individuals can vary their sets of influential neighbors, a measure of an individual's sensory load. Sensory loads are correlated with group order and density, and we discuss their adaptive values in an ecological context. The model also provides a mechanism by which group members can identify, and rapidly respond to, novel visual stimuli.

  3. Auditory brainstem response latency in forward masking, a marker of sensory deficits in listeners with normal hearing thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehraei, Golbarg; Paredes Gallardo, Andreu; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2017-01-01

    In rodent models, acoustic exposure too modest to elevate hearing thresholds can nonetheless cause auditory nerve fiber deafferentation, interfering with the coding of supra-threshold sound. Low-spontaneous rate nerve fibers, important for encoding acoustic information at supra-threshold levels...... and in noise, are more susceptible to degeneration than high-spontaneous rate fibers. The change in auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave-V latency with noise level has been shown to be associated with auditory nerve deafferentation. Here, we measured ABR in a forward masking paradigm and evaluated wave......-V latency changes with increasing masker-to-probe intervals. In the same listeners, behavioral forward masking detection thresholds were measured. We hypothesized that 1) auditory nerve fiber deafferentation increases forward masking thresholds and increases wave-V latency and 2) a preferential loss of low...

  4. Sensory evaluation of heating and air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evin, F.; Siekierski, E. [Electricite de France, Research and Development Division, Les Renardieres, Moret Sur Loing (France)

    2002-07-01

    Existing standards and models, such as ISO 7730 or the work of Fanger [Thermal Comfort], are not sufficient to characterise the satisfaction and pleasantness of end-users provided by heating or air conditioning systems. For this reason Electricite de France (EDF) has initiated a project with the aim of using sensory evaluation techniques in the design of HVAC systems. Sensory evaluation has been used for more than 30 years in the food industry, and now involves the cosmetics, the phone and the automotive industries. It is based on a dual evaluation: sensation measurements carried out by a small panel of trained expert assessors; preference studies performed by a large panel of representative consumers. A correlation between the data of both studies is then used to explain the preferences in terms of sensations (preference mapping). The first experiments performed in 1999 and 2000 have provided lists of descriptors of thermal sensation and acoustic sensation associated with heating and air conditioning appliances. They show that it is possible to define discriminative descriptors, to train a panel and to reliably quantify these descriptors. It is then possible to draw the sensory profiles of different heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The future experimental laboratory that EDF has decided to build is also presented, where the trained panels and end-users will evaluate the sensations and the preferences of real systems in eight 'realistic environmental chambers' designed, furnished and decorated like offices and flats. (author)

  5. Mapping Sensory Spots for Moderate Temperatures on the Back of Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Chen, Guixu; Zhou, Sikai; Han, Danhong; Xu, Jingjing; Xu, Shengyong

    2017-12-04

    Thermosensation with thermoreceptors plays an important role in maintaining body temperature at an optimal state and avoiding potential damage caused by harmful hot or cold environmental temperatures. In this work, the locations of sensory spots for sensing moderate temperatures of 40-50 °C on the back of the hands of young Chinese people were mapped in a blind-test manner with a thermal probe of 1.0 mm spatial resolution. The number of sensory spots increased along with the testing temperature; however, the surface density of sensory spots was remarkably lower than those reported previously. The locations of the spots were irregularly distributed and subject-dependent. Even for the same subject, the number and location of sensory spots were unbalanced and asymmetric between the left and right hands. The results may offer valuable information for designing artificial electronic skin and wearable devices, as well as for clinical applications.

  6. SLOWLY ADAPTING SENSORY UNITS HAVE MORE RECEPTORS IN LARGE AIRWAYS THAN IN SMALL AIRWAYS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory units of pulmonary slowly adapting receptors (SARs are more active in large airways than in small airways. However, there is no explanation for this phenomenon. Although sensory structures in large airways resemble those in small airways, they are bigger and more complex. Possibly, a larger receptor provides greater surface area for depolarization, and thus has a lower activating threshold and/or a higher sensitivity to stretch, leading to more nerve electrical activities. Recently, a single sensory unit has been reported to contain multiple receptors. Therefore, sensory units in large airways may contain more SARs, which may contribute to high activities. To test this hypothesis, we used a double staining technique to identify sensory receptor sizes. We labeled the sensory structure with Na+/K+-ATPase antibodies and the myelin sheath with myelin basic protein (MBP antibodies. A SAR can be defined as the end formation beyond MBP labeling. Thus, we are able to compare sizes of sensory structures and SARs in large (trachea and bronchi vs small (bronchioles 0.05. However, the sensory structure contains more SARs in large airways than in small airways (9.6±0.6 vs 3.6±0.3; P<0.0001. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that greater numbers of SARs in sensory units of large airways may contribute to higher activities.

  7. Sensory and Physical Effects of Sugar Reduction in a Caramel Coating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Emily J; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2017-08-01

    Sugar reduction in processed foods is a pressing and complex problem, as sugars contribute important sensory and physical properties to foods. Composed of sugars and lipids, caramel coating systems, like the coating in caramel popcorns, exemplify this challenge. In order to probe the feasibility and consequences of sugar reduction, both sensory and physical properties were measured for 3 types of caramel coating systems. Four commonly used sugar alcohols, isomalt, maltitol, mannitol, and sorbitol, with different thermal properties and relative sweetness values were chosen to replace sugar in the caramel coating systems at 25% and 50% sugar reduction levels. Full sugar (control) and reduced sugar caramel coating samples were prepared in duplicate. Ten trained panelists participated in a 6-wk descriptive analysis panel to define and quantify the intensity of important sensory characteristics. All 24 sensory terms generated by the panel differed significantly across caramel type and sugar replacer. Thermal properties were measured through differential scanning calorimetry, and textural properties were measured through texture profile analysis. Replacement of sugar with sugar alcohols was found to decrease the glass transition temperature and systematically alter the hardness and resilience of caramel samples. Principal component analysis of sensory and physical data revealed that caramel coating type dictates caramel aroma, aroma by mouth, taste, and aftertaste, while sugar replacer and replacement level dictate texture. This research represents the first comprehensive study of the effects of sugar reduction in a caramel coating system and suggests successful strategies for sugar reduction and key parameters to control in reduced sugar systems. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. The Association of Sensory Responsiveness with Somatic Symptoms and Illness Anxiety.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodic Donja; Meyer Andrea Hans; Lieb Roselind; Meinlschmidt Gunther

    2015-01-01

    Somatoform Disorders or Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders are a major public health problem.The pathophysiology underlying these disorders is not yet understood. The aim of this study was to explore if sensory responsiveness could contribute to a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying two key symptoms of Somatoform Disorders namely somatic symptoms and illness anxiety. We measured vibrotactile perception thresholds with the HVLab Perception Meter and examined the...

  9. Age-Related Declines in Early Sensory Memory: Identification of Rapid Auditory and Visual Stimulus Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E; Busey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Age-related temporal-processing declines of rapidly presented sequences may involve contributions of sensory memory. This study investigated recall for rapidly presented auditory (vowel) and visual (letter) sequences presented at six different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) that spanned threshold SOAs for sequence identification. Younger, middle-aged, and older adults participated in all tasks. Results were investigated at both equivalent performance levels (i.e., SOA threshold) and at identical physical stimulus values (i.e., SOAs). For four-item sequences, results demonstrated best performance for the first and last items in the auditory sequences, but only the first item for visual sequences. For two-item sequences, adults identified the second vowel or letter significantly better than the first. Overall, when temporal-order performance was equated for each individual by testing at SOA thresholds, recall accuracy for each position across the age groups was highly similar. These results suggest that modality-specific processing declines of older adults primarily determine temporal-order performance for rapid sequences. However, there is some evidence for a second amodal processing decline in older adults related to early sensory memory for final items in a sequence. This selective deficit was observed particularly for longer sequence lengths and was not accounted for by temporal masking.

  10. Age-Related Sensory Impairments and Risk of Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Schubert, Carla R; Pinto, Alex A; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Tweed, Ted S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives To evaluate the associations of sensory impairments with the 10-year risk of cognitive impairment. Previous work has primarily focused on the relationship between a single sensory system and cognition. Design The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is a longitudinal, population-based study of aging in the Beaver Dam, WI community. Baseline examinations were conducted in 1993 and follow-up exams have been conducted every 5 years. Setting General community Participants EHLS members without cognitive impairment at EHLS-2 (1998–2000). There were 1,884 participants (mean age = 66.7 years) with complete EHLS-2 sensory data and follow-up information. Measurements Cognitive impairment was a Mini-Mental State Examination score of impairment was a pure-tone average of hearing thresholds (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) of > 25 decibel Hearing Level in either ear. Visual impairment was Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity of impairment was a San Diego Odor Identification Test score of impairment were independently associated with cognitive impairment risk [Hearing: Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) = 1.11, 3.26; Vision: HR = 2.05, 95% C.I. = 1.24, 3.38; Olfaction: HR = 3.92, 95% C.I. = 2.45, 6.26]. However, 85% with hearing impairment, 81% with visual impairment, and 76% with olfactory impairment did not develop cognitive impairment during follow-up. Conclusion The relationship between sensory impairment and cognitive impairment was not unique to one sensory system suggesting sensorineural health may be a marker of brain aging. The development of a combined sensorineurocognitive measure may be useful in uncovering mechanisms of healthy brain aging. PMID:27611845

  11. Air and Bone Conduction Thresholds of Deaf and Normal Hearing Subjects before and during the Elimination of Cutaneous-Tactile Interference with Anesthesia. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nober, E. Harris

    The study investigated whether low frequency air and bone thresholds elicited at high intensity levels from deaf children with a sensory-neural diagnosis reflect valid auditory sensitivity or are mediated through cutaneous-tactile receptors. Subjects were five totally deaf (mean age 17.0) yielding vibrotactile thresholds but with no air and bone…

  12. Sub-threshold cross-modal sensory interaction in the thalamus: lemniscal auditory response in the medial geniculate nucleus is modulated by somatosensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donishi, T; Kimura, A; Imbe, H; Yokoi, I; Kaneoke, Y

    2011-02-03

    Recent studies have highlighted cross-modal sensory modulations in the primary sensory areas in the cortex, suggesting that cross-modal sensory interactions occur at early stages in the hierarchy of sensory processing. Multi-modal sensory inputs from non-lemniscal thalamic nuclei and cortical inputs from the secondary sensory and association areas are considered responsible for the modulations. On the other hand, there is little evidence of cross-sensory modal sensitivities in lemniscal thalamic nuclei. In the present study, we were interested in a possibility that somatosensory stimulation may affect auditory response in the ventral division (MGV) of the medial geniculate nucleus (MG), a lemniscal thalamic nucleus that is considered to be dedicated to auditory uni-modal processing. Experiments were performed on anesthetized rats. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the hindpaw, which is thought to evoke nociception and seems unrelated to auditory processing, modulated unit discharges in response to auditory stimulation (noise bursts). The modulation was observed in the MGV and non-lemniscal auditory thalamic nuclei such as the dorsal and medial divisions of the MG. The major effect of somatosensory stimulation was suppression. The most robust suppression was induced by electrical stimuli given simultaneously with noise bursts or preceding noise bursts by 10 to 20 ms. The results indicate that the lemniscal (MGV) and non-lemniscal auditory nuclei are subject to somatosensory influence. In everyday experience intense somatosensory stimuli such as pain interrupt our ongoing hearing or interfere with clear recognition of sound. The modulation of lemniscal auditory response by somatosensory stimulation may underlie such cross-modal disturbance of auditory perception as a form of cross-modal switching of attention. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanosecond laser pulses for mimicking thermal effects on nanostructured tungsten-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besozzi, E.; Maffini, A.; Dellasega, D.; Russo, V.; Facibeni, A.; Pazzaglia, A.; Beghi, M. G.; Passoni, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we exploit nanosecond laser irradiation as a compact solution for investigating the thermomechanical behavior of tungsten materials under extreme thermal loads at the laboratory scale. Heat flux factor thresholds for various thermal effects, such as melting, cracking and recrystallization, are determined under both single and multishot experiments. The use of nanosecond lasers for mimicking thermal effects induced on W by fusion-relevant thermal loads is thus validated by direct comparison of the thresholds obtained in this work and the ones reported in the literature for electron beams and millisecond laser irradiation. Numerical simulations of temperature and thermal stress performed on a 2D thermomechanical code are used to predict the heat flux factor thresholds of the different thermal effects. We also investigate the thermal effect thresholds of various nanostructured W coatings. These coatings are produced by pulsed laser deposition, mimicking W coatings in tokamaks and W redeposited layers. All the coatings show lower damage thresholds with respect to bulk W. In general, thresholds decrease as the porosity degree of the materials increases. We thus propose a model to predict these thresholds for coatings with various morphologies, simply based on their porosity degree, which can be directly estimated by measuring the variation of the coating mass density with respect to that of the bulk.

  14. A new temperature threshold detector - Application to missile monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coston, C. J.; Higgins, E. V.

    Comprehensive thermal surveys within the case of solid propellant ballistic missile flight motors are highly desirable. For example, a problem involving motor failures due to insulator cracking at motor ignition, which took several years to solve, could have been identified immediately on the basis of a suitable thermal survey. Using conventional point measurements, such as those utilizing typical thermocouples, for such a survey on a full scale motor is not feasible because of the great number of sensors and measurements required. An alternate approach recognizes that temperatures below a threshold (which depends on the material being monitored) are acceptable, but higher temperatures exceed design margins. In this case hot spots can be located by a grid of wire-like sensors which are sensitive to temperature above the threshold anywhere along the sensor. A new type of temperature threshold detector is being developed for flight missile use. The considered device consists of KNO3 separating copper and Constantan metals. Above the KNO3 MP, galvanic action provides a voltage output of a few tenths of a volt.

  15. Thoracic spinal cord and cervical vagosympathetic neuromodulation obtund nodose sensory transduction of myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavatian, Siamak; Beaumont, Eric; Gibbons, David; Hammer, Matthew; Hoover, Donald B; Armour, J Andrew; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2017-12-01

    Autonomic regulation therapy involving either vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) or spinal cord stimulation (SCS) represents emerging bioelectronic therapies for heart disease. The objective of this study was to determine if VNS and/or SCS modulate primary cardiac afferent sensory transduction of the ischemic myocardium. Using extracellular recordings in 19 anesthetized canines, of 88 neurons evaluated, 36 ventricular-related nodose ganglia sensory neurons were identified by their functional activity responses to epicardial touch, chemical activation of their sensory neurites (epicardial veratridine) and great vessel (descending aorta or inferior vena cava) occlusion. Neural responses to 1min left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion (CAO) were then evaluated. These interventions were then studied following either: i) SCS [T1-T3 spinal level; 50Hz, 90% motor threshold] or ii) cervical VNS [15-20Hz; 1.2× threshold]. LAD occlusion activated 66% of identified nodose ventricular sensory neurons (0.33±0.08-0.79±0.20Hz; baseline to CAO; p<0.002). Basal activity of cardiac-related nodose neurons was differentially reduced by VNS (0.31±0.11 to 0.05±0.02Hz; p<0.05) as compared to SCS (0.36±0.12 to 0.28±0.14, p=0.59), with their activity response to transient LAD CAO being suppressed by either SCS (0.85±0.39-0.11±0.04Hz; p<0.03) or VNS (0.75±0.27-0.12±0.05Hz; p<0.04). VNS did not alter evoked neural responses of cardiac-related nodose neurons to great vessel occlusion. Both VNS and SCS obtund ventricular ischemia induced enhancement of nodose afferent neuronal inputs to the medulla. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal carrying capacity for a thermally-sensitive species at the warmest edge of its range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ayllón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic environmental change is causing unprecedented rates of population extirpation and altering the setting of range limits for many species. Significant population declines may occur however before any reduction in range is observed. Determining and modelling the factors driving population size and trends is consequently critical to predict trajectories of change and future extinction risk. We tracked during 12 years 51 populations of a cold-water fish species (brown trout Salmo trutta living along a temperature gradient at the warmest thermal edge of its range. We developed a carrying capacity model in which maximum population size is limited by physical habitat conditions and regulated through territoriality. We first tested whether population numbers were driven by carrying capacity dynamics and then targeted on establishing (1 the temperature thresholds beyond which population numbers switch from being physical habitat- to temperature-limited; and (2 the rate at which carrying capacity declines with temperature within limiting thermal ranges. Carrying capacity along with emergent density-dependent responses explained up to 76% of spatio-temporal density variability of juveniles and adults but only 50% of young-of-the-year's. By contrast, young-of-the-year trout were highly sensitive to thermal conditions, their performance declining with temperature at a higher rate than older life stages, and disruptions being triggered at lower temperature thresholds. Results suggest that limiting temperature effects were progressively stronger with increasing anthropogenic disturbance. There was however a critical threshold, matching the incipient thermal limit for survival, beyond which realized density was always below potential numbers irrespective of disturbance intensity. We additionally found a lower threshold, matching the thermal limit for feeding, beyond which even unaltered populations declined. We predict that most of our study

  17. When past is present: Substitutions of long-term memory for sensory evidence in perceptual judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E; Hutchinson, J Benjamin; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2016-06-01

    When perception is underdetermined by current sensory inputs, memories for related experiences in the past might fill in missing detail. To evaluate this possibility, we measured the likelihood of relying on long-term memory versus sensory evidence when judging the appearance of an object near the threshold of awareness. Specifically, we associated colors with shapes in long-term memory and then presented the shapes again later in unrelated colors and had observers judge the appearance of the new colors. We found that responses were well characterized as a bimodal mixture of original and current-color representations (vs. an integrated unimodal representation). That is, although irrelevant to judgments of the current color, observers occasionally anchored their responses on the original colors in memory. Moreover, the likelihood of such memory substitutions increased when sensory input was degraded. In fact, they occurred even in the absence of sensory input when observers falsely reported having seen something. Thus, although perceptual judgments intuitively seem to reflect the current state of the environment, they can also unknowingly be dictated by past experiences.

  18. Psychophysical Evaluation of Subdermal Electrical Stimulation in Relation to Prosthesis Sensory Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Dong, Jian; Jensen, Winnie; Dosen, Strahinja; Farina, Dario; Kamavuako, Ernest Nlandu

    2018-03-01

    This paper evaluated the psychophysical properties of subdermal electrical stimulation to investigate its feasibility in providing sensory feedback for limb prostheses. The detection threshold (DT), pain threshold (PT), just noticeable difference (JND), as well as the elicited sensation quality, comfort, intensity, and location were assessed in 16 healthy volunteers during stimulation of the ventral and dorsal forearm with subdermal electrodes. Moreover, the results were compared with those obtained from transcutaneous electrical stimulation. Despite a lower DT and PT, subdermal stimulation attained a greater relative dynamic range (i.e., PT/DT) and significantly smaller JNDs for stimulation amplitude. Muscle twitches and movements were more commonly elicited by surface stimulation, especially at the higher stimulation frequencies, whereas the pinprick sensation was more often reported with subdermal stimulation. Less comfort was perceived in subdermal stimulation of the ventral forearm at the highest tested stimulation frequency of 100 Hz. In summary, subdermal electrical stimulation was demonstrated to be able to produce similar sensation quality as transcutaneous stimulation and outperformed the latter in terms of energy efficiency and sensitivity. These results suggest that stimulation through implantable subdermal electrodes may lead to an efficient and compact sensory feedback system for substituting the lost sense in amputees.

  19. Talent in autism: hyper-systemizing, hyper-attention to detail and sensory hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Ashwin, Emma; Ashwin, Chris; Tavassoli, Teresa; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev

    2009-05-27

    We argue that hyper-systemizing predisposes individuals to show talent, and review evidence that hyper-systemizing is part of the cognitive style of people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). We then clarify the hyper-systemizing theory, contrasting it to the weak central coherence (WCC) and executive dysfunction (ED) theories. The ED theory has difficulty explaining the existence of talent in ASC. While both hyper-systemizing and WCC theories postulate excellent attention to detail, by itself excellent attention to detail will not produce talent. By contrast, the hyper-systemizing theory argues that the excellent attention to detail is directed towards detecting 'if p, then q' rules (or [input-operation-output] reasoning). Such law-based pattern recognition systems can produce talent in systemizable domains. Finally, we argue that the excellent attention to detail in ASC is itself a consequence of sensory hypersensitivity. We review an experiment from our laboratory demonstrating sensory hypersensitivity detection thresholds in vision. We conclude that the origins of the association between autism and talent begin at the sensory level, include excellent attention to detail and end with hyper-systemizing.

  20. Cool, warm, and heat-pain detection thresholds: testing methods and inferences about anatomic distribution of receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, P J; Zimmerman, I; Gillen, D A; Johnson, D; Karnes, J L; O'Brien, P C

    1993-08-01

    We recently found that vibratory detection threshold is greatly influenced by the algorithm of testing. Here, we study the influence of stimulus characteristics and algorithm of testing and estimating threshold on cool (CDT), warm (WDT), and heat-pain (HPDT) detection thresholds. We show that continuously decreasing (for CDT) or increasing (for WDT) thermode temperature to the point at which cooling or warming is perceived and signaled by depressing a response key ("appearance" threshold) overestimates threshold with rapid rates of thermal change. The mean of the appearance and disappearance thresholds also does not perform well for insensitive sites and patients. Pyramidal (or flat-topped pyramidal) stimuli ranging in magnitude, in 25 steps, from near skin temperature to 9 degrees C for 10 seconds (for CDT), from near skin temperature to 45 degrees C for 10 seconds (for WDT), and from near skin temperature to 49 degrees C for 10 seconds (for HPDT) provide ideal stimuli for use in several algorithms of testing and estimating threshold. Near threshold, only the initial direction of thermal change from skin temperature is perceived, and not its return to baseline. Use of steps of stimulus intensity allows the subject or patient to take the needed time to decide whether the stimulus was felt or not (in 4, 2, and 1 stepping algorithms), or whether it occurred in stimulus interval 1 or 2 (in two-alternative forced-choice testing). Thermal thresholds were generally significantly lower with a large (10 cm2) than with a small (2.7 cm2) thermode.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Stress lowers the detection threshold for foul-smelling 2-mercaptoethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacharra, Marlene; Schäper, Michael; Kleinbeck, Stefan; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Wolf, Oliver T; van Thriel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported enhanced vigilance for threat-related information in response to acute stress. While it is known that acute stress modulates sensory systems in humans, its impact on olfaction and the olfactory detection of potential threats is less clear. Two psychophysical experiments examined, if acute stress lowers the detection threshold for foul-smelling 2-mercaptoethanol. Participants in Experiment 1 (N = 30) and Experiment 2 (N = 32) were randomly allocated to a control group or a stress group. Participants in the stress group underwent a purely psychosocial stressor (public mental arithmetic) in Experiment 1 and a stressor that combined a physically demanding task with social-evaluative threat in Experiment 2 (socially evaluated cold-pressor test). In both experiments, olfactory detection thresholds were repeatedly assessed by means of dynamic dilution olfactometry. Each threshold measurement consisted of three trials conducted using an ascending method of limits. Participants in the stress groups showed the expected changes in heart rate, salivary cortisol, and mood measures in response to stress. About 20 min after the stressor, participants in the stress groups could detect 2-mercaptoethanol at a lower concentration than participants in the corresponding control groups. Our results show that acute stress lowers the detection threshold for a malodor.

  2. The neuroecology of cartilaginous fishes: sensory strategies for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Shaun P

    2012-01-01

    As apex predators, chondrichthyans, or cartilaginous fishes, hold an important position within a range of aquatic ecosystems and influence the balance between species' abundance and biodiversity. Having been in existence for over 400 million years and representing the earliest stages of the evolution of jawed vertebrates, this group also covers a diverse range of eco-morphotypes, occupying both marine and freshwater habitats. The class Chondrichthyes is divided into two subclasses: the Elasmobranchii (sharks, skates, and rays) and the Holocephali (elephant sharks and chimaeras). However, many of their life history traits, such as low fecundity, the production of small numbers of highly precocious young, slow growth rates, and late maturity, make them highly susceptible to human exploitation. To mitigate the negative effects of human impacts, it is important that we understand the sensory strategies that elasmobranchs use for navigating within their environment, forming reproductive aggregations, feeding, and even communicating. One approach to investigate the sensory bases of their behavior is to examine the peripheral sense organs mediating vision, olfaction, gustation, lateral line, electroreception, and audition in a large range of species in order to identify specific adaptations, the range of sensitivity thresholds, and the compromise between sensory spatial resolution and sensitivity. In addition, we can quantitatively assess the convergence of sensory input to the central nervous system and the relative importance of different sensory modalities. Using a comparative approach and often a combination of anatomical, electrophysiological, and molecular techniques, significant variation has been identified in the spatial and chromatic sampling of the photoreceptors in the eye, the surface area and the number of olfactory lamellae within the nasal cavity, the level of gustatory sampling within the oral cavity, the type and innervation of neuromasts of the lateral

  3. Validation of a thermal threshold nociceptive model in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Émilie L; Monteiro, Beatriz P; Aymen, Jessica; Troncy, Eric; Steagall, Paulo V

    2017-05-01

    To validate a thermal threshold (TT) nociceptive model in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) and to document TT changes after administration of morphine. A two-part randomized, blinded, controlled, experimental study. Five adult bearded dragons (242-396 g). A TT device delivered a ramped nociceptive stimulus (0.6 °C second -1 ) to the medial thigh until a response (leg kick/escape behavior) was observed or maximum (cut-off) temperature of 62 °C was reached. In phase I, period 1, six TT readings were determined at 20 minute intervals for evaluation of repeatability. Two of these readings were randomly assigned to be sham to assess specificity of the behavioral response. The same experiment was repeated 2 weeks later (period 2) to test reproducibility. In phase II, animals were administered either intramuscular morphine (10 mg kg -1 ) or saline 0.9%. TTs (maximum 68 °C) were determined before and 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after treatment administration. Data were analyzed using one-way anova (temporal changes and repeatability) and paired t tests (reproducibility and treatment comparisons) using Bonferroni correction (p dragons. TT nociceptive testing detected morphine administration and may be suitable for studying opioid regimens in bearded dragons. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of channel width-dependent threshold voltage variation in a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kuan-Hsien; Chou, Wu-Ching [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Siou; Hung, Yi-Syuan; Sze, Simon M. [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hung, Pei-Hua; Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tien-Yu [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Bo-Liang [Advanced Display Technology Research Center, AU Optronics, No. 1, Li-Hsin Rd. 2, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-31

    This Letter investigates abnormal channel width-dependent threshold voltage variation in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. Unlike drain-induced source barrier lowering effect, threshold voltage increases with increasing drain voltage. Furthermore, the wider the channel, the larger the threshold voltage observed. Because of the surrounding oxide and other thermal insulating material and the low thermal conductivity of the IGZO layer, the self-heating effect will be pronounced in wider channel devices and those with a larger operating drain bias. To further clarify the physical mechanism, fast IV measurement is utilized to demonstrate the self-heating induced anomalous channel width-dependent threshold voltage variation.

  5. A thermalization energy analysis of the threshold voltage shift in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors under positive gate bias stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niang, K. M.; Flewitt, A. J., E-mail: ajf@eng.cam.ac.uk [Electrical Engineering Division, Cambridge University, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Barquinha, P. M. C.; Martins, R. F. P. [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Cobb, B. [Holst Centre/TNO, High Tech Campus 31, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Powell, M. J. [252, Valley Drive, Kendal LA9 7SL (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-29

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) employing an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) channel layer exhibit a positive shift in the threshold voltage under the application of positive gate bias stress (PBS). The time and temperature dependence of the threshold voltage shift was measured and analysed using the thermalization energy concept. The peak energy barrier to defect conversion is extracted to be 0.75 eV and the attempt-to-escape frequency is extracted to be 10{sup 7} s{sup −1}. These values are in remarkable agreement with measurements in a-IGZO TFTs under negative gate bias illumination stress (NBIS) reported recently (Flewitt and Powell, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 134501 (2014)). This suggests that the same physical process is responsible for both PBS and NBIS, and supports the oxygen vacancy defect migration model that the authors have previously proposed.

  6. The effect of age and gender on pressure pain thresholds and suprathreshold stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrini, Laura; Tomczak Matthiesen, Susan; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the impact of age and gender on (1) experimental pressure pain detection thresholds (PPDT) and pressure pain tolerance thresholds (PPTolT) and (2) participants’self-reports of pain intensity and unpleasantness at suprathreshold and subthreshold levels. Methods: twenty young...... (20–34, mean age = 24.6 ± 3.5 years, ten female) and twenty elderly (65–88, mean age = 73.7 ± 6.6 years, ten female) healthy volunteers were compared. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE 28–30) assessed intact cognitive functioning. Pain thresholds were assessed together with the sensory intensity...... ratings to 1.3 × PPDT (pain) and 0.2 × PPDT (no pain). Results: PPDT and PPTolT significantly decreased with age and were lower in young females as compared with young males. No gender differences were observed in the elderly group. PPDT decreased significantly with age in males but not in females...

  7. Quantitative sensory testing of temperature, pain, and touch in adults with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Knegt, Nanda; Defrin, Ruth; Schuengel, Carlo; Lobbezoo, Frank; Evenhuis, Heleen; Scherder, Erik

    2015-12-01

    The spinothalamic pathway mediates sensations of temperature, pain, and touch. These functions seem impaired in children with Down syndrome (DS), but have not been extensively examined in adults. The objective of the present study was to compare the spinothalamic-mediated sensory functions between adults with DS and adults from the general population and to examine in the DS group the relationship between the sensory functions and level of intellectual functioning. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed in 188 adults with DS (mean age 37.5 years) and 142 age-matched control participants (median age 40.5 years). Temperature, pain, and touch were evaluated with tests for cold-warm discrimination, sharp-dull discrimination (pinprick), and tactile threshold, respectively. Level of intellectual functioning was estimated with the Social Functioning Scale for Intellectual Disability (intellectual disability level) and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Revised (intelligence level). Overall, the difference in spinothalamic-mediated sensory functions between the DS and control groups was not statistically significant. However, DS participants with a lower intelligence level had a statistically significant lower performance on the sharp-dull discrimination test than DS participants with higher intelligence level (adjusted p=.006) and control participants (adjusted p=.017). It was concluded that intellectual functioning level is an important factor to take into account for the assessment of spinothalamic-mediated sensory functioning in adults with DS: a lower level could coincide with impaired sensory functioning, but could also hamper QST assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Excitability of Aβ sensory neurons is altered in an animal model of peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Causes of neuropathic pain following nerve injury remain unclear, limiting the development of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Animal models have provided some directions, but little is known about the specific sensory neurons that undergo changes in such a way as to induce and maintain activation of sensory pain pathways. Our previous studies implicated changes in the Aβ, normally non-nociceptive neurons in activating spinal nociceptive neurons in a cuff-induced animal model of neuropathic pain and the present study was directed specifically at determining any change in excitability of these neurons. Thus, the present study aimed at recording intracellularly from Aβ-fiber dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and determining excitability of the peripheral receptive field, of the cell body and of the dorsal roots. Methods A peripheral neuropathy was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by inserting two thin polyethylene cuffs around the right sciatic nerve. All animals were confirmed to exhibit tactile hypersensitivity to von Frey filaments three weeks later, before the acute electrophysiological experiments. Under stable intracellular recording conditions neurons were classified functionally on the basis of their response to natural activation of their peripheral receptive field. In addition, conduction velocity of the dorsal roots, configuration of the action potential and rate of adaptation to stimulation were also criteria for classification. Excitability was measured as the threshold to activation of the peripheral receptive field, the response to intracellular injection of depolarizing current into the soma and the response to electrical stimulation of the dorsal roots. Results In control animals mechanical thresholds of all neurons were within normal ranges. Aβ DRG neurons in neuropathic rats demonstrated a mean mechanical threshold to receptive field stimulation that were significantly lower than in control rats, a

  9. Research of the mode instability threshold in high power double cladding Yb-doped fiber amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanshan; Ma, Yi; Sun, Yinhong; Peng, Wanjing; Tang, Chun [Institute of Applied Electronics, CAEP, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); The Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on High Energy Laser, CAEP, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Liu, Qinyong; Ke, Weiwei [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, CAEP, Beijing (China); Wang, Xiaojun [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, CAEP, Beijing (China); Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing (China)

    2017-08-15

    We experimentally investigate the behavior of the mode instability (MI) threshold in the double cladding Yb-doped fiber amplifier when the amplifier is pumped by broad linewidth laser diodes and narrow linewidth laser diodes respectively. It is found that the MI threshold increases by 26% when the amplifier is pumped by the broad linewidth laser diodes. Experiment results show that the MI threshold is affected by the local heat load rather than the average or the total heat load. The calculation shows that the local heat deposit actually plays the key role to stimulate the MI behaviour. At the MI threshold position in the fiber, the local heat deposit also changes dramatically. The effect of the thermal conductivity on the MI threshold is also studied. Our investigation shows that the MI threshold increases from 1269 W to 1950 W when the thermal conductivity of the fiber amplifier is increased from 0.3 W/(m . K) to 5 W/(m . K). Through optimizing the pump linewidth and the cooling efficiency of the gain fiber, the MI threshold is doubled in our experiment. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Research of the mode instability threshold in high power double cladding Yb-doped fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanshan; Ma, Yi; Sun, Yinhong; Peng, Wanjing; Tang, Chun; Liu, Qinyong; Ke, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the behavior of the mode instability (MI) threshold in the double cladding Yb-doped fiber amplifier when the amplifier is pumped by broad linewidth laser diodes and narrow linewidth laser diodes respectively. It is found that the MI threshold increases by 26% when the amplifier is pumped by the broad linewidth laser diodes. Experiment results show that the MI threshold is affected by the local heat load rather than the average or the total heat load. The calculation shows that the local heat deposit actually plays the key role to stimulate the MI behaviour. At the MI threshold position in the fiber, the local heat deposit also changes dramatically. The effect of the thermal conductivity on the MI threshold is also studied. Our investigation shows that the MI threshold increases from 1269 W to 1950 W when the thermal conductivity of the fiber amplifier is increased from 0.3 W/(m . K) to 5 W/(m . K). Through optimizing the pump linewidth and the cooling efficiency of the gain fiber, the MI threshold is doubled in our experiment. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Two different avian cold-sensitive sensory neurons: Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8)-dependent and -independent activation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A; Takahashi, K; Saito, S; Tominaga, M; Ohta, T

    2016-12-01

    Sensing the ambient temperature is an important function for survival in animals. Some TRP channels play important roles as detectors of temperature and irritating chemicals. There are functional differences of TRP channels among species. TRPM8 in mammals is activated by cooling compounds and cold temperature, but less information is available on the functional role of TRPM8 in avian species. Here we investigated the pharmacological properties and thermal sensitivities of chicken TRPM8 (cTRPM8) and cold-sensitive mechanisms in avian sensory neurons. In heterologously expressed cTRPM8, menthol and its derivative, WS-12 elicited [Ca 2+ ] i increases, but icilin did not. In chicken sensory neurons, icilin increased [Ca 2+ ] i, in a TRPA1-dependent manner. Icilin selectively stimulated heterologously expressed chicken TRPA1 (cTRPA1). Similar to mammalian orthologue, cTRPM8 was activated by cold. Both heterologous and endogenous expressed cTRPM8 were sensitive to mammalian TRPM8 antagonists. There are two types of cold-sensitive cells regarding menthol sensitivity in chicken sensory neurons. The temperature threshold of menthol-insensitive neurons was significantly lower than that of menthol-sensitive ones. The population of menthol-insensitive neurons was large in chicken but almost little in mammals. The cold-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increases were not abolished by the external Ca 2+ removal or by blockades of PLC-IP 3 pathways and ryanodine channels. The cold stimulation failed to evoke [Ca 2+ ] i increases after intracellular Ca 2+ store-depletion. These results indicate that cTRPM8 acts as a cold-sensor similar to mammals. It is noteworthy that TRPM8-independent cold-sensitive neurons are abundant in chicken sensory neurons. Our results suggest that most of the cold-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increases are mediated via Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores and that these mechanisms may be specific to avian species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gyroscopic stimulation of the semicircular canals during sensory deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, B. D.; Brady, J. F.; Stumm, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    A static object revolving at a constant velocity is stationary with respect to that environment. When the object is rotated outside the plane of spin, a gyroscopic or cross-coupled acceleration is produced orthogonal to the two planes of rotation. In this situation, a man feels himself moving in a direction other than that which his visual or proprioceptive sensors perceive. The conflict in spatial orientation is the cross-coupled acceleration imposed on the semicircular canals. This perceptual conflict and the thresholds involved were studied by partial isolation of the physiological stimuli through sensory deprivation. Subjects weighted to neutral buoyancy were submerged in 94 F water in the dark. The subjects were then rotated while being revolved about a displaced axis. Thresholds for detection of angular acceleration were higher than those reported in the literature for detection of acceleration of a single plane. This discrepancy may be attributable to the length of time the stimuli are imposed to each of the canals and the cupular response periods.

  13. The effect of L-dopa in Parkinson's disease as revealed by neurophysiological studies of motor and sensory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Antonio; Bologna, Matteo; Conte, Antonella; Berardelli, Alfredo; Fabbrini, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    This review will first discuss evidence of motor and sensory abnormalities as yielded by neurophysiological techniques in patients with PD. It will then go on to describe the effects of L-dopa replacement on motor and sensory abnormalities in PD as assessed by neurophysiological studies. Areas covered: We analyzed papers in English using Pubmed with the following keywords: L-dopa, dopamine, bradykinesia, basal ganglia, kinematic analysis, TMS, motor cortex plasticity, motor cortex excitability, somatosensory discrimination threshold, pain Expert commentary: L-dopa improves the amplitude and speed of upper limb voluntary movements, but it does not restore abnormalities in the sequence effect or voluntary facial movements. L-dopa only partially normalizes changes in motor cortex excitability and plasticity and has also contrasting effects on the sensory system and on sensory-motor integration. The neurophysiological studies reviewed here show that PD is more than a hypo-dopaminergic disease, and non-dopaminergic mechanisms should also be considered.

  14. Threshold response using modulated continuous wave illumination for multilayer 3D optical data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, A.; Christenson, C. W.; Khattab, T. A.; Wang, R.; Twieg, R. J.; Singer, K. D.

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve a high capacity 3D optical data storage medium, a nonlinear or threshold writing process is necessary to localize data in the axial dimension. To this end, commercial multilayer discs use thermal ablation of metal films or phase change materials to realize such a threshold process. This paper addresses a threshold writing mechanism relevant to recently reported fluorescence-based data storage in dye-doped co-extruded multilayer films. To gain understanding of the essential physics, single layer spun coat films were used so that the data is easily accessible by analytical techniques. Data were written by attenuating the fluorescence using nanosecond-range exposure times from a 488 nm continuous wave laser overlapping with the single photon absorption spectrum. The threshold writing process was studied over a range of exposure times and intensities, and with different fluorescent dyes. It was found that all of the dyes have a common temperature threshold where fluorescence begins to attenuate, and the physical nature of the thermal process was investigated.

  15. Impacts of weld residual stresses and fatigue crack growth threshold on crack arrest under high-cycle thermal fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Said, E-mail: Said.taheri@edf.fr [EDF-LAB, IMSIA, 7 Boulevard Gaspard Monge, 91120 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Julan, Emricka [EDF-LAB, AMA, 7 Boulevard Gaspard Monge, 91120 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Tran, Xuan-Van [EDF Energy R& D UK Centre/School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Robert, Nicolas [EDF-DPN, UNIE, Strategic Center, Saint Denis (France)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • For crack growth analysis, weld residual stress field must be considered through its SIF in presence of a crack. • Presence of cracks of same depth proves their arrest, where equal depth is because mean stress acts only on crack opening. • Not considering amplitudes under a fatigue crack growth threshold (FCGT) does not compensate the lack of FGCT in Paris law. • Propagation rates are close for axisymmetric and circumferential semi-elliptical cracks. - Abstract: High cycle thermal crazing has been observed in some residual heat removal (RHR) systems made of 304 stainless steel in PWR nuclear plants. This paper deals with two types of analyses including logical argumentation and simulation. Crack arrest in networks is demonstrated due to the presence of two cracks of the same depth in the network. This identical depth may be proved assuming that mean stress acts only on crack opening and that cracks are fully open during the load cycle before arrest. Weld residual stresses (WRS) are obtained by an axisymmetric simulation of welding on a tube with a chamfer. Axisymmetric and 3D parametric studies of crack growth on: representative sequences for variable amplitude thermal loading, fatigue crack growth threshold (FCGT), permanent mean stress, cyclic counting methods and WRS, are performed with Code-Aster software using XFEM methodology. The following results are obtained on crack depth versus time: the effect of WRS on crack growth cannot be determined by the initial WRS field in absence of crack, but by the associated stress intensity factor. Moreover the relation between crack arrest depth and WRS is analyzed. In the absence of FCGT Paris’s law may give a significant over-estimation of crack depth even if amplitudes of loading smaller than FCGT have not been considered. Appropriate depth versus time may be obtained using different values of FCGT, but axisymmetric simulations do not really show a possibility of arrest for shallow cracks in

  16. Impacts of weld residual stresses and fatigue crack growth threshold on crack arrest under high-cycle thermal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Said; Julan, Emricka; Tran, Xuan-Van; Robert, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • For crack growth analysis, weld residual stress field must be considered through its SIF in presence of a crack. • Presence of cracks of same depth proves their arrest, where equal depth is because mean stress acts only on crack opening. • Not considering amplitudes under a fatigue crack growth threshold (FCGT) does not compensate the lack of FGCT in Paris law. • Propagation rates are close for axisymmetric and circumferential semi-elliptical cracks. - Abstract: High cycle thermal crazing has been observed in some residual heat removal (RHR) systems made of 304 stainless steel in PWR nuclear plants. This paper deals with two types of analyses including logical argumentation and simulation. Crack arrest in networks is demonstrated due to the presence of two cracks of the same depth in the network. This identical depth may be proved assuming that mean stress acts only on crack opening and that cracks are fully open during the load cycle before arrest. Weld residual stresses (WRS) are obtained by an axisymmetric simulation of welding on a tube with a chamfer. Axisymmetric and 3D parametric studies of crack growth on: representative sequences for variable amplitude thermal loading, fatigue crack growth threshold (FCGT), permanent mean stress, cyclic counting methods and WRS, are performed with Code-Aster software using XFEM methodology. The following results are obtained on crack depth versus time: the effect of WRS on crack growth cannot be determined by the initial WRS field in absence of crack, but by the associated stress intensity factor. Moreover the relation between crack arrest depth and WRS is analyzed. In the absence of FCGT Paris’s law may give a significant over-estimation of crack depth even if amplitudes of loading smaller than FCGT have not been considered. Appropriate depth versus time may be obtained using different values of FCGT, but axisymmetric simulations do not really show a possibility of arrest for shallow cracks in

  17. Effect of surface sensory and motor electrical stimulation on chronic poststroke oropharyngeal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofes, L; Arreola, V; López, I; Martin, A; Sebastián, M; Ciurana, A; Clavé, P

    2013-11-01

    Chronic poststroke oropharyngeal dysfunction (OD) is a common condition, leading to severe complications, including death. Treatments for chronic poststroke OD are scarce. The aim of our study was to assess and compare the efficacy and safety of treatment with surface electrical stimulation (e-stim) at sensory and motor intensities in patients with chronic poststroke OD. Twenty chronic poststroke patients with OD were randomly assigned to (i) sensory e-stim (treatment intensity: 75% of motor threshold) or (ii) motor e-stim (treatment intensity: motor threshold). Patients were treated during 10 days, 1 h/day. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the beginning and end of the study to assess signs of impaired efficacy and safety of swallow and timing of swallow response. Patients presented advanced age (74.95 ± 2.18), 75% were men. The mean days poststroke was 336.26 ± 89.6. After sensory stimulation, the number of unsafe swallows was reduced by 66.7% (p swallows was reduced by 62.5% (p = 0.002), the laryngeal vestibule closure time by 38.26% (p = 0.009) and maximal vertical hyoid extension time by 24.8% (p = 0.008). Moreover, the motor stimulus reduced the pharyngeal residue by 66.7% (p = 0.002), the upper esophageal sphincter opening time by 39.39% (p = 0.009), and increased bolus propulsion force by 211.1% (p = 0.008). No serious adverse events were detected during the treatment. Surface e-stim is a safe and effective treatment for chronic poststroke dysphagic patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Vibratory perception threshold in young and middle-aged patients at high risk of knee osteoarthritis compared to controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Shakoor, Najia; Ageberg, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Vibratory perception threshold (VPT) is impaired in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). It is, however, not known if sensory deficits precede or follow as a consequence of OA. The aim of this study was to investigate VPT in 2 independent groups of patients with high risk of future OA (young a...

  19. Neuronal thresholds and choice-related activity of otolith afferent fibers during heading perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiong-jie; Dickman, J David; DeAngelis, Gregory C; Angelaki, Dora E

    2015-05-19

    How activity of sensory neurons leads to perceptual decisions remains a challenge to understand. Correlations between choices and single neuron firing rates have been found early in vestibular processing, in the brainstem and cerebellum. To investigate the origins of choice-related activity, we have recorded from otolith afferent fibers while animals performed a fine heading discrimination task. We find that afferent fibers have similar discrimination thresholds as central cells, and the most sensitive fibers have thresholds that are only twofold or threefold greater than perceptual thresholds. Unlike brainstem and cerebellar nuclei neurons, spike counts from afferent fibers do not exhibit trial-by-trial correlations with perceptual decisions. This finding may reflect the fact that otolith afferent responses are poorly suited for driving heading perception because they fail to discriminate self-motion from changes in orientation relative to gravity. Alternatively, if choice probabilities reflect top-down inference signals, they are not relayed to the vestibular periphery.

  20. Sensory reactivity, empathizing and systemizing in autism spectrum conditions and sensory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tavassoli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the DSM-5 added sensory symptoms as a criterion for ASC, there is a group of children who display sensory symptoms but do not have ASC; children with sensory processing disorder (SPD. To be able to differentiate these two disorders, our aim was to evaluate whether children with ASC show more sensory symptomatology and/or different cognitive styles in empathy and systemizing compared to children with SPD and typically developing (TD children. The study included 210 participants: 68 children with ASC, 79 with SPD and 63 TD children. The Sensory Processing Scale Inventory was used to measure sensory symptoms, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ to measure autistic traits, and the Empathy Quotient (EQ and Systemizing Quotient (SQ to measure cognitive styles. Across groups, a greater sensory symptomatology was associated with lower empathy. Further, both the ASC and SPD groups showed more sensory symptoms than TD children. Children with ASC and SPD only differed on sensory under-reactivity. The ASD group did, however, show lower empathy and higher systemizing scores than the SPD group. Together, this suggest that sensory symptoms alone may not be adequate to differentiate children with ASC and SPD but that cognitive style measures could be used for differential diagnosis. Keywords: Autism spectrum conditions, Sensory processing disorder, Sensory symptoms, Empathy, Systemizing

  1. Hypersensitivity to pain in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, Hocine; Danti, Sabrina; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Vision is important for avoiding encounters with objects in the environment that may imperil physical integrity. We tested whether, in the absence of vision, a lower pain threshold would arise from an adaptive shift to other sensory channels. We therefore measured heat and cold pain thresholds an...... that blind subjects are more attentive to signals of external threats. These findings indicate that the absence of vision from birth induces a hypersensitivity to painful stimuli, lending new support to a model of sensory integration of vision and pain processing......., congenitally blind subjects have lower heat pain thresholds, rate suprathreshold heat pain stimuli as more painful, and have increased sensitivity for cold pain stimuli. Thresholds for nonpainful thermal stimulation did not differ between groups. The results of the pain questionnaires further indicated...

  2. Involvement of p53 and Bcl-2 in sensory cell degeneration in aging rat cochleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Yang, Wei Ping; Hu, Bo Hua; Yang, Shiming; Henderson, Donald

    2017-06-01

    p53 and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) are involved in the process of sensory cell degeneration in aging cochleae. To determine molecular players in age-related hair cell degeneration, this study examined the changes in p53 and Bcl-2 expression at different stages of apoptotic and necrotic death of hair cells in aging rat cochleae. Young (3-4 months) and aging (23-24 months) Fisher 344/NHsd rats were used. The thresholds of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) were measured to determine the auditory function. Immunolabeling was performed to determine the expression of p53 and Bcl-2 proteins in the sensory epithelium. Propidium iodide staining was performed to determine the morphologic changes in hair cell nuclei. Aging rats exhibited a significant elevation in ABR thresholds at all tested frequencies (p aging hair cells showing the early signs of apoptotic changes in their nuclei. The Bcl-2 expression increase was also observed in hair cells displaying early signs of necrosis. As the hair cell degenerative process advanced, p53 and Bcl-2 immunoreactivity became reduced or absent. In the areas where no detectable nuclear staining was present, p53 and Bcl-2 immunoreactivity was absent.

  3. Effect of thermo-mechanical loading histories on fatigue crack growth behavior and the threshold in SUS 316 and SCM 440 steels. For prevention of high cycle thermal fatigue failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Masakazu; Muzvidziwa, Milton; Iwasaki, Akira; Kasahara, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    High cycle thermal fatigue failure of pipes induced by fluid temperature change is one of the interdisciplinary issues to be concerned for long term structural reliability of high temperature components in energy systems. In order to explore advanced life assessment methods to prevent the failure, fatigue crack propagation tests were carried out in a low alloy steel and an austenitic stainless steel under typical thermal and thermo-mechanical histories. Special attention was paid to both the effect of thermo-mechanical loading history on the fatigue crack threshold, as well as to the applicability of continuum fracture mechanics treatment to small or short cracks. It was shown experimentally that the crack-based remaining fatigue life evaluation provided more reasonable assessment than the traditional method based on the semi-empirical law in terms of 'usage factor' for high cycle thermal fatigue failure that is employed in JSME Standard, S017. The crack propagation analysis based on continuum fracture mechanics was almost successfully applied to the small fatigue cracks of which size was comparable to a few times of material grain size. It was also shown the thermo-mechanical histories introduced unique effects to the prior fatigue crack wake, resulting in occasional change in the fatigue crack threshold. (author)

  4. Application of pentacene thin-film transistors with controlled threshold voltages to enhancement/depletion inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hajime; Hanafusa, Yuki; Kimura, Yoshinari; Kitamura, Masatoshi

    2018-03-01

    Oxygen plasma treatment has been carried out to control the threshold voltage in organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) having a SiO2 gate dielectric prepared by rf sputtering. The threshold voltage linearly changed in the range of -3.7 to 3.1 V with the increase in plasma treatment time. Although the amount of change is smaller than that for organic TFTs having thermally grown SiO2, the tendency of the change was similar to that for thermally grown SiO2. To realize different plasma treatment times on the same substrate, a certain region on the SiO2 surface was selected using a shadow mask, and was treated with oxygen plasma. Using the process, organic TFTs with negative threshold voltages and those with positive threshold voltages were fabricated on the same substrate. As a result, enhancement/depletion inverters consisting of the organic TFTs operated at supply voltages of 5 to 15 V.

  5. Probabilistic sensory recoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2008-08-01

    A hallmark of higher brain functions is the ability to contemplate the world rather than to respond reflexively to it. To do so, the nervous system makes use of a modular architecture in which sensory representations are dissociated from areas that control actions. This flexibility however necessitates a recoding scheme that would put sensory information to use in the control of behavior. Sensory recoding faces two important challenges. First, recoding must take into account the inherent variability of sensory responses. Second, it must be flexible enough to satisfy the requirements of different perceptual goals. Recent progress in theory, psychophysics, and neurophysiology indicate that cortical circuitry might meet these challenges by evaluating sensory signals probabilistically.

  6. Sensory Prioritization in Rats: Behavioral Performance and Neuronal Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Conrad C Y; Diamond, Mathew E; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2016-03-16

    Operating with some finite quantity of processing resources, an animal would benefit from prioritizing the sensory modality expected to provide key information in a particular context. The present study investigated whether rats dedicate attentional resources to the sensory modality in which a near-threshold event is more likely to occur. We manipulated attention by controlling the likelihood with which a stimulus was presented from one of two modalities. In a whisker session, 80% of trials contained a brief vibration stimulus applied to whiskers and the remaining 20% of trials contained a brief change of luminance. These likelihoods were reversed in a visual session. When a stimulus was presented in the high-likelihood context, detection performance increased and was faster compared with the same stimulus presented in the low-likelihood context. Sensory prioritization was also reflected in neuronal activity in the vibrissal area of primary somatosensory cortex: single units responded differentially to the whisker vibration stimulus when presented with higher probability compared with lower probability. Neuronal activity in the vibrissal cortex displayed signatures of multiplicative gain control and enhanced response to vibration stimuli during the whisker session. In conclusion, rats allocate priority to the more likely stimulus modality and the primary sensory cortex may participate in the redistribution of resources. Detection of low-amplitude events is critical to survival; for example, to warn prey of predators. To formulate a response, decision-making systems must extract minute neuronal signals from the sensory modality that provides key information. Here, we identify the behavioral and neuronal correlates of sensory prioritization in rats. Rats were trained to detect whisker vibrations or visual flickers. Stimuli were embedded in two contexts in which either visual or whisker modality was more likely to occur. When a stimulus was presented in the high

  7. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex. Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus. These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. PMID:24518756

  8. The Caenorhabditis elegans interneuron ALA is (also) a high-threshold mechanosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jarred; Nagy, Stanislav; Fetterman, Graham; Wright, Charles; Treinin, Millet; Biron, David

    2013-12-17

    To survive dynamic environments, it is essential for all animals to appropriately modulate their behavior in response to various stimulus intensities. For instance, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans suppresses the rate of egg-laying in response to intense mechanical stimuli, in a manner dependent on the mechanosensory neurons FLP and PVD. We have found that the unilaterally placed single interneuron ALA acted as a high-threshold mechanosensor, and that it was required for this protective behavioral response. ALA was required for the inhibition of egg-laying in response to a strong (picking-like) mechanical stimulus, characteristic of routine handling of the animals. Moreover, ALA did not respond physiologically to less intense touch stimuli, but exhibited distinct physiological responses to anterior and posterior picking-like touch, suggesting that it could distinguish between spatially separated stimuli. These responses required neither neurotransmitter nor neuropeptide release from potential upstream neurons. In contrast, the long, bilaterally symmetric processes of ALA itself were required for producing its physiological responses; when they were severed, responses to stimuli administered between the cut and the cell body were unaffected, while responses to stimuli administered posterior to the cut were abolished. C. elegans neurons are typically classified into three major groups: sensory neurons with specialized sensory dendrites, interneurons, and motoneurons with neuromuscular junctions. Our findings suggest that ALA can autonomously sense intense touch and is thus a dual-function neuron, i.e., an interneuron as well as a novel high-threshold mechanosensor.

  9. Finite Element Analysis of Active and Sensory Thermopiezoelectric Composite Materials. Degree awarded by Northwestern Univ., Dec. 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun

    2001-01-01

    Analytical formulations are developed to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of piezoelectric composite materials. The coupled response is captured at the material level through the thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations and leads to the inherent capability to model both the sensory and active responses of piezoelectric materials. A layerwise laminate theory is incorporated to provide more accurate analysis of the displacements, strains, stresses, electric fields, and thermal fields through-the-thickness. Thermal effects which arise from coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch, pyroelectric effects, and temperature dependent material properties are explicitly accounted for in the formulation. Corresponding finite element formulations are developed for piezoelectric beam, plate, and shell elements to provide a more generalized capability for the analysis of arbitrary piezoelectric composite structures. The accuracy of the current formulation is verified with comparisons from published experimental data and other analytical models. Additional numerical studies are also conducted to demonstrate additional capabilities of the formulation to represent the sensory and active behaviors. A future plan of experimental studies is provided to characterize the high temperature dynamic response of piezoelectric composite materials.

  10. Influence of microstructure on laser damage threshold of IBS coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, C.J.; Genin, F.Y.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Long, D.; Lalazari, R.; Wu, Z.L.; Kuo, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    Ion-beam sputtering (IBS) coatings were developed for the laser gyro industry to meet significantly different requirements than those of fusion lasers. Laser gyro mirrors are small ( 26 J/cm 2 at 1,064 nm with 3-ns pulses). As part of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) coating development effort, IBS coatings are being studied to explore the possible benefits of this technology to NIF optics. As an initial step to achieving the NIF size and damage threshold requirements, the coating process is being scaled to uniformly coat a 20 x 40 cm 2 area with reduced spectral, reflected wavefront, and laser damage threshold requirements. Here, multilayer coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering with amorphous layers were found to have lower damage thresholds at 1,064 nm than similar coatings with crystalline layers. Interestingly, at higher fluences the damage was less severe for the amorphous coatings. The magnitude of the difference in damage thresholds between the two different microstructures was strongly influenced by the size of the tested area. To better understand the microstructure effects, single layers of HfO 2 with different microstructures were studied using transmission electron microscopy, ellipsometry, and a photothermal deflection technique. Since the laser damage initiated at defects, the influence of thermal diffusivity on thermal gradients in nodular defects is also presented

  11. Nano-material size dependent laser-plasma thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL Sherbini, Ashraf M.; Parigger, Christian G.

    2016-10-01

    The reduction of laser fluence for initiation of plasma was measured for zinc monoxide nanoparticles of diameters in the range of 100 to 20 nm. In a previous work by EL Sherbini and Parigger [Wavelength Dependency and Threshold Measurements for Nanoparticle-enhanced Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 116 (2016) 8-15], the hypothesis of threshold dependence on particle size leads to the interpretation of the experiments for varying excitation wavelengths with fixed, 30 nm nanomaterial. The experimental results presented in this work were obtained with 1064 nm Nd:YAG radiation and confirm and validate the suspected reduction due to quenching of the thermal conduction length to the respective sizes of the nanoparticles.

  12. Arthroscopic knee surgery does not modify hyperalgesic responses to heat injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Duun, Preben; Kraemer, Otto

    2003-01-01

    contralateral to the surgical side. Ibuprofen and acetaminophen were given for 2 days before the first burn injury and again from the time of surgery. In the controls, the two burn injuries were separated by 7 days. Sensory variables included cumulated pain score during induction of the burn (visual analog...... scale), secondary hyperalgesia area, and mechanical and thermal pain perception and pain thresholds assessed before and 1 h after the burn injury. RESULTS: The heat injuries induced significant increases in pain perception (P pain thresholds (P pain...... thresholds were higher during the second burn injury in patients (P pain to heat injury (P > 0.8), secondary hyperalgesia areas (P > 0.1), mechanical and thermal pain perception (P > 0.1), or mechanical and thermal pain...

  13. Chemical and sensorial aroma characterization of freshly distilled Calvados. 1. Evaluation of quality and defects on the basis of key odorants by olfactometry and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Hugues; Lemesle, Stéphane; Ledauphin, Jérôme; Barillier, Daniel; Picoche, Bernard

    2003-01-15

    Eight freshly distilled samples of Calvados, a fermented and distilled apple juice, were analyzed by sensory evaluation and direct injection GC to determine the composition of higher alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. The composition determined by direct injection was tentatively related to sensory descriptors. Esters have a probable maximum level around 500 g/hl of pure alcohol (PA). This level also corresponds to the threshold of the main ester constituent, ethyl acetate. A high ratio of esters to ethyl acetate seems to be of prime importance for good quality. Total aldehydes, with a maximum level between 8 and 11 g/hl of PA and mainly comprising acetal (maximum between 5 and 9 g/hl of PA), were related to a "green" descriptor. Higher alcohols do not have a direct impact on quality, but other volatile compounds with a positive impact on flavor should probably be present at a high level. As overall quality was not well related to sensory quality, it was necessary to perform more a precise analysis to determine the key odorants. The Calvados samples were thus extracted using pentane. Gas chromatography, employing both a flame ionization detector and an olfactometry port, was used to analyze the obtained extracts. Seventy-one odors were detected and distributed according to Calvados quality determined by sensory evaluation. Nineteen odors common to all Calvados samples constituted the "skeleton" of the aroma. Twenty-eight odors were specific to a quality class: 6 for good quality, 4 for neutral, and 18 for defective. Twenty-four other odors had either too low an odor impact or no evident specificity.

  14. Rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2012-10-01

    Classical detection thresholds do not predict liking, as they focus on the presence or absence of a sensation. Recently however, Prescott and colleagues described a new method, the rejection threshold, where a series of forced choice preference tasks are used to generate a dose-response function to determine hedonically acceptable concentrations. That is, how much is too much? To date, this approach has been used exclusively in liquid foods. Here, we determined group rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating for bitterness. The influences of self-identified preferences for milk or dark chocolate, as well as eating style (chewers compared to melters) on rejection thresholds were investigated. Stimuli included milk chocolate-flavored compound coating spiked with increasing amounts of sucrose octaacetate, a bitter and generally recognized as safe additive. Paired preference tests (blank compared to spike) were used to determine the proportion of the group that preferred the blank. Across pairs, spiked samples were presented in ascending concentration. We were able to quantify and compare differences between 2 self-identified market segments. The rejection threshold for the dark chocolate preferring group was significantly higher than the milk chocolate preferring group (P= 0.01). Conversely, eating style did not affect group rejection thresholds (P= 0.14), although this may reflect the amount of chocolate given to participants. Additionally, there was no association between chocolate preference and eating style (P= 0.36). Present work supports the contention that this method can be used to examine preferences within specific market segments and potentially individual differences as they relate to ingestive behavior. This work makes use of the rejection threshold method to study market segmentation, extending its use to solid foods. We believe this method has broad applicability to the sensory specialist and product developer by providing a

  15. Genome-wide Association Study for Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Sensory Traits in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Dang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant SNPs associated with Warner-Bratzler (WB shear force and sensory traits were confirmed for Hanwoo beef (Korean cattle. A Bonferroni-corrected genome-wide significant association (p<1.3×10−6 was detected with only one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP on chromosome 5 for WB shear force. A slightly higher number of SNPs was significantly (p<0.001 associated with WB shear force than with other sensory traits. Further, 50, 25, 29, and 34 SNPs were significantly associated with WB shear force, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor likeness, respectively. The SNPs between p = 0.001 and p = 0.0001 thresholds explained 3% to 9% of the phenotypic variance, while the most significant SNPs accounted for 7% to 12% of the phenotypic variance. In conclusion, because WB shear force and sensory evaluation were moderately affected by a few loci and minimally affected by other loci, further studies are required by using a large sample size and high marker density.

  16. UNCOMMON SENSORY METHODOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory science is the young but the rapidly developing field of the food industry. Actually, the great emphasis is given to the production of rapid techniques of data collection, the difference between consumers and trained panel is obscured and the role of sensory methodologists is to prepare the ways for evaluation, by which a lay panel (consumers can achieve identical results as a trained panel. Currently, there are several conventional methods of sensory evaluation of food (ISO standards, but more sensory laboratories are developing methodologies that are not strict enough in the selection of evaluators, their mechanism is easily understandable and the results are easily interpretable. This paper deals with mapping of marginal methods used in sensory evaluation of food (new types of profiles, CATA, TDS, napping.

  17. Laser-induced damage thresholds of gold, silver and their alloys in air and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starinskiy, Sergey V.; Shukhov, Yuri G.; Bulgakov, Alexander V., E-mail: bulgakov@itp.nsc.ru

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Laser damage thresholds of Ag, Au and Ag-Au alloys in air and water are measured. • Alloy thresholds are lower than those of Ag and Au due to low thermal conductivity. • Laser damage thresholds in water are ∼1.5 times higher than those in air. • Light scattering mechanisms responsible for high thresholds in water are suggested. • Light scattering mechanisms are supported by optical reflectance measurements. - Abstract: The nanosecond-laser-induced damage thresholds of gold, silver and gold-silver alloys of various compositions in air and water have been measured for single-shot irradiation conditions. The experimental results are analyzed theoretically by solving the heat flow equation for the samples irradiated in air and in water taking into account vapor nucleation at the solid-water interface. The damage thresholds of Au-Ag alloys are systematically lower than those for pure metals, both in air and water that is explained by lower thermal conductivities of the alloys. The thresholds measured in air agree well with the calculated melting thresholds for all samples. The damage thresholds in water are found to be considerably higher, by a factor of ∼1.5, than the corresponding thresholds in air. This cannot be explained, in the framework of the used model, neither by the conductive heat transfer to water nor by the vapor pressure effect. Possible reasons for the high damage thresholds in water such as scattering of the incident laser light by the vapor-liquid interface and the critical opalescence in the superheated water are suggested. Optical pump-probe measurements have been performed to study the reflectance dynamics of the surface irradiated in air and water. Comparison of the transient reflectance signal with the calculated nucleation dynamics provides evidence that the both suggested scattering mechanisms are likely to occur during metal ablation in water.

  18. kinesiotaping reduces pain and modulates sensory function in patients with focal dystonia: a randomized crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosin, Elisa; Avanzino, Laura; Marchese, Roberta; Stramesi, Paola; Bilanci, Martina; Trompetto, Carlo; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    Pain is one of the most common and disabling "nonmotor" symptoms in patients with dystonia. No recent study evaluated the pharmacological or physical therapy approaches to specifically treat dystonic pain symptoms. To evaluate the effectiveness of KinesioTaping in patients with cervical dystonia (CD) and focal hand dystonia (FHD) on self-reported pain (primary objective) and on sensory functions (secondary objective). Twenty-five dystonic patients (14 with CD and 11 FHD) entered a randomized crossover pilot study. The patients were randomized to 14-day treatment with KinesioTaping or ShamTaping over neck (in CD) or forearm muscles (in FHD), and after a 30-day washout period, they received the other treatment. The were 3 visual analog scales (VASs) for usual pain, worst pain, and pain relief. Disease severity changes were evaluated by means of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (CD) and the Writer's Cramp Rating Scale (FHD). Furthermore, to investigate possible KinesioTaping-induced effects on sensory functions, we evaluated the somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold. Treatment with KinesioTape induced a decrease in the subjective sensation of pain and a modification in the ability of sensory discrimination, whereas ShamTaping had no effect. A significant, positive correlation was found in both groups of patients between the improvement in the subjective sensation of pain and the reduction of somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values induced by KinesioTaping. These preliminary results suggest that KinesioTaping may be useful in treating pain in patients with dystonia.

  19. Sensory integration of a light touch reference in human standing balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig P.; Reynolds, Raymond F.

    2018-01-01

    In upright stance, light touch of a space-stationary touch reference reduces spontaneous sway. Moving the reference evokes sway responses which exhibit non-linear behavior that has been attributed to sensory reweighting. Reweighting refers to a change in the relative contribution of sensory cues signaling body sway in space and light touch cues signaling finger position with respect to the body. Here we test the hypothesis that the sensory fusion process involves a transformation of light touch signals into the same reference frame as other sensory inputs encoding body sway in space, or vice versa. Eight subjects lightly gripped a robotic manipulandum which moved in a circular arc around the ankle joint. A pseudo-randomized motion sequence with broad spectral characteristics was applied at three amplitudes. The stimulus was presented at two different heights and therefore different radial distances, which were matched in terms of angular motion. However, the higher stimulus evoked a significantly larger sway response, indicating that the response was not matched to stimulus angular motion. Instead, the body sway response was strongly related to the horizontal translation of the manipulandum. The results suggest that light touch is integrated as the horizontal distance between body COM and the finger. The data were well explained by a model with one feedback loop minimizing changes in horizontal COM-finger distance. The model further includes a second feedback loop estimating the horizontal finger motion and correcting the first loop when the touch reference is moving. The second loop includes the predicted transformation of sensory signals into the same reference frame and a non-linear threshold element that reproduces the non-linear sway responses, thus providing a mechanism that can explain reweighting. PMID:29874252

  20. Sensory description of marine oils through development of a sensory wheel and vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larssen, W E; Monteleone, E; Hersleth, M

    2018-04-01

    The Omega-3 industry lacks a defined methodology and a vocabulary for evaluating the sensory quality of marine oils. This study was conducted to identify the sensory descriptors of marine oils and organize them in a sensory wheel for use as a tool in quality assessment. Samples of marine oils were collected from six of the largest producers of omega-3 products in Norway. The oils were selected to cover as much variation in sensory characteristics as possible, i.e. oils with different fatty acid content originating from different species. Oils were evaluated by six industry expert panels and one trained sensory panel to build up a vocabulary through a series of language sessions. A total of 184 aroma (odor by nose), flavor, taste and mouthfeel descriptors were generated. A sensory wheel based on 60 selected descriptors grouped together in 21 defined categories was created to form a graphical presentation of the sensory vocabulary. A selection of the oil samples was also evaluated by a trained sensory panel using descriptive analysis. Chemical analysis showed a positive correlation between primary and secondary oxidation products and sensory properties such as rancidity, chemical flavor and process flavor and a negative correlation between primary oxidation products and acidic. This research is a first step towards the broader objective of standardizing the sensory terminology related to marine oils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vagus nerve stimulation paired with tactile training improved sensory function in a chronic stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgard, Michael P; Rennaker, Robert L; Alexander, Jen; Dawson, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with rehabilitation can enhance neural plasticity in the primary sensory and motor cortices, improve forelimb function after stroke in animal models and improve motor function in patients with arm weakness after stroke. To gain "first-in-man" experience of VNS paired with tactile training in a patient with severe sensory impairment after stroke. During the long-term follow-up phase of a clinical trial of VNS paired with motor rehabilitation, a 71-year-old man who had made good motor recovery had ongoing severe sensory loss in his left hand and arm. He received VNS paired with tactile therapy in an attempt to improve his sensory function. During twenty 2-hour sessions, each passive and active tactile event was paired with a 0.5 second burst of 0.8 mA VNS. Sensory function was measured before, halfway through, and after this therapy. The patient did not report any side effects during or following VNS+Tactile therapy. Quantitative measures revealed lasting and clinically meaningful improvements in tactile threshold, proprioception, and stereognosis. After VNS+Tactile therapy, the patient was able to detect tactile stimulation to his affected hand that was eight times less intense, identify the joint position of his fingers in the affected hand three times more often, and identify everyday objects using his affected hand seven times more often, compared to baseline. Sensory function significantly improved in this man following VNS paired with tactile stimulation. This approach merits further study in controlled clinical trials.

  2. Effect of verbal persuasion on self-efficacy for pain-related diagnostic sensory testing in individuals with chronic neck pain and healthy controls – a randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderlund A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anne Söderlund,1 Michele Sterling,2 1Physiotherapy, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden; 2Centre for National Research on Disability and Rehabilitation Medicine (CONROD, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Parklands, Australia Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cold pain threshold (CTh, pressure pain threshold (PPT, cold pain tolerance (CPTo tests, and the level of self-efficacy when self-efficacy for diagnostic sensory testing was manipulated by verbal persuasion before a testing situation in persons with neck pain and in healthy controls. A randomized experimental design was used. Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 22 individuals with either traumatic or nontraumatic chronic neck pain were recruited to participate in the study. The intervention consisted of two experimental verbal persuasion conditions: Increase self-efficacy and Decrease self-efficacy. The PPT was measured using a pressure algometer, the CTh was measured using a thermo test system, and CPTo was measured by submerging the participant's hand in ice water up to the elbow joint. On three occasions, the participants reported their self-efficacy level in performing the sensory tests. In the chronic neck pain group, there were no differences in pain threshold or tolerance. There was a difference in the self-efficacy level after verbal persuasion between the experimental conditions. In the healthy control group, the CThs increased following the condition that aimed to increase self-efficacy. No other differences were observed in the healthy controls. A short verbal persuasion in the form of manipulative instructions seems to have a marginal effect on the individual's self-efficacy levels in the chronic neck pain group and a slight influence on the results of sensory testing in healthy controls. Keywords: pressure pain threshold, cold pain threshold, cold pain tolerance, self

  3. Test-retest and interobserver reliability of quantitative sensory testing according to the protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS): a multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Christian; Klein, Thomas; Azad, Shahnaz; Birklein, Frank; Gierthmühlen, Janne; Huge, Volker; Lauchart, Meike; Nitzsche, Dorothee; Stengel, Maike; Valet, Michael; Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Tölle, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is an instrument to assess positive and negative sensory signs, helping to identify mechanisms underlying pathologic pain conditions. In this study, we evaluated the test-retest reliability (TR-R) and the interobserver reliability (IO-R) of QST in patients with sensory disturbances of different etiologies. In 4 centres, 60 patients (37 male and 23 female, 56.4±1.9years) with lesions or diseases of the somatosensory system were included. QST comprised 13 parameters including detection and pain thresholds for thermal and mechanical stimuli. QST was performed in the clinically most affected test area and a less or unaffected control area in a morning and an afternoon session on 2 consecutive days by examiner pairs (4 QSTs/patient). For both, TR-R and IO-R, there were high correlations (r=0.80-0.93) at the affected test area, except for wind-up ratio (TR-R: r=0.67; IO-R: r=0.56) and paradoxical heat sensations (TR-R: r=0.35; IO-R: r=0.44). Mean IO-R (r=0.83, 31% unexplained variance) was slightly lower than TR-R (r=0.86, 26% unexplained variance, Ptest area (TR-R: r=0.86; IO-R: r=0.83) than in the control area (TR-R: r=0.79; IO-R: r=0.71, each Preliability of QST. We conclude that standardized QST performed by trained examiners is a valuable diagnostic instrument with good test-retest and interobserver reliability within 2days. With standardized training, observer bias is much lower than random variance. Quantitative sensory testing performed by trained examiners is a valuable diagnostic instrument with good interobserver and test-retest reliability for use in patients with sensory disturbances of different etiologies to help identify mechanisms of neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Design proposal for door thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolka Radim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Panels for openings in structures have always been an essential and integral part of buildings. Their importance in terms of a building´s functionality was not recognised. However, the general view on this issue has changed from focusing on big planar segments and critical details to sub-elements of these structures. This does not only focus on the forms of connecting joints but also on the supporting systems that keep the panels in the right position and ensure they function properly. One of the most strained segments is the threshold structure, especially the entrance door threshold structure. It is the part where substantial defects in construction occur in terms of waterproofing, as well as in the static, thermal and technical functions thereof. In conventional buildings, this problem is solved by pulling the floor structure under the entrance door structure and subsequently covering it with waterproofing material. This system cannot work effectively over the long term so local defects occur. A proposal is put forward to solve this problem by installing a sub-threshold door coupler made of composite materials. The coupler is designed so that its variability complies with the required parameters for most door structures on the European market.

  5. Effects of polarization and absorption on laser induced optical breakdown threshold for skin rejuvenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Babu; Bonito, Valentina; Turco, Simona; Verhagen, Rieko

    2016-03-01

    Laser induced optical breakdown (LIOB) is a non-linear absorption process leading to plasma formation at locations where the threshold irradiance for breakdown is surpassed. In this paper we experimentally demonstrate the influence of polarization and absorption on laser induced breakdown threshold in transparent, absorbing and scattering phantoms made from water suspensions of polystyrene microspheres. We demonstrate that radially polarized light yields a lower irradiance threshold for creating optical breakdown compared to linearly polarized light. We also demonstrate that the thermal initiation pathway used for generating seed electrons results in a lower irradiance threshold compared to multiphoton initiation pathway used for optical breakdown.

  6. Relationships among Sensory Responsiveness, Anxiety, and Ritual Behaviors in Children with and without Atypical Sensory Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Bar-Shalita, Tami; Mansour, Hanin; Dar, Reuven

    2017-08-01

    To explore relationships between sensory responsiveness, anxiety, and ritual behaviors in boys with typical and atypical sensory responsiveness. Forty-eight boys, ages 5-9 participated in the study (28 boys with atypical sensory responsiveness and 20 controls). Atypical sensory responsiveness was defined as a score of ≤154 on the Short Sensory Profile. Parents completed the Sensory Profile, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and the Childhood Routines Inventory. Children with atypical sensory responsiveness had significantly higher levels of anxiety and a higher frequency of ritual behaviors than controls. Atypical sensory responsiveness was significantly related to both anxiety and ritual behaviors, with anxiety mediating the relationship between sensory modulation and ritual behaviors. The findings elucidate the potential consequences of atypical sensory responsiveness and could support the notion that ritual behaviors develop as a coping mechanism in response to anxiety stemming from primary difficulty in modulating sensory input.

  7. Changes in mechanical, chemical, and thermal sensitivity of the cornea after topical application of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M Carmen; Berenguer-Ruiz, Leticia; García-Gálvez, Alberto; Perea-Tortosa, David; Gallar, Juana; Belmonte, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    In addition to their well-known anti-inflammatory actions, some of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) appear to have an analgesic effect. In human subjects, the changes in threshold and intensity of sensations evoked by mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimulation of the cornea induced by topical administration of two commercial NSAIDs, diclofenac sodium (Voltaren; Novartis, Basel, Switzerland) and flurbiprofen (Ocuflur; Allergan, Irvine, CA), were studied. Corneal sensitivity was measured in 10 young, healthy subjects with a gas esthesiometer. Chemical (10%-70% CO2 in air), mechanical (0-264 mL/min), and thermal (corneal temperature changes between -4.5 degrees C and +3 degrees C around the normal value) stimuli were applied to the center of the cornea. The intensity and perceived magnitude of the psychophysical attributes of the evoked sensation were scored at the end of the pulse in a 10-cm, continuous visual analog scale (VAS). The threshold was expressed as the stimulus intensity that evoked a VAS score >0.5. Sensitivity was measured in both eyes of each subject on two separate days, one without treatment and the other 30 minutes after topical application of 0.03% flurbiprofen (seven subjects) or 0.1% diclofenac sodium (six subjects). Diclofenac attenuated significantly all the sensation parameters evoked by high-intensity mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimuli. Flurbiprofen produced a slight reduction of the sensations evoked by mechanical and chemical stimulation that became significant only for the irritation caused by chemical stimuli of maximum intensity (70% CO2). None of the drugs modified significantly the detection threshold of the different stimuli. Flurbiprofen had a very limited effect on sensations evoked by corneal stimulation, whereas diclofenac reduced the intensity of sensations evoked by stimuli of different modality, suggesting a mild local anesthetic effect of this drug on all types of corneal sensory fibers. Such

  8. Neonatal bee venom exposure induces sensory modality-specific enhancement of nociceptive response in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Chen, Huisheng; Tang, Jiaguang; Chen, Jun

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that inflammatory pain at the neonatal stage can produce long-term structural and functional changes in nociceptive pathways, resulting in altered pain perception in adulthood. However, the exact pattern of altered nociceptive response and associated neurochemical changes in the spinal cord in this process is unclear. In this study, we used an experimental paradigm in which each rat first received intraplantar bee venom (BV) or saline injection on postnatal day 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, or 28. This was followed 2 months later by a second intraplantar bee venom injection in the same rats to examine the difference in nociceptive responses. We found that neonatal inflammatory pain induced by the first BV injection significantly reduced baseline paw withdrawal mechanical threshold, but not baseline paw withdrawal thermal latency, when rats were examined 2 months from the first BV injection. Neonatal inflammatory pain also exacerbated mechanical, but not thermal, hyperalgesia in response to the second BV injection in these same rats. Rats exposed to neonatal inflammation also showed up-regulation of spinal NGF, TrkA receptor, BDNF, TrkB receptor, IL-1β, and COX-2 expression following the second BV injection, especially with prior BV exposure on postnatal day 21 or 28. These results indicate that neonatal inflammation produces sensory modality-specific changes in nociceptive behavior and alters neurochemistry in the spinal cord of adult rats. These results also suggest that a prior history of inflammatory pain during the developmental period might have an impact on clinical pain in highly susceptible adult patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Variable sensory perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Sarah M

    2018-03-01

    Autism is associated with sensory and cognitive abnormalities. Individuals with autism generally show normal or superior early sensory processing abilities compared to healthy controls, but deficits in complex sensory processing. In the current opinion paper, it will be argued that sensory abnormalities impact cognition by limiting the amount of signal that can be used to interpret and interact with environment. There is a growing body of literature showing that individuals with autism exhibit greater trial-to-trial variability in behavioural and cortical sensory responses. If multiple sensory signals that are highly variable are added together to process more complex sensory stimuli, then this might destabilise later perception and impair cognition. Methods to improve sensory processing have shown improvements in more general cognition. Studies that specifically investigate differences in sensory trial-to-trial variability in autism, and the potential changes in variability before and after treatment, could ascertain if trial-to-trial variability is a good mechanism to target for treatment in autism. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Pain thresholds, supra-threshold pain and lidocaine sensitivity in patients with erythromelalgia, including the I848Tmutation in NaV 1.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helås, T; Sagafos, D; Kleggetveit, I P; Quiding, H; Jönsson, B; Segerdahl, M; Zhang, Z; Salter, H; Schmelz, M; Jørum, E

    2017-09-01

    Nociceptive thresholds and supra-threshold pain ratings as well as their reduction upon local injection with lidocaine were compared between healthy subjects and patients with erythromelalgia (EM). Lidocaine (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 or 10 mg/mL) or placebo (saline) was injected intradermally in non-painful areas of the lower arm, in a randomized, double-blind manner, to test the effect on dynamic and static mechanical sensitivity, mechanical pain sensitivity, thermal thresholds and supra-threshold heat pain sensitivity. Heat pain thresholds and pain ratings to supra-threshold heat stimulation did not differ between EM-patients (n = 27) and controls (n = 25), neither did the dose-response curves for lidocaine. Only the subgroup of EM-patients with mutations in sodium channel subunits Na V 1.7, 1.8 or 1.9 (n = 8) had increased lidocaine sensitivity for supra-threshold heat stimuli, contrasting lower sensitivity to strong mechanical stimuli. This pattern was particularly clear in the two patients carrying the Na V 1.7 I848T mutations in whom lidocaine's hyperalgesic effect on mechanical pain sensitivity contrasted more effective heat analgesia. Heat pain thresholds are not sensitized in EM patients, even in those with gain-of-function mutations in Na V 1.7. Differential lidocaine sensitivity was overt only for noxious stimuli in the supra-threshold range suggesting that sensitized supra-threshold encoding is important for the clinical pain phenotype in EM in addition to lower activation threshold. Intracutaneous lidocaine dose-dependently blocked nociceptive sensations, but we did not identify EM patients with particular high lidocaine sensitivity that could have provided valuable therapeutic guidance. Acute pain thresholds and supra-threshold heat pain in controls and patients with erythromelalgia do not differ and have the same lidocaine sensitivity. Acute heat pain thresholds even in EM patients with the Na V 1.7 I848T mutation are normal and only nociceptor

  11. Effects of electrode size and spacing on sensory modalities in the phantom thumb perception area for the forearm amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Chai, G H; Zhu, K H; Lan, N; Sui, X H

    2015-01-01

    Tactile sensory feedback plays a key role in accomplishing the dexterous manipulation of prosthetic hands for the amputees, and the non-invasive transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of the phantom finger perception (PFP) area would be an effective way to realize sensory feedback clinically. In order to realize the high-spatial-resolution tactile sensory feedback in the PFP region, we investigated the effects of electrode size and spacing on the tactile sensations for potentially optimizing the surface electrode array configuration. Six forearm-amputated subjects were recruited in the psychophysical studies. With the diameter of the circular electrode increasing from 3 mm to 12 mm, the threshold current intensity was enhanced correspondingly under different sensory modalities. The smaller electrode could potentially lead to high sensation spatial resolution. Whereas, the smaller the electrode, the less the number of sensory modalities. For an Φ-3 mm electrode, it is even hard for the subject to perceive any perception modalities under normal stimulating current. In addition, the two-electrode discrimination distance (TEDD) in the phantom thumb perception area decreased with electrode size decreasing in two directions of parallel or perpendicular to the forearm. No significant difference of TEDD existed along the two directions. Studies in this paper would guide the configuration optimization of the TENS electrode array for potential high spatial-resolution sensory feedback.

  12. Chronic post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia is associated with impaired cortical activation to pharyngeal sensory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabib, C; Ortega, O; Vilardell, N; Mundet, L; Clavé, P; Rofes, L

    2017-11-01

    The role of afferent sensory pathways in the pathophysiology of post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia is not known. We hypothesized that patients with chronic post-stroke dysphagia (PSD) would show impaired sensory cortical activation in the ipsilesional hemisphere. We studied 28 chronic unilateral post-stroke patients [17 PSD and 11 post-stroke non-dysphagic patients (PSnD)] and 11 age-matched healthy volunteers. Event-related sensory-evoked potentials to pharyngeal stimulation (pSEP) and sensory thresholds were assessed. We analyzed pSEP peak latency and amplitude (N1, P1, N2 and P2), and neurotopographic stroke characteristics from brain magnetic resonance imaging. Healthy volunteers presented a highly symmetric bihemispheric cortical pattern of brain activation at centroparietal areas (N1-P1 and N2-P2) to pharyngeal stimuli. In contrast, an asymmetric pattern of reduced ipsilesional activation was found in PSD (N2-P2; P = 0.026) but not in PSnD. PSD presented impaired safety of swallow (penetration-aspiration score: 4.3 ± 1.6), delayed laryngeal vestibule closure (360.0 ± 70.0 ms) and higher National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (7.0 ± 6.2 vs. 1.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.001) and Fazekas scores (3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2.0 ± 1.1; P dysphagia is associated with stroke severity and degree of leukoaraoisis. Impaired conduction and cortical integration of pharyngeal sensory inputs at stroke site are key features of chronic PSD. These findings highlight the role of sensory pathways in the pathophysiology of post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia and offer a potential target for future treatments. © 2017 EAN.

  13. Sensory perception: lessons from synesthesia: using synesthesia to inform the understanding of sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-06-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition's existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of "normal" sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion - the binding problem - as well as how sensory perception develops.

  14. Neuromorphic sensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chii; Delbruck, Tobi

    2010-06-01

    Biology provides examples of efficient machines which greatly outperform conventional technology. Designers in neuromorphic engineering aim to construct electronic systems with the same efficient style of computation. This task requires a melding of novel engineering principles with knowledge gleaned from neuroscience. We discuss recent progress in realizing neuromorphic sensory systems which mimic the biological retina and cochlea, and subsequent sensor processing. The main trends are the increasing number of sensors and sensory systems that communicate through asynchronous digital signals analogous to neural spikes; the improved performance and usability of these sensors; and novel sensory processing methods which capitalize on the timing of spikes from these sensors. Experiments using these sensors can impact how we think the brain processes sensory information. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of verbal persuasion on self-efficacy for pain-related diagnostic sensory testing in individuals with chronic neck pain and healthy controls - a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Anne; Sterling, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cold pain threshold (CTh), pressure pain threshold (PPT), cold pain tolerance (CPTo) tests, and the level of self-efficacy when self-efficacy for diagnostic sensory testing was manipulated by verbal persuasion before a testing situation in persons with neck pain and in healthy controls. A randomized experimental design was used. Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 22 individuals with either traumatic or nontraumatic chronic neck pain were recruited to participate in the study. The intervention consisted of two experimental verbal persuasion conditions: Increase self-efficacy and Decrease self-efficacy. The PPT was measured using a pressure algometer, the CTh was measured using a thermo test system, and CPTo was measured by submerging the participant's hand in ice water up to the elbow joint. On three occasions, the participants reported their self-efficacy level in performing the sensory tests. In the chronic neck pain group, there were no differences in pain threshold or tolerance. There was a difference in the self-efficacy level after verbal persuasion between the experimental conditions. In the healthy control group, the CThs increased following the condition that aimed to increase self-efficacy. No other differences were observed in the healthy controls. A short verbal persuasion in the form of manipulative instructions seems to have a marginal effect on the individual's self-efficacy levels in the chronic neck pain group and a slight influence on the results of sensory testing in healthy controls.

  16. Cricket inspired flow-sensor arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Casas, J.

    2007-01-01

    We report current developments in biomimetic flow-sensors based on mechanoreceptive sensory hairs of crickets. These filiform hairs are highly perceptive to lowfrequency sound with energy sensitivities close to thermal threshold. In this work we describe hair-sensors fabricated by a combination of

  17. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and food sensory properties: potential and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Chiara; Kiefl, Johannes; Schieberle, Peter; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Bicchi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Modern omics disciplines dealing with food flavor focus the analytical efforts on the elucidation of sensory-active compounds, including all possible stimuli of multimodal perception (aroma, taste, texture, etc.) by means of a comprehensive, integrated treatment of sample constituents, such as physicochemical properties, concentration in the matrix, and sensory properties (odor/taste quality, perception threshold). Such analyses require detailed profiling of known bioactive components as well as advanced fingerprinting techniques to catalog sample constituents comprehensively, quantitatively, and comparably across samples. Multidimensional analytical platforms support comprehensive investigations required for flavor analysis by combining information on analytes' identities, physicochemical behaviors (volatility, polarity, partition coefficient, and solubility), concentration, and odor quality. Unlike other omics, flavor metabolomics and sensomics include the final output of the biological phenomenon (i.e., sensory perceptions) as an additional analytical dimension, which is specifically and exclusively triggered by the chemicals analyzed. However, advanced omics platforms, which are multidimensional by definition, pose challenging issues not only in terms of coupling with detection systems and sample preparation, but also in terms of data elaboration and processing. The large number of variables collected during each analytical run provides a high level of information, but requires appropriate strategies to exploit fully this potential. This review focuses on advances in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and analytical platforms combining two-dimensional gas chromatography with olfactometry, chemometrics, and quantitative assays for food sensory analysis to assess the quality of a given product. We review instrumental advances and couplings, automation in sample preparation, data elaboration, and a selection of applications.

  18. A new paradigm of electrical stimulation to enhance sensory neural function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Paul P; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; McIntosh, Caroline; Dinneen, Sean F; Quinlan, Leo R; Serrador, Jorge M

    2014-08-01

    The ability to improve peripheral neural transmission would have significant therapeutic potential in medicine. A technology of this kind could be used to restore and/or enhance sensory function in individuals with depressed sensory function, such as older adults or patients with peripheral neuropathies. The goal of this study was to investigate if a new paradigm of subsensory electrical noise stimulation enhances somatosensory function. Vibration (50Hz) was applied with a Neurothesiometer to the plantar aspect of the foot in the presence or absence of subsensory electrical noise (1/f type). The noise was applied at a proximal site, on a defined region of the tibial nerve path above the ankle. Vibration perception thresholds (VPT) of younger adults were measured in control and experimental conditions, in the absence or presence of noise respectively. An improvement of ∼16% in VPT was found in the presence of noise. These are the first data to demonstrate that modulation of axonal transmission with externally applied electrical noise improves perception of tactile stimuli in humans. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  19. Auditory brainstem response latency in forward masking, a marker of sensory deficits in listeners with normal hearing thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehraei, Golbarg; Paredes Gallardo, Andreu; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2017-01-01

    -spontaneous rate fibers results in a faster recovery of wave-V latency as the slow contribution of these fibers is reduced. Results showed that in young audiometrically normal listeners, a larger change in wave-V latency with increasing masker-to-probe interval was related to a greater effect of a preceding masker......-V latency changes with increasing masker-to-probe intervals. In the same listeners, behavioral forward masking detection thresholds were measured. We hypothesized that 1) auditory nerve fiber deafferentation increases forward masking thresholds and increases wave-V latency and 2) a preferential loss of low...

  20. The role of peripheral afferents in persistent inguinal postherniorrhaphy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayasinghe, N; Ringsted, T K; Bischoff, J M

    2016-01-01

    ) in the medial aspect of the inguinal region that triggers pain upon minimal pressure. As TPs may play a role in the pathophysiology of PIPP, the aim of this trial was to investigate the analgesic effects of local anaesthetic TP-blockade. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial......-algometry) and quantitative sensory testing (pressure pain thresholds, thermal detection/pain thresholds, supra-threshold heat perception), before and after the TP-blockade. RESULTS: The median (95% CI) reduction in pain was 63% (44.1 to 73.6%) after bupivacaine compared with 36% (11.6 to 49.7%; P=0.003) after placebo....... Significant increases in cool detection (P=0.01) and pressure pain thresholds (P=0.009) with decreases in supra-threshold heat pain perception (P=0.003) were seen after bupivacaine only. In four out of six volunteers, increased thermal and evoked-pain thresholds after bupivacaine compared with placebo...

  1. Cutaneous lesions sensory impairment recovery and nerve regeneration in leprosy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Illarramendi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the mechanisms that enable peripheral neurons to regenerate after nerve injury in order to identify methods of improving this regeneration. Therefore, we studied nerve regeneration and sensory impairment recovery in the cutaneous lesions of leprosy patients (LPs before and after treatment with multidrug therapy (MDT. The skin lesion sensory test results were compared to the histopathological and immunohistochemical protein gene product (PGP 9.5 and the p75 nerve growth factor receptors (NGFr findings. The cutaneous neural occupation ratio (CNOR was evaluated for both neural markers. Thermal and pain sensations were the most frequently affected functions at the first visit and the most frequently recovered functions after MDT. The presence of a high cutaneous nerve damage index did not prevent the recovery of any type of sensory function. The CNOR was calculated for each biopsy, according to the presence of PGP and NGFr-immunostained fibres and it was not significantly different before or after the MDT. We observed a variable influence of MDT in the recovery from sensory impairment in the cutaneous lesions of LPs. Nociception and cold thermosensation were the most recovered sensations. The recovery of sensation in the skin lesions appeared to be associated with subsiding inflammation rather than with the regenerative activity of nerve fibres.

  2. Striatal morphology correlates with sensory abnormalities in unaffected relatives of cervical dystonia patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Richard A

    2012-02-01

    Structural grey matter abnormalities have been described in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (AOPTD). Altered spatial discrimination thresholds are found in familial and sporadic AOPTD and in some unaffected relatives who may be non-manifesting gene carriers. Our hypothesis was that a subset of unaffected relatives with abnormal spatial acuity would have associated structural abnormalities. Twenty-eight unaffected relatives of patients with familial cervical dystonia, 24 relatives of patients with sporadic cervical dystonia and 27 control subjects were recruited. Spatial discrimination thresholds (SDTs) were determined using a grating orientation task. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images (1.5 T) were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. Unaffected familial relatives with abnormal SDTs had reduced caudate grey matter volume (GMV) bilaterally relative to those with normal SDTs (right Z = 3.45, left Z = 3.81), where there was a negative correlation between SDTs and GMV (r = -0.76, r(2) = 0.58, p < 0.0001). Familial relatives also had bilateral sensory cortical expansion relative to unrelated controls (right Z = 4.02, left Z = 3.79). Unaffected relatives of patients with sporadic cervical dystonia who had abnormal SDTs had reduced putaminal GMV bilaterally compared with those with normal SDTs (right Z = 3.96, left Z = 3.45). Sensory abnormalities in some unaffected relatives correlate with a striatal substrate and may be a marker of genetic susceptibility in these individuals. Further investigation of grey matter changes as a candidate endophenotype may assist future genetic studies of dystonia.

  3. Expression Patterns of Odorant Receptors and Response Properties of Olfactory Sensory Neurons in Aged Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Anderson C.; Tian, Huikai; Grosmaitre, Xavier; Ma, Minghong

    2009-01-01

    The sense of smell deteriorates in normal aging, but the underling mechanisms are still elusive. Here we investigated age-related alterations in expression patterns of odorant receptor (OR) genes and functional properties of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs)—2 critical factors that define the odor detection threshold in the olfactory epithelium. Using in situ hybridization for 9 representative OR genes, we compared the cell densities of each OR in coronal nose sections at different ages (3–27 ...

  4. Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saig, Avraham; Gordon, Goren; Assa, Eldad; Arieli, Amos; Ahissar, Ehud

    2012-10-03

    Perception involves motor control of sensory organs. However, the dynamics underlying emergence of perception from motor-sensory interactions are not yet known. Two extreme possibilities are as follows: (1) motor and sensory signals interact within an open-loop scheme in which motor signals determine sensory sampling but are not affected by sensory processing and (2) motor and sensory signals are affected by each other within a closed-loop scheme. We studied the scheme of motor-sensory interactions in humans using a novel object localization task that enabled monitoring the relevant overt motor and sensory variables. We found that motor variables were dynamically controlled within each perceptual trial, such that they gradually converged to steady values. Training on this task resulted in improvement in perceptual acuity, which was achieved solely by changes in motor variables, without any change in the acuity of sensory readout. The within-trial dynamics is captured by a hierarchical closed-loop model in which lower loops actively maintain constant sensory coding, and higher loops maintain constant sensory update flow. These findings demonstrate interchangeability of motor and sensory variables in perception, motor convergence during perception, and a consistent hierarchical closed-loop perceptual model.

  5. Evaluation of participants' perception and taste thresholds with a zirconia palatal plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takeshi; Takano, Tomofumi; Tasaka, Akinori; Ueda, Takayuki; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2016-10-01

    Zirconia and cobalt-chromium can withstand a similar degree of loading. Therefore, using a zirconia base for removable dentures could allow the thickness of the palatal area to be reduced similarly to metal base dentures. We hypothesized that zirconia palatal plate for removable dentures provides a high level of participants' perception without influencing taste thresholds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the participants' perception and taste thresholds of zirconia palatal plate. Palatal plates fabricated using acrylic resin, zirconia, and cobalt-chromium alloy were inserted into healthy individuals. Taste thresholds were investigated using the whole-mouth gustatory test, and participants' perception was evaluated using the 100-mm visual analog scale to assess the ease of pronunciation, ease of swallowing, sensation of temperature, metallic taste, sensation of foreign body, subjective sensory about weight, adhesiveness of chewing gum, and general satisfaction. For the taste thresholds, no significant differences were noted in sweet, salty, sour, bitter, or umami tastes among participants wearing no plate, or the resin, zirconia, and metal plates. Speech was easier and foreign body sensation was lower with the zirconia plate than with the resin plate. Evaluation of the adhesiveness of chewing gum showed that chewing gum does not readily adhere to the zirconia plate in comparison with the metal plate. The comprehensive participants' perception of the zirconia plate was evaluated as being superior to the resin plate. A zirconia palatal plate provides a high level of participants' perception without influencing taste thresholds. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Working memory resources are shared across sensory modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, V R; Moisala, M; Alho, K

    2014-10-01

    A common assumption in the working memory literature is that the visual and auditory modalities have separate and independent memory stores. Recent evidence on visual working memory has suggested that resources are shared between representations, and that the precision of representations sets the limit for memory performance. We tested whether memory resources are also shared across sensory modalities. Memory precision for two visual (spatial frequency and orientation) and two auditory (pitch and tone duration) features was measured separately for each feature and for all possible feature combinations. Thus, only the memory load was varied, from one to four features, while keeping the stimuli similar. In Experiment 1, two gratings and two tones-both containing two varying features-were presented simultaneously. In Experiment 2, two gratings and two tones-each containing only one varying feature-were presented sequentially. The memory precision (delayed discrimination threshold) for a single feature was close to the perceptual threshold. However, as the number of features to be remembered was increased, the discrimination thresholds increased more than twofold. Importantly, the decrease in memory precision did not depend on the modality of the other feature(s), or on whether the features were in the same or in separate objects. Hence, simultaneously storing one visual and one auditory feature had an effect on memory precision equal to those of simultaneously storing two visual or two auditory features. The results show that working memory is limited by the precision of the stored representations, and that working memory can be described as a resource pool that is shared across modalities.

  7. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conditions in which altered behavioral responses to sensory stimuli have been firmly established. A continuum of sensory processing defects due to imbalanced neuronal inhibition and excitation across these disorders has been hypothesizedthat may lead to common symptoms of inadequate modulation of behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. Here, we investigated the prevalence of sensory modulation disorders among children with epilepsy and their relation with symptomatology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We used the Sensory Profile questionnaire to assess behavioral responses to sensory stimuli and categorize sensory modulation disorders in children with active epilepsy (aged 4-17 years). We related these outcomes to epilepsy characteristics and tested their association with comorbid symptoms of ASD (Social Responsiveness Scale) and ADHD (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Sensory modulation disorders were reported in 49 % of the 158 children. Children with epilepsy reported increased behavioral responses associated with sensory "sensitivity," "sensory avoidance," and "poor registration" but not "sensory seeking." Comorbidity of ASD and ADHD was associated with more severe sensory modulation problems, although 27 % of typically developing children with epilepsy also reported a sensory modulation disorder. Sensory modulation disorders are an under-recognized problem in children with epilepsy. The extent of the modulation difficulties indicates a substantial burden on daily functioning and may explain an important part of the behavioral distress associated with childhood epilepsy.

  8. Sensory shelf-life limiting factor of high hydrostatic pressure processed avocado paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Velázquez, D A; Hernández-Brenes, C

    2011-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing pasteurizes avocado paste without a significant impact on flavor. Although HHP-treated avocado paste stored under refrigeration is safe for human consumption for months, sensory changes taking place during storage cause the rejection of the product by consumers within days. Although it is known that the shelf life of the product ends before its microbial counts are high, its sensory shelf life limiting factor remains unknown. The present study focused on the use of a trained panel and a consumer panel to determine the sensory shelf life limiting factor of HHP-treated avocado paste. The trained panel identified sour and rancid flavors as the main sensory descriptors (critical descriptors) that differentiated stored from freshly processed samples. Further data obtained from consumers identified sour flavor as the main cause for a significant decrease in the acceptability (shelf life limiting factor) of refrigerated HHP-treated avocado paste. The study allowed the elucidation of a proposed deterioration mechanism for HHP-treated avocado paste during its refrigerated shelf life. The information through this work enhances scientific knowledge of the product and proposes the sour flavor development during storage as a relevant sensory attribute that needs to be improved in order to enhance the product shelf life. At present, HHP is the most effective commercial nonthermal technology to process avocado paste when compared to thermal and chemical alternatives. HHP-treated avocado paste is a microbiologically stable food for a period of at least 45 d stored under refrigeration. However, previous published work indicated that consumers rejected the product after approximately 19 d of storage due to sensory changes. This manuscript presents a sensory study that permitted the identification of the critical sensory descriptor that is acting as the sensory shelf life limiting factor of the product. The data presented herein along with

  9. Thermal drift reduction with multiple bias current for MOSFET dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvajal, M A; Martinez-Olmos, A; Morales, D P; Lopez-Villanueva, J A; Palma, A J [Departamento de Electronica y TecnologIa de Computadores, ETSIIT, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Lallena, A M, E-mail: carvajal@ugr.es [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2011-06-21

    New thermal compensation methods suitable for p-channel MOSFET (pMOS) dosimeters with the usual dose readout procedure based on a constant drain current are presented. Measuring the source-drain voltage shifts for two or three different drain currents and knowing the value of the zero-temperature coefficient drain current, I{sub ZTC}, the thermal drift of source-drain or threshold voltages can be significantly reduced. Analytical expressions for the thermal compensation have been theoretically deduced on the basis of a linear dependence on temperature of the parameters involved. The proposed thermal modelling has been experimentally proven. These methods have been applied to a group of ten commercial pMOS transistors (3N163). The thermal coefficients of the source-drain voltage and the threshold voltage were reduced from -3.0 mV deg. C{sup -1}, in the worst case, down to -70 {mu}V deg. C{sup -1}. This means a thermal drift of -2.4 mGy deg. C{sup -1} for the dosimeter. When analysing the thermal drifts of all the studied transistors, in the temperature range from 19 to 36 deg. C, uncertainty was obtained in the threshold voltage due to a thermal drift of {+-}9mGy (2 SD), a commonly acceptable value in most radiotherapy treatments. The procedures described herein provide thermal drift reduction comparable to that of other technological or numerical strategies, but can be used in a very simple and low-cost dosimetry sensor.

  10. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR): Understanding the triggers

    OpenAIRE

    Barratt, EL; Spence, CJ; Davis, NJ

    2017-01-01

    The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as...

  11. Characterization of three different sensory fibers by use of neonatal capsaicin treatment, spinal antagonism and a novel electrical stimulation-induced paw flexion test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Asuka

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, we first report an in vivo characterization of flexor responses induced by three distinct sine-wave stimuli in the electrical stimulation-induced paw flexion (EPF test in mice. The fixed sine-wave electric stimulations of 5 Hz (C-fiber, 250 Hz (Aδ-fiber and 2000 Hz (Aβ-fiber to the hind paw of mice induced a paw-flexion response and vocalization. The average threshold for paw flexor responses by sine-wave stimulations was much lower than that for vocalization. Neonatally (P3 pretreatment with capsaicin to degenerate polymodal substance P-ergic C-fiber neurons increased the threshold to 5 Hz (C-fiber stimuli, but not to 250 Hz (Aδ-fiber and 2000 Hz (Aβ-fiber. The flexor responses to 5 Hz stimuli were significantly blocked by intrathecal (i.t. pretreatment with both CP-99994 and MK-801, an NK1 and NMDA receptor antagonist, respectively, but not by CNQX, an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. On the other hand, the flexor responses induced by 250 Hz stimuli were blocked by MK-801 (i.t. but not by CP-99994 or CNQX. In contrast, flexor responses induced by 2000 Hz stimuli were only blocked by CNQX treatment. These data suggest that we have identified three pharmacologically different categories of responses mediated through different primary afferent fibers. Furthermore, we also carried out characterization of the in vivo functional sensitivity of each of the sensory fiber types in nerve-injured mice using the EPF test, and found that the threshold to both 250 Hz and 2000 Hz stimulations were markedly decreased, whereas the threshold to 5 Hz stimulations was significantly increased. Thus we found opposing effects on specific sensory fiber-mediated responses as a result of nerve injury in mice. These results also suggest that the EPF analysis is useful for the evaluation of plasticity in sensory functions in animal disease models.

  12. Sensory functions in the foot soles in victims of generalized torture, in victims also beaten under the feet (falanga and in healthy controls – A blinded study using quantitative sensory testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prip Karen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falanga torture (beatings on the foot soles produces local chronic pain and severe walking difficulties. We have previously reported signs of neuropathic pain in the feet of falanga victims. The objective here was to clarify underlying pain mechanisms by quantifying sensory impairments in the feet of torture victims who had experienced both generalized torture and those who had been exposed to falanga in addition. An ethnically matched control group was available. Methods We employed quantitative sensory testing (QST by investigators blinded to whether the patients, 32 male torture victims from the Middle East, had (n=15, or had not (n=17 been exposed to falanga. Pain intensity, area and stimulus dependence were used to characterize the pain as were interview data on sensory symptoms. QST included thresholds for touch, cold, warmth, cold-pain, heat-pain, deep pressure pain and wind-up to cutaneous noxious stimuli in the foot soles. Clinical data on anxiety and depression were retrieved. Results Almost all falanga victims had moderate or strong pain in their feet and in twice as large an area of their foot soles as other torture victims. One-third of the latter had no pain in their feet and many reported slight pain; in spite of this, there were no differences in foot sole QST data between the tortured groups. A comparison with normal data indicated that both tortured groups had hypoesthesia for all cutaneous sensory fibre groups except those transmitting cold and heat pain, in addition to deep mechano-nociceptive hyperalgesia. Conclusion A comparison of the QST data between victims having been exposed to generalized torture and victims who in addition had been exposed to falanga, showed no differences on the group level. The sensory disturbances in relation to our control group are compatible with central sensitization and de-sensitization, pointing to a core role of central mechanisms. A further analysis to create individual

  13. Improvement of Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of Epoxy/boron Nitride/silver Nanoparticle Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungyong; Lim, Soonho [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of BN (boron nitride) on the thermal and the electrical conductivity of composites. In case of epoxy/BN composites, the thermal conductivity was increased as the BN contents were increased. Epoxy/AgNP (Ag nanoparticle) nanocomposites exhibited a slight change of thermal conductivity and showed a electrical percolation threshold at 20 vol% of Ag nanoparticles. At the fixed Ag nanoparticle content below the electrical percolation threshold, increasing the amount of BN enhanced the electrical conductivity as well as thermal conductivity for the epoxy/AgNP/BN composites.

  14. Sensory profiling: a method for describing the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon, David H.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory profiling is an objective, descriptive technique which uses a panel of trained assessors. It was used at Campden to differentiate olive oil which differed in terms of the country of origin, variety, ripeness and extraction techniques. The data were related to similar results from the Netherlands and Italy. The results indicated that all three sensory panels perceived the samples in the same way, however, the differed in the way the oils were described.
    The new European legislation on olive oil is partially concerned with the sensory aspects of the oil. The sensory grading takes into account the 'positive' and 'negative' attributes in the oil before giving an overall quality grade. These attributes do not reflect the consumer requirements, therefore, the grading should be restricted to the assessment of the presence or absence of sensory defects.

  15. Patterned sensory nerve stimulation enhances the reactivity of spinal Ia inhibitory interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shinji; Hirano, Masato; Morishita, Takuya; Uehara, Kazumasa; Funase, Kozo

    2015-03-25

    Patterned sensory nerve stimulation has been shown to induce plastic changes in the reciprocal Ia inhibitory circuit. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes have not yet been elucidated in detail. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the reactivity of Ia inhibitory interneurons could be altered by patterned sensory nerve stimulation. The degree of reciprocal Ia inhibition, the conditioning effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the soleus (SOL) muscle H-reflex, and the ratio of the maximum H-reflex amplitude versus maximum M-wave (H(max)/M(max)) were examined in 10 healthy individuals. Patterned electrical nerve stimulation was applied to the common peroneal nerve every 1 s (100 Hz-5 train) at the motor threshold intensity of tibialis anterior muscle to induce activity changes in the reciprocal Ia inhibitory circuit. Reciprocal Ia inhibition, the TMS-conditioned H-reflex amplitude, and H(max)/M(max) were recorded before, immediately after, and 15 min after the electrical stimulation. The patterned electrical nerve stimulation significantly increased the degree of reciprocal Ia inhibition and decreased the amplitude of the TMS-conditioned H-reflex in the short-latency inhibition phase, which was presumably mediated by Ia inhibitory interneurons. However, it had no effect on H(max)/M(max). Our results indicated that patterned sensory nerve stimulation could modulate the activity of Ia inhibitory interneurons, and this change may have been caused by the synaptic modification of Ia inhibitory interneuron terminals. These results may lead to a clearer understanding of the spinal cord synaptic plasticity produced by repetitive sensory inputs. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensori-neural hearing loss in patients treated with irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, C.; Moller, K.; Overgaard, M.; Overgaard, J.; Elbrond, O.

    1991-01-01

    The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the inner ear to irradiation. Cochlear function was tested in a cohort of 22 patients before and 7-84 months after receiving external irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The pre-irradiation sensori-neural hearing threshold at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz was used as a baseline for the individual patient, and the observed sensori-neural hearing loss (SNHL) was calculated as the difference between pre- and post-irradiation values. The pre-irradiation hearing level or patient age was not correlated with the actual SNHL. In contrast, there was a significant correlation between the total radiation dose to the inner ear and the observed hearing impairment. SNHL was most pronounced in the high frequencies, with values up to 35 dB (4000 Hz) and 25 dB (2000 Hz) in some patients. The latent period for the complication appeared to be 12 months or more. The deleterious effect of irradiation on the hearing should be kept in mind both in treatment planning and in the follow-up after radiotherapy

  17. Designing thermal diode and heat pump based on DNA nanowire: Multifractal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnia, S., E-mail: s.behnia@iaurmia.ac.ir; Panahinia, R.

    2017-07-12

    The management of heat flow in DNA nano wire was considered. Thermal diode effect in DNA and the domain of its appearance dependent to system parameters have been detected. The appearance of directed thermal flow in thermodynamic sizes proposes the possibility of designing the macroscopic thermal rectifier. By applying driven force, pumping effect has been also observed. The resonance frequency of DNA and threshold amplitudes of driving force for attaining permanent pumping effect have been detected. Forasmuch as detecting negative differential thermal resistance (NDTR) phenomenon, DNA can act as a thermal transistor. By using an analytical parallel investigation based on Rényi spectrum analysis, threshold values to transition to NDTR and pumping regimes have been detected. - Highlights: • The control and management of heat current in DNA have been investigated. • Directed thermal flow and NDTR in DNA have been identified. • By increasing the system size, the reversed thermal rectification appeared. So, it is proposed the possibility of designing the macroscopic thermal rectifier. • Pumping effect accompanied with detection of resonance frequency of DNA has been observed. • To verify the results, we did a parallel analysis based on multifractal concept to detect threshold values for transition to pumping state and NDTR regime.

  18. Stimulation of the ventral tegmental area increased nociceptive thresholds and decreased spinal dorsal horn neuronal activity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Ling; Sibi, Jiny E; Yang, Xiaofei; Chiao, Jung-Chih; Peng, Yuan Bo

    2016-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation has been found to be effective in relieving intractable pain. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a role not only in the reward process, but also in the modulation of nociception. Lesions of VTA result in increased pain thresholds and exacerbate pain in several pain models. It is hypothesized that direct activation of VTA will reduce pain experience. In this study, we investigated the effect of direct electrical stimulation of the VTA on mechanical, thermal and carrageenan-induced chemical nociceptive thresholds in Sprague-Dawley rats using our custom-designed wireless stimulator. We found that: (1) VTA stimulation itself did not show any change in mechanical or thermal threshold; and (2) the decreased mechanical and thermal thresholds induced by carrageenan injection in the hind paw contralateral to the stimulation site were significantly reversed by VTA stimulation. To further explore the underlying mechanism of VTA stimulation-induced analgesia, spinal cord dorsal horn neuronal responses to graded mechanical stimuli were recorded. VTA stimulation significantly inhibited dorsal horn neuronal activity in response to pressure and pinch from the paw, but not brush. This indicated that VTA stimulation may have exerted its analgesic effect via descending modulatory pain pathways, possibly through its connections with brain stem structures and cerebral cortex areas.

  19. Tactile, thermal, and electrical thresholds in patients with and without phantom limb pain after traumatic lower limb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Shengai Li,1,2 Danielle H Melton,1,2 Sheng Li1,2 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 2Neurorehabilitation Research Laboratory, TIRR Memorial Hermann Research Center, Houston, TX, USA Purpose: To examine whether there is central sensitization in patients with phantom limb pain (PLP after traumatic limb amputation. Methods: Seventeen patients after unilateral lower limb amputation secondary to trauma were enrolled. Ten patients had chronic PLP, while the other seven patients had no PLP. Tactile-sensation threshold, cold- and warm-sensation thresholds, cold- and heat-pain thresholds, electrical-sensation threshold (EST, and electrical-pain threshold on the distal residual limb and the symmetrical site on the sound limb were measured in all tested patients. Their thresholds were compared within the PLP and non-PLP group, and between the groups. Results: The novel findings included: 1 electrical-pain threshold was only decreased in the sound limb in the PLP group and there was no difference between two limbs in the non-PLP group, suggesting central sensitization in patients with PLP; and 2 EST was increased on the affected limb as compared to the sound limb within the PLP group, but there were no significant differences in EST between the PLP and non-PLP group. There were in general no significant differences in other tested thresholds within the groups and between groups. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate central sensitization in the patients with PLP after traumatic limb amputation. Keywords: central sensitization, pain threshold, human

  20. Sensory adaptation for timing perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-04-22

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception.

  1. Thermal detection thresholds of Aδ- and C-fibre afferents activated by brief CO2 laser pulses applied onto the human hairy skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Churyukanov

    Full Text Available Brief high-power laser pulses applied onto the hairy skin of the distal end of a limb generate a double sensation related to the activation of Aδ- and C-fibres, referred to as first and second pain. However, neurophysiological and behavioural responses related to the activation of C-fibres can be studied reliably only if the concomitant activation of Aδ-fibres is avoided. Here, using a novel CO(2 laser stimulator able to deliver constant-temperature heat pulses through a feedback regulation of laser power by an online measurement of skin temperature at target site, combined with an adaptive staircase algorithm using reaction-time to distinguish between responses triggered by Aδ- and C-fibre input, we show that it is possible to estimate robustly and independently the thermal detection thresholds of Aδ-fibres (46.9±1.7°C and C-fibres (39.8±1.7°C. Furthermore, we show that both thresholds are dependent on the skin temperature preceding and/or surrounding the test stimulus, indicating that the Aδ- and C-fibre afferents triggering the behavioural responses to brief laser pulses behave, at least partially, as detectors of a change in skin temperature rather than as pure level detectors. Most importantly, our results show that the difference in threshold between Aδ- and C-fibre afferents activated by brief laser pulses can be exploited to activate C-fibres selectively and reliably, provided that the rise in skin temperature generated by the laser stimulator is well-controlled. Our approach could constitute a tool to explore, in humans, the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in processing C- and Aδ-fibre input, respectively.

  2. Thresholds and perception of cold pain, heat pain, and the thermal grill illusion in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Michael Karl; Grossmann, David; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The thermal grill illusion (TGI) in which interlacing cold and warm bars create the illusion of a painful sensation has been suggested as an experimental model for central pain states and pain processing. The aim of this study was to use this technique to gain further insights into the altered pain perception in major depressive disorder (MDD). In 18 unmedicated patients with MDD, cold and heat pain thresholds (CPT/HPT) as well as the perception of the TGI were examined and compared with 18 matched controls. CPT and HPT were significantly increased in patients (7.9°C and 47.5°C) compared with controls (15.9°C and 45.2°C, respectively; p painful by controls, the patients did not indicate painful sensations, thereby indicating a shift of the stimulus-response curve of TGI pain perception toward higher stimulus intensities, that is, greater temperature differentials between cold and warm bars (11.5°C for controls, 16.7°C for patients). The patients rated the pain intensity perceived at the respective pain thresholds (CPT and HPT) in tendency higher than did the controls, whereas they perceived the TGI less painful despite increased stimulus intensities. Unpleasantness ratings were similar between groups. CPT, HPT and temperature differentials for the perception of the TGI, were increased in patients with MDD as compared with controls. Pain intensity, however, was rated differently for CPT and HPT, where patients indicated higher ratings in tendency, and for the TGI stimulation, where pain was perceived less intense.

  3. Asymmetric dimethylarginine may mediate increased heat pain threshold in experimental chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielstein, Jan T; Suntharalingam, Mayuren; Perthel, Ronny; Rong, Song; Martens-Lobenhoffer, Jens; Jäger, Kristin; Bode-Böger, Stefanie M; Nave, Heike

    2012-03-01

    Thermal sensitivity in uraemia is decreased. Non-selective synthetic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors significantly attenuate thermal hyperalgesia in preclinical models. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of experimental uraemia, which is associated with an increase of the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), on thermal sensitivity in rats. Furthermore, we intended to study the effect of chronic ADMA infusion alone on thermal sensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 54), 10 weeks old, weight 370-430 g, were randomly assigned to three groups receiving either (i) isotonic saline or (ii) ADMA via osmotic mini pumps or (iii) underwent 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). After 14 days, 50% of all animals from all groups underwent thermal sensitivity testing and terminal blood draw. After 28 days, the remaining animals underwent the same procedures. Thermal sensitivity examination was performed by the hot-plate test, measuring time from heat exposition to first paw licking or jumping of the animal. While the median [interquartile range] latency time between heat exposition to first paw licking or jumping of the animal in the NaCl infusion group remained unchanged between Day 14 (8.4 [6.75-11.50] s) and Day 28 (7.35 [6.10-7.90] s) both, ADMA infusion and 5/6 nephrectomy tended to increase the thermal pain threshold at Day 14 (9.25 [6.55-12.18] s) and (9.50 [5.8 ± 11.0] s), respectively, compared to NaCl on Day 14 (8.4 [6.75-11.50] s). This difference became statistical significant at Day 28 where the median latency time in the ADMA group (13.10 [11.85-15.95] s) and in the 5/6 Nx group (13.50 [10.85-17.55] s) were significantly higher than in the NaCl group (7.35 [6.10-7.90] s). Induction of progressive renal failure in rats by 5/6 nephrectomy, which is accompanied by a marked increase of the serum levels of the endogenous NOS inhibitor ADMA, leads to a significantly increased heat pain threshold at 28 days. The sole infusion of ADMA into

  4. Desempenho motor e sensorial de lactentes com e sem síndrome de Down: estudo piloto Motor and sensory performance of infants with and without Down syndrome: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Campos

    2010-09-01

    detecting sensory stimuli, sensation seeking, excessive sensitivity to stimuli, and sensation avoiding behaviours. Results show that infants with DS had significantly lower scores in low registration when compared to typical infants, suggesting that their higher sensory threshold lead to longer reaction times. At the AIMS, infants with DS had lower performance when compared to typical infants at the prone subscale, which may be due to deficits in postural and antigravity control. No correlation was found between ITSP and AIMS scores. Results then suggest that infants with Down syndrome may less frequently engage in environmental interactions, probably due both to difficulty in perceiving day-to-day stimuli (like diverse sounds or people's and difficulty to explore the environment by using their limited motor abilities.

  5. Cortical and Sensory Causes of Individual Differences in Selective Attention Ability among Listeners with Normal Hearing Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This review provides clinicians with an overview of recent findings relevant to understanding why listeners with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs) sometimes suffer from communication difficulties in noisy settings. Method: The results from neuroscience and psychoacoustics are reviewed. Results: In noisy settings, listeners focus their…

  6. What is Sensory about Multi-Sensory Enhancement of Vision by Sounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Pérez-Bellido

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Can auditory input influence the sensory processing of visual information? Many studies have reported cross-modal enhancement in visual tasks, but the nature of such gain is still unclear. Some authors argue for ‘high-order’ expectancy or attention effects, whereas others propose ‘low-order’ stimulus-driven multisensory integration. The present study applies a psychophysical analysis of reaction time distributions in order to disentangle sensory changes from other kind of high-order (not sensory-specific effects. Observers performed a speeded simple detection task on Gabor patches of different spatial frequencies and contrasts, with and without accompanying sounds. The data were adjusted using chronometric functions in order to separate changes is sensory evidence from changes in decision or motor times. The results supported the existence of a stimulus unspecific auditory-induced enhancement in RTs across all types of visual stimuli, probably mediated by higher-order effects (eg, reduction of temporal uncertainty. Critically, we also singled out a sensory gain that was selective to low spatial frequency stimuli, highlighting the role of the magno-cellular visual pathway in multisensory integration for fast detection. The present findings help clarify previous mixed findings in the area, and introduce a novel form to evaluate cross-modal enhancement.

  7. Sensory perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental condition, and little is known about its neurobiology. Much of autism research has focused on the social, communication and cognitive difficulties associated with the condition. However, the recent revision of the diagnostic criteria for autism has brought another key domain of autistic experience into focus: sensory processing. Here, we review the properties of sensory processing in autism and discuss recent computational and neurobiological insights arising from attention to these behaviours. We argue that sensory traits have important implications for the development of animal and computational models of the condition. Finally, we consider how difficulties in sensory processing may relate to the other domains of behaviour that characterize autism.

  8. Differentiation of pain ratings in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Anja; Geuze, Elbert; Schmahl, Christian; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Bohus, Martin; Vermetten, Eric

    2009-06-01

    Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with chronic pain, preliminary evidence suggests reduced experimental pain sensitivity in this disorder. The questions addressed in the present study were whether pain perception would also be reduced in PTSD patients who are not suffering from chronic pain symptoms, and whether a reduction in pain sensitivity would also be present in combat veterans who did not develop PTSD. For this, we determined thermal detection and pain thresholds in 10 male combat-related PTSD patients, 10 combat control subjects (no PTSD) and 10 healthy controls without combat experience. All subjects were pain free. First, we measured thermal sensory thresholds with ramped heat and cold stimuli using the method of limits. Ramped thermal sensory stimulation revealed no deficits for the detection of (non-noxious) f2.1thermal stimuli between groups. In contrast, heat and cold pain thresholds in both combat groups (PTSD and combat controls) were significantly increased compared to healthy controls. However, these stimuli could not distinguish between the two groups due to ceiling effects. When using longer-lasting heat stimulation at different temperatures (30s duration; method of fixed stimuli), we found significantly lower frequency of pain reports in PTSD patients compared with both combat and healthy controls, as well as significantly lower pain ratings. Our results suggest an association of PTSD with reduced pain sensitivity, which could be related to PTSD-related (neuro-)psychological alterations or to a pre-existing risk factor for the disorder.

  9. Efficiency and threshold pump intensity of CW solar-pumped solid-state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In H.; Lee, Ja H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors consider the relation between the threshold pumping intensity, the material properties, the resonator parameters, and the ultimate slope efficiencies of various solid-state laser materials for solar pumping. They clarify the relation between the threshold pump intensity and the material parameters and the relation between the ultimate slope efficiency and the laser resonator parameters such that a design criterion for the solar-pumped solid-state laser can be established. Among the laser materials evaluated, alexandrite has the highest slope efficiency of about 12.6 percent; however, it does not seem to be practical for a solar-pumped laser application because of its high threshold pump intensity. Cr:Nd:GSGG is the most promising for solar-pumped lasing. Its threshold pump intensity is about 100 air-mass-zero (AM0) solar constants and its slope efficiency is about 12 percent when thermal deformation is completely prevented.

  10. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, pmaintain balance compared to the controls.

  11. Determination of threshold values for operating transients via 3-D parametric analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, P.P.; Baylac, G.; Faidy, C.

    1983-01-01

    The main objective of the work reported herein was to determine the threshold values of operating parameters such as internal pressure and temperature fluctuations in order that the monitoring of these parameters could be optimized in an operating nuclear power plant on the basis that these fluctuations would not adversely affect the structural integrity and/or fatigue life of the systems and components involved. Accordingly, a parametric study was performed, using a typical and potentially critical lateral connection commonly used in the PWR system. The d/D and D/T ratios for the selected configuration were 0.36 and 10.6, respectively. A three dimensional finite element model was generated for the study using the latest modeling techniques. The stresses due to 1 MPa internal pressure were computed first. Then, a transient thermal analysis was performed for the specified fluid temperature fluctuation of 30 0 C in 60 seconds. Subsequently, a thermal stress analysis was performed using the calculated thermal gradients through the wall. The results of the foregoing analyses are presented and discussed with the help of a threshold equation formulated to prevent fatigue failure. Stress intensification factors are also reported for critical areas

  12. Bread making properties of wheat flour supplemented with thermally processed hypoallergenic lupine flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillamon, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Pedrosa, M. M.; Varela, A.; Cabellos, B.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in using lupine for human nutrition due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Moreover, lupine is used as an ingredient in bread making because of its functional and technological properties. However, a higher number of allergic reactions to this legume have recently been reported as a consequence of a more widespread consumption of lupine-based foods. In a previous study, several thermal treatments were applied to lupine seeds and flours resulting in reduced allergenicity. In order to study how this thermal processing (autoclaving and boiling) affects the bread making properties, raw and thermally processed lupine flours were used to replace 10% of wheat flour. The effect of supplementing wheat flour with lupine flour on physical dough properties, bread structure and sensory characteristics were analysed. The results indicated that thermally-treated lupine flours, had similar bread making and sensorial properties as untreated lupine flour. These thermal treatments could increase the potential use of lupine flour as a food ingredient while reducing the risk to provoke allergic reactions. (Author) 36 refs.

  13. Soup Cooking by Thermal Insulation Method

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 辰江; 根本, 勢子; サトウ, タツエ; ネモト, セイコ; TATSUE, SATO; SEIKO, NEMOTO

    1992-01-01

    In order to examine the thermal insulation method of soup cooking, we cooked two kinds of soup. The soup cooked by thermal insulation method was compared with the soup cooked by standard boiling method. ln sensory test, it was more aromatic and palatable than the soup by boiling, and some panels commented that it was rather mild. The measured values of pH, specific gravity, acidity and amount of dry weight of souble solids, total-N, formal-N of the soup cooked by the two methods mentioned abo...

  14. The Chemical Background for Sensory Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shujuan

    compounds and consequently change the sensory quality in wine which provide the useful information of wine quality management to winemakers to as well as knowledge on the behaviour of wine oxidation. Additional, studies focused on understanding the development of volatiles during accelerated cheese ripening......In the food industry, high sensory quality and stability of products are crucial factors for consumer satisfaction and market shares. Sensory quality is normally being evaluated by two major approaches: instrumental (volatile and nonvolatile compounds) approach and sensory approach by trained...... and sensory methods in understanding the pre-fermentation treatment on sensory quality of wine (Study 3). In Study 4, the RATA method was used to provide the intensity of significant sensory descriptors that discriminate the significant differences between chocolate samples. Part three step by step moves...

  15. Effects of aging on vibration detection thresholds at various body regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Natalie

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to detect sinusoidal vibrations on the skin surface is dependent on the activation of two classes of receptors. The density of such receptors varies across the skin surface and is a factor in determining the sensory acuity of each skin area. However, the acuity of many sensory systems is known to deteriorate with advancing age. The aim of this study was to determine if vibrotactile sensibility of several skin surfaces deteriorated equally with advancing age. Methods Vibration detection thresholds for two frequencies of vibration (30 Hz and 200 Hz were determined using a method of limits protocol, in two groups of healthy adults, one group aged 17 to 27 years and the other aged 55 to 90 years. Sinusoidal vibrations were generated by a computer and delivered to the skin surface via the probe (diameter = 2 mm of a mechanical vibrator. Four skin sites (palmar surface of the tip of the middle finger, volar surface of the forearm, lateral aspect of the shoulder, cheek just caudal to the zygoma were tested. Results The fingertip was the most sensitive site for vibrotactile detection at both frequencies in a substantial majority of subjects. The older group of subjects showed significantly higher detection thresholds for both frequencies at all sites, except the fingertip, when compared to young subjects. Conclusion The study confirms the deterioration of vibrotactile acuity at several skin sites previously reported in the literature. However, there appears to be no significant reduction in vibrotactile detection at the fingertips in older subjects. This may reflect the high receptor density of this area, or the functional importance of vibrotactile sensibility of the fingertips or some combination of both of these factors.

  16. Evaluating Sensory Processing in Fragile X Syndrome: Psychometric Analysis of the Brain Body Center Sensory Scales (BBCSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolacz, Jacek; Raspa, Melissa; Heilman, Keri J; Porges, Stephen W

    2018-06-01

    Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS), especially those co-diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), face many sensory processing challenges. However, sensory processing measures informed by neurophysiology are lacking. This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of a parent/caregiver report, the Brain-Body Center Sensory Scales (BBCSS), based on Polyvagal Theory. Parents/guardians reported on 333 individuals with FXS, 41% with ASD features. Factor structure using a split-sample exploratory-confirmatory design conformed to neurophysiological predictions. Internal consistency, test-retest, and inter-rater reliability were good to excellent. BBCSS subscales converged with the Sensory Profile and Sensory Experiences Questionnaire. However, data also suggest that BBCSS subscales reflect unique features related to sensory processing. Individuals with FXS and ASD features displayed more sensory challenges on most subscales.

  17. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials.

  18. Thermal-recovery of modal instability in rod fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Laurila, Marko; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the temporal dynamics of Modal instabilities (MI) in ROD fiber amplifiers using a 100 μm core rod fiber in a single-pass amplifier configuration, and we achieve ~200W of extracted output power before the onset of MI. Above the MI threshold, we investigate the temporal dynamics of b...... and thermally annealed between each test series. We find that the MI threshold degrades as it is reached multiple times, but is recovered by thermal annealing. We also find that the test history of the rods affects the temporal dynamics....

  19. Why do unusual novel foods like insects lack sensory appeal? Investigating the underlying sensory perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan Hui Shan, Grace; Tibboel, Claudia Joyce; Stieger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Unusual novel foods like insects generally hold little sensory appeal for consumers, but little is known about the underlying sensory perceptions and how the properties of the food contribute to acceptance. This study examined the sensory perceptions of 3 unusual novel foods (lamb brain, frog

  20. Cercal sensory system and giant interneurons in Gryllodes sigillatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanou, Masamichi; Nawae, Miyuki; Kuroishi, Hiroyuki

    2006-04-01

    The external morphologies of two cricket species, Gryllodes sigillatus and Gryllus bimaculatus, were investigated. Despite its small body length, G. sigillatus possessed longer cerci and longer cercal filiform hairs than G. bimaculatus. The estimated number of filiform hairs on a cercus was also larger in G. sigillatus than in G. bimaculatus. Wind-sensitive interneurons receiving sensory inputs from cercal filiform hairs and running in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) were investigated in G. sigillatus both morphologically and physiologically. By intracellular staining, these interneurons were proved to be morphologically homologous with previously identified giant interneurons (GIs 8-1, 9-1, 9-2, 9-3, 10-2, and 10-3) in G. bimaculatus and Acheta domesticus. In G. sigillatus, the intensity-response relationship (I-R curve) for each GI was investigated using a unidirectional air current stimulus. The stimulus was applied from 12 different directions, and an I-R curve was obtained for each stimulus direction. Each GI showed a characteristic I-R curve depending on stimulus direction. The directionality curve expressed in terms of threshold velocity showed that each GI had a distinctive directional characteristic. The functional properties of GIs in G. sigillatus, such as I-R curve, threshold velocity, and directional characteristics, were compared with those of homologous GIs in G. bimaculatus in Discussion.

  1. Perception Evolution Network Based on Cognition Deepening Model--Adapting to the Emergence of New Sensory Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Youlu; Shen, Furao; Zhao, Jinxi

    2016-03-01

    The proposed perception evolution network (PEN) is a biologically inspired neural network model for unsupervised learning and online incremental learning. It is able to automatically learn suitable prototypes from learning data in an incremental way, and it does not require the predefined prototype number or the predefined similarity threshold. Meanwhile, being more advanced than the existing unsupervised neural network model, PEN permits the emergence of a new dimension of perception in the perception field of the network. When a new dimension of perception is introduced, PEN is able to integrate the new dimensional sensory inputs with the learned prototypes, i.e., the prototypes are mapped to a high-dimensional space, which consists of both the original dimension and the new dimension of the sensory inputs. In the experiment, artificial data and real-world data are used to test the proposed PEN, and the results show that PEN can work effectively.

  2. Thermal conductivity of electron-irradiated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Asanka; Ramasubramaniam, Ashwin; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-10-01

    We report results of a systematic analysis of thermal transport in electron-irradiated, including irradiation-induced amorphous, graphene sheets based on nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations. We focus on the dependence of the thermal conductivity, k, of the irradiated graphene sheets on the inserted irradiation defect density, c, as well as the extent of defect passivation with hydrogen atoms. While the thermal conductivity of irradiated graphene decreases precipitously from that of pristine graphene, k0, upon introducing a low vacancy concentration, c reduction of the thermal conductivity with the increasing vacancy concentration exhibits a weaker dependence on c until the amorphization threshold. Beyond the onset of amorphization, the dependence of thermal conductivity on the vacancy concentration becomes significantly weaker, and k practically reaches a plateau value. Throughout the range of c and at all hydrogenation levels examined, the correlation k = k0(1 + αc)-1 gives an excellent description of the simulation results. The value of the coefficient α captures the overall strength of the numerous phonon scattering centers in the irradiated graphene sheets, which include monovacancies, vacancy clusters, carbon ring reconstructions, disorder, and a rough nonplanar sheet morphology. Hydrogen passivation increases the value of α, but the effect becomes very minor beyond the amorphization threshold.

  3. Tic Modulation Using Sensory Tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca W. Gilbert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A sensory trick, or geste antagoniste, is defined as a physical gesture (such as a touch on a particular body part that mitigates the production of an involuntary movement. This phenomenon is most commonly described as a feature of dystonia. Here we present a case of successful modulation of tics using sensory tricks.Case Report:: A case report and video are presented. The case and video demonstrate a 19-year-old male who successfully controlled his tics with various sensory tricks.Discussion: It is underappreciated by movement disorder physicians that sensory tricks can play a role in tics. Introducing this concept to patients could potentially help in tic control. In addition, understanding the pathophysiological underpinnings of sensory tricks could help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of tics.

  4. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ling Teng

    Full Text Available Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99; controls (76.53±7.47; t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory

  5. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants.

  6. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J.; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants. PMID:28231290

  7. Comparison of LEP and QST and their contribution to standard sensory diagnostic assessment of spinal lesions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Christian; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Fechir, Marcel; Vogt, Thomas; Birklein, Frank; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluates the additional use of laser-evoked potentials (LEP) and quantitative sensory testing (QST) in the sensory assessment of spinal lesions. Four consecutive patients with spinal lesions verified by MRI and clinical evidence for mild spinothalamic tract involvement were included. The electrophysiological workup [somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and LEP] was compared to QST. Electrophysiology and QST were reassessed after about 6 months. LEP detected impaired spinothalamic tract function in 7/8 examinations. QST pointed to spinothalamic tract lesions by loss of thermal function (3/8); most frequent positive sensory signs (3/8) were paradoxical heat sensations. LEP and QST results were concordant in 6/8 examinations. SEPs were abnormal in 2/8 examinations. Congruent results between SEP and both LEP and QST were obtained in 3/8 examinations. LEP detected more deficits than any single QST parameter or their combination but additional QST allows the detection of positive sensory signs. The diagnostic gain of SEP was limited.

  8. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    atmosphere) were evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. Signal-to-noise analysis, p*MSE (discrimination and repeatability) and line plots proved to be very useful in studying panelists' performance. Most sensory attributes described significant differences between...... the products, and principal component analysis provided an overview of the differences and similarities between the products with regard to sensory characteristics. Farmed cod had different sensory characteristics compared with wild cod, such as more meat flavor, and rubbery and meaty texture. Different...... storage methods had minor influence on sensory characteristics of cod fillets after short storage time, but after extended storage, the groups were different with regard to most attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This paper presents different ways of analyzing sensory data. The process of analysis...

  9. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  10. The Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ): development and validation of a new sensory questionnaire for adults with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaire-based studies suggest atypical sensory perception in over 90% of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Sensory questionnaire-based studies in ASC mainly record parental reports of their child's sensory experience; less is known about sensory reactivity in adults with ASC. Given the DSM-5 criteria for ASC now include sensory reactivity, there is a need for an adult questionnaire investigating basic sensory functioning. We aimed to develop and validate the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ), which assesses basic sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity across all five modalities. A total of 359 adults with (n = 196) and without (n = 163) ASC were asked to fill in the SPQ, the Sensory Over-Responsivity Inventory (SensOR) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) online. Adults with ASC reported more sensory hypersensitivity on the SPQ compared to controls (P sensory hypersensitivity. The SPQ showed high internal consistency for both the total SPQ (Cronbach's alpha = .92) and the reduced 35-item version (alpha = .93). The SPQ was significantly correlated with the SensOR across groups (r = -.46) and within the ASC (r = -.49) and control group (r = -.21). The SPQ shows good internal consistency and concurrent validity and differentiates between adults with and without ASC. Adults with ASC report more sensitivity to sensory stimuli on the SPQ. Finally, greater sensory sensitivity is associated with more autistic traits. The SPQ provides a new tool to measure individual differences on this dimension.

  11. Oropharyngeal and laryngeal sensory innervation in the pathophysiology of swallowing disorders and sensory stimulation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berdugo, Daniel; Rofes, Laia; Casamitjana, J Francesc; Padrón, Andreína; Quer, Miquel; Clavé, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) affects older and neurological patients, causing malnutrition and dehydration and increasing the risk for aspiration pneumonia. There is evidence that sensory deficits in those populations are closely related to swallowing disorders, and several research groups are developing new therapies based on sensory stimulation of this area. More information on the sensory innervation participating in the swallow response is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of OD and to develop new treatments. This review focuses on the sensory innervation of the human oropharynx and larynx in healthy people compared with patients with swallowing disorders in order to unravel the abnormalities that may lead to the loss of sensitivity in patients with OD. We also hypothesize the pathway through which active sensory-enhancement treatments may elicit their therapeutic effect on patients with swallowing dysfunctions. As far as we know, this is the first time a review covers the anatomy, histology, ultrastructure, and molecular biology of the sensory innervation of the swallowing function. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Threshold quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Yuuki; Okamoto, Tatsuaki; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding

  13. Diagnostic value of the near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction in sensory inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Zeki; Oh, Shin J

    2018-03-01

    In this study we report the diagnostic value of the near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction study (NNN-SNCS) in sensory inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (IDP) in which the routine nerve conduction study was normal or non-diagnostic. The NNN-SNCS was performed to identify demyelination in the plantar nerves in 14 patients and in the median or ulnar nerve in 2 patients with sensory IDP. In 16 patients with sensory IDP, routine NCSs were either normal or non-diagnostic for demyelination. Demyelination was identified by NNN-SNCS by dispersion and/or slow nerve conduction velocity (NCV) below the demyelination marker. Immunotherapy was initiated in 11 patients, 10 of whom improved or remained stable. NNN-SNCS played an essential role in identifying demyelinaton in 16 patients with sensory IDP, leading to proper treatment. Muscle Nerve 57: 414-418, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Quantification and sensory studies of character impact odorants of different soybean lecithins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, A; Steinhart, H

    1999-10-01

    Fifty-four potent odorants in standardized, hydrolyzed, and deoiled and hydrolyzed soybean lecithins were quantified by high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HRGC/MS). The characterization of their aroma impact was performed by calculation of nasal (n) and retronasal (r) odor activity values (OAVs). For this, the nasal and retronasal recognition thresholds of 18 odor-active compounds were determined in vegetable oil. The following compounds showed the highest nOAVs: 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, methylpropanal, acetic acid, pentanoic acid, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, pentylpyridine, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, 2-methylbutanal, and beta-damascenone. In addition to the compounds above, 1-octen-3-one, 1-nonen-3-one, and 3-methyl-2,4-nonandione showed potent rOAVs. The results of quantification and OAV calculation were confirmed by a model mixture of 25 impact odorants, which yielded a highly similar sensory profile to that of the original soybean lecithin. The sensory importance of pyrazines and free acids increased through enzymatic hydrolysis and decreased by the process of deoiling. The impact of unsaturated ketones on the lecithin aroma was not changed by either process.

  15. Fiber amplifiers under thermal loads leading to transverse mode instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2014-01-01

    Transverse mode instability (TMI) in rare-earth doped fiber amplifiers operating above an average power threshold is caused by intermodal stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering due to quantum defect heating. We investigate thermally induced longitudinal waveguide perturbations causing power...

  16. The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on conscious perception of sensory inputs from hand palm and dorsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgeest, Annette; Morales, Merche; Cabib, Christopher; Valls-Sole, Josep

    2014-12-01

    Conscious perception of sensory signals depends in part on stimulus salience, relevance and topography. Letting aside differences at skin receptor level and afferent fibres, it is the CNS that makes a contextual selection of relevant sensory inputs. We hypothesized that subjective awareness (AW) of the time at which a sensory stimulus is perceived, a cortical function, may be differently modified by cortical stimulation, according to site and type of the stimulus. In 24 healthy volunteers, we examined the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the assessment of AW to heat pain or weak electrical stimuli applied to either the hand palm or dorsum. We also recorded the vertex-evoked potentials to the same stimuli. The assessment was done before, during and after cathodal or anodal tDCS over the parietal cortex contralateral to the hand receiving the stimuli. At baseline, AW to thermal stimuli was significantly longer for palm than for dorsum (P sensory inputs. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sensory Substitution and Multimodal Mental Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanay, Bence

    2017-09-01

    Many philosophers use findings about sensory substitution devices in the grand debate about how we should individuate the senses. The big question is this: Is "vision" assisted by (tactile) sensory substitution really vision? Or is it tactile perception? Or some sui generis novel form of perception? My claim is that sensory substitution assisted "vision" is neither vision nor tactile perception, because it is not perception at all. It is mental imagery: visual mental imagery triggered by tactile sensory stimulation. But it is a special form of mental imagery that is triggered by corresponding sensory stimulation in a different sense modality, which I call "multimodal mental imagery."

  18. Normative data for cutaneous threshold and spatial discrimination in the feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Willem D; Aziz, M Hosein; Van Deelen, Meike J M; Willemsen, Sten P; Castro Cabezas, Manuel; Van Neck, Johan W; Coert, J Henk

    2017-09-01

    No data are available for normative values of cutaneous threshold and spatial discrimination in the feet. We developed clinically applicable reference values in relation to the nerve distributions of the feet. We determined foot sensation in 196 healthy individuals. Cutaneous threshold (1-point static discrimination, S1PD) was tested with monofilaments (0.008 to 300 gram) and spatial discrimination (2-point static [S2PD] and moving [M2PD] discrimination) on five locations per foot. There was a significant age-dependent increase in S1PD, S2PD, and M2PD values (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between both feet. S1PD values differed up to 0.8 g between genders. There were no significant differences between genders for S2PD and M2PD measurements. M2PD values were generally lower than S2PD values. This study provides age-related normative values for foot sensation to help clinicians assess sensory deficits in relation to aging and identify patients with underlying nerve problems. Muscle Nerve 56: 399-407, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Contributions of sensory coding and attentional control to individual differences in performance in spatial auditory selective attention tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengshi Dai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Listeners with normal hearing thresholds differ in their ability to steer attention to whatever sound source is important. This ability depends on top-down executive control, which modulates the sensory representation of sound in cortex. Yet, this sensory representation also depends on the coding fidelity of the peripheral auditory system. Both of these factors may thus contribute to the individual differences in performance. We designed a selective auditory attention paradigm in which we could simultaneously measure envelope following responses (EFRs, reflecting peripheral coding, onset event-related potentials from the scalp (ERPs, reflecting cortical responses to sound, and behavioral scores. We performed two experiments that varied stimulus conditions to alter the degree to which performance might be limited due to fine stimulus details vs. due to control of attentional focus. Consistent with past work, in both experiments we find that attention strongly modulates cortical ERPs. Importantly, in Experiment I, where coding fidelity limits the task, individual behavioral performance correlates with subcortical coding strength (derived by computing how the EFR is degraded for fully masked tones compared to partially masked tones; however, in this experiment, the effects of attention on cortical ERPs were unrelated to individual subject performance. In contrast, in Experiment II, where sensory cues for segregation are robust (and thus less of a limiting factor on task performance, inter-subject behavioral differences correlate with subcortical coding strength. In addition, after factoring out the influence of subcortical coding strength, behavioral differences are also correlated with the strength of attentional modulation of ERPs. These results support the hypothesis that behavioral abilities amongst listeners with normal hearing thresholds can arise due to both subcortical coding differences and differences in attentional control, depending on

  20. The use of sensory perception indicators for improving the characterization and modelling of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxo, Sónia; de Almeida, José António; Matias, Filipa Vieira; Mata-Lima, Herlander; Barbosa, Sofia

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a multistep approach for creating a 3D stochastic model of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in potentially polluted soils of a deactivated oil storage site by using chemical analysis results as primary or hard data and classes of sensory perception variables as secondary or soft data. First, the statistical relationship between the sensory perception variables (e.g. colour, odour and oil-water reaction) and TPH grade is analysed, after which the sensory perception variable exhibiting the highest correlation is selected (oil-water reaction in this case study). The probabilities of cells belonging to classes of oil-water reaction are then estimated for the entire soil volume using indicator kriging. Next, local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell are computed, combining the probabilities of belonging to a specific sensory perception indicator class and conditional to the simulated values of TPH grade. Finally, simulated images of TPH grade are generated by using the P-field simulation algorithm, utilising the local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell. The set of simulated TPH values allows several calculations to be performed, such as average values, local uncertainties and the probability of the TPH grade of the soil exceeding a specific threshold value.

  1. Physicochemical characterization and sensory analysis of yeast-leavened and sourdough soy breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezbick, Gabrielle; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; Schwartz, Steven J; Vodovotz, Yael

    2013-10-01

    Sourdough fermentation has been shown to have numerous beneficial effects on bread quality, and nutritionally enhance soy-supplemented bread by altering isoflavone chemical forms. Given this, the objective of this study was to compare the loaf quality and shelf life of sourdough and yeast-leavened soy breads by various physical, thermal, and sensorial methods, and to assess the effects of fermentation by various microorganisms on isoflavone profile in dough and breads using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Sourdough fermentation yielded a less extensible dough compared to yeast-leavened soy dough (P bread crumb (P yeast-leavened soy bread (Y-B). Sensory analysis revealed a significantly higher overall liking of Y-B compared to sourdough soy bread (SD-B) (P bread consumption frequency may be determinants of Y-B or SD-B preference. SD-B and Y-B exhibited similar shelf-life properties. Despite significantly different enthalpies associated with the melting of amylose-lipid complexes, thermal analysis of the 2 soy breads stored for 10 d (ambient conditions) demonstrated no significant difference in water distribution and starch retrogradation (P < 0.05). Lastly, SD-B was determined to have 32% of total isoflavones occurring in the aglycone form compared to 17% in Y-B. These findings warrant further investigation of sourdough fermentation as a processing technique for quality and nutritional enhancement of soy-based baked goods. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Effect of medical cannabis on thermal quantitative measurements of pain in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohet, A; Khlebtovsky, A; Roizen, N; Roditi, Y; Djaldetti, R

    2017-03-01

    Cannabis can alleviate pain of various etiologies. This study assessed the effect of cannabis on motor symptoms and pain parameters in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty patients with PD who were licensed to use cannabis underwent evaluation before and 30 min after cannabis consumption and again after long-term use. Motor function was assessed with the Unified PD Rating scale (UPDRS) by two raters, one blinded. Pain was assessed with the Pain Rating Index (PRI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Thermal quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed in 18 patients. The two consecutive QST measurements were validated in 12 cannabis-naïve patients with PD. There was a significant decrease from baseline to 30 min after cannabis consumption in mean motor UPDRS score (38.1 ± 18 to 30.4 ± 15.6, p patients who consumed cannabis by vaporizer rather than smoking (19.5 ± 5.2 to 15.6 ± 8.7 °C, p = 0.02). After long-term (median 14 weeks) exposure, mean heat pain threshold decreased significantly in the more affected limb in all treated patients (43.6 ± 3.5 to 40.9 ± 3.3 °C, p = 0.05) and in cannabis smokers (43.7 ± 3.6 to 40.3 ± 2.5 °C, p = 0.008). Cannabis improved motor scores and pain symptoms in PD patients, together with a dissociate effect on heat and cold pain thresholds. Peripheral and central pathways are probably modulated by cannabis. Quantitative sensory test results are significantly altered following cannabis consumption in patients with PD. Cannabis probably acts on pain in PD via peripheral and central pathways. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  3. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Irradiation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L.): microbiological and sensory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuhako, Vanessa Provenzano

    2005-01-01

    The increasing demand for fresh foods have stimulated the marketing of minimally processed vegetables. However, these products maintain most of their natural microbiota even after being sanitized, including pathogenic microorganisms. Refrigerated storage allows the growth of psychotropic microorganisms and among them the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes may represent a risk to pregnant women and their fetuses and to immunocompromised people. Non-thermal alternative processes for food preservation, such as irradiation, can reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganism populations without impairing substantial changes in sensory, physical or chemical attributes. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated on minimally processed lettuce, to evaluate its effect on lettuce leaves through acceptance sensory test and to determine the irradiated vegetable shelf life through sensory and microbiological tests. A mixture of 4 types of lettuce (Iceberg, Boston, Loose-leaf and Red loose-leaf) were artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes (7 log UFC/g lettuce) and then exposed to 0.3; 0.6; 0.9 and 1.2 kGy, under refrigeration. The DlO values for L. monocytogenes varied fram 0.18 to 0.21 kGy. Sensory and microbiological tests indicated that the shelf life of Iceberg lettuce stored at 7 deg C was 5 and 7 days for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples, respectively, and for the irradiated and non-irradiated Loose-leaf lettuce samples were 10 days. For the non-irradiated Boston sample, the shelf life was 3 days and for the Irradiated 7 days. Red loose-leaf showed 5 and 4 days of shelf lives for the irradiated and non-irradiated, respectively. Irradiated samples presented better microbiological quality than non-irradiated ones. The irradiation is feasible process to improve quality and safety of lettuce leaves. (author)

  5. Microbiological nutritional and sensorial changes in fresh carrot juice preserved by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A. A. I.; Abd-El-kalek, H.; Abd-El-kader, R. M.; Youssef, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    Fresh carroll juice have perishable nature and very limited shelf-life, and may poses a microbiological hazard. Gamma irradiation (1.5, 3.0 and 4.0 kGy ) as non-thermal proceeding was performed to improve microbial quality, ensure safety and extending the refrigerated shelf-life of fresh carrot juice. Although irradiation dose of 1.5 kGy had no significant effect on total carotenoids, physicochemical and sensory properties of the juice, it significantly reduced ascorbic acid content and was not enough for reducing microbial content to great extend and for eliminating enterococcus fecal it.However, there was no significant difference in total carotene content between all irradiated samples and non-irradiated control. It was found that immediately after irradiation the sensory scores of irradiated (1.5 and 3.0 kGy) and non-irradiation samples were not significantly different. Irradiation dose of 4.0 kGy significantly reduced the nutrition content and the sensory quality attributes of the juice. Thus, irradiation dose of 3.0 kGy can be successfully used to improve the microbial quality and extend the refrigerated shelf-life of fresh carrot juice, where it extended the shelf-life to 8 days against only 2 day for non-irradiated control. (Author)

  6. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact lenses...

  7. A study on the temperature dependence of the threshold switching characteristics of Ge2Sb2Te5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suyoun; Jeong, Doo Seok; Jeong, Jeung-hyun; Zhe, Wu; Park, Young-Wook; Ahn, Hyung-Woo; Cheong, Byung-ki

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the temperature dependence of the threshold switching characteristics of a memory-type chalcogenide material, Ge2Sb2Te5. We found that the threshold voltage (Vth) decreased linearly with temperature, implying the existence of a critical conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 for its threshold switching. In addition, we investigated the effect of bias voltage and temperature on the delay time (tdel) of the threshold switching of Ge2Sb2Te5 and described the measured relationship by an analytic expression which we derived based on a physical model where thermally activated hopping is a dominant transport mechanism in the material.

  8. Sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antfolk, Christian; D'Alonzo, Marco; Rosén, Birgitta; Lundborg, Göran; Sebelius, Fredrik; Cipriani, Christian

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges facing prosthetic designers and engineers is to restore the missing sensory function inherit to hand amputation. Several different techniques can be employed to provide amputees with sensory feedback: sensory substitution methods where the recorded stimulus is not only transferred to the amputee, but also translated to a different modality (modality-matched feedback), which transfers the stimulus without translation and direct neural stimulation, which interacts directly with peripheral afferent nerves. This paper presents an overview of the principal works and devices employed to provide upper limb amputees with sensory feedback. The focus is on sensory substitution and modality matched feedback; the principal features, advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are presented.

  9. Auditory-nerve single-neuron thresholds to electrical stimulation from scala tympani electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, C W; Colombo, J

    1987-12-31

    Single auditory-nerve neuron thresholds were studied in sensory-deafened squirrel monkeys to determine the effects of electrical stimulus shape and frequency on single-neuron thresholds. Frequency was separated into its components, pulse width and pulse rate, which were analyzed separately. Square and sinusoidal pulse shapes were compared. There were no or questionably significant threshold differences in charge per phase between sinusoidal and square pulses of the same pulse width. There was a small (less than 0.5 dB) but significant threshold advantage for 200 microseconds/phase pulses delivered at low pulse rates (156 pps) compared to higher pulse rates (625 pps and 2500 pps). Pulse width was demonstrated to be the prime determinant of single-neuron threshold, resulting in strength-duration curves similar to other mammalian myelinated neurons, but with longer chronaxies. The most efficient electrical stimulus pulse width to use for cochlear implant stimulation was determined to be 100 microseconds/phase. This pulse width delivers the lowest charge/phase at threshold. The single-neuron strength-duration curves were compared to strength-duration curves of a computer model based on the specific anatomy of auditory-nerve neurons. The membrane capacitance and resulting chronaxie of the model can be varied by altering the length of the unmyelinated termination of the neuron, representing the unmyelinated portion of the neuron between the habenula perforata and the hair cell. This unmyelinated segment of the auditory-nerve neuron may be subject to aminoglycoside damage. Simulating a 10 micron unmyelinated termination for this model neuron produces a strength-duration curve that closely fits the single-neuron data obtained from aminoglycoside deafened animals. Both the model and the single-neuron strength-duration curves differ significantly from behavioral threshold data obtained from monkeys and humans with cochlear implants. This discrepancy can best be explained by

  10. Manipulation of heat-diffusion channel in laser thermal lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingsong; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yiqun

    2014-12-29

    Laser thermal lithography is a good alternative method for forming small pattern feature size by taking advantage of the structural-change threshold effect of thermal lithography materials. In this work, the heat-diffusion channels of laser thermal lithography are first analyzed, and then we propose to manipulate the heat-diffusion channels by inserting thermal conduction layers in between channels. Heat-flow direction can be changed from the in-plane to the out-of-plane of the thermal lithography layer, which causes the size of the structural-change threshold region to become much smaller than the focused laser spot itself; thus, nanoscale marks can be obtained. Samples designated as "glass substrate/thermal conduction layer/thermal lithography layer (100 nm)/thermal conduction layer" are designed and prepared. Chalcogenide phase-change materials are used as thermal lithography layer, and Si is used as thermal conduction layer to manipulate heat-diffusion channels. Laser thermal lithography experiments are conducted on a home-made high-speed rotation direct laser writing setup with 488 nm laser wavelength and 0.90 numerical aperture of converging lens. The writing marks with 50-60 nm size are successfully obtained. The mark size is only about 1/13 of the focused laser spot, which is far smaller than that of the light diffraction limit spot of the direct laser writing setup. This work is useful for nanoscale fabrication and lithography by exploiting the far-field focusing light system.

  11. The effect of atmospheric thermal conditions and urban thermal pollution on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, Katrin; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Kraemer, Alexander; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of temperature and thermal atmospheric conditions on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Bangladesh. In particular, differences in the response to elevated temperatures between urban and rural areas were investigated. Generalized additive models (GAMs) for daily death counts, adjusted for trend, season, day of the month and age were separately fitted for urban and rural areas. Breakpoint models were applied for determining the increase in mortality above and below a threshold (equivalent) temperature. Generally, a 'V'-shaped (equivalent) temperature-mortality curve with increasing mortality at low and high temperatures was observed. Particularly, urban areas suffered from heat-related mortality with a steep increase above a specific threshold. This adverse heat effect may well increase with ongoing urbanization and the intensification of the urban heat island due to the densification of building structures. Moreover, rising temperatures due to climate change could aggravate thermal stress. - Highlights: → Temperature exhibits a strong influence on mortality in Bangladesh. → Mortality increases at low and high end of the temperature range. → Temperature is increased in the urban area of Dhaka, particular during summer. → Urban areas are facing increased risk of heat-related mortality. → Urbanization and climate change are likely to increase heat-related mortality. - Mortality in Bangladesh is strongly affected by thermal atmospheric conditions with particularly urban areas facing excess mortality above a specific threshold temperature.

  12. The significance of memory in sensory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Muckli, Lars; Petro, Lucy S.

    2017-01-01

    Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing.

  13. Modularity in Sensory Auditory Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Sylvain; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to review various experimental and neuropsychological studies that support the modular conception of auditory sensory memory or auditory short-term memory. Based on initial findings demonstrating that verbal sensory memory system can be dissociated from a general auditory memory store at the functional and anatomical levels. we reported a series of studies that provided evidence in favor of multiple auditory sensory stores specialized in retaining eit...

  14. Influence of the angular scattering of electrons on the runaway threshold in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanrion, O.; Bonaventura, Z.; Bourdon, A.

    2016-01-01

    The runaway electron mechanism is of great importance for the understanding of the generation of x- and gamma rays in atmospheric discharges. In 1991, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) were discovered by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. Those emissions are bremsstrahlung from high energy...... electrons that run away in electric fields associated with thunderstorms. In this paper, we discuss the runaway threshold definition with a particular interest in the influence of the angular scattering for electron energy close to the threshold. In order to understand the mechanism of runaway, we compare...... scattering is not valid below 1 MeV where the runaway threshold usually is defined. These results are important for the thermal runaway and the runaway electron avalanche discharge mechanisms suggested to participate in the TGF generation....

  15. Age-associated variation in sensory perception of iron in drinking water and the potential for overexposure in the human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlohi, Susan; Dietrich, Andrea M; Duncan, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Humans interact with their environment through the five senses, but little is known about population variability in the ability to assess contaminants. Sensory thresholds and biochemical indicators of metallic flavor perception in humans were evaluated for ferrous (Fe(2+)) iron in drinking water; subjects aged 19-84 years participated. Metallic flavor thresholds for individuals and subpopulations based on age were determined. Oral lipid oxidation and oral pH were measured in saliva as potential biochemical indicators. Individual thresholds were 0.007-14.14 mg/L Fe(2+) and the overall population threshold was 0.17 mg/L Fe(2+) in reagent water. Average thresholds for individuals younger and older than 50 years of age (grouped by the daily recommended nutritional guidelines for iron intake) were significantly different (p = 0.013); the population thresholds for each group were 0.045 mg/L Fe(2+) and 0.498 mg/L Fe(2+), respectively. Many subjects >50 and a few subjects <50 years were insensitive to metallic flavor. There was no correlation between age, oral lipid oxidation, and oral pH. Standardized olfactory assessment found poor sensitivity for Fe(2+) corresponded with conditions of mild, moderate, and total anosmia. The findings demonstrate an age-dependent sensitivity to iron indicating as people age they are less sensitive to metallic perception.

  16. Qualidade física e sensorial de biscoitos doces com fécula de mandioca Physical and sensorial quality of sweet cookies with cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucyanne Carvalho Vieira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a substituição de 5, 10 e 15% de farinha de trigo por fécula de mandioca na elaboração de biscoito doce. Ambas, farinha e fécula, foram submetidas à caracterização físico-química, reológica e análise térmica diferencial (DTA. Os biscoitos produzidos foram comparados por meio de análises sensoriais e microbiológicas. O resultado da análise térmica diferencial não mostrou qualquer alteração no comportamento de gelatinização do amido. O teste de aceitação sensorial mostrou que a crocância foi o único atributo que apresentou diferença significativa, indicando a viabilidade técnica de substituição da farinha de trigo por 15% de fécula de mandioca.This research evaluated the substitution of 5, 10 and 15% of wheat flour for cassava starch in sweet cookies production. Both, flour and starch were submitted to the physicochemical, rheological and differential thermal analysis (DTA. The produced cookies were compared through sensory and microbiological analyses. The DTA result didn´t show any alteration in the starch gelatinization behavior. The result of the sensory acceptance analysis showed that crispness is the unique attribute that presented significant difference, indicating the technical viability of wheat flour substitution for 15% of cassava starch.

  17. The effect of Acacia karroo supplementation and thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation and thermal preparation on consumer sensory scores of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goat breed. 18 castrated four-month-old Xhosa lop-eared kids were kept at the University of Fort Hare Farm until slaughter. Sample ...

  18. Relationship between Sensory Stimulation and Side Effects in Percutaneous Radiofrequency Treatment of the Trigeminal Ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Mark V; Koning, Nick J; Koning, Henk M; van Kleef, Maarten

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) treatment of the trigeminal ganglion for treating patients with trigeminal neuralgia, to determine which patients have a long-term benefit, and to evaluate the effect of RF parameters. A retrospective study in 28 consecutive patients in combination with a follow-up questionnaire (n = 26, 93% response). An initial treatment effect of 89% was observed, 60% sustained at 12-month follow-up. Major side effects were hypesthesia (56%), dry eye (20%), and masseter muscle weakness (12%). A lower sensory stimulation threshold during treatment was associated with better patient satisfaction (P = 0.016), improved pain relief (P = 0.039), and trended toward more hypesthesia (P = 0.077). This low-volume study reported treatment effects in an older population that were similar to previous studies. Only a higher incidence of hypesthesia was detected by long-term follow-up. This study supported the high efficiency of RF treatment, but there was a high level of side effects. Most notable, low sensory stimulation was associated with increased hypesthesia, whereas higher stimulation levels yielded less effectiveness. Further investigation of an optimal sensory stimulation range for percutaneous RF treatment of the trigeminal ganglion was found to be warranted. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  19. Compositional and sensory characterization of red wine polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollmann, Nadine; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-03-06

    After isolation from red wine by means of ultrafiltration and gel adsorption chromatography, the composition of the highly astringent tasting high-molecular weight polymers was analyzed by means of HPLC-MS/MS, HPLC-UV/vis, and ion chromatography after thiolytic, alkaline, and acidic depolymerization and, on the basis of the quantitative data obtained as well as model incubation experiments, key structural features of the red wine polymers were proposed. The structural backbone of the polymers seems to be comprised of a procyanidin chain with (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate units as extension and terminal units as well as (-)-epigallocatechin as extension units. In addition, acetaldehyde was shown to link different procyanidins at the A-ring via an 1,1-ethylene bridge and anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins were found to be linked to the procyanidin backbone via a C-C-linkage at position C(6) or C(8), respectively. Alkaline hydrolysis demonstrated the polymeric procyanidins to be esterified with various organic acids and phenolic acids, respectively. In addition, the major part of the polysaccharides present in the red wine polymeric fraction were found not to be covalently linked to procyanidins. Interestingly, sensory evaluation of individual fractions of the red wine polymers did not show any significant difference in the astringent threshold concentrations, nor in the astringency intensity in supra-threshold concentrations and demonstrated the mean degree of polymerization as well as the galloylation degree not to have an significant influence on the astringency perception.

  20. Desenvolvimento do perfil sensorial e avaliação sensorial/instrumental de suco de maracujá Sensory profile development and sensory/instrumental passion fruit juice evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C. Della Modesta

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available As mais importantes frutas tropicais na categoria de sucos são maracujá e manga, especialmente desejadas por sua impressão aromática e intensa. O aroma e o sabor são resultados da presença de numerosos constituintes que se encontram em concentrações variáveis, extremamente sensíveis às mudanças durante o tratamento térmico na produção de suco. Há a necessidade do desenvolvimento dos perfis sensorial e de cor, que podem ser alterados durante o processamento do suco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver esses perfis e avaliar os sucos de maracujá entamborado: despolpado, pasteurizado, entamborado e congelado; pronto para beber (formulado com açúcar e água; e pasteurizado. Treze atributos compuseram o perfil sensorial. O experimento de Análise Descritiva Quantitativa foi delineado com 2 fatores, sucos e provadores. Os resultados foram também submetidos a uma análise de componentes principais. Houve diferença significativa entre os três sucos nos atributos sensoriais, exceto para aromas de maracujá e doce. O aroma artificial, e os aromas e os sabores de cozido e fermentado aumentaram significativamente no suco processado. Os dois primeiros componentes principais concentraram 57% da variação nos atributos sensoriais. Os parâmetros de cor, à exceção do turbidez, apresentaram variações significativas entre os sucos. O suco entamborado foi o mais escuro. A intensidade de vermelho nos sucos entamborado e formulado foi similar, menos acentuada no pasteurizado, enquanto a intensidade de amarelo foi mais acentuada no formulado, decrescendo nos pasteurizado e entamborado.The most important tropical fruits used in juice production are passion fruit and mango. They are especially liked due to their intense aromas. Aroma and flavor are results of many constituents that are present in different concentrations, which are very sensitive to changes during thermal treatment used in the juice production. This work aimed at

  1. Sensory and motor dysfunction assessed by anorectal manometry in uterine cervical carcinoma patients with radiation-induced late rectal complication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwi Eon; Lim, John Jihoon; Park, Won; Park, Hee Chul; Chung, Eun Ji; Seong, Jinsil; Suh, Chang Ok; Lee, Yong Chan; Park, Hyo Jin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of radiation on anorectal function in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Methods and Materials: Anorectal manometry was carried out on 24 patients (complication group) with late radiation proctitis. All of the manometric data from these patients were compared with those from 24 age-matched female volunteers (control group), in whom radiation treatment had not yet been performed. Results: Regardless of the severity of proctitis symptoms, 25% of patients demonstrated all their manometric data within the normal range, but 75% of patients exhibited one or more abnormal manometric parameters for sensory or motor functions. Six patients (25%) had an isolated sensory dysfunction, eight patients (33.3%) had an isolated motor dysfunction, and four patients (16.7%) had combined disturbances of both sensory and motor functions. The maximum tolerable volume, the minimal threshold volume, and the urgent volume in the complication group were significantly reduced compared with those in the control group. The mean squeeze pressure in the complication group was significantly reduced, whereas the mean resting pressure and anal sphincter length were unchanged. Conclusions: Physiologic changes of the anorectum in patients with late radiation proctitis seem to be caused by a variety of sensory and/or motor dysfunctions in which many different mechanisms are working together. The reduced rectal reservoir capacity and impaired sensory functions were crucial factors for functional disorder in such patients. In addition, radiation damage to the external anal sphincter muscle was considered to be an important cause of motor dysfunction

  2. CARA Risk Assessment Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Warning remediation threshold (Red threshold): Pc level at which warnings are issued, and active remediation considered and usually executed. Analysis threshold (Green to Yellow threshold): Pc level at which analysis of event is indicated, including seeking additional information if warranted. Post-remediation threshold: Pc level to which remediation maneuvers are sized in order to achieve event remediation and obviate any need for immediate follow-up maneuvers. Maneuver screening threshold: Pc compliance level for routine maneuver screenings (more demanding than regular Red threshold due to additional maneuver uncertainty).

  3. Peripheral tactile sensory perception of older adults improved using subsensory electrical noise stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Paul P; Serrador, Jorge M; O'Tuathail, Claire; Quinlan, Leo R; McIntosh, Caroline; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2016-08-01

    Loss of tactile sensory function is common with aging and can lead to numbness and difficulty with balance and gait. In previous work we found that subsensory electrical noise stimulation (SENS) applied to the tibial nerve improved tactile perception in the soles of the feet of healthy adults. In this work we aimed to determine if SENS remained effective in an older adult population with significant levels of sensory loss. Older adult subjects (N=8, female = 4, aged 65-80) had SENS applied via surface electrodes placed proximally to the medial and lateral malleoli. Vibration perception thresholds (VPTs) were assessed in six conditions, two control conditions (no SENS) and four SENS conditions (zero mean ±15µA, 30µA, 45µA and 60µA SD). VPT was assessed at three sites on the plantar aspect of the foot. Vibration perception was significantly improved in the presence of ±30µA SENS and by 16.2±2.4% (mean ± s.e.m.) when optimised for each subject. The improvement in perception was similar across all VPT test sites. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  4. Power thresholds for fast oscillatory instabilities in nuclear reactors: a simple mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto; Uruguay)

    2007-01-01

    The cores of nuclear reactors, including its structural parts and cooling fluids, are complex mechanical systems able to vibrate in a set of normal modes and frequencies, if suitable perturbed. The cyclic variations in the strain state of the core materials may modify the reactivity, and thus thermal power, producing variations in strain due to thermal-elastic effects. If the variation of the temperature field is fast enough and if the Doppler Effect and other stabilizing prompt effects in the fuel are weak enough, a fast oscillatory instability could be produced, coupled with mechanical vibrations of small enough amplitude that they will not be excluded by the procedures of conventional mechanical design. After a careful discussion of the time scales of neutron kinetics, thermal-elastic and vibration phenomena, a simple lumped parameter mathematical model is constructed in order to study, in a first approximation, the stability of the reactor. An integro-differential equation for power kinetics is derived. Under certain conditions, fast oscillatory instabilities are found when power is greater than a threshold value, and the delay in the global power feedback loop is big enough. Approximate analytical formulae are given for the power threshold, critical delay and power oscillation frequency. It is shown that if prompt stabilizing fuel effects are strong enough, dangerous fast power oscillations due to mechanical thermal-nuclear coupling phenomena can not appear at any power level. (author)

  5. Pressure pain thresholds increase after preconditioning 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Tonya M; Witney, Alice G

    2014-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) is an effective target of non-invasive cortical stimulation (NICS) for pain threshold modulation. It has been suggested that the initial level of cortical excitability of M1 plays a key role in the plastic effects of NICS. Here we investigate whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) primed 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulates experimental pressure pain thresholds and if this is related to observed alterations in cortical excitability. 15 healthy, male participants received 10 min 1 mA anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS to the left M1 before 15 min 1 Hz rTMS in separate sessions over a period of 3 weeks. Motor cortical excitability was recorded at baseline, post-tDCS priming and post-rTMS through recording motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from right FDI muscle. Pressure pain thresholds were determined by quantitative sensory testing (QST) through a computerized algometer, on the palmar thenar of the right hand pre- and post-stimulation. Cathodal tDCS-primed 1 Hz-rTMS was found to reverse the expected suppressive effect of 1 Hz rTMS on cortical excitability; leading to an overall increase in activity (ppain thresholds (ppain. This study demonstrates that priming the M1 before stimulation of 1 Hz-rTMS modulates experimental pressure pain thresholds in a safe and controlled manner, producing a form of analgesia.

  6. The Significance of Memory in Sensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckli, Lars; Petro, Lucy S

    2017-05-01

    Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Active inference, sensory attenuation and illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Harriet; Adams, Rick A; Parees, Isabel; Edwards, Mark; Friston, Karl

    2013-11-01

    Active inference provides a simple and neurobiologically plausible account of how action and perception are coupled in producing (Bayes) optimal behaviour. This can be seen most easily as minimising prediction error: we can either change our predictions to explain sensory input through perception. Alternatively, we can actively change sensory input to fulfil our predictions. In active inference, this action is mediated by classical reflex arcs that minimise proprioceptive prediction error created by descending proprioceptive predictions. However, this creates a conflict between action and perception; in that, self-generated movements require predictions to override the sensory evidence that one is not actually moving. However, ignoring sensory evidence means that externally generated sensations will not be perceived. Conversely, attending to (proprioceptive and somatosensory) sensations enables the detection of externally generated events but precludes generation of actions. This conflict can be resolved by attenuating the precision of sensory evidence during movement or, equivalently, attending away from the consequences of self-made acts. We propose that this Bayes optimal withdrawal of precise sensory evidence during movement is the cause of psychophysical sensory attenuation. Furthermore, it explains the force-matching illusion and reproduces empirical results almost exactly. Finally, if attenuation is removed, the force-matching illusion disappears and false (delusional) inferences about agency emerge. This is important, given the negative correlation between sensory attenuation and delusional beliefs in normal subjects--and the reduction in the magnitude of the illusion in schizophrenia. Active inference therefore links the neuromodulatory optimisation of precision to sensory attenuation and illusory phenomena during the attribution of agency in normal subjects. It also provides a functional account of deficits in syndromes characterised by false inference

  8. Study of thermal sensitivity and thermal explosion violence of energetic materials in the LLNL ODTX system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P C; Hust, G; Zhang, M X; Lorenz, T K; Reynolds, J G; Fried, L; Springer, H K; Maienschein, J L

    2014-01-01

    Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 °C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine kinetic parameters of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. Recent ODTX experimental data are reported in the paper.

  9. Thermal and structural study of guava (Psidium guajava L powders obtained by two dehydration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Osorio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two food products (powders were obtained by hot-air drying or lyophilisation methods on the whole guava fruits. The powders were characterised by sensory and thermal analyses (TGA-DSC, infrared spectroscopy (IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Thermal, morphological and structural characterisations showed a similar behaviour for the two solids. TGA-DSC and IR showed the presence of pectin as the main constituent of solids. A semi-crystalline profile was evidenced by XRD, and lamellar/spherical morphologies were observed by SEM. Sensory analyses revealed an aroma highly related to guava. These value-added food products are an alternative to process guava and avoid loss during postharvest handling.

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy of Clinical Methods for Detection of Diabetic Sensory Neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, A. R.; Alvi, K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of clinical methods for detection of sensory neuropathy as compared to biothesiometry. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: 1 Mountain Medical Battalion, Azad Kashmir, from October 2013 to September 2014. Methodology: Patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled by convenience sampling. Exclusion criteria included other identifiable causes of neuropathy, extensive ulceration of feet, amputated feet, those on treatment for neuropathy and unwilling patients. Average of 3 vibration perception threshold values measured with a biothesiometer on distal hallux was calculated. Ten gm monofilament was used to examine touch sensation over dorsal surfaces of great toes. Vibration sensation was checked over the tips of great toes using 128Hz tuning fork. Ankle jerks were checked bilaterally. Result: Neuropathy (vibration perception threshold > 25 volts) was present in 34 (21.12 percentage) out of 161 patients and 93 (57.76 percentage) were symptomatic. Measures of diagnostic accuracy for monofilament, tuning fork and ankle jerks were: sensitivity 41.18 percentage, 55.88 percentage and 64.71 percentage; specificity 92.91 percentage, 93.70 percentage and 80.31 percentage; positive predictive value (PPV) 60.87 percentage, 70.37 percentage and 46.81 percentage; negative predictive value (NPV) 85.51 percentage, 88.81 percentage and 89.47 percentage; and, diagnostic accuracy 81.99 percentage, 85.71 percentage and 77.02 percentage, respectively. Values for any 1 positive sign, any 2 positive signs or all 3 positive signs were: sensitivity 35.29 percentage, 14.71 percentage and 32.35 percentage; specificity 81.89 percentage, 93.70 percentage and 99.21 percentage; PPV 34.29 percentage, 38.46 percentage and 91.67 percentage; NPV 82.54 percentage, 80.41 percentage and 84.56 percentage; and, diagnostic accuracy 72.05 percentage, 77.02 percentage and 85.09 percentage, respectively. Conclusion: Clinical methods are

  11. Influence of particle size on physical and sensory attributes of mango pulp powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Kadam, D. M.; Chadha, S.; Wilson, R. A.; Gupta, R. K.

    2013-09-01

    The present investigation was aimed to observe the effect of particle size on physical, sensory and thermal properties of foam-mat dried mango pulp powder. Mango pulp of Dussehri variety was foam-mat dried using 3% egg white at 65ºC. Dried foam-mats were pulverized and passed through a sieve shaker for obtaining three grades of powder with 50, 60, and 85 mesh size sieves. The particle size of these samples measured using laser diffraction particle size analyzer ranged from 191.26 to 296.19 μm. The data was analysed statistically using ANOVA of SAS. There was a linear increase in lightness (`L' value) with a decrease in particle size, however, `a' value decreased with a decrease in particle size, indicating the decrease in redness. An increase in bulk density and decrease in water solubility index and water absorption index % were observed with a decrease in particle size. Particle size had a significant effect on sensory parameters. Particle size in the range of 258.01 to 264.60μmwas found most acceptable with respect to sensory characteristics. This finding can be exploited for various commercial applicationswhere powder quality is dependent on the particle size and has foremost priority for end users.

  12. Phase-change memory: A continuous multilevel compact model of subthreshold conduction and threshold switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigot, Corentin; Gilibert, Fabien; Reyboz, Marina; Bocquet, Marc; Zuliani, Paola; Portal, Jean-Michel

    2018-04-01

    Phase-change memory (PCM) compact modeling of the threshold switching based on a thermal runaway in Poole–Frenkel conduction is proposed. Although this approach is often used in physical models, this is the first time it is implemented in a compact model. The model accuracy is validated by a good correlation between simulations and experimental data collected on a PCM cell embedded in a 90 nm technology. A wide range of intermediate states is measured and accurately modeled with a single set of parameters, allowing multilevel programing. A good convergence is exhibited even in snapback simulation owing to this fully continuous approach. Moreover, threshold properties extraction indicates a thermally enhanced switching, which validates the basic hypothesis of the model. Finally, it is shown that this model is compliant with a new drift-resilient cell-state metric. Once enriched with a phase transition module, this compact model is ready to be implemented in circuit simulators.

  13. Depolarization and electrical stimulation enhance in vitro and in vivo sensory axon growth after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goganau, Ioana; Sandner, Beatrice; Weidner, Norbert; Fouad, Karim; Blesch, Armin

    2018-02-01

    Activity dependent plasticity is a key mechanism for the central nervous system (CNS) to adapt to its environment. Whether neuronal activity also influences axonal regeneration in the injured CNS, and whether electrical stimulation (ES) can activate regenerative programs in the injured CNS remains incompletely understood. Using KCl-induced depolarization, in vivo ES followed by ex-vivo neurite growth assays and ES after spinal cord lesions and cell grafting, we aimed to identify parameters important for ES-enhanced neurite growth and axonal regeneration. Using cultures of sensory neurons, neurite growth was analyzed after KCl-induced depolarization for 1-72h. Increased neurite growth was detected after short-term stimulation and after longer stimulation if a sufficient delay between stimulation and growth measurements was provided. After in vivo ES (20Hz, 2× motor threshold, 0.2ms, 1h) of the intact sciatic nerve in adult Fischer344 rats, sensory neurons showed a 2-fold increase in in vitro neurite length one week later compared to sham animals, an effect not observed one day after ES. Longer ES (7h) and repeated ES (7days, 1h each) also increased growth by 56-67% one week later, but provided no additional benefit. In vivo growth of dorsal column sensory axons into a graft of bone marrow stromal cells 4weeks after a cervical spinal cord lesion was also enhanced with a single post-injury 1h ES of the intact sciatic nerve and was also observed after repeated ES without inducing pain-like behavior. While ES did not result in sensory functional recovery, our data indicate that ES has time-dependent influences on the regenerative capacity of sensory neurons and might further enhance axonal regeneration in combinatorial approaches after SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Noise Enhances Action Potential Generation in Mouse Sensory Neurons via Stochastic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Irene; D'Alessandro, Giuseppina; Di Castro, Maria Amalia; Renzi, Massimiliano; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Musarò, Antonio; Salvetti, Marco; Limatola, Cristina; Crisanti, Andrea; Grassi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Noise can enhance perception of tactile and proprioceptive stimuli by stochastic resonance processes. However, the mechanisms underlying this general phenomenon remain to be characterized. Here we studied how externally applied noise influences action potential firing in mouse primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia, modelling a basic process in sensory perception. Since noisy mechanical stimuli may cause stochastic fluctuations in receptor potential, we examined the effects of sub-threshold depolarizing current steps with superimposed random fluctuations. We performed whole cell patch clamp recordings in cultured neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglia. Noise was added either before and during the step, or during the depolarizing step only, to focus onto the specific effects of external noise on action potential generation. In both cases, step + noise stimuli triggered significantly more action potentials than steps alone. The normalized power norm had a clear peak at intermediate noise levels, demonstrating that the phenomenon is driven by stochastic resonance. Spikes evoked in step + noise trials occur earlier and show faster rise time as compared to the occasional ones elicited by steps alone. These data suggest that external noise enhances, via stochastic resonance, the recruitment of transient voltage-gated Na channels, responsible for action potential firing in response to rapid step-wise depolarizing currents.

  15. The sensory side of post-stroke motor rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Nadia; Russo, Cristina; Edwards, Dylan J

    2016-04-11

    Contemporary strategies to promote motor recovery following stroke focus on repetitive voluntary movements. Although successful movement relies on efficient sensorimotor integration, functional outcomes often bias motor therapy toward motor-related impairments such as weakness, spasticity and synergies; sensory therapy and reintegration is implied, but seldom targeted. However, the planning and execution of voluntary movement requires that the brain extracts sensory information regarding body position and predicts future positions, by integrating a variety of sensory inputs with ongoing and planned motor activity. Neurological patients who have lost one or more of their senses may show profoundly affected motor functions, even if muscle strength remains unaffected. Following stroke, motor recovery can be dictated by the degree of sensory disruption. Consequently, a thorough account of sensory function might be both prognostic and prescriptive in neurorehabilitation. This review outlines the key sensory components of human voluntary movement, describes how sensory disruption can influence prognosis and expected outcomes in stroke patients, reports on current sensory-based approaches in post-stroke motor rehabilitation, and makes recommendations for optimizing rehabilitation programs based on sensory stimulation.

  16. The gyro-radius scaling of ion thermal transport from global numerical simulations of ITG turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottaviani, M.; Manfredi, G.

    1998-12-01

    A three-dimensional, fluid code is used to study the scaling of ion thermal transport caused by Ion-Temperature-Gradient-Driven (ITG) turbulence. The code includes toroidal effects and is capable of simulating the whole torus. It is found that both close to the ITG threshold and well above threshold, the thermal transport and the turbulence structures exhibit a gyro-Bohm scaling, at least for plasmas with moderate poloidal flow. (author)

  17. TrpA1 activation in peripheral sensory neurons underlies the ionic basis of pain hypersensitivity in response to vinca alkaloids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Boiko

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN, a side effect of many anti-cancer drugs including the vinca alkaloids, is characterized by a severe pain syndrome that compromises treatment in many patients. Currently there are no effective treatments for this pain syndrome except for the reduction of anti-cancer drug dose. Existing data supports the model that the pain associated with CIPN is the result of anti-cancer drugs augmenting the function of the peripheral sensory nociceptors but the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of anti-cancer drugs on sensory neuron function are not well described. Studies from animal models have suggested a number of disease etiologies including mitotoxicity, axonal degeneration, immune signaling, and reduced sensory innervations but these outcomes are the result of prolonged treatment paradigms and do not necessarily represent the early formative events associated with CIPN. Here we show that acute exposure to vinca alkaloids results in an immediate pain syndrome in both flies and mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that exposure of isolated sensory neurons to vinca alkaloids results in the generation of an inward sodium current capable of depolarizing these neurons to threshold resulting in neuronal firing. These neuronal effects of vinca alkaloids require the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TrpA1 channel, and the hypersensitization to painful stimuli in response to the acute exposure to vinca alkaloids is reduced in TrpA1 mutant flies and mice. These findings demonstrate the direct excitation of sensory neurons by CIPN-causing chemotherapy drugs, and identify TrpA1 as an important target during the pathogenesis of CIPN.

  18. Effects of Submaximal Endurance Training and Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Pain Threshold in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jalal Taherabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to beneficial effects of endurance training and vitamin D3 in diabetes mellitus, purpose of this study is effects submaximal endurance training and vitamin D3 supplementation on pain threshold in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (250±20 g, N=40 were made diabetic by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, subcutaneously. 72 h after injection diabetes induction was confirmed by tail vein blood glucose concentration (>300 mg/dl. Then animals were divided to five groups: diabetic control (DC, diabetic trained (DT, diabetic -vitamin D (DD, diabetic trained and vitamin D (DTD, and control (C. Animals were submitted to endurance training by treadmill and vitamin D3 treatment (twice aweek, intrapretonally for 4 weeks. 48 h after at the end of exercise and treatment protocol, we used tail-flick to assess the effects of training and vitamin D3 on thermal pain threshold. We used one way ANOVA statistical analysis to compare differences between groups, significance level of p<0.05 was considered.Results: Diabetic induced hyperalgesia were decreased significantly by vitamin D but not 4 weeks endurance exercise training. Concurrent effects of training and vitamin D on thermal pain threshold were not significantly higher than vitamin D effects alone.Conclusion: It is concluded that vitamin D administration given at the time of diabetes induction may be able to restore thermal hyperalgesia. But effects of endurance exercise training needs to more investigation in diabetic rats.

  19. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars Perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssego produzidos em duas safras em um pomar experimental implantado na Lapa (PR, Brasil. Os cultivares analisados foram Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier e Vanguarda. As análises sensoriais foram realizadas por julgadores previamente treinados, sendo 20 julgadores na primeira safra e 10 na segunda. O método de avaliação empregado foi a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa na qual foram mensurados os atributos aparência, aroma, cor de polpa, firmeza de polpa, sabor e suculência dos frutos. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram a preferência por frutos de sabor adocicado, com polpa macia e suculenta. Os cultivares Chimarrita, Chiripá e Coral obtiveram o melhor desempenho nas análises sensoriais. Foi verificado ainda que os atributos aroma, firmeza de polpa e sabor são considerados suficientes para a avaliação do perfil sensorial de

  20. Sensory qualities of pastry products enriched with dietary fiber and polyphenolic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolka, Patrycja; Górecka, Danuta; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Jędrusek-Golińska, Anna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Waszkowiak, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Growing consumer demand for products with pro-health properties is forcing food manufacturers to introduce new food items onto the market, which will not only possess such health-enhancing properties but will also compete on the grounds of sensory attributes - taste, flavour, texture etc. The aim was to evaluate these sensory attributes of pastry products enhanced with biologically active compounds, such as inulin, buckwheat hull and buckwheat flour. For decreasing the energy value of the products tested (crispy cookies, muesli cookies, waffles and pancakes) some ingredients were replaced: vegetable butter or oil by inulin and wheat flour by roasted buckwheat flour and thermally processed buckwheat hull. The substances mentioned are rich sources of soluble and insoluble buckwheat fiber, and also polyphenolic substances. Dry chokeberry and mulberry leaf extract were added as a rich source of flavonoids and 1-deoxynorijimycin, respectively. These substances are recommended for people with obesity. The processing was carried out at 175°C for 15 minutes using a convection oven (Rational Combi-Steamer CCC). Pastry products with buckwheat flour, buckwheat hulls, mulberry extract, chokeberry and inulin had a lower food energy, a higher dietary fiber content and scored high on customer desirability. Pastry products which contain ingredients carrying biologically active substances are not only attractive from the sensory point of view, but also low in calories, and are thus recommendable for obesity people.

  1. Relationship between potentiometric measurements, sensorial analysis, and some substances responsible for aroma degradation of white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Ferreira, A C; Oliveira, Carla; Hogg, T; Guedes de Pinho, P

    2003-07-30

    Oxidative degradation of white wines can be described sensorially as developing from a loss at positive aroma characteristics, through the development of negative aromas to a linel stage of chromatic alterations. This work attempts to relate the oxidation "status" evaluate by potentiometric titrations, with sensorial degradation and the levels of substances responsible for "off-flavors", such as methional and phenylacetaldehyde. The potentiometric titration employed measures the most powerful antioxidants of white wines (e.g., those which more rapidly consume oxygen). Considering that aromatic precedes chromatic degradation, resistance to oxidation (ROX) constitutes a useful indicator of resistance to oxidation. Sensorial degradation (ID), potentiometric measures, and volatiles were determined both in samples submitted to a "forced aging" protocol and normal aged white wines. High correlation values were observed between ROX and the ID, in both sets (r > 0.87). ID is better explained by ROX values than by the indicated wine age or by the "degree of browning" (Abs = 420 nm). It was also observed that in samples with ROX values higher than 10, the concentration of methional and phenylacetaldehyde were above their respective odor threshold. Finally, it was observed that there is a relationship between oxygen consumption and the respective ROX. Although these results seem very promising, they needed to be further complemented in order to estimate the shelf life of a white wine using potentiometric titrations.

  2. Sensory matched filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2016-10-24

    As animals move through their environments they are subjected to an endless barrage of sensory signals. Of these, some will be of utmost importance, such as the tell-tale aroma of a potential mate, the distinctive appearance of a vital food source or the unmistakable sound of an approaching predator. Others will be less important. Indeed some will not be important at all. There are, for instance, wide realms of the sensory world that remain entirely undetected, simply because an animal lacks the physiological capacity to detect and analyse the signals that characterise this realm. Take ourselves for example: we are completely insensitive to the Earth's magnetic field, a sensory cue of vital importance as a compass for steering the long distance migration of animals as varied as birds, lobsters and sea turtles. We are also totally oblivious to the rich palette of ultraviolet colours that exist all around us, colours seen by insects, crustaceans, birds, fish and lizards (in fact perhaps by most animals). Nor can we hear the ultrasonic sonar pulses emitted by bats in hot pursuit of flying insect prey. The simple reason for these apparent deficiencies is that we either lack the sensory capacity entirely (as in the case of magnetoreception) or that our existing senses are incapable of detecting specific ranges of the stimulus (such as the ultraviolet wavelength range of light). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Theory of threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2002-01-01

    Theory of Threshold Phenomena in Quantum Scattering is developed in terms of Reduced Scattering Matrix. Relationships of different types of threshold anomalies both to nuclear reaction mechanisms and to nuclear reaction models are established. Magnitude of threshold effect is related to spectroscopic factor of zero-energy neutron state. The Theory of Threshold Phenomena, based on Reduced Scattering Matrix, does establish relationships between different types of threshold effects and nuclear reaction mechanisms: the cusp and non-resonant potential scattering, s-wave threshold anomaly and compound nucleus resonant scattering, p-wave anomaly and quasi-resonant scattering. A threshold anomaly related to resonant or quasi resonant scattering is enhanced provided the neutron threshold state has large spectroscopic amplitude. The Theory contains, as limit cases, Cusp Theories and also results of different nuclear reactions models as Charge Exchange, Weak Coupling, Bohr and Hauser-Feshbach models. (author)

  4. Locomotor sensory organization test: a novel paradigm for the assessment of sensory contributions in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung Hung; Eikema, Diderik-Jan Anthony; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    Feedback based balance control requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive and vestibular input to detect the body's movement within the environment. When the accuracy of sensory signals is compromised, the system reorganizes the relative contributions through a process of sensory recalibration, for upright postural stability to be maintained. Whereas this process has been studied extensively in standing using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT), less is known about these processes in more dynamic tasks such as locomotion. In the present study, ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT to quantify standing postural control when exposed to sensory conflict. The same subjects performed these six conditions using a novel experimental paradigm, the Locomotor SOT (LSOT), to study dynamic postural control during walking under similar types of sensory conflict. To quantify postural control during walking, the net Center of Pressure sway variability was used. This corresponds to the Performance Index of the center of pressure trajectory, which is used to quantify postural control during standing. Our results indicate that dynamic balance control during locomotion in healthy individuals is affected by the systematic manipulation of multisensory inputs. The sway variability patterns observed during locomotion reflect similar balance performance with standing posture, indicating that similar feedback processes may be involved. However, the contribution of visual input is significantly increased during locomotion, compared to standing in similar sensory conflict conditions. The increased visual gain in the LSOT conditions reflects the importance of visual input for the control of locomotion. Since balance perturbations tend to occur in dynamic tasks and in response to environmental constraints not present during the SOT, the LSOT may provide additional information for clinical evaluation on healthy and deficient sensory processing.

  5. Increased sensitivity to supra-threshold painful stimuli in patients with multiple functional somatic symptoms (MFS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzminskyte, Ruta; Kupers, Ronny Clement Florent; Videbech, Poul

    2010-01-01

    threshold and pain tolerance levels in patients with MFS. Twenty-two patients with MFS and 27 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects volunteered for this study. The subjects received innocuous and noxious thermal stimuli to the volar forearm by means of a Peltier contact heat probe. We assessed pain...... threshold and pain tolerance with an ascending staircase method. Anxiety levels and hemodynamic (blood pressure, pulse rate) and endocrine (cortisol and prolactin release) responses were measured before and after pain testing. We found no group differences for any of the physiological or self...

  6. Early Postoperative Nociceptive Threshold and Production of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Induced by Plantar Incision Are Not Influenced with Minocycline in a Rat: Role of Spinal Microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF from spinal microglia is crucial for aberrant nociceptive signaling in several pathological pain conditions, including postoperative pain. We assess the contribution of spinal microglial activation and associated BDNF overexpression to the early post-incisional nociceptive threshold. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with an intrathecal catheter. A postoperative pain model was established by plantar incision. Thermal and mechanical nociceptive responses were assessed by infrared radiant heat and von Frey filaments before and after plantar incision. Rats were injected intrathecally the microglial activation inhibitor minocycline before incision, 24 h after incision, or both. Other groups were subjected to the same treatments and the L4-L5 spinal cord segment removed for immunohistochemical analysis of microglia activation and BNDF expression. Results: Plantar incision reduced both thermal latency and mechanical threshold, indicating thermal hypersensitivity and mechanical allodynia. Minocycline temporally reduced thermal withdrawal latency but had no effect on mechanical withdrawal threshold, spinal microglial activity, or dorsal horn BDNF overexpression during the early post-incision period. Conclusion: These results suggest that spinal microglia does not contribute substantially to post-incisional nociceptive threshold. The BDNF overexpression response that may contribute to postoperative hyperalgesia and allodynia is likely derived from other sources.

  7. High frequency repetitive sensory stimulation improves temporal discrimination in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erro, Roberto; Rocchi, Lorenzo; Antelmi, Elena; Palladino, Raffaele; Tinazzi, Michele; Rothwell, John; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2016-01-01

    High frequency electrical stimulation of an area of skin on a finger improves two-point spatial discrimination in the stimulated area, likely depending on plastic changes in the somatosensory cortex. However, it is unknown whether improvement also applies to temporal discrimination. Twelve young and ten elderly volunteers underwent the stimulation protocol onto the palmar skin of the right index finger. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) was evaluated before and immediately after stimulation as well as 2.5h and 24h later. There was a significant reduction in somatosensory temporal threshold only on the stimulated finger. The effect was reversible, with STDT returning to the baseline values within 24h, and was smaller in the elderly than in the young participants. High frequency stimulation of the skin focally improves temporal discrimination in the area of stimulation. Given previous suggestions that the perceptual effects rely on plastic changes in the somatosensory cortex, our results are consistent with the idea that the timing of sensory stimuli is, at least partially, encoded in the primary somatosensory cortex. Such a protocol could potentially be used as a therapeutic intervention to ameliorate physiological decline in the elderly or in other disorders of sensorimotor integration. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR): understanding the triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Emma L; Spence, Charles; Davis, Nick J

    2017-01-01

    The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as timing and trigger load, atmosphere, and characteristics of ASMR content, ideal spatial distance from various types of stimuli, visual characteristics, context and use of ASMR triggers, and audio preferences are explored. Lower-pitched, complex sounds were found to be especially effective triggers, as were slow-paced, detail-focused videos. Conversely, background music inhibited the sensation for many respondents. These results will help in designing media for ASMR induction.

  9. Sensory determinants of the autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR: understanding the triggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Barratt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR is an atypical sensory phenomenon involving electrostatic-like tingling sensations in response to certain sensory, primarily audio-visual, stimuli. The current study used an online questionnaire, completed by 130 people who self-reported experiencing ASMR. We aimed to extend preliminary investigations into the experience, and establish key multisensory factors contributing to the successful induction of ASMR through online media. Aspects such as timing and trigger load, atmosphere, and characteristics of ASMR content, ideal spatial distance from various types of stimuli, visual characteristics, context and use of ASMR triggers, and audio preferences are explored. Lower-pitched, complex sounds were found to be especially effective triggers, as were slow-paced, detail-focused videos. Conversely, background music inhibited the sensation for many respondents. These results will help in designing media for ASMR induction.

  10. Sensory function and pain in a population of patients treated for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilholm, O J; Cold, S; Rasmussen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    . The neuropathic pain symptom inventory was applied for participants with chronic pain. RESULTS: The mean age was 58.6 years for the pain patients and 60.6 years for the pain-free patients. Thermal thresholds were significantly higher on the operated side than on the contra-lateral side in both groups and side...... difference in warmth detection threshold was significantly higher in the pain group than in the pain-free group (mean 3.8 degrees C vs. 1.1 degrees C, P=0.01). The frequency of cold allodynia was higher in participants with pain than in pain-free participants (15/53 vs. 1/25, P=0.01), and the frequency...

  11. Study of the influence of high hydrostatic pressure on wine chemical and sensorial characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Mickael da Costa

    2015-01-01

    During the last years, the use of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a non-thermal technology for preservation or aging of wine has increased substantially in the academic community. However, HHP treated wine has been only analysed after the pressure treatment, with no knowledge available on the effects of HHP during subsequent storage. The results presented in this thesis showed that HHP treatments influence the chemical and sensorial properties of wine during storage. The application of ...

  12. Particles near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Willenbrock, S.

    1993-01-01

    We propose returning to the definition of the width of a particle in terms of the pole in the particle's propagator. Away from thresholds, this definition of width is equivalent to the standard perturbative definition, up to next-to-leading order; however, near a threshold, the two definitions differ significantly. The width as defined by the pole position provides more information in the threshold region than the standard perturbative definition and, in contrast with the perturbative definition, does not vanish when a two-particle s-wave threshold is approached from below

  13. Repercursões dos transtornos de processamento sensorial ao desempenho funcional de crianças com paralisia cerebral / Repercussions of sensory processing disorders in the functional skills of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyvianne Thayanara de Lima Reis

    2017-07-01

    Function Classifiction System (GMFCS was used as the exclusion criterion. Showed that there are relationships between these dimensions. There was a correspondence between the Functional Pedi with the item emotional / social responses of the Sensory Profile, thus identified possible sensory processing disorders in the functional abilities of children with cerebral palsy. Keywords: Child; Independence; Sensory Threshold; Cerebral Palsy; Occupational therapy. La parálisis cerebral (CP se define como una disfunción neurológica o como una lesión no progresiva en el sistema nervioso central. Es un trastorno del movimiento y la postura con la patología que puede coexistir con déficit de procesamiento sensorial. Pocos estudios muestran la asociación entre este déficit y los cambios en el rendimiento motor. Así, el objetivo de este estudio es conocer el perfil sensorial de los niños con parálisis cerebral y su impacto en el rendimiento funcional en relación con actividades de la vida diária. La metodología consistió en 29 niños con parálisis cerebral con edades comprendidas entre los 3 y 7 años y medio. La recopilación de datos se llevó a cabo a través de los instrumentos "del perfil sensorial" y "Inventario de evaluación Pediátrica de la Discapacidad (PEDI". El Sistema de Classificación de la Función Bruto del motor (GMFCS se utilizó como un criterio de exclusión. Ellos demostraron que existen relaciones entre éstos. Hubo corespondencia entre el elemento funcional PEDI con las respuestas emocionales / sociales del perfil sensorial, así que identifican posibles trastornos del procesamiento sensorial en las capacidades funcionales de los niños con parálisis cerebral.Palabras clave: Niño; la independencia; Los umbrales sensoriales; Parálisis Cerebral; Terapia ocupacional.

  14. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.

  15. Experienced Sensory Modalities in Dream Recall

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 斉

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to survey the frequency of visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, cutaneous, organic, gustatory, and olfactory experience in dream recall. A total of 1267 undergraduate students completed a dream recall frequency questionnaire, which contained a question about dream recall frequency and about recall frequency of seven sensory modalities. Results showed that seven sensory modalities were divided into two groups; normally perceived sensory modalities in dreaming, wh...

  16. Sensory overload: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheydt, Stefan; Müller Staub, Maria; Frauenfelder, Fritz; Nielsen, Gunnar H; Behrens, Johann; Needham, Ian

    2017-04-01

    In the context of mental disorders sensory overload is a widely described phenomenon used in conjunction with psychiatric interventions such as removal from stimuli. However, the theoretical foundation of sensory overload as addressed in the literature can be described as insufficient and fragmentary. To date, the concept of sensory overload has not yet been sufficiently specified or analyzed. The aim of the study was to analyze the concept of sensory overload in mental health care. A literature search was undertaken using specific electronic databases, specific journals and websites, hand searches, specific library catalogues, and electronic publishing databases. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used to analyze the sources included in the analysis. All aspects of the method of Walker and Avant were covered in this concept analysis. The conceptual understanding has become more focused, the defining attributes, influencing factors and consequences are described and empirical referents identified. The concept analysis is a first step in the development of a middle-range descriptive theory of sensory overload based on social scientific and stress-theoretical approaches. This specification may serve as a fundament for further research, for the development of a nursing diagnosis or for guidelines. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  17. National Survey of Sensory Features in Children with ASD: Factor Structure of the Sensory Experience Questionnaire (3.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausderau, Karla; Sideris, John; Furlong, Melissa; Little, Lauren M.; Bulluck, John; Baranek, Grace T.

    2014-01-01

    This national online survey study characterized sensory features in 1,307 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 2-12 years using the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire Version 3.0 (SEQ-3.0). Using the SEQ-3.0, a confirmatory factor analytic model with four substantive factors of hypothesized sensory response patterns (i.e.,…

  18. Effects of Encapsulated Fish Oil by Polymerized Whey Protein on the Textural and Sensory Characteristics of Low-Fat Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Diru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five types of polymerized whey protein (PWP1, PWP2, PWP3, PWP4 and PWP5 containing different amounts of fish oil were added to low-fat yogurt as fat replacers. The texture, apparent viscosity, and sensory properties of the yogurts were analyzed in comparison with full-fat ( 3.0%, w/w, fat and low-fat (1.5%, w/w; and 1.2%, w/w milk yogurt controls. The majority (~85% of the particle size distribution was in the range of 1106±158 nm. Thermal property analysis indicated PWP was thermally stable between 50°C and 90°C. Yogurts formulated with 12% of PWP4 and 14% of PWP5 demonstrated higher firmness, springiness and adhesiveness (P<0.05, and lower cohesiveness (P<0.05 than the low-fat milk yogurt controls. There was no fat separation and they had less fishy smell. Yogurts incorporated with 12% of PWP4 had comparable sensory and textural characteristics to the full- -fat milk yogurt control.

  19. Bioinspired sensory systems for local flow characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that many aquatic organisms sense differential hydrodynamic signals.This sensory information is decoded to extract relevant flow properties. This task is challenging because it relies on local and partial measurements, whereas classical flow characterization methods depend on an external observer to reconstruct global flow fields. Here, we introduce a mathematical model in which a bioinspired sensory array measuring differences in local flow velocities characterizes the flow type and intensity. We linearize the flow field around the sensory array and express the velocity gradient tensor in terms of frame-independent parameters. We develop decoding algorithms that allow the sensory system to characterize the local flow and discuss the conditions under which this is possible. We apply this framework to the canonical problem of a circular cylinder in uniform flow, finding excellent agreement between sensed and actual properties. Our results imply that combining suitable velocity sensors with physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements leads to a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  20. Multivariate analysis of data in sensory science

    CERN Document Server

    Naes, T; Risvik, E

    1996-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of multivariate analysis in sensory science is described in this volume. Both methods for aggregated and individual sensory profiles are discussed. Processes and results are presented in such a way that they can be understood not only by statisticians but also by experienced sensory panel leaders and users of sensory analysis. The techniques presented are focused on examples and interpretation rather than on the technical aspects, with an emphasis on new and important methods which are possibly not so well known to scientists in the field. Important features of the book are discussions on the relationship among the methods with a strong accent on the connection between problems and methods. All procedures presented are described in relation to sensory data and not as completely general statistical techniques. Sensory scientists, applied statisticians, chemometricians, those working in consumer science, food scientists and agronomers will find this book of value.

  1. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S.P.; Bright, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. PMID:26716891

  2. Look before you leap: sensory memory improves decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassova, Alexandra; Pearson, Joel

    2013-09-01

    Simple decisions require the processing and evaluation of perceptual and cognitive information, the formation of a decision, and often the execution of a motor response. This process involves the accumulation of evidence over time until a particular choice reaches a decision threshold. Using a random-dot-motion stimulus, we showed that simply delaying responses after the stimulus offset can almost double accuracy, even in the absence of new incoming visual information. However, under conditions in which the otherwise blank interval was filled with a sensory mask or concurrent working memory load was high, performance gains were lost. Further, memory and perception showed equivalent rates of evidence accumulation, suggesting a high-capacity memory store. We propose an account of continued evidence accumulation by sequential sampling from a simultaneously decaying memory trace. Memories typically decay with time, hence immediate inquiry trumps later recall from memory. However, the results we report here show the inverse: Inspecting a memory trumps viewing the actual object.

  3. A Community-Based Sensory Training Program Leads to Improved Experience at a Local Zoo for Children with Sensory Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Kong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing difficulties are common among many special needs children, especially those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The sensory sensitivities often result in interference of daily functioning and can lead to social isolation for both the individual and family unit. A quality improvement (QI project was undertaken within a local zoo to systematically implement a sensory training program targeted at helping special needs individuals with sensory challenges, including those with ASD, Down’s syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and speech delay. We piloted the program over a 2-year period. The program consisted of staff training, provision of sensory bags and specific social stories, as well as creation of quiet zones. Two hundred family units were surveyed before and after implementation of the sensory training program. In this pilot QI study, families reported increased visitation to the zoo, improved interactions with staff members, and the overall quality of their experience. In conclusion, we are able to demonstrate that a sensory training program within the community zoo is feasible, impactful, and has the potential to decrease social isolation for special needs individuals and their families.

  4. Earth-strength magnetic field affects the rheotactic threshold of zebrafish swimming in shoals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, Alessandro; De Rosa, Rosario; Putman, Nathan F; Agnisola, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    Rheotaxis, the unconditioned orienting response to water currents, is a main component of fish behavior. Rheotaxis is achieved using multiple sensory systems, including visual and tactile cues. Rheotactic orientation in open or low-visibility waters might also benefit from the stable frame of reference provided by the geomagnetic field, but this possibility has not been explored before. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) form shoals living in freshwater systems with low visibility, show a robust positive rheotaxis, and respond to geomagnetic fields. Here, we investigated whether a static magnetic field in the Earth-strength range influenced the rheotactic threshold of zebrafish in a swimming tunnel. The direction of the horizontal component of the magnetic field relative to water flow influenced the rheotactic threshold of fish as part of a shoal, but not of fish tested alone. Results obtained after disabling the lateral line of shoaling individuals with Co 2+ suggest that this organ system is involved in the observed magneto-rheotactic response. These findings constitute preliminary evidence that magnetic fields influence rheotaxis and suggest new avenues for further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Thalamic control of sensory selection in divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Ralf D; Schmitt, L Ian; Davidson, Thomas J; Nakajima, Miho; Deisseroth, Karl; Halassa, Michael M

    2015-10-29

    How the brain selects appropriate sensory inputs and suppresses distractors is unknown. Given the well-established role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in executive function, its interactions with sensory cortical areas during attention have been hypothesized to control sensory selection. To test this idea and, more generally, dissect the circuits underlying sensory selection, we developed a cross-modal divided-attention task in mice that allowed genetic access to this cognitive process. By optogenetically perturbing PFC function in a temporally precise window, the ability of mice to select appropriately between conflicting visual and auditory stimuli was diminished. Equivalent sensory thalamocortical manipulations showed that behaviour was causally dependent on PFC interactions with the sensory thalamus, not sensory cortex. Consistent with this notion, we found neurons of the visual thalamic reticular nucleus (visTRN) to exhibit PFC-dependent changes in firing rate predictive of the modality selected. visTRN activity was causal to performance as confirmed by bidirectional optogenetic manipulations of this subnetwork. Using a combination of electrophysiology and intracellular chloride photometry, we demonstrated that visTRN dynamically controls visual thalamic gain through feedforward inhibition. Our experiments introduce a new subcortical model of sensory selection, in which the PFC biases thalamic reticular subnetworks to control thalamic sensory gain, selecting appropriate inputs for further processing.

  6. Sensory quality criteria for five fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warm, Karin; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe

    2000-01-01

    Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation i...... variation and by presenting references, panel discussions and interpreting plots from multivariate data analysis. The developed profile can be used as a sensory wheel for these species, and with minor changes it may be adapted to similar species......Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation...

  7. ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Guang; Xu, Tian-Le

    2011-01-19

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3-6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy.

  8. The effect of bacon pump retention levels following thermal processing on bacon slice composition and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivendiran, T; Wang, L M; Huang, S; Bohrer, B M

    2018-06-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of belly pump uptake and cook yield during processing on bacon slice composition and sensory attributes. A total of forty-four bellies were commercially sourced and randomly assigned to two experiments. Each experiment consisted of one smokehouse cooking cycle. Within each experiment, bellies were separated at the medial point and one belly half was assigned to a high pump uptake treatment (HIGH; target of 30% uptake) and the remaining belly half was assigned to a normal pump uptake treatment (NORM; target of 15% uptake). In experiment-1, cook yields were 107.79% for the HIGH bellies and 101.52% for the NORM bellies. In experiment-2, cook yields were 97.41% for the HIGH bellies and 94.74% for the NORM bellies. Overall, bacon slice composition and sensory attributes of bacon from bellies with greater pump retention were largely unaffected, accordingly it was concluded that cook yields ranging in level of pump retention does not affect most attributes of bacon. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 2-Methylbutyl acetate in wines: Enantiomeric distribution and sensory impact on red wine fruity aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2017-12-15

    Enantiomers of 2-methylbutyl acetate were assayed in red and white commercial wines from various vintages and origins, using chiral gas chromatography (γ-cyclodextrin), revealing the exclusive presence of the S-enantiomeric form. Results also confirmed that (S)-2-methylbutyl acetate levels were generally higher in red than white wines of the same age, and that acetate levels increased gradually during ageing. Olfactory threshold of (S)-2-methylbutyl acetate was evaluated at 313µg/L in dilute alcohol solution (12% v/v) and 1083µg/L in a fruity aromatic reconstitution, reflecting its presence in wines at subthreshold concentrations. At concentrations considerably lower than its olfactory threshold, 2-methylbutyl acetate was associated with blackberry-fruit and banana notes. It was also revealed that, even at subthreshold concentrations, this compound had a modification on the perception of fruity aromas in the matrices studied. Sensory profiles highlighted, for the first time, its specific contribution to black-, fresh-, and jammy-fruit notes, despite its subthreshold concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracing reveals central sensory circuits from brown fat and sensory denervation alters its thermogenic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Cheryl H; Bartness, Timothy J

    2012-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity and growth are controlled by its sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation, but nerve fibers containing sensory-associated neuropeptides [substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)] also suggest sensory innervation. The central nervous system (CNS) projections of BAT afferents are unknown. Therefore, we used the H129 strain of the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), an anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracer used to delineate sensory nerve circuits, to define these projections. HSV-1 was injected into interscapular BAT (IBAT) of Siberian hamsters and HSV-1 immunoreactivity (ir) was assessed 24, 48, 72, 96, and 114 h postinjection. The 96- and 114-h groups had the most HSV-1-ir neurons with marked infections in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, periaqueductal gray, olivary areas, parabrachial nuclei, raphe nuclei, and reticular areas. These sites also are involved in sympathetic outflow to BAT suggesting possible BAT sensory-SNS thermogenesis feedback circuits. We tested the functional contribution of IBAT sensory innervation on thermogenic responses to an acute (24 h) cold exposure test by injecting the specific sensory nerve toxin capsaicin directly into IBAT pads and then measuring core (T(c)) and IBAT (T(IBAT)) temperature responses. CGRP content was significantly decreased in capsaicin-treated IBAT demonstrating successful sensory nerve destruction. T(IBAT) and T(c) were significantly decreased in capsaicin-treated hamsters compared with the saline controls at 2 h of cold exposure. Thus the central sensory circuits from IBAT have been delineated for the first time, and impairment of sensory feedback from BAT appears necessary for the appropriate, initial thermogenic response to acute cold exposure.

  11. Effect of superficial radial nerve stimulation on the activity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons in the cat: role of cutaneous sensory input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieoullon, A.; Dusticier, N.

    1982-01-01

    The release of 3 H-dopamine (DA) continuously synthesized from 3 H-thyrosine was measured in the caudate nucleus (CN) and in the substantia nigra (SN) in both sides of the brain during electrical stimulation of the superficial radial nerve in cats lightly anaesthetized with halothane. Use of appropriate electrophysiologically controlled stimulation led to selective activation of low threshold afferent fibers whereas high stimulation activated all cutaneous afferents. Results showed that low threshold fiber activation induced a decreased dopaminergic activity in CN contralateral to nerve stimulation and a concomitant increase in dopaminergic activity on the ipsilateral side. Stimulation of group I and threshold stimulation of group II afferent fibers induced changes in the release of 3 H-DA mainly on the contralateral CN and SN and in the ipsilateral CN. High stimulation was followed by a general increase of the neurotransmitter release in the four structures. This shows that the nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons are mainly-if not exclusively-controlled by cutaneous sensory inputs. This control, non-specific when high threshold cutaneous fibers are also activated. Such activations could contribute to restablish sufficient release of DA when the dopaminergic function is impaired as in Parkinson's disease. (Author)

  12. Effect of superficial radial nerve stimulation on the activity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons in the cat: role of cutaneous sensory input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieoullon, A; Dusticier, N [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille (France). Inst. de Neurophysiologie et Psychophysiologie

    1982-01-01

    The release of /sup 3/H-dopamine (DA) continuously synthesized from /sup 3/H-thyrosine was measured in the caudate nucleus (CN) and in the substantia nigra (SN) in both sides of the brain during electrical stimulation of the superficial radial nerve in cats lightly anaesthetized with halothane. Use of appropriate electrophysiologically controlled stimulation led to selective activation of low threshold afferent fibers whereas high stimulation activated all cutaneous afferents. Results showed that low threshold fiber activation induced a decreased dopaminergic activity in CN contralateral to nerve stimulation and a concomitant increase in dopaminergic activity on the ipsilateral side. Stimulation of group I and threshold stimulation of group II afferent fibers induced changes in the release of /sup 3/H-DA mainly on the contralateral CN and SN and in the ipsilateral CN. High stimulation was followed by a general increase of the neurotransmitter release in the four structures. This shows that the nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons are mainly-if not exclusively-controlled by cutaneous sensory inputs. This control, non-specific when high threshold cutaneous fibers are also activated. Such activations could contribute to reestablish sufficient release of DA when the dopaminergic function is impaired as in Parkinson's disease.

  13. On the threshold of damage formation in aluminum oxide via electronic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuratov, V.A.; O’Connell, J.; Kirilkin, N.S.; Neethling, J.

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed to determine the threshold of dense ionization induced damage formation and their morphology in sapphire single crystals irradiated with 1.2 MeV/amu Xe ions. Cross-sectional TEM examination of r-oriented Al 2 O 3 specimens irradiated to fluences of 2 × 10 12 and 2 × 10 13 cm −2 has revealed discontinuous ion tracks visible from the irradiated surface up to a depth of 7.6 ± 0.1 μm. According to the SRIM code calculation, the threshold electronic stopping power for track formation in Al 2 O 3 is within the range 9.8 ÷ 10.5 keV/nm. This value agrees with those predicted by both inelastic and analytical thermal spike models

  14. Laser-induced damage thresholds of gold, silver and their alloys in air and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starinskiy, Sergey V.; Shukhov, Yuri G.; Bulgakov, Alexander V.

    2017-02-01

    The nanosecond-laser-induced damage thresholds of gold, silver and gold-silver alloys of various compositions in air and water have been measured for single-shot irradiation conditions. The experimental results are analyzed theoretically by solving the heat flow equation for the samples irradiated in air and in water taking into account vapor nucleation at the solid-water interface. The damage thresholds of Au-Ag alloys are systematically lower than those for pure metals, both in air and water that is explained by lower thermal conductivities of the alloys. The thresholds measured in air agree well with the calculated melting thresholds for all samples. The damage thresholds in water are found to be considerably higher, by a factor of ∼1.5, than the corresponding thresholds in air. This cannot be explained, in the framework of the used model, neither by the conductive heat transfer to water nor by the vapor pressure effect. Possible reasons for the high damage thresholds in water such as scattering of the incident laser light by the vapor-liquid interface and the critical opalescence in the superheated water are suggested. Optical pump-probe measurements have been performed to study the reflectance dynamics of the surface irradiated in air and water. Comparison of the transient reflectance signal with the calculated nucleation dynamics provides evidence that the both suggested scattering mechanisms are likely to occur during metal ablation in water.

  15. New acrylic resin composite with improved thermal diffusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, P B; Obrez, A; Lindberg, S

    1998-03-01

    Studies have shown that physical characteristics of denture base materials may affect patient acceptance of denture prostheses by altering sensory experience of food during mastication. Thermal diffusivity is one material property that has been cited as being important in determining gustatory response, with denture base acrylic resins having low thermal diffusivity compared with denture base metal alloys. This study prepared and characterized experimental acrylic resin composite material with increased thermal diffusivity. Sapphire (Al2O3) whiskers were added to conventional denture base acrylic resin during processing to achieve loadings of 9.35% and 15% by volume. Cylindrical test specimens containing an embedded thermocouple were used to determine thermal diffusivity over a physiologic temperature range (0 degree to 70 degrees C). Thermal diffusivities of the sapphire containing composites were found to be significantly higher than the unmodified acrylic resin. Thermal diffusivity was found to increase in proportion to the volume percentage of sapphire filler, which suggested that the high aspect ratio ceramic particles formed a pathway for heat conduction through the insulating polymer matrix. The thermal diffusivity of denture base acrylic resin was increased by the addition of thermally conducting sapphire whiskers.

  16. Music effect on pain threshold evaluated with current perception threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Music relieves anxiety and psychotic tension. This effect of music is applied to surgical operation in the hospital and dental office. It is still unclear whether this music effect is only limited to the psychological aspect but not to the physical aspect or whether its music effect is influenced by the mood or emotion of audience. To elucidate these issues, we evaluated the music effect on pain threshold by current perception threshold (CPT) and profile of mood states (POMC) test. METHODS: Healthy 30 subjects (12 men, 18 women, 25-49 years old, mean age 34.9) were tested. (1)After POMC test, all subjects were evaluated pain threshold with CPT by Neurometer (Radionics, USA) under 6 conditions, silence, listening to the slow tempo classic music, nursery music, hard rock music, classic paino music and relaxation music with 30 seconds interval. (2)After Stroop color word test as the stresser, pain threshold was evaluated with CPT under 2 conditions, silence and listening to the slow tempo classic music. RESULTS: Under litening to the music, CPT sores increased, especially 2 000 Hz level related with compression, warm and pain sensation. Type of music, preference of music and stress also affected CPT score. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the concentration on the music raise the pain threshold and that stress and mood influence the music effect on pain threshold.

  17. An analysis of transient thermal properties for high power GaN-based laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Seungtaek; Kang, Sung Bok; Kim, Young Jin; Jeong, Hoon; Lee, Kyeongkyun; Kim, Jongseok [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 35-3 Hongcheon-Ri, Ipjang-Myeon, Cheonan, Chungnam 331-825 (Korea); Lee, Sangdon; Suh, Dongsik [QSI Co., Ltd., 315-9 Cheonheung-Ri, Sungger-Eup, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-836 (Korea); Yi, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Yoonho; Jung, Seok Gu; Noh, Minsoo [LG Electronics Advanced Research Institute, 16 Woomyeon-Dong, Seocho-Gu, Seoul 137-724 (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    Thermal properties of 405 nm GaN-based laser diodes were investigated by employing a transient heating response method based on the temperature dependence of diode forward voltage. Thermal resistances of materials consisting of packaged laser diodes were differentiated in transient thermal response curves at a current below threshold current. With a current above threshold current, no significant change in thermal resistances and difference between junction-up and junction-down laser diodes was observed at pulses shorter than 3 sec. From an analysis with long current injections, thermal resistance of a packaged laser diode with a junction-up bonding was {proportional_to}45 C/W which was higher than that of a junction-down bonded laser diode by {proportional_to}10 C/W. Further analyses based on parameters obtained from voltage recovery curves indicated that the time constant for cooling is directly related to the thermal resistance and thermal capacitance of a laser diode package. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. A thermalization energy analysis of the threshold voltage shift in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors under simultaneous negative gate bias and illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flewitt, A. J., E-mail: ajf@eng.cam.ac.uk [Electrical Engineering Division, Cambridge University, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Powell, M. J. [252, Valley Drive, Kendal LA9 7SL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-07

    It has been previously observed that thin film transistors (TFTs) utilizing an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) semiconducting channel suffer from a threshold voltage shift when subjected to a negative gate bias and light illumination simultaneously. In this work, a thermalization energy analysis has been applied to previously published data on negative bias under illumination stress (NBIS) in a-IGZO TFTs. A barrier to defect conversion of 0.65–0.75 eV is extracted, which is consistent with reported energies of oxygen vacancy migration. The attempt-to-escape frequency is extracted to be 10{sup 6}−10{sup 7} s{sup −1}, which suggests a weak localization of carriers in band tail states over a 20–40 nm distance. Models for the NBIS mechanism based on charge trapping are reviewed and a defect pool model is proposed in which two distinct distributions of defect states exist in the a-IGZO band gap: these are associated with states that are formed as neutrally charged and 2+ charged oxygen vacancies at the time of film formation. In this model, threshold voltage shift is not due to a defect creation process, but to a change in the energy distribution of states in the band gap upon defect migration as this allows a state formed as a neutrally charged vacancy to be converted into one formed as a 2+ charged vacancy and vice versa. Carrier localization close to the defect migration site is necessary for the conversion process to take place, and such defect migration sites are associated with conduction and valence band tail states. Under negative gate bias stressing, the conduction band tail is depleted of carriers, but the bias is insufficient to accumulate holes in the valence band tail states, and so no threshold voltage shift results. It is only under illumination that the quasi Fermi level for holes is sufficiently lowered to allow occupation of valence band tail states. The resulting charge localization then allows a negative threshold voltage

  19. RAW CHICKEN LEG AND BREAST SENSORY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Baston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented a method of sensorial evaluation for chicken meat (red and white. This is a descriptive method of analysis. It was perform with trained assessors for chicken refrigerated raw meat organoleptical evaluation. The sensorial attributes considered were: external aspect of anatomical part of chicken analyzed by slime, the surface odor, the skin and muscle color and muscular elasticity. Color was determined for the skin and white and red muscles. Our scale of analysis is formed by three values that characterize each quality attribute. The trained assessor appreciated the sensorial quality of raw anatomical part of chicken as excellent, acceptable and unacceptable. The objectives were: to establish the sensorial attributes to be analyzed for each type of muscular fiber, to describe the quality of each considered attribute and to realize a sensorial scale of quantification for the considered sensorial attributes. Our purpose was to determine the quality of the red and white refrigerated raw chicken anatomical parts (respectively for legs and breasts after one week of storage.

  20. Inhibition of Pre-Supplementary Motor Area by Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation Leads to More Cautious Decision-making and More Efficient Sensory Evidence Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Tuğçe; Berkay, Dilara; Sack, Alexander T; Çakmak, Yusuf Ö; Balcı, Fuat

    2017-08-01

    Decisions are made based on the integration of available evidence. The noise in evidence accumulation leads to a particular speed-accuracy tradeoff in decision-making, which can be modulated and optimized by adaptive decision threshold setting. Given the effect of pre-SMA activity on striatal excitability, we hypothesized that the inhibition of pre-SMA would lead to higher decision thresholds and an increased accuracy bias. We used offline continuous theta burst stimulation to assess the effect of transient inhibition of the right pre-SMA on the decision processes in a free-response two-alternative forced-choice task within the drift diffusion model framework. Participants became more cautious and set higher decision thresholds following right pre-SMA inhibition compared with inhibition of the control site (vertex). Increased decision thresholds were accompanied by an accuracy bias with no effects on post-error choice behavior. Participants also exhibited higher drift rates as a result of pre-SMA inhibition compared with the vertex inhibition. These results, in line with the striatal theory of speed-accuracy tradeoff, provide evidence for the functional role of pre-SMA activity in decision threshold modulation. Our results also suggest that pre-SMA might be a part of the brain network associated with the sensory evidence integration.

  1. Sensory subtypes in children with autism spectrum disorder: latent profile transition analysis using a national survey of sensory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausderau, Karla K; Furlong, Melissa; Sideris, John; Bulluck, John; Little, Lauren M; Watson, Linda R; Boyd, Brian A; Belger, Aysenil; Dickie, Virginia A; Baranek, Grace T

    2014-08-01

    Sensory features are highly prevalent and heterogeneous among children with ASD. There is a need to identify homogenous groups of children with ASD based on sensory features (i.e., sensory subtypes) to inform research and treatment. Sensory subtypes and their stability over 1 year were identified through latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) among a national sample of children with ASD. Data were collected from caregivers of children with ASD ages 2-12 years at two time points (Time 1 N = 1294; Time 2 N = 884). Four sensory subtypes (Mild; Sensitive-Distressed; Attenuated-Preoccupied; Extreme-Mixed) were identified, which were supported by fit indices from the LPTA as well as current theoretical models that inform clinical practice. The Mild and Extreme-Mixed subtypes reflected quantitatively different sensory profiles, while the Sensitive-Distressed and Attenuated-Preoccupied subtypes reflected qualitatively different profiles. Further, subtypes reflected differential child (i.e., gender, developmental age, chronological age, autism severity) and family (i.e., income, mother's education) characteristics. Ninety-one percent of participants remained stable in their subtypes over 1 year. Characterizing the nature of homogenous sensory subtypes may facilitate assessment and intervention, as well as potentially inform biological mechanisms. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy of Quantitative Sensory Testing to Discriminate Inflammatory Toothache and Intraoral Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporatti, André Luís; Costa, Yuri Martins; Stuginski-Barbosa, Juliana; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Duarte, Marco Antônio Hungaro; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    A differential diagnosis between inflammatory toothache (IT) and intraoral neuropathic pain is challenging. The aim of this diagnostic study was to quantify somatosensory function of subjects with IT (acute pulpitis) and atypical odontalgia (AO, intraoral neuropathic pain) and healthy volunteers and to quantify how accurately quantitative sensory testing (QST) discriminates an IT or AO diagnosis. The sample consisted of 60 subjects equally divided (n = 20) into 3 groups: (1) IT, (2) AO, and (3) control. A sequence of 4 QST methods was performed over the dentoalveolar mucosa in the apical maxillar or mandibular area: mechanical detection threshold, pain detection threshold (PDT), dynamic mechanical allodynia, and temporal summation. One-way analysis of variance, Tukey post hoc analyses, and z score transformation were applied to the data. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratio of the QST methods were calculated (α = 5%). Somatosensory abnormalities were found for the AO group, which is consistent with a low detection threshold to touch and pain and the presence of mechanical allodynia. For the IT group, no somatosensory abnormality was observed when compared with the control group. The most accurate QST to discriminate the diagnostic differences between IT and healthy individuals is the PDT. The diagnostic differences between AO and healthy individuals and between IT and AO are best discriminated with the mechanical detection threshold, PDT, and dynamic mechanical allodynia. The proposed QST methods may aid in the differential diagnosis between IT and AO with strong accuracy and may be used as complementary diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sensory neuropathy type IA Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is a condition characterized by nerve abnormalities in ...

  4. Mechanisms of thermally induced threshold voltage instability in GaN-based heterojunction transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shu; Liu, Shenghou; Liu, Cheng; Lu, Yunyou; Chen, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we attempt to reveal the underlying mechanisms of divergent V TH -thermal-stabilities in III-nitride metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MIS-HEMT) and MOS-Channel-HEMT (MOSC-HEMT). In marked contrast to MOSC-HEMT featuring temperature-independent V TH , MIS-HEMT with the same high-quality gate-dielectric/III-nitride interface and similar interface trap distribution exhibits manifest thermally induced V TH shift. The temperature-dependent V TH of MIS-HEMT is attributed to the polarized III-nitride barrier layer, which spatially separates the critical gate-dielectric/III-nitride interface from the channel and allows “deeper” interface trap levels emerging above the Fermi level at pinch-off. This model is further experimentally validated by distinct V G -driven Fermi level movements at the critical interfaces in MIS-HEMT and MOSC-HEMT. The mechanisms of polarized III-nitride barrier layer in influencing V TH -thermal-stability provide guidelines for the optimization of insulated-gate III-nitride power switching devices

  5. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  6. Neural correlates supporting sensory discrimination after left hemisphere stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borstad, Alexandra; Schmalbrock, Petra; Choi, Seongjin; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly half of stroke patients have impaired sensory discrimination, however, the neural structures that support post-stroke sensory function have not been described. Objectives 1) To evaluate the role of the primary somatosensory (S1) cortex in post-stroke sensory discrimination and 2) To determine the relationship between post-stroke sensory discrimination and structural integrity of the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation (sSTR). Methods 10 healthy adults and 10 individuals with left hemisphere stroke participated. Stroke participants completed sensory discrimination testing. An fMRI was conducted during right, impaired hand sensory discrimination. Fractional anisotropy and volume of the sSTR were quantified using diffusion tensor tractography. Results Sensory discrimination was impaired in 60% of participants with left stroke. Peak activation in the left (S1) did not correlate with sensory discrimination ability, rather a more distributed pattern of activation was evident in post-stroke subjects with a positive correlation between peak activation in the parietal cortex and discrimination ability (r=.70, p=.023). The only brain region in which stroke participants had significantly different cortical activation than control participants was the precuneus. Region of interest analysis of the precuneus across stroke participants revealed a positive correlation between peak activation and sensory discrimination ability (r=.77, p=.008). The L/R ratio of sSTR fractional anisotropy also correlated with right hand sensory discrimination (r=.69, p=.027). Conclusions Precuneus cortex, distributed parietal lobe activity, and microstructure of the sSTR support sensory discrimination after left hemisphere stroke. PMID:22592076

  7. Receptors for sensory neuropeptides in human inflammatory diseases: Implications for the effector role of sensory neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantyh, P.W.; Catton, M.D.; Boehmer, C.G.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Maggio, J.E.; Vigna, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Glutamate and several neuropeptides are synthesized and released by subpopulations of primary afferent neurons. These sensory neurons play a role in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in peripheral tissues. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography we have explored what changes occur in the location and concentration of receptor binding sites for sensory neurotransmitters in the colon in two human inflammatory diseases, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The sensory neurotransmitter receptors examined included bombesin, calcitonin gene related peptide-alpha, cholecystokinin, galanin, glutamate, somatostatin, neurokinin A (substance K), substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Of the nine receptor binding sites examined only substance P binding sites associated with arterioles, venules and lymph nodules were dramatically up-regulated in the inflamed tissue. These data suggest that substance P is involved in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in human inflammatory diseases and indicate a specificity of efferent action for each sensory neurotransmitter in peripheral tissues

  8. Structural and sensory characterization of key pungent and tingling compounds from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Henze, Andrea; Frank, Oliver; Glabasnia, Anneke; Rupp, Mathias; Büning, Kirsten; Orlikowski, Diana; Bader, Matthias; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-03-21

    To gain a more comprehensive knowledge on whether, besides the well-known piperine, other compounds are responsible for the pungent and tingling oral impression imparted by black pepper, an ethanol extract prepared from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was screened for its key sensory-active nonvolatiles by application of taste dilution analysis (TDA). Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impact, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments as well as synthesis, led to the structure determination of 25 key pungent and tingling phytochemicals, among which the eight amides 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,13Z)-N-isobutyl-octadeca-2,4,13-trienamide, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,12Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,15Z)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4,15-trienamide, and 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,14Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine were not yet reported in literature. Sensory studies by means of a modified half-tongue test revealed recognition thresholds ranging from 3.0 to 1150.2 nmol/cm² for pungency and from 520.6 to 2162.1 nmol/cm² for the tingling orosensation depending on their chemical structure.

  9. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  10. Equivalent lifetime prediction of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber for thermal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. Y.; Jang, H. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, B. H. [Dongguk Universty, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C. [Chungbuk University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Thermal degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber(NBR), which is used for O-ring material as elastomeric sealed diaphragm valve in the nuclear power plants, is examined. The thermal degradation is accelerated at 130 .deg. C by arrhenius exploit method using the activation energy calculated by thermogravimetric analysis. The weight loss temperature and glass transition temperature are verified for thermally aged NBR. The relationship between dynamic mechanical properties and elongation at break are also investigated. The threshold valued of thermally aged NBR is a ten year in the change of elongation at break.

  11. Equivalent lifetime prediction of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber for thermal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. Y.; Jang, H. K.; Ryu, B. H.; Lee, C.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber(NBR), which is used for O-ring material as elastomeric sealed diaphragm valve in the nuclear power plants, is examined. The thermal degradation is accelerated at 130 .deg. C by arrhenius exploit method using the activation energy calculated by thermogravimetric analysis. The weight loss temperature and glass transition temperature are verified for thermally aged NBR. The relationship between dynamic mechanical properties and elongation at break are also investigated. The threshold valued of thermally aged NBR is a ten year in the change of elongation at break

  12. A dual-trace model for visual sensory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, Marcus; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-11-01

    Visual sensory memory refers to a transient memory lingering briefly after the stimulus offset. Although previous literature suggests that visual sensory memory is supported by a fine-grained trace for continuous representation and a coarse-grained trace of categorical information, simultaneous separation and assessment of these traces can be difficult without a quantitative model. The present study used a continuous estimation procedure to test a novel mathematical model of the dual-trace hypothesis of visual sensory memory according to which visual sensory memory could be modeled as a mixture of 2 von Mises (2VM) distributions differing in standard deviation. When visual sensory memory and working memory (WM) for colors were distinguished using different experimental manipulations in the first 3 experiments, the 2VM model outperformed Zhang and Luck (2008) standard mixture model (SM) representing a mixture of a single memory trace and random guesses, even though SM outperformed 2VM for WM. Experiment 4 generalized 2VM's advantages of fitting visual sensory memory data over SM from color to orientation. Furthermore, a single trace model and 4 other alternative models were ruled out, suggesting the necessity and sufficiency of dual traces for visual sensory memory. Together these results support the dual-trace model of visual sensory memory and provide a preliminary inquiry into the nature of information loss from visual sensory memory to WM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Believing and perceiving: authorship belief modulates sensory attenuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Desantis

    Full Text Available Sensory attenuation refers to the observation that self-generated stimuli are attenuated, both in terms of their phenomenology and their cortical response compared to the same stimuli when generated externally. Accordingly, it has been assumed that sensory attenuation might help individuals to determine whether a sensory event was caused by themselves or not. In the present study, we investigated whether this dependency is reciprocal, namely whether sensory attenuation is modulated by prior beliefs of authorship. Participants had to judge the loudness of auditory effects that they believed were either self-generated or triggered by another person. However, in reality, the sounds were always triggered by the participants' actions. Participants perceived the tones' loudness attenuated when they believed that the sounds were self-generated compared to when they believed that they were generated by another person. Sensory attenuation is considered to contribute to the emergence of people's belief of authorship. Our results suggest that sensory attenuation is also a consequence of prior belief about the causal link between an action and a sensory change in the environment.

  14. Upper gastrointestinal sensory-motor dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Bo; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Ejskjaer, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) sensory-motor abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus and may involve any part of the GI tract. Abnormalities are frequently sub-clinical, and fortunately only rarely do severe and life-threatening problems occur. The pathogenesis of abnormal upper GI sensory-motor function in diabetes is incompletely understood and is most likely multi-factorial of origin. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy as well as acute suboptimal control of diabetes has been shown to impair GI motor and sensory function. Morphological and biomechanical remodeling of the GI wall develops during the duration of diabetes, and may contribute to motor and sensory dysfunction. In this review sensory and motility disorders of the upper GI tract in diabetes is discussed; and the morphological changes and biomechanical remodeling related to the sensory-motor dysfunction is also addressed. PMID:16718808

  15. Investigating the Relationship between Sensory Processing and Job Satisfaction in Occupational Therapists Working in Shiraz Cit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Ghanbari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: job satisfaction is referred to a set of individual’s positive and negative attitudes toward his/her job. Personality traits of individuals are among the factors contributing to job satisfaction. According to Dunn model, people receive information based on their self-regulatory strategies and sensory thresholds. Then behave accordingly and in response to the environment. This paper examines the relationship between sensory processing and job satisfaction especially in occupational therapist employing in Shiraz (2014. Methods: This study is descriptive-analytic. The sample consisted of all 33 occupational therapists working in Shiraz City who work in private and public sectors, part-time and full-time of both genders. After obtaining written consent, the demographic characteristics questionnaire, adult sensory profile and Minnesota Job Satisfaction Test were obtained. The results were analyzed by SPSS 21 software as well as Spearman’s and Pearson chi square tests. Results: No statistical correlation was found between job satisfaction and all four quadrants including the first quadrant (P=0.441 and second (P=0.943 and third (P=0.650 and fourth (P=0.338. In addition, statistically, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and various variables such as participants’ ages (P=0.51, gender (P=0.401, marital status (P=0.114, educational level (P=0.073, job experience (P=0.403, average of daily work hours (P=0.617 and at end the type of contract (P=0.079. Conclusion: The sensory processing cannot directly determine people’s satisfaction with their jobs. Job satisfaction is a complex issue that is influenced by different internal and external factors, and cannot be considered as an element for determining job satisfaction of therapists.

  16. Thermal ramp rate effects on mixed-oxide fuel swelling/gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinman, C.A.; Randklev, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    Macroscopic swelling behavior of PNL-10 was compared to that of PNL-2 fuel and it was found that the swelling-threshold behavior is similar for similar thermal conditions. Transient fission gas release for the PNL-10 fuel is very similar to that observed for the PNL-2 fuel for similar thermal conditions

  17. Program requirements to determine and relate fuel damage and failure thresholds to anticipated conditions in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyd, R.F.; Croucher, D.W.

    1980-03-01

    Anticipated transients, licensing criteria, and damage mechanisms for PWR fuel rods are reviewed. Potential mechanistic fuel rod damage limits for PWRs are discussed. An expermental program to be conducted out-of-pile and in the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) to generate a safety data base to define mechanistic fuel damage and failure thresholds and to relate these thresholds to the thermal-hydraulic and power conditions in a PWR is proposed. The requirements for performing the tests are outlined. Analytical support requirements are defined

  18. High thermal load receiving heat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Jun-ichi; Shibayama, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Uchida, Takaho.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a high thermal load heat receiving plate such as a divertor plate of a thermonuclear device. The high thermal load heat receiving plate of the present invention has a cooling performance capable of suppressing the temperature of an armour tile to less than a threshold value of the material against high thermal loads applied from plasmas. Spiral polygonal pipes are inserted in cooling pipes at a portion receiving high thermal loads in the high temperature load heat receiving plate of the present invention. Both ends of the polygonal pipes are sealed by lids. An area of the flow channel in the cooling pipes is thus reduced. Heat conductivity on the cooling surface of the cooling pipes is increased in the high thermal load heat receiving plate having such a structure. Accordingly, temperature elevation of the armour tile can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  19. Study on the ablation threshold induced by pulsed lasers at different wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrisi, L.; Borrielli, A.; Margarone, D.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the effects induced by pulsed laser ablation on different materials as a function of the laser wavelength is presented. In particular the ablation at low laser fluence, of the order of 10 8 -10 10 W/cm 2 with ns pulse width, is investigated experimentally on different metals, semiconductors and polymers. Two theoretical models, explain the experimental results about the fluence threshold value measurements, as depending on the laser wavelength are discussed. The photothermal process is valid for the estimation of the threshold fluence for IR and visible radiation, both inducing thermal heating in metals and semiconductors through the photon-free electron energy transfer. This model is not valid for polymers. The photochemical process is valid for the estimation of the threshold fluence for UV radiation, which photon energy is higher with respect to the chemical binding energy. This radiation induces chemical bond breaking in insulators and scission and cross linking effects can be produced. This last model is not valid for metals and semiconductors

  20. The effect of atmospheric thermal conditions and urban thermal pollution on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Krämer, Alexander; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of temperature and thermal atmospheric conditions on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Bangladesh. In particular, differences in the response to elevated temperatures between urban and rural areas were investigated. Generalized additive models (GAMs) for daily death counts, adjusted for trend, season, day of the month and age were separately fitted for urban and rural areas. Breakpoint models were applied for determining the increase in mortality above and below a threshold (equivalent) temperature. Generally, a 'V'-shaped (equivalent) temperature-mortality curve with increasing mortality at low and high temperatures was observed. Particularly, urban areas suffered from heat-related mortality with a steep increase above a specific threshold. This adverse heat effect may well increase with ongoing urbanization and the intensification of the urban heat island due to the densification of building structures. Moreover, rising temperatures due to climate change could aggravate thermal stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting Psychotic-Like Experiences during Sensory Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Christina; Mason, Oliver J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. This study aimed to establish the contribution of hallucination proneness, anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness to psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) reported during brief sensory deprivation. Method. Twenty-four high and 22 low hallucination-prone participants reported on PLEs occurring during brief sensory deprivation and at baseline. State/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness were also measured. Results. Both groups experienced a significant increase in PLEs in sensory deprivation. The high hallucination prone group reported more PLEs both at baseline and in sensory deprivation. They also scored significantly higher on measures of state/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness, though these did not explain the effects of group or condition. Regression analysis found hallucination proneness to be the best predictor of the increase in PLEs, with state anxiety also being a significant predictor. Fantasy proneness and suggestibility were not significant predictors. Conclusion. This study suggests the increase in PLEs reported during sensory deprivation reflects a genuine aberration in perceptual experience, as opposed to increased tendency to make false reports due to suggestibility of fantasy proneness. The study provides further support for the use of sensory deprivation as a safe and effective nonpharmacological model of psychosis. PMID:25811027

  2. Predicting Psychotic-Like Experiences during Sensory Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This study aimed to establish the contribution of hallucination proneness, anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness to psychotic-like experiences (PLEs reported during brief sensory deprivation. Method. Twenty-four high and 22 low hallucination-prone participants reported on PLEs occurring during brief sensory deprivation and at baseline. State/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness were also measured. Results. Both groups experienced a significant increase in PLEs in sensory deprivation. The high hallucination prone group reported more PLEs both at baseline and in sensory deprivation. They also scored significantly higher on measures of state/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness, though these did not explain the effects of group or condition. Regression analysis found hallucination proneness to be the best predictor of the increase in PLEs, with state anxiety also being a significant predictor. Fantasy proneness and suggestibility were not significant predictors. Conclusion. This study suggests the increase in PLEs reported during sensory deprivation reflects a genuine aberration in perceptual experience, as opposed to increased tendency to make false reports due to suggestibility of fantasy proneness. The study provides further support for the use of sensory deprivation as a safe and effective nonpharmacological model of psychosis.

  3. Thermal and non-thermal preservation techniques of tiger nuts' beverage "horchata de chufa". Implications for food safety, nutritional and quality properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselló-Soto, Elena; Poojary, Mahesha M; Barba, Francisco J; Koubaa, Mohamed; Lorenzo, Jose M; Mañes, Jordi; Moltó, Juan Carlos

    2018-03-01

    "Horchata de chufa" is a traditional Spanish beverage produced from tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus L.). Due to its richness in nutritional compounds, it is highly perishable and its conservation by pasteurization and/or adding preservatives is required. Although efficient, conventional thermal treatment for pasteurization induces changes in the nutritional and sensory properties. Replacing conventional pasteurization by non-thermal technologies such as pulsed electric fields, ultraviolet, and high pressure, combined with moderate temperatures (preservation of the most thermo-sensitive molecules. Accordingly, this review deals with the description of the most relevant non-thermal technologies applied to preserve "horchata" beverage in order to extend the shelf life and inactivate pathogenic microorganisms as well as to preserve the nutritional and quality properties of this food beverage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lower thermal sensation in normothermic and mildly hyperthermic older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-05-01

    It is important to know how thermal sensation is affected by normal aging under conditions that elevate core body temperature for the prevention of heat-related illness in older people. We assessed whether thermal sensation under conditions of normothermia (NT) and mild hyperthermia (HT) is lowered in older adults. Seventeen younger (23 ±  3 years) and 12 older (71 ±  3 years) healthy men underwent measurements of the cold and warmth detection thresholds ( ± 0.1 °C/s) of their chest and forearm skin, and whole body warmth perception under NT (esophageal temperature, T es, ~36.5 °C) and HT (T es, ~37.3 °C; lower legs immersed in 42 °C water) conditions. Warmth detection threshold at the forearm was increased in older compared with younger participants under both NT (P = 0.006) and HT (P = 0.004) conditions. In contrast, cold detection threshold at the forearm was decreased in older compared with younger participants under NT (P = 0.001) but not HT (P = 0.16). Mild hyperthermia decreased cold detection threshold at forearm in younger participants (P = 0.001) only. There were no effects of age and condition on warmth and cold detection thresholds at chest. Whole body warmth perception increased during HT compared with NT in both groups (both, P perception under NT and HT and skin cold detection thresholds at forearm under NT deteriorated with aging.

  5. Pressure pain thresholds increase after preconditioning 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya M Moloney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The primary motor cortex (M1 is an effective target of non-invasive cortical stimulation (NICS for pain threshold modulation. It has been suggested that the initial level of cortical excitability of M1 plays a key role in the plastic effects of NICS. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigate whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS primed 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS modulates experimental pressure pain thresholds and if this is related to observed alterations in cortical excitability. METHOD: 15 healthy, male participants received 10 min 1 mA anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS to the left M1 before 15 min 1 Hz rTMS in separate sessions over a period of 3 weeks. Motor cortical excitability was recorded at baseline, post-tDCS priming and post-rTMS through recording motor evoked potentials (MEPs from right FDI muscle. Pressure pain thresholds were determined by quantitative sensory testing (QST through a computerized algometer, on the palmar thenar of the right hand pre- and post-stimulation. RESULTS: Cathodal tDCS-primed 1 Hz-rTMS was found to reverse the expected suppressive effect of 1 Hz rTMS on cortical excitability; leading to an overall increase in activity (p<0.001 with a parallel increase in pressure pain thresholds (p<0.01. In contrast, anodal tDCS-primed 1 Hz-rTMS resulted in a corresponding decrease in cortical excitability (p<0.05, with no significant effect on pressure pain. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that priming the M1 before stimulation of 1 Hz-rTMS modulates experimental pressure pain thresholds in a safe and controlled manner, producing a form of analgesia.

  6. Segmentation techniques for extracting humans from thermal images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, JS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A pedestrian detection system for underground mine vehicles is being developed that requires the segmentation of people from thermal images in underground mine tunnels. A number of thresholding techniques are outlined and their performance on a...

  7. The sensory substrate of multimodal communication in brown-headed cowbirds: are females sensory 'specialists' or 'generalists'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, Kelly L; Sesterhenn, Timothy M; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban; Lucas, Jeffrey R

    2017-11-01

    Many animals communicate with multimodal signals. While we have an understanding of multimodal signal production, we know relatively less about receiver filtering of multimodal signals and whether filtering capacity in one modality influences filtering in a second modality. Most multimodal signals contain a temporal element, such as change in frequency over time or a dynamic visual display. We examined the relationship in temporal resolution across two modalities to test whether females are (1) sensory 'specialists', where a trade-off exists between the sensory modalities, (2) sensory 'generalists', where a positive relationship exists between the modalities, or (3) whether no relationship exists between modalities. We used female brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) to investigate this question as males court females with an audiovisual display. We found a significant positive relationship between female visual and auditory temporal resolution, suggesting that females are sensory 'generalists'. Females appear to resolve information well across multiple modalities, which may select for males that signal their quality similarly across modalities.

  8. Creativity and sensory gating indexed by the P50: selective versus leaky sensory gating in divergent thinkers and creative achievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabelina, Darya L; O'Leary, Daniel; Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Nusslock, Robin; Beeman, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Creativity has previously been linked with atypical attention, but it is not clear what aspects of attention, or what types of creativity are associated. Here we investigated specific neural markers of a very early form of attention, namely sensory gating, indexed by the P50 ERP, and how it relates to two measures of creativity: divergent thinking and real-world creative achievement. Data from 84 participants revealed that divergent thinking (assessed with the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking) was associated with selective sensory gating, whereas real-world creative achievement was associated with "leaky" sensory gating, both in zero-order correlations and when controlling for academic test scores in a regression. Thus both creativity measures related to sensory gating, but in opposite directions. Additionally, divergent thinking and real-world creative achievement did not interact in predicting P50 sensory gating, suggesting that these two creativity measures orthogonally relate to P50 sensory gating. Finally, the ERP effect was specific to the P50 - neither divergent thinking nor creative achievement were related to later components, such as the N100 and P200. Overall results suggest that leaky sensory gating may help people integrate ideas that are outside of focus of attention, leading to creativity in the real world; whereas divergent thinking, measured by divergent thinking tests which emphasize numerous responses within a limited time, may require selective sensory processing more than previously thought. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Robust tactile sensory responses in finger area of primate motor cortex relevant to prosthetic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Karen E.; Irwin, Zachary T.; Bullard, Autumn J.; Thompson, David E.; Bentley, J. Nicole; Stacey, William C.; Patil, Parag G.; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Challenges in improving the performance of dexterous upper-limb brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have prompted renewed interest in quantifying the amount and type of sensory information naturally encoded in the primary motor cortex (M1). Previous single unit studies in monkeys showed M1 is responsive to tactile stimulation, as well as passive and active movement of the limbs. However, recent work in this area has focused primarily on proprioception. Here we examined instead how tactile somatosensation of the hand and fingers is represented in M1. Approach. We recorded multi- and single units and thresholded neural activity from macaque M1 while gently brushing individual finger pads at 2 Hz. We also recorded broadband neural activity from electrocorticogram (ECoG) grids placed on human motor cortex, while applying the same tactile stimulus. Main results. Units displaying significant differences in firing rates between individual fingers (p  sensory information was present in M1 to correctly decode stimulus position from multiunit activity above chance levels in all monkeys, and also from ECoG gamma power in two human subjects. Significance. These results provide some explanation for difficulties experienced by motor decoders in clinical trials of cortically controlled prosthetic hands, as well as the general problem of disentangling motor and sensory signals in primate motor cortex during dextrous tasks. Additionally, examination of unit tuning during tactile and proprioceptive inputs indicates cells are often tuned differently in different contexts, reinforcing the need for continued refinement of BMI training and decoding approaches to closed-loop BMI systems for dexterous grasping.

  10. Mechanisms of thermally induced threshold voltage instability in GaN-based heterojunction transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shu; Liu, Shenghou; Liu, Cheng; Lu, Yunyou; Chen, Kevin J., E-mail: eekjchen@ust.hk [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we attempt to reveal the underlying mechanisms of divergent V{sub TH}-thermal-stabilities in III-nitride metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MIS-HEMT) and MOS-Channel-HEMT (MOSC-HEMT). In marked contrast to MOSC-HEMT featuring temperature-independent V{sub TH}, MIS-HEMT with the same high-quality gate-dielectric/III-nitride interface and similar interface trap distribution exhibits manifest thermally induced V{sub TH} shift. The temperature-dependent V{sub TH} of MIS-HEMT is attributed to the polarized III-nitride barrier layer, which spatially separates the critical gate-dielectric/III-nitride interface from the channel and allows “deeper” interface trap levels emerging above the Fermi level at pinch-off. This model is further experimentally validated by distinct V{sub G}-driven Fermi level movements at the critical interfaces in MIS-HEMT and MOSC-HEMT. The mechanisms of polarized III-nitride barrier layer in influencing V{sub TH}-thermal-stability provide guidelines for the optimization of insulated-gate III-nitride power switching devices.

  11. A cholinergic-regulated circuit coordinates the maintenance and bi-stable states of a sensory-motor behavior during Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishi Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Penetration of a male copulatory organ into a suitable mate is a conserved and necessary behavioral step for most terrestrial matings; however, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms for this distinct social interaction have not been elucidated in any animal. During mating, the Caenorhabditis elegans male cloaca is maintained over the hermaphrodite's vulva as he attempts to insert his copulatory spicules. Rhythmic spicule thrusts cease when insertion is sensed. Circuit components consisting of sensory/motor neurons and sex muscles for these steps have been previously identified, but it was unclear how their outputs are integrated to generate a coordinated behavior pattern. Here, we show that cholinergic signaling between the cloacal sensory/motor neurons and the posterior sex muscles sustains genital contact between the sexes. Simultaneously, via gap junctions, signaling from these muscles is transmitted to the spicule muscles, thus coupling repeated spicule thrusts with vulval contact. To transit from rhythmic to sustained muscle contraction during penetration, the SPC sensory-motor neurons integrate the signal of spicule's position in the vulva with inputs from the hook and cloacal sensilla. The UNC-103 K(+ channel maintains a high excitability threshold in the circuit, so that sustained spicule muscle contraction is not stimulated by fewer inputs. We demonstrate that coordination of sensory inputs and motor outputs used to initiate, maintain, self-monitor, and complete an innate behavior is accomplished via the coupling of a few circuit components.

  12. On the threshold of damage formation in aluminum oxide via electronic excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratov, V.A., E-mail: skuratov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); O’Connell, J. [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Kirilkin, N.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Neethling, J. [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    This work is aimed to determine the threshold of dense ionization induced damage formation and their morphology in sapphire single crystals irradiated with 1.2 MeV/amu Xe ions. Cross-sectional TEM examination of r-oriented Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} specimens irradiated to fluences of 2 × 10{sup 12} and 2 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} has revealed discontinuous ion tracks visible from the irradiated surface up to a depth of 7.6 ± 0.1 μm. According to the SRIM code calculation, the threshold electronic stopping power for track formation in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is within the range 9.8 ÷ 10.5 keV/nm. This value agrees with those predicted by both inelastic and analytical thermal spike models.

  13. Sensory aspects in myasthenia gravis: A translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Leon-Ariza, Juan S; Prada, Diddier; Leon-Ariza, Daniel S; Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V

    2016-09-15

    Myasthenia gravis is a paradigmatic muscle disorder characterized by abnormal fatigue and muscle weakness that worsens with activities and improves with rest. Clinical and research studies done on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have advanced our knowledge of the muscle involvement in myasthenia. Current views still state that sensory deficits are not "features of myasthenia gravis". This article discusses the gap that exists on sensory neural transmission in myasthenia that has remained after >300years of research in this neurological disorder. We outline the neurobiological characteristics of sensory and motor synapses, reinterpret the nanocholinergic commonalities that exist in both sensory and motor pathways, discuss the clinical findings on altered sensory pathways in myasthenia, and propose a novel way to score anomalies resulting from multineuronal inability associated sensory troubles due to eugenic nanocholinergic instability and autoimmunity. This medicine-based evidence could serve as a template to further identify novel targets for studying new medications that may offer a better therapeutic benefit in both sensory and motor dysfunction for patients. Importantly, this review may help to re-orient current practices in myasthenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The synaptic pharmacology underlying sensory processing in the superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, K E

    1999-10-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is one of the most ancient regions of the vertebrate central sensory system. In this hub afferents from several sensory pathways converge, and an extensive range of neural circuits enable primary sensory processing, multi-sensory integration and the generation of motor commands for orientation behaviours. The SC has a laminar structure and is usually considered in two parts; the superficial visual layers and the deep multi-modal/motor layers. Neurones in the superficial layers integrate visual information from the retina, cortex and other sources, while the deep layers draw together data from many cortical and sub-cortical sensory areas, including the superficial layers, to generate motor commands. Functional studies in anaesthetized subjects and in slice preparations have used pharmacological tools to probe some of the SC's interacting circuits. The studies reviewed here reveal important roles for ionotropic glutamate receptors in the mediation of sensory inputs to the SC and in transmission between the superficial and deep layers. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors appear to have special responsibility for the temporal matching of retinal and cortical activity in the superficial layers and for the integration of multiple sensory data-streams in the deep layers. Sensory responses are shaped by intrinsic inhibitory mechanisms mediated by GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors and influenced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These sensory and motor-command activities of SC neurones are modulated by levels of arousal through extrinsic connections containing GABA, serotonin and other transmitters. It is possible to naturally stimulate many of the SC's sensory and non-sensory inputs either independently or simultaneously and this brain area is an ideal location in which to study: (a) interactions between inputs from the same sensory system; (b) the integration of inputs from several sensory systems; and (c) the influence of non-sensory systems on

  15. Serotonin induces memory-like, rapamycin-sensitive hyperexcitability in sensory axons of aplysia that contributes to injury responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weragoda, Ramal M S; Walters, Edgar T

    2007-09-01

    The induction of long-term facilitation (LTF) of synapses of Aplysia sensory neurons (SNs) by serotonin (5-HT) has provided an important mechanistic model of memory, but little is known about other long-term effects of 5-HT on sensory properties. Here we show that crushing peripheral nerves results in long-term hyperexcitability (LTH) of the axons of these nociceptive SNs that requires 5-HT activity in the injured nerve. Serotonin application to a nerve segment induces local axonal (but not somal) LTH that is inhibited by 5-HT-receptor antagonists. Blockade of crush-induced axonal LTH by an antagonist, methiothepin, provides evidence for mediation of this injury response by 5-HT. This is the first demonstration in any axon of neuromodulator-induced LTH, a phenomenon potentially important for long-lasting pain. Methiothepin does not reduce axonal LTH induced by local depolarization, so 5-HT is not required for all forms of axonal LTH. Serotonin-induced axonal LTH is expressed as reduced spike threshold and increased repetitive firing, whereas depolarization-induced LTH involves only reduced threshold. Like crush- and depolarization-induced LTH, 5-HT-induced LTH is blocked by inhibiting protein synthesis. Blockade by rapamycin, which also blocks synaptic LTF, is interesting because the eukaryotic protein kinase that is the target of rapamycin (TOR) has a conserved role in promoting growth by stimulating translation of proteins required for translation. Rapamycin sensitivity suggests that localized increases in translation of proteins that promote axonal conduction and excitability at sites of nerve injury may be regulated by the same signals that increase translation of proteins that promote neuronal growth.

  16. Physicochemical, Thermal, and Sensory Properties of Blue Corn (Zea Mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ceren; Arslan-Tontul, Sultan; Candal, Cihadiye; Kilic, Ozlem; Erbas, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate some physicochemical and sensory properties of blue corn cultivated in Turkey. The length and width of the cob with kernels, hectoliter, and 1000-kernel weight of blue corn were measured as 7.66, 2.02 mm, 84.40 kg/100 L, and 44.27 g, respectively. The gelatinization onset, peak, and end temperatures were measured as 61.12 °C, 64.35 °C, and 75.65 °C, respectively. The water activity, moisture content, total protein, lipid, and crude fiber contents of the blue corn sample were detected as 0.44, 9.39%, 13.13%, 4.30%, and 2.68%, respectively. Total starch and resistant starch contents of blue corn were determined as 63.94% and 8.89%, respectively. Also, total monomeric anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity of blue corn were detected as 915.43 mg CGE/kg and 7.99 μmol TE/g, respectively. Additionally, the major fatty acids detected in blue corn samples were palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. Blue corn can be utilized in the production of enjoyable and healthier snacks, such as popcorn and chips, because of its color and high phenolic, anthocyanin, and fiber contents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Breach of sensory integration in children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziyevska Mariya.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available From the first moments of life, the child acquires the experience of being in the world around him through the senses such as touch, balance, proprioception, taste, sight, hearing and smell. The development of sensory integration of individual processes helps to effectively carry out every activity and function in society. Changes in the quality and quantity of sensory information may lead to sensory integration disorder child, which is immediately reflected in his behavior. In this paper we have presented information on the levels of sensory integration and testing of samples with a simple touch of activities that can be done without special equipment, both at home and in child care. Dissemination of knowledge about the processes of sensory integration, both among doctors, teachers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists and psychology as well as parents can contribute to early diagnosis of problems in children sensory-social development, further impeding the normal functioning of the child in society.

  18. Characterization of Sensory Differences in Mixing and Premium Rums Through the Use of Descriptive Sensory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Chelsea M; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-11-01

    This study identified and quantitated perceived sensory differences between 7 premium rums and 2 mixing rums using a hybrid of the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Spectrum methods. In addition, the results of this study validated the previously developed rum flavor wheel created from web-based materials. Results showed that the use of the rum flavor wheel aided in sensory term generation, as 17 additional terms were generated after the wheel was provided to panelists. Thirty-eight sensory terms encompassing aroma, aroma-by-mouth, mouthfeel, taste and aftertaste modalities, were generated and evaluated by the panel. Of the finalized terms, only 5 did not exist previously on the rum flavor wheel. Twenty attributes were found to be significantly different among rums. The majority of rums showed similar aroma profiles with the exception of 2 rums, which were characterized by higher perceived intensities of brown sugar, caramel, vanilla, and chocolate aroma, caramel, maple, and vanilla aroma-by-mouth and caramel aftertaste. These results demonstrate the previously developed rum flavor wheel can be used to adequately describe the flavor profile of rum. Additionally, results of this study document the sensory differences among premium rums and may be used to correlate with analytical data to better understand how changes in chemical composition of the product affect sensory perception. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. [Treatment of sensory information in neurodevelopmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoenen, D; Delvenne, V

    2018-01-01

    The processing of information coming from the elementary sensory systems conditions the development and fulfilment of a child's abilities. A dysfunction in the sensory stimuli processing may generate behavioural patterns that might affect a child's learning capacities as well as his relational sphere. The DSM-5 recognizes the sensory abnormalities as part of the symptomatology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. However, similar features are observed in other neurodevelopmental disorders. Over the years, these conditions have been the subject of numerous controversies. Nowadays, they are all grouped together under the term of Neurodevelopmental Disorders in DSM-5. The semiology of these disorders is rich and complex due to the frequent presence of comorbidities and their impact on cognitive, behavioural, and sensorimotor organization but also on a child's personality, as well as his family, his school, or his social relationships. We carried out a review of the literature on the alterations in the treatment of sensory information in ASD but also on the different neurodevelopmental clinical panels in order to show their impact on child development. Atypical sensory profiles have been demonstrated in several neurodevelopmental clinical populations such as Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders, Dysphasia and Intellectual Disability. Abnomalies in the processing of sensory information should be systematically evaluated in child developmental disorders.

  20. Sensory Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    KWON, Hye-Jin; KIM, Ji-su; KIM, Yoon-jung; KWON, Su-jin; YU, Jin-Na

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sensory impairment is a common condition that exerts negative effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sensory impairment and HRQoL and identify sensory-specific differences in the HRQoL of elderly. Methods: This study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010–2012), analyzing 5,260 subjects over 60 years of age who completed ophthalmic and otologic examinations. Vision and hearing impairment were measured and classified. HRQoL was determined according to the European QoL five dimension test (EQ-5D). Multivariate logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance were performed to identify relationships between sensory impairment and HRQoL dimensions as well as differences in HRQoL scores. Results: In the final adjusted multivariate model, there was a statistically higher proportion of those with dual sensory impairment who reported problems with mobility (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–5.03), usual activities (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.16–4.64), and pain/discomfort among EQ-5D subcategories (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.07–2.97). In the EQ-5D dimensions, the means and standard deviations of vision impairment (0.86 [0.01]) and dual sensory impairment (0.84 [0.02]) appeared meaningfully lower than those for no sensory impairment (0.88 [0.00]) or hearing impairment (0.88 [0.01]); P = .02). Conclusion: Sensory impairment reduces HRQoL in the elderly. Improvement of HRQoL in the elderly thus requires regular screening and appropriate management of sensory impairment. PMID:26258089

  1. Learning from sensory and reward prediction errors during motor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Jun; Shadmehr, Reza

    2011-03-01

    Voluntary motor commands produce two kinds of consequences. Initially, a sensory consequence is observed in terms of activity in our primary sensory organs (e.g., vision, proprioception). Subsequently, the brain evaluates the sensory feedback and produces a subjective measure of utility or usefulness of the motor commands (e.g., reward). As a result, comparisons between predicted and observed consequences of motor commands produce two forms of prediction error. How do these errors contribute to changes in motor commands? Here, we considered a reach adaptation protocol and found that when high quality sensory feedback was available, adaptation of motor commands was driven almost exclusively by sensory prediction errors. This form of learning had a distinct signature: as motor commands adapted, the subjects altered their predictions regarding sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized this learning broadly to neighboring motor commands. In contrast, as the quality of the sensory feedback degraded, adaptation of motor commands became more dependent on reward prediction errors. Reward prediction errors produced comparable changes in the motor commands, but produced no change in the predicted sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized only locally. Because we found that there was a within subject correlation between generalization patterns and sensory remapping, it is plausible that during adaptation an individual's relative reliance on sensory vs. reward prediction errors could be inferred. We suggest that while motor commands change because of sensory and reward prediction errors, only sensory prediction errors produce a change in the neural system that predicts sensory consequences of motor commands.

  2. The relationship between bioclimatic thermal stress and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlmutter, David; Jiao, Dixin; Garb, Yaakov

    2014-12-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort has important implications for urban planning and energy consumption in the built environment. To better understand the relation of subjective thermal experience to bioclimatic thermal stress in such contexts, this study compares micrometeorological and perceptual data from urban spaces in the hot-arid Negev region of Israel. Pedestrians reported on their thermal sensation in these spaces, whereas radiation and convection-related data were used to compute the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS) and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The former is a straightforward characterization of energy exchanges between the human body and its surroundings, without any conversion to an "equivalent temperature." Although the relation of ITS to subjective thermal sensation has been analyzed in the past under controlled indoor conditions, this paper offers the first analysis of this relation in an outdoor setting. ITS alone can account for nearly 60 % of the variance in pedestrians' thermal sensation under outdoor conditions, somewhat more than PET. A series of regressions with individual contextual variables and ITS identified those factors which accounted for additional variance in thermal sensation, whereas multivariate analyses indicated the considerable predictive power ( R-square = 0.74) of models including multiple contextual variables in addition to ITS. Our findings indicate that pedestrians experiencing variable outdoor conditions have a greater tolerance for incremental changes in thermal stress than has been shown previously under controlled indoor conditions, with a tapering of responses at high values of ITS. However, the thresholds of ITS corresponding to thermal "neutrality" and thermal "acceptability" are quite consistent regardless of context.

  3. Psychophysical examination in patients with post-mastectomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, Hanne; Andersen, Jørn; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    and contralateral sides in 15 women with spontaneous pain and sensory abnormalities and 11 pain-free women. Testing included the VAS score of spontaneous pain, detection and pain threshold to thermal and mechanical stimuli, temporal summation to repetitive heat and pinprick stimuli, and assessment of skin blood...... to side difference was seen in pressure pain threshold in the pain-free group. Evoked pain intensity to repetitive stimuli at 0.2 and 2.0 Hz was significantly higher on the operated side in pain patients compared to the control area while no such difference was seen in pain-free patients. Cutaneous blood...

  4. Just do it: action-dependent learning allows sensory prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Novick

    Full Text Available Sensory-motor learning is commonly considered as a mapping process, whereby sensory information is transformed into the motor commands that drive actions. However, this directional mapping, from inputs to outputs, is part of a loop; sensory stimuli cause actions and vice versa. Here, we explore whether actions affect the understanding of the sensory input that they cause. Using a visuo-motor task in humans, we demonstrate two types of learning-related behavioral effects. Stimulus-dependent effects reflect stimulus-response learning, while action-dependent effects reflect a distinct learning component, allowing the brain to predict the forthcoming sensory outcome of actions. Together, the stimulus-dependent and the action-dependent learning components allow the brain to construct a complete internal representation of the sensory-motor loop.

  5. Specialized Cilia in Mammalian Sensory Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Falk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cilia and flagella are highly conserved and important microtubule-based organelles that project from the surface of eukaryotic cells and act as antennae to sense extracellular signals. Moreover, cilia have emerged as key players in numerous physiological, developmental, and sensory processes such as hearing, olfaction, and photoreception. Genetic defects in ciliary proteins responsible for cilia formation, maintenance, or function underlie a wide array of human diseases like deafness, anosmia, and retinal degeneration in sensory systems. Impairment of more than one sensory organ results in numerous syndromic ciliary disorders like the autosomal recessive genetic diseases Bardet-Biedl and Usher syndrome. Here we describe the structure and distinct functional roles of cilia in sensory organs like the inner ear, the olfactory epithelium, and the retina of the mouse. The spectrum of ciliary function in fundamental cellular processes highlights the importance of elucidating ciliopathy-related proteins in order to find novel potential therapies.

  6. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  7. Complete functional characterization of sensory neurons by system identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Michael C-K; David, Stephen V; Gallant, Jack L

    2006-01-01

    System identification is a growing approach to sensory neurophysiology that facilitates the development of quantitative functional models of sensory processing. This approach provides a clear set of guidelines for combining experimental data with other knowledge about sensory function to obtain a description that optimally predicts the way that neurons process sensory information. This prediction paradigm provides an objective method for evaluating and comparing computational models. In this chapter we review many of the system identification algorithms that have been used in sensory neurophysiology, and we show how they can be viewed as variants of a single statistical inference problem. We then review many of the practical issues that arise when applying these methods to neurophysiological experiments: stimulus selection, behavioral control, model visualization, and validation. Finally we discuss several problems to which system identification has been applied recently, including one important long-term goal of sensory neuroscience: developing models of sensory systems that accurately predict neuronal responses under completely natural conditions.

  8. Thresholds in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Hofmann, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interpretations of biological radiation effects frequently use the word 'threshold'. The meaning of this word is explored together with its relationship to the fundamental character of radiation effects and to the question of perception. It is emphasised that although the existence of either a dose or an LET threshold can never be settled by experimental radiobiological investigations, it may be argued on fundamental statistical grounds that for all statistical processes, and especially where the number of observed events is small, the concept of a threshold is logically invalid. (U.K.)

  9. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  10. The delayed reproduction of long time intervals defined by innocuous thermal sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnejad, Mina; Martinu, Kristina; Grondin, Simon; Rainville, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The presence of discrete events during an interval to be estimated generally causes a dilation of perceived duration (event-filling effect). Here, we investigated this phenomenon in the thermal modality using multi-seconds (19 s) innocuous cool stimuli that were either constant (continuous interval) or fluctuating to create three discrete sensory events (segmented interval). Moreover, we introduced a delay following stimulus offset, before the reproduction phase, to allow for a direct comparison with our recent study showing an underestimation of duration in a delayed reproduction task of heat pain sensations (Khoshnejad et al. in Pain 155:581-590, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.12.015 ). The event-filling effect was tested by comparing the delayed reproduction of the segmented and the continuous stimuli in experimental conditions asking participants to (1) reproduce the dynamics of the sensation (i.e., changes in sensory intensity over time) or (2) reproduce only the interval duration (i.e., sensation onset-to-offset). A perceptual (control) condition required participants to report changes in sensation concurrently with the stimulus. Results of the dynamic task confirmed the underestimation of duration in the delayed reproduction task, but this effect was only found with the continuous and not with the segmented stimulus. This implies that the dilation of duration produced by segmentation might compensate for the underestimation of duration in this delayed reproduction task. However, this temporal dilation effect was only observed when participants were required to attend and reproduce the dynamics of sensation. These results suggest that the event-filling effect can be observed in the thermal sensory modality and that attention directed toward changes in sensory intensity might contribute to this effect.

  11. Analyzing sensory data with R

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Descriptive Approaches When panelists rate products according to one single list of attributes Data, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Measuring the impact of the experimental design on the perception of the products? When products are rated according to one single list of attributesData, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Adding supplementary information to the product space When products are rated according to several lists

  12. Thermal shock testing of ceramics with pulsed laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, R.; Naoumidis, A.; Nickel, H.

    1986-04-01

    Arguments are presented showing that the resistance to thermal stressing (''thermal shock'') under pulsed thermal energy deposition by various kinds of beam irradiations is approximately proportional to Φ a √tp, where Φ a is the absorbed power density and tp is the pulse length, under conditions of diffusivity controlled spreading of heat. In practical beam irradiation testing, incident power density, Φ, is reported. To evaluate the usefulness of Φ√tp as an approximation to Φ a √tp, damage threshold values are reviewed for different kinds of beams (electron, proton, and laser) for a range of tp values 5x10 -6 to 2 s. Ruby laser beam irradiation tests were made on the following ceramics: AlN, BN, graphite, αSiC, β-SiC coated graphites, (α+β)Si 3 N 4 , CVD (chemical vapor deposition) TiC coated graphite, CVD TiC coated Mo, and CVD TiN coated IN 625. The identified failure mechanisms are: 1. plastic flow followed by tensile and bend fracturing, 2. chemical decomposition, 3. melting, and 4. loss by thermal spallation. In view of the theoretical approximations and the neglect of reflection losses there is reasonable accord between the damage threshold Φ√tp values from the laser, electron, and proton beam tests. (orig./IHOE)

  13. Sensory Synergy as Environmental Input Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady eAlnajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with 9 healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis’ sensory system to make the controller simpler

  14. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler.

  15. Basic thermal-mechanical properties and thermal shock, fatigue resistance of swaged + rolled potassium doped tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Yan, Qingzhi; Lang, Shaoting; Xia, Min; Ge, Changchun

    2014-09-01

    The potassium doped tungsten (W-K) grade was achieved via swaging + rolling process. The swaged + rolled W-K alloy exhibited acceptable thermal conductivity of 159.1 W/m K and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of about 873 K while inferior mechanical properties attributed to the coarse pores and small deformation degree. Then the thermal shock, fatigue resistance of the W-K grade were characterized by an electron beam facility. Thermal shock tests were conducted at absorbed power densities varied from 0.22 to 1.1 GW/m2 in a step of 0.22 GW/m2. The cracking threshold was in the range of 0.44-0.66 GW/m2. Furthermore, recrystallization occurred in the subsurface of the specimens tested at 0.66-1.1 GW/m2 basing on the analysis of microhardness and microstructure. Thermal fatigue tests were performed at 0.44 GW/m2 up to 1000 cycles and no cracks emerged throughout the tests. Moreover, recrystallization occurred after 1000 cycles.

  16. Influence of the angular scattering of electrons on the runaway threshold in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanrion, O.; Bonaventura, Z.; Bourdon, A.; Neubert, T.

    2016-04-01

    The runaway electron mechanism is of great importance for the understanding of the generation of x- and gamma rays in atmospheric discharges. In 1991, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) were discovered by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. Those emissions are bremsstrahlung from high energy electrons that run away in electric fields associated with thunderstorms. In this paper, we discuss the runaway threshold definition with a particular interest in the influence of the angular scattering for electron energy close to the threshold. In order to understand the mechanism of runaway, we compare the outcome of different Fokker-Planck and Monte Carlo models with increasing complexity in the description of the scattering. The results show that the inclusion of the stochastic nature of collisions smooths the probability to run away around the threshold. Furthermore, we observe that a significant number of electrons diffuse out of the runaway regime when we take into account the diffusion in angle due to the scattering. Those results suggest using a runaway threshold energy based on the Fokker-Planck model assuming the angular equilibrium that is 1.6 to 1.8 times higher than the one proposed by [1, 2], depending on the magnitude of the ambient electric field. The threshold also is found to be 5 to 26 times higher than the one assuming forward scattering. We give a fitted formula for the threshold field valid over a large range of electric fields. Furthermore, we have shown that the assumption of forward scattering is not valid below 1 MeV where the runaway threshold usually is defined. These results are important for the thermal runaway and the runaway electron avalanche discharge mechanisms suggested to participate in the TGF generation.

  17. Superior short-term learning effect of visual and sensory organisation ability when sensory information is unreliable in adolescent rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Ya; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yan-Ying; Tsao, Hung-Ting

    2017-06-01

    Rhythmic gymnasts specialise in dynamic balance under sensory conditions of numerous somatosensory, visual, and vestibular stimulations. This study investigated whether adolescent rhythmic gymnasts are superior to peers in Sensory Organisation test (SOT) performance, which quantifies the ability to maintain standing balance in six sensory conditions, and explored whether they plateaued faster during familiarisation with the SOT. Three and six sessions of SOTs were administered to 15 female rhythmic gymnasts (15.0 ± 1.8 years) and matched peers (15.1 ± 2.1 years), respectively. The gymnasts were superior to their peers in terms of fitness measures, and their performance was better in the SOT equilibrium score when visual information was unreliable. The SOT learning effects were shown in more challenging sensory conditions between Sessions 1 and 2 and were equivalent in both groups; however, over time, the gymnasts gained marginally significant better visual ability and relied less on visual sense when unreliable. In conclusion, adolescent rhythmic gymnasts have generally the same sensory organisation ability and learning rates as their peers. However, when visual information is unreliable, they have superior sensory organisation ability and learn faster to rely less on visual sense.

  18. Emerging Role of Sensory Perception in Aging and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Celine E; Dillin, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Sensory perception comprises gustatory (taste) and olfactory (smell) modalities as well as somatosensory (pain, heat, and tactile mechanosensory) inputs, which are detected by a multitude of sensory receptors. These sensory receptors are contained in specialized ciliated neurons where they detect changes in environmental conditions and participate in behavioral decisions ranging from food choice to avoiding harmful conditions, thus insuring basic survival in metazoans. Recent genetic studies, however, indicate that sensory perception plays additional physiological functions, notably influencing energy homeostatic processes and longevity through neuronal circuits originating from sensory tissues. Here we review how these findings are redefining metabolic signaling and establish a prominent role of sensory neuroendocrine processes in controlling health span and lifespan, with a goal of translating this knowledge towards managing age-associated diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The effect of inulin as a fat substitute on the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaei, Fereshteh; Hojjatoleslamy, Mohammad; Hashemi Dehkordi, Seyyed Majid

    2018-03-01

    Due to its high thermal resistance and compatibility with the sausage emulsion system, the long-chain inulin can be used as a fat substitute in the formulation of this product. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of inulin on the physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of chicken sausages. The study included treatments of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% substitution. After preparing the samples, their physicochemical, textural, calorimetric, and sensory properties were evaluated. The treatment of 100% substitution of inulin had the maximum amount of sugar (29.90%), moisture (72.63%), protein (51.34), ash (6.95%), and salt (4.02%) (dry basis). The fat content was decreased with the increased levels of inulin substitution (p inulin reduced hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and stringiness, but increased springiness and chewiness up to the 25% substitution of inulin. The highest color difference and hue angle were related to 100% substitution treatment. The sensory evaluation of the samples showed that with the increase in the amount of inulin, the mean scores of the factors including color, appearance, and texture were increased, but the mean scores of smell and mouthfeel were decreased. Overall, the substitution of the entire fat existing in the formulation of the sausage with inulin led to the best physicochemical, textural, colorimetric, and sensory results. The use of inulin could be recommended as a fat substitute in the formulation of chicken sausages.

  20. A THEORY OF MAXIMIZING SENSORY INFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    1992-01-01

    A theory is developed on the assumption that early sensory processing aims at maximizing the information rate in the channels connecting the sensory system to more central parts of the brain, where it is assumed that these channels are noisy and have a limited dynamic range. Given a stimulus power

  1. Sensory evaluation techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meilgaard, Morten; Civille, Gail Vance; Carr, B. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    ..., #2 as a textbook for courses at the academic level, it aims to provide j