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Sample records for thermal maturity parameters

  1. Development of laser Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic parameters as an additional thermal maturity indicator to the conodont alteration index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.P.; Wilson, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Laser Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied in an attempt to quantify and elucidate the chemical transformations of the conodont alteration index (CAI) in artificially matured conodonts. Coniform elements of the genus Drepanodus from the Ordovician Emanuel Formation and pectiniform elements of the genus Polygnathus from the Devonian Napier Formation, both from the Canning Basin were used in this investigation. Samples where specifically chosen to study the effects of genus, element morphology, geological age, lithology and depositional environment upon the CAI. The first order Raman spectra (900-1800 cm-1) of both sets of conodonts show three bands. These are assigned to apatite at 965 cm-1, D band (defects present in the structural units and disorder) at 1345 cm-1 and the G band (carbon-carbon in plane stretching vibration or structural ordered carbon) at 1600 cm-1. The Raman spectra recorded for both sample sets, CAI range of 1-7 are characteristic of poorly/ highly disordered carbon within the conodont organic matter. Further more, the D band becomes progressively narrower and more intense the higher the thermal treatment. The G band becomes narrower until CAI 4 and after that has no systematic change apart from the intensity decreasing with temperature. The most noteworthy spectral characteristic in relation to thermal maturity is the clearly defined linear trend of decreasing D band line-width with increasing rank. The carbon 1s photoelectron regions acquired from both sample sets contain three peaks. These peaks are assigned to carbon bonded to sp3 and sp2 hybridized carbon (284.7 eV), alcohol (287.2 eV) and carboxyl (288.3 eV) functional groups. With increasing thermal treatment all the carbon constituents show a linear decrease in abundance. The poorly/ highly disordered carbon shows no progressive ordering with increasing thermal treatment. This is also in agreement with the XPS results, in which the aliphatic

  2. Thermal mud maturation: organic matter and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centini, M; Tredici, M R; Biondi, N; Buonocore, A; Maffei Facino, R; Anselmi, C

    2015-06-01

    Many of the therapeutic and cosmetic treatments offered in spas are centred on mud therapy, to moisturize the skin and prevent skin ageing and rheumatic diseases. Thermal mud is a complex matrix composed of organic and inorganic elements which contribute to its functions. It is a natural product derived from the long mixing of clay and thermal water. During its maturation, organic substances are provided by the microalgae, which develop characteristic of the composition of thermal water. The aim of this study was to identify methods for introducing objective parameters as a basis for characterizing thermal mud and assessing its efficacy. Samples of thermal mud were collected at the Saturnia spa, where there are several sulphureous pools. The maturation of the mud was evaluated by organic component determination using extractive methods and chromatographic analysis (HPLC, GC-MS, SPME). We also studied the radical scavenging activity of mud samples at different stages of maturation, in a homogeneous phase, using several tests (DPPH, ORAC, ABTS). We identified several classes of compounds: saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, hydroxyl acids, dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, alcohols and others. SPME analysis showed the presence of various hydrocarbons compounds (C(11) -C(17)) and long-chain alcohols (C(12) -C(16)). Six or seven months seemed appropriate to complete the process of maturation, and the main effect of maturation time was the increase of lipids. Six-month mud showed the highest activity. The hydrophilic extract was more active than the lipophilic extract. The results indicate that maturation of thermal mud can be followed on the basis of the changes in its organic composition and antioxidant properties along the time. They also highlight the need to develop reference standards for thermal muds in relation to assess their use for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Cracking and thermal maturity of Ordovician oils from Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anlai Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal maturity of the Ordovician oils from the Tahe oilfield of Tarim Basin, NW China was assessed through various maturity parameters, such as biomarkers, aromatic parameters, and diamondoid parameters. Both Ts/(Ts+Tm and C29Ts/(C29H+C29Ts values indicate that the maturity of oils has not reached the condensates stage, which is consistent with the maturity obtained by MPI1. However, the diamondoid maturity suggests that the oil maturity ranges 1.1%–1.6% Ro, which is apparently higher than that of the maturity obtained by the biomarker and MPI1. This discrepancy in maturity may indicate that the Ordovician reservoir has multiple filling history. The 4-MD+3-MD concentration of oils disperses and increases slowly when the Ts/(Ts+Tm value is lower than 0.55. Meanwhile, the value increases rapidly when the Ts/(Ts+Tm value is higher than 0.55. It is proposed that the diamondoid baseline is about 15 μg/goil for marine oils in the Tahe oilfield based on the diamondoid concentration of marine oils from reservoirs of various age. The concentration of 4-MD+3-MD of most Ordovician oils generally ranges from 4.5 to 35 μg/goil, suggesting that the degree of oil-cracking is lower than 50% and the deep Ordovician have potential of oil exploration. The distribution of the concentration of 4-MD+3-MD is characterized by being high in the east and south, low in the west and north, proposing that the two migration pathways exit in the oilfield, which are from east to west and from south to north, respectively. The migration directions are consistent with the results obtained from the oil density and the maturity parameters such as Ts/(Ts+Tm. Thus, suggesting the concentration of 4-MD+3-MD can be used as migration index in oilfield scale.

  4. Measurements of thermal parameters of solar modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Górecki, K; Krac, E

    2016-01-01

    In the paper the methods of measuring thermal parameters of photovoltaic panels - transient thermal impedance and the absorption factor of light-radiation are presented. The manner of realising these methods is described and the results of measurements of the considered thermal parameters of selected photovoltaic panels are presented. The influence of such selected factors as a type of the investigated panel and its mounting manner on transient thermal impedance of the considered panels is also discussed. (paper)

  5. Estimating thermal maturity in the Eagle Ford Shale petroleum system using gas gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Basin-wide datasets that provide information on the geochemical properties of petroleum systems, such as source rock quality, product composition, and thermal maturity, are often difficult to come by or assemble from publically available data. When published studies are available and include these kinds of properties, they generally have few sampling locations and limited numbers and types of analyses. Therefore, production-related data and engineering parameters can provide useful proxies for geochemical properties that are often widely available across a play and in some states are reported in publically available or commercial databases. Gas-oil ratios (GOR) can be calculated from instantaneous or cumulative production data and can be related to the source rock geochemical properties like kerogen type (Lewan and Henry, 1999) and thermal maturity (Tian et al., 2013; U.S. Energy Information Administration [EIA], 2014). Oil density or specific gravity (SG), often reported in American Petroleum Institute units (°API = 141.5 /SG – 131.5), can also provide information on source rock thermal maturity, particularly when combined with GOR values in unconventional petroleum systems (Nesheim, 2017).

  6. Novel maturity parameters for mature to over-mature source rocks and oils based on the distribution of phenanthrene series compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixiang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Two additional novel and an optimized maturation parameters based on the distribution of phenanthrene series compounds are proposed and their relationships to EasyRo% (x are established: log(MPs/P = 0.19x + 0.08 (0.9% < EasyRo% < 2.1%; log(MPs/P = 0.64x − 0.86 (2.1% < EasyRo% < 3.4%; log(DMPs/TMPs = 0.71x − 0.55 (0.9% < EasyRo% < 3.4%; log(MTR = 0.84x − 0.75 (0.9% < EasyRo% < 3.4%. These significant positive correlations are strong argument for using log(MPs/P, log(DMPs/TMPs and log(MTR as maturity parameters, especially for mature to over-mature source rocks.

  7. Thermal neutron diffusion parameters in homogeneous mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Krynicka, E. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A physical background is presented for a computer program which calculates the thermal neutron diffusion parameters for homogeneous mixtures of any compounds. The macroscopic absorption, scattering and transport cross section of the mixture are defined which are generally function of the incident neutron energy. The energy-averaged neutron parameters are available when these energy dependences and the thermal neutron energy distribution are assumed. Then the averaged diffusion coefficient and the pulsed thermal neutron parameters (the absorption rare and the diffusion constant) are also defined. The absorption cross section is described by the 1/v law and deviations from this behaviour are considered. The scattering cross section can be assumed as being almost constant in the thermal neutron region (which results from the free gas model). Serious deviations are observed for hydrogen atoms bound in molecules and a special study in the paper is devoted to this problem. A certain effective scattering cross section is found in this case on a base of individual exact data for a few hydrogenous media. Approximations assumed for the average cosine of the scattering angle are also discussed. The macroscopic parameters calculated are averaged over the Maxwellian energy distribution for the thermal neutron flux. An information on the input data for the computer program is included. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs.

  8. Thermal neutron diffusion parameters in homogeneous mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Krynicka, E.

    1995-01-01

    A physical background is presented for a computer program which calculates the thermal neutron diffusion parameters for homogeneous mixtures of any compounds. The macroscopic absorption, scattering and transport cross section of the mixture are defined which are generally function of the incident neutron energy. The energy-averaged neutron parameters are available when these energy dependences and the thermal neutron energy distribution are assumed. Then the averaged diffusion coefficient and the pulsed thermal neutron parameters (the absorption rare and the diffusion constant) are also defined. The absorption cross section is described by the 1/v law and deviations from this behaviour are considered. The scattering cross section can be assumed as being almost constant in the thermal neutron region (which results from the free gas model). Serious deviations are observed for hydrogen atoms bound in molecules and a special study in the paper is devoted to this problem. A certain effective scattering cross section is found in this case on a base of individual exact data for a few hydrogenous media. Approximations assumed for the average cosine of the scattering angle are also discussed. The macroscopic parameters calculated are averaged over the Maxwellian energy distribution for the thermal neutron flux. An information on the input data for the computer program is included. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  9. Cervical Vertebral Body's Volume as a New Parameter for Predicting the Skeletal Maturation Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Jinmi; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Ko, Ching-Chang; Kim, Yong-Il

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the correlation between the volumetric parameters derived from the images of the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae by using cone beam computed tomography with skeletal maturation stages and to propose a new formula for predicting skeletal maturation by using regression analysis. We obtained the estimation of skeletal maturation levels from hand-wrist radiographs and volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae bodies ...

  10. Sugarcane maturity estimation through edaphic-climatic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpari Maximiliano Salles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. grows under different weather conditions directly affecting crop maturation. Raw material quality predicting models are important tools in sugarcane crop management; the goal of these models is to provide productivity estimates during harvesting, increasing the efficiency of strategical and administrative decisions. The objective of this work was developing a model to predict Total Recoverable Sugars (TRS during harvesting, using data related to production factors such as soil water storage and negative degree-days. The database of a sugar mill for the crop seasons 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 was analyzed, and statistical models were tested to estimate raw material. The maturity model for a one-year old sugarcane proved to be significant, with a coefficient of determination (R² of 0.7049*. No differences were detected between measured and estimated data in the simulation (P < 0.05.

  11. Effect of thermal modification on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Willians Calonego

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis. Boards were taken from 30-year-old E. grandis trees. The boards were thermally modified at 180 °C in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation at UNESP, Botucatu, Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The results showed that thermal modification caused: (1 decrease of 6.8% in the density at 0% equilibrium moisture content of mature wood; (2 significant decreases of 14.7% and 35.6% in the maximum volumetric swellings of juvenile and mature woods, respectively; (3 significant decreases of 13.7% and 21.3% in the equilibrium moisture content of juvenile and mature woods, respectively. The influence of thermal modification in juvenile wood was lower than in mature wood and caused greater uniformity in the physical variations between these types of wood in E. grandis.

  12. Parameter Uncertainty for Repository Thermal Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Greenberg, Harris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dupont, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    This report is one follow-on to a study of reference geologic disposal design concepts (Hardin et al. 2011a). Based on an analysis of maximum temperatures, that study concluded that certain disposal concepts would require extended decay storage prior to emplacement, or the use of small waste packages, or both. The study used nominal values for thermal properties of host geologic media and engineered materials, demonstrating the need for uncertainty analysis to support the conclusions. This report is a first step that identifies the input parameters of the maximum temperature calculation, surveys published data on measured values, uses an analytical approach to determine which parameters are most important, and performs an example sensitivity analysis. Using results from this first step, temperature calculations planned for FY12 can focus on only the important parameters, and can use the uncertainty ranges reported here. The survey of published information on thermal properties of geologic media and engineered materials, is intended to be sufficient for use in generic calculations to evaluate the feasibility of reference disposal concepts. A full compendium of literature data is beyond the scope of this report. The term “uncertainty” is used here to represent both measurement uncertainty and spatial variability, or variability across host geologic units. For the most important parameters (e.g., buffer thermal conductivity) the extent of literature data surveyed samples these different forms of uncertainty and variability. Finally, this report is intended to be one chapter or section of a larger FY12 deliverable summarizing all the work on design concepts and thermal load management for geologic disposal (M3FT-12SN0804032, due 15Aug2012).

  13. Structural Evolution of Kerogen and Bitumen during Thermal Maturation examined by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, P. R.; Le Doan, T. V.; Pomerantz, A.

    2014-12-01

    Kerogen—the organic matter that is solid and insoluble in organic solvents—is a key component of organic-rich mudstones. The composition of kerogen affects the storage and transport of hydrocarbons in these unconventional resources and is known to change with thermal maturity. We report here using FTIR spectroscopy, the compositional characteristics of kerogen as a function of thermal maturity, together with the compositional characteristics of the organic phase, bitumen—the organic matter that is solid, but soluble in organic solvents. Kerogen is consumed during thermal maturation, whereas bitumen is an intermediary formed at low maturity from kerogen and consumed at higher maturities in formation of oil and gas. Bitumen relative to kerogen has higher aliphatic content, lower aromatic content, and lower abundance of oxygenated functions. At low maturity (vitrinite reflectance equivalent VRe ~ 0.5-0.9 %), the average length of aliphatic chains in bitumen increases during bitumen formation. At higher thermal maturities (VRe > 1.0-1.3 %), average aliphatic chain length decreases as bitumen is consumed. This evolution contrasts to that in kerogen, where aliphatic chain lengths shorten during all stages of maturation. Breakdown of kerogen appears to be driven by cleavage of oxygen functions at low maturity and removal of aliphatic carbons at higher maturities. These aliphatic-rich fragments may comprise the bitumen, and may in part explain the solubility of bitumen in organic solvents. Bitumen shows evidence of oxidation at low thermal maturity, a phenonemom not documented for kerogen. Bitumen maturation and degradation at higher thermal maturity is driven by cleavage and loss of aliphatic carbons, and is coincident with the maximum generation of oil and gas. The aromatic content of bitumen and of kerogen both increase during maturation as a consequence of the loss of aliphatic carbon. The oil and gas generation potential of the residual organic matter thus

  14. Building ceramics with improved thermal insulation parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzepa Karol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important performance characteristics of masonry units is their high thermal insulation. There are many different ways to improve this parameter, however the most popular methods in case of ceramic masonry units are: addition of pore-creating raw materials and application of proper hole pattern. This study was an attempt to improve thermal insulation of ceramics by applying thermal insulation additives. Perlite dust created as a subgrain from expansion of perlite rock was used. Perlite subgrain is not very popular among consumers, that’s why it’s subjected to granulation to obtain coarse grain. The authors presented concept of direct application of perlite dust for the production of building ceramics with improved thermal insulation. Fineness of this additive is asset for molding of ceramic materials from plastic masses. Based on the results it was found that about 70% perlite by volume can be added to obtain material with a coefficient of heat conductivity of 0,37 W/mK. Higher content of this additive in ceramic mass causes deterioration of its rheological properties. Mass loses its plasticity, it tears up and formed green bodies are susceptible to deformation. During sintering perlite takes an active part in compaction process. Higher sintering dynamics is caused by: high content of alkali oxides in perlite and glass nature of perlite. Alkali oxides generate creation of liquid phase which intensifies mass compaction processes. Active role of perlite in sintering process causes good connection of its grains with clay groundwork which is important factor for mechanical parameters of ceramic materials. It was also noted that addition of perlite above 40% by volume of mass effectively neutralized negative effect of efflorescence in ceramic materials.

  15. Kinetic Parameters of Thermal Degradation of Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱新生; 程嘉祺

    2003-01-01

    The derivative expressions between activation energy (E) and the temperature at the maximum mass loss rate(Tmax) and between activation energy (E) and exponent (N) were deduced in the light of Arrhenius theory. It was found that the increase of activation energy results in the decrease of exponent and the increase of Tmax. The kinetic parameters were involved in the analysis of the thermal degradation of several polymers. The degradation kinetics of these polymers well complied with the prediction of the derivative expressions for the polymer degradation with single mechanism dominated.

  16. Testing models of basin inversion in the eastern North Sea using exceptionally accurate thermal and maturity data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.; Gallagher, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    the thermal history information contained in high quality thermal maturity data comprising temperature profiles, vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission track data. Having remained open for experimental purposes, the data of two of the deep wells (Aars-1 and Farsoe-1) are of exceptionally high quality. Here...... about the magnitude of deposition and erosion during this hiatus. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo with a transient one-dimensional thermal model to explore the parameter space of potential thermal history solutions, using the different available data as constraints. The variable parameters comprise...... inversion of the STZ. This is in agreement with numerical rheological models of inversion zone dynamics, which explain how marginal trough subsidence occurred as a consequence of late Cretaceous compressional inversion and erosion along the inversion axis (Nielsen et al. 2005, 2007). Following this, the in-plane...

  17. Thermal maturity of northern Appalachian Basin Devonian shales: Insights from sterane and terpane biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H.; Alimi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    To better estimate thermal maturity of Devonian shales in the northern Appalachian Basin, eleven samples of Marcellus and Huron Shale were characterized via multiple analytical techniques. Vitrinite reflectance, Rock–Eval pyrolysis, gas chromatography (GC) of whole rock extracts, and GC–mass spectrometry (GCMS) of extract saturate fractions were evaluated on three transects that lie across previously documented regional thermal maturity isolines. Results from vitrinite reflectance suggest that most samples are immature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. However, bulk geochemical data and sterane and terpane biomarker ratios from GCMS suggest that almost all samples are in the oil window. This observation is consistent with the presence of thermogenic gas in the study area and higher vitrinite reflectance values recorded from overlying Pennsylvanian coals. These results suggest that vitrinite reflectance is a poor predictor of thermal maturity in early mature areas of Devonian shale, perhaps because reported measurements often include determinations of solid bitumen reflectance. Vitrinite reflectance interpretations in areas of early mature Devonian shale should be supplanted by evaluation of thermal maturity information from biomarker ratios and bulk geochemical data.

  18. Cervical Vertebral Body’s Volume as a New Parameter for Predicting the Skeletal Maturation Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Kyung Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the correlation between the volumetric parameters derived from the images of the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae by using cone beam computed tomography with skeletal maturation stages and to propose a new formula for predicting skeletal maturation by using regression analysis. We obtained the estimation of skeletal maturation levels from hand-wrist radiographs and volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae bodies from 102 Japanese patients (54 women and 48 men, 5–18 years of age. We performed Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis and simple regression analysis. All volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae exhibited statistically significant correlations (P<0.05. The simple regression model with the greatest R-square indicated the fourth-cervical-vertebra volume as an independent variable with a variance inflation factor less than ten. The explanation power was 81.76%. Volumetric parameters of cervical vertebrae using cone beam computed tomography are useful in regression models. The derived regression model has the potential for clinical application as it enables a simple and quantitative analysis to evaluate skeletal maturation level.

  19. Cervical Vertebral Body's Volume as a New Parameter for Predicting the Skeletal Maturation Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Jinmi; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Ko, Ching-Chang; Kim, Yong-Il

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the correlation between the volumetric parameters derived from the images of the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae by using cone beam computed tomography with skeletal maturation stages and to propose a new formula for predicting skeletal maturation by using regression analysis. We obtained the estimation of skeletal maturation levels from hand-wrist radiographs and volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae bodies from 102 Japanese patients (54 women and 48 men, 5-18 years of age). We performed Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis and simple regression analysis. All volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae exhibited statistically significant correlations (P cervical-vertebra volume as an independent variable with a variance inflation factor less than ten. The explanation power was 81.76%. Volumetric parameters of cervical vertebrae using cone beam computed tomography are useful in regression models. The derived regression model has the potential for clinical application as it enables a simple and quantitative analysis to evaluate skeletal maturation level.

  20. Chemical and nanometer-scale structure of kerogen and its change during thermal maturation investigated by advanced solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Fang, X.; Lan, Y.; Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Xu, L.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have used advanced and quantitative solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate structural changes in a series of type II kerogen samples from the New Albany Shale across a range of maturity (vitrinite reflectance R0 from 0.29% to 1.27%). Specific functional groups such as CH3, CH2, alkyl CH, aromatic CH, aromatic C-O, and other nonprotonated aromatics, as well as "oil prone" and "gas prone" carbons, have been quantified by 13C NMR; atomic H/C and O/C ratios calculated from the NMR data agree with elemental analysis. Relationships between NMR structural parameters and vitrinite reflectance, a proxy for thermal maturity, were evaluated. The aromatic cluster size is probed in terms of the fraction of aromatic carbons that are protonated (???30%) and the average distance of aromatic C from the nearest protons in long-range H-C dephasing, both of which do not increase much with maturation, in spite of a great increase in aromaticity. The aromatic clusters in the most mature sample consist of ???30 carbons, and of ???20 carbons in the least mature samples. Proof of many links between alkyl chains and aromatic rings is provided by short-range and long-range 1H-13C correlation NMR. The alkyl segments provide most H in the samples; even at a carbon aromaticity of 83%, the fraction of aromatic H is only 38%. While aromaticity increases with thermal maturity, most other NMR structural parameters, including the aromatic C-O fractions, decrease. Aromaticity is confirmed as an excellent NMR structural parameter for assessing thermal maturity. In this series of samples, thermal maturation mostly increases aromaticity by reducing the length of the alkyl chains attached to the aromatic cores, not by pronounced growth of the size of the fused aromatic ring clusters. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quenching parameter in a holographic thermal QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Binoy Krishna; Arya, Bhaskar

    2017-01-01

    We have calculated the quenching parameter, q ˆ in a model-independent way using the gauge-gravity duality. In earlier calculations, the geometry in the gravity side at finite temperature was usually taken as the pure AdS black hole metric for which the dual gauge theory becomes conformally invariant unlike QCD. Therefore we use a metric which incorporates the fundamental quarks by embedding the coincident D7 branes in the Klebanov-Tseytlin background and a finite temperature is switched on by inserting a black hole into the background, known as OKS-BH metric. Further inclusion of an additional UV cap to the metric prepares the dual gauge theory to run similar to thermal QCD. Moreover q ˆ is usually defined in the literature from the Glauber model perturbative QCD evaluation of the Wilson loop, which has no reasons to hold if the coupling is large and is thus against the main idea of gauge-gravity duality. Thus we use an appropriate definition of q ˆ : q ˆ L- = 1 /L2, where L is the separation for which the Wilson loop is equal to some specific value. The above two refinements cause q ˆ to vary with the temperature as T4 always and to depend linearly on the light-cone time L- with an additional (1 /L-) correction term in the short-distance limit whereas in the long-distance limit, q ˆ depends only linearly on L- with no correction term. These observations agree with other holographic calculations directly or indirectly.

  2. Quenching parameter in a holographic thermal QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy Krishna Patra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have calculated the quenching parameter, qˆ in a model-independent way using the gauge–gravity duality. In earlier calculations, the geometry in the gravity side at finite temperature was usually taken as the pure AdS black hole metric for which the dual gauge theory becomes conformally invariant unlike QCD. Therefore we use a metric which incorporates the fundamental quarks by embedding the coincident D7 branes in the Klebanov–Tseytlin background and a finite temperature is switched on by inserting a black hole into the background, known as OKS-BH metric. Further inclusion of an additional UV cap to the metric prepares the dual gauge theory to run similar to thermal QCD. Moreover qˆ is usually defined in the literature from the Glauber model perturbative QCD evaluation of the Wilson loop, which has no reasons to hold if the coupling is large and is thus against the main idea of gauge–gravity duality. Thus we use an appropriate definition of qˆ: qˆL−=1/L2, where L is the separation for which the Wilson loop is equal to some specific value. The above two refinements cause qˆ to vary with the temperature as T4 always and to depend linearly on the light-cone time L− with an additional (1/L− correction term in the short-distance limit whereas in the long-distance limit, qˆ depends only linearly on L− with no correction term. These observations agree with other holographic calculations directly or indirectly.

  3. Thermal maturity history and implications for hydrocarbon exploration in the Catatumbo basin, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Antonio; Hernandez, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    A thermal model integrated with oil and gas geochemical study has been constructed for the Catatumbo basin, Colombia for provides petroleum system data for hydrocarbon exploration. The calibration of the thermal model with maturity data took into account a changing heat flow scheme which included a thermal increase towards the end of the Jurassic and another one in the early Eocene, associated with rifting events. Locally, active/generating source rocks are within the synclines axes. The hydrocarbon expulsion time for Cretaceous source rocks (Capacho and La Luna formations) started in the upper Paleocene-Eocene, while for the los Cuervos Formation the generation and expulsion started of 1 0 my. The petroleum expelled during the Paleocene-Miocene, were likely accumulated in structures formed since the end of the cretaceous, while the younger structures that resulted from the Andean orogen were charged by remigration from the older structures and additionally with the youngest lately generated hydrocarbons. The accumulations of hydrocarbons are mainly the result of generation and migration locally within the basin. The Catatumbo Basin contains thermogenic wet gases with different degrees of thermal maturity which varies from around 1,0 for 2,5 equivalent Ro. The highest degree of thermal evolution according to maturity indicators and thermal modeling is in the southern area, which is prospective for wet gas. The central and northern area appears more prospective for oil with minor amounts of gas

  4. Evolution of sulfur speciation in bitumen through hydrous pyrolysis induced thermal maturation of Jordanian Ghareb Formation oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Lewan, Michael; Bake, Kyle D.; Bolin, Trudy B.; Craddock, Paul R.; Forsythe, Julia C.; Pomerantz, Andrew E.

    2018-01-01

    temperatures above 320 °C. This sulfur moiety ratio appears to provide complementary thermal maturity information to geochemical parameters derived from other analyses of extracted source rocks.

  5. A Thermal Maturity Analysis of the Effective Cretaceous Petroleum System in the Southern Persian Gulf Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Alipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Commercial hydrocarbon discoveries in the Cretaceous of the southern Persian Gulf basin provide direct evidence that there is an effective petroleum system associated with the Cretaceous series. The revised models of thermal maturity in this region are needed to investigate lateral and stratigraphic variations of thermal maturity, which have not so far been addressed in detail for this part of the Persian Gulf. Such thermal maturity models are required to delineate the existing play assessment risks and to predict properties in more deeply buried undrilled sections. This study uses two dimensional basin modeling techniques to reconstruct maturity evolution of the Cenomanian Middle Sarvak source rock, presumably the most likely source for these hydrocarbons. The results indicate that an estimated 900 meter difference in the depth of burial between the southeastern high and the adjacent trough tends to be translated into noticeable variations at both temperature (135 °C versus 162 °C and vitrinite reflectance (0.91% versus 1.35%. Since the organic matter in the mentioned source rock is of reactive type II, these could cause a shift of about 18 million years in the onset of hydrocarbon generation over respective areas.

  6. Effect of thermal maturity on remobilization of molybdenum in black shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardakani, Omid H.; Chappaz, Anthony; Sanei, Hamed; Mayer, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in sedimentary records have been widely used as a method to assess paleo-redox conditions prevailing in the ancient oceans. However, the potential effects of post-depositional processes, such as thermal maturity and burial diagenesis, on Mo concentrations in organic-rich shales have not been addressed, compromising its use as a redox proxy. This study investigates the distribution and speciation of Mo at various thermal maturities in the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale from southern Quebec, Canada. Samples display maturities ranging from the peak oil window (VRo ∼ 1%) to the dry gas zone (VRo ∼ 2%). While our data show a significant correlation between total organic carbon (TOC) and Mo (R2 = 0.40, n = 28, P 30 ppm). Our results show the presence of two Mo species: molybdenite Mo(IV)S2 (39 ± 5%) and Mo(VI)-Organic Matter (61 ± 5%). This new evidence suggests that at higher thermal maturities, TSR causes sulfate reduction coupled with oxidation of organic matter (OM). This process is associated with H2S generation and pyrite formation and recrystallization. This in turn leads to the remobilization of Mo and co-precipitation of molybdenite with TSR-derived carbonates in the porous intervals. This could lead to alteration of the initial sedimentary signature of Mo in the affected intervals, hence challenging its use as a paleo-redox proxy in overmature black shales.

  7. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Božiková; Ľubomír Híreš; Michal Valach; Martin Malínek; Jan Mareček

    2017-01-01

    In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of ...

  8. Prediction of temperature and thermal inertia effect in the maturation stage and stockpiling of a large composting mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrena, R.; Canovas, C.; Sanchez, A.

    2006-01-01

    A macroscopic non-steady state energy balance was developed and solved for a composting pile of source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste during the maturation stage (13,500 kg of compost). Simulated temperature profiles correlated well with temperature experimental data (ranging from 50 to 70 deg. C) obtained during the maturation process for more than 50 days at full scale. Thermal inertia effect usually found in composting plants and associated to the stockpiling of large composting masses could be predicted by means of this simplified energy balance, which takes into account terms of convective, conductive and radiation heat dissipation. Heat losses in a large composting mass are not significant due to the similar temperatures found at the surroundings and at the surface of the pile (ranging from 15 to 40 deg. C). In contrast, thermophilic temperature in the core of the pile was maintained during the whole maturation process. Heat generation was estimated with the static respiration index, a parameter that is typically used to monitor the biological activity and stability of composting processes. In this study, the static respiration index is presented as a parameter to estimate the metabolic heat that can be generated according to the biodegradable organic matter content of a compost sample, which can be useful in predicting the temperature of the composting process

  9. Significance of Isotopically Labile Organic Hydrogen in Thermal Maturation of Organic Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt Schimmelmann; Maria Mastalerz

    2010-03-30

    Isotopically labile organic hydrogen in fossil fuels occupies chemical positions that participate in isotopic exchange and in chemical reactions during thermal maturation from kerogen to bitumen, oil and gas. Carbon-bound organic hydrogen is isotopically far less exchangeable than hydrogen bound to nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. We explore why organic hydrogen isotope ratios express a relationship with organic nitrogen isotope ratios in kerogen at low to moderate maturity. We develop and apply new techniques to utilize organic D/H ratios in organic matter fractions and on a molecular level as tools for exploration for fossil fuels and for paleoenvironmental research. The scope of our samples includes naturally and artificially matured substrates, such as coal, shale, oil and gas.

  10. Developmental steps of the human cervical spine: parameters for evaluation of skeletal maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcos Fabio Henriques; de Lima, Rodrigo Lopes; De-Ary-Pires, Bernardo; Pires-Neto, Mário Ary; de Ary-Pires, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    The central objective of this investigation was to focus on the development of the cervical spine observed by lateral cephalometric radiological images of children and adolescents (6-16 years old). A sample of 26 individuals (12 girls and 14 boys) was classified according to stages of cervical spine maturation in two subcategories: group I (initiation phase) and group II (acceleration phase). The morphology of the cervical spine was assessed by lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained in accordance with an innovative method for establishing a standardized head posture. A total of 29 linear variables and 5 angular variables were used to clarify the dimensions of the cervical vertebrae. The results suggest that a few measurements can be used as parameters of vertebral maturation both for males and females. The aforementioned measurements include the inferior depth of C2-C4, the inferior depth of C5, the anterior height of C4-C5, and the posterior height of C5. We propose original morphological parameters that may prove remarkably useful in the determination of bone maturational stages of the cervical spine in children and adolescents.

  11. Calculation of the neutron parameters of fast thermal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuleanu, V.; Mocioiu, D.; Drutse, E.; Konstantinesku, E.

    1975-01-01

    The system of neutron calculation for fast reactors is given. This system was used for estimation of physical parameters of fast thermal reactors investigated. The results obtained and different specific problems of the reactors of this type are described. (author)

  12. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Božiková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of thermal parameters measurement for various foods and food raw materials as: granular materials – corn flour and wheat flour; fruits, vegetables and fruit products – grated apple, dried apple and apple juice; liquid materials – milk, beer etc. Measurements were performed in two temperature ranges according to the character of examined material. From graphical relations of thermophysical parameter is evident, that thermal conductivity and diffusivity increases with temperature and moisture content linearly, only for granular materials were obtained non‑linear dependencies. Results shows, that foods and food raw materials have different thermal properties, which are influenced by their type, structure, chemical and physical properties. From presented results is evident, that basic thermal parameters are important for material quality detection in food industry.

  13. Some implications of accurate thermal parameters for beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, D.M.; Whitehurst, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    Authoritative values for the parameters of harmonic thermal motion have been used as criteria for various least-squares refinements of the structure model for beryllium metal. A change in the absolute scale of Brown [Philos. Mag. (1972), 26, 1377-1394] improves the correspondence of the associated data with the true thermal parameters. Contraction of the core-electron distribution upon bonding is a possible implication of the rescaled data. (Auth.)

  14. In-situ measurements of material thermal parameters for accurate LED lamp thermal modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellvehi, M.; Perpina, X.; Jorda, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Jakovenko, J.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the extraction of key thermal parameters for accurate thermal modelling of LED lamps: air exchange coefficient around the lamp, emissivity and thermal conductivity of all lamp parts. As a case study, an 8W retrofit lamp is presented. To assess simulation results, temperature is

  15. Constraining the thermal history of the North American Midcontinent Rift System using carbonate clumped isotopes and organic thermal maturity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Timothy M.; Sheldon, Nathan D.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Petersen, Sierra V.; Gueneli, Nur; Brocks, Jochen J.

    2017-01-01

    The Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) is a Late Mesoproterozoic (∼1.1 Ga) sequence of volcanic and sedimentary rocks exposed in the Lake Superior Region of North America. The MRS continues to be the focus of much research due to its economic mineral deposits as well as its archive of Precambrian life and tectonic processes. In order to constrain the post-depositional thermal history of the MRS, samples were analyzed for carbonate clumped isotope composition and organic thermal maturity. Clumped isotope values from sedimentary/early-diagenetic samples were partially reset during burial to temperatures between 68 and 75 °C. Solid-state reordering models indicate that maximum burial temperatures of 125–155 °C would reset the clumped isotope values to the observed temperature range prior to the onset of regional cooling and uplift. Clumped isotope results from late-stage veins in the White Pine Mine encompass a greater temperature range (49–116 °C), indicative of spatially variable hydrothermal activity and vein emplacement after burial temperatures fell below 100 °C during regional cooling and uplift. Clumped isotope and organic thermal maturity data do not indicate significant spatial differences in thermal history along the MRS. Observed variability in bulk organic matter composition and biomarker indices are therefore more likely a result of shifts in primary productivity or early-degradation processes. These results demonstrate that the MRS experienced a spatially consistent, relatively mild thermal history (125–155 °C) and is therefore a valuable archive for understanding the Late Mesoproterozoic environment.

  16. Geochemical characterization of Neogene sediments from onshore West Baram Delta Province, Sarawak: paleoenvironment, source input and thermal maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togunwa Olayinka S.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Neogene strata of the onshore West Baram Province of NW Borneo contain organic rich rock formations particularly within the Sarawak basin. This basin is a proven prolific oil and gas province, thus has been a subject of great interest to characterise the nature of the organic source input and depositional environment conditions as well as thermal maturation. This study is performed on outcrop samples of Lambir, Miri and Tukau formations, which are of stratigraphic equivalence to the petroleum bearing cycles of the offshore West Baram delta province in Sarawak. The investigated mudstone samples are organic rich with a total organic carbon (TOC content of more than 1.0 wt.%. The integration of elemental and molecular analyses indicates that there is no significant variation in the source input between these formations. The investigated biomarkers parameters achieved from acyclic isoprenoids, terpanes and steranes biomarkers of a saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers revealed that these sediments contain high contribution of land plants with minor marine organic matter input that was deposited and preserved under relatively oxic to suboxic conditions. This is further supported by low total sulphur (TS, high TOC/TN ratios, source and redox sensitive trace elements (V, Ni, Cr, Co and Mo concentrations and their ratios, which suggest terrigenous source input deposited under oxic to suboxic conditions. Based on the analysed biomarker thermal maturity indicators, it may be deduced that the studied sediments are yet to enter the maturity stage for hydrocarbon generation, which is also supported by measured vitrinite reflectance values of 0.39-0.48% Ro.

  17. Geochemical characterization of Neogene sediments from onshore West Baram Delta Province, Sarawak: paleoenvironment, source input and thermal maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togunwa, Olayinka S.; Abdullah, Wan H.

    2017-08-01

    The Neogene strata of the onshore West Baram Province of NW Borneo contain organic rich rock formations particularly within the Sarawak basin. This basin is a proven prolific oil and gas province, thus has been a subject of great interest to characterise the nature of the organic source input and depositional environment conditions as well as thermal maturation. This study is performed on outcrop samples of Lambir, Miri and Tukau formations, which are of stratigraphic equivalence to the petroleum bearing cycles of the offshore West Baram delta province in Sarawak. The investigated mudstone samples are organic rich with a total organic carbon (TOC) content of more than 1.0 wt.%. The integration of elemental and molecular analyses indicates that there is no significant variation in the source input between these formations. The investigated biomarkers parameters achieved from acyclic isoprenoids, terpanes and steranes biomarkers of a saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers revealed that these sediments contain high contribution of land plants with minor marine organic matter input that was deposited and preserved under relatively oxic to suboxic conditions. This is further supported by low total sulphur (TS), high TOC/TN ratios, source and redox sensitive trace elements (V, Ni, Cr, Co and Mo) concentrations and their ratios, which suggest terrigenous source input deposited under oxic to suboxic conditions. Based on the analysed biomarker thermal maturity indicators, it may be deduced that the studied sediments are yet to enter the maturity stage for hydrocarbon generation, which is also supported by measured vitrinite reflectance values of 0.39-0.48% Ro.

  18. Integral Parameters of the Thermal Neutron Scattering Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, S.N.

    1964-09-01

    Integral parameters of the thermal neutron scattering law - the thermalization binding parameter (M 2 ), the Placzek's moments of the generalized frequency spectrum of dynamical modes and the energy transfer moments of the scattering law - are theoretically discussed. A detailed study of the variation of M 2 , the thermalization time constant and the effective temperature of the vibrating atoms, with the relative weight between intra-molecular vibrations and hindered rotations for H 2 O, is presented. Theoretical results for different scattering models of H 2 O are compared with the measurements of integral experiments. A set of integral parameters for D 2 O, using Butler's model, have been obtained. Importance of the structure of hindered rotations of H 2 O and D 2 O in the study of integral parameters has also been discussed

  19. Integral Parameters of the Thermal Neutron Scattering Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, S N

    1964-09-15

    Integral parameters of the thermal neutron scattering law - the thermalization binding parameter (M{sub 2}), the Placzek's moments of the generalized frequency spectrum of dynamical modes and the energy transfer moments of the scattering law - are theoretically discussed. A detailed study of the variation of M{sub 2}, the thermalization time constant and the effective temperature of the vibrating atoms, with the relative weight between intra-molecular vibrations and hindered rotations for H{sub 2}O, is presented. Theoretical results for different scattering models of H{sub 2}O are compared with the measurements of integral experiments. A set of integral parameters for D{sub 2}O, using Butler's model, have been obtained. Importance of the structure of hindered rotations of H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O in the study of integral parameters has also been discussed.

  20. Buckling of thermally fluctuating spherical shells: Parameter renormalization and thermally activated barrier crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Lorenz; Kierfeld, Jan

    2018-05-01

    We study the influence of thermal fluctuations on the buckling behavior of thin elastic capsules with spherical rest shape. Above a critical uniform pressure, an elastic capsule becomes mechanically unstable and spontaneously buckles into a shape with an axisymmetric dimple. Thermal fluctuations affect the buckling instability by two mechanisms. On the one hand, thermal fluctuations can renormalize the capsule's elastic properties and its pressure because of anharmonic couplings between normal displacement modes of different wavelengths. This effectively lowers its critical buckling pressure [Košmrlj and Nelson, Phys. Rev. X 7, 011002 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevX.7.011002]. On the other hand, buckled shapes are energetically favorable already at pressures below the classical buckling pressure. At these pressures, however, buckling requires to overcome an energy barrier, which only vanishes at the critical buckling pressure. In the presence of thermal fluctuations, the capsule can spontaneously overcome an energy barrier of the order of the thermal energy by thermal activation already at pressures below the critical buckling pressure. We revisit parameter renormalization by thermal fluctuations and formulate a buckling criterion based on scale-dependent renormalized parameters to obtain a temperature-dependent critical buckling pressure. Then we quantify the pressure-dependent energy barrier for buckling below the critical buckling pressure using numerical energy minimization and analytical arguments. This allows us to obtain the temperature-dependent critical pressure for buckling by thermal activation over this energy barrier. Remarkably, both parameter renormalization and thermal activation lead to the same parameter dependence of the critical buckling pressure on temperature, capsule radius and thickness, and Young's modulus. Finally, we study the combined effect of parameter renormalization and thermal activation by using renormalized parameters for the energy

  1. North Slope, Alaska: Source rock distribution, richness, thermal maturity, and petroleum charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Magoon, L.B.; Bird, K.J.; Valin, Z.C.; Keller, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Four key marine petroleum source rock units were identified, characterized, and mapped in the subsurface to better understand the origin and distribution of petroleum on the North Slope of Alaska. These marine source rocks, from oldest to youngest, include four intervals: (1) Middle-Upper Triassic Shublik Formation, (2) basal condensed section in the Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Kingak Shale, (3) Cretaceous pebble shale unit, and (4) Cretaceous Hue Shale. Well logs for more than 60 wells and total organic carbon (TOC) and Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses for 1183 samples in 125 well penetrations of the source rocks were used to map the present-day thickness of each source rock and the quantity (TOC), quality (hydrogen index), and thermal maturity (Tmax) of the organic matter. Based on assumptions related to carbon mass balance and regional distributions of TOC, the present-day source rock quantity and quality maps were used to determine the extent of fractional conversion of the kerogen to petroleum and to map the original TOC (TOCo) and the original hydrogen index (HIo) prior to thermal maturation. The quantity and quality of oil-prone organic matter in Shublik Formation source rock generally exceeded that of the other units prior to thermal maturation (commonly TOCo > 4 wt.% and HIo > 600 mg hydrocarbon/g TOC), although all are likely sources for at least some petroleum on the North Slope. We used Rock-Eval and hydrous pyrolysis methods to calculate expulsion factors and petroleum charge for each of the four source rocks in the study area. Without attempting to identify the correct methods, we conclude that calculations based on Rock-Eval pyrolysis overestimate expulsion factors and petroleum charge because low pressure and rapid removal of thermally cracked products by the carrier gas retards cross-linking and pyrobitumen formation that is otherwise favored by natural burial maturation. Expulsion factors and petroleum charge based on hydrous pyrolysis may also be high

  2. ESTIMATION OF THERMAL PARAMETERS OF POWER BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS BY THE METHOD OF THERMAL RELAXATION DIFFERENTIAL SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Niss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal performance of electronic devices determines the stability and reliability of the equipment. This leads to the need for a detailed thermal analysis of semiconductor devices. The goal of the work is evaluation of thermal parameters of high-power bipolar transistors in plastic packages TO-252 and TO-126 by a method of thermal relaxation differential spectrometry. Thermal constants of device elements and distribution structure of thermal resistance defined as discrete and continuous spectra using previously developed relaxation impedance spectrometer. Continuous spectrum, based on higher-order derivatives of the dynamic thermal impedance, follows the model of Foster, and discrete to model of Cauer. The structure of sample thermal resistance is presented in the form of siх-chain electro-thermal RC model. Analysis of the heat flow spreading in the studied structures is carried out on the basis of the concept of thermal diffusivity. For transistor structures the area and distribution of the heat flow cross-section are determined. On the basis of the measurements the thermal parameters of high-power bipolar transistors is evaluated, in particular, the structure of their thermal resistance. For all of the measured samples is obtained that the thermal resistance of the layer planting crystal makes a defining contribution to the internal thermal resistance of transistors. In the transition layer at the border of semiconductor-solder the thermal resistance increases due to changes in the mechanism of heat transfer. Defects in this area in the form of delamination of solder, voids and cracks lead to additional growth of thermal resistance caused by the reduction of the active square of the transition layer. Method of thermal relaxation differential spectrometry allows effectively control the distribution of heat flow in high-power semiconductor devices, which is important for improving the design, improve the quality of landing crystals of power

  3. Constraining the Thermal History of the Midcontinent Rift System with Clumped Isotopes and Organic Thermal Maturity Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, T. M.; Sheldon, N. D.; Mauk, J. L.; Gueneli, N.; Brocks, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic (~1.1 Ga) North American Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) has been of widespread interest to researchers studying its economic mineral deposits, continental rifting processes, and the evolution of early terrestrial life and environments. For their age, the MRS rocks are well preserved and have not been deeply buried, yet a thorough understanding of the regional thermal history is necessary to constrain the processes that emplaced the mineral deposits and how post-burial alteration may have affected various paleo-records. To understand the thermal history of the MRS better, this study presents carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) temperatures from deposits on the north and south sides of the rift. Due to the age of these deposits and known post-depositional processes, uncertainties exist about whether the clumped isotope signature has been reset. To test this, three generations of calcite were analyzed from the Nonesuch Fm. from the White Pine mine in Michigan including: sedimentary limestone beds, early diagenetic carbonate nodules, and hydrothermal calcite veins associated with the emplacement of copper mineralization. Clumped isotope temperatures from the White Pine mine range from 84 to 131°C, with a hydrothermal vein producing the hottest temperature. The clumped isotope temperature range for samples throughout the rift expands to 41-134°C. The hottest temperatures are associated with areas of known copper mineralization, whereas the coolest temperatures are found on the northern arm of the rift in Minnesota, far from known basin-bounding faults. Our hottest temperatures are broadly consistent with preexisting maximum thermal temperature estimates based on clay mineralogy, fluid inclusions, and organic geochemistry data. Clumped isotope results will also be compared to new hydrocarbon maturity data from the Nonesuch Fm., which suggest that bitumen maturities consistently fall within the early oil window across Michigan and Wisconsin.

  4. STUDY OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN AMNIOTIC FLUID FOR ASSESSMENT OF FOETAL MATURITY IN CASES OF NORMAL PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of foetal maturity had been proven of value in evaluating the foetal condition. Accurate assessment of foetal maturity is essential for the proper timing of delivery in various risk pregnancies. Amniotic Fluid analysis for foetal maturity had been of proven value. In the present study, study of biochemical parameters in amniotic fluid in respect of Creatinine, Uric Acid, Urea, Total Proteins, and Electrolytes i.e. Sodium, Potassium and Chloride has been done, along with Serum Electrolytes. Standard methodologies were adopted. The observations in the present study correlated with the works of Chadick et al and Pitkin and Zwirek. The levels of Creatinine, Uric Acid and Urea in Amniotic Fluid showed elevation, while Total Proteins and Serum Sodium showed a decline, as gestation progressed. The Serum and Amniotic Fluid Potassium and Chloride levels remain almost constant throughout the pregnancy. Thus, it is observed that the use of multiple parameters is desirable for accurate assessment of foetal maturity.

  5. Effect of organic-matter type and thermal maturity on methane adsorption in shale-gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ruppel, Stephen C.; Milliken, Kitty; Yang, Rongsheng

    2012-01-01

    A series of methane (CH4) adsorption experiments on bulk organic rich shales and their isolated kerogens were conducted at 35 °C, 50 °C and 65 °C and CH4 pressure of up to 15 MPa under dry conditions. Samples from the Eocene Green River Formation, Devonian–Mississippian Woodford Shale and Upper Cretaceous Cameo coal were studied to examine how differences in organic matter type affect natural gas adsorption. Vitrinite reflectance values of these samples ranged from 0.56–0.58 %Ro. In addition, thermal maturity effects were determined on three Mississippian Barnett Shale samples with measured vitrinite reflectance values of 0.58, 0.81 and 2.01 %Ro. For all bulk and isolated kerogen samples, the total amount of methane adsorbed was directly proportional to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sample and the average maximum amount of gas sorption was 1.36 mmol of methane per gram of TOC. These results indicate that sorption on organic matter plays a critical role in shale-gas storage. Under the experimental conditions, differences in thermal maturity showed no significant effect on the total amount of gas sorbed. Experimental sorption isotherms could be fitted with good accuracy by the Langmuir function by adjusting the Langmuir pressure (PL) and maximum sorption capacity (Γmax). The lowest maturity sample (%Ro = 0.56) displayed a Langmuir pressure (PL) of 5.15 MPa, significantly larger than the 2.33 MPa observed for the highest maturity (%Ro > 2.01) sample at 50 °C. The value of the Langmuir pressure (PL) changes with kerogen type in the following sequence: type I > type II > type III. The thermodynamic parameters of CH4 adsorption on organic rich shales were determined based on the experimental CH4 isotherms. For the adsorption of CH4 on organic rich shales and their isolated kerogen, the heat of adsorption (q) and the standard entropy (Δs0) range from 7.3–28.0 kJ/mol and from −36.2 to −92.2 J/mol/K, respectively.

  6. Thermal power blocks with ultra-super-critical steam parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aličić Merim M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New generation of thermal power plants are required to have increased utilization rates, in addition to reduced emissions of pollutants, in order to reach optimal solutions, from both technical and economic point of view. One way to achieve greater utilization efficiency is operation of the plant at super critical (SC or ultra super critical steam parameters (USC. However, achieving high parameters depends on use of new materials, which have better properties at high temperatures and pressures, use of new welding technologies and by solving the problem of corrosion. The paper gives an overview of some of the plants with these parameters.

  7. Assessment of Thermal Maturity Trends in Devonian–Mississippian Source Rocks Using Raman Spectroscopy: Limitations of Peak-Fitting Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupoi, Jason S., E-mail: jlupoi@rjlg.com; Fritz, Luke P. [RJ Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States); Parris, Thomas M. [Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hackley, Paul C. [UniversityS. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Solotky, Logan [RJ Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States); Eble, Cortland F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Schlaegle, Steve [RJ Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    The thermal maturity of shale is often measured by vitrinite reflectance (VRo). VRo measurements for the Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks evaluated herein predicted thermal immaturity in areas where associated reservoir rocks are oil-producing. This limitation of the VRo method led to the current evaluation of Raman spectroscopy as a suitable alternative for developing correlations between thermal maturity and Raman spectra. In this study, Raman spectra of Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks were regressed against measured VRo or sample-depth. Attempts were made to develop quantitative correlations of thermal maturity. Using sample-depth as a proxy for thermal maturity is not without limitations as thermal maturity as a function of depth depends on thermal gradient, which can vary through time, subsidence rate, uplift, lack of uplift, and faulting. Correlations between Raman data and vitrinite reflectance or sample-depth were quantified by peak-fitting the spectra. Various peak-fitting procedures were evaluated to determine the effects of the number of peaks and maximum peak widths on correlations between spectral metrics and thermal maturity. Correlations between D-frequency, G-band full width at half maximum (FWHM), and band separation between the G- and D-peaks and thermal maturity provided some degree of linearity throughout most peak-fitting assessments; however, these correlations and those calculated from the G-frequency, D/G FWHM ratio, and D/G peak area ratio also revealed a strong dependence on peak-fitting processes. This dependency on spectral analysis techniques raises questions about the validity of peak-fitting, particularly given the amount of subjective analyst involvement necessary to reconstruct spectra. This research shows how user interpretation and extrapolation affected the comparability of different samples, the accuracy of generated trends, and therefore, the potential of the Raman spectral method to become an

  8. Assessment of Thermal Maturity Trends in Devonian–Mississippian Source Rocks Using Raman Spectroscopy: Limitations of Peak-Fitting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Fritz, Luke P.; Parris, Thomas M.; Hackley, Paul C.; Solotky, Logan; Eble, Cortland F.; Schlaegle, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The thermal maturity of shale is often measured by vitrinite reflectance (VRo). VRo measurements for the Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks evaluated herein predicted thermal immaturity in areas where associated reservoir rocks are oil-producing. This limitation of the VRo method led to the current evaluation of Raman spectroscopy as a suitable alternative for developing correlations between thermal maturity and Raman spectra. In this study, Raman spectra of Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks were regressed against measured VRo or sample-depth. Attempts were made to develop quantitative correlations of thermal maturity. Using sample-depth as a proxy for thermal maturity is not without limitations as thermal maturity as a function of depth depends on thermal gradient, which can vary through time, subsidence rate, uplift, lack of uplift, and faulting. Correlations between Raman data and vitrinite reflectance or sample-depth were quantified by peak-fitting the spectra. Various peak-fitting procedures were evaluated to determine the effects of the number of peaks and maximum peak widths on correlations between spectral metrics and thermal maturity. Correlations between D-frequency, G-band full width at half maximum (FWHM), and band separation between the G- and D-peaks and thermal maturity provided some degree of linearity throughout most peak-fitting assessments; however, these correlations and those calculated from the G-frequency, D/G FWHM ratio, and D/G peak area ratio also revealed a strong dependence on peak-fitting processes. This dependency on spectral analysis techniques raises questions about the validity of peak-fitting, particularly given the amount of subjective analyst involvement necessary to reconstruct spectra. This research shows how user interpretation and extrapolation affected the comparability of different samples, the accuracy of generated trends, and therefore, the potential of the Raman spectral method to become an

  9. Assessment of Thermal Maturity Trends in Devonian–Mississippian Source Rocks Using Raman Spectroscopy: Limitations of Peak-Fitting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S. Lupoi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal maturity of shale is often measured by vitrinite reflectance (VRo. VRo measurements for the Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks evaluated herein predicted thermal immaturity in areas where associated reservoir rocks are oil-producing. This limitation of the VRo method led to the current evaluation of Raman spectroscopy as a suitable alternative for developing correlations between thermal maturity and Raman spectra. In this study, Raman spectra of Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks were regressed against measured VRo or sample-depth. Attempts were made to develop quantitative correlations of thermal maturity. Using sample-depth as a proxy for thermal maturity is not without limitations as thermal maturity as a function of depth depends on thermal gradient, which can vary through time, subsidence rate, uplift, lack of uplift, and faulting. Correlations between Raman data and vitrinite reflectance or sample-depth were quantified by peak-fitting the spectra. Various peak-fitting procedures were evaluated to determine the effects of the number of peaks and maximum peak widths on correlations between spectral metrics and thermal maturity. Correlations between D-frequency, G-band full width at half maximum (FWHM, and band separation between the G- and D-peaks and thermal maturity provided some degree of linearity throughout most peak-fitting assessments; however, these correlations and those calculated from the G-frequency, D/G FWHM ratio, and D/G peak area ratio also revealed a strong dependence on peak-fitting processes. This dependency on spectral analysis techniques raises questions about the validity of peak-fitting, particularly given the amount of subjective analyst involvement necessary to reconstruct spectra. This research shows how user interpretation and extrapolation affected the comparability of different samples, the accuracy of generated trends, and therefore, the potential of the Raman spectral

  10. Prediction of temperature and thermal inertia effect in the maturation stage and stockpiling of a large composting mass

    OpenAIRE

    Barrena Gómez, Raquel

    2006-01-01

    A macroscopic non-steady state energy balance was developed and solved for a composting pile of source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste during the maturation stage (13,500 kg of compost). Simulated temperature profiles correlated well with temperature experimental data (ranging from 50 to 70 °C) obtained during the maturation process for more than 50 days at full scale. Thermal inertia effect usually found in composting plants and associated to the stockpiling of large compo...

  11. Comparison of parameters of modern cooled and uncooled thermal cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareła, Jarosław; Kastek, Mariusz; Firmanty, Krzysztof; Krupiński, Michał

    2017-10-01

    During the design of a system employing thermal cameras one always faces a problem of choosing the camera types best suited for the task. In many cases such a choice is far from optimal one, and there are several reasons for that. System designers often favor tried and tested solution they are used to. They do not follow the latest developments in the field of infrared technology and sometimes their choices are based on prejudice and not on facts. The paper presents the results of measurements of basic parameters of MWIR and LWIR thermal cameras, carried out in a specialized testing laboratory. The measured parameters are decisive in terms of image quality generated by thermal cameras. All measurements were conducted according to current procedures and standards. However the camera settings were not optimized for a specific test conditions or parameter measurements. Instead the real settings used in normal camera operations were applied to obtain realistic camera performance figures. For example there were significant differences between measured values of noise parameters and catalogue data provided by manufacturers, due to the application of edge detection filters to increase detection and recognition ranges. The purpose of this paper is to provide help in choosing the optimal thermal camera for particular application, answering the question whether to opt for cheaper microbolometer device or apply slightly better (in terms of specifications) yet more expensive cooled unit. Measurements and analysis were performed by qualified personnel with several dozen years of experience in both designing and testing of thermal camera systems with both cooled and uncooled focal plane arrays. Cameras of similar array sizes and optics were compared, and for each tested group the best performing devices were selected.

  12. Lumped-parameter fuel rod model for rapid thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, K.R.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1975-07-01

    The thermal behavior of fuel rods during simulated accident conditions is extremely sensitive to the heat transfer coefficient which is, in turn, very sensitive to the cladding surface temperature and the fluid conditions. The development of a semianalytical, lumped-parameter fuel rod model which is intended to provide accurate calculations, in a minimum amount of computer time, of the thermal response of fuel rods during a simulated loss-of-coolant accident is described. The results show good agreement with calculations from a comprehensive fuel-rod code (FRAP-T) currently in use at Aerojet Nuclear Company

  13. In vitro acute exposure to DEHP affects oocyte meiotic maturation, energy and oxidative stress parameters in a large animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambruosi, Barbara; Uranio, Manuel Filioli; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos

  14. Agrometeorological parameters for prediction of the maturation period of Arabica coffee cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzopane, José Ricardo Macedo; Salva, Terezinha de Jesus Garcia; de Lima, Valéria Bittencourt; Fazuoli, Luiz Carlos

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the harvest period of coffee fruits based on the relationship between agrometeorological parameters and sucrose accumulation in the seeds. Over the crop years 2004/2005 and 2006/2007, from 150 days after flowering (DAF) onwards, samples of 50 fruits of cultivars Mundo Novo IAC 376-4, Obatã IAC 1669-20 and Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144 were collected from coffee trees located in Campinas, Brazil. The endosperm of the fruits was freeze-dried, ground and analyzed for sucrose content by high-performance liquid chromatography. A weather station provided data to calculate the accumulated growing degree-day (GDD) units, and the reference (ETo) and actual (ETr) evapotranspiration rates. The results showed that the highest rates of sucrose accumulation occurred at the transition from the cane-green to the cherry phenological stage. Models for the estimation of sucrose content during maturation based on meteorological variables exhibited similar or better performance than the DAF variable, with better results for the variables GDD and ETo. The Mundo Novo cultivar reached the highest sucrose level in the endosperm after 2,790 GDD, while cultivar Catuaí attained its maximum sucrose concentration after the accumulated evapotranspiration rate has reached a value of 870 mm. As for cultivar Obatã, the maximum sucrose concentration was predicted with the same degree of accuracy using any of the parameters investigated. For the Obatã cultivar, the values of the variables calculated for the maximum sucrose concentration to be reached were 249 DAF, 3,090 GDD, 1,020 ETo and 900 ETr.

  15. Composition, physicochemical properties and thermal inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase from coconut (Cocos nucifera) water obtained from immature, mature and overly-mature coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thuan-Chew; Cheng, Lai-Hoong; Bhat, Rajeev; Rusul, Gulam; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2014-01-01

    Composition, physicochemical properties and enzyme inactivation kinetics of coconut water were compared between immature (IMC), mature (MC) and overly-mature coconuts (OMC). Among the samples studied, pH, turbidity and mineral contents for OMC water was the highest, whereas water volume, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and total phenolics content for OMC water were the lowest. Maturity was found to affect sugar contents. Sucrose content was found to increase with maturity, and the reverse trend was observed for fructose and glucose. Enzyme activity assessment showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in all samples was more heat resistant than peroxidase (POD). Compared to IMC and MC, PPO and POD from OMC water showed the lowest thermal resistance, with D83.3°C=243.9s (z=27.9°C), and D83.3°C=129.9s (z=19.5°C), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of organic matter properties, clay mineral type and thermal maturity on gas adsorption in organic-rich shale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ruppel, Stephen C.; Milliken, Kitty; Lewan, Mike; Sun, Xun; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A series of CH4 adsorption experiments on natural organic-rich shales, isolated kerogen, clay-rich rocks, and artificially matured Woodford Shale samples were conducted under dry conditions. Our results indicate that physisorption is a dominant process for CH4 sorption, both on organic-rich shales and clay minerals. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of the investigated samples is linearly correlated with the CH4 sorption capacity in both organic-rich shales and clay-rich rocks. The presence of organic matter is a primary control on gas adsorption in shale-gas systems, and the gas-sorption capacity is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic-matter type, and thermal maturity. A large number of nanopores, in the 2–50 nm size range, were created during organic-matter thermal decomposition, and they significantly contributed to the surface area. Consequently, methane-sorption capacity increases with increasing thermal maturity due to the presence of nanopores produced during organic-matter decomposition. Furthermore, CH4 sorption on clay minerals is mainly controlled by the type of clay mineral present. In terms of relative CH4 sorption capacity: montmorillonite ≫ illite – smectite mixed layer > kaolinite > chlorite > illite. The effect of rock properties (organic matter content, type, maturity, and clay minerals) on CH4 adsorption can be quantified with the heat of adsorption and the standard entropy, which are determined from adsorption isotherms at different temperatures. For clay-mineral rich rocks, the heat of adsorption (q) ranges from 9.4 to 16.6 kJ/mol. These values are considerably smaller than those for CH4 adsorption on kerogen (21.9–28 kJ/mol) and organic-rich shales (15.1–18.4 kJ/mol). The standard entropy (Δs°) ranges from -64.8 to -79.5 J/mol/K for clay minerals, -68.1 to -111.3 J/mol/K for kerogen, and -76.0 to -84.6 J/mol/K for organic-rich shales. The affinity of CH4 molecules for sorption on organic matter

  17. Organic maturation levels, thermal history and hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Namurian rocks of the Clare Basin, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodhue, Robbie; Clayton, Geoffrey [Trinity Coll., Dept. of Geology, Dublin (Ireland)

    1999-11-01

    Vitrinite reflectance data from two inland cored boreholes confirm high maturation levels throughout the onshore part of the Irish Clare Basin and suggest erosion of 2 to 4 km of late Carboniferous cover and elevated palaeogeothermal gradients in the Carboniferous section. The observed maturation gradients are fully consistent with the published hypothesis of a late Carboniferous/Permian 'superplume' beneath Pangaea but local vertical reversals in gradients also suggest a complex thermal regime probably involving advective heating. The uppermost Visean--lower Namurian Clare Shale is laterally extensive and up to 300 m thick. Although this unit is post-mature, TOC values of up to 15% suggest that it could have considerable hydrocarbon source rock potential in any less mature offshore parts of the basin. (Author)

  18. Statistical interpretation of chromatic indicators in correlation to phytochemical profile of a sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchabo, William; Ma, Yongkun; Kwaw, Emmanuel; Zhang, Haining; Xiao, Lulu; Apaliya, Maurice T

    2018-01-15

    The four different methods of color measurement of wine proposed by Boulton, Giusti, Glories and Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) were applied to assess the statistical relationship between the phytochemical profile and chromatic characteristics of sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes. The alteration in chromatic properties and phenolic composition of non-thermal aged mulberry wine were examined, aided by the used of Pearson correlation, cluster and principal component analysis. The results revealed a positive effect of non-thermal processes on phytochemical families of wines. From Pearson correlation analysis relationships between chromatic indexes and flavonols as well as anthocyanins were established. Cluster analysis highlighted similarities between Boulton and Giusti parameters, as well as Glories and CIE parameters in the assessment of chromatic properties of wines. Finally, principal component analysis was able to discriminate wines subjected to different maturation techniques on the basis of their chromatic and phenolics characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Thermal maturity of Tasmanites microfossils from confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Kus, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    We report here, for the first time, spectral properties of Tasmanites microfossils determined by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy (CLSM, using Ar 458 nm excitation). The Tasmanites occur in a well-characterized natural maturation sequence (Ro 0.48–0.74%) of Devonian shale (n = 3 samples) from the Appalachian Basin. Spectral property λmax shows excellent agreement (r2 = 0.99) with extant spectra from interlaboratory studies which used conventional fluorescence microscopy techniques. This result suggests spectral measurements from CLSM can be used to infer thermal maturity of fluorescent organic materials in geologic samples. Spectra of regions with high fluorescence intensity at fold apices and flanks in individual Tasmanites are blue-shifted relative to less-deformed areas in the same body that have lower fluorescence intensity. This is interpreted to result from decreased quenching moiety concentration at these locations, and indicates caution is needed in the selection of measurement regions in conventional fluorescence microscopy, where it is common practice to select high intensity regions for improved signal intensity and better signal to noise ratios. This study also documents application of CLSM to microstructural characterization of Tasmanites microfossils. Finally, based on an extant empirical relation between conventional λmax values and bitumen reflectance, λmax values from CLSM of Tasmanites microfossils can be used to calculate a bitumen reflectance equivalent value. The results presented herein can be used as a basis to broaden the future application of CLSM in the geological sciences into hydrocarbon prospecting and basin analysis.

  20. Laser Processing of Multilayered Thermal Spray Coatings: Optimal Processing Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder; Zhang, Tao; Lee, Hwasoo; Sampath, Sanjay; Hwang, David; Longtin, Jon

    2017-12-01

    Laser processing offers an innovative approach for the fabrication and transformation of a wide range of materials. As a rapid, non-contact, and precision material removal technology, lasers are natural tools to process thermal spray coatings. Recently, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) was fabricated using thermal spray and laser processing. The TEG device represents a multilayer, multimaterial functional thermal spray structure, with laser processing serving an essential role in its fabrication. Several unique challenges are presented when processing such multilayer coatings, and the focus of this work is on the selection of laser processing parameters for optimal feature quality and device performance. A parametric study is carried out using three short-pulse lasers, where laser power, repetition rate and processing speed are varied to determine the laser parameters that result in high-quality features. The resulting laser patterns are characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electrical isolation tests between patterned regions. The underlying laser interaction and material removal mechanisms that affect the feature quality are discussed. Feature quality was found to improve both by using a multiscanning approach and an optional assist gas of air or nitrogen. Electrically isolated regions were also patterned in a cylindrical test specimen.

  1. Temperature responses of photosynthetic capacity parameters were not affected by foliar nitrogen content in mature Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2018-03-01

    A key weakness in current Earth System Models is the representation of thermal acclimation of photosynthesis in response to changes in growth temperatures. Previous studies in boreal and temperate ecosystems have shown leaf-scale photosynthetic capacity parameters, the maximum rates of carboxylation (V cmax ) and electron transport (J max ), to be positively correlated with foliar nitrogen (N) content at a given reference temperature. It is also known that V cmax and J max exhibit temperature optima that are affected by various environmental factors and, further, that N partitioning among the foliar photosynthetic pools is affected by N availability. However, despite the strong recent anthropogenic influence on atmospheric temperatures and N deposition to forests, little is known about the role of foliar N contents in controlling the photosynthetic temperature responses. In this study, we investigated the temperature dependencies of V cmax and J max in 1-year-old needles of mature boreal Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) trees growing under low and high N availabilities in northern Sweden. We found that needle N status did not significantly affect the temperature responses of V cmax or J max when the responses were fitted to a peaked function. If such N insensitivity is a common tree trait it will simplify the interpretation of the results from gradient and multi-species studies, which commonly use sites with differing N availabilities, on temperature acclimation of photosynthetic capacity. Moreover, it will simplify modeling efforts aimed at understanding future carbon uptake by precluding the need to adjust the shape of the temperature response curves to variation in N availability. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Application of uniaxial confining-core clamp with hydrous pyrolysis in petrophysical and geochemical studies of source rocks at various thermal maturities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, Michael D.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Understanding changes in petrophysical and geochemical parameters during source rock thermal maturation is a critical component in evaluating source-rock petroleum accumulations. Natural core data are preferred, but obtaining cores that represent the same facies of a source rock at different thermal maturities is seldom possible. An alternative approach is to induce thermal maturity changes by laboratory pyrolysis on aliquots of a source-rock sample of a given facies of interest. Hydrous pyrolysis is an effective way to induce thermal maturity on source-rock cores and provide expelled oils that are similar in composition to natural crude oils. However, net-volume increases during bitumen and oil generation result in expanded cores due to opening of bedding-plane partings. Although meaningful geochemical measurements on expanded, recovered cores are possible, the utility of the core for measuring petrophysical properties relevant to natural subsurface cores is not suitable. This problem created during hydrous pyrolysis is alleviated by using a stainless steel uniaxial confinement clamp on rock cores cut perpendicular to bedding fabric. The clamp prevents expansion just as overburden does during natural petroleum formation in the subsurface. As a result, intact cores can be recovered at various thermal maturities for the measurement of petrophysical properties as well as for geochemical analyses. This approach has been applied to 1.7-inch diameter cores taken perpendicular to the bedding fabric of a 2.3- to 2.4-inch thick slab of Mahogany oil shale from the Eocene Green River Formation. Cores were subjected to hydrous pyrolysis at 360 °C for 72 h, which represents near maximum oil generation. One core was heated unconfined and the other was heated in the uniaxial confinement clamp. The unconfined core developed open tensile fractures parallel to the bedding fabric that result in a 38 % vertical expansion of the core. These open fractures did not occur in the

  3. Performance analysis of pin fins with temperature dependent thermal parameters using the variation of parameters method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Arslantürk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of pin fins transferring heat by convection and radiation and having variable thermal conductivity, variable emissivity and variable heat transfer coefficient was investigated in the present paper. Nondimensionalizing the fin equation, the problem parameters which affect the fin performance were obtained. Dimensionless nonlinear fin equation was solved with the variation of parameters method, which is quite new in the solution of nonlinear heat transfer problems. The solution of variation of parameters method was compared with known analytical solutions and some numerical solution. The comparisons showed that the solutions are seen to be perfectly compatible. The effects of problem parameters were investigated on the heat transfer rate and fin efficiency and results were presented graphically.

  4. Thermal Acclimation of Photosynthesis and Respiration Differ Across Mature Conifer Species in a Boreal Forest Peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenge, M. E.; Stinziano, J. R.; Warren, J.; Ward, E. J.; Wullschleger, S.; Hanson, P. J.; Way, D.

    2017-12-01

    Boreal forests are often assumed to be temperature-limited, and warming is therefore expected to stimulate their carbon uptake. However, much of our information on the ability of boreal conifers to acclimate photosynthesis and respiration to rising temperatures comes from seedlings. We measured net CO2 assimilation rates (A) and dark respiration (R) at 25 °C (A25 and R25) and at prevailing growth temperatures (Ag and Rg) in mature Picea mariana (spruce) and Larix laricina (tamarack) exposed to ambient, +2.25, +4.5, +6.75 and +9 °C warming treatments in open top chambers in the field at the SPRUCE experiment (MN, USA). In spruce, A25 and Ag were similar across plots in May and June. In August, spruce in warmer treatments had higher A25, an effect that was offset by warmer leaf temperatures in the Ag data. In tamarack, A25 was stimulated by warming in both June and August, an effect that was mainly offset by higher leaf temperatures when Ag was assessed in June, while in August, Ag was still slightly higher in the warmest treatments (+6.75 and +9) compared to the ambient plots. In spruce, R25 was enhanced in warm-grown trees in May, but was similar across treatments in June and August, indicating little acclimation of R. Rg slightly increased with warming treatments across the season in spruce. In contrast, R in tamarack thermally acclimated, as R25 decreased with warming. But while this acclimation generated homeostatic Rg in June, Rg in August was still highest in the warmest treatments. Our work suggests that the capacity for thermal acclimation in both photosynthesis and respiration varies among boreal tree species, which may lead to shifts in the performance of these species as the climate warms.

  5. Changes in baseline growth and maturation parameters of Northwest Atlantic porbeagle, Lamna nasus, following heavy exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Cassoff, Rachel M.; Campana, Steven E.; Myklevoll, Sigmund

    2007-01-01

    Journal home page: http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/cgi-bin/rp/rp2_desc_e?cjfas We tested for density-dependent changes in growth and maturation of Northwest Atlantic porbeagle (Lamna nasus) after the population declined by 75%-80% from fishing. Vertebrae and reproductive data collected from the virgin (1961-1966) and exploited (1993-2004) populations were analysed to test for differences in growth rate and age and length at maturity between the time period, using likelihood ratio tests. Beyond ...

  6. In vitro acute exposure to DEHP affects oocyte meiotic maturation, energy and oxidative stress parameters in a large animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ambruosi

    Full Text Available Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM, CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05. This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001 and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001. At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM, DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001 and ROS increase (P<0.0001 in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity, intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05, possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into

  7. Stability Parameters for Grain Yield and its Component Traits in Maize Hybrids of Different FAO Maturity Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Djurovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An objective evaluation of maize hybrids in intensive cropping systems requires identification not only of yield components and other agronomically important traits but also of stability parameters. Grain yield and its components were assessed in 11 maize hybrids with different lengths of growing season (FAO 300-700 maturity groups using analysis of variance and regression analysis at three different locations in Western Serbia. The test hybrids and locations showed significant differences in grain yield, grain moisture content at maturity, 1,000-kernel weight and ear length. A significant interaction was observed between all traits and the environment. The hybrids with higher mean values of the traits, regardless of maturity group, generally exhibited sensitivity i.e. adaptation to more favourable environmental conditions as compared to those having lower mean values. Regression coefficient (bi values for grain yield mostly suggested no significant differences relative to the mean. The medium-season hybrid gave high yields and less favourable values of stability parameters at most locations and in most years, as compared to mediumlate hybrids. As compared to medium-early hybrids, medium-late hybrids (FAO 600 and 700 mostly exhibited unfavourable values of stability parameters i.e. a specific response and better adaptation to favourable environmental conditions, and gave higher average yields. Apart from producing lower average yields, FAO 300 and 400 hybrids showed higher yield stability as compared to the other hybrids tested. Medium-late hybrids had higher yields and showed a better response to favourable environmental conditions compared to early-maturing hybrids. Therefore, they can be recommended for intensive cultural practices and low-stress environments. Due to their more favourable stability parameter values, medium-early hybrids can be recommended for low-intensity cultural practices and stressful environments.

  8. Distribution and Thermal Maturity of Devonian Carbonate Reservoir Solid Bitumen in Desheng Area of Guizhong Depression, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Hou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of solid bitumen in the Devonian carbonate reservoir from well Desheng 1, Guizhong Depression, was investigated by optical microscope and hydrocarbon inclusions analysis. Vb and chemical structure indexes measured by bitumen reflectance, laser Raman microprobe (LRM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were carried out to determine the thermal maturity of solid bitumen. Based on the solid bitumen thermal maturity, the burial and thermal maturity history of Devonian carbonate reservoir were reconstructed by basin modeling. The results indicate that the fractures and fracture-related dissolution pores are the main storage space for the solid bitumen. The equivalent vitrinite reflectance of solid bitumen ranges from 3.42% to 4.43% converted by Vb (% and LRM. The infrared spectroscopy analysis suggests that there are no aliphatic chains detected in the solid bitumen which is rich in aromatics C=C chains (1431–1440 cm−1. The results of Vb (%, LRM, and FTIR analysis demonstrate that the solid bitumen has experienced high temperature and evolved to the residual carbonaceous stage. The thermal evolution of Devonian reservoirs had experienced four stages. The Devonian reservoirs reached the highest reservoir temperature 210–260°C during the second rapid burial-warming stage, which is the main period for the solid bitumen formation.

  9. Experimental investigation of changes in methane adsorption of bitumen-free Woodford Shale with thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tongwei; Wiggins-Camacho, Jaclyn D.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Zhang, Xiayong

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies the effects of organic-matter (OM) thermal maturity on methane (CH4) sorption, on the basis of five samples that were artificially matured through hydrous pyrolysis achieved by heating samples of immature Woodford Shale under five different time–temperature conditions. CH4-sorption isotherms at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 65 °C, and pressures up to 14 MPa on dry, solvent-extracted samples of the artificially matured Woodford Shale were measured. The results showed that CH4-sorption capacity, normalized to TOC, varied with thermal maturity, following the trend: maximum oil (367 °C) > oil cracking (400 °C) > maximum bitumen/early oil (333 °C) > early bitumen (300 °C) > immature stage (130 °C). The Langmuir constants for the samples at maximum-oil and oil-cracking stages are larger than the values for the bitumen-forming stages. The total pore volume, determined by N2 physisorption at 77 K, increases with increased maturation: mesopores, 2–50 nm in width, were created during the thermal conversion of organic-matter and a dramatic increase in porosity appeared when maximum-bitumen and maximum-oil generation stages were reached. A linear relationship between thermal maturity and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area suggests that the observed increase in CH4-sorption capacity may be the result of mesopores produced during OM conversion. No obvious difference is observed in pore-size distribution and pore volume for samples with pores 2 physisorption at 273 K. The isosteric heat of adsorption and the standard entropy for artificially matured samples ranged from 17.9 kJ mol−1 to 21.9 kJ mol−1 and from −85.4 J mol−1 K−1 to −101.8 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. These values are similar to the values of immature Woodford kerogen concentrate previously observed, but are larger than naturally matured organic-rich shales. High-temperature hydrous pyrolysis might have induced Lewis acid sites on both organic and mineral surfaces

  10. Thermal maturity and petroleum kitchen areas of Liassic Black Shales (Lower Jurassic) in the central Upper Rhine Graben, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Johannes; Littke, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    In the central Upper Rhine Graben (URG), several major oil fields have been sourced by Liassic Black Shales. In particular, the Posidonia Shale (Lias ɛ, Lower Toarcian) acts as excellent and most prominent source rock in the central URG. This study is the first comprehensive synthesis of Liassic maturity data in the URG area and SW Germany. The thermal maturity of the Liassic Black Shales has been analysed by vitrinite reflectance (VRr) measurements, which have been verified with T max and spore coloration index (SCI) data. In outcrops and shallow wells (oil window (ca. 0.50-0.60 % VRr). This maturity is found in Liassic outcrops and shallow wells in the entire URG area and surrounding Swabian Jura Mountains. Maximum temperatures of the Posidonia Shale before graben formation are in the order of 80-90 °C. These values were likely reached during Late Cretaceous times due to significant Upper Jurassic and minor Cretaceous deposition and influenced by higher heat flows of the beginning rift event at about 70 Ma. In this regard, the consistent regional maturity data (VRr, T max, SCI) of 0.5-0.6 % VRr for the Posidonia Shale close to surface suggest a major burial-controlled maturation before graben formation. These consistent maturity data for Liassic outcrops and shallow wells imply no significant oil generation and expulsion from the Posidonia Shale before formation of the URG. A detailed VRr map has been created using VRr values of 31 wells and outcrops with a structure map of the Posidonia Shale as reference map for a depth-dependent gridding operation. Highest maturity levels occur in the area of the Rastatt Trough (ca. 1.5 % VRr) and along the graben axis with partly very high VRr gradients (e.g. well Scheibenhardt 2). In these deep graben areas, the maximum temperatures which were reached during upper Oligocene to Miocene times greatly exceed those during the Cretaceous.

  11. Thermophoresis and Its Thermal Parameters for Aerosol Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.; Apte, Michael; Gundel, Lara

    2007-08-01

    The particle collection efficiency of a prototype environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) sampler based on the use of thermophoresis is determined by optimizing the operational voltage that determines its thermal gradient. This sampler's heating element was made of three sets of thermophoretic (TP) wires 25mu m in diameter suspended across a channel cut in a printed circuit board and mounted with collection surfaces on both sides. The separation between the heating element and the room temperature collection surface was determined in a numerical simulation based on the Brock-Talbot model. Other thermal parameters of this TP ETS sampler were predicted by the Brock-Talbot model for TP deposition. From the normalized results the optimal collection ratio was expressed in terms of operational voltage and fi lter mass. Prior to the Brock-Talbot model simulation for this sampler, 1.0V was used arbitrarily. The operational voltage was raised to 3.0V, and the collection effi ciency was increased by a factor of fi ve for both theory and experiment.

  12. THERMOPHORESIS AND ITS THERMAL PARAMETERS FOR AEROSOL COLLECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.; Apte, M.; Gundel, L.

    2007-01-01

    The particle collection effi ciency of a prototype environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) sampler based on the use of thermophoresis is determined by optimizing the operational voltage that determines its thermal gradient. This sampler’s heating element was made of three sets of thermophoretic (TP) wires 25μm in diameter suspended across a channel cut in a printed circuit board and mounted with collection surfaces on both sides. The separation between the heating element and the room temperature collection surface was determined in a numerical simulation based on the Brock-Talbot model. Other thermal parameters of this TP ETS sampler were predicted by the Brock-Talbot model for TP deposition. From the normalized results the optimal collection ratio was expressed in terms of operational voltage and fi lter mass. Prior to the Brock-Talbot model simulation for this sampler, 1.0V was used arbitrarily. The operational voltage was raised to 3.0V, and the collection effi ciency was increased by a factor of fi ve for both theory and experiment.

  13. Effects of structural heterogeneity on frictional heating from biomarker thermal maturity analysis of the Muddy Mountain thrust, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, G. L.; Savage, H. M.; Polissar, P. J.; Rowe, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Faults are generally heterogeneous along-strike, with changes in thickness and structural complexity that should influence coseismic slip. However, observational limitations (e.g. limited outcrop or borehole samples) can obscure this complexity. Here we investigate the heterogeneity of frictional heating determined from biomarker thermal maturity and microstructural observations along a well-exposed fault to understand whether coseismic stress and frictional heating are related to structural complexity. We focus on the Muddy Mountain thrust, Nevada, a Sevier-age structure that has continuous exposure of its fault core and considerable structural variability for up to 50 m, to explore the distribution of earthquake slip and temperature rise along strike. We present new biomarker thermal maturity results that capture the heating history of fault rocks. Biomarkers are organic molecules produced by living organisms and preserved in the rock record. During heating, their structure is altered systematically with increasing time and temperature. Preliminary results show significant variability in thermal maturity along-strike at the Muddy Mountain thrust, suggesting differences in coseismic temperature rise on the meter- scale. Temperatures upwards of 500°C were generated in the principal slip zone at some locations, while in others, no significant temperature rise occurred. These results demonstrate that stress or slip heterogeneity occurred along the Muddy Mountain thrust at the meter-scale and considerable along-strike complexity existed, highlighting the importance of careful interpretation of whole-fault behavior from observations at a single point on a fault.

  14. Opposite Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Juice Depending on Fruit Maturity Stage on Gastrointestinal Physiological Parameters in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtibi, Kais; Selmi, Slimen; Grami, Dhekra; Amri, Mohamed; Sebai, Hichem; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2018-06-01

    The phytochemical composition and the effect of the green and ripe Opuntia ficus-indica juice on some gastrointestinal (GI) physiological parameters such as stomach emptying and small-intestinal motility and permeability were determined in rats administered multiple concentrations of the prickly pear juice (5, 10, and 20 mL kg -1 , b.w., p.o.). Other separate groups of rats were received, respectively; sodium chloride (0.9%, b.w., p.o.), clonidine (α- 2 -adrenergic agonist, 1 mg kg -1 , b.w., i.p.), yohimbine (α- 2 -adrenergic antagonist, 2 mg kg -1 , b.w., i.p.), and loperamide (5 mg kg -1 , b.w., p.o.). In vivo reverse effect of juice on GI physiological parameters was investigated using a charcoal meal test, phenol-red colorimetric method, loperamide-induced acute constipation, and castor oil-caused small-bowel hypersecretion. However, the opposite in vitro influence of juice on intestinal permeability homeostasis was assessed by the Ussing chamber system. Mature prickly pear juice administration stimulated significantly and dose dependently the GI transit (GIT; 8-26%) and gastric emptying (0.9-11%) in a rat model. Conversely, the immature prickly pear juice reduced gastric emptying (7-23%), GIT (10-28%), and diarrhea (59-88%). Moreover, the standard drugs have produced their antagonistic effects on GI physiological functions. The permeability of the isolated perfused rat small-intestine has a paradoxical response flowing prickly pear juices administration at diverse doses and maturity grade. Most importantly, the quantitative phytochemical analyses of both juices showed a different composition depending on the degree of maturity. In conclusion, the prickly pear juice at two distinct phases of maturity has different phytochemical characteristics and opposite effects on GI physiological actions in rat.

  15. Characterization of Thermal Parameters for Improving Pyranometer and Pyrgeometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Ji, Qiang; Rapshun, David; Shu, Peter K.

    2000-01-01

    Since the introduction of thermopile, pyranometers (solar, e.g., 0.3-3.0 micrometers) and pyrgeometers (terrestrial, e.g., 4-50 micrometers) have become instruments commonly used for measuring the broadband hemispherical irradiances at the surface in a long-term, monitoring mode for decades. These commercially available radiometers have been manufactured in several countries such as from the United States, Asia, and Europe, and are generally reliable and economical. These worldwide distributions of surface measurements become even more important in the era of Earth remote sensing in studying climate change. However, recent studies from field campaigns have pointed out that erroneous factors (e.g., temperature gradients between the filter dome and detector, emissivity of the thermopile) are responsible for the unacceptable level of uncertainty (e.g., 20 W m(exp -2)). Using a newly developed instrument of Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWTP), we have characterized the brightness temperature fields of pyranometers and pyrgeometers under various sky conditions. The QWIP is based on the superlattice (GaAs/AlGaAs) technology and has a noise equivalent temperature (NEAT) less than 0.1 K. The quality of pyranometer and pyrgeometer measure- ments can be improved largely by applying proper knowledge of the thermal parameters affecting the operation of the thermopile systems. Data correction procedure and algorithm will be presented and discussed.

  16. Thermal history of the Krishna-Godavari basin, India: Constraints from apatite fission track thermochronology and organic maturity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Himansu S.; Raab, Matthias J.; Kohn, Barry P.; Gleadow, Andrew J. W.; Bal, Kiron D.

    2013-09-01

    The Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin, a passive margin Late Carboniferous to Holocene basin along the rifted east coast of India, includes the deltaic and inter-deltaic regions of the Krishna and Godavari rivers onshore and extends into the offshore. It is one of India's premier hydrocarbon-bearing basins. In an attempt to better understand the thermal history of the basin, apatite fission track (AFT) data has been obtained from six exploration wells (five onshore and one offshore). AFT thermal history models as well as other thermal indicators e.g. vitrinite reflectance (VR), Rock-Eval Tmax data reveal that the host rocks are currently at their maximum post-depositional temperatures and that any possible heating related to small-scale tectonism or rifting episodes in the basin bears little significance on the maturation of the sediments. In the case of one borehole (M-1) however, the organic maturity data reveals a period of Oligocene cooling across an unconformity when ∼1000 m of section was eroded due to falling sea-level. This information offers the potential for improved basin modeling of the KG basin.

  17. Chitin: 'Forgotten' Source of Nitrogen: From Modern Chitin to Thermally Mature Kerogen: Lessons from Nitrogen Isotope Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, A.; Wintsch, R.P.; Lewan, M.D.; DeNiro, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Chitinous biomass represents a major pool of organic nitrogen in living biota and is likely to have contributed some of the fossil organic nitrogen in kerogen. We review the nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry of chitin and present preliminary results suggesting interaction between kerogen and ammonium during thermal maturation. Modern arthropod chitin may shift its nitrogen isotope ratio by a few per mil depending on the chemical method of chitin preparation, mostly because N-containing non-amino-sugar components in chemically complex chitin cannot be removed quantitatively. Acid hydrolysis of chemically complex chitin and subsequent ion-chromatographic purification of the "deacetylated chitin-monomer" D-glucosamine (in hydrochloride form) provides a chemically well-defined, pure amino-sugar substrate for reproducible, high-precision determination of ??15N values in chitin. ??15N values of chitin exhibited a variability of about one per mil within an individual's exoskeleton. The nitrogen isotope ratio differed between old and new exoskeletons by up to 4 per mil. A strong dietary influence on the ??15N value of chitin is indicated by the observation of increasing ??15N values of chitin from marine crustaceans with increasing trophic level. Partial biodegradation of exoskeletons does not significantly influence ??15N values of remaining, chemically preserved amino sugar in chitin. Diagenesis and increasing thermal maturity of sedimentary organic matter, including chitin-derived nitrogen-rich moieties, result in humic compounds much different from chitin and may significantly change bulk ??15N values. Hydrous pyrolysis of immature source rocks at 330??C in contact with 15N-enriched NH4Cl, under conditions of artificial oil generation, demonstrates the abiogenic incorporation of inorganic nitrogen into carbon-bound nitrogen in kerogen. Not all organic nitrogen in natural, thermally mature kerogen is therefore necessarily derived from original organic matter, but may

  18. Thermal Maturity Data Used by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Gulf Coast Region Oil and Gas Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Warwick, Peter D.; McDade, Elizabeth Chinn

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently assessing the oil and natural gas resources of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region using a total petroleum system approach. An essential part of this geologically based method is evaluating the effectiveness of potential source rocks in the petroleum system. The purpose of this report is to make available to the public RockEval and vitrinite reflectance data from more than 1,900 samples of Mesozoic and Tertiary rock core and coal samples in the Gulf of Mexico area in a format that facilitates inclusion into a geographic information system. These data provide parameters by which the thermal maturity, type, and richness of potential sources of oil and gas in this region can be evaluated.

  19. [Clinical parameters for molecular testing of Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datz, N; Nestoris, C; von Schütz, W; Danne, T; Driesel, A J; Maringa, M; Kordonouri, O

    2011-05-01

    Monogenic forms of diabetes are often diagnosed by chance, due to the variety of clinical presentation and limited experience of the diabetologists with this kind of diabetes. Aim of this study was to evaluate clinical parameters for an efficient screening. Clinical parameters were: negative diabetes-specific antibodies at onset of diabetes, positive family history of diabetes, and low to moderate insulin requirements after one year of diabetes treatment. Molecular testing was performed through sequencing of the programming regions of HNF-4alpha (MODY 1), glucokinase (MODY 2) and HNF-1alpha/TCF1 (MODY 3) and in one patient the HNF-1beta/TCF2 region (MODY 5). 39 of 292 patients treated with insulin were negative for GADA and IA2A, and 8 (20.5%) patients fulfilled both other criteria. Positive molecular results were found in five (63%) patients (two with MODY 2, two with MODY 3, one with MODY 5). At diabetes onset, the mean age of the 5 patients with MODY was 10.6 ± 5.3 yrs (range 2.6-15 yrs), HbA(1c) was 8.4 ± 3.1 % (6.5-13.9%), mean diabetes duration until diagnosis of MODY was 3.3 ± 3.6 yrs (0.8-9.6 yrs) with insulin requirements of 0.44 ± 0.17 U/kg/d (0.2-0.6 U/kg/d). Patients with MODY 3 were changed from insulin to repaglinide, those with MODY 2 were recommended discontinuing insulin treatment. In patients with negative diabetes-specific antibodies at onset of diabetes, with a positive family history, and low to moderate insulin needs a genetic screening for MODY is indicated. Watchful consideration of these clinical parameters may lead to an early genetic testing, and to an adequate treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Influence of Fabric Parameters on Thermal Comfort Performance of Double Layer Knitted Interlock Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Ali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of various fabric parameters on the thermal resistance, thermal conductivity, thermal transmittance, thermal absorptivity and thermal insulation of polyester/cotton double layer knitted interlock fabrics. It was found that by increasing fibre content with higher specific heat increases the thermal insulation while decreases the thermal transmittance and absorptivity of the fabric. It was concluded that double layer knitted fabrics developed with higher specific heat fibres, coarser yarn linear densities, higher knitting loop length and fabric thickness could be adequately used for winter clothing purposes.

  1. Short-term water-based aerobic training promotes improvements in aerobic conditioning parameters of mature women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Reichert, Thais; Coconcelli, Leandro; Simmer, Nicole Monticelli; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Buttelli, Adriana Cristine Koch; Bracht, Cláudia Gomes; Stein, Ricardo; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2017-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by a decrease in aerobic capacity. Therefore, physical training has been recommended to soften the effects of advancement age. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a short-term water-based aerobic training on resting heart rate (HR rest ), heart rate corresponding to anaerobic threshold (HR AT ), peak heart rate (HR peak ), percentage value of HR AT in relation to HR peak and test duration (TD) of mature women. Twenty-two women (65.91 ± 4.83 years) were submitted to a five-week water-based interval aerobic training. Aerobic capacity parameters were evaluated through an aquatic incremental test. After training, there was an increase in TD (16%) and HR AT percentage in relation to HR peak (4.68%), and a reduction of HR rest (9%). It is concluded that a water-based aerobic interval training prescribed through HR AT of only five weeks is able to promote improvements in aerobic capacity of mature women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Organic petrology of the Aptian-age section in the downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Mississippi, USA: Observations and preliminary implications for thermal maturation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Brett J.; Hackley, Paul C.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Bove, Alana M.; Dulong, Frank T.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Scott, Krystina R.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies a thermal maturity anomaly within the downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin (MISB) of southern Mississippi, USA, through examination of bitumen reflectance data from Aptian-age strata (Sligo Formation, Pine Island Shale, James Limestone, and Rodessa Formation). U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reconnaissance investigations conducted in 2011–2012 examined Aptian-age thermal maturity trends across the onshore northern Gulf of Mexico region and indicated that the section in the downdip MISB is approaching the wet gas/condensate window (Ro~1.2%). A focused study in 2012–2013 used 6 whole core, one sidewall core, and 49 high-graded cutting samples (depth range of 13,000–16,500 ft [3962.4–5029.2 m] below surface) collected from 15 downdip MISB wells for mineralogy, fluid inclusion, organic geochemistry, and organic petrographic analysis. Based on native solid bitumen reflectance (Ro generally > 0.8%; interpreted to be post-oil indigenous bitumens matured in situ), Ro values increase regionally across the MISB from the southeast to the northwest. Thermal maturity in the eastern half of the basin (Ro range 1.0 to 1.25%) appears to be related to present-day burial depth and shows a gradual increase with respect to depth. To the west, thermal maturity continues to increase even as the Aptian section shallows structurally on the Adams County High (Ro range 1.4 to > 1.8%). After evaluating the possible thermal agents responsible for increasing maturity at shallower depths (i.e., igneous activity, proximity to salt, variations in regional heat flux, and uplift), we tentatively propose that either greater paleoheat flow or deeper burial coupled with uplift in the western part of the MISB could be responsible for the thermal maturity anomaly. Further research and additional data are needed to determine the cause(s) of the thermal anomaly.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Design Parameters for Hydronic Embedded Thermally Active Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcos-Meson, Victor; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; E. Poulsen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the principal design parameters affecting the thermal performance of embedded hydronic Thermally Active Surfaces (TAS), combining the Response Surface Method (RSM) with the Finite Elements Method (FEM). The study ranks the combined effects of the parameters on the heat flux i...

  4. Review of Parameter Determination for Thermal Modeling of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saeed Madani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews different methods for determination of thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are extensively employed for various applications owing to their low memory effect, high specific energy, and power density. One of the problems in the expansion of hybrid and electric vehicle technology is the management and control of operation temperatures and heat generation. Successful battery thermal management designs can lead to better reliability and performance of hybrid and electric vehicles. Thermal cycling and temperature gradients could have a considerable impact on the lifetime of lithium ion battery cells. Thermal management is critical in electric vehicles (EVs and good thermal battery models are necessary to design proper heating and cooling systems. Consequently, it is necessary to determine thermal parameters of a single cell, such as internal resistance, specific heat capacity, entropic heat coefficient, and thermal conductivity in order to design suitable thermal management system.

  5. Stochastic analysis of uncertain thermal parameters for random thermal regime of frozen soil around a single freezing pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Jianzhou; Zhou, Lei

    2018-03-01

    The artificial ground freezing method (AGF) is widely used in civil and mining engineering, and the thermal regime of frozen soil around the freezing pipe affects the safety of design and construction. The thermal parameters can be truly random due to heterogeneity of the soil properties, which lead to the randomness of thermal regime of frozen soil around the freezing pipe. The purpose of this paper is to study the one-dimensional (1D) random thermal regime problem on the basis of a stochastic analysis model and the Monte Carlo (MC) method. Considering the uncertain thermal parameters of frozen soil as random variables, stochastic processes and random fields, the corresponding stochastic thermal regime of frozen soil around a single freezing pipe are obtained and analyzed. Taking the variability of each stochastic parameter into account individually, the influences of each stochastic thermal parameter on stochastic thermal regime are investigated. The results show that the mean temperatures of frozen soil around the single freezing pipe with three analogy method are the same while the standard deviations are different. The distributions of standard deviation have a great difference at different radial coordinate location and the larger standard deviations are mainly at the phase change area. The computed data with random variable method and stochastic process method have a great difference from the measured data while the computed data with random field method well agree with the measured data. Each uncertain thermal parameter has a different effect on the standard deviation of frozen soil temperature around the single freezing pipe. These results can provide a theoretical basis for the design and construction of AGF.

  6. Thermal-hydraulic Parameters of WWER-440 Fuel Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacmar, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the thermodynamic characteristics of reactor core V230, V213 (design concept and the distribution of coolant flow inside the reactor vessel and basic T-H parameters), allowed reactor regimes and reactor core flow factor as well as thermodynamic parameters and impact to fuel leakage are presented

  7. An accurate method for the determination of unlike potential parameters from thermal diffusion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Geubeily, S.

    1997-01-01

    A new method is introduced by means of which the unlike intermolecular potential parameters can be determined from the experimental measurements of the thermal diffusion factor as a function of temperature. The method proved to be easy, accurate, and applicable two-, three-, and four-parameter potential functions whose collision integrals are available. The potential parameters computed by this method are found to provide a faith full representation of the thermal diffusion data under consideration. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Seafood-Processing Sludge Composting: Changes to Microbial Communities and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Static Treatment versus for Turning during the Maturation Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, David; Mato, Salustiano

    2016-01-01

    In general, in composting facilities the active, or intensive, stage of the process is done separately from the maturation stage, using a specific technology and time. The pre-composted material to be matured can contain enough biodegradable substrates to cause microbial proliferation, which in turn can cause temperatures to increase. Therefore, not controlling the maturation period during waste management at an industrial level can result in undesired outcomes. The main hypothesis of this study is that controlling the maturation stage through turning provides one with an optimized process when compared to the static approach. The waste used was sludge from a seafood-processing plant, mixed with shredded wood (1:2, v/v). The composting system consists of an intensive stage in a 600L static reactor, followed by maturation in triplicate in 200L boxes for 112 days. Two tests were carried out with the same process in reactor and different treatments in boxes: static maturation and turning during maturation when the temperature went above 55°C. PLFAs, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, forms of nitrogen and carbon, hydrolytic enzymes and respiratory activity were periodically measured. Turning significantly increased the duration of the thermophilic phase and consequently increased the organic-matter degradation. PCA differentiated significantly the two treatments in function of tracking parameters, especially pH, total carbon, forms of nitrogen and C/N ratio. So, stability and maturity optimum values for compost were achieved in less time with turnings. Whereas turning resulted in microbial-group stabilization and a low mono/sat ratio, static treatment produced greater variability in microbial groups and a high mono/sat ratio, the presence of more degradable substrates causes changes in microbial communities and their study during maturation gives an approach of the state of organic-matter degradation. Obtaining quality compost and optimizing the composting

  9. Computational parameters in thermal recovery of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashai, L; Geineman, Z

    1965-12-01

    In this mathematical simulation of the in-situ combustion process, the effect is calculated of various parameters on the temperature distribution within the combustion zone. Among the parameters included in the mathematical analysis are (1) quantity of residual coke, oil, and oxidizer, (2) formation thickness, (3) heat conductivity and heat capacity of the formation, and (4) degree of rock heterogeneity. The problem is solved for the linear flow case with the use of a computer. Five temperatures profiles for various conditions are illustrated.

  10. Microbiological parameters and maturity degree during composting of Posidonia oceanica residues mixed with vegetable wastes in semi-arid pedo-climatic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Neyla; Kouki, Soulwene; M'hiri, Fadhel; Jedidi, Naceur; Mahrouk, Meriam; Hassen, Abdennaceur; Ouzari, Hadda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the biological stability and maturity degree of compost during a controlled pile-composting trial of mixed vegetable residues (VR) collected from markets of Tunis City with residues of Posidonia oceanica (PoR), collected from Tunis beaches. The accumulation in beaches (as well as their removal) constitutes a serious environmental problem in all Mediterranean countries particularly in Tunisia. Aerobic-thermophilic composting is the most reasonable way to profit highly-valuable content of organic matter in these wastes for agricultural purposes. The physical, chemical, and biological parameters were monitored during composting over 150 d. The most appropriate parameters were selected to establish the maturity degree. The main result of this research was the deduction of the following maturity criterion: (a) C/N ratio 80%. These five parameters, considered jointly are indicative of a high maturity degree and thus of a high-quality organic amendment which employed in a rational way, may improve soil fertility and soil quality. The mature compost was relatively rich in N (13.0 g/kg), P (4.74 g/kg) and MgO (15.80 g/kg). Thus composting definitively constitutes the most optimal option to exploit these wastes.

  11. Review of Parameter Determination for Thermal Modeling of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Schaltz, Erik; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews different methods for determination of thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are extensively employed for various applications owing to their low memory effect, high specific energy, and power density. One of the problems in the expansion of hybrid...... on the lifetime of lithium ion battery cells. Thermal management is critical in electric vehicles (EVs) and good thermal battery models are necessary to design proper heating and cooling systems. Consequently, it is necessary to determine thermal parameters of a single cell, such as internal resistance, specific...... and electric vehicle technology is the management and control of operation temperatures and heat generation. Successful battery thermal management designs can lead to better reliability and performance of hybrid and electric vehicles. Thermal cycling and temperature gradients could have a considerable impact...

  12. Influence of buildings geometrical and physical parameters on thermal cooling load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, C.

    1980-09-01

    A more accurate method to evaluate the thermal cooling load in buildings and to analyze the influence of geometrical and physical parameters on air conditioning calculations is presented. The sensitivity of the cooling load, considering the thermal capacity of the materials, was simulated in a computer for several different situations. (Author) [pt

  13. House thermal model parameter estimation method for Model Predictive Control applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; de Wit, J.B.; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    In this paper we investigate thermal network models with different model orders applied to various Dutch low-energy house types with high and low interior thermal mass and containing floor heating. Parameter estimations are performed by using data from TRNSYS simulations. The paper discusses results

  14. Resolving model parameter values from carbon and nitrogen stock measurements in a wide range of tropical mature forests using nonlinear inversion and regression trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuguang Liua; Pamela Anderson; Guoyi Zhoud; Boone Kauffman; Flint Hughes; David Schimel; Vicente Watson; Joseph. Tosi

    2008-01-01

    Objectively assessing the performance of a model and deriving model parameter values from observations are critical and challenging in landscape to regional modeling. In this paper, we applied a nonlinear inversion technique to calibrate the ecosystem model CENTURY against carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stock measurements collected from 39 mature tropical forest sites in...

  15. Evaluation of Perfusion and Thermal Parameters of Skin Tissue Using Cold Provocation and Thermographic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strąkowska Maria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the perfusion coefficient and thermal parameters of skin tissue using dynamic thermography is presented in this paper. A novel approach based on cold provocation and thermal modelling of skin tissue is presented. The measurement was performed on a person’s forearm using a special cooling device equipped with the Peltier module. The proposed method first cools the skin, and then measures the changes of its temperature matching the measurement results with a heat transfer model to estimate the skin perfusion and other thermal parameters. In order to assess correctness of the proposed approach, the uncertainty analysis was performed.

  16. Parameters affecting mechanical and thermal responses in bone drilling: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuEun; Chavez, Craig L; Park, Joorok

    2018-04-11

    Surgical bone drilling is performed variously to correct bone fractures, install prosthetics, or for therapeutic treatment. The primary concern in bone drilling is to extract donor bone sections and create receiving holes without damaging the bone tissue either mechanically or thermally. We review current results from experimental and theoretical studies to investigate the parameters related to such effects. This leads to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical and thermal aspects of bone drilling to reduce their unwanted complications. This review examines the important bone-drilling parameters of bone structure, drill-bit geometry, operating conditions, and material evacuation, and considers the current techniques used in bone drilling. We then analyze the associated mechanical and thermal effects and their contributions to bone-drilling performance. In this review, we identify a favorable range for each parameter to reduce unwanted complications due to mechanical or thermal effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of laser parameters on surface roughness of laser modified tool steel after thermal cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau Sheng, Annie; Ismail, Izwan; Nur Aqida, Syarifah

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the effects of laser parameters on the surface roughness of laser modified tool steel after thermal cyclic loading. Pulse mode Nd:YAG laser was used to perform the laser surface modification process on AISI H13 tool steel samples. Samples were then treated with thermal cyclic loading experiments which involved alternate immersion in molten aluminium (800°C) and water (27°C) for 553 cycles. A full factorial design of experiment (DOE) was developed to perform the investigation. Factors for the DOE are the laser parameter namely overlap rate (η), pulse repetition frequency (f PRF) and peak power (Ppeak ) while the response is the surface roughness after thermal cyclic loading. Results indicate the surface roughness of the laser modified surface after thermal cyclic loading is significantly affected by laser parameter settings.

  18. Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Preetha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight. Treatment with lyophilized form of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzymes markers like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in diabetic rats were significantly reduced on treatment with mature coconut water. In addition to this, diabetic rats showed altered levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio which were significantly improved by treatment with mature coconut water and glibenclamide. Activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and plasma L-arginine were reduced significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats while treatment with mature coconut water reversed these changes. The overall results show that mature coconut water has significant beneficial effects in diabetic rats and its effects were comparable to that of glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug.

  19. Effect of Thermal Maturation on n-alkanes and Kerogen in Preserved Organic Matter: Implications for Paleoenvironment Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, O. D.; Longbottom, T. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Blackaby, E.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of maturity on biomarkers is vital in assessing biomarker reliability in mature sediments. It is well known for n-alkanes that increased maturity shortens chain lengths and decreases the odd over even preference however, the amount of change in these variables has not been determined for different maturities and types of preserved organic matter. For this reason, it is difficult to judge the trustworthiness of even lightly matured samples for paleoenvironment reconstruction. Another complication is the difficulty of accurately determining maturity as many maturity indicators are error-prone or not appropriate at low maturities. Using hydrous pyrolysis, we artificially matured black shale samples with type I (lacustrine) and type II (marine) kerogen to measure changes in n-alkane length and odd over even preference. Whole rock samples underwent hydrous pyrolysis for 72 hours, at 250 °C, 300 °C, 325 °C, 350 °C, and 375 °C to cover a wide maturity range. From the immature and artificially matured samples, the bitumen was extracted and the saturate fraction was separated using column chromatography. The saturate fraction was analyzed for n-alkanes using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Kerogen structural changes were also measured using solid-state 13C NMR to relate changes in n-alkane biomarkers to changes in kerogen structure. Results show that for type I bitumen the n-alkanes did not change at low maturities considered premature in terms of oil generation (<325 °C). The NMR spectra of the type I kerogen support the lack of change, at low maturities no changes in the aliphatic portion (Fal) were observed, however, after 325 °C Fal decreased with increasing maturity. The loss of Fal indicates kerogen contributing hydrocarbons to bitumen that cause changes in n-alkane measurements. The type II kerogen's Fal also decreased with increasing maturity, but unlike the type I kerogen Fal loss started at low maturities. The differences

  20. Hydrocarbons thermal maturation: Leopatin method applied to the Parana basin; Maturacao termica de hidrocarbonetos: aplicacao do metodo de Lopatin a Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eston, Sergio Medici de; Jardim, Niza S

    1987-12-31

    One of the requirements for the existent of economic deposits of hydrocarbons is that the organic matter has undergone adequate thermal maturation. Several techniques have been proposed in order to quantity the catagenetic state of kerogen, and the Lopatin-Waples methodology permits quantification at any past time and does not require laboratory tests on samples of the material. For this reason it is an useful techniques for predicting mature zones using as basic information the thermal and subsidence histories of each stratum. Lopatin`s technique was applied to the Parana basin, with McKenzie`s crustal stretching model fitted to the data of 18 wells, and the areas predicted as mature for oil and/or gas were in good agreement with the field results. The technique predicted oil phone areas at the east border of the basin for the Ponta Grossa and Irati formation, and also that most of the thermal maturation occurred after the basalt flows of the Cretaceous period. (author) 41 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Hydrocarbons thermal maturation: Leopatin method applied to the Parana basin; Maturacao termica de hidrocarbonetos: aplicacao do metodo de Lopatin a Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eston, Sergio Medici de; Jardim, Niza S.

    1986-12-31

    One of the requirements for the existent of economic deposits of hydrocarbons is that the organic matter has undergone adequate thermal maturation. Several techniques have been proposed in order to quantity the catagenetic state of kerogen, and the Lopatin-Waples methodology permits quantification at any past time and does not require laboratory tests on samples of the material. For this reason it is an useful techniques for predicting mature zones using as basic information the thermal and subsidence histories of each stratum. Lopatin`s technique was applied to the Parana basin, with McKenzie`s crustal stretching model fitted to the data of 18 wells, and the areas predicted as mature for oil and/or gas were in good agreement with the field results. The technique predicted oil phone areas at the east border of the basin for the Ponta Grossa and Irati formation, and also that most of the thermal maturation occurred after the basalt flows of the Cretaceous period. (author) 41 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Guidelines for the Selection of Near-Earth Thermal Environment Parameters for Spacecraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Justus, C. G.; Batts, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal analysis and design of Earth orbiting systems requires specification of three environmental thermal parameters: the direct solar irradiance, Earth's local albedo, and outgoing longwave radiance (OLR). In the early 1990s data sets from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment were analyzed on behalf of the Space Station Program to provide an accurate description of these parameters as a function of averaging time along the orbital path. This information, documented in SSP 30425 and, in more generic form in NASA/TM-4527, enabled the specification of the proper thermal parameters for systems of various thermal response time constants. However, working with the engineering community and SSP-30425 and TM-4527 products over a number of years revealed difficulties in interpretation and application of this material. For this reason it was decided to develop this guidelines document to help resolve these issues of practical application. In the process, the data were extensively reprocessed and a new computer code, the Simple Thermal Environment Model (STEM) was developed to simplify the process of selecting the parameters for input into extreme hot and cold thermal analyses and design specifications. In the process, greatly improved values for the cold case OLR values for high inclination orbits were derived. Thermal parameters for satellites in low, medium, and high inclination low-Earth orbit and with various system thermal time constraints are recommended for analysis of extreme hot and cold conditions. Practical information as to the interpretation and application of the information and an introduction to the STEM are included. Complete documentation for STEM is found in the user's manual, in preparation.

  3. Determination of optimum thermal debinding and sintering process parameters using Taguchi Method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seerane, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available powder and a wax-based binder. The binder’s backbone component is a low density polyethylene (LDPE). Careful selection of thermal debinding parameters was guided by thermo- gravimetric analysis (TGA) results. The Taguchi method was used to determine... International Light Metals Technology Conference (LMT 2015), Port Elizabeth, South Africa, July 27-29 Determination of Optimum Process for Thermal Debinding and Sintering using Taguchi Method SEERANE Mandya,*, CHIKWANDA Hildab, MACHAKA Ronaldc CSIR...

  4. The Thermal Conductivity of Earth's Core: A Key Geophysical Parameter's Constraints and Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Q.

    2018-05-01

    The thermal conductivity of iron alloys at high pressures and temperatures is a critical parameter in governing ( a) the present-day heat flow out of Earth's core, ( b) the inferred age of Earth's inner core, and ( c) the thermal evolution of Earth's core and lowermost mantle. It is, however, one of the least well-constrained important geophysical parameters, with current estimates for end-member iron under core-mantle boundary conditions varying by about a factor of 6. Here, the current state of calculations, measurements, and inferences that constrain thermal conductivity at core conditions are reviewed. The applicability of the Wiedemann-Franz law, commonly used to convert electrical resistivity data to thermal conductivity data, is probed: Here, whether the constant of proportionality, the Lorenz number, is constant at extreme conditions is of vital importance. Electron-electron inelastic scattering and increases in Fermi-liquid-like behavior may cause uncertainties in thermal conductivities derived from both first-principles-associated calculations and electrical conductivity measurements. Additional uncertainties include the role of alloying constituents and local magnetic moments of iron in modulating the thermal conductivity. Thus, uncertainties in thermal conductivity remain pervasive, and hence a broad range of core heat flows and inner core ages appear to remain plausible.

  5. Thermal maturity and organic composition of Pennsylvanian coals and carbonaceous shales, north-central Texas: Implications for coalbed gas potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, Paul C. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Guevara, Edgar H.; Hentz, Tucker F. [Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 (United States); Hook, Robert W. [1301 Constant Springs Drive, Austin, TX 78746 (United States)

    2009-01-31

    Thermal maturity was determined for about 120 core, cuttings, and outcrop samples to investigate the potential for coalbed gas resources in Pennsylvanian strata of north-central Texas. Shallow (< 600 m; 2000 ft) coal and carbonaceous shale cuttings samples from the Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian Strawn, Canyon, and Cisco Groups in Archer and Young Counties on the Eastern Shelf of the Midland basin (northwest and downdip from the outcrop) yielded mean random vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) values between about 0.4 and 0.8%. This range of R{sub o} values indicates rank from subbituminous C to high volatile A bituminous in the shallow subsurface, which may be sufficient for early thermogenic gas generation. Near-surface (< 100 m; 300 ft) core and outcrop samples of coal from areas of historical underground coal mining in the region yielded similar R{sub o} values of 0.5 to 0.8%. Carbonaceous shale core samples of Lower Pennsylvanian strata (lower Atoka Group) from two deeper wells (samples from {proportional_to} 1650 m; 5400 ft) in Jack and western Wise Counties in the western part of the Fort Worth basin yielded higher R{sub o} values of about 1.0%. Pyrolysis and petrographic data for the lower Atoka samples indicate mixed Type II/Type III organic matter, suggesting generated hydrocarbons may be both gas- and oil-prone. In all other samples, organic material is dominated by Type III organic matter (vitrinite), indicating that generated hydrocarbons should be gas-prone. Individual coal beds are thin at outcrop (< 1 m; 3.3 ft), laterally discontinuous, and moderately high in ash yield and sulfur content. A possible analog for coalbed gas potential in the Pennsylvanian section of north-central Texas occurs on the northeast Oklahoma shelf and in the Cherokee basin of southeastern Kansas, where contemporaneous gas-producing coal beds are similar in thickness, quality, and rank. (author)

  6. Estimation of apparent kinetic parameters of polymer pyrolysis with complex thermal degradation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srimachai, Taranee; Anantawaraskul, Siripon

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Thermal degradation behavior during polymer pyrolysis can typically be described using three apparent kinetic parameters (i.e., pre-exponential factor, activation energy, and reaction order). Several efficient techniques have been developed to estimate these apparent kinetic parameters for simple thermal degradation behavior (i.e., single apparent pyrolysis reaction). Unfortunately, these techniques cannot be directly extended to the case of polymer pyrolysis with complex thermal degradation behavior (i.e., multiple concurrent reactions forming single or multiple DTG peaks). In this work, we proposed a deconvolution method to determine the number of apparent reactions and estimate three apparent kinetic parameters and contribution of each reaction for polymer pyrolysis with complex thermal degradation behavior. The proposed technique was validated with the model and experimental pyrolysis data of several polymer blends with known compositions. The results showed that (1) the number of reaction and (2) three apparent kinetic parameters and contribution of each reaction can be estimated reasonably. The simulated DTG curves with estimated parameters also agree well with experimental DTG curves. (author)

  7. Geostatistical characterisation of geothermal parameters for a thermal aquifer storage site in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, J.; Li, T.; Grathwohl, P.; Blum, P.; Bayer, P.

    2009-04-01

    The design of geothermal systems such as aquifer thermal energy storage systems (ATES) must account for a comprehensive characterisation of all relevant parameters considered for the numerical design model. Hydraulic and thermal conductivities are the most relevant parameters and its distribution determines not only the technical design but also the economic viability of such systems. Hence, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of these parameters is essential for a successful design and operation of such systems. This work shows the first results obtained when applying geostatistical techniques to the characterisation of the Esseling Site in Germany. In this site a long-term thermal tracer test (> 1 year) was performed. On this open system the spatial temperature distribution inside the aquifer was observed over time in order to obtain as much information as possible that yield to a detailed characterisation both of the hydraulic and thermal relevant parameters. This poster shows the preliminary results obtained for the Esseling Site. It has been observed that the common homogeneous approach is not sufficient to explain the observations obtained from the TRT and that parameter heterogeneity must be taken into account.

  8. Nanoscale size dependence parameters on lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamand, S.M.; Omar, M.S.; Muhammad, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of calculated lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires. Highlights: ► A modified Callaway model is used to calculate lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires. ► A direct method is used to calculate phonon group velocity for these nanowires. ► 3-Gruneisen parameter, surface roughness, and dislocations are successfully investigated. ► Dislocation densities are decreases with the decrease of wires diameter. -- Abstract: A detailed calculation of lattice thermal conductivity of freestanding Wurtzite GaN nanowires with diameter ranging from 97 to 160 nm in the temperature range 2–300 K, was performed using a modified Callaway model. Both longitudinal and transverse modes are taken into account explicitly in the model. A method is used to calculate the Debye and phonon group velocities for different nanowire diameters from their related melting points. Effect of Gruneisen parameter, surface roughness, and dislocations as structure dependent parameters are successfully used to correlate the calculated values of lattice thermal conductivity to that of the experimentally measured curves. It was observed that Gruneisen parameter will decrease with decreasing nanowire diameters. Scattering of phonons is assumed to be by nanowire boundaries, imperfections, dislocations, electrons, and other phonons via both normal and Umklapp processes. Phonon confinement and size effects as well as the role of dislocation in limiting thermal conductivity are investigated. At high temperatures and for dislocation densities greater than 10 14 m −2 the lattice thermal conductivity would be limited by dislocation density, but for dislocation densities less than 10 14 m −2 , lattice thermal conductivity would be independent of that.

  9. Nanoscale size dependence parameters on lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamand, S.M., E-mail: soran.mamand@univsul.net [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimanyah, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq); Omar, M.S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Arbil, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq); Muhammad, A.J. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk (Iraq)

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of calculated lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A modified Callaway model is used to calculate lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A direct method is used to calculate phonon group velocity for these nanowires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-Gruneisen parameter, surface roughness, and dislocations are successfully investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dislocation densities are decreases with the decrease of wires diameter. -- Abstract: A detailed calculation of lattice thermal conductivity of freestanding Wurtzite GaN nanowires with diameter ranging from 97 to 160 nm in the temperature range 2-300 K, was performed using a modified Callaway model. Both longitudinal and transverse modes are taken into account explicitly in the model. A method is used to calculate the Debye and phonon group velocities for different nanowire diameters from their related melting points. Effect of Gruneisen parameter, surface roughness, and dislocations as structure dependent parameters are successfully used to correlate the calculated values of lattice thermal conductivity to that of the experimentally measured curves. It was observed that Gruneisen parameter will decrease with decreasing nanowire diameters. Scattering of phonons is assumed to be by nanowire boundaries, imperfections, dislocations, electrons, and other phonons via both normal and Umklapp processes. Phonon confinement and size effects as well as the role of dislocation in limiting thermal conductivity are investigated. At high temperatures and for dislocation densities greater than 10{sup 14} m{sup -2} the lattice thermal conductivity would be limited by dislocation density, but for dislocation densities less than 10{sup 14} m{sup -2}, lattice thermal conductivity would be independent of that.

  10. Urban thermal environment and its biophysical parameters derived from satellite remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Tautan, Marina N.; Baschir, Laurentiu V.

    2013-10-01

    In frame of global warming, the field of urbanization and urban thermal environment are important issues among scientists all over the world. This paper investigated the influences of urbanization on urban thermal environment as well as the relationships of thermal characteristics to other biophysical variables in Bucharest metropolitan area of Romania based on satellite remote sensing imagery Landsat TM/ETM+, time series MODIS Terra/Aqua data and IKONOS acquired during 1990 - 2012 period. Vegetation abundances and percent impervious surfaces were derived by means of linear spectral mixture model, and a method for effectively enhancing impervious surface has been developed to accurately examine the urban growth. The land surface temperature (Ts), a key parameter for urban thermal characteristics analysis, was also retrieved from thermal infrared band of Landsat TM/ETM+, from MODIS Terra/Aqua datasets. Based on these parameters, the urban growth, urban heat island effect (UHI) and the relationships of Ts to other biophysical parameters have been analyzed. Results indicated that the metropolitan area ratio of impervious surface in Bucharest increased significantly during two decades investigated period, the intensity of urban heat island and heat wave events being most significant. The correlation analyses revealed that, at the pixel-scale, Ts possessed a strong positive correlation with percent impervious surfaces and negative correlation with vegetation abundances at the regional scale, respectively. This analysis provided an integrated research scheme and the findings can be very useful for urban ecosystem modeling.

  11. Thermal neutron diffusion parameters dependent on the flux energy distribution in finite hydrogenous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.

    1999-01-01

    Macroscopic parameters for a description of the thermal neutron transport in finite volumes are considered. A very good correspondence between the theoretical and experimental parameters of hydrogenous media is attained. Thermal neutrons in the medium possess an energy distribution, which is dependent on the size (characterized by the geometric buckling) and on the neutron transport properties of the medium. In a hydrogenous material the thermal neutron transport is dominated by the scattering cross section which is strongly dependent on energy. A monoenergetic treatment of the thermal neutron group (admissible for other materials) leads in this case to a discrepancy between theoretical and experimental results. In the present paper the theoretical definitions of the pulsed thermal neutron parameters (the absorption rate, the diffusion coefficient, and the diffusion cooling coefficient) are based on Nelkin's analysis of the decay of a neutron pulse. Problems of the experimental determination of these parameters for a hydrogenous medium are discussed. A theoretical calculation of the pulsed parameters requires knowledge of the scattering kernel. For thermal neutrons it is individual for each hydrogenous material because neutron scattering on hydrogen nuclei bound in a molecule is affected by the molecular dynamics (characterized with internal energy modes which are comparable to the incident neutron energy). Granada's synthetic model for slow-neutron scattering is used. The complete up-dated formalism of calculation of the energy transfer scattering kernel after this model is presented in the paper. An influence of some minor variants within the model on the calculated differential and integral neutron parameters is shown. The theoretical energy-dependent scattering cross section (of Plexiglas) is compared to experimental results. A particular attention is paid to the calculation of the diffusion cooling coefficient. A solution of an equation, which determines the

  12. Lab determination of soil thermal Conductivity. Fundamentals, geothermal applications and relationship with other soil parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nope Gomez, F. I.; Santiago, C. de

    2014-01-01

    Shallow geothermal energy application in buildings and civil engineering works (tunnels, diaphragm walls, bridge decks, roads, and train/metro stations) are spreading rapidly all around the world. the dual role of these energy geostructures makes their design challenging and more complex with respect to conventional projects. Besides the geotechnical parameters, thermal behavior parameters are needed in the design and dimensioning to warrantee the thermo-mechanical stability of the geothermal structural element. As for obtaining any soil thermal parameter, both in situ and laboratory methods can be used. The present study focuses on a lab test known the need ke method to measure the thermal conductivity of soils (λ). Through this research work, different variables inherent to the test procedure, as well as external factors that may have an impact on thermal conductivity measurements were studied. Samples extracted from the cores obtained from a geothermal drilling conducted on the campus of the Polytechnic University of Valencia, showing different mineralogical and nature composition (granular and clayey) were studied different (moisture and density) compacting conditions. 550 thermal conductivity measurements were performed, from which the influence of factors such as the degree of saturation-moisture, dry density and type of material was verified. Finally, a stratigraphic profile with thermal conductivities ranges of each geologic level was drawn, considering the degree of saturation ranges evaluated in lab tests, in order to be compared and related to thermal response test, currently in progress. Finally, a test protocol is set and proposed, for both remolded and undisturbed samples, under different saturation conditions. Together with this test protocol, a set of recommendations regarding the configuration of the measuring equipment, treatment of samples and other variables, are posed in order to reduce errors in the final results. (Author)

  13. Thermal parameter identification for non-Fourier heat transfer from molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit; Tadmor, Ellad B.

    2015-10-01

    Fourier's law leads to a diffusive model of heat transfer in which a thermal signal propagates infinitely fast and the only material parameter is the thermal conductivity. In micro- and nano-scale systems, non-Fourier effects involving coupled diffusion and wavelike propagation of heat can become important. An extension of Fourier's law to account for such effects leads to a Jeffreys-type model for heat transfer with two relaxation times. We propose a new Thermal Parameter Identification (TPI) method for obtaining the Jeffreys-type thermal parameters from molecular dynamics simulations. The TPI method makes use of a nonlinear regression-based approach for obtaining the coefficients in analytical expressions for cosine and sine-weighted averages of temperature and heat flux over the length of the system. The method is applied to argon nanobeams over a range of temperature and system sizes. The results for thermal conductivity are found to be in good agreement with standard Green-Kubo and direct method calculations. The TPI method is more efficient for systems with high diffusivity and has the advantage, that unlike the direct method, it is free from the influence of thermostats. In addition, the method provides the thermal relaxation times for argon. Using the determined parameters, the Jeffreys-type model is able to reproduce the molecular dynamics results for a short-duration heat pulse where wavelike propagation of heat is observed thereby confirming the existence of second sound in argon. An implementation of the TPI method in MATLAB is available as part of the online supplementary material.

  14. Thermal maturity and burial history modelling of shale is enhanced by use of Arrhenius time-temperature index and memetic optimizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Wood

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal maturity indices and modelling based on Arrhenius-equation reaction kinetics have played an important role in oil and gas exploration and provided petroleum generation insight for many kerogen-rich source rocks. Debate continues concerning how best to integrate the Arrhenius equation and which activation energies (E and frequency factors (A values to apply. A case is made for the strong theoretical basis and practical advantages of the time-temperature index (∑TTIARR method, first published in 1998, using a single, carefully selected E-A set (E = 218 kJ/mol (52.1 kcal/mol; A = 5.45E+26/my from the well-established A-E trend for published kerogen kinetics. An updated correlation between ∑TTIARR and vitrinite reflectance (Ro is provided in which the ∑TTIARR scale spans some 18 orders of magnitude. The method is readily calculated in spreadsheets and can be further enhanced by visual basic for application code to provide optimization. Optimization is useful for identifying possible geothermal gradients and erosion intervals covering multiple burial intervals that can match calculated thermal maturities with measured Ro data. A memetic optimizer with firefly and dynamic local search memes is described that flexibly conducts exploration and exploitation of the feasible, multi-dimensional, thermal history solution space to find high-performing solutions to complex burial and thermal histories. A complex deep burial history example, with several periods of uplift and erosion and fluctuating heat flow is used to demonstrate what can be achieved with the memetic optimizer. By carefully layering in constraints to the models specific insights to episodes in their thermal history can be exposed, leading to better characterization of the timing of petroleum generation. The objective function found to be most effective for this type of optimization is the mean square error (MSE of multiple burial intervals for the difference between

  15. Parameter analysis on the temperature and thermal stress of the cylindrical structure with multiple holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Choi, Y. J.

    2001-01-01

    During fuel irradiation tests in the in-core of HANARO, all components of the capsule with multiple holes act as heat sources due to high gamma and fission heat. In the design stage, a series of design parameter study were performed to confirm the thermal integrity of the capsule with multiple holes. The main parameter reviewed in this study are as follows: the position of the specimen, the thickness of the support tube and gap size. From the analysis performed by using of the FEM code ANSYS. it is confirmed that gap size effect on the capsule is one of the most important parameter of the capsule integrity. And the final thermal stress and displacement of the support tube with a increase of gap size are also under the allowable limits of ASME code

  16. Theoretical analysis for the specific heat and thermal parameters of solid C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, J. R.; Calles, A.; Castro, J. J.

    1997-08-01

    We present the results of a theoretical analysis for the thermal parameters and phonon contribution to the specific heat in solid C60. The phonon contribution to the specific heat is calculated through the solution of the corresponding dynamical matrix, for different points in the Brillouin zone, and the construccion of the partial and generalized phonon density of states. The force constants are obtained from a first principle calculation, using a SCF Hartree-Fock wave function from the Gaussian 92 program. The thermal parameters reported are the effective temperatures and vibrational amplitudes as a function of temperature. Using this model we present a parametization scheme in order to reproduce the general behaviour of the experimental specific heat for these materials.

  17. Thermal Hydraulic design parameters study for severe accidents using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Chang Hyun; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    To provide the information on severe accident progression is very important for advanced or new type of nuclear power plant (NPP) design. A parametric study, therefore, was performed to investigate the effect of thermal hydraulic design parameters on severe accident progression of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Nine parameters, which are considered important in NPP design or severe accident progression, were selected among the various thermal hydraulic design parameters. The backpropagation neural network (BPN) was used to determine parameters, which might more strongly affect the severe accident progression, among nine parameters. For training, different input patterns were generated by the latin hypercube sampling (LHS) technique and then different target patterns that contain core uncovery time and vessel failure time were obtained for Young Gwang Nuclear (YGN) Units 3 and 4 using modular accident analysis program (MAAP) 3.0B code. Three different severe accident scenarios, such as two loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) and station blackout (SBO), were considered in this analysis. Results indicated that design parameters related to refueling water storage tank (RWST), accumulator and steam generator (S/G) have more dominant effects on the progression of severe accidents investigated, compared to the other six parameters. 9 refs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  18. Thermal Hydraulic design parameters study for severe accidents using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Chang Hyun; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    To provide the information on severe accident progression is very important for advanced or new type of nuclear power plant (NPP) design. A parametric study, therefore, was performed to investigate the effect of thermal hydraulic design parameters on severe accident progression of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Nine parameters, which are considered important in NPP design or severe accident progression, were selected among the various thermal hydraulic design parameters. The backpropagation neural network (BPN) was used to determine parameters, which might more strongly affect the severe accident progression, among nine parameters. For training, different input patterns were generated by the latin hypercube sampling (LHS) technique and then different target patterns that contain core uncovery time and vessel failure time were obtained for Young Gwang Nuclear (YGN) Units 3 and 4 using modular accident analysis program (MAAP) 3.0B code. Three different severe accident scenarios, such as two loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) and station blackout (SBO), were considered in this analysis. Results indicated that design parameters related to refueling water storage tank (RWST), accumulator and steam generator (S/G) have more dominant effects on the progression of severe accidents investigated, compared to the other six parameters. 9 refs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  19. Evaluation of thermal-hydraulic parameter uncertainties in a TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Amir Z.; Costa, Antonio C.L.; Ladeira, Luiz C.D.; Rezende, Hugo C.; Palma, Daniel A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies had been performed in the TRIGA Research Nuclear Reactor of CDTN/CNEN to find out the its thermal hydraulic parameters. Fuel to coolant heat transfer patterns must be evaluated as function of the reactor power in order to assess the thermal hydraulic performance of the core. The heat generated by nuclear fission in the reactor core is transferred from fuel elements to the cooling system through the fuel-cladding (gap) and the cladding to coolant interfaces. As the reactor core power increases the heat transfer regime from the fuel cladding to the coolant changes from single-phase natural convection to subcooled nucleate boiling. This paper presents the uncertainty analysis in the results of the thermal hydraulics experiments performed. The methodology used to evaluate the propagation of uncertainty in the results was done based on the pioneering article of Kline and McClintock, with the propagation of uncertainties based on the specification of uncertainties in various primary measurements. The uncertainty analysis on thermal hydraulics parameters of the CDTN TRIGA fuel element is determined, basically, by the uncertainty of the reactor's thermal power. (author)

  20. Thermal performance parameters estimation of hot box type solar cooker by using artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Hueseyin; Atik, Kemal; Oezkaymak, Mehmet; Recebli, Ziyaddin [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Karabuk Technical Education Faculty, 78200 Karabuk (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    Work to date has shown that Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has not been used for predicting thermal performance parameters of a solar cooker. The objective of this study is to predict thermal performance parameters such as absorber plate, enclosure air and pot water temperatures of the experimentally investigated box type solar cooker by using the ANN. Data set is obtained from the box type solar cooker which was tested under various experimental conditions. A feed-forward neural network based on back propagation algorithm was developed to predict the thermal performance of solar cooker with and without reflector. Mathematical formulations derived from the ANN model are presented for each predicting temperatures. The experimental data set consists of 126 values. These were divided into two groups, of which the 96 values were used for training/learning of the network and the rest of the data (30 values) for testing/validation of the network performance. The performance of the ANN predictions was evaluated by comparing the prediction results with the experimental results. The results showed a good regression analysis with the correlation coefficients in the range of 0.9950-0.9987 and mean relative errors (MREs) in the range of 3.925-7.040% for the test data set. The regression coefficients indicated that the ANN model can successfully be used for the prediction of the thermal performance parameters of a box type solar cooker with a high degree of accuracy. (author)

  1. Effects of two-temperature parameter and thermal nonlocal parameter on transient responses of a half-space subjected to ramp-type heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhang-Na; Yu, Ya-Jun; Tian, Xiao-Geng

    2017-07-01

    Based upon the coupled thermoelasticity and Green and Lindsay theory, the new governing equations of two-temperature thermoelastic theory with thermal nonlocal parameter is formulated. To more realistically model thermal loading of a half-space surface, a linear temperature ramping function is adopted. Laplace transform techniques are used to get the general analytical solutions in Laplace domain, and the inverse Laplace transforms based on Fourier expansion techniques are numerically implemented to obtain the numerical solutions in time domain. Specific attention is paid to study the effect of thermal nonlocal parameter, ramping time, and two-temperature parameter on the distributions of temperature, displacement and stress distribution.

  2. Sensitivity of control times in function of core parameters and oscillations control in thermal nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, E.S. do; D'Oliveira, A.B.; Galvao, O.B.; Oyama, K.

    1981-03-01

    Sensitivity of control times to variation of a thermal reactor core parameters is defined by suitable changes in the power coefficient, core size and fuel enrichment. A control strategy is developed based on control theory concepts and on considerations of the physics of the problem. Digital diffusion theory simulation is described which tends to verify the control concepts considered, face dumped oscillations introduced in one thermal nuclear power system. The effectivity of the control actions, in terms of eliminating oscillations, provided guidelines for the working-group engaged in the analysis of the control rods and its optimal performance. (Author) [pt

  3. Influence of Feedstock Materials and Spray Parameters on Thermal Conductivity of Wire-Arc-Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H. H.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, G. H.; He, D. Y.; Bobzin, K.; Zhao, L.; Öte, M.; Königstein, T.

    2017-03-01

    To manufacture a protective coating with high thermal conductivity on drying cylinders in paper production machines, a FeCrB-cored wire was developed, and the spraying parameters for wire-arc spraying were optimized in this study. The conventional engineering materials FeCrAl and FeCrMo coatings were produced as the reference coatings under the same experimental condition. It has been shown that the oxide content in coating influences the thermal conductivity of coating significantly. The FeCrB coating exhibits a relative higher thermal conductivity due to the lower oxide content in comparison with conventional FeCrAl and FeCrMo coatings. Moreover, the oxidation of in-flight particles can be reduced by decreasing the standoff distance contributing to the increase in the thermal conductivity of coating. Total energy consumption of a papermaking machine can be significantly reduced if the coatings applied to dryer section exhibit high thermal conductivity. Therefore, the FeCrB coating developed in this study is a highly promising coating system for drying cylinders regarding the improved thermal conductivity and low operation costs in paper production industry.

  4. A method to measure the thermal-physical parameter of gas hydrate in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diao, S.B.; Ye, Y.G.; Yue, Y.J.; Zhang, J.; Chen, Q.; Hu, G.W. [Qingdao Inst. of Marine Geology, Qingdao (China)

    2008-07-01

    It is important to explore and make good use of gas hydrates through the examination of the thermal-physical parameters of sediment. This paper presented a new type of simulation experiment using a device that was designed based on the theories of time domain reflection and transient hot wire method. A series of investigations were performed using this new device. The paper described the experiment, with reference to the experiment device and materials and method. It also presented the results of thermal physical properties; result of the thermal conductivity of water, dry sand and wet sand; and results of wet sand under various pressures. The time domain reflection (TDR) method was utilized to monitor the saturation of the hydrates. Both parallel hot-wire method and cross hot-wire method were utilized to measure the thermal conductivity of the gas hydrate in porous media. A TDR sensor which was equipped with both cross hot-wire probe and parallel hot-wire probe was developed in order to measure the cell temperature with these two methods at one time. It was concluded that the TDR probe could be taken as an online measurement skill in investigating the hydrate thermal physical property in porous media. The TDR sensor could monitor the hydrate formation process and the parallel hot-wire method and cross hot-wire method could effectively measure the thermal physical properties of the hydrates in porous media. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Thermal Stress Analysis and Structure Parameter Selection for a Bi2Te3-Based Thermoelectric Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun-Ling; Du, Qun-Gui; Zhang, Xiao-Dan; Jiang, Xin-Qiang

    2011-05-01

    The output power and conversion efficiency of thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are mainly determined by their material properties, i.e., Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity. In practical applications, due to the influence of the harsh environment, the mechanical properties of TEMs should also be considered. Using the finite-element analysis (FEA) model in ANSYS software, we present the thermal stress distribution of a TEM based on the anisotropic mechanical properties and thermoelectric properties of hot-pressed materials. By analyzing the possibilities of damage along the cleavage plane of Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric materials and by optimizing the structure parameters, a TEM with better mechanical performance is obtained. Thus, a direction for improving the thermal stress resistance of TEMs is presented.

  6. Thermal study of bare tips with various system parameters and incision sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osher, Robert H; Injev, Valentine P

    2006-05-01

    To identify major and minor surgeon-controlled parameters that affect incision temperature when performing microincision lens removal using the Alcon Infiniti Vision System. In vitro research and development laboratory, Alcon Research, Irvine, California, USA. Phacoemulsification was performed in eye-bank cadaver eyes and the following parameters evaluated: incision, duty cycle, ultrasound (US) power, aspiration flow rate (AFR), vacuum, pulse, bottle height and balanced salt solution temperature, and tip design/size. Each parameter was varied while the others remained constant. The resulting temperature of the incision and US tip was measured using a thermal camera. Major contributors to elevated incision temperature included incision size, US power, duty cycle, AFR, vacuum setting, tip design, and presence of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD). Minor contributors included pulse frequency, bottle height, and temperature of the infusate. Microincision lens removal can be performed at safe temperatures with the knowledgeable selection of surgeon-controlled parameters.

  7. Parameter estimation of breast tumour using dynamic neural network from thermal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Saniei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new approach for estimating the depth, size, and metabolic heat generation rate of a tumour. For this purpose, the surface temperature distribution of a breast thermal image and the dynamic neural network was used. The research consisted of two steps: forward and inverse. For the forward section, a finite element model was created. The Pennes bio-heat equation was solved to find surface and depth temperature distributions. Data from the analysis, then, were used to train the dynamic neural network model (DNN. Results from the DNN training/testing confirmed those of the finite element model. For the inverse section, the trained neural network was applied to estimate the depth temperature distribution (tumour position from the surface temperature profile, extracted from the thermal image. Finally, tumour parameters were obtained from the depth temperature distribution. Experimental findings (20 patients were promising in terms of the model’s potential for retrieving tumour parameters.

  8. Influence of geometrical and thermal hydraulic parameters on the short term containment system response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Chandran, R.; Ali, Seik Mansoor; Balasubramaniyan, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of a number of geometrical and thermal hydraulic parameters on the containment peak pressure following a simulated LOCA. The numerical studies are carried out using an inhouse containment thermal hydraulics program called 'THYCON' with focus only on the short term transient response. In order to highlight the effect of above variables, a geometrically scaled (1:270) model of a typical 220 MWe Indian PHWR containment is considered. The discussions in this paper are limited to explaining the influence of individual parameters by comparing with a base case value. It is essential to mention that the results presented here are not general and should be taken as indicative only. Nevertheless, these numerical studies give insight into short term containment response that would be useful to both the system designer as well as the regulator. (author)

  9. The effect of thermal and radiation accelerated ageing on the A. C. electric motor parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pica, I.; Segarceanu, D.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the main aspects concerning the electric parameters variation of triphase asynchronous motors operating under specific environmental conditions determined by temperature, humidity, radiation. The testing of electric motor capability to meet and exceed the required performances all along its operating life implies the performing of thermal and radiation ageing while the motor is brought, in a relatively short time, under conditions equivalent to those at the end of its service life. The paper describes ageing and measurement techniques and the analyses of electric parameter behavior in these environmental simulated conditions. (author)

  10. Performance Testing of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced with Varied Suspension Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying has become an emerging technology for the production of thermal barrier coatings for the gas turbine industry. Presently, though commercial systems for coating production are available, coatings remain in the development stage. Suitable suspension parameters for coating production remain an outstanding question and the influence of suspension properties on the final coatings is not well known. For this study, a number of suspensions were produced with varied solid loadings, powder size distributions and solvents. Suspensions were sprayed onto superalloy substrates coated with high velocity air fuel (HVAF -sprayed bond coats. Plasma spray parameters were selected to generate columnar structures based on previous experiments and were maintained at constant to discover the influence of the suspension behavior on coating microstructures. Testing of the produced thermal barrier coating (TBC systems has included thermal cyclic fatigue testing and thermal conductivity analysis. Pore size distribution has been characterized by mercury infiltration porosimetry. Results show a strong influence of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the microstructure of the produced coatings.

  11. Thermal-Hydraulic Sensitivity Study of Intermediate Loop Parameters for Nuclear Hydrogen Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Hwa; Lee, Heung Nae; Park, Jea Ho [KONES Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Il; Yoo, Yeon Jae [Hyundai Engineering Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The heat generated from the VHTR is transferred to the intermediate loop through Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX). It is further passed on to the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) hydrogen production system (HPS) through Process Heat Exchanger (PHX). The IL provides the safety distance between the VHTR and HPS. Since the IL performance affects the overall nuclear HPS efficiency, it is required to optimize its design and operation parameters. In this study, the thermal-hydraulic sensitivity of IL parameters with various coolant options has been examined by using MARS-GCR code, which was already applied for the case of steam generator. Sensitivity study of the IL and PHX parameters has been carried out based on their thermal-hydraulic performance. Several parameters for design and operation, such as the pipe diameter, safety distance and surface area, are considered for different coolant options, He, CO{sub 2} and He-CO{sub 2} (2:8). It was found that the circulator work is the major factor affecting on the overall nuclear hydrogen production system efficiency. Circulator work increases with the safety distance, and decreases with the operation pressure and loop pipe diameter. Sensitivity results obtained from this study will contribute to the optimization of the IL design and operation parameters and the optimal coolant selection.

  12. Impact of Building Design Parameters on Thermal Energy Flexibility in a Low-Energy Building

    OpenAIRE

    Sarran, Lucile; Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Gianniou, Panagiota; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on demand-side management potential for the heating grid in residential buildings. The possibility to increase the flexibility provided to the heat network through specific building design is investigated. The role of different parts of the building structure on thermal flexibility is assessed through a parameter variation on a building model. Different building designs are subjected to heat cut-offs, and flexibility is evaluated with respect to comfort preservation and heat...

  13. Lumped parameter modeling of a two-phase thermal-hydraulic channel with interface tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.H.; Kaufman, J.M.; Ruger, C.J.; Stein, S.

    1978-01-01

    A nonhomogenous, thermal nonequilibrium model for one-dimensional two-phase flow in a heated channel has been formulated in lumped parameter form. The channel is divided into a variable number of flow regimes separated by moving interfaces. The model can be used to predict the behavior of a LWR core and both primary and secondary sides of a steam generator under transient conditions. (author)

  14. Characterization of the thermalness of a fissile system with a two-group diffusion theory parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredehoft, B.B.; Busch, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    In tabulating critical data, the hydrogen-to-fissile atom ratio (H/X) is commonly used to characterize the amount of moderation in a system. Though adequate in many cases, H/X does not account for the moderating contribution of other light nuclei contained in common uranium-moderator mixtures. This ratio also does not account for enrichment of the system, which affects the resonance absorption characteristics and, therefore, the moderating behavior of that system. To alleviate these problems, a two-energy-group diffusion theory analogy to the six-factor formula was applied to define a new parameter p/(η 2 · f 2 ), which describes the moderation characteristics or the 'thermalness' of a fissioning system and includes the effects of enrichment and the presence of moderators other than hydrogen. From an analysis of several low-enriched uranium systems with different moderators, it was found that the values of p/(η 2 · f 2 ) corresponding to minimum critical mass and volume tend to center in a narrower range than do the values of H/X for the same systems. Also, the thermalness parameter does not vary with the addition of a reflector and is applicable to systems with other than hydrogenous moderators. Based on these results, the thermalness parameter p/(η 2 · f 2 ) provides an effective means of characterizing moderated systems relative to optimum conditions

  15. A ductile fracture criterion with Zener-Hollomon parameter of pure molybdenum sheet in thermal forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formability of pure molybdenum in thermal forming process has been greatly improved, but it is still hard to avoid the generation of rupture and other quality defects. In this paper, a ductile fracture criterion of pure molybdenum sheet in thermal forming was established by considering the plastic deformation capacity of material and stress states, which can be used to describe fracture behaviour and critical rupture prediction of pure molybdenum sheet during hot forming process. Based on the isothermal uniaxial tensile tests which performed at 993 to 1143 K with strain rate range from 0.0005 to 0.2 s−1, the material parameters are calculated by the combination method of experiment with FEsimulation. Based on the observation, new fracture criteria can be expressed as a function of Zener-Hollomon parameter. The critical fracture value that calculated by Oyane-Sato criterion increases with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. The ductile fracture criterion with Zener-Hollomon parameter of pure molybdenum in thermal forming is proposed.

  16. Lattice parameters and thermal expansion of delta-VNsub(1-x) from 298-1000 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengauer, W.; Ettmayer, P.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal expansion of VNsub(1-x) was determined from measurements of the lattice parameters in the temperature range of 298-1000 K and in the composition range of VNsub(0.707) - VNsub(0.996). Within the accuracy of the results the expansion of the lattice parameter with temperature is not dependent on the composition. The lattice parameter as a function of composition ([N]/[V] = 0.707-0.996) and temperature (198-1000 K) is given by a([N]/[V], T) = 0.38872+0.02488 ([N]/[V]) - (1.083+-0.021) x 10 -4 Tsup(1/2) + (6.2+-0.1) x 10 - sup6T. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion as a function of temperature (in the same range) is given by α(T) = a([N]/[V], T) -1 [(-5.04+-0.01) x 10 -5 Tsup(1/2) + (6.2+-0.1) x 10 -6 ]. The average linear thermal expansion coefficient is αsub(av) = 9.70 +- 0.15 x 10 -6 K -1 (298-1000 K). The data are compared with those of several fcc transition metal nitrides collected and evaluated from the literature. (Author)

  17. A predictive thermal dynamic model for parameter generation in the laser assisted direct write process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Shuo; Fearon, Eamonn; Wellburn, Dan; Sato, Taku; Edwardson, Stuart; Dearden, G; Watkins, K G

    2011-01-01

    The laser assisted direct write (LADW) method can be used to generate electrical circuitry on a substrate by depositing metallic ink and curing the ink thermally by a laser. Laser curing has emerged over recent years as a novel yet efficient alternative to oven curing. This method can be used in situ, over complicated 3D contours of large parts (e.g. aircraft wings) and selectively cure over heat sensitive substrates, with little or no thermal damage. In previous studies, empirical methods have been used to generate processing windows for this technique, relating to the several interdependent processing parameters on which the curing quality and efficiency strongly depend. Incorrect parameters can result in a track that is cured in some areas and uncured in others, or in damaged substrates. This paper addresses the strong need for a quantitative model which can systematically output the processing conditions for a given combination of ink, substrate and laser source; transforming the LADW technique from a purely empirical approach, to a simple, repeatable, mathematically sound, efficient and predictable process. The method comprises a novel and generic finite element model (FEM) that for the first time predicts the evolution of the thermal profile of the ink track during laser curing and thus generates a parametric map which indicates the most suitable combination of parameters for process optimization. Experimental data are compared with simulation results to verify the accuracy of the model.

  18. CCP Sensitivity Analysis by Variation of Thermal-Hydraulic Parameters of Wolsong-3, 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Sung Chang [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The PHWRs are tendency that ROPT(Regional Overpower Protection Trip) setpoint is decreased with reduction of CCP(Critical Channel Power) due to aging effects. For this reason, Wolsong unit 3 and 4 has been operated less than 100% power due to the result of ROPT setpoint evaluation. Typically CCP for ROPT evaluation is derived at 100% PHTS(Primary Heat Transport System) boundary conditions - inlet header temperature, header to header different pressure and outlet header pressure. Therefore boundary conditions at 100% power were estimated to calculate the thermal-hydraulic model at 100% power condition. Actually thermal-hydraulic boundary condition data for Wolsong-3 and 4 cannot be taken at 100% power condition at aged reactor condition. Therefore, to create a single-phase thermal-hydraulic model with 80% data, the validity of the model was confirmed at 93.8%(W3), 94.2%(W4, in the two-phase). And thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions at 100% power were calculated to use this model. For this reason, the sensitivities by varying thermal-hydraulic parameters for CCP calculation were evaluated for Wolsong unit 3 and 4. For confirming the uncertainties by variation PHTS model, sensitivity calculations were performed by varying of pressure tube roughness, orifice degradation factor and SG fouling factor, etc. In conclusion, sensitivity calculation results were very similar and the linearity was constant.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of hydraulic and thermal parameters inducing anomalous heat flow in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goretzki, Nora; Inbar, Nimrod; Kühn, Michael; Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Schneider, Michael; Siebert, Christian; Magri, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    The Lower Yarmouk Gorge, at the border between Israel and Jordan, is characterized by an anomalous temperature gradient of 46 °C/km. Numerical simulations of thermally-driven flow show that ascending thermal waters are the result of mixed convection, i.e. the interaction between the regional flow from the surrounding heights and buoyant flow within permeable faults [1]. Those models were calibrated against available temperature logs by running several forward problems (FP), with a classic "trial and error" method. In the present study, inverse problems (IP) are applied to find alternative parameter distributions that also lead to the observed thermal anomalies. The investigated physical parameters are hydraulic conductivity and thermal conductivity. To solve the IP, the PEST® code [2] is applied via the graphical interface FEPEST® in FEFLOW® [3]. The results show that both hydraulic and thermal conductivity are consistent with the values determined with the trial and error calibrations, which precede this study. However, the IP indicates that the hydraulic conductivity of the Senonian Paleocene aquitard can be 8.54*10-3 m/d, which is three times lower than the originally estimated value in [1]. Moreover, the IP suggests that the hydraulic conductivity in the faults can increase locally up to 0.17 m/d. These highly permeable areas can be interpreted as local damage zones at the faults/units intersections. They can act as lateral pathways in the deep aquifers that allow deep outflow of thermal water. This presentation provides an example about the application of FP and IP to infer a wide range of parameter values that reproduce observed environmental issues. [1] Magri F, Inbar N, Siebert C, Rosenthal E, Guttman J, Möller P (2015) Transient simulations of large-scale hydrogeological processes causing temperature and salinity anomalies in the Tiberias Basin. Journal of Hydrology, 520, 342-355 [2] Doherty J (2010) PEST: Model-Independent Parameter Estimation. user

  20. Fine and coarse root parameters from mature black spruce displaying genetic x soil moisture interaction in growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen; Debby C. Barsi; Moira Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Fine and coarse root biomass, C, and N mass parameters were assessed by root size and soil depths from soil cores in plots of 32-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) from four full-sib families studied previously for drought tolerance and differential productivity on a dry and wet...

  1. Blackness coefficients, effective diffusion parameters, and control rod worths for thermal reactors - Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretscher, M M [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Simple diffusion theory cannot be used to evaluate control rod worths in thermal neutron reactors because of the strongly absorbing character of the control material. However, reliable control rod worths can be obtained within the framework of diffusion theory if the control material is characterized by a set of mesh-dependent effective diffusion parameters. For thin slab absorbers the effective diffusion parameters can be expressed as functions of a suitably-defined pair of 'blackness coefficients'. Methods for calculating these blackness coefficients in the P1, P3, and P5 approximations, with and without scattering, are presented. For control elements whose geometry does not permit a thin slab treatment, other methods are needed for determining the effective diffusion parameters. One such method, based on reaction rate ratios, is discussed. (author)

  2. External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems: Critical Parameters for Surface Hygrothermal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Barreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems (ETICS are often used in Europe. Despite its thermal advantages, low cost, and ease of application, this system has serious problems of biological growth causing the cladding defacement. Recent studies pointed that biological growth is due to high values of surface moisture content, which mostly results from the combined effect of exterior surface condensation, wind-driven rain, and drying process. Based on numerical simulation, this paper points the most critical parameters involved in hygrothermal behaviour of ETICS, considering the influence of thermal and hygric properties of the external rendering, the effect of the characteristics of the façade, and the consequences of the exterior and interior climate on exterior surface condensation, wind-driven rain, and drying process. The model used was previously validated by comparison with the results of an “in situ” campaign. The results of the sensitivity analyses show that relative humidity and temperature of the exterior air, atmospheric radiation, and emissivity of the exterior rendering are the parameters that most influence exterior surface condensation. Wind-driven rain depends mostly on horizontal rain, building’s height, wind velocity, and orientation. The drying capacity is influenced by short-wave absorbance, incident solar radiation, and orientation.

  3. Effects of thermal regime on ovarian maturation and plasma sex steroids in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M.A.H.; Van Eenennaam, J. P.; Feist, G.W.; Linares-Casenave, J.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C.B.; Doroshov, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, commercial aquaculture farms in Northern California have exposed gravid, cultured white sturgeon females to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) throughout the late phase of vitellogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation resulting in improved ovulation rates and egg quality. However, the optimum timing for transfer of broodfish to the cold water and the capacity of transferred broodfish to maintain reproductive competence over an extended time in cold water had not been evaluated. Gravid white sturgeon females that have been raised at water temperatures of 16-20??C were transported to either cold water (12 ?? 1??C; Group 1) in November 1997 or maintained in ambient water temperatures (10-19??C; Group 2) until early spring. In March 1998, half of the fish in Group 2 had regressed ovaries, but the remaining females had intact ovarian follicles and were transported to the cold water. Ovarian follicles and blood were collected from females until they reached the stage of spawning readiness (determined by germinal vesicle position and an oocyte maturation assay) or underwent ovarian regression. Exposure of gravid sturgeon females to ambient water temperatures (14.5 ?? 2.3??C, mean ?? S.D.) from October to March led to a decrease in plasma sex steroids and a high incidence of ovarian regression in fish with a more advanced stage of oocyte development. Transfer of females with intact ovarian follicles to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) in the fall or early spring resulted in normal ovarian development in the majority of females. Holding females in cold water does not seem to override their endogenous reproductive rhythms but extends their capacity to maintain oocyte maturational competence over a longer period of time. A temperature-sensitive phase in ovarian development may occur during the transition from vitellogenic growth to oocyte maturation, and the degree and timing of sensitivity to environmental temperature are dependent on the female's endogenous reproductive rhythm

  4. Evaluation of the quality, thermal maturity and distribution of potential source rocks in the Danish part of the Norwegian–Danish Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen, Lars

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality, thermal maturity and distribution of potential source rocks within the Palaeozoic–Mesozoic succession of the Danish part of the Norwegian–Danish Basin have been evaluated on the basis of screening data from over 4000 samples from the pre-Upper Cretaceous succession in 33 wells. The Lower Palaeozoic in the basin is overmature and the Upper Cretaceous – Cenozoic strata have no petroleum generation potential, but the Toarcian marine shales of the Lower Jurassic Fjerritslev Formation (F-III, F-IV members and the uppermost Jurassic – lowermost Cretaceous shales of the Frederikshavn Formation may qualify as potential source rocks in parts of the basin. Neither of these potential source rocks has a basinwide distribution; the present occurrence of the Lower Jurassic shales was primarily determined by regional early Middle Jurassic uplift and erosion. The generation potential of these source rocks is highly variable. The F-III and F-IV members show significant lateral changes in generation capacity, the best-developed source rocks occurring in the basin centre. The combined F-III andF-IV members in the Haldager-1, Kvols-1 and Rønde-1 wells contain ‘net source-rock’ thicknesses (cumulative thickness of intervals with Hydrogen Index (HI >200 mg HC/g TOC of 40 m, 83 m, and 92 m, respectively, displaying average HI values of 294, 369 and 404 mg HC/g TOC. The Mors-1 well contains 123 m of ‘net source rock’ with an average HI of 221 mg HC/g TOC. Parts of the Frederikshavn Formation possess a petroleum generation potential in the Hyllebjerg-1, Skagen-2, Voldum-1 and Terne-1 wells, the latter well containing a c.160 m thick highly oil-prone interval with an average HI of 478 mg HC/g TOC and maximum HI values >500 mg HC/g TOC. The source-rock evaluation suggests that a Mesozoic petroleum system is the most likely in the study area. Two primary plays are possible: (1 the Upper Triassic – lowermost Jurassic Gassum play, and (2the

  5. Reactor thermal behaviors under kinetics parameters variations in fast reactivity insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-El-Maaty, Talal [Reactors Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt)], E-mail: talal22969@yahoo.com; Abdelhady, Amr [Reactors Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt)

    2009-03-15

    The influences of variations in some of the kinetics parameters affecting the reactivity insertion are considered in this study, it has been accomplished in order to acquire knowledge about the role that kinetic parameters play in prompt critical transients from the safety point of view. The kinetics parameters variations are limited to the effective delayed neutron fraction ({beta}{sub eff}) and the prompt neutron generation time ({lambda}). The reactor thermal behaviors under the variations in effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron generation time included, the reactor power, maximum fuel temperature, maximum clad temperature, maximum coolant temperature and the mass flux variations at the hot channel. The analysis is done for a typical swimming pool, plate type research reactor with low enriched uranium. The scram system is disabled during the accidents simulations. Calculations were done using PARET code. As a result of simulations, it is concluded that, the reactor (ETRR2) thermal behavior is considerably more sensitive to the variation in the effective delayed neutron fraction than to the variation in prompt neutron generation time and the fast reactivity insertion in both cases causes a flow expansion and contraction at the hot channel exit. The amplitude of the oscillated flow is a qualitatively increases with the decrease in both {beta}{sub eff} and {lambda}.

  6. Effect on thermoluminescence parameters of biotite mineral due to thermal quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, J.M.; Wary, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL) at room temperature X-ray irradiated natural biotite in form of micro-grain powder was studied under various heating rates. TSL peaks showed at temperatures 393 K, 399.6 K, 403.5 K, 404.5 K, 406.9 K at their respective heating rates 2 K/s, 4 K/s, 6 K/s, 8 K/s and 10 K/s. The effect of thermal quenching on thermoluminescence parameters such as peak maximum temperature, peak area, FWHM, geometrical symmetry factor, the activation energy were investigated. From the symmetry factor it is clear that the TL glow curve follows the first order kinetics for the lowest heating rate, but as the heating rate increases it defers from the first order. The activation energies for each heating rates were calculated by using Chen peak shape methods for general order kinetics and found to be decreased for higher heating rates. When activation energy is calculated by variable heating rate method it is observed that the method overestimated the value of activation energy and pre-exponential frequency factor significantly due to thermal quenching. - Highlights: ► Biotite is a common mineral with chemical formula K(Mg,Fe) 3 AlSi 3 O 10 (F,OH) 2 . ► Structural, compositional and elemental analysis of biotite is carried out. ► TSL of X-ray irradiated natural biotite was studied under various heating rates. ► The effect of thermal quenching on TL parameters has been investigated.

  7. Radioimmunological determination of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in premature, mature and deficient born children as a parameter in the determination of the functional condition of the fetal adrenal cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueters, A.

    1982-01-01

    The starting point of this work was the question of a correlation between serum concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DS) and gestation age. It was shown that after the sixth day of life, a negative correlation existed between the DS concentration in the serum of neonates and their gestation age. With non-stressed neonates DS can be used as a parameter of maturity. Vaginal birth and severe illness of premature, respectively newborn children cause a massive stimulation of DS secretion through the fetal zone of the adrenal cortex. Between the DS concentrations and the prolactin levels no correlation could be proven, so that there can be no discussion of prolactin as an alternative stimulator on the fetal zone of the adrenal cortex. The DS values presented in this work for premature and mature neonates of varying gestation age can be used as reference values by pediatric endocrinologists for the evaluation of a newborn with the suspect diagnosis of an adrenogenital syndrome or an adrenal insufficiency. The DS-radioimmunoassay is a practicable method for newborns because of its simplicity, quickness, and demand for only small amounts of serum and it is sufficiently specific and provides a good statement about the functional condition of the adrenal gland of newborns. (orig.) [de

  8. SU-E-J-161: Inverse Problems for Optical Parameters in Laser Induced Thermal Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrenholtz, SJ; Stafford, RJ; Fuentes, DT

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance-guided laser-induced thermal therapy (MRgLITT) is investigated as a neurosurgical intervention for oncological applications throughout the body by active post market studies. Real-time MR temperature imaging is used to monitor ablative thermal delivery in the clinic. Additionally, brain MRgLITT could improve through effective planning for laser fiber's placement. Mathematical bioheat models have been extensively investigated but require reliable patient specific physical parameter data, e.g. optical parameters. This abstract applies an inverse problem algorithm to characterize optical parameter data obtained from previous MRgLITT interventions. Methods: The implemented inverse problem has three primary components: a parameter-space search algorithm, a physics model, and training data. First, the parameter-space search algorithm uses a gradient-based quasi-Newton method to optimize the effective optical attenuation coefficient, μ-eff. A parameter reduction reduces the amount of optical parameter-space the algorithm must search. Second, the physics model is a simplified bioheat model for homogeneous tissue where closed-form Green's functions represent the exact solution. Third, the training data was temperature imaging data from 23 MRgLITT oncological brain ablations (980 nm wavelength) from seven different patients. Results: To three significant figures, the descriptive statistics for μ-eff were 1470 m −1 mean, 1360 m −1 median, 369 m −1 standard deviation, 933 m −1 minimum and 2260 m −1 maximum. The standard deviation normalized by the mean was 25.0%. The inverse problem took <30 minutes to optimize all 23 datasets. Conclusion: As expected, the inferred average is biased by underlying physics model. However, the standard deviation normalized by the mean is smaller than literature values and indicates an increased precision in the characterization of the optical parameters needed to plan MRgLITT procedures. This investigation

  9. Verification of kinetic parameters of coupled fast-thermal core HERBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Marinkovic, P.; Milosevic, M.; Nikolic, D.; Zavaljevski, N.; Milovanovic, S.; Ljubenov, V.

    1997-03-01

    The HERBE system is a new coupled fast-thermal core constructed in 1989 at the RB critical heavy water assembly at the VINCA Institute. It was designed with the aim to improve experimental possibilities in fast neutron fields and for experimental verification of reactor design-oriented methods. This paper overviews experiments for kinetic parameters verification carried out at HERBE system. Their short description and comparison of experimental and calculation results are included. A brief introduction to the computer codes used in the calculations is presented too. (author)

  10. Determination of kinetic parameters during the thermal decomposition of epoxy/carbon fiber composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hun; Kim, Kwang Seok; Kim, Hyo

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth study to determine the thermal decomposition kinetics parameters such as the activation energy E_a, the reaction order n, and the pre-exponential factor A of epoxy/carbon fiber composite material has been conducted. We employ not only the modified peak property method that is proposed here, but also the conventional method in analyzing the experimental data, and compare the results to show the performance of the proposed model. The pyrolysis tests for the epoxy/carbon fiber composite materials are conducted by using thermogravimetric analyser at various heating rates. As a result, the best prediction to the experimental data can be obtained by the modified peak property method. Besides, among the methods applied here, the modified peak property method provides most convenient way to recover the parameters: it does not require a curve fitting of the data nor a long iterative computation

  11. Emission parameters and thermal management of single high-power 980-nm laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezotosnyi, V V; Krokhin, O N; Oleshchenko, V A; Pevtsov, V F; Popov, Yu M; Cheshev, E A

    2014-01-01

    We report emission parameters of high-power cw 980-nm laser diodes (LDs) with a stripe contact width of 100 μm. On copper heat sinks of the C-mount type, a reliable output power of 10 W is obtained at a pump current of 10 A. Using a heat flow model derived from analysis of calculated and measured overall efficiencies at pump currents up to 20 A, we examine the possibility of raising the reliable power limit of a modified high-power LD mounted on heat sinks of the F-mount type using submounts with optimised geometric parameters and high thermal conductivity. The possibility of increasing the maximum reliable cw output power to 20 W with the use of similar laser crystals is discussed. (lasers)

  12. Laser ablation characteristics of metallic materials: Role of Debye-Waller thermal parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a solid target results in the formation of a crater and a plasma plume. The characteristics of both depend on physical properties of target material, environmental conditions, and laser parameters (e.g. wavelength, pulse duration, energy, beam diameter) etc. It has been shown for numerous metals and their alloys that plasma threshold fluence, plasma threshold energy, ablation efficiency, ablation yield, angular distribution of laser produced plasma (LPP) ions, etc. are a unique function of the Debye-Waller thermal parameter B or the mean-square amplitude of atomic vibration of the target material for given experimental conditions. The FWHM of the angular distribution of LPP ions, ablation yield, and ablation efficiency increase whereas plasma threshold fluence and plasma threshold energy decrease as B-factor of the target material increases

  13. Thermal expansion and lattice parameters of shaped metal deposited Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swarnakar, Akhilesh Kumar; Van der Biest, Omer [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, MTM, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Baufeld, Bernd, E-mail: b.baufeld@sheffield.ac.uk [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, MTM, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2011-02-10

    Research highlights: > Measurement of thermal expansion and of the lattice parameters of Ti-6Al-4V fabricated by shaped metal deposition up to 1100 {sup o}C. > The observation of alpha to beta transformation not reflected in the expansion but in the contraction curve is explained by non-equilibrium alpha phase of the SMD material. > Denuding of the {alpha} phase and enrichment of the {beta} phase of Vanadium due to high temperature experiments. > The unit cell volumes derived from lattice parameters measured by X-ray diffraction are at room temperature larger for the {alpha} than for the {beta} phase. With increasing temperature the unit cell volume of the {beta} phase increases stronger than the one of the {alpha} phase resulting in a similar unit cell volume at the {beta} transus temperature. - Abstract: Thermal expansion and lattice parameters are investigated up to 1100 deg. C for Ti-6Al-4V components, fabricated by shaped metal deposition. This is a novel additive layer manufacturing technique where near net-shape components are built by tungsten inert gas welding. The as-fabricated SMD Ti-6Al-4V components exhibit a constant coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.17 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1} during heating up to 1100 {sup o}C, not reflecting the {alpha} to {beta} phase transformation. During cooling a stalling of the contraction is observed starting at the {beta} transus temperature. These high temperature experiments denude the {alpha} phase of V and enrich the {beta} phase. The development of the lattice parameters in dependence on temperature are observed with high temperature X-ray diffraction. The unit cell volumes derived from these parameters are at room temperature larger for the {alpha} than for the {beta} phase. With increasing temperature the unit cell volume of the {beta} phase increases stronger than the one of the {alpha} phase resulting in a similar unit cell volume at the {beta} transus temperature. These observations are interpreted as an

  14. Estimations of Kappa parameter using quasi-thermal noise spectroscopy: Applications on Wind spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinović, M.

    2017-12-01

    Quasi-thermal noise (QTN) spectroscopy is an accurate technique for in situ measurements of electron density and temperature in space plasmas. The QTN spectrum has a characteristic noise peak just above the plasma frequency produced by electron quasi-thermal fluctuations, which allows a very accurate measurement of the electron density. The size and shape of the peak are determined by suprathermal electrons. Since this nonthermal electron population is well described by a generalized Lorentzian - Kappa velocity distribution, it is possible to determinate the distribution properties in the solar wind from a measured spectrum. In this work, we discuss some basic properties of the QTN spectrum dependence of the Kappa distribution parameters - total electron density, temperature and the Kappa index, giving an overview on how instrument characteristics and environment conditions affect quality of the measurements. Further on, we aim to apply the method to Wind Thermal Noise Receiver (TNR) measurements. However, the spectra observed by this instrument usually contain contributions from nonthermal phenomena, like ion acoustic waves below, or galactic noise above the plasma frequency. This is why, besides comparison of the theory with observations, work with Wind data requires development of a sophisticated algorithm that distinguish parts of the spectra that are dominated by the QTN, and therefore can be used in our study. Postulates of this algorithm, as well as major results of its implementation, are also presented.

  15. Determination of Kinetic Parameters for the Thermal Decomposition of Parthenium hysterophorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic study of pyrolysis process of Parthenium hysterophorous is carried out by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA equipment. The present study investigates the thermal degradation and determination of the kinetic parameters such as activation E and the frequency factor A using model-free methods given by Flynn Wall and Ozawa (FWO, Kissinger-Akahira-Sonuse (KAS and Kissinger, and model-fitting (Coats Redfern. The results derived from thermal decomposition process demarcate decomposition of Parthenium hysterophorous among the three main stages, such as dehydration, active and passive pyrolysis. It is shown through DTG thermograms that the increase in the heating rate caused temperature peaks at maximum weight loss rate to shift towards higher temperature regime. The results are compared with Coats Redfern (Integral method and experimental results have shown that values of kinetic parameters obtained from model-free methods are in good agreement. Whereas the results obtained through Coats Redfern model at different heating rates are not promising, however, the diffusion models provided the good fitting with the experimental data.

  16. Centrifugal compressor fault diagnosis based on qualitative simulation and thermal parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunsong; Wang, Fuli; Jia, Mingxing; Qi, Yuanchen

    2016-12-01

    This paper concerns fault diagnosis of centrifugal compressor based on thermal parameters. An improved qualitative simulation (QSIM) based fault diagnosis method is proposed to diagnose the faults of centrifugal compressor in a gas-steam combined-cycle power plant (CCPP). The qualitative models under normal and two faulty conditions have been built through the analysis of the principle of centrifugal compressor. To solve the problem of qualitative description of the observations of system variables, a qualitative trend extraction algorithm is applied to extract the trends of the observations. For qualitative states matching, a sliding window based matching strategy which consists of variables operating ranges constraints and qualitative constraints is proposed. The matching results are used to determine which QSIM model is more consistent with the running state of system. The correct diagnosis of two typical faults: seal leakage and valve stuck in the centrifugal compressor has validated the targeted performance of the proposed method, showing the advantages of fault roots containing in thermal parameters.

  17. Sensitivity analysis of efficiency thermal energy storage on selected rock mass and grout parameters using design of experiment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wołoszyn, Jerzy; Gołaś, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Paper propose a new methodology to sensitivity study of underground thermal storage. • Using MDF model and DOE technique significantly shorter of calculations time. • Calculation of one time step was equal to approximately 57 s. • Sensitivity study cover five thermo-physical parameters. • Conductivity of rock mass and grout material have a significant impact on efficiency. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of selected parameters on the efficiency of underground thermal energy storage. In this paper, besides thermal conductivity, the effect of such parameters as specific heat, density of the rock mass, thermal conductivity and specific heat of grout material was investigated. Implementation of this objective requires the use of an efficient computational method. The aim of the research was achieved by using a new numerical model, Multi Degree of Freedom (MDF), as developed by the authors and Design of Experiment (DoE) techniques with a response surface. The presented methodology can significantly reduce the time that is needed for research and to determine the effect of various parameters on the efficiency of underground thermal energy storage. Preliminary results of the research confirmed that thermal conductivity of the rock mass has the greatest impact on the efficiency of underground thermal energy storage, and that other parameters also play quite significant role

  18. Parameters measurement for the thermal neutron beam in the thermal column hole of Xi’an pulse reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of the neutron spectra in the thermal column hole of Xi’an pulse reactor was measured with the time-of-flight method.Compared with the thermal Maxwellian theory neutron spectra,the thermal neutron spectra measured is a little softer,and the average neutron energy of the experimental spectra is about 0.042±0.01 eV.The thermal neutron fluence rate at the front end of thermal column hole,measured with gold foil activation techniques,is about 1.18×105 cm-2 s-1.The standard uncertainty of the measured thermal neutron fluence is about 3%.The spectra-averaged cross section of 197Au(n,γ) determined by the experimental thermal neutron spectra is(92.8±0.93) ×10-24 cm2.

  19. Thermal-maturity limit for primary thermogenic-gas generation from humic coals as determined by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, Michael; Kotarba, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrous-pyrolysis experiments at 360°C (680°F) for 72 h were conducted on 53 humic coals representing ranks from lignite through anthracite to determine the upper maturity limit for hydrocarbon-gas generation from their kerogen and associated bitumen (i.e., primary gas generation). These experimental conditions are below those needed for oil cracking to ensure that generated gas was not derived from the decomposition of expelled oil generated from some of the coals (i.e., secondary gas generation). Experimental results showed that generation of hydrocarbon gas ends before a vitrinite reflectance of 2.0%. This reflectance is equivalent to Rock-Eval maximum-yield temperature and hydrogen indices (HIs) of 555°C (1031°F) and 35 mg/g total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. At these maturity levels, essentially no soluble bitumen is present in the coals before or after hydrous pyrolysis. The equivalent kerogen atomic H/C ratio is 0.50 at the primary gas-generation limit and indicates that no alkyl moieties are remaining to source hydrocarbon gases. The convergence of atomic H/C ratios of type-II and -I kerogen to this same value at a reflectance of indicates that the primary gas-generation limits for humic coal and type-III kerogen also apply to oil-prone kerogen. Although gas generation from source rocks does not exceed vitrinite reflectance values greater than , trapped hydrocarbon gases can remain stable at higher reflectance values. Distinguishing trapped gas from generated gas in hydrous-pyrolysis experiments is readily determined by of the hydrocarbon gases when a -depleted water is used in the experiments. Water serves as a source of hydrogen in hydrous pyrolysis and, as a result, the use of -depleted water is reflected in the generated gases but not pre-existing trapped gases.

  20. Effect of concentration of dispersed organic matter on optical maturity parameters. Interlaboratory results of the organic matter concentration working group of the ICCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca Filho, J.G.; Kern, M.L.; Mendonca, J.O. [Palynofacies and Organic Facies Laboratory (LAFO), DEGL, IGEO, UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Araujo, C.V.; Menezes, T.R.; Souza, I.V.A.F. [Petrobras R and D Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Borrego, A.G.; Suarez-Ruiz, I. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain); Cook, A.; Ranasinghe, P. [Keiraville Konsultants Pty. Ltd, NSW (Australia); Flores, D. [University of Porto, Departamento de Geologia (Portugal); Hackley, P. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956 National Center Reston, VA (United States); Hower, J.C. [University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington (United States); Kommeren, K. [Shell International Exploration and Production, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Kus, J. [Germany Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources in Geozentrum, Hannover (Germany); Mastalerz, M. [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States); Newman, J. [Newman Energy Research Ltd, Christchurch (New Zealand); Ujiie, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University (Japan)

    2010-12-01

    The main objective of this work was to study the effect of the kerogen isolation procedures on maturity parameters of organic matter using optical microscopes. This work represents the results of the Organic Matter Concentration Working Group (OMCWG) of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) during the years 2008 and 2009. Four samples have been analysed covering a range of maturity (low and moderate) and terrestrial and marine geological settings. The analyses comprise random vitrinite reflectance measured on both kerogen concentrate and whole rock mounts and fluorescence spectra taken on alginite. Eighteen participants from twelve laboratories from all over the world performed the analyses. Samples of continental settings contained enough vitrinite for participants to record around 50 measurements whereas fewer readings were taken on samples from marine setting. The scatter of results was also larger in the samples of marine origin. Similar vitrinite reflectance values were in general recorded in the whole rock and in the kerogen concentrate. The small deviations of the trend cannot be attributed to the acid treatment involved in kerogen isolation but to reasons related to components identification or to the difficulty to achieve a good polish of samples with high mineral matter content. In samples difficult to polish, vitrinite reflectance was measured on whole rock tended to be lower. The presence or absence of rock fabric affected the selection of the vitrinite population for measurement and this also had an influence in the average value reported and in the scatter of the results. Slightly lower standard deviations were reported for the analyses run on kerogen concentrates. Considering the spectral fluorescence results, it was observed that the {lambda}max presents a shift to higher wavelengths in the kerogen concentrate sample in comparison to the whole-rock sample, thus revealing an influence of preparation methods (acid treatment

  1. Validating carbonation parameters of alkaline solid wastes via integrated thermal analyses: Principles and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10673, Taiwan (China); Chang, E.-E. [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Kim, Hyunook [Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Chen, Yi-Hung [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Pen-Chi, E-mail: pcchiang@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10673, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Key carbonation parameters of wastes are determined by integrated thermal analyses. • A modified TG-DTG interpretation is proposed, and validated by the DSC technique. • The modified TG-DTG interpretation is further verified by DTA, TG-MS and TG-FTIR. • Kinetics and thermodynamics of CaCO{sub 3} decomposition in solid wastes are determined. • Implication to maximum carbonation conversion of various solid wastes is described. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline solid wastes is an attractive method for CO{sub 2} capture and utilization. However, the evaluation criteria of CaCO{sub 3} content in solid wastes and the way to interpret thermal analysis profiles were found to be quite different among the literature. In this investigation, an integrated thermal analyses for determining carbonation parameters in basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) were proposed based on thermogravimetric (TG), derivative thermogravimetric (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. A modified method of TG-DTG interpretation was proposed by considering the consecutive weight loss of sample with 200–900 °C because the decomposition of various hydrated compounds caused variances in estimates by using conventional methods of TG interpretation. Different quantities of reference CaCO{sub 3} standards, carbonated BOFS samples and synthetic CaCO{sub 3}/BOFS mixtures were prepared for evaluating the data quality of the modified TG-DTG interpretation, in terms of precision and accuracy. The quantitative results of the modified TG-DTG method were also validated by DSC analysis. In addition, to confirm the TG-DTG results, the evolved gas analysis was performed by mass spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for detection of the gaseous compounds released during heating. Furthermore, the decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics of CaCO{sub 3} in BOFS was evaluated using Arrhenius equation and Kissinger equation. The proposed

  2. Validating carbonation parameters of alkaline solid wastes via integrated thermal analyses: Principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chang, E.-E.; Kim, Hyunook; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Key carbonation parameters of wastes are determined by integrated thermal analyses. • A modified TG-DTG interpretation is proposed, and validated by the DSC technique. • The modified TG-DTG interpretation is further verified by DTA, TG-MS and TG-FTIR. • Kinetics and thermodynamics of CaCO 3 decomposition in solid wastes are determined. • Implication to maximum carbonation conversion of various solid wastes is described. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline solid wastes is an attractive method for CO 2 capture and utilization. However, the evaluation criteria of CaCO 3 content in solid wastes and the way to interpret thermal analysis profiles were found to be quite different among the literature. In this investigation, an integrated thermal analyses for determining carbonation parameters in basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) were proposed based on thermogravimetric (TG), derivative thermogravimetric (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. A modified method of TG-DTG interpretation was proposed by considering the consecutive weight loss of sample with 200–900 °C because the decomposition of various hydrated compounds caused variances in estimates by using conventional methods of TG interpretation. Different quantities of reference CaCO 3 standards, carbonated BOFS samples and synthetic CaCO 3 /BOFS mixtures were prepared for evaluating the data quality of the modified TG-DTG interpretation, in terms of precision and accuracy. The quantitative results of the modified TG-DTG method were also validated by DSC analysis. In addition, to confirm the TG-DTG results, the evolved gas analysis was performed by mass spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for detection of the gaseous compounds released during heating. Furthermore, the decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics of CaCO 3 in BOFS was evaluated using Arrhenius equation and Kissinger equation. The proposed integrated thermal analyses for

  3. On some mechanisms of the effect of thermal prehistory on the behavior of silicon parameters under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejmash, V.B.; Sagan, T.R.; Tsmots', V.M.; Shakhovtsov, V.I.; Shindich, V.L.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of preliminary thermal treatment (TT) in 400-1200 degC temperature range on the behavior of Si monocrystal parameters under subsequent γ-, electron and neutron irradiation is investigated. Five mechanisms of Si thermal prehistory effect on its properties are proposed: 1) decomposition of solid solutions of impurities interacting with radiation defects (RD); 2) formation of electrically active thermal defects (TD) in concentrations wich are sufficient for a significant alteration of RD charged state; 3) origination of TD, which can efficiency as aresult of the redistribution of impurities under thermal treatment; 5) formation of clusters of electrically active TD, resulting in the disturbance of electric homogeneity of Si crystal

  4. Parameters of Models of Structural Transformations in Alloy Steel Under Welding Thermal Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkin, A. S.; Makarov, E. L.; Kurkin, A. B.; Rubtsov, D. E.; Rubtsov, M. E.

    2017-05-01

    A mathematical model of structural transformations in an alloy steel under the thermal cycle of multipass welding is suggested for computer implementation. The minimum necessary set of parameters for describing the transformations under heating and cooling is determined. Ferritic-pearlitic, bainitic and martensitic transformations under cooling of a steel are considered. A method for deriving the necessary temperature and time parameters of the model from the chemical composition of the steel is described. Published data are used to derive regression models of the temperature ranges and parameters of transformation kinetics in alloy steels. It is shown that the disadvantages of the active visual methods of analysis of the final phase composition of steels are responsible for inaccuracy and mismatch of published data. The hardness of a specimen, which correlates with some other mechanical properties of the material, is chosen as the most objective and reproducible criterion of the final phase composition. The models developed are checked by a comparative analysis of computational results and experimental data on the hardness of 140 alloy steels after cooling at various rates.

  5. Stochastic estimation approach for the evaluation of thermal-hydraulic parameters in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, D.J.; Upadhyaya, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    A method based on the extended Kalman filter is developed for the estimation of the core coolant mass flow rate in pressurized water reactors. The need for flow calibration can be avoided by a direct estimation of this parameter. A reduced-order neutronic and thermal-hydraulic model is developed for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor. The neutron detector and core-exit coolant temperature signals from the LOFT reactor are used as measurements in the parameter estimation algorithm. The estimation sensitivity to model uncertainties was evaluated using the ambiguity function analysis. This also provides a lower bound on the measurement sample size necessary to achieve a certain estimation accuracy. A sequential technique was developed to minimize the computational effort needed to discretize the continuous time equations, and thus achieve faster convergence to the true parameter value. The performance of the stochastic approximation method was first evaluated using simulated random data, and then applied to the estimation of coolant flow rate using the operational data from the LOFT reactor at 100 and 65% flow rate conditions

  6. Validating carbonation parameters of alkaline solid wastes via integrated thermal analyses: Principles and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chang, E-E; Kim, Hyunook; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2016-04-15

    Accelerated carbonation of alkaline solid wastes is an attractive method for CO2 capture and utilization. However, the evaluation criteria of CaCO3 content in solid wastes and the way to interpret thermal analysis profiles were found to be quite different among the literature. In this investigation, an integrated thermal analyses for determining carbonation parameters in basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) were proposed based on thermogravimetric (TG), derivative thermogravimetric (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. A modified method of TG-DTG interpretation was proposed by considering the consecutive weight loss of sample with 200-900°C because the decomposition of various hydrated compounds caused variances in estimates by using conventional methods of TG interpretation. Different quantities of reference CaCO3 standards, carbonated BOFS samples and synthetic CaCO3/BOFS mixtures were prepared for evaluating the data quality of the modified TG-DTG interpretation, in terms of precision and accuracy. The quantitative results of the modified TG-DTG method were also validated by DSC analysis. In addition, to confirm the TG-DTG results, the evolved gas analysis was performed by mass spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for detection of the gaseous compounds released during heating. Furthermore, the decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics of CaCO3 in BOFS was evaluated using Arrhenius equation and Kissinger equation. The proposed integrated thermal analyses for determining CaCO3 content in alkaline wastes was precise and accurate, thereby enabling to effectively assess the CO2 capture capacity of alkaline wastes for mineral carbonation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fundamental approaches for analysis thermal hydraulic parameter for Puspati Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, Zaredah; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Farid, Mohamad Fairus Abdul; Kassim, Mohammad Suhaimi; Azhar, Noraishah Syahirah

    2016-01-01

    The 1-MW PUSPATI Research Reactor (RTP) is the one and only nuclear pool type research reactor developed by General Atomic (GA) in Malaysia. It was installed at Malaysian Nuclear Agency and has reached the first criticality on 8 June 1982. Based on the initial core which comprised of 80 standard TRIGA fuel elements, the very fundamental thermal hydraulic model was investigated during steady state operation using the PARET-code. The main objective of this paper is to determine the variation of temperature profiles and Departure of Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) of RTP at full power operation. The second objective is to confirm that the values obtained from PARET-code are in agreement with Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for RTP. The code was employed for the hot and average channels in the core in order to calculate of fuel’s center and surface, cladding, coolant temperatures as well as DNBR’s values. In this study, it was found that the results obtained from the PARET-code showed that the thermal hydraulic parameters related to safety for initial core which was cooled by natural convection was in agreement with the designed values and safety limit in SAR

  8. Fundamental approaches for analysis thermal hydraulic parameter for Puspati Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Zaredah; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Farid, Mohamad Fairus Abdul; Kassim, Mohammad Suhaimi; Azhar, Noraishah Syahirah

    2016-01-01

    The 1-MW PUSPATI Research Reactor (RTP) is the one and only nuclear pool type research reactor developed by General Atomic (GA) in Malaysia. It was installed at Malaysian Nuclear Agency and has reached the first criticality on 8 June 1982. Based on the initial core which comprised of 80 standard TRIGA fuel elements, the very fundamental thermal hydraulic model was investigated during steady state operation using the PARET-code. The main objective of this paper is to determine the variation of temperature profiles and Departure of Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) of RTP at full power operation. The second objective is to confirm that the values obtained from PARET-code are in agreement with Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for RTP. The code was employed for the hot and average channels in the core in order to calculate of fuel's center and surface, cladding, coolant temperatures as well as DNBR's values. In this study, it was found that the results obtained from the PARET-code showed that the thermal hydraulic parameters related to safety for initial core which was cooled by natural convection was in agreement with the designed values and safety limit in SAR.

  9. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic assessment of fast reactor cooling by water of super critical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranaev, Yu. D.; Glebov, A. P.; Ukraintsev, V. F.; Kolesov, V. V.

    2007-01-01

    Necessity of essential improvement of competitiveness for reactors on light water determines development of new generation power reactors on water of super critical parameters. The main objective of these projects is reaching of high efficiency coefficients while decreasing of investment to NPP and simplification of thermal scheme and high safety level. International programme of IV generation in which super critical reactors present is already started. In the frame of this concept specific Super Critical Fast Reactor with tight lattice of pitch is developing by collaboration of the FEI and IATE. In present article neutronic and thermal hydraulic assessment of fast reactor with plutonium MOX fuel and a core with a double-path of super critical water cooling is presented (SCFR-2X). The scheme of double path of coolant via the core in which the core is divided by radius on central and periphery parts with approximately equal number of fuel assemblies is suggested. Periferia part is cooling while down coming coolant movement. At the down part of core into the mix chamber flows from the periphery assemblies joining and come to the inlet of the central part which is cooling by upcoming flow. Eight zone of different content of MOX fuel are used (4 in down coming and 4 in upcoming) sub zones. Calculation of fuel burn-up and approximate scheme of refueling is evaluated. Calculation results are presented and discussed

  10. Investigation of thermodynamic parameters in the thermal decomposition of plastic waste-waste lube oil compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Sang; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2010-07-01

    Thermal decomposition properties of plastic waste-waste lube oil compounds were investigated under nonisothermal conditions. Polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were selected as representative household plastic wastes. A plastic waste mixture (PWM) and waste lube oil (WLO) were mixed with mixing ratios of 33, 50, and 67 (w/w) % on a PWM weight basis, and thermogravimetric (TG) experiments were performed from 25 to 600 degrees C. The Flynn-Wall method and the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall method were used for analyses of thermodynamic parameters. In this study, activation energies of PWM/WLO compounds ranged from 73.4 to 229.6 kJ/mol between 0.2 and 0.8 of normalized mass conversions, and the 50% PWM/WLO compound had lower activation energies and enthalpies among the PWM/WLO samples at each mass conversion. At the point of maximum differential mass conversion, the analyzed activation energies, enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs free energies indicated that mixing PWM and WLO has advantages in reducing energy to decrease the degree of disorder. However, no difference in overall energy that would require overcoming both thermal decomposition reactions and degree of disorder was observed among PWM/WLO compounds under these experimental conditions.

  11. Fundamental approaches for analysis thermal hydraulic parameter for Puspati Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Zaredah, E-mail: zaredah@nm.gov.my; Lanyau, Tonny Anak, E-mail: tonny@nm.gov.my; Farid, Mohamad Fairus Abdul; Kassim, Mohammad Suhaimi [Reactor Technology Centre, Technical Support Division, Malaysia Nuclear Agency, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Bangi, 43000, Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Azhar, Noraishah Syahirah [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 80350, Johor Bahru, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The 1-MW PUSPATI Research Reactor (RTP) is the one and only nuclear pool type research reactor developed by General Atomic (GA) in Malaysia. It was installed at Malaysian Nuclear Agency and has reached the first criticality on 8 June 1982. Based on the initial core which comprised of 80 standard TRIGA fuel elements, the very fundamental thermal hydraulic model was investigated during steady state operation using the PARET-code. The main objective of this paper is to determine the variation of temperature profiles and Departure of Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) of RTP at full power operation. The second objective is to confirm that the values obtained from PARET-code are in agreement with Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for RTP. The code was employed for the hot and average channels in the core in order to calculate of fuel’s center and surface, cladding, coolant temperatures as well as DNBR’s values. In this study, it was found that the results obtained from the PARET-code showed that the thermal hydraulic parameters related to safety for initial core which was cooled by natural convection was in agreement with the designed values and safety limit in SAR.

  12. DEVICE FOR MEASURING OF THERMAL LENS PARAMETERS IN LASER ACTIVE ELEMENTS WITH A PROBE BEAM METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zakharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a device for measuring of parameters of thermal lens (TL in laser active elements under longitudinal diode pumping. The measurements are based on the probe beam method. This device allows one to determine sign and optical power of the lens in the principal meridional planes, its sensitivity factor with respect to the absorbed pump power and astigmatism degree, fractional heat loading which make it possible to estimate integral impact of the photoelastic effect to the formation of TL in the laser element. The measurements are performed in a linearly polarized light at the wavelength of 532 nm. Pumping of the laser element is performed at 960 nm that makes it possible to study laser materials doped with Yb3+ and (Er3+, Yb3+ ions. The precision of measurements: for sensitivity factor of TL – 0,1 m-1/W, for astigmatism degree – 0,2 m-1/W, for fractional heat loading – 5 %, for the impact of the photoelastic effect – 0,5 × 10-6 K-1. This device is used for characterization of thermal lens in the laser active element from an yttrium vanadate crystal, Er3+,Yb3+:YVO .

  13. Parameter optimization of thermal-model-oriented control law for PEM fuel cell stack via novel genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xi; Deng Zhonghua; Wei Dong; Xu Chunshan; Cao Guangyi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: →We build up the thermal expressions of PEMFC stack. → The expressions are converted into the affine state space control-oriented model for the VSC strategy. → The NGA is developed to optimize the parameter of thermal-model-oriented control law. → Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness and rationality of the method proposed. - Abstract: It is critical to understand and manage the thermal effects in optimizing the performance and durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack. And building up the control-oriented thermal model of PEMFC stack is necessary. The thermal model, a set of differential equations, is established according to the conservation equations of mass and energy, which can be used to reflect truly the actual temperature response of PEMFC stack, however, the expressions of the model are too complicated to be used in the design of control. For this reason, the expressions are converted into the affine state space control-oriented model in detail for the variable structure control (VSC) strategy. Meanwhile, the accurate model must be established for the VSC and the parameters of VSC laws should be optimized. Consequently, a novel genetic algorithm (NGA) is developed to optimize the parameter of thermal-model-oriented control law for PEMFC stack. Finally, numerical test results demonstrate the effectiveness and rationality of the method proposed in this paper. It lays the foundation for the realization of online thermal management of PEMFC stack based on VSC.

  14. Multi-parameter fibre Bragg grating sensor-array for thermal vacuum cycling test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Ahlers, B.; Toet, P.; Casarosa, G.; Appolloni, M.

    2017-11-01

    Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor systems based on optical fibres are gaining interest in space applications. Studies on Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of the reusable launchers using FBG sensors have been carried out in the Future European Space Transportation Investigations Programme (FESTIP). Increasing investment in the development on FBG sensor applications is foreseen for the Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP). TNO has performed different SHM measurements with FBGs including on the VEGA interstage [1, 2] in 2006. Within the current project, a multi-parameter FBG sensor array demonstrator system for temperature and strain measurements is designed, fabricated and tested under ambient as well as Thermal Vacuum (TV) conditions in a TV chamber of the European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC site. The aim is the development of a multi-parameters measuring system based on FBG technology for space applications. During the TV tests of a Space Craft (S/C) or its subsystems, thermal measurements, as well as strain measurements are needed by the engineers in order to verify their prediction and to validate their models. Because of the dimensions of the test specimen and the accuracy requested to the measurement, a large number of observation/measuring points are needed. Conventional sensor systems require a complex routing of the cables connecting the sensors to their acquisition unit. This will add extra weight to the construction under test. FBG sensors are potentially light-weight and can easily be multiplexed in an array configuration. The different tasks comply of a demonstrator system design; its component selection, procurement, manufacturing and finally its assembly. The temperature FBG sensor is calibrated in a dedicated laboratory setup down to liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature at TNO. A temperature-wavelength calibration curve is generated. After a test programme definition a setup in thermal vacuum is realised at ESA premises including a mechanical

  15. Training and two-way shape memory in NiTi alloys: influence on thermal parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahoz, R.; Puertolas, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) was studied in a near equiatomic commercial alloy. A training procedure based on a constant load applied in the temperature range of the parent → martensite transformation was carried out on NiTi wires. The efficiency of the method was determined from deformation-temperature measurements by MTA at different training stress and number of cycles. A maximum of two shape memory strain was obtained for a stress training of 115 MPa, independently of number of training cycles. A correlation was established between the TWSME arisen and the permanent strain generated during the training. The A s and A f transitions present a positive shift and the M s and M f a negative one with increasing training stress. All the transitions temperatures decrease with the training cycling. In the trained material, the P→M and M→P temperatures and the latent heat of these conversions undergoes a strong decrease with increasing training stress, with a strong asymmetry between the forward and the reversed transitions. The changes of these thermal parameters as a function of the training parameters were studied on a thermodynamic frame

  16. Ground-based infrared surveys: imaging the thermal fields at volcanoes and revealing the controlling parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Michele; Walter, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Temperature monitoring is a widespread procedure in the frame of volcano hazard monitoring. Indeed temperature changes are expected to reflect changes in volcanic activity. We propose a new approach, within the thermal monitoring, which is meant to shed light on the parameters controlling the fluid pathways and the fumarole sites by using infrared measurements. Ground-based infrared cameras allow one to remotely image the spatial distribution, geometric pattern and amplitude of fumarole fields on volcanoes at metre to centimetre resolution. Infrared mosaics and time series are generated and interpreted, by integrating geological field observations and modeling, to define the setting of the volcanic degassing system at shallow level. We present results for different volcano morphologies and show that lithology, structures and topography control the appearance of fumarole field by the creation of permeability contrasts. We also show that the relative importance of those parameters is site-dependent. Deciphering the setting of the degassing system is essential for hazard assessment studies because it would improve our understanding on how the system responds to endogenous or exogenous modification.

  17. Red Wine Age Estimation by the Alteration of Its Color Parameters: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy as a Tool to Monitor Wine Maturation Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalekou, M; Pappas, C; Kotseridis, Y; Tarantilis, P A; Kontaxakis, E; Kallithraka, S

    2017-01-01

    Color, phenolic content, and chemical age values of red wines made from Cretan grape varieties (Kotsifali, Mandilari) were evaluated over nine months of maturation in different containers for two vintages. The wines differed greatly on their anthocyanin profiles. Mid-IR spectra were also recorded with the use of a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer in ZnSe disk mode. Analysis of Variance was used to explore the parameter's dependency on time. Determination models were developed for the chemical age indexes using Partial Least Squares (PLS) (TQ Analyst software) considering the spectral region 1830-1500 cm -1 . The correlation coefficients ( r ) for chemical age index i were 0.86 for Kotsifali (Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC) = 0.067, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction (RMSEP) = 0,115, and Root Mean Square Error of Validation (RMSECV) = 0.164) and 0.90 for Mandilari (RMSEC = 0.050, RMSEP = 0.040, and RMSECV = 0.089). For chemical age index ii the correlation coefficients ( r ) were 0.86 and 0.97 for Kotsifali (RMSEC 0.044, RMSEP = 0.087, and RMSECV = 0.214) and Mandilari (RMSEC = 0.024, RMSEP = 0.033, and RMSECV = 0.078), respectively. The proposed method is simpler, less time consuming, and more economical and does not require chemical reagents.

  18. Exploring the relationship between structurally defined geometrical parameters of reinforced concrete beams and the thermal comfort on indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Daniel Sang-Hoon; Naboni, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    mass effect (and the implication on thermal comfort) and the given geometrical parameters of exposed soffit reinforced concrete beams are explored. The geometrical parameters of the beams are initially defined in means of structural optimisation. The beams consist of flange and web in likeness of T...... the resultant heat exchange behaviour, and the implication on thermal comfort indoor environment. However, the current paper presents the thermal mass characteristics of one geometrical type. The study is based on results derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, where Rhino 3D is used......The paper presents a research exploring the thermal mass effect of reinforced concrete beams with structurally optimised geometrical forms. Fully exposed concrete soffits in architectural contexts create more than just visual impacts on the indoor climate through their possible interferences...

  19. The determination of kinetic parameters of LiF : Mg,Ti from thermal decaying curves of optical absorption bands

    CERN Document Server

    Yazici, A N

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the thermal bleaching curves (TBCs) of specific optical absorption bands of LiF : Mg,Ti were measured as a function of temperature. The TBCs obtained were analysed to extract the kinetic parameters (the thermal activation energy (E) and the frequency factor (s)) of some TL glow peaks of LiF : Mg,Ti on the basis of the developed first-order kinetic model over a specified temperature region.

  20. Modeling and Simulation of the Thermal Runaway Behavior of Cylindrical Li-Ion Cells—Computing of Critical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Melcher

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of Li-ion cells is an important safety issue and has to be known under varying thermal conditions. The main objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the temperature increase within the cell considering different heat sources under specified working conditions. With respect to the governing physical parameters, the major aim is to find out under which thermal conditions a so called Thermal Runaway occurs. Therefore, a mathematical electrochemical-thermal model based on the Newman model has been extended with a simple combustion model from reaction kinetics including various types of heat sources assumed to be based on an Arrhenius law. This model was realized in COMSOL Multiphysics modeling software. First simulations were performed for a cylindrical 18650 cell with a L i C o O 2 -cathode to calculate the temperature increase under two simple electric load profiles and to compute critical system parameters. It has been found that the critical cell temperature T crit , above which a thermal runaway may occur is approximately 400 K , which is near the starting temperature of the decomposition of the Solid-Electrolyte-Interface in the anode at 393 . 15 K . Furthermore, it has been found that a thermal runaway can be described in three main stages.

  1. Influence of the solid-gas interface on the effective thermal parameters of a two-layer structure in photoacoustic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, N Munoz; Perez, L MartInez; Garibay-Febles, V; Lozada-Cassou, M

    2004-01-01

    From the theoretical point of view, the influence of the solid-gas interface on the effective thermal parameters in a two-layer structure of the photoacoustic technique is discussed. It is shown that the effective thermal parameters depend strongly upon the thermal resistance value associated with the solid-gas interface. New expressions for the effective thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity in the low frequency limit are obtained. In the high frequency limit, the 'resonant' behaviour of the effective thermal diffusivity is maintained and a new complex dependence on frequency of the effective thermal conductivity is shown

  2. Sensitivity of reactor integral parameters to #betta##betta# parameter of resolved resonances of fertile isotopes and to the α values, in thermal and epithermal spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, D.E.G.

    1982-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of reactor integral parameter to more 10% variation in the resolved resonance parameters #betta##betta# of the fertile isotope and the variations of more 10% in the α values (#betta# sub(#betta#)/#betta# sub(f)) of fissile isotopes of PWR fuel elements, is done. The analysis is made with thermal and epithermal spectra, those last generated in a fuel cell with low V sub(M)/V sub(F). The HAMMER system, the interface programs HELP and LITHE and the HAMMER computer codes, were used as a base for this study. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Study of thermal and electrical parameters of workpieces during spray coating by electrolytic plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khafizov, A A; Shakirov, Yu I; Valiev, R A; Valiev, R I; Khafizova, G M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the results are presented of thermal and electrical parameters of products in the system bottom layer - intermediate layer when applying protective coatings of ferromagnetic powder by plasma spray produced in an electric discharge with a liquid cathode, on steel samples. Temperature distribution and gradients in coating and intermediate coating were examined. Detailed descriptions of spray coating with ferromagnetic powder by plasma jet obtained in electrical discharge with liquid cathode and the apparatus for obtaining thereof is provided. Problem has been solved by using of Fourier analysis. Initial data for calculations is provided. Results of numerical analysis are provided as temporal functions of temperature in contiguity between coating and intermediate coating as well as temporal function of the value Q=q-φ; where q is density of heat current directed to the free surface of intermediate coating, φ is density of heat current in contiguity between coating and intermediate coating. The analysis of data given shows that in the systems of contact heat exchange bottom layer-intermediate layer with close values of the thermophysical characteristics of constituting materials is observed a slow increase of the temperature of the contact as a function of time. (paper)

  4. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions:An Overview of the Technology Maturation Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robin A S.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist, NASA identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: Mass to Surface, Surface Access, Precision Landing, Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, Safety and Mission Assurance, and Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems are manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (38 cell) by hand, and in a limited amount of time all of the cells must be filled and the heatshield must be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the low strain-to-failure and manufacturing size limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS. A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials. The high strain-to-failure nature of the conformal ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. By reducing the overall part count, the cost of installation (based on cost comparisons between blanket

  5. An effect of heat insulation parameters on thermal losses of water-cooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mihailov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is research in the insulation parameters effect on the thermal losses of watercooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces. An analytical method has been used for the investigation in heat transfer conditions in the working area. The results of the research can be used to choose optimal cooling parameters and select a suitable kind of insulation for water-cooled surfaces.

  6. Chip-carrier thermal barrier and its impact on lateral thermal lens profile and beam parameter product in high power broad area lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieprich, J.; Winterfeldt, M.; Kernke, R.; Tomm, J. W.; Crump, P.

    2018-03-01

    High power broad area diode lasers with high optical power density in a small focus spot are in strong commercial demand. For this purpose, the beam quality, quantified via the beam parameter product (BPP), has to be improved. Previous studies have shown that the BPP is strongly affected by current-induced heating and the associated thermal lens formed within the laser stripe. However, the chip structure and module-assembly related factors that regulate the size and the shape of the thermal lens are not well known. An experimental infrared thermographic technique is used to quantify the thermal lens profile in diode lasers operating at an emission wavelength of 910 nm, and the results are compared with finite element method simulations. The analysis indicates that the measured thermal profiles can best be explained when a thermal barrier is introduced between the chip and the carrier, which is shown to have a substantial impact on the BPP and the thermal resistance. Comparable results are observed in further measurements of samples from multiple vendors, and the barrier is only observed for junction-down (p-down) mounting, consistent with the barrier being associated with the GaAs-metal transition.

  7. Application of integrated vitrinite reflectance and FAMM analyses for thermal maturity assessment of the northeastern Malay Basin, offshore Vietnam: Implications for petroleum prospectivity evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H. I.; Sherwood, N.; Mathiesen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Several exploration wells have intersected a Cenozoic coal-bearing, fluvial-deltaic mudstone and sandstone succession in the northeastern Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin, and have successfully tested seismically identified direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs). The oil and gas/condensate discov......Several exploration wells have intersected a Cenozoic coal-bearing, fluvial-deltaic mudstone and sandstone succession in the northeastern Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin, and have successfully tested seismically identified direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs). The oil and gas...... for the uppermost Oligocene source rocks between 2Ma and present-day, which post-dates trap formation. Seismic facies patterns suggest that lacustrine oil-prone units are in he oil window in the same graben complex a few km NW of the investigated well, and these rocks are likely to be the source of the hydrocarbons....../condensate discovery ell 46-CN-1x encountered a _55m thick section of lacustrine mudstones having considerable potential as an oil source. Vitrinite reflectance (VR) measurements from these alginite-bearing rocks introduce several problems in thermal maturity evaluation, including associated VR suppression...

  8. Tectono-thermal Evolution of the Lower Paleozoic Petroleum Source Rocks in the Southern Lublin Trough: Implications for Shale Gas Exploration from Maturity Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botor, Dariusz

    2018-03-01

    The Lower Paleozoic basins of eastern Poland have recently been the focus of intensive exploration for shale gas. In the Lublin Basin potential unconventional play is related to Lower Silurian source rocks. In order to assess petroleum charge history of these shale gas reservoirs, 1-D maturity modeling has been performed. In the Łopiennik IG-1 well, which is the only well that penetrated Lower Paleozoic strata in the study area, the uniform vitrinite reflectance values within the Paleozoic section are interpreted as being mainly the result of higher heat flow in the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian times and 3500 m thick overburden eroded due to the Variscan inversion. Moreover, our model has been supported by zircon helium and apatite fission track dating. The Lower Paleozoic strata in the study area reached maximum temperature in the Late Carboniferous time. Accomplished tectono-thermal model allowed establishing that petroleum generation in the Lower Silurian source rocks developed mainly in the Devonian - Carboniferous period. Whereas, during Mesozoic burial, hydrocarbon generation processes did not develop again. This has negative influence on potential durability of shale gas reservoirs.

  9. The pore structure and fractal characteristics of shales with low thermal maturity from the Yuqia Coalfield, northern Qaidam Basin, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Haihai; Shao, Longyi; Li, Yonghong; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Wenlong; Wen, Huaijun

    2018-03-01

    The continental shales from the Middle Jurassic Shimengou Formation of the northern Qaidam Basin, northwestern China, have been investigated in recent years because of their shale gas potential. In this study, a total of twenty-two shale samples were collected from the YQ-1 borehole in the Yuqia Coalfield, northern Qaidam Basin. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents, pore structure parameters, and fractal characteristics of the samples were investigated using TOC analysis, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption experiments, and fractal analysis. The results show that the average pore size of the Shimengou shales varied from 8.149 nm to 20.635 nm with a mean value of 10.74 nm, which is considered mesopore-sized. The pores of the shales are mainly inkbottle- and slit-shaped. The sedimentary environment plays an essential role in controlling the TOC contents of the low maturity shales, with the TOC values of shales from deep to semi-deep lake facies (mean: 5.23%) being notably higher than those of the shore-shallow lake facies (mean: 0.65%). The fractal dimensions range from 2.4639 to 2.6857 with a mean of 2.6122, higher than those of marine shales, which indicates that the pore surface was rougher and the pore structure more complex in these continental shales. The fractal dimensions increase with increasing total pore volume and total specific surface area, and with decreasing average pore size. With increasing TOC contents in shales, the fractal dimensions increase first and then decrease, with the highest value occurring at 2% of TOC content, which is in accordance with the trends between the TOC and both total specific surface area and total pore volume. The pore structure complexity and pore surface roughness of these low-maturity shales would be controlled by the combined effects of both sedimentary environments and the TOC contents.

  10. Phases, lattice parameters and thermal expansion of HoNi5-xAlx, 3≥x≥0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzeta, B.; Sorgic, B.; Blazina, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The phases, lattice parameters and linear coefficient of thermal expansion were determined by X-ray powder diffraction between room temperature and 873 K for the system HoNi 5-x Al x (3 ≥ x ≥ 0). Alloys were hexagonal, in the space group P6/mmm; for 2 ≥ x ≥ 0 they were isostructural with CaCu 5 , and for 3 ≥ x ≥ 2 they were isostructural with YCo 3 Ga 2 . In both cases, the unit-cell parameters a and c increased as the Al content increased. The linear thermal expansion coefficient was composition dependent. Each of the investigated alloys exhibited an anisotropy in thermal expansion, the linear expansion coefficient along the a axis being larger than along the c axis. (orig.)

  11. Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

  12. Employment of single-diode model to elucidate the variations in photovoltaic parameters under different electrical and thermal conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmi F Muhammad

    Full Text Available In this research work, numerical simulations are performed to correlate the photovoltaic parameters with various internal and external factors influencing the performance of solar cells. Single-diode modeling approach is utilized for this purpose and theoretical investigations are compared with the reported experimental evidences for organic and inorganic solar cells at various electrical and thermal conditions. Electrical parameters include parasitic resistances (Rs and Rp and ideality factor (n, while thermal parameters can be defined by the cells temperature (T. A comprehensive analysis concerning broad spectral variations in the short circuit current (Isc, open circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF and efficiency (η is presented and discussed. It was generally concluded that there exists a good agreement between the simulated results and experimental findings. Nevertheless, the controversial consequence of temperature impact on the performance of organic solar cells necessitates the development of a complementary model which is capable of well simulating the temperature impact on these devices performance.

  13. Thermal hydraulic test of advanced fuel bundle with spectral shift rod (SSR) for BWR. Effect of thermal hydraulic parameters on steady state characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Takao; Kitou, Kazuaki; Chaki, Masao; Ohga, Yukiharu; Makigami, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Japanese national project of next generation light water reactor (LWR) development started in 2008. Under this project, spectral shift rod (SSR) is being developed. SSR, which replaces conventional water rod (WR) of boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel bundle, was invented to enhance the BWR's merit, spectral shift effect for uranium saving. In SSR, water boils by neutron and gamma-ray direct heating and water level is formed as a boundary of the upper steam region and the lower water region. This SSR water level can be controlled by core flow rate, which amplifies the change of average core void fraction, resulting in the amplified spectral shift effect. This paper presents the steady state test results of the base geometry case in SSR thermal hydraulic test, which was conducted under the national project of next generation LWR. In the test, thermal hydraulic parameters, such as flow rate, pressure, inlet subcooling and heater rod power are changed to evaluate these effects on SSR water level and other SSR characteristics. In the test results, SSR water level rose as flow rate rose, which showed controllability of SSR water level by flow rate. The sensitivities of other thermal hydraulic parameters on SSR water level were also evaluated. The obtained data of parameter's sensitivities is various enough for the further analytical evaluation. The fluctuation of SSR water level was also measured to be small enough. As a result, it was confirmed that SSR's steady state performance was as planned and that SSR design concept is feasible. (author)

  14. Non-local modelling of cyclic thermal shock damage including parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damhof, F.; Brekelmans, W.A.M.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, rate dependent evolution laws are identified and characterized to model the mechanical (elasticity-based) and thermal damage occurring in coarse grain refractory material subject to cyclic thermal shock. The interacting mechanisms for elastic deformation driven damage induced by

  15. Lattice-dynamical estimation of atomic thermal parameters for silicates: Forsterite. alpha. -Mg sub 2 SiO sub 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilati, T.; Bianchi, R. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy). Centro per lo Studio delle Relazioni tra Struttura e Reattivita' Chimica); Gramaccioli, C.M. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra)

    1990-06-01

    As an example of extending harmonic lattice-dynamical procedures to silicates, the atomic thermal parameters for forsterite Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, an important constituent of earth's crust, have been calculated on this basis. For this purpose, Iishi's rigid-ion model was used, with slight modifications. Although such potentials were derived exclusively from fitting IR and Raman-active frequencies, the reproduction of the phonon-dispersion curves is good, and the calculation of thermodynamic functions such as entropy provides values which are near to calorimetric estimates. The calculated atomic thermal parameters are in good agreement with the experimental values reported by most authors. The calculations at various temperatures show the effect of zero-point motion very clearly: its contribution to temperature factors is about half of the total at room temperature. Bond-length corrections for thermal libration can be applied using the general-case formula: these amount to 0.003 A for the Si-O bonds at room temperature. Although the thermal parameters in the SiO{sub 4} group fit a rigid-body model, the correction obtained using the Schomaker-Trueblood procedure gives a significantly different result: this is essentially due to the weak librational character of the motion of silicate groups in the structure. (orig.).

  16. Lattice-dynamical estimation of atomic thermal parameters for silicates: Forsterite α-Mg2SiO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilati, T.; Bianchi, R.; Gramaccioli, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    As an example of extending harmonic lattice-dynamical procedures to silicates, the atomic thermal parameters for forsterite Mg 2 SiO 4 , an important constituent of earth's crust, have been calculated on this basis. For this purpose, Iishi's rigid-ion model was used, with slight modifications. Although such potentials were derived exclusively from fitting IR and Raman-active frequencies, the reproduction of the phonon-dispersion curves is good, and the calculation of thermodynamic functions such as entropy provides values which are near to calorimetric estimates. The calculated atomic thermal parameters are in good agreement with the experimental values reported by most authors. The calculations at various temperatures show the effect of zero-point motion very clearly: its contribution to temperature factors is about half of the total at room temperature. Bond-length corrections for thermal libration can be applied using the general-case formula: these amount to 0.003 A for the Si-O bonds at room temperature. Although the thermal parameters in the SiO 4 group fit a rigid-body model, the correction obtained using the Schomaker-Trueblood procedure gives a significantly different result: this is essentially due to the weak librational character of the motion of silicate groups in the structure. (orig.)

  17. Design parameters of a non-air-conditioned cinema hall for thermal comfort under arid-zone climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, G.N. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies); Lugani, N. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies); Singh, A.K. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies)

    1993-01-01

    In this communication, a design of a cinema hall suitable for climatic conditions in an arid zone has been presented. The various cooling techniques, namely evaporative cooling, wind tower, ventilation/infiltration and natural cooling, have been incorporated in the design to achieve thermal comfort during the period of operation. The design parameters have been optimized on the basis of numerical computations after establishing an energy balance for each component of a cinema hall. It is observed that cooling treatment, i.e., a wind tower with a cooling pool on the roof provides reasonable thermal comfort inside the enclosure. (orig.)

  18. Effect of powder sample granularity on fluorescent intensity and on thermal parameters in x-ray diffraction Rietveld analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, C.J.; Specht, E.D.; Ice, G.E.; Kumar, R.; Zschack, P.; Shiraishi, T.; Hisatsune, K.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of sample granularity on diffracted x-ray intensity was evaluated by measuring the 2θ dependence of x-ray fluorescence from various samples. Measurements were made in the symmetric geometry on samples ranging from single crystals to highly absorbing coarse powders. A characteristic shape for the absorption correction was observed. A demonstration of the sensitivity of Rietveld refined site occupation parameters is made on CuAu and Cu 50 Au 44 Ni 6 alloys refined with and without granularity corrections. These alloys provide a good example of the effect of granularity due to their large linear x-ray absorption coefficients. Sample granularity and refined thermal parameters obtained from the Rietveld analysis were found to be correlated. Without a granularity correction, the refined thermal parameters are too low and can actually become negative in an attempt to compensate for granularity. A general shape for granularity correction can be included in refinement procedures. If no granularity correction is included, data should be restricted to above 30 degrees 2θ, and thermal parameters should be ignored unless extreme precautions are taken to produce >5 μm particles and high packing densities

  19. Multilayer insulation (MLI) in the Superconducting Super Collider: A practical engineering approach to physical parameters governing MLI thermal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Niemann, R.C.

    1989-03-01

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) is employed in cryogenic devices to control the heat load of those devices. The physics defining the thermal performance of an MLI system is extremely complex due to the thermal dynamics of numerous interdependent parameters which in themselves contribute differently depending on whether boundary conditions are transient or steady-state. The Multilayer Insulation system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of full cryostat length assemblies of aluminized polyester film, fabricated in the form of blankets, and installed as blankets to the 4.5K cold mass, and the 20K and 80K thermal radiation shields. Approximately 40,000 blankets will be required in the 10,000 cryogenic devices comprising the SSC accelerator. Each blanket will be nearly 56 feet long by 6 feet wide and will consist of as many as 32 reflective and 31 spacer layers of material. Discussed are MLI material choices, and the physical parameters which contribute to the operational performance of MLI systems. Disclosed is a method for fabricating MLI blankets by employing a large diameter winding mandrel having a circumference sufficient for the required blanket length. The blanket fabrication method assures consistency in mass produced MLI blankets by providing positive control of the dimensional parameters which contribute to the MLI blanket thermal performance. The fabrication method can be used to mass produce prefabricated MLI blankets that by virtue of the product have inherent features of dimensional stability, three-dimensional uniformity, controlled layer density, layer-to-layer registration, interlayer cleanliness, and interlayer material to accommodate thermal contraction differences. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Parameters identification in strain-rate and thermal sensitive visco-plastic material model for an alumina dispersion strengthened copper

    CERN Document Server

    Scapin, M; Peroni, M

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is getting strain-hardening, thermal and strain-rate parameters for a material model in order to correctly reproduce the deformation process that occurs in high strain-rate scenario, in which the material reaches also high levels of plastic deformation and temperature. In particular, in this work the numerical inverse method is applied to extract material strength parameters from experimental data obtained via mechanical tests at different strain-rates (from quasi-static loading to high strain-rate) and temperatures (between 20 C and 1000 C) for an alumina dispersion strengthened copper material, which commercial name is GLIDCOP. Thanks to its properties GLIDCOP finds several applications in particle accelerator technologies, where problems of thermal management, combined with structural requirements, play a key role. Currently, it is used for the construction of structural and functional parts of the particle beam collimation system. Since the extreme condition in which the m...

  1. Evaluation of parameters effect on the maximum fuel temperature in the core thermal and hydraulic design of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Nozomu; Maruyama, Soh; Sudo, Yukio; Fujii, Sadao; Niguma, Yoshinori.

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the results of quantitative evaluation on the effects of the dominant parameters on the maximum fuel temperature in the core thermal hydraulic design of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor(HTTR) of 30 MW in thermal power, 950 deg C in reactor outlet coolant temperature and 40 kg/cm 2 G in coolant pressure. The dominant parameters investigated are 1) Gap conductance. 2) Effect of eccertricity of fuel compacts in graphite sleeve. 3) Effect of spacer ribs on heat transfer coefficients. 4) Contact probability of fuel compact and graphite sleeve. 5) Validity of uniform radial power density in the fuel compacts. 6) Effect of impurity gas on gap conductance. 7) Effect of FP gas on gap conductance. The effects of these items on the maximum fuel temperature were quantitalively identified as hot spot factors. A probability of the appearance of the maximum fuel temperature was also evaluated in this report. (author)

  2. Influence of Nd dopants on lattice parameters and thermal and elastic properties in YVO4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucytowski, J.; Wokulska, K.; Kazmierczak-Balata, A.; Bodzenta, J.; Lukasiewicz, T.; Hofman, B.; Pyka, M.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of neodymium doping on YVO 4 single crystals has been studied. The crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. One of them was pure YVO 4 and the others were doped with neodymium (YVO 4 :Nd) at various concentrations of Nd = 0.3-3.0 at.%. The changes of the lattice parameters were determined by the Bond's method [W.L. Bond, Acta Cryst. 13 (1960) 814]. The thermal diffusivity and the velocity of ultrasound using the photothermal method with mirage effect and the pulse echo method [J. Bodzenta, M. Pyka, J. Phys. IV France 137 (2006) 259] were measured. In the examined crystals, it was found that the lattice parameters increase while the thermal diffusivity decreases with increasing concentration of Nd atoms

  3. Measurements of some parameters of thermal sparks with respect to their ability to ignite aviation fuel/air mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, S. J.; Hardwick, C. J.; Baldwin, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    A method used to generate thermal sparks for experimental purposes and methods by which parameters of the sparks, such as speed, size, and temperature, were measured are described. Values are given of the range of such parameters within these spark showers. Titanium sparks were used almost exclusively, since it is particles of this metal which are found to be ejected during simulation tests to carbon fiber composite (CFC) joints. Tests were then carried out in which titanium sparks and spark showers were injected into JP4/(AVTAG F40) mixtures with air. Single large sparks and dense showers of small sparks were found to be capable of causing ignition. Tests were then repeated using ethylene/air mixtures, which were found to be more easily ignited by thermal sparks than the JP4/ air mixtures.

  4. Reevaluation and Validation of the 241Pu Resonance Parameters in the Energy Range Thermal to 20 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.; Leal, L.C.; Courcelle, A.; Santamarina, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new SAMMY analysis of the 241 Pu resonance parameters from thermal to 20 eV is presented. This evaluation takes into account the trends given by integral experiments [post-irradiation experiments performed in French pressurized water reactors (PWRs)]. Compared to the previous evaluations performed by Derrien and de Saussure, the capture cross section increases especially in the 0.26-eV resonance. It is shown that the new resonance parameters proposed in this work improve the prediction of the 242 Pu buildup in a PWR, which was significantly underestimated with the previous evaluations

  5. A 3D Dynamic Lumped Parameter Thermal Network of Air-Cooled YASA Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Hussein Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To find the temperature rise for high power density yokeless and segmented armature (YASA axial flux permanent magnet synchronous (AFPMSM machines quickly and accurately, a 3D lumped parameter thermal model is developed and validated experimentally and by finite element (FE simulations on a 4 kW YASA machine. Additionally, to get insight in the thermal transient response of the machine, the model accounts for the thermal capacitance of different machine components. The model considers the stator, bearing, and windage losses, as well as eddy current losses in the magnets on the rotors. The new contribution of this work is that the thermal model takes cooling via air channels between the magnets on the rotor discs into account. The model is parametrized with respect to the permanent magnet (PM angle ratio, the PM thickness ratio, the air gap length, and the rotor speed. The effect of the channels is incorporated via convection equations based on many computational fluid dynamics (CFD computations. The model accuracy is validated at different values of parameters by FE simulations in both transient and steady state. The model takes less than 1 s to solve for the temperature distribution.

  6. Parameter Estimation of the Thermal Network Model of a Machine Tool Spindle by Self-made Bluetooth Temperature Sensor Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chieh Lo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal characteristic analysis is essential for machine tool spindles because sudden failures may occur due to unexpected thermal issue. This article presents a lumped-parameter Thermal Network Model (TNM and its parameter estimation scheme, including hardware and software, in order to characterize both the steady-state and transient thermal behavior of machine tool spindles. For the hardware, the authors develop a Bluetooth Temperature Sensor Module (BTSM which accompanying with three types of temperature-sensing probes (magnetic, screw, and probe. Its specification, through experimental test, achieves to the precision ±(0.1 + 0.0029|t| °C, resolution 0.00489 °C, power consumption 7 mW, and size Ø40 mm × 27 mm. For the software, the heat transfer characteristics of the machine tool spindle correlative to rotating speed are derived based on the theory of heat transfer and empirical formula. The predictive TNM of spindles was developed by grey-box estimation and experimental results. Even under such complicated operating conditions as various speeds and different initial conditions, the experiments validate that the present modeling methodology provides a robust and reliable tool for the temperature prediction with normalized mean square error of 99.5% agreement, and the present approach is transferable to the other spindles with a similar structure. For realizing the edge computing in smart manufacturing, a reduced-order TNM is constructed by Model Order Reduction (MOR technique and implemented into the real-time embedded system.

  7. Variation of thermal parameters in two different color morphs of a diurnal poison toad, Melanophryniscus rubriventris (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Eduardo A; Vaira, Marcos; Quiroga, Lorena B; Akmentins, Mauricio S; Pereyra, Laura C

    2014-04-01

    We study the variation in thermal parameters in two contrasting populations Yungas Redbelly Toads (Melanophryniscus rubriventris) with different discrete color phenotypes comparing field body temperatures, critical thermal maximum and heating rates. We found significant differences in field body temperatures of the different morphs. Temperatures were higher in toads with a high extent of dorsal melanization. No variation was registered in operative temperatures between the study locations at the moment of capture and processing. Critical thermal maximum of toads was positively related with the extent of dorsal melanization. Furthermore, we founded significant differences in heating rates between morphs, where individuals with a high extent of dorsal melanization showed greater heating rates than toads with lower dorsal melanization. The color pattern-thermal parameter relationship observed may influence the activity patterns and body size of individuals. Body temperature is a modulator of physiological and behavioral functions in amphibians, influencing daily and seasonal activity, locomotor performance, digestion rate and growth rate. It is possible that some growth constraints may arise due to the relationship of color pattern-metabolism allowing different morphs to attain similar sizes at different locations instead of body-size clines. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Comparison of physico-chemical parameters of groundwater from shallow aquifers near 2 thermal power plants in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, S.K.; Sahota, S.K.; Sahota, G.P.S.; Sahota, B.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    Physico-chemical parameters of groundwater from shallow aquifers near thermal power plants at Bathinda and Ropar have been measured. Increase in metallic content of water is noted in both the cases due to deposition of coal fly ash from the power plants on the soil. High values of calcium chloride, calcium carbonate and total dissolved solids are observed in Bathinda groundwater while Ropar groundwater is rich in ferric, fluoride and nitrate contents. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy as a Cost Efficient Method for Determining Thermal Parameters of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (HEV, PHEV, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging and discharging power capability rates...... of lithium-ion batteries raises safety concerns and requires thermal management of the entire battery system. Moreover, lithium-ion battery’s temperature influences both battery short term (capacity, efficiency, self-discharge) and long-term (lifetime) behaviour. Thus, thermal modelling of lithium-ion...... battery cells and battery packs is gaining importance. Equivalent thermal circuits’ models have proven to be relatively accurate with low computational burden for the price of low spatial resolution; nevertheless, they usually require expensive equipment for parametrization. Recent research initiated...

  10. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy as a cost efficient method for determining thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging...... and discharging power capability rates of lithium-ion batteries raises safety concerns and requires thermal management of the entire battery system. Moreover, lithium-ion battery's temperature influences both battery short term (capacity, efficiency, self-discharge) and long-term (lifetime) behaviour. Thus......, thermal modelling of lithium-ion battery cells and battery packs is gaining importance. Equivalent thermal circuits' models have proven to be relatively accurate with a low computational burden for the price of low spatial resolution; nevertheless, they usually require expensive equipment...

  11. Association of rectal toxicity with thermal dose parameters in treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with radiation and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitz, Mark D.; Kaplan, Irving D.; Hansen, Jorgen L.; Prokopios-Davos, Savina; Topulos, George P.; Wishnow, Kenneth; Manola, Judith; Bornstein, Bruce A.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Although hyperthermia has been used for more than two decades in the treatment of pelvic tumors, little is known about the potential impact of heat on rectal toxicity when combined with other treatment modalities. Because rectal toxicity is a concern with radiation and may be exacerbated by hyperthermia, definition of the association of thermal dose parameters with rectal toxicity is important. In this report, we correlate rectal toxicity with thermal dose parameters for patients treated with hyperthermia and radiation for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with T2b-T3b disease (1992 American Joint Committee On Cancer criteria) enrolled in a Phase II study of external beam radiation ± androgen-suppressive therapy with two transrectal ultrasound hyperthermia treatments were assessed for rectal toxicity. Prostatic and anterior rectal wall temperatures were monitored for all treatments. Rectal wall temperatures were limited to 40 deg. C in 19 patients, 41 deg. C in 3 patients, and 42 deg. C in 8 patients. Logistic regression was used to estimate the log hazard of developing National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 2 toxicity based on temperature parameters. The following were calculated: hazard ratios, 95% confidence intervals, p values for statistical significance of each parameter, and proportion of variability explained for each parameter. Results: Gastrointestinal toxicity was limited to Grade 2. The rate of acute Grade 2 proctitis was greater for patients with an allowable rectal wall temperature of >40 deg. C. In this group, 7 of 11 patients experienced acute Grade 2 proctitis, as opposed to 3 of 19 patients in the group with rectal wall temperatures limited to 40 deg. C (p=0.004). Preliminary assessment of long-term toxicity revealed no differences in toxicity. Hazard ratios for acute Grade 2 proctitis for allowable rectal wall temperature, average rectal wall Tmax, and average prostate Tmax were 9.33 (p=0.01), 3

  12. Thermal neutron pulsed parameters in non-hydrogenous systems. Experiment for lead grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Gabanska, B.; Kosik, M.; Krynicka, E.; Woznicka, U.; Zaleski, T.

    1997-01-01

    In Czubek's method of measurement of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross section a two-region geometry is applied where the investigated sample is surrounded by an external moderator. Both regions in the measurements made up till now were hydrogenous, which means the same type of the thermal neutron transport properties. In the paper a theoretical consideration to use non-hydrogenous materials as the samples is presented. Pulsed neutron measurements have been performed on homogeneous material in a geometry of the classic experiment with the variable geometric buckling. Two decay constants have been measured for different cylindrical samples of small lead grains (a lead shot). (author)

  13. Impact of Building Design Parameters on Thermal Energy Flexibility in a Low-Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarran, Lucile; Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Gianniou, Panagiota

    This work focuses on demand-side management potential for the heating grid in residential buildings. The possibility to increase the flexibility provided to the heat network through specific building design is investigated. The role of different parts of the building structure on thermal flexibil...

  14. Kinetic parameters for the thermal decomposition reactions of mixed oxides of selenium and tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez, A.; Castro, A.; Pico, C.; Veiga, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative study of the thermal decomposition processes of Te 3 SeO 8 and TeSeO 4 has been carried out based on the results obtained directly by a Mettler TA 3000 apparatus and from calculations using other differential and integral methods. (orig.)

  15. The thermal properties of the subsurface – key parameters for geothermal energy utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norden, Ben; Bording, Thue Sylvester; Balling, N.

    Often the investigation of petrophysical properties is far behind the capabilities of sophisticated modelling techniques applied in basin and geothermal modelling and for which these data serve as an input. Therefore, more in-depth investigations especially of thermal properties are requested. We...

  16. Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in set theory and readily available software have enabled social science researchers to bridge the variable-centered quantitative and case-based qualitative methodological paradigms in order to analyze multi-dimensional associations beyond the linearity assumptions, aggregate...... effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....

  17. Thermal effect on magnetic parameters of high-coercivity cobalt ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagas, E. F., E-mail: efchagas@fisica.ufmt.br; Ponce, A. S.; Prado, R. J.; Silva, G. M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiabá-MT (Brazil); Bettini, J. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 Urca. Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-07-21

    We prepared very high-coercivity cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by a combustion method and using short-time high-energy mechanical milling to increase strain and the structural defects density. The coercivity (H{sub C}) of the milled sample reached 3.75 kOe—a value almost five times higher than that obtained for the non-milled material (0.76 kOe). To investigate the effect of the temperature on the magnetic behavior of the milled sample, we performed a thermal treatment on the milled sample at 300, 400, and 600 °C for 30 and 180 min. We analyzed the changes in the magnetic behavior of the nanoparticles due to the thermal treatment using the hysteresis curves, Williamson-Hall analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The thermal treatment at 600 °C causes decreases in the microstructural strain and density of structural defects resulting in a significant decrease in H{sub C}. Furthermore, this thermal treatment increases the size of the nanoparticles and, as a consequence, there is a substantial increase in the saturation magnetization (M{sub S}). The H{sub C} of the samples treated at 600 °C for 30 and 180 min were 2.24 and 1.93 kOe, respectively, and the M{sub S} of these same samples increased from 57 emu/g to 66 and 70 emu/g, respectively. The H{sub C} and the M{sub S} are less affected by the thermal treatment at 300 and 400 °C.

  18. Evaluation of liquid fragility and thermal stability of Al-based metallic glasses by equivalent structure parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuelian; Bian Xiufang; Hu Lina

    2010-01-01

    Based on extended Ideal-Atomic-Packing model, we propose an equivalent structure parameter '6x+11y' to evaluate fragility and thermal stability of Al-TM-RE metallic glasses, where x and y are composition concentrations of transition metal (TM) and rare earth (RE), respectively. Experimental results show that glass forming compositions with '6x+11y' near 100 have the smallest fragility parameter and best structure stability. In addition, '6x+11y' parameter has a positive relationship with onset-crystallization temperature, T x . Al-TM-RE glassy alloys with (6x+11y)≤100 undergo primary crystallization of fcc-Al nanocrystals, while alloys with (6x+11y)>100 exhibit nanoglassy or glassy crystallization behavior.

  19. Increasing the Performance and Reliability of Power Boiler by Monitoring Thermal and Strength Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobota Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for determination of thermo-flow parameters for steam boilers. This method allows to perform the calculations of the boiler furnace chamber and heat flow rates absorbed by superheater stages. These parameters are important for monitoring the performance of the power unit. Knowledge of these parameters allows determining the degree of the furnace chamber slagging. The calculation can be performed in online mode and use to monitoring of steam boiler. The presented method allows to the operation of steam boiler with high efficiency.

  20. Study of elastic and thermal parameters of a composite material fluoro-plastic - thermo-exfoliated graphite by photothermoacoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozachenko, V.V.; Kucherov, I.Ya.; Revo, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The composite materials (CM) with success are widely used in a science and in an industry. From the practical point of view important for CM the mechanical and thermal properties are. Therefore, study of these properties for them is the important problem. At change of a temperature state of materials of their property in many cases are featured by combinations of elastic and thermal parameters E/1-σ=E n and χ/ρc=D T , where E, -σ, ρ and c are the Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, thermal conductivity coefficient, density and specific heat of materials, respectively. Now for examination of substances in various aggregate states has received development a photothermoacoustic (PTA) method. As shown in this work, use a PTA method with piezoelectric detection of a PTA signal from a layered plate, under certain conditions, allows immediately determining the reduced Young's modulus E n and thermal diffusivity D T . Therefore, the purpose of this work was study the PTA effect with piezoelectric detection of an informative signal from CM. Were explored steel-copper CM such as 'sandwich' and fluoro plastic-thermo exfoliated graphite FP-TEG CM. Explored triplex structure as a plate made of a CM sample and a two-layer piezoelectric transducer. The surface of a CM is uniformly irradiated with a modulated light flux. The sample is heated and the thermal waves are generated. In the sample, the temperature field of thermal waves generates, due to the thermoelastic effect, acoustic vibration and waves that are registered by a piezoelectric. The rather low frequencies of modulation are considered, at which length of ultrasonic waves is much more than the reference sizes of structure (quasi-static approach). The amplitudes ratio and phase difference of voltages oscillations taken from separate layer of piezoelectric transducer, as functions of physical and geometrical parameters of structure and a frequency of a light flux modulation is found. Experimentally the

  1. EXTRACTING ROOF PARAMETERS AND HEAT BRIDGES OVER THE CITY OF OLDENBURG FROM HYPERSPECTRAL, THERMAL, AND AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bannehr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing methods are used to obtain different kinds of information about the state of the environment. Within the cooperative research project HiReSens, funded by the German BMBF, a hyperspectral scanner, an airborne laser scanner, a thermal camera, and a RGB-camera are employed on a small aircraft to determine roof material parameters and heat bridges of house tops over the city Oldenburg, Lower Saxony. HiReSens aims to combine various geometrical highly resolved data in order to achieve relevant evidence about the state of the city buildings. Thermal data are used to obtain the energy distribution of single buildings. The use of hyperspectral data yields information about material consistence of roofs. From airborne laser scanning data (ALS digital surface models are inferred. They build the basis to locate the best orientations for solar panels of the city buildings. The combination of the different data sets offers the opportunity to capitalize synergies between differently working systems. Central goals are the development of tools for the collection of heat bridges by means of thermal data, spectral collection of roofs parameters on basis of hyperspectral data as well as 3D-capture of buildings from airborne lasers scanner data. Collecting, analyzing and merging of the data are not trivial especially not when the resolution and accuracy is aimed in the domain of a few decimetre. The results achieved need to be regarded as preliminary. Further investigations are still required to prove the accuracy in detail.

  2. The thermal neutron absorption cross-sections, resonance integrals and resonance parameters of silicon and its stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, J.S.

    1969-09-01

    The data available up to the end of November 1968 on the thermal neutron absorption cross-sections, resonance absorption integrals, and resonance parameters of silicon and its stable isotopes are collected and discussed. Estimates are given of the mean spacing of the energy levels of the compound nuclei near the neutron binding energy. It is concluded that the thermal neutron absorption cross-section and resonance absorption integral of natural silicon are not well established. The data on these two parameters are somewhat correlated, and three different assessments of the resonance integral are presented which differ over-all by a factor of 230. Many resonances have been detected by charged particle reactions which have not yet been observed in neutron cross-section measurements. One of these resonances of Si 2 8, at E n = 4 ± 5 keV might account for the large resonance integral which is derived, very uncertainly, from integral data. The principal source of the measured resonance integral of Si 3 0 has not yet been located. The thermal neutron absorption cross-section of Si 2 8 appears to result mainly from a negative energy resonance, possibly the resonance at E n = - 59 ± 5 keV detected by the Si 2 8 (d,p) reaction. (author)

  3. Thermophysical parameters of coconut oil and its potential application as the thermal energy storage system in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Widya A.; Fahmi, Zulfikar; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2016-08-01

    The high consumption of electric energy for room air conditioning (AC) system in Indonesia has driven the research of potential thermal energy storage system as a passive temperature controller. The application of coconut oil (CO) as the potential candidate for this purpose has been motivated since its working temperature just around the human thermal comfort zone in the tropical area as Indonesia. In this research we report the time-dependent temperature data of CO, which is adopting the T-history method. The analysis of the data revealed a set of thermophysical parameters, consist of the mean specific heats of the solid and liquid, as well as the latent heat of fusion for the phase change transition. The performance of CO to decrease the air temperature was measured in the thermal chamber. From the results it is shown that the latent phase of CO related to the solid-liquid phase transition show the highest capability in heat absorption, directly showing the potential application of CO as thermal energy storage system in Indonesia.

  4. Modelling of the thermal parameters of high-power linear laser-diode arrays. Two-dimensional transient model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezotosnyi, V V; Kumykov, Kh Kh

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional transient thermal model of an injection laser is developed. This model makes it possible to analyse the temperature profiles in pulsed and cw stripe lasers with an arbitrary width of the stripe contact, and also in linear laser-diode arrays. This can be done for any durations and repetition rates of the pump pulses. The model can also be applied to two-dimensional laser-diode arrays operating quasicontinuously. An analysis is reported of the influence of various structural parameters of a diode array on the thermal regime of a single laser. The temperature distributions along the cavity axis are investigated for different variants of mounting a crystal on a heat sink. It is found that the temperature drop along the cavity length in cw and quasi-cw laser diodes may exceed 20%. (lasers)

  5. Evaluation of neutron thermalization parameters and benchmark reactor calculations using a synthetic scattering function for molecular gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillete, V.H.; Patino, N.E.; Granada, J.E.; Mayer, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Using a synthetic scattering function which describes the interaction of neutrons with molecular gases we provide analytical expressions for zero-and first-order scattering kernels, σ 0 (E 0 →E), σ 1 (E 0 →E), and total cross section σ 0 (E 0 ). Based on these quantities, we have performed calculations of thermalization parameters and transport coefficients for H 2 O, D 2 O, C 6 H 6 and (CH 2 ) n at room temperature. Comparasion of such values with available experimental data and other calculations is satisfactory. We also generated nuclear data libraries for H 2 O with 47 thermal groups at 300K and performed some benchmark calculations ( 235 U, 239 Pu, PWR cell and typical APWR cell); the resulting reactivities are compared with experimental data and ENDF/B-IV calculations. (author) [pt

  6. The effect of preparation parameters i thermal decomposition of ruthenium dioxide electrodes on chlorine elctro-catalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu, Tran Le; Kim, Choon Soo; Kim, Ji Ye; Kim, Seong Hwan; Yoon, Je Yong

    2015-01-01

    When fabricating a RuO_2 electrode, the high electro-catalytic activity in chlorine evolution is considered as one of the most important factors. Thermal decomposition method carried out under various fabrication conditions including the types of solvents, precursors, and calcination times have led to the enhancement electro-catalytic activity of RuO_2 electrode in chlorine evolution. Nevertheless, it has not been fully investigated how these parameters directly affect to the chlorine evolution efficiency in the RuO_2 electrode. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect on the chlorine evolution in RuO_2 electrodes, depending upon the preparation parameters including solvents, precursors, and calcination times. As major results, the chlorine evolution efficiency was dominantly affected by these three major preparation parameters. The RuO_2 electrode fabricated with ethanol as the solvent showed highest chlorine evolution efficiency. The choice of Ru(AcAc)_3 as precursor and the increase of the calcination time up to 3 h are also the good choices for increasing chlorine electrocatalytic activities. The chlorine evolution efficiency was not significantly related to the total voltammetric charge but to the outer voltammetric charge, which is affected by the morphology of the RuO_2 electrode surface. The size and number of cracks on the electrode surfaces or the outer voltammetric charges increased with easily evaporated solvents, decomposed precursors, and tensile stress from longer thermal treatments

  7. Optimization of Indoor Thermal Comfort Parameters with the Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to improve thermal comfort and indoor air quality with the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS model and improved particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. A method to optimize air conditioning parameters and installation distance is proposed. The methodology is demonstrated through a prototype case, which corresponds to a typical laboratory in colleges and universities. A laboratory model is established, and simulated flow field information is obtained with the CFD software. Subsequently, the ANFIS model is employed instead of the CFD model to predict indoor flow parameters, and the CFD database is utilized to train ANN input-output “metamodels” for the subsequent optimization. With the improved PSO algorithm and the stratified sequence method, the objective functions are optimized. The functions comprise PMV, PPD, and mean age of air. The optimal installation distance is determined with the hemisphere model. Results show that most of the staff obtain a satisfactory degree of thermal comfort and that the proposed method can significantly reduce the cost of building an experimental device. The proposed methodology can be used to determine appropriate air supply parameters and air conditioner installation position for a pleasant and healthy indoor environment.

  8. Definition of thermal-hydraulics parameters of a naval PWR via energy balance of a Westinghouse PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Luiz C.; Curi, Marcos F., E-mail: marcos.curi@cefet-rj.br [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we used the operational parameters of the Angra 1 nuclear power plant, designed by Westinghouse, to estimate the thermal-hydraulic parameters for naval nuclear propulsion, focusing on the analysis of the reactor and steam generator. A thermodynamics analysis was made to reach the operational parameters of primary circuit such as pressure, temperature, power generated among others. Previous studies available in literature of 2-loop Westinghouse Nuclear Power Plants, which is based on a PWR and similar to Angra-1, support this analysis in the sense of a correct procedure to deal with many complex processes to energy generation from a nuclear source. Temperature profiles in reactor and steam generator were studied with concepts of heat transfer, fluid mechanics and also some concepts of nuclear systems, showing the behavior into them. In this simulation, the Angra 1 primary circuit was reduced on a scale of 1: 3.5 to fit in a Scorpène-class submarine. The reactor generates 85.7 MW of total thermal power. The maximum power and temperatures reached were lower than the operational safe limits established by Westinghouse. The number of tubes of the steam generator was determined in 990 U-tubes with 6.3 m of average length. (author)

  9. The effect of preparation parameters i thermal decomposition of ruthenium dioxide electrodes on chlorine elctro-catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luu, Tran Le; Kim, Choon Soo; Kim, Ji Ye; Kim, Seong Hwan; Yoon, Je Yong [Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Institute of Chemical Process, Seoul National University,Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    When fabricating a RuO{sub 2} electrode, the high electro-catalytic activity in chlorine evolution is considered as one of the most important factors. Thermal decomposition method carried out under various fabrication conditions including the types of solvents, precursors, and calcination times have led to the enhancement electro-catalytic activity of RuO{sub 2} electrode in chlorine evolution. Nevertheless, it has not been fully investigated how these parameters directly affect to the chlorine evolution efficiency in the RuO{sub 2} electrode. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect on the chlorine evolution in RuO{sub 2} electrodes, depending upon the preparation parameters including solvents, precursors, and calcination times. As major results, the chlorine evolution efficiency was dominantly affected by these three major preparation parameters. The RuO{sub 2} electrode fabricated with ethanol as the solvent showed highest chlorine evolution efficiency. The choice of Ru(AcAc){sub 3} as precursor and the increase of the calcination time up to 3 h are also the good choices for increasing chlorine electrocatalytic activities. The chlorine evolution efficiency was not significantly related to the total voltammetric charge but to the outer voltammetric charge, which is affected by the morphology of the RuO{sub 2} electrode surface. The size and number of cracks on the electrode surfaces or the outer voltammetric charges increased with easily evaporated solvents, decomposed precursors, and tensile stress from longer thermal treatments.

  10. Tectonic heat flow modelling for basin maturation - Implications for frontier areas in the mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Bonte, D.; Nelskamp, S.

    2009-01-01

    Basement heat flow is one of the most influential parameters on basin maturity. Although rapid progress has been made in the development of tectonic models capable of modelling the thermal consequences of basin formation, these models are hardly used in basin modelling. To better predict heat flows

  11. Cooling thermal parameters and microstructure features of directionally solidified ternary Sn–Bi–(Cu,Ag) solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Bismarck L., E-mail: bismarck_luiz@yahoo.com.br [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Amauri [Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Spinelli, José E. [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    Low temperature soldering technology encompasses Sn–Bi based alloys as reference materials for joints since such alloys may be molten at temperatures less than 180 °C. Despite the relatively high strength of these alloys, segregation problems and low ductility are recognized as potential disadvantages. Thus, for low-temperature applications, Bi–Sn eutectic or near-eutectic compositions with or without additions of alloying elements are considered interesting possibilities. In this context, additions of third elements such as Cu and Ag may be an alternative in order to reach sounder solder joints. The length scale of the phases and their proportions are known to be the most important factors affecting the final wear, mechanical and corrosions properties of ternary Sn–Bi–(Cu,Ag) alloys. In spite of this promising outlook, studies emphasizing interrelations of microstructure features and solidification thermal parameters regarding these multicomponent alloys are rare in the literature. In the present investigation Sn–Bi–(Cu,Ag) alloys were directionally solidified (DS) under transient heat flow conditions. A complete characterization is performed including experimental cooling thermal parameters, segregation (XRF), optical and scanning electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and length scale of the microstructural phases. Experimental growth laws relating dendritic spacings to solidification thermal parameters have been proposed with emphasis on the effects of Ag and Cu. The theoretical predictions of the Rappaz-Boettinger model are shown to be slightly above the experimental scatter of secondary dendritic arm spacings for both ternary Sn–Bi–Cu and Sn–Bi–Ag alloys examined. - Highlights: • Dendritic growth prevailed for the ternary Sn–Bi–Cu and Sn–Bi–Ag solder alloys. • Bi precipitates within Sn-rich dendrites were shown to be unevenly distributed. • Morphology and preferential region for the Ag{sub 3}Sn growth depend on Ag

  12. Estimation of fracture parameters in foam core materials using thermal techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulieu-Barton, J. M.; Berggreen, Christian; Boyenval Langlois, C.

    2010-01-01

    is described. A mode I simulated crack in the form of a machined notch is used to establish the feasibility of the TSA approach to derive stress intensity factors for the foam material. The overall goal is to demonstrate that thermal techniques have the ability to provide deeper insight into the behaviour......The paper presents some initial work on establishing the stress state at a crack tip in PVC foam material using a non-contact infra-red technique known as thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA). A parametric study of the factors that may affect the thermoelastic response of the foam material...

  13. New test approach and evaluation of dynamic and thermal parameters of elastomers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pešek, Luděk; Vaněk, František; Procházka, Pavel; Bula, Vítězslav; Cibulka, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2009), s. 197-207 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : rubber * thermo-mechanics parameters * fatigue Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  14. Thermal restoration of the lattice parameter of weakly irradiated UO2 (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, J.

    1962-01-01

    Weak irradiations of uranium dioxide lead to an expansion of the cristal lattice. We have studied the restoration of the lattice parameter after successive isochronous annealings. The process occurs in two main stages, one starting at 200 deg. C and the other at 500 deg. C. (author) [fr

  15. Does a one year age gap modify the influence of age, maturation and anthropometric parameters as determinants of performance among youth elite soccer players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Lekue, José Antonio; Amado, Markos; Gil, Susana Maria

    2017-08-22

    Since age-groups in soccer often comprise children born within a two-year timeframe, characteristics that define the profile of a successful player may not be appropriate for the oldest or youngest players of the same age group. Therefore, this study aimed to determine to what extent performance was influenced by age, maturation and body size in elite soccer players with barely one year age gap. Anthropometry, 15-m sprint test, modified Barrow´s agility test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1, countermovement jump, and handgrip test were conducted in players aged twelve and under (n=82, 11.1 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD) and between twelve and thirteen (n=79, 12.8 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD). A total score of performance, chronological age and age at peak height velocity were calculated. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-tests, and multiple linear regressions were performed. The explained variance in composite score was greater in the older (54%) than in the younger (30%) players. Sum of skinfolds was the primary predictor of 15-m sprint and countermovement jump in the younger group whereas in the older group chronological age and body size appeared as predictors of performance (41%). Body size explained the variance in most tests in older players. In the younger group biological maturity status explained the variance in endurance (35%) and handgrip (59%) tests. In summary, chronological age and sum of skinfolds influenced most tests; however, predictors differed between age groups. These findings highlight the importance of assessing individual differences in young male soccer players regardless of their similarity in age.

  16. Efficacious of estimatives of thermal-hydraulic conditions of the PWR core by measured parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, C.T.M.; Pontedeiro, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    Using ALMOD 3W2 and COBRA IIIP computer codes an evaluation of usual methods of estimatives of heat transfer conditions in the PWR core was made, using variables of the monitored processes. It was done a parametric study in conditions of the permanent regim to verify the influence of variables such as, pressure, temperature and power in the value of critical heat flux. Parameters to prevent the DNB phenomenon in KWU power plants and Westinghouse were calculated and implemented in the ALMOD 3W2 program to estimate the DNBR evolution. It was identified a common origin to both methods and comparing with detailed calculations of the COBRA IIIP code, it was settled limitations in the application of parameters. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Study of the thermal and kinetic parameters during directional solidification of zinc-aluminum eutectic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueijman, Sergio Fabian; Ares, Alicia Esther; Schvezov, Carlos Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Much work has been done recently on investigating zinc-based binary alloys, with different aluminum content, and modified or not with small amounts of other alloying elements. Some of these alloys have interesting properties, such as, the ZA alloys that have properties similar to some bronzes that are used in applications that require pieces with enough resistance to mechanical stresses. The longitudinal thermal gradients, the minimal gradients, the velocities of the liquid interphases, the velocities of the solid interphases and the accelerations of both interphases as a function of time and position were determined for each diluted alloy of the eutectic concentration considered (Zn-5%Al, % in weight), solidified horizontally with caloric extraction from both ends of the test pieces. The values obtained from the horizontal solidification with two directions of predominant caloric extraction are compared to previous values obtained for the same vertically solidified alloy system with a predominantly caloric extraction direction

  18. Physics parameter calculations for a Tandem Mirror Reactor with thermal barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boghosian, B.M.; Lappa, D.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal barriers are localized reductions in potential between the plugs and the central cell, which effectively insulate trapped plug electrons from the central cell electrons. By then applying electron heating in the plug, it is possible to obtain trapped electron temperatures that are much greater than those of the central cell electrons. This, in turn, effects an increase in the plug potential and central cell confinement with a concomitant decrease in plug density and injection power. Ions trapped in the barrier by collisions are removed by the injection of neutral beams directed inside the barrier cell loss cone; these beam neutrals convert trapped barrier ions to neutrals by charge exchange permitting their escape. We describe a zero-dimensional physics model for this type of reactor, and present some preliminary results for Q

  19. Prediction of thermal hydraulic parameters in the loss of coolant accident by using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaziri, N.; Erfani, A.; Monsefi, M.; Hajabri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a reactor accident like loss of coolant accident , one or more signals may not be monitored by control panel for some reasons such as interruptions and so on. Therefore a fast alternative method could guarantee the safe and reliable exploration of nuclear power planets. In this study, we used artificial neural network with Elman recurrent structure to predict six thermal hydraulic signals in a loss of coolant accident after upper plenum break. In the prediction procedure, a few previous samples are fed to the artificial neural network and the output value or next time step is estimated by the network output. The Elman recurrent network is trained with the data obtained from the benchmark simulation of loss of coolant accident in VVER. The results reveal that the predicted values follow the real trends well and artificial neural network can be used as a fast alternative prediction tool in loss of coolant accident

  20. Robust design for shape parameters of high pressure thermal vapor compressor by numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Il Seouk

    2008-01-01

    A high motive pressure Thermal Vapor Compressor(TVC) for a commercial Multi-Effect Desalination(MED) plant is designed to have a high entraining performance and its robustness is also considered in the respect of operating stability at the abrupt change of the operating pressures like the motive and suction steam pressure which can be easily fluctuated by the external disturbance. The TVC having a good entraining performance of more than entrainment ratio 6.0 is designed through the iterative CFD analysis for the various primary nozzle diameter, mixing tube diameter and mixing tube length. And then for a couple of TVC having a similar entrainment ratio, the changes of the entrainment ratio are checked along the motive and suction pressure change. The system stability is diagnosed through the analyzing the changing pattern of the entrainment ratio

  1. Tuning a space-time scalable PI controller using thermal parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riverol, C. [University of West Indies, Chemical Engineering Department, St. Augustine, Trinidad (Trinidad and Tobago); Pilipovik, M.V. [Armach Engineers, Urb. Los Palos Grandes, Project Engineering Department, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2005-03-01

    The paper outlines the successful empirical design and validation of a space-time PI controller based on study of the controlled variable output as function of time and space. The developed control was implemented on two heat exchanger systems (falling film evaporator and milk pasteurizer). The strategy required adding a new term over the classical PI controller, such that a new parameter should be tuned. Measurements made on commercial installations have confirmed the validity of the new controller. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of the Effect of Operating Parameters on Thermal Performance of an Integrated Starter Generator in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The belt-driven-type integrated starter generator motor in a hybrid electric vehicle is vulnerable to thermal problems owing to its high output power and proximity to the engine. These problems may cause demagnetization and insulation breakdown, reducing the performance and durability of the motor. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance and enhance the cooling capacity of the belt-driven type Integrated Starter Generator. In this study, the internal temperature variations of the motor were investigated with respect to the operating parameters, particularly the rotation speed and environment temperature. At a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 4500 rpm, the coil of the motor was heated to approximately 189 °C in generating mode. The harsh conditions of the starting mode were analyzed by assuming that the motor operates during the start-up time at a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 800 rpm; the coil was heated to approximately 200 °C, which is close to the insulation temperature limit. The model for analyzing the thermal performance of the ISG was verified by comparing its results with those obtained through a generating-mode-based experiment

  3. Numerical study of geometric parameters effecting temperature and thermal efficiency in a premix multi-hole flat flame burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberi Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Saei Moghaddam, Mojtaba; Khorramdel, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the geometric parameters related to thermal efficiency and pollution emission of a multi-hole flat flame burner. Recent experimental studies indicate that such burners are significantly influenced by both the use of distribution mesh and the size of the diameter of the main and retention holes. The present study numerically simulated methane-air premixed combustion using a two-step mechanism and constant mass diffusivity for all species. The results indicate that the addition of distribution mesh leads to uniform flow and maximum temperature that will reduce NOx emissions. An increase in the diameter of the main holes increased the mass flow which increased the temperature, thermal efficiency and NOx emissions. The size of the retention holes should be considered to decrease the total flow velocity and bring the flame closer to the burner surface, although a diameter change did not considerably improve temperature and thermal efficiency. Ultimately, under temperature and pollutant emission constraints, the optimum diameters of the main and retention holes were determined to be 5 and 1.25 mm, respectively. - Highlights: • Using distribution mesh led to uniform flow and reduced Nox pollutant by 53%. • 93% of total heat transfer occurred by radiation method in multi-hole burner. • Employing retention hole caused the flame become closer to the burner surface.

  4. Determining experimentally the parameters of the unsteady thermal behaviour of homogeneously layered walls by the reference plates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beron, Rodolphe

    1988-01-01

    In this work, we introduce an experimental determination method of parameters which are characteristics of the transfer functions of walls in buildings by the use of an easy equipment which use needs no significant constraint. This method called 'reference plates method' is based on the working out of the thermo-grams which result from any thermal perturbation. The first part of our work deals with the theoretical development of the methods of working out the measures used for both single-Iayered and multi-layered walls. The second part discusses the applying of the method on single-Iayered sample. The values of thermophysical characteristics of the wall is based on the working out of the heat equation written in terms an integral transformation which we take as Laplace's transformation. The case of multi-Iayered wall which we discuss in the third part, lead to the determination of 'z transforms coefficients' of the transfer functions of the studied wall. In addition to the theoretical study, we analyse the results of prospective experiments in the fourth part of our work and show the usefulness of such a measurement method. The last part is devoted to the presentation of the application of our work to the determination of thermal parameters of more general wall's configurations. (author) [fr

  5. Effects of waterborne nickel on the physiological and immunological parameters of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Eun Young; Cha, Yong-Joo; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the 96-h LC50 at 22 and 26 °C values was 28.591 and 11.761 mg/L, respectively, for NiCl2 exposure in the abalone. The alteration of physiological and immune-toxicological parameters such as the total hemocyte count (THC), lysozyme, phenoloxidase (PO), and phagocytosis activity was measured in the abalone exposed to nickel (200 and 400 μg/L) under thermal stress for 96 h. In this study, Mg and THC decreased, while Ca, lysozyme, PO, and phagocytosis activity increased in the hemolymph of Pacific abalone exposed to NiCl2 when compared to a control at both 22 and 26 °C. However, these parameters were not affected by a rise in temperature from 22 to 26 °C in non-exposed groups. Our results showed that NiCl2 below 400 μg/L was able to stimulate immune responses in abalone. However, complex stressors, thermal changes, or NiCl2 can modify the immunological response and lead to changes in the physiology of host-pollutant interactions in the abalone.

  6. Beyond maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessmer, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Industry has undergone to decades of evolution in experience, technology and business practices. Link-Miles Simulation Corporation (LMSC) has been contracted to build 68 Full Scope Nuclear Simulators during the 1970's and 1980's. Traditional approaches to design, development and testing have been used to satisfy specifications for initial customer requirements. However, the Industry has matured. All U.S. Nuclear Utilities own, or have under contract, at least one simulator. Other industrial nations have centralized training facilities to satisfy the simulator training needs. The customer of the future is knowledgeable and experienced in the development and service of nuclear simulators. The role of the simulator vendor is changing in order to alter the traditional approach for development. Covenants between the vendors and their customers solidify new complementary roles. This paper presents examples of current simulator project development with recommendations for future endeavors

  7. Calculation of physical and thermo hydro-dynamic parameters of a thermal research reactor; Prorachun fizichkih i toplotno hidro-dinamichkih parametara termichkog istrazhivachkog reaktora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matausek, M; Spasojevic, D; Jovic, V; Marinkovic, N [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    The paper presents initial activities on creating a design concept of a new thermal research reactor, which should be built according to the research and development program in the field of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. For one possible type of such a reactor basic design parameters are specified and some preliminary results of nuclear, thermal and hydrodynamic design calculations are given. (author)

  8. Red Wine Age Estimation by the Alteration of Its Color Parameters: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy as a Tool to Monitor Wine Maturation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Basalekou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Color, phenolic content, and chemical age values of red wines made from Cretan grape varieties (Kotsifali, Mandilari were evaluated over nine months of maturation in different containers for two vintages. The wines differed greatly on their anthocyanin profiles. Mid-IR spectra were also recorded with the use of a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer in ZnSe disk mode. Analysis of Variance was used to explore the parameter’s dependency on time. Determination models were developed for the chemical age indexes using Partial Least Squares (PLS (TQ Analyst software considering the spectral region 1830–1500 cm−1. The correlation coefficients (r for chemical age index i were 0.86 for Kotsifali (Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC = 0.067, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction (RMSEP = 0,115, and Root Mean Square Error of Validation (RMSECV = 0.164 and 0.90 for Mandilari (RMSEC = 0.050, RMSEP = 0.040, and RMSECV = 0.089. For chemical age index ii the correlation coefficients (r were 0.86 and 0.97 for Kotsifali (RMSEC 0.044, RMSEP = 0.087, and RMSECV = 0.214 and Mandilari (RMSEC = 0.024, RMSEP = 0.033, and RMSECV = 0.078, respectively. The proposed method is simpler, less time consuming, and more economical and does not require chemical reagents.

  9. Thermal performance analysis and optimum design parameters of heat exchanger having perforated pin fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Bayram; Demir, Alparslan

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the heat transfer enhancement and corresponding pressure drop over a flat surface equipped with circular cross section perforated pin fins in a rectangular channel. The channel had a cross section area of 100-250 mm 2 . The experiments covered the following ranges: Reynolds number 13500-42,000, clearance ratio (C/H) 0, 0.33 and 1 and interfin spacing ratio (S y /D) 1.208, 1.524, 1.944 and 3.417. Correlation equations were developed for the heat transfer, friction factor and enhancement efficiency. The experimental results showed that the use of circular cross section pin fins may lead to heat transfer enhancement. Enhancement efficiencies varied between 1.4 and 2.6 depending on clearance ratio and interfin spacing ratio. Using a Taguchi experimental design method, optimum design parameters and their levels were investigated. Nusselt number and friction factor were considered as performance parameters. An L 9 (3 3 ) orthogonal array was selected as an experimental plan. First of all, each goal was optimized separately. Then, all the goals were optimized together, considering the priority of the goals, and the optimum results were found to be Reynolds number of 42,000, fin height of 50 mm and streamwise distance between fins of 51 mm

  10. Thermally induced changes of optical and vital parameters in human cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, C.; Schwandt, D.; Beuthan, J.; Mildaziene, V.; Zabarylo, U.; Minet, O.

    2010-11-01

    Minimally invasive laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) presents an alternative method to conventional tumor therapeutically interventions, such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or nuclear medicine. Optical tissue characteristics of tumor cells and their heat-induced changes are essential issues for controlling LITT progressions. Therefore, it is indispensable to exactly know the absorption coefficient μa, the scattering coefficient μs and the anisotropy factor g as well as their changes under rising temperatures in order to simulate the treatment parameters successfully. Optical parameters of two different cancer model tissues - breast cancer cells species MX1 and colon cancer cells species CX1 - were measured in the spectral range 400 - 1100 nm as well as in the temperature range 37 - 60°C. The absorption coefficient of both cell species was low throughout the spectral range analyzed, while μs of both species rose with increasing temperatures. The anisotropy factor g however dropped for both tissues with increasing temperatures. Light scatterings inside tissues proceeded continuously forward for all species tested. It was demonstrated that optical tissue properties undergo significant changes along with the vital status of the cells when the temperature increases.

  11. A Numerical Procedure to Obtain the Creep Parameters of the Thermal Barrier Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Wen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-point bending creep test was used to understand the creep behavior of typical thin film/substrate systems—thermal barrier coating (TBC systems. Firstly, a simplified model, which does not consider the local effect, has been set up to get an analytical relationship. The important result is that creep stress exponent of materials is equal to the creep load exponent of the steady-state deflection rate of BC specimens. Secondly, in order to consider the local effect of bending, the finite element method (FEM has been carried out. FEM calculation shows that there is a steady stage of the creep deflection under a constant applied load. And the exponent of the steady-state creep deflection rate to the applied load is found to be equal to the creep stress exponent of materials. The creep constant of the materials can be obtained by a set of trials with assumed creep constants of materials and can be finally determined by the best fit method. Finally, the finite element results show that the influences of the friction, the thickness of TBCs, and the modulus ratio of TBC to the substrate on stress distribution are important.

  12. The determination of parameters for thermal unit pricing and economic interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, D.W.; Pickles, R.; McPhail, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    When an interchange of energy occurs between adjoining utilities which is not the subject of a predetermined fixed price agreement but is related to the immediate cost of generating and transmitting the power, the purchaser and seller need to know the cost of the power before agreeing to the interchange. A working party from three Maritime utilities was set up to reveiw areas of interchange energy pricing between them and in particular standardize the following aspects: test procedure for a unit heat rate over its load range; maintenance and operating costs; provision for contingency costs; start up costs of units; and a pricing formula considering the above items. The three utilities are Nova Scotia Power Corporation, Maritime Electric, and New Brunswick Power Commission. Details are presented of the three utility's methods of determining heat rate, operating factor, total fuel cost, transmission loss, operations and maintenance costs, gas turbine parameters, pricing formulae, and start up costs. 2 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Measuring opto-thermal parameters of basalt fibers using digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassien, Khaled M; Agour, Mostafa

    2017-02-01

    A method for studying the effect of temperature on the optical properties of basalt fiber is presented. It is based on recording a set of phase-shifted digital holograms for the sample under the test. The holograms are obtained utilizing a system based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer, where the fiber sample inserted in an immersion liquid is placed within a temperature controlled chamber. From the recorded digital holograms the optical path differences which are used to calculate the refractive indices are determined. The accuracy in the measurement of refractive indices is in the range of 4 × 10 -4 . The influence of temperature on the dispersion parameters, polarizability per unit volume and dielectric susceptibility are also obtained. Moreover, the values of dispersion and oscillation energies and Cauchy's constants are provided at different temperatures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. On the treatment of plane fusion front in lumped parameter thermal models with convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tellier, R.; Skrzypek, E.; Saas, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solid phase approximations for a two-phase Stefan fusion problem with convection are analyzed. • A reference solution combines integral conservation eqs and a FE solution of the 1D heat equation. • Numerical results are presented for a transient in light water reactor severe accident analysis. • The models performances are highlighted on fusion transients in terms of Biot and Stefan numbers. - Abstract: Within the framework of lumped parameter models for integral codes, this paper focuses on the modeling of a two-phase Stefan fusion problem with natural convection in the liquid phase. In particular, this specific Stefan problem is of interest when studying corium pool behavior in the framework of light water reactor severe accident analysis. The objective of this research is to analyze the applicability of different approximations related to the modeling of the solid phase in terms of boundary heat flux closure relations. Three different approximations are considered: a quadratic profile based model, a model where a parameter controls the power partitioning at the interface and the steady state conduction assumption. These models are compared with an accurate front-tracking solution of this plane fusion front problem. This “reference” is obtained by combining the same integral conservation equations as the approximate models with a mesh-based solution of the 1D heat equation. Numerical results are discussed for a typical configuration of interest for corium pool analysis. Different fusion transients (constructed from nondimensionalization considerations in terms of Biot and Stefan numbers) are used in order to highlight the potential and limitations of the different approximations.

  15. Determining Correlation between Shark Location and Atmospheric Wind and Thermal Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, J.

    2017-12-01

    Millions of people visit the nation's shorelines every summer. As recreational use of the ocean increases across the country, so too does the risk of shark attacks on people. According to George H. Burgess, curator for the International Shark Attack File and the Florida Program for Shark Research "The number of shark-human interactions occurring in a given year is directly correlated with the amount of time humans spend in the sea. As world population continues its upsurge and interest in aquatic recreation concurrently rises, we realistically should expect increases in the number of shark attacks and other aquatic recreation-related injuries". Burgess' analysis released in February of 2016, states "2015 yearly total of 98 unprovoked attacks (worldwide) was the highest on record" until 2016. Adding to the previous record number of global shark/human interactions in 2015 were 10 confirmed cases of people bitten by sharks off the shores of North Carolina and South Carolina over a five week period in June and July of 2015. The unusually high amount of attacks within close proximity over a short period of time garnered significant media attention nationwide. Preliminary data resulting from the analysis of these 2015 shark attacks and separate acoustic shark location data from Dr. Gregory Skomal's (Program Manager, Senior Marine Fisheries Biologist for the state of Massachusetts) ongoing research across Cape Code do indicate a correlation between environmental and biological factors leading up to human/shark interactions. Not only will these preliminary findings be presented, but a full description of how the use of higher resolution remote sensing and in-situ surface wind and thermal measurements would improve real time detection and prediction of these dangerous conditions, up to hours in advance, mitigating human risk and interaction with shark.

  16. Optimization of the Deposition Parameters of HVOF FeMnCrSi+Ni+B Thermally Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bavaresco Sucharski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHVOF thermal spray process produces coatings with low porosity and low oxide content, as well as high substrate adhesion. Small variations on the parameters of the HVOF process can generate coatings with different characteristics and properties, which also is chemical composition depended of the alloy. FeMnCrSi alloy is a cavitation resistant class of material with a great potential for HVOF deposition use. The main goal of this article is to study the influence of some HVOF parameters deposition, as standoff distance, powder feed rate and carrier gas pressure on three different alloys. FeMnCrSi experimental alloys with some variations in nickel and boron content were studied. Taguchi experimental design with L9 orthogonal array was used in this work. Porosity, oxide content, tensile adhesion strength and microhardness of the coatings were evaluated. The results indicated that all factors have significant influence on these properties. Chemical composition of the alloys was the most important factor, followed by the carrier gas pressure, standoff distance and powder feed rate. The addition of Ni, produces coatings with lower levels of oxide content and porosity. An experiment with improved parameters was conducted, and a great improvement on the coating properties was observed.

  17. Experimental investigation of the role of rock fabric in gas generation and expulsion during thermal maturation: Anhydrous closed-system pyrolysis of a bitumen-rich Eagle Ford Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Deyong; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Li, Yanfang; Zhang, Tongwei

    2018-01-01

    Gold-tube pyrolysis experiments were conducted on miniature core plugs and powdered rock from a bitumen-rich sample of Eagle Ford Shale to investigate the role of rock fabric in gas generation and expulsion during thermal maturation. The samples were isothermally heated at 130, 300, 310, 333, 367, 400, and 425 °C for 72 h under a confining pressure of 68.0 MPa, corresponding to six levels of induced thermal maturity: pre-oil generation (130 °C/72 h), incipient oil/bitumen generation (300 and 310 °C/72 h), early oil generation (333 °C/72 h), peak oil generation (367 °C/72 h), early oil cracking (400 °C/72 h), and late oil cracking (425 °C/72 h). Experimental results show that gas retention coupled with compositional fractionation occurs in the core plug experiments and varies as a function of thermal maturity. During the incipient oil/bitumen generation stage, yields of methane through pentane (C1–C5) from core plugs are significantly lower than those from rock powder, and gases from core plugs are enriched in methane. However, the differences in C1–C5 gas yield and composition decrease throughout the oil generation stage, and by the oil cracking stage no obvious compositional difference in C1–C5 gases exists. The decrease in the effect of rock fabric on gas yield and composition with increasing maturity is the result of an increase in gas expulsion efficiency. Pyrolysis of rock powder yields 4–16 times more CO2 compared to miniature core plugs, with δ13CCO2 values ranging from −2.9‰ to −0.6‰, likely due to carbonate decomposition accelerated by reactions with organic acids. Furthermore, lower yields of gaseous alkenes and H2 from core plug experiments sugge

  18. Analysis of Quality-Related Parameters in Mature Kernels of Polygalacturonase Inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Transgenic Bread Wheat Infected with Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, Stefania; Laino, Paolo; Janni, Michela; Botticella, Ermelinda; Di Carli, Mariasole; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Danieli, Pier Paolo; Lilley, Kathryn S; Lafiandra, Domenico; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-04-22

    Fusarium head blight, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, has a detrimental effect on both productivity and qualitative properties of wheat. To evaluate its impact on wheat flour, we compared its effect on quality-related parameters between a transgenic bread wheat line expressing a bean polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) and its control line. We have compared metabolic proteins, the amounts of gluten proteins and their relative ratios, starch content, yield, extent of pathogen contamination, and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation. These comparisons showed that Fusarium significantly decreases the amount of starch in infected control plants, but not in infected PGIP plants. The flour of PGIP plants contained also a lower amount of pathogen biomass and DON accumulation. Conversely, both gluten and metabolic proteins were not significantly influenced either by the transgene or by fungal infection. These results indicate that the transgenic PGIP expression reduces the level of infection, without changing significantly the wheat seed proteome and other quality-related parameters.

  19. Sulphur and oxygen sequestration of n-C37 and n-C38 unsaturated ketones in an immature kerogen and the release of their carbon skeletons during early stages of thermal maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, M.P.; Schaeffer-Reiss, C.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Maxwell, J.R.; Schaeffer, P.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Sedimentary rock from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin (northern Italy) containing immature (Ro = 0.25%) S-rich organic matter was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at temperatures from 160 to 330??C for 72 h to study the diagenetic fate of n-C37 and n-C38 di-and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones (alkenones) biosynthesised by several prymnesiophyte algae. During early diagenesis, the alkenones are incorporated into the kerogen by both sulphur and oxygen cross-linking as indicated by chemical degradation experiments with the kerogen of the unheated sample. Heating at temperatures between 160 and 260??C, which still represents early stages of thermal maturation, produces large amounts (up to 1 mg/g TOC) of S-bound, O-bound, and both S-and O-bound n-C37 and n-C38 skeletons, saturated n-C37 and n-C38 methyl, ethyl, and mid-chain ketones, C37 and C38 mid-chain 2,5-di-n-alkylthiophenes, C37 and C38 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes, and C37 and C38 n-alkanes. With increasing thermal maturation, three forms of the n-C37 and n-C38 skeletons are relatively stable (saturated hydrocarbons, 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes and saturated ketones), whereas the S-and O-bound skeletons are relatively labile. These results suggest that in natural situations saturated ketones with an n-C37 and n-C38 skeleton can be expected as well as the corresponding hydrocarbons. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Sulphur and oxygen sequestration of n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} unsaturated ketones in an immature kerogen and the release of their carbon skeletons during early stages of thermal maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopmans, M.P.; De Leeuw, J.W.; Damste, J.S.S. [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Den Burg (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Sedimentary rock from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin (northern Italy) containing immature (R{sub o} = 0.25%) S-rich organic matter was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at temperatures from 160 to 330{degrees}C for 72 h to study the diagenetic fate of n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} di- and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones (alkenones) biosynthesised by several prymnesiophyte algae. During early diagenesis, the alkenones are incorporated into the kerogen by both sulphur and oxygen cross-linking as indicated by chemical degradation experiments with the kerogen of the unheated sample. Heating at temperatures between 160 and 260{degrees}C, which still represents early stages of thermal maturation, produces large amounts (up to 1 mg/g TOC) of S-bound, O-bound, and both S- and O-bound n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} skeletons, saturated n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} methyl, ethyl, and mid-chain ketones, C{sub 37} and C{sub 38} mid-chain 2,5-di-n-alkylthiophenes, C{sub 37} and C{sub 38} 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes, and C{sub 37} and C{sub 38} n-alkanes. With increasing thermal maturation, three forms of the n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} skeletons are relatively stable (saturated hydrocarbons, 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes and saturated ketones), whereas the S- and O-bound skeletons are relatively labile. These results suggest that in natural situations saturated ketones with an n-C{sub 37} and n-C{sub 38} skeleton can be expected as well as the corresponding hydrocarbons. 58 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Sulphur and oxygen sequestration of n-C 37 and n-C 38 unsaturated ketones in an immature kerogen and the release of their carbon skeletons during early stages of thermal maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Martin P.; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; de Leeuw, Jan W.; Lewan, Michael D.; Maxwell, James R.; Schaeffer, Philippe; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    1997-06-01

    Sedimentary rock from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin (northern Italy) containing immature ( Ro = 0.25%) S-rich organic matter was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at temperatures from 160 to 330°C for 72 h to study the diagenetic fate of n-C 37 and n-C 38 di- and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones (alkenones) biosynthesised by several prymnesiophyte algae. During early diagenesis, the alkenones are incorporated into the kerogen by both sulphur and oxygen cross-linking as indicated by chemical degradation experiments with the kerogen of the unheated sample. Heating at temperatures between 160 and 260°C, which still represents early stages of thermal maturation, produces large amounts (up to 1 mg/g TOC) of S-bound, O-bound, and both S- and O-bound n-C 37 and n-C 38 skeletons, saturated n-C 37 and n-C38 methyl, ethyl, and mid-chain ketones, C 37 and C 38 mid-chain 2,5-di- n-alkylthiophenes, C 37 and C 38 1,2-di- n-alkylbenzenes, and C 37 and C 38n-alkanes. With increasing thermal maturation, three forms of the n-C 37 and n-C 38 skeletons are relatively stable (saturated hydrocarbons, 1,2-di- n-alkylbenzenes and saturated ketones), whereas the S- and O-bound skeletons are relatively labile. These results suggest that in natural situations saturated ketones with an n-C 37 and n-C 38 skeleton can be expected as well as the corresponding hydrocarbons.

  2. Parameter optimization and evaluation of mechanical and thermal properties of nanographene reinforced Al 6060 surface composite using FSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanamanohar, V.; Appalachari, D. Gireesh Chandra

    2018-04-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) is emerging as a promising technique for making surface composites. FSP can improve surface properties such as hardness, strength, ductility, corrosion resistance, fatigue life and formability without affecting the bulk properties of the material. The literatures reported that FSP can produces very fine equiaxed and homogeneous grain structure for different Al alloys. Al 6060 is heat treatable alloy which has high thermal and electrical properties than remaining Al alloys. Al 6060 is being used where high rate of heat exchange is needed i.e. engine cylinders, heat exchangers etc. As derived from the carbon materials, like graphene and CNTs dissipates heat rapidly that improves the life of the engine cylinders and heat exchangers. In this work, nanographene is reinforced in the Al 6060 using friction stir processing at different rotational speeds, traverse speeds, and at constant load and tool tilt angle. After processed, the effect of process parameters on microstructure of the surface composite was investigated. The SEM studies shows that the FSP produces very fine and homogenous grain structure and it is observed that smaller grain size structure is obtained at lower traverse speed and higher rotational speeds. Significant improvement in ultimate tensile strength(22.9%) and hardness (22.44%) when compared friction stir processed plate at 1400 rotational speed and 20mm/min traverse speed with base Al 6060 plate. Coefficient of thermal expansion test of nanographene reinforced Al 6060 shows 7.33% decrease in its coefficient of thermal expansion as graphene has tendency to reduce the anisotropic nature.

  3. The determination of maturity levels in source rocks of the La Luna Formation, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela, based on convention geochemical parameters and asphaltenes; Determinacao do grau de maturacao em rochas geradoras de petroleo, formacao La Luna, Bacia de Maracaibo, Venezuela: parametros geoquimicos convencionais e asfaltenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, L.P. de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Pesquisas sobre o Armazenamento de Carbono; Franco, N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Lopez, L.; Lo Monaco, S.; Escobar, G. [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Caracas (Venezuela); Kalkreuth, W. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Analises de Carvao e Rochas Geradoras de Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    The La Luna Formation, main source rock of the Maracaibo Basin was studied by conventional geochemical parameters, used to determine the maturity, and they were compared with the physic-chemical and molecular properties of the asphaltenes present in the bitumen of the rocks. Three wells were studied (A, B and C) with a total of 13 samples. Based on Rock-Eval results the organic matter in well A (455 deg C Tmax) shows a relatively high level of maturation (top of the oil window), whereas the organic matter in well B (435 - 436 deg C Tmax) is in the beginning of the oil window. Tmax values in well C (438 - 446 deg C) and well C suggest an intermediate maturity level. The biomarkers identified in well B and C show ratios indicating an equilibrium state in the maturity level. A good correlation was found comparing the conventional analytical data with the determination of maturity level obtained from the asphaltenes precipitated from the bitumen of the samples. With increased maturity levels the H1 NMR analysis showed enrichment in aromatic molecules in relation to aliphatic, due to the bitumen aromatization process. Similarly, the asphaltenes molecular weight has higher values in samples characterized by elevated maturity levels. This confirms earlier studies that showed that asphaltenes may be utilized as maturity parameter of organic matter. (author)

  4. Effects of plasma jet parameters, ionization, thermal conduction, and radiation on stagnation conditions of an imploding plasma liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, Milos

    The disciplines of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are characterized by hypervelocity implosions and strong shocks. The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is focused on reaching HEDP and/or ICF relevant regimes in excess of 1 Mbar peak pressure by the merging and implosion of discrete plasma jets, as a potentially efficient path towards these extreme conditions in a laboratory. In this work we have presented the first 3D simulations of plasma liner, formation, and implosion by the merging of discrete plasma jets in which ionization, thermal conduction, and radiation are all included in the physics model. The study was conducted by utilizing a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHC) and was a part of the plasma liner experiment (PLX). The salient physics processes of liner formation and implosion are studied, namely vacuum propagation of plasma jets, merging of the jets (liner forming), implosion (liner collapsing), stagnation (peak pressure), and expansion (rarefaction wave disassembling the target). Radiative transport was found to significantly reduce the temperature of the liner during implosion, thus reducing the thermal expansion rates and leaving more pronounced gradients in the plasma liner during the implosion compared with ideal hydrodynamic simulations. These pronounced gradients lead to a greater sensitivity of initial jet geometry and symmetry on peak pressures obtained. Accounting for ionization and transport, many cases gave higher peak pressures than the ideal hydrodynamic simulations. Scaling laws were developed accordingly, creating a non-dimensional parameter space in which performance of an imploding plasma jet liner can be estimated. It is shown that HEDP regimes could be reached with ≈ 5 MJ of liner energy, which would translate to roughly 10 to 20 MJ of stored (capacitor) energy. This is a potentially significant improvement over the currently available means via ICF of achieving HEDP and nuclear

  5. Aero-thermal optimization of film cooling flow parameters on the suction surface of a high pressure turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayoubi, Carole; Hassan, Ibrahim; Ghaly, Wahid

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to optimize film coolant flow parameters on the suction surface of a high-pressure gas turbine blade in order to obtain an optimum compromise between a superior cooling performance and a minimum aerodynamic penalty. An optimization algorithm coupled with three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes analysis is used to determine the optimum film cooling configuration. The VKI blade with two staggered rows of axially oriented, conically flared, film cooling holes on its suction surface is considered. Two design variables are selected; the coolant to mainstream temperature ratio and total pressure ratio. The optimization objective consists of maximizing the spatially averaged film cooling effectiveness and minimizing the aerodynamic penalty produced by film cooling. The effect of varying the coolant flow parameters on the film cooling effectiveness and the aerodynamic loss is analyzed using an optimization method and three dimensional steady CFD simulations. The optimization process consists of a genetic algorithm and a response surface approximation of the artificial neural network type to provide low-fidelity predictions of the objective function. The CFD simulations are performed using the commercial software CFX. The numerical predictions of the aero-thermal performance is validated against a well-established experimental database.

  6. Investigating Electrostatic Precipitator Design Parameters for Efficient Control of Particulate Matter in Thermal Power Plant: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, P.; Gautam, N.; Chandra, H.

    2018-02-01

    This work deals with the analysis and modification of operational parameters for meeting the emission standards, set by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) from time to time of electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The analysis is carried out by using standard chemical analysis supplemented by the relevant data collected from Korba East Phase (Ph)-III thermal power plant, under Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) operating at Korba, Chhattisgarh. Chemical analysis is used to predict the emission level for different parameters of ESP. The results reveal that for a constant outlet PM concentration and fly ash percentage, the total collection area decreases with the increase in migration velocity. For constant migration velocity and outlet PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the increase in the fly ash percent. For constant migration velocity and outlet e PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the ash content in the coal. i.e. from minimum ash to maximum ash. As far as the efficiency is concerned, it increases with the fly ash percent, ash content and the inlet dust concentration but decreases with the outlet PM concentration at constant migration velocity, fly ash and ash content.

  7. Investigating Electrostatic Precipitator Design Parameters for Efficient Control of Particulate Matter in Thermal Power Plant: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, P.; Gautam, N.; Chandra, H.

    2018-06-01

    This work deals with the analysis and modification of operational parameters for meeting the emission standards, set by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) from time to time of electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The analysis is carried out by using standard chemical analysis supplemented by the relevant data collected from Korba East Phase (Ph)-III thermal power plant, under Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) operating at Korba, Chhattisgarh. Chemical analysis is used to predict the emission level for different parameters of ESP. The results reveal that for a constant outlet PM concentration and fly ash percentage, the total collection area decreases with the increase in migration velocity. For constant migration velocity and outlet PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the increase in the fly ash percent. For constant migration velocity and outlet e PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the ash content in the coal. i.e. from minimum ash to maximum ash. As far as the efficiency is concerned, it increases with the fly ash percent, ash content and the inlet dust concentration but decreases with the outlet PM concentration at constant migration velocity, fly ash and ash content.

  8. Predictable anomalies of process parameters on failure mode of internal structures in RPV by transient thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Akira; Mori, Michitsugu; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Konishi, Hideo

    1997-01-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate how process parameters will exhibit the change in the event of the troubles related to reactor internal by using transient thermal-hydraulic analysis codes (RETRAN3D-MOD002, etc.). In the present study, the following six events are analytically investigated: 1) a leak from the upper plenum; 2) a leak from the middle part of a shroud; 3) a leak from the lower plenum; 4) a leak from the riser pipe for the jet-pump; 5) the blockage of the jet-pump nozzle; and 6) a leak from the jet-pump diffuser. The results by analyses indicated that the leak from the upper plenum resulted in increasing in the inlet temperature of primary loop recirculation (PLR) and in the differential pressure at the core support plate, and decreasing in the neutron flux (reactor power). Similar analyses were made for the five other events to identify the pattern of relevant process parameter variation in each event. (author)

  9. Junction temperature measurements via thermo-sensitive electrical parameters and their application to condition monitoring and active thermal control of power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Liserre, Marco; Dupont, L.

    2013-01-01

    implementation of active thermal control to reduce losses and increase lifetime can be performed given an accurate knowledge of temperature. Temperature measurements via thermo-sensitive electrical parameters (TSEP) are one way to carry out immediate temperature readings on fully packaged devices. However...... scale implementation of these methods are discussed. Their potential use in the aforementioned goals in condition monitoring and active thermal control is also described....

  10. Acoustic and Petrophysical Evolution of Organic-Rich Chalk Following Maturation Induced by Unconfined Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitrit, Omri; Hatzor, Yossef H.; Feinstein, Shimon; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal maturation is known to influence the rock physics of organic-rich rocks. While most studies were performed on low-porosity organic-rich shales, here we examine the effect of thermal maturation on a high-porosity organic-rich chalk. We compare the physical properties of native state immature rock with the properties at two pyrolysis-simulated maturity levels: early-mature and over-mature. We further evaluate the applicability of results from unconfined pyrolysis experiments to naturally matured rock properties. Special attention is dedicated to the elastic properties of the organic phase and the influence of bitumen and kerogen contents. Rock physics is studied based on confined petrophysical measurements of porosity, density and permeability, and measurements of bedding-normal acoustic velocities at estimated field stresses. Geochemical parameters like total organic carbon (TOC), bitumen content and thermal maturation indicators are used to monitor variations in density and volume fraction of each phase. We find that porosity increases significantly upon pyrolysis and that P wave velocity decreases in accordance. Solids density versus TOC relationships indicate that the kerogen increases its density from 1.43 to 1.49 g/cc at the immature and early-mature stages to 2.98 g/cc at the over-mature stage. This density value is unusually high, although increase in S wave velocity and backscatter SEM images of the over-mature samples verify that the over-mature kerogen is significantly denser and stiffer. Using the petrophysical and acoustic properties, the elastic moduli of the rock are estimated by two Hashin-Shtrikman (HS)-based models: "HS + BAM" and "HS kerogen." The "HS + BAM" model is calibrated to the post-pyrolysis measurements to describe the mechanical effect of the unconfined pyrolysis on the rock. The absence of compaction in the pyrolysis process causes the post-pyrolysis samples to be extremely porous. The "HS kerogen" model, which simulates a

  11. Impact of seasonal thermal stress on physiological and blood biochemical parameters in pigs under different dietary energy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, P K; Roychoudhury, R; Saharia, J; Borah, M C; Dutta, D J; Bhuyan, R; Kalita, D

    2018-06-01

    The present study was formulated to find out the status of important season related thermal stress biomarkers of pure-bred (Hampshire) and crossbred (50% Hampshire × 50% local) pigs under the agro-climatic condition of Assam State, India. The experiment was also aimed to study the role of different level of energy ration (110, 100, and 90% energy of NRC feeding standard for pig) in variation of physiological and biochemical parameters in two genetic groups of pigs in different seasons. The metabolizable energy value were 3260, 2936.5, and 3585.8 kcal/kg in grower ration and 3260.2, 2936.6, and 3587 kcal/kg in finisher ration for normal energy (NE), low energy (LE) and high energy (HE), respectively. Both the genetic group of animals were housed separately under intensive system of management. Each pen was measuring 10' × 12' along with an outer enclosure. Six weaned piglets (almost similar body weight of average 10.55 kg) of each group were kept in a separate pen. However, after attainment of 35 kg body weight, the animals of a group were divided in two pens of three animals each. The present experiment indicated that average ambient temperature during summer months (27.33-29.51 °C) was above the comfort zone for pigs (22 °C). The significantly (P energy (HE) ration during summer season. Serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) concentrations were significantly (P energy level of the ration might be helpful to minimize the effects of thermal stress during summer.

  12. Implicit Treatment of Technical Specification and Thermal Hydraulic Parameter Uncertainties in Gaussian Process Model to Estimate Safety Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A. Fynan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gaussian process model (GPM is a flexible surrogate model that can be used for nonparametric regression for multivariate problems. A unique feature of the GPM is that a prediction variance is automatically provided with the regression function. In this paper, we estimate the safety margin of a nuclear power plant by performing regression on the output of best-estimate simulations of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident with sampling of safety system configuration, sequence timing, technical specifications, and thermal hydraulic parameter uncertainties. The key aspect of our approach is that the GPM regression is only performed on the dominant input variables, the safety injection flow rate and the delay time for AC powered pumps to start representing sequence timing uncertainty, providing a predictive model for the peak clad temperature during a reflood phase. Other uncertainties are interpreted as contributors to the measurement noise of the code output and are implicitly treated in the GPM in the noise variance term, providing local uncertainty bounds for the peak clad temperature. We discuss the applicability of the foregoing method to reduce the use of conservative assumptions in best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU and Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA success criteria definitions while dealing with a large number of uncertainties.

  13. Effect of substrate temperature on the optical parameters of thermally evaporated Ge-Se-Te thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Pankaj, E-mail: pks_phy@yahoo.co.i [Department of Physics, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, H.P. 173215 India (India); Katyal, S.C. [Department of Physics, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, H.P. 173215 India (India)

    2009-05-01

    Thin films of Ge{sub 10}Se{sub 90-x}Te{sub x} (x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50) glassy alloys were deposited at three substrate temperatures (303 K, 363 K and 423 K) using conventional thermal evaporation technique at base pressure of {approx} 10{sup -4} Pa. X-ray diffraction results show that films deposited at 303 K are of amorphous nature while films deposited at 363 K and 423 K are of polycrystalline nature. The optical parameters, refractive index and optical gap have been derived from the transmission spectra (using UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer) of the thin films in the spectral region 400-1500 nm. This has been observed that refractive index values remain almost constant while the optical gap is found to decrease considerably with the increase of substrate temperature. The decrease in optical gap is explained on the basis of change in nature of films, from amorphous to polycrystalline state, with the increase of substrate temperature. The optical gap has also been observed to decrease with the increase of Te content.

  14. Influence of compositions on thermal stability and thermodynamic parameter in Ca-Mg-Cu bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, A. A.; Khond, A. A.; Palikundwar, U. A.

    2018-05-01

    In the present manuscript, influence of compositions on thermal stability (ΔTx) and thermodynamic parameter PHSS of Ca-Mg-Cu bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is evaluated. The statistical approach of regression analysis is adopted to investigate the compositional variation with ΔTx and PHSS. It is found that calcium (Ca) and copper (Cu) content has goodlinear relationship with ΔTx and PHSS. It is observed that with increase in Ca content, ΔTx and PHSS decreases. On the other hand, increase in Cu content, both ΔTx and PHSS increases. Correlation fit of magnesium (Mg) content with both ΔTx and PHSS is very poor. A graph is also plotted to understand the relationship between ΔTx and PHSS. Result of the relationship between ΔTx and PHSS reveals that the alloy composition having more negative value of PHSS will have more stability. Therefore, compositions with more negative value of PHSS will lead to ease of BMGs formation in Ca-Mg-Cu alloy system and hence more stable it will be. It is expected that these results will be supportive in identifying the compositions having these elements for making BMGs.

  15. Grüneisen Parameter and Thermal Expansion by the Self-Consistent Renormalization Theory of Spin Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinji; Miyake, Kazumasa

    2018-03-01

    The thermal expansion coefficient α and the Grüneisen parameter Γ near the magnetic quantum critical point (QCP) are derived on the basis of the self-consistent renormalization (SCR) theory of spin fluctuations. From the SCR entropy, the specific heat CV, α, and Γ are shown to be expressed in a simple form as CV = Ca - Cb, α = αa + αb, and Γ = Γa + Γb, respectively, where Ci, αi, and Γi (i = a, b) are related with each other. As the temperature T decreases, Ca, αb, and Γb become dominant in CV, α, and Γ, respectively. The inverse susceptibility of spin fluctuation coupled to the volume V in Γb is found to give rise to the divergence of Γ at the QCP for each class of ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism (AFM) in spatial dimensions d = 3 and 2. This V-dependent inverse susceptibility in αb and Γb contributes to the T dependences of α and Γ, and even affects their criticality in the case of the AFM QCP in d = 2. Γa is expressed as Γ a(T = 0) = - V/T0( {partial T0}/{partial V} )T = 0 with T0 being the characteristic temperature of spin fluctuation, which has an enhanced value in heavy electron systems.

  16. An increase of structural order parameter in Fe endash Co endash V soft magnetic alloy after thermal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Q.; Li, L.; Masteller, M.S.; Del Corso, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Alloys of Fe 49 Co 49 V 2 (Hiperco Alloy 50) (Hiperco is a registered trademark of CRS Holdings, Inc.), both annealed and thermally aged, were studied using anomalous synchrotron x-ray and neutron powder diffraction. Rietveld and diffraction profile analysis indicated both an increase in the structural order parameter and a small lattice expansion (∼0.0004 A) after aging at 450 degree C for 200 h. In addition, a cubic minority phase (<0.3%) was identified in the open-quote open-quote annealed close-quote close-quote sample, which increased noticeably (0.3%→0.8%) as a result of aging. The presence of antiphase domain boundaries in the alloys was also revealed. These results directly correlate with the observed changes in the magnetization behavior and challenge the notion that a open-quote open-quote fully close-quote close-quote ordered Fe endash Co alloy demonstrates optimum soft magnetic properties. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Effect of high-pressure processing and thermal pasteurization on overall quality parameters of white grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Hsuan; Wu, Sz-Jie; Chen, Bang-Yuan; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Chung-Yi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial levels, physicochemical and antioxidant properties and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities as well as to conduct a sensory analysis of white grape juice treated with high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal pasteurization (TP), over a period of 20 days of refrigerated storage. HPP treatment of 600 MPa and TP significantly reduced aerobic bacteria, coliform and yeast/mold counts. At day 20 of storage, HPP-600 juice displayed no significant differences compared with fresh juice in terms of physicochemical properties such as titratable acidity, pH and soluble solids, and retained less than 50% PPO and POD activities. Although significant differences were observed in the color, antioxidant contents and antioxidant capacity of HPP-treated juice, the extent of these differences was substantially lower than that in TP-treated juice, indicating that HPP treatment can better retain the quality of grape juice. Sensory testing showed no significant difference between HPP-treated juice and fresh juice, while TP reduced the acceptance of grape juice. This study shows that HPP treatment maintained the overall quality parameters of white grape juice, thus effectively extending the shelf life during refrigerated storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Thermal Orbital Environmental Parameter Study on the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) Using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, John R.; McConnaughey, Paul K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The natural thermal environmental parameters used on the Space Station Program (SSP 30425) were generated by the Space Environmental Effects Branch at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) utilizing extensive data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), a series of satellites which measured low earth orbit (LEO) albedo and outgoing long-wave radiation. Later, this temporal data was presented as a function of averaging times and orbital inclination for use by thermal engineers in NASA Technical Memorandum TM 4527. The data was not presented in a fashion readily usable by thermal engineering modeling tools and required knowledge of the thermal time constants and infrared versus solar spectrum sensitivity of the hardware being analyzed to be used properly. Another TM was recently issued as a guideline for utilizing these environments (NASA/TM-2001-211221) with more insight into the utilization by thermal analysts. This paper gives a top-level overview of the environmental parameters presented in the TM and a study of the effects of implementing these environments on an ongoing MSFC project, the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS), compared to conventional orbital parameters that had been historically used.

  19. Effect of primary and secondary parameters on analytical estimation of effective thermal conductivity of two phase materials using unit cell approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Chidambara Raja; P, Karthikeyan; Kumaraswamidhas, L. A.; M, Ramu

    2018-05-01

    Most of the thermal design systems involve two phase materials and analysis of such systems requires detailed understanding of the thermal characteristics of the two phase material. This article aimed to develop geometry dependent unit cell approach model by considering the effects of all primary parameters (conductivity ratio and concentration) and secondary parameters (geometry, contact resistance, natural convection, Knudsen and radiation) for the estimation of effective thermal conductivity of two-phase materials. The analytical equations have been formulated based on isotherm approach for 2-D and 3-D spatially periodic medium. The developed models are validated with standard models and suited for all kind of operating conditions. The results have shown substantial improvement compared to the existing models and are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Study of the decomposition of phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN) by simultaneous thermal analysis: determination of kinetic parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, P. N.; Pedroso, L. M.; Portugal, A. A.; Campos, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) has been extensively used both in explosive and propellant formulations. Unlike AN, there is a lack of information about the thermal decomposition and related kinetic analysis of phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN). Simultaneous thermal analysis (DSC-TG) has been used in the thermal characterisation of a specific type of PSAN containing 1.0% of NiO (stabilizing agent) and 0.5% of Petro (anti-caking agent) as additives. Repeated runs covering the nominal heating rate...

  1. Development of neutronic models for the thermal hydraulics coupling of the MSFR and the calculation of effective kinetic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureau, Axel

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, we describe the development of innovative neutronic models for their coupling with thermal hydraulics such that they combine precision and reasonable computational times. One of the main cases where this method is applied is the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) whose combines a fast neutron spectrum with a thorium cycle. In this fourth generation reactor, the motion of the delayed neutron precursors and the associated phenomena have to be taken into account due to the liquid fuel circulation. The starting point for these developments was the preliminary design of this type of system where a dedicated multi-physical representation was needed to study the reactor performance in steady and transient conditions. As a first step, a stationary coupling was developed. A neutronic model based on a stochastic approach was associated to a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code to solve the Navier Stokes equations for turbulent flows and the transport of the delayed neutron precursors. The impact of this precursor motion is taken into account by reconstructing the prompt shower that they generate. This approach, called by shower, views the critical reactor as a prompt subcritical reactor that amplifies a source of delayed neutrons. A second step consisted in developing a neutronic model based on a time dependent version of the fission matrices (Transient Fission Matrix or TFM) so as to enable reactor transient studies. With the TFM model, an initial computation of the matrices with a stochastic code (MCNP, SERPENT) allows the characterization of the global spatial and time dependent neutronic response of the reactor with a precision close to that of a Monte Carlo calculation. The information thus obtained is then used to calculate transients, while retaining the advantage of reduced computational time. The TFM model, which can be used for various system concepts, also allows the evaluation of effective kinetic parameters such as the effective fraction of

  2. Interconnection of thermal parameters, microstructure and mechanical properties in directionally solidified Sn–Sb lead-free solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Marcelino; Costa, Thiago [Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Otávio [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pará — IFPA, 66093-020 Belém, PA (Brazil); Spinelli, José E. [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos — UFSCar, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Cheung, Noé, E-mail: cheung@fem.unicamp.br [Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Amauri [Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Considerable effort is being made to develop lead-free solders for assembling in environmental-conscious electronics, due to the inherent toxicity of Pb. The search for substitute alloys of Pb–Sn solders has increased in order to comply with different soldering purposes. The solder must not only meet the expected levels of electrical performance but may also have appropriate mechanical strength, with the absence of cracks in the solder joints. The Sn–Sb alloy system has a range of compositions that can be potentially included in the class of high temperature solders. This study aims to establish interrelations of solidification thermal parameters, microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn–Sb alloys (2 wt.%Sb and 5.5 wt.%Sb) samples, which were directionally solidified under cooling rates similar to those of reflow procedures in industrial practice. A complete high-cooling rate cellular growth is shown to be associated with the Sn–2.0 wt.%Sb alloy and a reverse dendrite-to-cell transition is observed for the Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy. Strength and ductility of the Sn–2.0 wt.%Sb alloy are shown not to be affected by the cellular spacing. On the other hand, a considerable variation in these properties is associated with the cellular region of the Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy casting. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The microstructure of the Sn–2 wt.%Sb alloy is characterized by high-cooling rates cells. • Reverse dendrite > cell transition occurs for Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy: cells prevail for cooling rates > 1.2 K/s. • Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy: the dendritic region occurs for cooling rates < 0.9 K/s. • Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy: tensile properties are improved with decreasing cellular spacing.

  3. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic parameters determination of biomass fuel powders by differential thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, Saad A.; Mostafa, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The sugarcane bagasse powder has better energy value compared to the cotton stalks. • Bagasse moisture is entrained in its cell walls and its evaporation needs more energy. • The cotton stalks is more reactive and readily combustible than the bagasse powders. • A lower E and A 0 has been found for bagasse compared with cotton stalks powders. • Calculated E of bagasse and cotton stalks by direct and integral methods are different. - Abstract: The kinetics of the thermal decomposition of the two biomass materials (sugarcane bagasse and cotton stalks powders) were evaluated using a differential thermo-gravimetric analyzer under a non-isothermal condition. Two distinct reaction zones were observed for the two biomasses. The direct Arrhenius plot method and the integral method were applied for determination of kinetic parameters: activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and order of reaction. The weight loss curve showed that pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and cotton stalks took place mainly in the range of 200–500 °C. The activation energy of the sugarcane bagasse powder obtained by the direct Arrhenius plot method ranged between 43 and 53.5 kJ/mol. On the other side, the integral method shows larger values of activation energy (77–87.7 kJ/mol). The activation energy of the cotton stalks powder obtained by the direct Arrhenius plot method was ranged between 98.5 and 100.2 kJ/mol, but the integral method shows larger values of activation energy (72.5–127.8 kJ/mol)

  4. Resolving the influential parameters of thermal comfort perception amidst indoor-outdoor spatial transitions: Case study in a lecture room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.T.H.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Mishra, A.K.; Kort, H.S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Indoor to outdoor transitions have an undeniable impact on thermal perception of occupants and can impact their evaluation of a building. These aspects are often overlooked in thermal comfort standards. We address this gap using a mixed methods study, with students in undergraduate level classrooms

  5. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  6. Neural network-based preprocessing to estimate the parameters of the X-ray emission of a single-temperature thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinohe, Y.; Yamada, S.; Miyazaki, N.; Saito, S.

    2018-04-01

    We present data preprocessing based on an artificial neural network to estimate the parameters of the X-ray emission spectra of a single-temperature thermal plasma. The method finds appropriate parameters close to the global optimum. The neural network is designed to learn the parameters of the thermal plasma (temperature, abundance, normalization and redshift) of the input spectra. After training using 9000 simulated X-ray spectra, the network has grown to predict all the unknown parameters with uncertainties of about a few per cent. The performance dependence on the network structure has been studied. We applied the neural network to an actual high-resolution spectrum obtained with Hitomi. The predicted plasma parameters agree with the known best-fitting parameters of the Perseus cluster within uncertainties of ≲10 per cent. The result shows that neural networks trained by simulated data might possibly be used to extract a feature built in the data. This would reduce human-intensive preprocessing costs before detailed spectral analysis, and would help us make the best use of the large quantities of spectral data that will be available in the coming decades.

  7. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  8. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  9. Thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania: Chapter F.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Hower, James C.; Grady, William C.; Levine, Jeffrey R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal maturation patterns of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin and part of the Black Warrior basin were determined by compiling previously published and unpublished percent-vitrinite-reflectance (%R0) measurements and preparing isograd maps on the basis of the measurements. The isograd values range from 0.6 %R0 in Ohio and the western side of the Eastern Kentucky coal field to 5.5 %R0 in the Southern field in the Pennsylvania Anthracite region, Schuylkill County, Pa. The vitrinite-reflectance values correspond to the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) coal-rank classes of high-volatile C bituminous to meta-anthracite, respectively. In general, the isograds show that thermal maturity patterns of Pennsylvanian coals within the Appalachian basin generally decrease from east to west. In the Black Warrior basin of Alabama, the isograds show a circular pattern with the highest values (greater than 1.6 %R0) centered in Jefferson County, Ala. Most of the observed patterns can be explained by variations in the depth of burial, variations in geothermal gradient, or a combination of both; however, there are at least four areas of higher ranking coal in the Appalachian basin that are difficult to explain by these two processes alone: (1) a set of west- to northwest-trending salients centered in Somerset, Cambria, and Fayette Counties, Pa.; (2) an elliptically shaped, northeast-trending area centered in southern West Virginia and western Virginia; (3) the Pennsylvania Anthracite region in eastern Pennsylvania; and (4) the eastern part of the Black Warrior coal field in Alabama. The areas of high-ranking coal in southwestern Pennsylvania, the Black Warrior coal field, and the Pennsylvania Anthracite region are interpreted here to represent areas of higher paleo-heat flow related to syntectonic movement of hot fluids towards the foreland associated with Alleghanian deformation. In addition to the higher heat flow from these fluids, the Pennsylvania

  10. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions: Overview of the Technology Maturation Efforts Funded by NASA's Game Changing Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robin A.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Fan, Wendy; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASA's Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASA's exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agency's 2011 strategic goal to "Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future." In addition, recently released "NASA space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities," by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reduction in spacecraft structural mass; more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems; more efficient lighter propulsion systems; and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location (s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the

  11. The determination of the space distribution, energy spectrum and dose parameters of thermal column beam resulting from swimming pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changmao; Xie Jianlun; Leng Ruiping; Song Shushou; Su Jingling

    1991-01-01

    The axial and radial distribution, epithermal energy spectrum and dose equivalent rate of thermal column beam resulting from SPR have been determined in the Institute of Atomic Energy. The results show that the neutron fluence rate along the axial direction decreases as the distance increases outside the thermal column channel, and the trend of fluence rate attenuation follows approximately the inverse square law of a point source. When the reactor thermal power rate is 3 MW, at a distance of 50 cm to the channel, the thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate are about 1.61 x 10 7 and 6.1 x 10 4 n/cm 2 · s respectively; dose equivalent rates are some 62 and 2.9 cSv/h respectively. At the end of the chennal, γ dose equivalent rate is 60 cSv/h or so

  12. Application of complex geometrical optics to determination of thermal, transport, and optical parameters of thin films by the photothermal beam deflection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Dorota; Franko, Mladen

    2015-01-01

    In this work, complex geometrical optics is, for what we believe is the first time, applied instead of geometrical or wave optics to describe the probe beam interaction with the field of the thermal wave in photothermal beam deflection (photothermal deflection spectroscopy) experiments on thin films. On the basis of this approach the thermal (thermal diffusivity and conductivity), optical (energy band gap), and transport (carrier lifetime) parameters of the semiconductor thin films (pure TiO2, N- and C-doped TiO2, or TiO2/SiO2 composites deposited on a glass or aluminum support) were determined with better accuracy and simultaneously during one measurement. The results are in good agreement with results obtained by the use of other methods and reported in the literature.

  13. Environmental parameters of the Tennessee River in Alabama. 2: Physical, chemical, and biological parameters. [biological and chemical effects of thermal pollution from nuclear power plants on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological water quality data from five sites in the Tennessee River, two in Guntersville Reservoir and three in Wheeler Reservoir were correlated with climatological data for three annual cycles. Two of the annual cycles are for the years prior to the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant operations and one is for the first 14 months of Plant operations. A comparison of the results of the annual cycles indicates that two distinct physical conditions in the reservoirs occur, one during the warm months when the reservoirs are at capacity and one during the colder winter months when the reservoirs have been drawn-down for water storage during the rainy months and for weed control. The wide variations of physical and chemical parameters to which the biological organisms are subjected on an annual basis control the biological organisms and their population levels. A comparison of the parameters of the site below the Power plant indicates that the heated effluent from the plant operating with two of the three reactors has not had any effect on the organisms at this site. Recommendations given include the development of prediction mathematical models (statistical analysis) for the physical and chemical parameters under specific climatological conditions which affect biological organisms. Tabulated data of chemical analysis of water and organism populations studied is given.

  14. Statistical analysis of parameters of river waters of Tikara and Brahmani near the proposed super thermal power plant site at Talcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, G.E.; Muthu Kumar, M.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed study on water quality was conducted on rivers Tikara and Brahmani one of which (Brahmani) is the source of water for super thermal power plant in Talcher, Orissa. Four sites were selected for study, 2 in Tikara and the rest in Brahmani. Person's correlation coefficient was worked for all the water quality parameters. High correlations were observed between conductivity with TDS, calcium and chlorides. High correlations were also observed between hardness with chlorides and calcium, and it has been concluded that the result will help in the calculation of some of the parameters without experimental determination. The analyses, show that there is no appreciable pollution in these rivers. However, flyash and pollutants from thermal plant might pollute these rivers. Suggestions have been given to abate pollution. (author)

  15. Disequilibria in the disintegration series of U and Th and chemical parameters in thermal spring waters from the Tatun volcanic area (Taiwan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chunchih; Chu Tiehchi; Huang Yufen

    2003-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 228 Th in thermal spring waters in the Tatun volcanic area were determined. Parameters including acidity, Cl - and SO 4 2- concentrations in spring waters at the sampling sites have been investigated to allow interpretation of the migration of the radionuclides, and to elucidate the influence of these parameters on the variations of radionuclide contents. Radioactive disequilibria were found in uranium and thorium series in thermal spring waters. The contents of uranium and thorium decreased with increasing pH. The ratios of 230 Th/ 234 U, 226 Ra/ 230 Th and 228 Th/ 232 Th show significant disequilibria. The 226 Ra/ 230 Th ratio (0.60-34.8) decreased with the Cl - or SO 4 2- concentration. All 228 Th/ 232 Th ratios (1.01-9.49) deviated from unity due to the co-precipitation of 228 Ra with barium and lead sulfate. (orig.)

  16. Neutron importance calculation in an equivalent cell using the age approximation and differential thermalization models. Determination of the cross section sensitivity to the parameters of a differential model in the thermal range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, V.D.

    1978-01-01

    The equations are discussed for calculating the importance of neutron function in heterogeneous media obtained with the integral transport theory method. The thermalization effect in the thermal range is described using the differential model. The account of neutron slowing-down in the epithermal range is accomplished in the age approximation. The fast range is described in the 3-group approximation. On the basis of the equations derived the share of delayed neutrons and lifetimes of prompt neutrons are calculated and compared with available experimental data. In the thermal range the sensitivity of cross sections to some parameters of the differential model is analyzed for reactor cells typical for WWER type reactor cores. The models and approximations used are found to be adequate for the calculations

  17. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is influenced by environmental parameters as well as other influences including asymmetric heating and cooling conditions. Additionally, some aspects of thermal comfort may be exploited so as to enable a building to operate within a...

  18. Infrared observations of eclipses of Io, its thermophysical parameters, and the thermal radiation of the Loki volcano and environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, William M.; Kaminski, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Observations of Io during eclipses by Jupiter in 1981-1984 are reported. Data obtained at 3.45-30 microns using bolometer system No. 1 on the 3-m IRTF telescope at Mauna Kea are presented in extensive tables and graphs and analyzed by means of least-squares fitting of thermophysical models to the eclipse cooling and heating curves, thermal-radiation calculations for the Io volcanoes, and comparison with Voyager data. Best fits are obtained for a model comprising (1) a bright region with a vertically inhomogeneous surface and (2) a dark vertically homogeneous region with thermal inertia only about 0.1 times that of (1). Little evidence of volcanic-flux variability during the period is found, and the majority (but not all) of the excess thermal IR radiation in the sub-Jovian hemisphere is attributed to the Loki volcano and its lava lake.

  19. Photoacoustic Monitoring of Internal Plastification in Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate Copolymers: Measurements of Thermal Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Ruben R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic data on thermophysical properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate copolymers poly(3HB-co-3HV were investigated with the aim of understanding the role of 3-hydroxyvalerate monomeric units (3HV incorporated during random copolymerization. The results show strong evidence that internal plastification is produced by the introduction of 3HV units in the copolymer. It was observed that copolymer thermal conductivity increased approximately linearly with the 3HV content. On the other hand, thermal diffusivity was very sensitive to the change in the copolymer composition showing a sudden rise that attained a saturation plateau. Amplitude-frequency plots indicate that a thermoelastic bending mechanism is operating. In this paper a new photoacoustic arrangement for the measurement of thermal effusivity is presented.

  20. Effect of Steel Framing for Securing Drywall Panels on Thermal and Humidity Parameters of the Outer Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Maciej; Kosiń, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    The paper analyses the effect of steel framing used to secure drywall panels on thermal and humidity properties of outer walls. In the practice of building a light structure, the most popular components are steel and wood studs. They are used to obtain framing for building a wall (an outer wall in this study). Analysis presented in this study concerned the corner of the outer wall build using the technology of light steel framing. Computer simulation was used to perform thermal and humidity analysis for the joint of the outer wall.

  1. Effect of Steel Framing for Securing Drywall Panels on Thermal and Humidity Parameters of the Outer Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the effect of steel framing used to secure drywall panels on thermal and humidity properties of outer walls. In the practice of building a light structure, the most popular components are steel and wood studs. They are used to obtain framing for building a wall (an outer wall in this study. Analysis presented in this study concerned the corner of the outer wall build using the technology of light steel framing. Computer simulation was used to perform thermal and humidity analysis for the joint of the outer wall.

  2. Biological parameters and thermal requirements of the parasitoid Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, De B.F.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the biology of Praon volucre (Haliday, 1833) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas, 1878) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) hosts was studied and the thermal requirements of the parasitoid were determined. Experiments were carried out at 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28

  3. Influence of thermal performance on design parameters of a He/LiPb dual coolant DEMO concept blanket design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas de les Valls, E., E-mail: elisabet.masdelesvalls@gits.ws [Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Technology for Fusion (T4F) Research Group, GREENER, Department of Heat Engines, Barcelona (Spain); Batet, L. [Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Technology for Fusion (T4F) Research Group, GREENER, Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Barcelona (Spain); Medina, V. de [Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Sediment Transport Research Group, Department of Engineering Hydraulic, Marine and Environmental Engineering, Barcelona (Spain); Fradera, J. [Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Technology for Fusion (T4F) Research Group, GREENER, Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Barcelona (Spain); Sanmarti, M. [bFUS-IREC, Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, 08930 Sant Adria del Besos (Spain); Sedano, L.A. [EURATOM-CIEMAT Association, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Spanish Breeding Blanket Technology Programme TECNO{sub F}US is exploring the technological capabilities of a Dual-Coolant He/Pb15.7Li breeding blanket for DEMO and studying new breeding blanket design specifications. The progress of the channel conceptual design is being conducted in parallel with the extension of MHD computational capabilities of CFD tools and the underlying physics of MHD models. A qualification of MHD effects under present blanket design specifications and some approaches to their modelling were proposed by the authors in . The analysis was accomplished with the 2D transient algorithm from Sommeria and Moreau and implemented in the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox . The thermal coupling was implemented by means of the Boussinesq hypothesis. Previous analyses showed the need of improvement of FCI thickness and thermal properties in order to obtain a desirable liquid metal temperature gain of 300 Degree-Sign C. In the present study, an assessment through sensitivity and parametric analyses of the required FCI thickness is performed. Numerical simulations have been carried out considering a Robin-type thermal boundary condition which assumes 1D steady state thermal balance across the solid FCI and Eurofer layers. Such boundary condition has been validated with a fluid-solid coupled domain analysis. Results for the studied flow conditions and channel dimensions show that, in order to obtain a liquid metal temperature gain of about 300 Degree-Sign C, the required FCI material should have a very small effective heat transfer coefficient ((k/{delta}) {<=} 1 W/m{sup 2}K) and fluid velocities should be about 0.2 m/s or less. Moreover, special attention has to be placed on the temperature difference across the FCI layer. However, for a maximised liquid metal thermal gain, higher velocities would be preferable, what would also imply a reduced temperature difference across the FCI layer.

  4. Evaluation of trapping parameters of thermally stimulated luminescence glow curves in Cu-doped Li2B4O7 phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manam, J.; Sharma, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of trapping parameters, including order of kinetics, activation energy and frequency factor, is one of the most important aspect of studies in the field of thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL). A polycrystalline sample of Cu-doped Li 2 B 4 O 7 was prepared by the melting method. Formation of the doped compound was checked by use of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. TSL studies of the Cu-doped lithium tetraborate sample shows three glow peaks, the maximum emission occurring, respectively, at a temperature of 175 deg. C, 290 deg. C and 350 deg. C, the intensity of the 175 deg. C-glow peak being the maximum. The trapping parameters associated with this prominent glow peak of Cu-doped lithium tetraborate are reported herein, using the isothermal luminescence decay and glow curve shape (Chen's) methods. Our results show very good agreement between the trapping parameters calculated by the two methods

  5. Parameter effect of a phase change thermal energy storage unit with one shell and one finned tube on its energy efficiency ratio and heat storage rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Liang-Bi; He, Ya-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The parameter effect on the performance of PCTES unit using fins is reported. • The configurations of PCTES unit using fins in optimum performance are suggested. • Two parameters to indicate the effects of PCM and tube material properties are found. • The working conditions of PCTES unit using fins in optimum performance are analyzed. - Abstract: The performance of a phase change thermal energy storage (PCTES) unit using circular finned tube is affected by many parameters. Thorough studies of the parameter effect on the performance of PCTES unit are strongly required in its optimum design process. Based on a reported energy efficiency ratio and a newly defined parameter named the heat storage rate, the parameter effect on the performance of PCTES unit using circular finned tube is numerically investigated. When the fin pitch is greater than 4 times of the inner radius of the tube, the fin height and the fin thickness have little effect on the energy efficiency ratio and the heat storage rate. When the fin pitch is small, the performance of PCTES unit becomes better using large fin height and width. The energy efficiency ratio and the heat storage rate are more sensitive to the outer tube diameter. The performance of PCTES unit using circular finned tube is best when water is used as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). When the fluid flow of HTF is in a laminar state, the energy efficiency ratio and the heat storage rate are larger than that in a turbulent state.

  6. A method to obtain the thermal parameters and the photothermal transduction efficiency in an optical hyperthermia device based on laser irradiation of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez López de Pablo, Cristina; Olmedo, José Javier Serrano; Rosales, Alejandra Mina; Ramírez Hernández, Norma; Del Pozo Guerrero, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Optical hyperthermia systems based on the laser irradiation of gold nanorods seem to be a promising tool in the development of therapies against cancer. After a proof of concept in which the authors demonstrated the efficiency of this kind of systems, a modeling process based on an equivalent thermal-electric circuit has been carried out to determine the thermal parameters of the system and an energy balance obtained from the time-dependent heating and cooling temperature curves of the irradiated samples in order to obtain the photothermal transduction efficiency. By knowing this parameter, it is possible to increase the effectiveness of the treatments, thanks to the possibility of predicting the response of the device depending on the working configuration. As an example, the thermal behavior of two different kinds of nanoparticles is compared. The results show that, under identical conditions, the use of PEGylated gold nanorods allows for a more efficient heating compared with bare nanorods, and therefore, it results in a more effective therapy.

  7. ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Derenskaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article is aimed at developing a set of recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. Methodology. For the purposes of the current research, the available information sources on the components of project management system are analysed; the essence of “organizational maturity” and the existing models of organizational maturity are studied. The method of systemic and structural analysis, as well as the method of logical generalization, are employed in order to study the existing models of organizational maturity, to describe levels of organizational maturity, and finally to develop a set of methodological recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. The results of the research showed that the core elements of project management system are methodological, organizational, programtechnical, and motivational components. Project management encompasses a wide range of issues connected with organizational structure, project team, communication management, project participants, etc. However, the fundamental basis for developing project management concept within a given enterprise starts with defining its level of organizational maturity. The present paper describes various models of organizational maturity (staged, continuous, petal-shaped and their common types (H. Кеrzner Organizational Maturity Model, Berkeley PM Maturity Model, Organizational Project Management Maturity Model, Portfolio, Program & Project Management Maturity Model. The analysis of available theoretic works showed that the notion “organizational project maturity” refers to the capability of an enterprise to select projects and manage them with the intention of achieving its strategic goals in the most effective way. Importantly, the level of maturity can be improved by means of formalizing the acquired knowledge, regulating project-related activities

  8. The secondary structure and the thermal unfolding parameters of the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighezan, Liliana; Georgieva, Ralitsa; Neagu, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Surface layer (S-layer) proteins have been identified in the cell envelope of many organisms, such as bacteria and archaea. They self-assemble, forming monomolecular crystalline arrays. Isolated S-layer proteins are able to recrystallize into regular lattices, which proved useful in biotechnology. Here we investigate the structure and thermal unfolding of the S-layer protein isolated from Lactobacillus salivarius 16 strain of human origin. Using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and the software CDSSTR from DICHROWEB, CONTINLL from CDPro, as well as CDNN, we assess the fractions of the protein's secondary structural elements at temperatures ranging between 10 and 90 °C, and predict the tertiary class of the protein. To study the thermal unfolding of the protein, we analyze the temperature dependence of the CD signal in the far- and near-UV domains. Fitting the experimental data by two- and three-state models of thermal unfolding, we infer the midpoint temperatures, the temperature dependence of the changes in Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of the unfolding transitions in standard conditions, and the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant. We also estimate the changes in heat capacity at constant pressure in standard conditions. The results indicate that the thermal unfolding of the S-layer protein from L. salivarius is highly cooperative, since changes in the secondary and tertiary structures occur simultaneously. The thermodynamic analysis predicts a "cold" transition, at about -3 °C, of both the secondary and tertiary structures. Our findings may be important for the use of S-layer proteins in biotechnology and in biomedical applications.

  9. Thermal Degradation and Kinetic Parameters of Polyester and Poly(Lactic Acid) Blends Used in Shopping Bags in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo Junior, J.; Magalhães, D; Oliveira, N. A.; Wiebeck, Helio; Matos, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, synthetic polyester and poly(lactic acid) blends used as biodegradable shopping plastic bags were studied, together with control samples of polyethylene containing pro-oxidant catalysts (called “oxidegradable bags” in the market). Samples of these materials were weighed and buried in simulated soil for 3 months, and then studied by Thermal Analysis including a non-isothermal kinetic analysis. It was observed that although there was no significant mass loss in the period of the a...

  10. Determining the stages of tillering stage, initiation of primordia, flowering and maturity in the rice plant, with the system S, V and R correlated with the thermal sum at the time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Velázquez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the major climatic factors that affect growth, development and yield of the rice crop, and also can reduce the time of change of phenological stages. The beginning stages of tillering, initiation of primordia, flowering and harvest maturity were determined with the S, V and R system recently proposed by Counce et ál. (2000; it consists on counting the number of fully developed leaves; in addition, a correlation was made with accumulated degree days that the plant had at that time, in order to estimate with how many degree days the plant began a phenological stage; this parameter is related to the average daily temperature and a base temperature of 10ºC. For the start of tillering the plant needed 140.9 degree days; for primordium start, 1268.9; for bloom 1746; and completed its cycle with a total of 2333.2 degree days. This allows to conclude that, for a variety of long cycle (130-135 days, when the accumulation of degree days is equal or similar to the previous data, the plant initiates one of the above-mentioned phenological stages; however, each one of the varieties in use by farmers must be calibrated, because there are differences in crop cycle length among them.

  11. Measurement of macroscopic plasma parameters with a radio experiment: Interpretation of the quasi-thermal noise spectrum observed in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, P.; Hoang, S.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Steinberg, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The ISEE-3 SBH radio receiver has provided the first systematic observations of the quasi-thermal (plasma waves) noise in the solar wind plasma. The theoretical interpretation of that noise involves the particle distribution function so that electric noise measurements with long antennas provide a fast and independent method of measuring plasma parameters: densities and temperatures of a two component (core and halo) electron distribution function have been obtained in that way. The polarization of that noise is frequency dependent and sensitive to the drift velocity of the electron population. Below the plasma frequency, there is evidence of a weak noise spectrum with spectral index -1 which is not yet accounted for by the theory. The theoretical treatment of the noise associated with the low energy (thermal) proton population shows that the moving electrical antenna radiates in the surrounding plasma by Carenkov emission which becomes predominant at the low frequencies, below about 0.1 F sub P.

  12. Validation of CENDL and JEFF evaluated nuclear data files for TRIGA calculations through the analysis of integral parameters of TRX and BAPL benchmark lattices of thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M.N.; Sarker, M.M.; Khan, M.J.H.; Islam, S.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the validation of evaluated nuclear data files CENDL-2.2 and JEFF-3.1.1 through the analysis of the integral parameters of TRX and BAPL benchmark lattices of thermal reactors for neutronics analysis of TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor at AERE, Bangladesh. In this process, the 69-group cross-section library for lattice code WIMS was generated using the basic evaluated nuclear data files CENDL-2.2 and JEFF-3.1.1 with the help of nuclear data processing code NJOY99.0. Integral measurements on the thermal reactor lattices TRX-1, TRX-2, BAPL-UO 2 -1, BAPL-UO 2 -2 and BAPL-UO 2 -3 served as standard benchmarks for testing nuclear data files and have also been selected for this analysis. The integral parameters of the said lattices were calculated using the lattice transport code WIMSD-5B based on the generated 69-group cross-section library. The calculated integral parameters were compared to the measured values as well as the results of Monte Carlo Code MCNP. It was found that in most cases, the values of integral parameters show a good agreement with the experiment and MCNP results. Besides, the group constants in WIMS format for the isotopes U-235 and U-238 between two data files have been compared using WIMS library utility code WILLIE and it was found that the group constants are identical with very insignificant difference. Therefore, this analysis reflects the validation of evaluated nuclear data files CENDL-2.2 and JEFF-3.1.1 through benchmarking the integral parameters of TRX and BAPL lattices and can also be essential to implement further neutronic analysis of TRIGA Mark-II research reactor at AERE, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  13. Spark Plasma Sintering constrained process parameters of sintered silver paste for connection in power electronic modules: Microstructure, mechanical and thermal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alayli, N. [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Propre de Recherche 3407, 99 avenue Jean Baptiste Clément, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris 06, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/INSU, Laboratoire Atmosphères Milieux Observations Spatiales-IPSL, Quartier des Garennes, 11 Boulevard d' Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France); Schoenstein, F., E-mail: frederic.schoenstein@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Propre de Recherche 3407, 99 avenue Jean Baptiste Clément, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Girard, A. [Office National d' Étude et de Recherches Aérospatiales, Laboratoire d' Étude des Microstructures, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 104, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc, F-92322 Châtillon (France); and others

    2014-11-14

    Processing parameters of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique were constrained to process nano sized silver particles bound in a paste for interconnection in power electronic devices. A novel strategy combining debinding step and consolidation processes (SPS) in order to elaborate nano-structured silver bulk material is investigated. Optimum parameters were sought for industrial power electronics packaging from the microstructural and morphological properties of the sintered material. The latter was studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine the density and the grain size of crystallites. Two types of samples, termed S1 (bulk) and S2 (multilayer) were elaborated and characterized. They are homogeneous with a low degree of porosity and a good adhesion to the substrate and the process parameters are compatible with industrial constraints. As the experimental results show, the mean crystallite size is between 60 nm and 790 nm with a density between 50% and 92% resulting in mechanical and thermal properties that are better than that of lead free solder. The best SPS sintering parameters, the applied pressure, the temperature and the processing time were determined as being 3 MPa, 300 °C and 1 min respectively when the desizing time of the preprocessing step was kept below 5 min at 150 °C. Using these processing parameters, acceptable for automotive packaging industry, a semi-conductor power chip was successfully connected to a metalized substrate by sintered silver with thermal and electrical properties better than those of current solders and with thermomechanical properties allowing absorption of thermoplastic stresses. - Highlights: • The sintered silver joints have nanometric structure. • The grain growth was controlled by the SPS sintering parameters. • New connection material improve thermal and electrical properties of current solders. • Interconnection's plastic strain can absorb thermo

  14. A theoretical analysis of the impact of atmospheric parameters on the spectral, electrical and thermal performance of a concentrating III–V triple-junction solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theristis, Marios; Fernández, Eduardo F.; Stark, Cameron; O’Donovan, Tadhg S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated spectral dependent electrical–thermal model has been developed. • The effect of atmospheric parameters on system’s performance is evaluated. • The HCPV cooling requirements under “hot & dry” conditions are quantified. • Case studies show the impact of heat transfer coefficient on annual energy yield. • The integrated modelling allows the system’s optimisation. - Abstract: The spectral sensitivity of a concentrating triple-junction (3J) solar cell has been investigated. The atmospheric parameters such as the air mass (AM), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and precipitable water (PW) change the distribution of the solar spectrum in a way that the spectral, electrical and thermal performance of a 3J solar cell is affected. In this paper, the influence of the spectral changes on the performance of each subcell and whole cell has been analysed. It has been shown that increasing the AM and AOD have a negative impact on the spectral and electrical performance of 3J solar cells while increasing the PW has a positive effect, although, to a lesser degree. A three-dimensional finite element analysis model is used to quantify the effect of each atmospheric parameter on the thermal performance for a range of heat transfer coefficients from the back-plate to the ambient air and also ambient temperature. It is shown that a heat transfer coefficient greater than 1300 W/(m"2 K) is required to keep the solar cell under 100 °C at all times. In order to get a more realistic assessment and also to investigate the effect of heat transfer coefficient on the annual energy yield, the methodology is applied for four US locations using data from a typical meteorological year (TMY3).

  15. Kinetic parameters, collision rates, energy exchanges and transport coefficients of non-thermal electrons in premixed flames at sub-breakdown electric field strengths

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-02

    The effects of an electric field on the collision rates, energy exchanges and transport properties of electrons in premixed flames are investigated via solutions to the Boltzmann kinetic equation. The case of high electric field strength, which results in high-energy, non-thermal electrons, is analysed in detail at sub-breakdown conditions. The rates of inelastic collisions and the energy exchange between electrons and neutrals in the reaction zone of the flame are characterised quantitatively. The analysis includes attachment, ionisation, impact dissociation, and vibrational and electronic excitation processes. Our results suggest that Townsend breakdown occurs for E/N = 140 Td. Vibrational excitation is the dominant process up to breakdown, despite important rates of electronic excitation of CO, CO2 and N2 as well as impact dissociation of O2 being apparent from 50 Td onwards. Ohmic heating in the reaction zone is found to be negligible (less than 2% of peak heat release rate) up to breakdown field strengths for realistic electron densities equal to 1010 cm-3. The observed trends are largely independent of equivalence ratio. In the non-thermal regime, electron transport coefficients are insensitive to mixture composition and approximately constant across the flame, but are highly dependent on the electric field strength. In the thermal limit, kinetic parameters and transport coefficients vary substantially across the flame due to the spatially inhomogeneous concentration of water vapour. A practical approach for identifying the plasma regime (thermal versus non-thermal) in studies of electric field effects on flames is proposed. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  16. Use of artificial neuronal networks for prediction of the control parameters in the process of anaerobic digestion with thermal pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Asis, Rita; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M; Juárez-Martínez, Ulises; Alvarado-Lassman, Alejandro; Villanueva-Vásquez, Daniel; Aguilar-Lasserre, Alberto A

    2018-04-19

    This article focuses on the analysis of the behavior patterns of the variables involved in the anaerobic digestion process. The objective is to predict the impact factor and the behavior pattern of the variables, i.e., temperature, pH, volatile solids (VS), total solids, volumetric load, and hydraulic residence time, considering that these are the control variables for the conservation of the different groups of anaerobic microorganisms. To conduct the research, samples of physicochemical sludge were taken from a water treatment plant in a poultry processing factory, and, then, the substrate was characterized, and a thermal pretreatment was used to accelerate the hydrolysis process. The anaerobic digestion process was analyzed in order to obtain experimental data of the control variables and observe their impact on the production of biogas. The results showed that the thermal pre-hydrolysis applied at 90°C for 90 min accelerated the hydrolysis phase, allowing a significant 52% increase in the volume of methane produced. An artificial neural network was developed, and it was trained with the database obtained by monitoring the anaerobic digestion process. The results obtained from the artificial neural network showed that there is an adjustment between the real values and the prediction of validation based on 60 samples with a 96.4% coefficient of determination, and it was observed that the variables with the major impact on the process were the loading rate and VS, with impact factors of 36% and 23%, respectively.

  17. Determination of kinetic parameters in the pyrolysis operation and thermal behavior of Prosopis juliflora using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Arunkumar; Ramachandran, Sethumadhavan; Subbiah, Senthilmurugan

    2017-06-01

    This paper deals with the pyrolysis of Prosopis juliflora fuelwood using thermogravimetric analysis to determine the kinetic parameters at six different heating rates of 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25°C/min. The activation energy of pyrolysis was calculated using different methods, namely Kissinger, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Friedman model and corresponding calculated activation energy were found to be 164.6, 204, 203.2, and 219.3kJ/mol, respectively for each method. The three-pseudo component model was applied to calculate the following three kinetic parameters: activation energy, pre-exponential factor and order of reaction. The experimental results were validated with model prediction for all the six heating rates. The three-pseudo component model is able to predict experimental results much accurately while considering variable order reaction model (n≠1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of composting on the thermal decomposition behavior and kinetic parameters of pig manure-derived solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyani, Vaibhav; Kumar Awasthi, Mukesh; Wang, Quan; Kumar, Jitendra; Ren, Xiuna; Zhao, Junchao; Chen, Hongyu; Wang, Meijing; Bhaskar, Thallada; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the influence of composting on the thermal decomposition behavior and decomposition kinetics of pig manure-derived solid wastes was analyzed using thermogravimetry. Wheat straw, biochar, zeolite, and wood vinegar were added to pig manure during composting. The composting was done in the 130 L PVC reactors with 100 L effective volume for 50 days. The activation energy of pyrolysis of samples before and after composting was calculated using Friedman's method, while the pre-exponential factor was calculated using Kissinger's equation. It was observed that composting decreased the volatile content of all the samples. The additives when added together in pig manure lead to a reduction in the activation energy of decomposition, advocating the presence of simpler compounds in the compost material in comparison with the complex feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in the neutronic parameters generation for BWR and PWR coupled thermal-hydraulic–neutronic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ánchel, F.; Barrachina, T.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.; Juanas, J.; Macián-Juan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Best-estimate codes are affected by the uncertainty in the methods and the models. ► Influence of the uncertainty in the macroscopic cross-sections in a BWR and PWR RIA accidents analysis. ► The fast diffusion coefficient, the scattering cross section and both fission cross sections are the most influential factors. ► The absorption cross sections very little influence. ► Using a normal pdf the results are more “conservative” comparing the power peak reached with uncertainty quantified with a uniform pdf. - Abstract: The Best Estimate analysis consists of a coupled thermal-hydraulic and neutronic description of the nuclear system's behavior; uncertainties from both aspects should be included and jointly propagated. This paper presents a study of the influence of the uncertainty in the macroscopic neutronic information that describes a three-dimensional core model on the most relevant results of the simulation of a Reactivity Induced Accident (RIA). The analyses of a BWR-RIA and a PWR-RIA have been carried out with a three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic and neutronic model for the coupled system TRACE-PARCS and RELAP-PARCS. The cross section information has been generated by the SIMTAB methodology based on the joint use of CASMO-SIMULATE. The statistically based methodology performs a Monte-Carlo kind of sampling of the uncertainty in the macroscopic cross sections. The size of the sampling is determined by the characteristics of the tolerance intervals by applying the Noether–Wilks formulas. A number of simulations equal to the sample size have been carried out in which the cross sections used by PARCS are directly modified with uncertainty, and non-parametric statistical methods are applied to the resulting sample of the values of the output variables to determine their intervals of tolerance.

  20. Laser thermal effect on silicon nitride ceramic based on thermo-chemical reaction with temperature-dependent thermo-physical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, A.F.; Wang, W.J.; Mei, X.S.; Wang, K.D.; Zhao, W.Q.; Li, T.Q.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-dimensional thermo-chemical reaction model is creatively built. • Thermal conductivity and heat capacity of β-Si_3N_4 are computed accurately. • The appropriate thermo-chemical reaction rate is fitted and reaction element length is set to assure the constringency. • The deepest ablated position was not the center of the ablated area due to plasma absorption. • The simulation results demonstrate the thermo-chemical process cant be simplified to be physical phase transition. - Abstract: In this study, a two-dimensional thermo-chemical reaction model with temperature-dependent thermo-physical parameters on Si_3N_4 with 10 ns laser was developed to investigate the ablated size, volume and surface morphology after single pulse. For model parameters, thermal conductivity and heat capacity of β-Si_3N_4 were obtained from first-principles calculations. Thermal-chemical reaction rate was fitted by collision theory, and then, reaction element length was deduced using the relationship between reaction rate and temperature distribution. Furthermore, plasma absorption related to energy loss was approximated as a function of electron concentration in Si_3N_4. It turned out that theoretical ablated volume and radius increased and then remained constant with increasing laser energy, and the maximum ablated depth was not in the center of the ablated zone. Moreover, the surface maximum temperature of Si_3N_4 was verified to be above 3000 K within pulse duration, and it was much higher than its thermal decomposition temperature of 1800 K, which indicated that Si_3N_4 was not ablated directly above the thermal decomposition temperature. Meanwhile, the single pulse ablation of Si_3N_4 was performed at different powers using a TEM_0_0 10 ns pulse Nd:YAG laser to validate the model. The model showed a satisfactory consistence between the experimental data and numerical predictions, presenting a new modeling technology that may significantly increase the

  1. Determination of the neutron resonance parameters for 206Pb and of the thermal neutron capture cross section for 206Pb and 209Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borella, A.

    2005-01-01

    response of the C6D6 detector. The analysis of the capture data allows the determination of the capture area of the resonances. In Chapter 4 we determine the thermal capture cross section for 206 Pb(n, γ) and 209 Bi(n, γ) from measurements at the cold neutron beam of the Budapest Neutron Centre. The thermal cross sections for neutron capture to the ground state 210g Bi(n, γ) and to the isomeric state 210m Bi(n, γ) have also been measured. These values complement the resonance parameters and produce a consistent description of the total and capture cross section at thermal energy and in the resolved resonance region. Chapter 5 contains the discussion of the results of this work. The statistical properties of the 206 Pb resonance parameters are described. The consistency of the resonance parameters and the thermal neutron capture cross section for 206 Pb and 209 Bi is discussed. The resulting MAC for 206 Pb is given and the impact on the termination of the s-process is described. Finally, general conclusions are presented

  2. Influence of etching process parameters on the antireflection property of Si SWSs by thermally dewetted Ag and Ag/SiO{sub 2} nanopatterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su [Department of Electronics and Radio Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 446-701 Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young Min; Lee, Yong Tak [Department of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 500-712 Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    The etching parameter dependent antireflection characteristics of disordered Si subwavelength structures (SWSs) by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching in a mixture gas of SiCl{sub 4}/Ar using thermally dewetted Ag and Ag/SiO{sub 2} nanopatterns are investigated. The average size and period of Si SWSs are closely correlated with thermal dewetting conditions. For desirable Ag nanoparticle patterns, the profile of Si SWSs is optimized by changing the ICP etching process parameters to obtain the lowest reflectance spectrum. The most tapered SWS with the highest height leads to a relatively low reflectance. The Ag nanopatterns result in more tapered and rough surface SWSs compared to the Ag/SiO{sub 2} nanopatterns, indicating a slightly reduced reflectance. The Si SWS etched using Ag nanopatterns by SiCl{sub 4}/Ar of 5 sccm/10 sccm at 50 W RF power, 200 W ICP power, and 10 mTorr process pressure exhibits a very low total reflectance of <{proportional_to}2.4% in the wavelength range of 400-1000 nm, maintaining a specular reflectance of <16% at 350-1100 nm up to the incident angle of {theta}{sub i} = 50 . (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Validation study of SRAC2006 code system based on evaluated nuclear data libraries for TRIGA calculations by benchmarking integral parameters of TRX and BAPL lattices of thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.J.H.; Sarker, M.M.; Islam, S.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► To validate the SRAC2006 code system for TRIGA neutronics calculations. ► TRX and BAPL lattices are treated as standard benchmarks for this purpose. ► To compare the calculated results with experiment as well as MCNP values in this study. ► The study demonstrates a good agreement with the experiment and the MCNP results. ► Thus, this analysis reflects the validation study of the SRAC2006 code system. - Abstract: The goal of this study is to present the validation study of the SRAC2006 code system based on evaluated nuclear data libraries ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 for neutronics analysis of TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor at AERE, Bangladesh. This study is achieved through the analysis of integral parameters of TRX and BAPL benchmark lattices of thermal reactors. In integral measurements, the thermal reactor lattices TRX-1, TRX-2, BAPL-UO 2 -1, BAPL-UO 2 -2 and BAPL-UO 2 -3 are treated as standard benchmarks for validating/testing the SRAC2006 code system as well as nuclear data libraries. The integral parameters of the said lattices are calculated using the collision probability transport code PIJ of the SRAC2006 code system at room temperature 20 °C based on the above libraries. The calculated integral parameters are compared to the measured values as well as the MCNP values based on the Chinese evaluated nuclear data library CENDL-3.0. It was found that in most cases, the values of integral parameters demonstrate a good agreement with the experiment and the MCNP results. In addition, the group constants in SRAC format for TRX and BAPL lattices in fast and thermal energy range respectively are compared between the above libraries and it was found that the group constants are identical with very insignificant difference. Therefore, this analysis reflects the validation study of the SRAC2006 code system based on evaluated nuclear data libraries JENDL-3.3 and ENDF/B-VII.0 and can also be essential to implement further neutronics calculations

  4. Maturity of the PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.; Rapin, M.; Aboudarham, L.; Bitsch, D.

    1983-03-01

    Figures illustrating the predominant position of the PWR system are presented. The question is whether on the basis of these figures the PWR can be considered to have reached maturity. The following analysis, based on the French program experience, is an attempt to pinpoint those areas in which industrial maturity of the PWR has been attained, and in which areas a certain evolution can still be expected to take place

  5. Equivalent circuit model parameters of a high-power Li-ion battery: Thermal and state of charge effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jamie; Nelson, Ruben; Kalu, Egwu E.; Weatherspoon, Mark H.; Zheng, Jim P.

    2011-05-01

    Equivalent circuit model (EMC) of a high-power Li-ion battery that accounts for both temperature and state of charge (SOC) effects known to influence battery performance is presented. Electrochemical impedance measurements of a commercial high power Li-ion battery obtained in the temperature range 20 to 50 °C at various SOC values was used to develop a simple EMC which was used in combination with a non-linear least squares fitting procedure that used thirteen parameters for the analysis of the Li-ion cell. The experimental results show that the solution and charge transfer resistances decreased with increase in cell operating temperature and decreasing SOC. On the other hand, the Warburg admittance increased with increasing temperature and decreasing SOC. The developed model correlations that are capable of being used in process control algorithms are presented for the observed impedance behavior with respect to temperature and SOC effects. The predicted model parameters for the impedance elements Rs, Rct and Y013 show low variance of 5% when compared to the experimental data and therefore indicates a good statistical agreement of correlation model to the actual experimental values.

  6. Preservation of Bioactive Compounds and Quality Parameters of Watermelon Juice Enriched with L-Citrulline through Short Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha P. Tarazona-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available L-citrulline is a nonessential amino acid with demonstrated health benefits for humans, and watermelon is a fruit rich in this amino acid. The juice industry is developing functional beverages through the enrichment with external bioactive compounds; this kind of industry uses conventional pasteurization because of its efficiency and simplicity. In this experiment, the effects of pasteurization (80°C for 40 s or 90 s and storage (4°C for 30 days on different parameters were evaluated in a watermelon juice (3.68 g kg−1 of natural L-citrulline enriched with external L-citrulline (12 g kg−1. Enzymatic activity (peroxidase, pectin methyl esterase, and polygalacturonase was inactivated (74 to 89%, 89 to 90%, and 11 to 15%, resp. with the pasteurization treatment, obtaining the highest degradation with the longest heating time. According to the rheology study, the juice’s elasticity was mainly affected by type of heat treatment while its viscosity was more stable and affected by storage time. A reduction in bioactive compounds content, around 10–16% for lycopene and 19–20% for L-citrulline, was observed after the pasteurization treatments, with a higher decrease with increased treatment time. Storage time also induced a reduction in lycopene and L-citrulline. The shelf life was limited by sensorial parameters.

  7. Pyrolysis of Pinus pinaster in a two-stage gasifier: Influence of processing parameters and thermal cracking of tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassinou, Wanignon Ferdinand; Toure, Siaka [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire-UFR-S.S.M.T. Universite de Cocody, 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Van de Steene, Laurent; Volle, Ghislaine; Girard, Philippe [CIRAD-Foret, TA 10/16, 73, avenue J.-F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-01-15

    A new two-stage gasifier with fixed-bed has recently been installed on CIRAD facilities in Montpellier. The pyrolysis and the gasifier units are removable. In order to characterise the pyrolysis products before their gasification, experiments were carried out, for the first time only with the pyrolysis unit and this paper deals with the results obtained. The biomass used is Pinus pinaster. The parameters investigated are: temperature, residence time and biomass flow rate. It has been found that increasing temperature and residence time improve the cracking of tars, gas production and char quality (fixed carbon rate more than 90%, volatile matter rate less than 4%). The increase of biomass flow rate leads to a bad char quality. The efficiency of tar cracking, the quality and the heating value of the charcoal and the gases, indicate that: temperature between 650 C and 750 C, residence time of 30 min, biomass flow rate between 10 and 15 kg/h should be the most convenient experimental conditions to get better results from the experimental device and from the biomass pyrolysis process. The kinetic study of charcoal generation shows that the pyrolysis process, in experimental conditions, is a first-order reaction. The kinetic parameters calculated are comparable with those found by other researchers. (author)

  8. Parameter estimation of brain tumors using intraoperative thermal imaging based on artificial tactile sensing in conjunction with artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi-Goughari, M; Mojra, A; Sadeghi, S

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative Thermal Imaging (ITI) is a new minimally invasive diagnosis technique that can potentially locate margins of brain tumor in order to achieve maximum tumor resection with least morbidity. This study introduces a new approach to ITI based on artificial tactile sensing (ATS) technology in conjunction with artificial neural networks (ANN) and feasibility and applicability of this method in diagnosis and localization of brain tumors is investigated. In order to analyze validity and reliability of the proposed method, two simulations were performed. (i) An in vitro experimental setup was designed and fabricated using a resistance heater embedded in agar tissue phantom in order to simulate heat generation by a tumor in the brain tissue; and (ii) A case report patient with parafalcine meningioma was presented to simulate ITI in the neurosurgical procedure. In the case report, both brain and tumor geometries were constructed from MRI data and tumor temperature and depth of location were estimated. For experimental tests, a novel assisted surgery robot was developed to palpate the tissue phantom surface to measure temperature variations and ANN was trained to estimate the simulated tumor’s power and depth. Results affirm that ITI based ATS is a non-invasive method which can be useful to detect, localize and characterize brain tumors. (paper)

  9. Influence of synthesis experimental parameters on the formation of nanoparticles of magnetite prepared by thermal decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Jaime; Picasso, Gino; Lopez, Alcides; Aviles Felix, Luis

    2013-01-01

    In this work, nanoparticles based on magnetite have been synthesized by thermal decomposition via solvent-controlled synthesis in polyols, using triethylene glycol (TREG). The starting precursor were solutions of nitrate and acetylacetonate of Fe. The samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), adsorption-desorption of N 2 (BET equation model), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibration sample magnetometry (VSM) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. XRD diffractogram revealed the majority presence of spinel-like structural phases of magnetite in all samples. SEM micrographs showed morphological differences; the samples prepared from acetylacetonate presented good dispersion of particles whereas the ones prepared from nitrate-small agglomerations. BET isotherms of samples depicted a mesoporous profile which corresponded to IV type. TGA thermogram showed two defined regions which corresponded to vaporization of polyol light fractions and TREG. Zero coercivity on the magnetization curve of acetylacetonate precursor samples have been observed by VSM, which indicates superparamagnetic behavior. Moessbauer spectra of samples detected the presence of 4 doublet-like subspectra due to the presence of 4 sites occupied by Fe in paramagnetic or superparamagnetic state. (author)

  10. On some mechanisms of the effect of thermal prehistory on the behavior of silicon parameters under irradiation. O nekotorykh mekhanizmakh vliyaniya teplovoj predystorii na povedenie parametrov kremniya pod oblucheniem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejmash, V B; Sagan, T R; Tsmots' , V M; Shakhovtsov, V I; Shindich, V L [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Fiziki

    1991-11-01

    The effect of preliminary thermal treatment (TT) in 400-1200 degC temperature range on the behavior of Si monocrystal parameters under subsequent [gamma]-, electron and neutron irradiation is investigated. Five mechanisms of Si thermal prehistory effect on its properties are proposed: (1) decomposition of solid solutions of impurities interacting with radiation defects (RD); (2) formation of electrically active thermal defects (TD) in concentrations wich are sufficient for a significant alteration of RD charged state; (3) origination of TD, which can efficiency as aresult of the redistribution of impurities under thermal treatment; (5) formation of clusters of electrically active TD, resulting in the disturbance of electric homogeneity of Si crystal.

  11. Gas mixing under the influence of thermal-dynamic parameters such as buoyancy, jet momentum and fan-induced convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.; Jones, S.C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Various scaling parameters for simulating mixing under the influence of buoyancy, jet momentum, and fan-induced convection were examined. Their significance was assessed by comparing the mixing of helium (a simulant for hydrogen) with air in a large-scale enclosure (1.8 m x 1.8 m x 1.8 m) to the mixing of salt-water with fresh-water in a small-scale enclosure (1/6 the size). The advantage of using the salt-water/freshwater technique is that it allows the characteristic flow regime (either turbulent or laminar flow) in the full-scale containment to be maintained in the reduced scale containment. A smoke technique for flow visualization was used to examine the mixing of the helium with air. For the small-scale salt-water/fresh-water experiment, fluorescent dye was used to provide a means to visualize the mixing process. The mixing behaviour in both sets of experiments were analyzed based on video records and concentration measurements in ten locations. Measurements showed that depending on the recirculation and jet flow rates, the injected salt-water (in small-scale experiments) and helium (in large-scale experiments) can disperse sufficiently quickly to produce an essentially 'well mixed' condition rendering the concentration measurements insensitive to the variation in the Froude or the Grashof Numbers. (author)

  12. Improving the thermal stability and electrical parameters of a liquid crystalline material 4-n-(nonyloxy) benzoic acid by using Li ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satendra; Verma, Rohit; Dwivedi, Aanchal; Dhar, R.; Tripathi, Ambuj

    2018-05-01

    Li ion beam irradiation studies on a liquid crystalline material 4-n-(nonyloxy) benzoic acid (NOBA) have been carried out. The material has phase sequence of I-N-SmC-Cr. Thermodynamic studies demonstrate that an irradiation fluence of 1×1013 ions-cm-2 results in the increased thermal stability of the smectic C (SmC) phase of the material. Dielectric measurements illustrate that the transverse component of the dielectric permittivity and hence the dielectric anisotropy of the material in the nematic (N) and SmC phases are increased as compared to those of the pure material due to irradiation. UV-Visible spectrum of the irradiated material shows an additional peak along with the peak of the pure material. The observed change in the thermodynamic and electrical parameters is attributed to the conversion of some of the dimers of NOBA to monomers of NOBA due to irradiation.

  13. Parameter identification of the glazed photovoltaic thermal system using Genetic Algorithm–Fuzzy System (GA–FS) approach and its comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sonveer; Agrawal, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization using Genetic Algorithm–Fuzzy System approach. • Overall exergy efficiency has been evaluated with different optimization tools. • Comparative analysis has been done. • GA–FS is very efficient and fast technique. • Overall exergy efficiency has been improved. - Abstract: In this paper, Genetic Algorithm–Fuzzy System (GA–FS) approach is used to identify the optimized parameters of the glazed photovoltaic thermal (PVT) system and to improve its overall exergy efficiency. The fuzzy knowledge base is used to improve the efficiency of Genetic Algorithm (GA). It is observed that three GA parameters, namely: (i) crossover probability (P cross ), (ii) mutation probability (P mut ) and (iii) population size are changing dynamically during the program, according to fuzzy knowledge base to maximize the efficiency of the GA. Here, overall exergy efficiency is considered as an objective function during the optimization process for GA–FS approach. The effort has been made to identify the different optimized parameters like; length and depth of the channel, velocity of flowing fluid, overall heat transfer coefficient from solar cell to ambient and flowing fluid and overall back loss heat transfer coefficient from flowing fluid to the ambient to maximize the overall exergy efficiency using GA–FS approach. Performance of glazed PVT using GA–FS approach has been compared with performance using GA approach and without GA. It has also been observed that the GA–FS approach is a better approach as compared to GA approach because it converges faster as compare to GA because the use of the fuzzy knowledge base with GA and take less time for identification of optimized system parameters.

  14. Numerical Study for Optimizing Parameters of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Induced Thermal Field during Liver Tumor Ablation: HIFU Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh gharloghi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is considered a noninvasive and effective technique for tumor ablation. Frequency and acoustic power are the most effective parameters for temperature distribution and the extent of tissue damage. The aim of this study was to optimize the operating transducer parameters such as frequency and input power in order to acquire suitable temperature and thermal dose distribution in the course of a numerical assessment. Materials and Methods To model the sound propagation, the Khokhlov-Zabolotskava-Kuznetsov (KZK nonlinear wave equation was used and simulation was carried out using MATLAB HIFU toolbox. Bioheat equation was applied to calculate the transient temperature in the liver tissue. Frequency ranges of 2, 3, 4, and 5 MHz and power levels of 50 and 100 W were applied using an extracorporeal transducer. Results Using a frequency of 2 MHz, the maximum temperatures reached 53°C and 90°C in the focal point for power levels of 50 W and 100 W, respectively. With the same powers and using a frequency of 3 MHz, the temperature reached to 71°C and 170°C, respectively. In addition, for these power levels at the frequency of 4 MHz, the temperature reached to 72°C and 145°C, respectively. However, at the 5 MHz frequency, the temperature in the focal spot was either 57°C or 79°C. Conclusion Use of frequency of 2 MHz and power of 100 W led to higher thermal dose distribution, and subsequently, reduction of the treatment duration and complications at the same exposure time in ablation of large tumors.

  15. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...... for the affine term structure model....

  16. GEYSER/TONUS: a coupled multi-D lumped parameter code for reactor thermal hydraulics analysis in case of severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, M.; Durin, M.; Gauvain, J.

    1995-12-31

    The safety requirements for future light water reactors include accounting for severe accidents in the design process. The design must now include mitigation features to limit pressure and temperature inside the building. Hydrogen concentration is also a major issue for severe accidents. Modelling the thermal hydraulics inside the containment requires the description of complex phenomena such as condensation, stratification, transport of gases and aerosols, heat transfers. The effect of mitigation systems will increase the heterogeneities in the building, and most of those phenomena can be coupled. The GEYSER/TONUS multi-dimensional computer code is under development at CEA Saclay to model this complex situation. It allow the coupling of parts of the containment described in a lumped parameter manner, together with meshed parts. Emphasis is put on the numerical methods used to solve the transient problem, and physical models of classical lumped parameters codes will be adapted for the spatially described zones. The code is developed in the environment of the CASTEM 2000/TRIO EF system which allows to construct sophisticated applications based upon it. (J.S.). 22 refs., 1 fig.

  17. GEYSER/TONUS: a coupled multi-D lumped parameter code for reactor thermal hydraulics analysis in case of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, M.; Durin, M.; Gauvain, J.

    1995-01-01

    The safety requirements for future light water reactors include accounting for severe accidents in the design process. The design must now include mitigation features to limit pressure and temperature inside the building. Hydrogen concentration is also a major issue for severe accidents. Modelling the thermal hydraulics inside the containment requires the description of complex phenomena such as condensation, stratification, transport of gases and aerosols, heat transfers. The effect of mitigation systems will increase the heterogeneities in the building, and most of those phenomena can be coupled. The GEYSER/TONUS multi-dimensional computer code is under development at CEA Saclay to model this complex situation. It allow the coupling of parts of the containment described in a lumped parameter manner, together with meshed parts. Emphasis is put on the numerical methods used to solve the transient problem, and physical models of classical lumped parameters codes will be adapted for the spatially described zones. The code is developed in the environment of the CASTEM 2000/TRIO EF system which allows to construct sophisticated applications based upon it. (J.S.). 22 refs., 1 fig

  18. GEYSER/TONUS: A coupled multi-D lumped parameter code for reactor thermal hydraulics analysis in case of severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, M.; Durin, M.; Gauvain, J. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Gif sur Yvette (France)

    1995-09-01

    In many countries, the safety requirements for future light water reactors include accounting for severe accidents in the design process. As far as the containment is concerned, the design must now include mitigation features to limit the pressure and temperature inside the building. Hydrogen concentration is also a major issue for severe accidents. In this context, new needs appear for the modeling of the thermal hydraulics inside the containment. It requires the description of complex phenomena such as condensation, stratification, transport of gases and aerosols, heat transfers. Moreover, the effect of mitigation systems will increase the heterogeneities in the building, and most of those phenomena can be coupled, as for example hydrogen stratification and condensation. To model such a complex situation, the use of multi-dimensional computer codes seems to be necessary in case of large volumes. The aim of the GEYSER/TONUS computer code is to fulfill this need. This code is currently under development at CEA in Saclay. It will allow the coupling of parts of the containment described in a lumped parameter manner, together with meshed parts. Emphasis is put on the numerical methods used to solve the transient problem, as the objective is to be able to treat complete scenarios. Physical models of classical lumped parameters codes will adapted for the spatially described zones. The code is developed in the environment of the CASTEM 2000/TRIO EF system which allows, thanks to its modular conception, to construct sophisticated applications based upon it.

  19. Grammar Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.; Pierantonio, A.; Schätz, B.; Tamzalit, D.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a software language (whether modelled by a grammar or a schema or a metamodel) is not limited to development of new versions and dialects. An important dimension of a software language evolution is maturing in the sense of improving the quality of its definition. In this paper, we

  20. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313946809

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  1. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  2. Determination of thermal diffusivity in papaya pulp as a function of maturation stage Determinação da difusividade térmica da polpa de mamão em função do estádio de maturação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savio Figueira Corrêa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the penetration of the thermal wave in the papaya fruit pulp (Carica papaya L., cv. Golden, thermal diffusivity of the pulp was obtained measuring temperature at four different depths. Measurements were carried out initially with the fruit on the first stage of maturity. The changes of the thermal diffusivity were expressed as a function of ripening. A temporal decrease of the thermal diffusivity was observed. Chemical (pH, soluble solids and total titratable acidity and physical (pulp firmness properties were measured as well and the results were compared to the thermal diffusivity change.Para determinar a penetração da onda térmica na polpa do fruto do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L., cv. Golden, a difusividade térmica foi obtida medindo a temperatura da polpa em quatro diferentes profundidades. As medidas foram realizadas inicialmente no estádio I de maturação do fruto, e as variações da difusividade térmica foram expressas em função do amadurecimento. Foi observada a diminuição da difusividade térmica no tempo. Propriedades químicas (pH, sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável e física (firmeza da polpa também foram determinadas, e os resultados, comparados com as variações da difusividade térmica.

  3. A semi-quantitative risk assessment method for analyzing the level of risk associated with parameters in design of thermal heavy oil Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrokhzad, M.A. [IMV Projects Inc., Alberta (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    During the design stage of a thermal heavy oil pipeline, the design engineer should include the consideration of more factors than what is normally used for the design of a conventional pipeline. In the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) production, for the extraction of bitumen from oily soil, it is required that a stream of hot and pressurized steam (over 300 deg C) to be injected into the oil reservoir. The steam reaches the oily soil reservoir from a steam sour such as boilers by traveling through above-ground pipeline arrangements. As a result of the steam injection into the well site, bitumen oil is released from the oily soil. The produced bitumen also consists of high pressure and temperature (over 200 deg C) and requires a gathering pipeline arrangement for traveling to the processing plant. During the layout design, both steam injection and hot production lines are usually designed parallel with each other by using a series of anchor-loop-anchor supported by steel structures and pilings. The coexistence of two extremely hot pipelines (Injecting Steam and Production pipelines) on the aboveground pipe rack should be designed with extreme care. The higher than normal design temperature of these lines creates considerable lateral and longitudinal movements and heavy loads on the supporting structure and piling. In addition, since both lines contain high pressure mediums, the design engineer shall include a few more parameters than what is normally considered for conventional pipelines. These parameters include; sustain loads, slug forces, natural frequency, mechanical interactions, frictional forces on anchors and guides, and mechanical engagement of supporting components, as well as the effects of these loads on the steel structure-piling and their reaction with the surrounding soil. In addition the design engineer shall be aware of any potential failures associated with these physical and mechanical parameters, the impact and probability rationales and

  4. Revaluation of maturity and stability indices for compost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BOD/COD ratio of compost was studied in conjunction with C/N ratio as commonly maturity index. Carbonaceous materials as well as nitrogenous materials declined in open-air conditions during 20 weeks. C/N ratio was correlated with BOD/COD, a couple parameters to qualify the compost was mature and stable.

  5. Determination of diffusion parameters of Thermal neutrons for non-moderator media by a pulsed method and a time independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boufraqech, A.

    1991-01-01

    Two methods for determining the diffusion parameters of thermal neutrons for non-moderator and non-multiplicator media have been developped: The first one, which is a pulsed method, is based on thermal neutrons relaxation coefficients measurement in a moderator, with and without the medium of interest that plays the role of reflector. For the experimental results interpretation using the diffusion theory, a corrective factor which takes into account the neutron cooling by diffusion has been introduced. Its dependence on the empirically obtained relaxation coefficients is in a good agreement with the calculations made in P3L2 approximation. The difference between linear extrapolation lengths of the moderator and the reflector has been taken into account, by developping the scalar fluxes in Bessel function series which automatically satisfy the boundary conditions at the extra-polated surfaces of the two media. The obtained results for Iron are in a good agreement with those in the literature. The second method is time independent, based on the 'flux albedo' measurements interpretation (Concept introduced by Amaldi and Fermi) by P3 approximation in the one group trans-port theory. The independent sources are introduced in the Marshak boundary conditions. An angular albedo matrix has been used to deal with multiple reflections and to take into account the distortion of the current vector when entring a medium, after being reflected by this latter. The results obtained by this method are slightly different from those given in the literature. The analysis of the possible sources causing this discrepancy, particulary the radial distribution of flux in cylindrical geometry and the flux depression at medium-black body interface, has shown that the origin of this discrepancy is the neutron heating by diffusion. 47 figs., 20 tabs., 39 refs. (author)

  6. [Maturation diagnosis in full term hypotrophic fetuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnke, H D; Gartzke, J; Fleischer, G; Isbruch, E

    1977-01-01

    Foam-Test by Clements is a valuable method for determining the foetus maturity of lungs. We introduce this test along with other parameters for the maturity-diagnosis since one year. In 15% result, the Foam-Test was not applicable because of blood, or meconic amniotic fluid, other wise wrong negative and in 0% wrong positive results. By unmatured child, there was doubtable results with Foam-Test. Since it is important to determine the early delivery of unmatured children, particularly the case of foetus maturity of lungs must be exact, we therefore decided to use the Lecithin/Sphingomyelinquotients in some cases. The results of Lecithin/Sphingomyelinquotient in unmatured children are almost with the approximated date under two. From this, one must deduce from these children, that the intrauterine unmatured lungs lately took place.

  7. Response Surface Methodology Approach on Effect of Cutting Parameter on Tool Wear during End Milling of High Thermal Conductivity Steel -150 (HTCS-150)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hadzley, A B; Wan Mohd Azahar, W M Y; Izamshah, R; Mohd Shahir, K; Mohd Amran, A; Anis Afuza, A

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of development the tool life's mathematical model during the milling process on High Thermal Conductivity Steel 150 (HTCS-150) 56 HRC. Using response surface methodology, the mathematical models for tool life have been developed in terms of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Box-Behnken techniques is a part of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used to carry out the work plan to predict, the tool wear and generate the numerical equation in relation to independent variable parameters by Design Expert software. Dry milling experiments were conducted by using two levels of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. In this study, the variable for the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were in the range of 484-553 m/min, 0.31-0.36 mm/tooth, and 0.1-0.5 mm, width of cut is constantly 0.01mm per passes. The tool wear was measured using tool maker microscope. The effect of input factors that on the responds were identified by using mean of ANOVA. The responds of tool wear then simultaneously optimized. The validation of the test reveals the model accuracy 5% and low tool wear under same experimental condition. (paper)

  8. Influence of Thermal Parameters, Microstructure, and Morphology of Si on Machinability of an Al–7.0 wt.% Si Alloy Directionally Solidified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio A. P. Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to correlate the influence of thermal and microstructural parameters such as growth rate and cooling rate (VL and TR and secondary dendrite spacing (λ2, respectively, in the machining cutting temperature and tool wear on the necking process of the Al–7 wt.% Si alloy solidified in a horizontal directional device using a high-speed steel with a tungsten tool. The dependence of λ2 on VL and TR and dependence of the maximum cutting temperature and maximum flank wear on λ2 were determined by power experimental laws given by λ2 = constant (VL and TRn and TMAX, VBMAX = constant (λ2n, respectively. The maximum cutting temperature increased with increasing of λ2. The opposite occurred with the maximum flank wear. The role of Si alloying element on the aforementioned results has also been analyzed. A morphological change of Si along the solidified ingot length has been observed, that is, the morphology of Si in the eutectic matrix has indicated a transition from particles to fibers along the casting together with an increase of the particle diameters with the position from the metal/mold interface.

  9. Response Surface Methodology Approach on Effect of Cutting Parameter on Tool Wear during End Milling of High Thermal Conductivity Steel -150 (HTCS-150)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Hadzley, A. B.; Mohd Azahar, W. M. Y. Wan; Izamshah, R.; Mohd Shahir, K.; Mohd Amran, A.; Anis Afuza, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a study of development the tool life's mathematical model during the milling process on High Thermal Conductivity Steel 150 (HTCS-150) 56 HRC. Using response surface methodology, the mathematical models for tool life have been developed in terms of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Box-Behnken techniques is a part of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used to carry out the work plan to predict, the tool wear and generate the numerical equation in relation to independent variable parameters by Design Expert software. Dry milling experiments were conducted by using two levels of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. In this study, the variable for the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were in the range of 484-553 m/min, 0.31-0.36 mm/tooth, and 0.1-0.5 mm, width of cut is constantly 0.01mm per passes. The tool wear was measured using tool maker microscope. The effect of input factors that on the responds were identified by using mean of ANOVA. The responds of tool wear then simultaneously optimized. The validation of the test reveals the model accuracy 5% and low tool wear under same experimental condition.

  10. People Capability Maturity Model. SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    tailored so it consumes less time and resources than a traditional software process assessment or CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model...improved reputation or customer loyalty. CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model ■ L5-17 Coaching Level 5: Optimizing Activity 1...Maturity Model CMU/SEI-95-MM-62 Carnegie-Mellon University Software Engineering Institute DTIC ELECTE OCT 2 7 1995 People Capability Maturity

  11. Maturity effects in energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1992-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of maturity on future price volatility and trading volume for 129 energy futures contracts recently traded in the NYMEX. The results provide support for the maturity effect hypothesis, that is, energy futures prices to become more volatile and trading volume increases as futures contracts approach maturity. (author).

  12. Intraovarian markers of follicular and oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, A; Diamond, M P; DeCherney, A H; Naftolin, F

    1987-08-01

    The use of ovulation induction for multiple follicular growth in in vitro fertilization (IVF) has introduced the problem of follicular asynchrony. As a consequence of the asynchrony, the parameters most commonly used by IVF groups to assess follicular and oocyte quality within those follicles are not sufficiently sensitive or specific. Thus, each follicle must be considered separately, and specific markers of follicular and/or oocyte maturation must be sought from within the follicle. In this review we analyze previous reports of potential markers of follicular and oocyte maturation. In regards to the follicular fluid constituents, the level of estradiol in follicular fluid correlates with fertilization and pregnancy in stimulated cycles. Other steroids are only helpful when specific stimulation protocols are used. The level of some follicular proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin and fibrinogen also correlates with fertilization and pregnancy outcome. Cyclic AMP levels in follicular fluid are significantly reduced in follicles leading to conception. Regulators of oocyte maturation, such as the Oocyte Maturation Inhibitor (OMI) or the Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) have also been correlated with IVF outcome, but their exact structure remains still unknown. In addition, other sophisticated parameters, such as chemotactic activity of human leukocytes, or simple methods, such as the presence of intrafollicular echoes, have also been used as successful markers in predicting IVF outcome.

  13. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    Yeast surface display is an effective tool for antibody affinity maturation because yeast can be used as an all-in-one workhorse to assemble, display and screen diversified antibody libraries. By employing the natural ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently recombine multiple DNA...... laboratory conditions. A particular emphasis was put on using molecular techniques in conjunction with microenvironmental measurements (O2, pH, irradiance), a combination that is rarely found but provides a much more detailed understanding of “cause and effect” in complex natural systems...

  14. Lab determination of soil thermal Conductivity. Fundamentals, geothermal applications and relationship with other soil parameters; Medida de la conductividad termica del suelo en laboratorio. Fundamentos fisicos, aplicaciones geotermicas y relaciones con otros parametros del suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nope Gomez, F. I.; Santiago, C. de

    2014-07-01

    Shallow geothermal energy application in buildings and civil engineering works (tunnels, diaphragm walls, bridge decks, roads, and train/metro stations) are spreading rapidly all around the world. the dual role of these energy geostructures makes their design challenging and more complex with respect to conventional projects. Besides the geotechnical parameters, thermal behavior parameters are needed in the design and dimensioning to warrantee the thermo-mechanical stability of the geothermal structural element. As for obtaining any soil thermal parameter, both in situ and laboratory methods can be used. The present study focuses on a lab test known the need ke method to measure the thermal conductivity of soils (λ). Through this research work, different variables inherent to the test procedure, as well as external factors that may have an impact on thermal conductivity measurements were studied. Samples extracted from the cores obtained from a geothermal drilling conducted on the campus of the Polytechnic University of Valencia, showing different mineralogical and nature composition (granular and clayey) were studied different (moisture and density) compacting conditions. 550 thermal conductivity measurements were performed, from which the influence of factors such as the degree of saturation-moisture, dry density and type of material was verified. Finally, a stratigraphic profile with thermal conductivities ranges of each geologic level was drawn, considering the degree of saturation ranges evaluated in lab tests, in order to be compared and related to thermal response test, currently in progress. Finally, a test protocol is set and proposed, for both remolded and undisturbed samples, under different saturation conditions. Together with this test protocol, a set of recommendations regarding the configuration of the measuring equipment, treatment of samples and other variables, are posed in order to reduce errors in the final results. (Author)

  15. The organic petrology and thermal maturity of Lower Carboniferous and Upper Devonian source rocks in the Liard Basin, at Jackfish Gap-Yohin Ridge and North Beaver River, northern Canada: Implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J. (Univ. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)); Richards, B.C.; Goodarzi, G. (Geological Survey, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    Basinal shales of the Besa River Fm. have TOC values ranging from 1 to 4% and contain abundant type II, dominantly amorphous, kerogen of marine origin. Shales in the Yohin, Clausen, Prophet, and Golata Formations are of mixed maring and terrestrial origins and yield TOC values of 1 to 3%. Kerogen in the Golata and Yohin Formations are dominated by terrestrial components, while the Clausen and Flett kerogen comprises marine liptinites and bitumens. Kerogen from the deltaic Mattson shales at Jackfish Gap are types II and III, having mixed marine and terrestrial origins consistent with shallow, nearshore, subtidal environments. The coals are sapropelic and probably lacustrine in origin. Algal laminites associated with coals in the Upper Mattson have >10% TOC values, while non-laminite shales contain between 2 and 5% TOC. Comparable measured and calculated vitrinite reflectance data indicate that kerogen in the Lower Carboniferous at Jackfish Gap is mature. Kerogen in correlative formations in the subsurface at North Beaver River is more marine. Vitrinites are rate and oxidized, but four populations of bitumens are distinguished on the basis of relative reflectivity and morphological or petrophysical associations. Types A and B bitumens are primary and by-products of hydrocarbon generation from type II (algal and amorphous) kerogens. Correlations between depth and reflectance of bitumens A and B are very good. Vitrinite reflectance data calculated from bitumen reflectance measurements for the Besa River, Prophet, and Golata indicate that they are potential sources of catagenic gas. The Mattson kerogen is mature, oil and gas-prone.

  16. Methodology for Diagnostics of the Company Management and Technological Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Martynyuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to the measurement and assessment of the company technological maturity level and management maturity apart, formulated in scientific researches and practical recommendations, significantly differ according to their purpose, content and depth of the factors analysis. Studies of the company technological maturity and possibility for implementing business processes and certain IT technologies have become more advanced in some degree. The general idea of forming a model of diagnostics of the management and technological maturity is based on the determination of prevailing company system influence components. Management techniques are a nucleus of the model, and the innovation level of management techniques is an energy impulse inciting to development. Basing on the analysis performed, the author created a concept of levels of the company management and technological maturity considering the main parameters of the company management and technological maturity. A composite algorithm was proposed for determining the level of managerial technological maturity (LMTM, end exposition of a complex of management techniques to ensure the company dynamic progress based on determining a level of the management and technological maturity. The advantages and disadvantages are determined by the methodology. The performed approbation has confirmed the approach validity and its usefulness. The approbation shows the reliability and unambiguity of interpreting results. To use it for bigger enterprises and corporations, it is not even necessary to change identification parameters.

  17. Correlation between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Haikun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Zeping; Liu, Renkai; Li, Fan; Zou, Shujuan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental and skeletal maturity. Digital panoramic radiographs and lateral skull cephalograms of 302 patients (134 boys and 168 girls, ranging from 8 to 16 years of age) were examined. Dental maturity was assessed by calcification stages of the mandibular canines, first and second premolars, and second molars, whereas skeletal maturity was estimated by the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between CVM stage and dental calcification stage of individual teeth. The mean chronologic age of girls was significantly lower than that of boys in each CVM stage. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity ranged from 0.391 to 0.582 for girls and from 0.464 to 0.496 for boys (P cervical vertebral maturation stage. The development of the mandibular second molar in females and that of the mandibular canine in males had the strongest correlations with cervical vertebral maturity. Therefore, it is practical to consider the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity when planning orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance Degradation of Thermal Parameters during Cycle Ageing of High Energy Density Ni-Mn-Co based Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The accelerated demand for electrifying the transportation sector, coupled with the continuous improvement of rechargeable batteries’ characteristics, have made modern high-energy Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries the standard choice for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). Consequently, Li......-ion batteries’ electrochemical and thermal characteristics are very important topics, putting them at the forefront of the research. Along with the electrical performance of Li-ion battery cells, their thermal behavior needs to be accurately predicted during operation and over the lifespan of the application...... as well, since the thermal management of the battery is crucial for the safety of the EV driver. Moreover, the thermal management system can significantly lower the degradation rate of the battery pack and thus reduce costs. In this paper, the thermal characterization of a commercially available Nickel...

  19. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Akkaya, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma

  20. Developing maturity grids for assessing organisational capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2009-01-01

    Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment......Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment...

  1. Modeling non-maturing liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    von Feilitzen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Non‐maturing liabilities, such as savings accounts, lack both predetermined maturity and reset dates due to the fact that the depositor is free to withdraw funds at any time and that the depository institution is free to change the rate. These attributes complicate the risk management of such products and no standardized solution exists. The problem is important however since non‐maturing liabilities typically make up a considerable part of the funding of a bank. In this report different mode...

  2. early maturing mutants in Indica rice and their traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu; Yang Hefeng; Xu Chenwu; Gu Shiliang

    1998-01-01

    The correlation and genetic parameters of eleven agronomic characters of 50 early mature lines induced from late mature cultivar, IR 1529-68-3-2 were studied by morphological classification and correlation and regression analysis. The results showed that: 1. The early mutants could be divided into two ecotype: early mature type and medium mature type of mid-maturity rice. 2. The 1000-grain weight of early mutants negatively correlated with the length of growing period. 3. According to direct path coefficients, the relation with heading period of early mutants was in order of 1000-grain-weight>plant height>seed sterility. 4.The higher heritability in broad sense were found in plant height, 1000 grain weight and heading period of the early mutants

  3. Relationships between thermal dose parameters and the efficacy of definitive chemoradiotherapy plus regional hyperthermia in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer: data from a multicentre randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohguri, Takayuki; Harima, Yoko; Imada, Hajime; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Hiraki, Yoshiyuki; Tuji, Koh; Tanaka, Masahiro; Terashima, Hiromi

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the contribution of the thermal dose parameters during regional hyperthermia (HT) treatment to the clinical outcomes in patients with cervical carcinoma (CC) who received chemoradiotherapy (CRT) plus HT. Data from a multicentre randomised clinical trial of concurrent CRT + HT vs. CRT alone were used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this combination therapy in the CC patients. The intrarectal temperatures of patients undergoing HT were recorded. The complete thermal data of 47 (92%) of the 51 patients in the CRT + HT group were available for the thermal analysis. Thus, 47 patients who received CRT + HT were included in the present study. Among the patients who received CRT + HT, a higher CEM43T90 (≥1 min) value (a thermal dose parameter) was significantly associated with better local relapse-free survival in both univariate (p = 0.024) and multivariate (p = 0.0097) analyses. The disease-free survival of the patients with higher CEM43T90 (≥1 min) values tended to be better in comparison to patients with lower CEM43T90 (<1 min) value (p = 0.071). A complete response tended to be associated with the CEM43T90 (p = 0.056). Disease-free survival, local relapse-free survival and complete response rate for patients with higher CEM43T90 (≥1) were significantly better than those for patients with CRT alone (p = 0.036, p = 0.036 and p = 0.048). Dose-effect relationships between thermal dose parameters and clinical outcomes were confirmed in the CC patients treated with a combination of CRT + HT. This study also confirmed that HT with lower CEM43T90 is insufficient to achieve a significant hyperthermic sensitisation to CRT.

  4. Whose Maturity is it Anyway?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from an ongoing empirical study that seeks to understand the influence of different quantitative methods on the design and assessment of maturity models. Although there have been many academic publications on maturity models, there exists a significant lack of understa...

  5. The DELILAH correlation code for adjusting the parameters of the one-group diffusion equations to give best estimate power distributions for thermal reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckler, A.N.

    1978-10-01

    Details of the coding techniques, with flow diagrams are given for the correlation code DELILAH which is a replacement for the SAMSON code for SGHW and other thermal systems. An improved method of rejecting inaccurate channel power measurements is described in detail. A list of the input data requirements for the code will be published separately. (author)

  6. Comparing equivalent thermal, high pressure and pulsed electric field processes for mild pasteurization of orange juice: Part II: Impact on specific chemical and biochemical quality parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, L.; Plancken, van der I.; Grauwet, T.; Timmermans, R.A.H.; Mastwijk, H.C.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.E.; Loey, van A.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of thermal, high pressure (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for mild pasteurization of orange juice was compared on a fair basis, using processing conditions leading to an equivalent degree of microbial inactivation. Examining the effect on specific chemical and biochemical

  7. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  8. SOUL System Maturation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  9. SOUL System Maturation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  10. Naturally Engineered Maturation of Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano J. Scuderi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs. However, these engineered constructs exhibit a functionally immature, disorganized, fetal-like phenotype that is not equivalent physiologically to native adult cardiac tissue. Due to this major limitation, many recent studies have investigated approaches to improve pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte maturation to close this large functionality gap between engineered and native cardiac tissue. This review integrates the natural developmental mechanisms of cardiomyocyte structural and functional maturation. The variety of ways researchers have attempted to improve cardiomyocyte maturation in vitro by mimicking natural development, known as natural engineering, is readily discussed. The main focus of this review involves the synergistic role of electrical and mechanical stimulation, extracellular matrix interactions, and non-cardiomyocyte interactions in facilitating cardiomyocyte maturation. Overall, even with these current natural engineering approaches, pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes within three-dimensional engineered heart tissue still remain mostly within the early to late fetal stages of cardiomyocyte maturity. Therefore, although the end goal is to achieve adult phenotypic maturity, more emphasis must be placed on elucidating how the in vivo fetal microenvironment drives cardiomyocyte

  11. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  12. The summer thermal behaviour of 'skin' materials for vertical surfaces in Athens, Greece, as a decisive parameter for their selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougiatioti, F.; Evangelinos, E.; Poulakos, G.; Zacharopoulos, E. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Architecture, Department of Architectural Technology, 42, Patission Street, 10682 Athens (Greece)

    2009-04-15

    This paper analyses the thermal behaviour of the materials, which are widely used on the vertical surfaces of Greek cities. This analysis is based on surface temperatures measurements, which were carried out both in situ in various buildings of Athens, Greece and experimentally on samples of building materials exposed to solar radiation on a building's flat roof. The study includes surfacing materials, which are usually applied on building facades around Greece. The study leads to a number of conclusions concerning the effect of colour and orientation on the summer surface temperatures of materials, used on vertical city surfaces. These conclusions indicate how surfacing materials should be chosen in order to help mitigate the urban heat island and improve thermal comfort conditions in the outdoor spaces of Greek cities during the overheated summer period. (author)

  13. A compilation of correlation parameters for predicting the enthalpy and thermal conductivity of solid foods within the temperature range of -40 C to +40 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, N.D. [Comvita New Zealand Limited, Private Bag 1, Te Puke 3153 (New Zealand); Willix, J.; North, M.F. [AgResearch Limited, MIRINZ Centre, Ruakura Campus, East Street, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton (New Zealand); Chadderton, T. [Crop and Food Research Ltd, PO Box 5114, Nelson (New Zealand)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents thermal conductivity data for 40 foods, enthalpy data for 58 foods and density data for nine foods, along with the compositions of the foods. Measurements cover a range of solid food types (including meats, fats, offal, fish, dairy products and horticultural products). Some measurements reported are for foods that have never before been studied, others have been published elsewhere, but are included here for convenience. Thermal conductivity was measured using a guarded hot-plate apparatus, enthalpy using an adiabatic calorimeter and density using a water displacement meter. Thermal conductivity and enthalpy values were measured within the temperature range of -40 C to +40 C. (author) [French] Cette publication presente des donnes sur la conductivite thermique, l'enthalpie et la densite respectivement de 40, 58 et 9 produits alimentaires, ainsi que leurs compositions. Les mesures couvrent une variete de types de produits alimentaires (viande, matieres grasses, abats, poisson, produits laitiers, produits horticoles). Certaines sont rapportees pour des produits qui n 'ant jamais ete etudie auparavant, d'autres ant ete publie ailleurs mais sont aussi inclues pour plus de commodite. La conductivite thermique a ete mesure avec un appareil a plaque electrique protegee, l'enthalpie avec un calorimetre adiabatique et la densite avec un appareil mesurant Ie deplacement d'eau. La conductivite thermique et l'enthalpie ont ete toutes les mesures pour une fourchette de temperatures allant de -40 C a 40 C. (orig.)

  14. Critical parameters for electron beam curing of cationic epoxies and property comparison of electron beam cured cationic epoxies versus thermal cured resins and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, C.J.; Norris, R.E.; Yarborough, K.; Lopata, V.J.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam curing of composites is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process offering the following advantages compared to conventional thermal curing: substantially reduced manufacturing costs and curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvements in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance electron beam curing of composites. The CRADA has successfully developed hundreds of new toughened and untoughened resins, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility. Several patent applications have been filed for this work. Composites made from these easily processable, low shrinkage material match the performance of thermal cured composites and exhibit: low void contents comparable to autoclave cured composites (less than 1%); superb low water absorption values in the same range as cyanate esters (less than 1%); glass transition temperatures rivaling those of polyimides (greater than 390 C); mechanical properties comparable to high performance, autoclave cured composites; and excellent property retention after cryogenic and thermal cycling. These materials have been used to manufacture many composite parts using various fabrication processes including hand lay-up, tow placement, filament winding, resin transfer molding and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding

  15. Maturing Technologies for Stirling Space Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Nowlin, Brentley C.; Dobbs, Michael W.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Huth, James

    2016-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) could offer space missions a more efficient power system that uses one fourth of the nuclear fuel and decreases the thermal footprint of the current state of the art. The RPS Program Office, working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), manages projects to develop thermoelectric and dynamic power systems, including Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs). The Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project, located at Glenn Research Center (GRC), is developing Stirling-based subsystems, including convertors and controllers. The SCTD Project also performs research that focuses on a wide variety of objectives, including increasing convertor temperature capability to enable new environments, improving system reliability or fault tolerance, reducing mass or size, and developing advanced concepts that are mission enabling. Research activity includes maturing subsystems, assemblies, and components to prepare them for infusion into future convertor and generator designs. The status of several technology development efforts are described here. As part of the maturation process, technologies are assessed for readiness in higher-level subsystems. To assess the readiness level of the Dual Convertor Controller (DCC), a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) was performed and the process and results are shown. Stirling technology research is being performed by the SCTD Project for NASA's RPS Program Office, where tasks focus on maturation of Stirling-based systems and subsystems for future space science missions.

  16. Discrimination of thermal diffusivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Materials such as wood or metal which are at equal temperatures are perceived to be of different ‘coldness’ due to differences in thermal properties, such as the thermal diffusivity. The thermal diffusivity of a material is a parameter that controls the rate with which heat is extracted from the

  17. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides Part II. Relationships between detonation parameters and thermal reactivity of the mixtures with triacetone triperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Svatopluk; Bartei, Cécile

    2008-06-15

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and two dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. Thermal reactivity of these mixtures was examined by means of differential thermal analysis and the data were analyzed according to the modified Kissinger method (the peak temperature was replaced by the temperature of decomposition onset in this case). The reactivity, expressed as the EaR(-1) slopes of the Kissinger relationship, correlates with the squares of the calculated detonation velocities for the charge density of 1000 kg m(-3) of the studied energetic materials. Similarly, the relationships between the EaR(-1) values and RP have been found. While the first mentioned correlation (modified Evans-Polanyi-Semenov equation) is connected with the primary chemical micro-mechanism of the mixtures detonation, the relationships in the second case should be connected with the thermochemical aspects of this detonation.

  18. On observation of the downconversion mechanism in Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped tellurite glass using thermal and optical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, M.S.; Santos, F.A. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologias, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Yukimitu, K.; Moraes, J.C.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Departamento de Física e Química, Av. Brasil, 56, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Nunes, L.A.O. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Andrade, L.H.C. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Óptica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Cidade Universitária de Dourados, CP 351, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Lima, S.M., E-mail: smlima@uems.br [Grupo de Espectroscopia Óptica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Cidade Universitária de Dourados, CP 351, Dourados, MS (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    In this work we report the observed downconversion (DC) mechanism in Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}-codoped tellurite glasses (in mol%, 80TeO{sub 2}–10Li{sub 2}O–10TiO{sub 2}). The samples were synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching method and then studied using optical spectroscopy and thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS). These characterizations enabled investigation of the radiative and nonradiative processes involved in energy transfer from erbium to ytterbium. The visible Er{sup 3+} fluorescence intensities decreased as a function of the Yb{sup 3+} concentration, and there was a corresponding increase in the ytterbium emission at around 980 nm. Simultaneously, there was a reduction in the heat-generated due nonradiative decays (∼21%) when ytterbium was added. This temperature change was measured by TLS measurements and the results corroborate with the indicated by spectroscopic interpretation. - Highlights: • Energy transfer from erbium to ytterbium in tellurite glass. • ∼56% of cross-relaxation efficiency from Er{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+}. • Downconversion effect in tellurite glasses. • Downconversion effect observation by thermal lens spectroscopy.

  19. Thermal resistance parameters of acid-adapted and unadapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple-carrot juice blends: effect of organic acids and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usaga, Jessie; Worobo, Randy W; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

    2014-04-01

    Numerous outbreaks involving fresh juices contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 have occurred in the United States and around the world, raising concern for the safety of these products. Until now, only a few studies regarding the thermal tolerance of this pathogen in acidic juices over a wide range of pH values have been published. Therefore, the effect of varying the pH with different organic acids on the thermal inactivation of non-acid-adapted and acid-adapted E. coli O157:H7 (strain C7927) was determined. The decimal reduction times (D-values) and the change in temperature required for the thermal destruction curve to traverse 1 log cycle (z-values) were calculated for non-acid-adapted E. coli in an apple-carrot juice blend (80:20) adjusted to three pH values (3.3, 3.5, and 3.7) by the addition of lactic, malic, or acetic acid and at a pH of 4.5 adjusted with NaOH. Thermal parameters were also determined for acid-adapted cells in juices acidified with malic acid. The effect of the soluble solids content on the thermal tolerance was studied in samples with a pH of 3.7 at 9.4 to 11.5 °Brix. The D-values were determined at 54, 56, and 58 °C, and trials were conducted in triplicate. Non-acid-adapted E. coli exhibited the highest thermal tolerance at pH 4.5 (D-value at 54 °C [D54 °C] of 20 ± 4 min and z-value of 6.2 °C), although on average, the D-values increased significantly (P 0.01). The data from this study will be useful for establishing critical limits for safe thermal processing of pH-controlled juices and similar products.

  20. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...

  1. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    Online applications and processing of tax forms, driver licenses, and construction permits are examples of where policy attention and research have been united in efforts aiming to categorize the maturity level of e-services. Less attention has been attributed to policy areas with continuous online...... citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...... compared to the high ranking it has received in the international benchmark studies. This paper aims at closing the gap between the predominant scope of maturity models and the frequency of citizen-public sector interaction, and calls for increased attention to the activities of government where the scale...

  2. Bicarbonate Transport During Enamel Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaifeng; Paine, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways. Enamel crystallite formation is initiated early in the secretory stage, however, during maturation stage the more rapid deposition of calcium and phosphate into the enamel space results in a rapid expansion of crystallite length and mineral volume. During maturation-stage amelogenesis, the pH value of enamel varies considerably from slightly above neutral to acidic. Extracellular acid-base balance during enamel maturation is tightly controlled by ameloblast-mediated regulatory networks, which include significant synthesis and movement of bicarbonate ions from both the enamel papillary layer cells and ameloblasts. In this review we summarize the carbonic anhydrases and the carbonate transporters/exchangers involved in pH regulation in maturation-stage amelogenesis. Proteins that have been shown to be instrumental in this process include CA2, CA6, CFTR, AE2, NBCe1, SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, SLC26A4/PDS, SLC26A6/PAT1, and SLC26A7/SUT2. In addition, we discuss the association of miRNA regulation with bicarbonate transport in tooth enamel formation.

  3. [Growth rate and bone maturation in celiac disease (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Sopena, M J; Calvo Romero, M C; Bedate Calderón, P; Alonso Franch, M; Sánchez Villares, E

    1978-05-01

    The growth and bone maturation of 43 celiac patients were analyzed. A significant correlation between gluten intake and growth rate was found. The authors suggest this is a good parameter to advise the best moment to make the control biopsie and the provocation test.

  4. Modeling growth from weaning to maturity in beef cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand growth trajectory and maturity differences between beef breeds, three models – Brody, spline, and quadratic – were fit to cow growth data, and resulting parameter estimates were evaluated for 3 breed categories – British, continental, and Brahman-influenced. The data were weight...

  5. Distribution of two-phase flow thermal and hydraulic parameters over the cross-section of channels with a rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, Yu.V.; Shpanskij, S.V.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes PUCHOK-2, a program for thermohydraulic calculation of a channel with a bundle of smooth fuel elements. The pro.gram takes into consideration the non-uniformity of flow parameter distributions over the channel cross-section. The channel cross-section was divided into elementary cells, within which changes in flow parameters (mass velocity, heat- and steam content) were disregarded. The bundle was considered to be a system of parallel interconnected channels. Accounting for equal pressure drops in all the cells, the above model led to a system of non-linear algebraic equations. The system of equations was solved by the method of successive approximations. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data

  6. Quercetin Efficacy on in vitro Maturation of Porcine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Orlovschi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposed to examine the effects of a polyphenol (quercetin on in vitro maturated parameters. Quercetin it has been extensively studied by researchers on animals over the 35 years. It is a plant derived flavonoid from fruits and vegetables that has antioxidant action as a free radical scavenger. Immature porcine oocytes were untreated and treated with 5, 15, 25, 35 µg/ml quercetin during in vitro maturation. After then the mature oocytes were fertilized. It was observed that cumulus cell expansion of COCs cultured in maturation media supplemented with 5 µg/ml quercetin in grad 3 could be very significantly increased (p<0.001. In grad 4 could be significantly between different levels of quercetin (5 vs. 25, 5 vs. 35, p<0.001. The rates of embryos cultured in medium supplemented with different levels of quercetin did not presented significantly statistically different. The presence of 25 µg/ml quercetin in the maturation medium increased the percentage of embryos in the morula stage compared with the control. In the morula stage all the concentrations of quercetin resulted percentages increased to control. This results shows that quercetin added during in vitro maturation has a positive effect on future embryos development.

  7. Quantitative Assessment of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Korean Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Bo-Ram; Kim, Yong-Il; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Son, Woo-Sung

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the correlation between skeletal maturation status and parameters from the odontoid process/body of the second vertebra and the bodies of third and fourth cervical vertebrae and simultaneously build multiple regression models to be able to estimate skeletal maturation status in Korean girls. Hand-wrist radiographs and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained from 74 Korean girls (6?18 years of age). CBCT-generated cervical vertebral maturation ...

  8. PARAMETER KINETIKA INAKTIVASI TERMAL DAN ISOLASI Staphylococcus aureus PADA MINUMAN DARI GEL CINCAU HIJAU DAN ROSELA [Thermal Inactivation Kinetics Parameter and Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus on Drink from Green Grass Jelly and Roselle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hari Purnomo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about heat resistance (D and z values of target bacteria is needed for the thermal process design on drink from Green Grass Jelly (Premna oblongifolia Merr. and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L., so it can guarantee quality and safety of the product. The objectives of this research were to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from commercial green grass jelly and to determine the D and z values of Staphylococcus aureus (from commercial product and standard clinical isolate ATCC 25923 on heating menstruum of green grass jelly and roselle. Isolation of S. aureus was done by inoculation in selective medium, D and z values of Staphylococcus aureus were assessed by heating at constant temperatures of 57, 53, 49, and 45°C during the time interval 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. The results showed that one isolate (Isolate A gave positive response of Staphylococcus aureus in isolation tests and had similar percentage with the reference culture of 41.8% using the API Staph Kit. Heat resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (represented as D value isolated from green grass jelly at constant heating temperature of D45, D49, D53 and D57 were 32.3, 17.9, 4.6, and 1.5 minutes. On the other hand, D value of isolates ATCC 25923 (standard clinical isolate at constant heating temperature of D45, D49, D53 and D57 were 18.5, 6.8, 2.9, and 1.4 minutes. The z value of isolates A and ATCC 25923 were 8.8°C and 10.8°C. Smaller z value of isolate A showed that pasteurization process can be accelerated and optimized with increasing the temperature slightly but has the same lethality effect.

  9. Differences in bitumen and kerogen-bound fatty acid fractions during diagenesis and early catagenesis in a maturity series of New Zealand coals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2016-01-01

    network. Application of the carbon preference index for fatty acids (CPIFA) of bitumen and kerogen-bound acids revealed a linear correlation to the Tmax maturity parameter. This shows that the CPIFA has a clear relation to thermal stability and, thus, reactivity of the buried organic matter....... The difference in slopes of CPIFA vs. Tmax for short and long chain as well as bitumen and kerogen-bound acids may indicate their different degradation susceptibilities. The short chain fatty acids of the bitumen show the highest susceptibility whereas the kerogen-bound long chain fatty acids seem to be most...

  10. EMOTIONAL MATURITY OF PERSONALITY: THE PRACTICAL PROBLEM OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Afonina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the dif?cult conditions of the contemporary society which are far from being favorable to maintain one’s emotional and physical health the problem of development and achievement of emotional maturity as a factor of the well-being is getting more signi?cant. Based on the theoretical concepts of different scientists who de?ned the construct of emotional maturity three groups of psychological methods for assessing emotional maturity are analyzed. The ?rst group includes the methods that are used to assess emotional maturity explicitly and have a theoretical or empirical veri?cation. The second group includes the methods that are intended to assess emotional maturity as a separate scale complimented by other scales, related to evaluating other aspects of emotionality in  the  structure  of  the  personality.  The  third  group  includes  the  methods  in  which  emotional maturity is mentioned in the description of other psychic phenomena, or in the interpretation of certain factors (scales. Psychodiagnostic methods studying different parameters depending on the theoretical concepts of the authors about the structure and content of the emotional maturity of the personality make references to concepts of emotional development, consciousness, cognitive and volitional capacities of the personality and the coping strategies the individual prefer to use. The problem of developing valid and reliable psychodiagnostic methods of studying emotional maturity of the adult personality as a holistic phenomenon still awaits attention and retains its signi?cance.

  11. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  12. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth

  13. Thermal restoration of the lattice parameter of weakly irradiated UO{sub 2} (1962); Restauration thermique de parametre du l'UO{sub 2} faiblement irradie (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Weak irradiations of uranium dioxide lead to an expansion of the cristal lattice. We have studied the restoration of the lattice parameter after successive isochronous annealings. The process occurs in two main stages, one starting at 200 deg. C and the other at 500 deg. C. (author) [French] De faibles irradiations du bioxyde d'uranium produisent une dilatation de la maille cristalline. Nous avons etudie la restauration du parametre apres des recuits isochrones successifs. Elle se fait en deux stades principaux: l'un a partir de 200 deg. C, l'autre a partir de 500 deg. C. (auteur)

  14. [Maturation of cerebral somatosensory evoked potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, J; Zhu, Y; Georgesco, M; Echenne, B; Rodiere, M

    1985-07-01

    Cerebral somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were elicited by stimulation of the median nerve and/or posterior tibial nerve in 117 children of 1 day to 16 years old. A major negative wave (N) was consistently recorded from the parietal region of the scalp when the arm was stimulated. The peak latency, the onset latency, the rising time and the duration of H wave are closely correlated with age and body length. The latencies are shortest in the subjects of 1-3 years old. SEPs to lower extremity stimulation were inconstant in the infants before the age of one. The major positive wave (P) has a variable topographic distribution along the middle line, over the scalp. The latencies are also very variable in the different subjects of the same age as well as in the same subject with different locations of active electrode. Among the parameters studied as for N wave, only the rising time of P wave is significantly correlated with age. The latencies of P wave have the shortest value in the subjects of 1-3 years old. The comparison of SEPs to upper and to lower limb stimulations shows that there is no relationship between them in respect to their morphology and amplitude. The minimum value of the latencies of N and P waves was observed at the same age but the difference between the peak latencies of P and N waves in the same subject increases considerably after 2 years of age and reaches the adult value after 5 years of age. These resultats indicate that the maturation of the peripheral somatosensory pathways proceeds at a higher rate than that of the central somatosensory pathways, that the maturation of the somatosensory pathways of the upper limb precedes that of the lower limb, and that the rising time of N or P waves is a good index of cortical maturation. The clinical utility of these SEPs in pediatrics is discussed.

  15. Re-evaluation of {sup 58}Ni and {sup 60}Ni resonance parameters in the neutron energy range thermal to 800 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, H.; Leal, L.C.; Guber, K.H.; Wiarda, D.; Arbanas, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The previous {sup 58}Ni and {sup 60}Ni set of resonance parameters (Endf/B7.O, Jeff-3, etc.) was based on the SAMMY analysis of Oak Ridge National Laboratory neutron transmission, scattering cross section and capture cross section measurements by C.M. Perey et al. The present results were obtained by adding to the SAMMY experimental database the capture cross sections measured recently at the Oak Ridge Linear Electron Accelerator by Guber et al. and the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator and very high-resolution neutron transmission measurements performed by Brusegan et al. A complete resonance parameter covariance matrix (RPCM) was obtained from the SAMMY analysis of the experimental database. The data sets were made consistent, when needed, by adjusting the neutron energy scales, the normalization coefficients, and the background corrections. The RPCM allows the calculation of the cross section uncertainties due mainly to statistical errors in the experimental data. The systematic uncertainties of the experimental data, estimated from the preliminary analyses of the experimental database, were taken into account in the cross section covariance matrix (CSCM) for total, scattering, and capture cross sections. The diagonal elements of the CSCM were obtained by quadratic combination of the different components of the uncertainties. Because of a lack of experimental information, the energy correlations were not obtained, and a value of 0.5 was arbitrarily taken for all the CSCM nondiagonal elements. The average capture cross-sections are significantly smaller than those calculated form Endf/B7.0

  16. Paleogene dinoflagellate cysts and thermal maturity from Pabdeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    forest development as a consequence of increase in climate humidity. The species are .... the Middle to Late Early Eocene, the oceans and seas are characterized ..... walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in the tropical Atlantic. Ocean and ...

  17. Laboratory stand for examination of the operational thermal parameters of polyvalent system for heating, cooling and domestic hot water supply using renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlateva, Merima

    2014-01-01

    The report presents the structure of an universal laboratory stand for determine the operating parameters of a polyvalent system for utilization of renewable energy sources. The system is a combination of three modules using different technologies for renewable sources – solar energy, atmospheric air and biomass, incorporated in a common heat accumulator. The structural scheme permits the possibility to use the stand in different operating modes, to demonstrate the feasibility of using any one of the renewable energy sources both individually and in various combinations. The author express gratitude to the partners of the companies Robert Bosch Bulgaria Ltd, Ahi Carrier Bulgaria and Eratermtotal, with whose generous support is build the stand. Key words: Renewable energy sources (RES), Heating with RES, Biomass, Air to Water Heat pumps

  18. Assessing the Thermal Conductivity of Cu2-xSe Alloys Undergoing a Phase Transition via the Simultaneous Measurement of Thermoelectric Parameters by a Harman-Based Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevskiy, D.; Keshavarz, M. K.; Simard, J.-M.; Masut, R. A.; Turenne, S.; Snyder, G. J.

    2018-01-01

    Some materials such as Cu2-xSe, Cu1.97Ag0.03Se, and SnSe have attracted attention by demonstrating a significant enhancement of their thermoelectric performance, which is associated with a phase transition. This phenomenon, observed in a limited temperature (T) interval, results in sharp changes of the Seebeck coefficient (S), the electrical resistivity (ρ), and the thermal conductivity (κ), which may render the correct evaluation of the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) difficult. We report the thermoelectric properties of a polycrystalline Cu2-xSe sample which is known to undergo a phase transition near 410 K, containing a mixture of α- and β-phases at room temperature, as determined by x-ray diffraction measurements. We have used a Harman-based setup (TEMTE Inc.), which assures the direct measurement of ZT at all temperatures, including the phase transition region. This approach ensures that κ(T) is determined under steady-state conditions at any given temperature, including points arbitrarily close to the transition temperature which cannot be guaranteed by previously used techniques such as laser flash. We have observed a sharp maximum for κ(T) near 410 K, similar to the reported specific heat variation, with a ZT peak value of 0.2 at 400 K. The expected gain in ZT related to the phase transition is reduced because the increase in S is counterbalanced by the increase in κ(T). Thus, our detailed assessment of the temperature variation of the individual thermoelectric properties accurately evaluates the performance enhancement associated to a structural phase transition and helps to elucidate this complex phenomenon.

  19. Assessing the Thermal Conductivity of Cu2-xSe Alloys Undergoing a Phase Transition via the Simultaneous Measurement of Thermoelectric Parameters by a Harman-Based Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevskiy, D.; Keshavarz, M. K.; Simard, J.-M.; Masut, R. A.; Turenne, S.; Snyder, G. J.

    2018-06-01

    Some materials such as Cu2-xSe, Cu1.97Ag0.03Se, and SnSe have attracted attention by demonstrating a significant enhancement of their thermoelectric performance, which is associated with a phase transition. This phenomenon, observed in a limited temperature ( T) interval, results in sharp changes of the Seebeck coefficient ( S), the electrical resistivity ( ρ), and the thermal conductivity ( κ), which may render the correct evaluation of the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) difficult. We report the thermoelectric properties of a polycrystalline Cu2-xSe sample which is known to undergo a phase transition near 410 K, containing a mixture of α- and β-phases at room temperature, as determined by x-ray diffraction measurements. We have used a Harman-based setup (TEMTE Inc.), which assures the direct measurement of ZT at all temperatures, including the phase transition region. This approach ensures that κ( T) is determined under steady-state conditions at any given temperature, including points arbitrarily close to the transition temperature which cannot be guaranteed by previously used techniques such as laser flash. We have observed a sharp maximum for κ( T) near 410 K, similar to the reported specific heat variation, with a ZT peak value of 0.2 at 400 K. The expected gain in ZT related to the phase transition is reduced because the increase in S is counterbalanced by the increase in κ( T). Thus, our detailed assessment of the temperature variation of the individual thermoelectric properties accurately evaluates the performance enhancement associated to a structural phase transition and helps to elucidate this complex phenomenon.

  20. Assessment of skeletal maturation using mandibular second molar maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S; Goyal, S; Gugnani, N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between cervical vertebrae maturation and mandibular second molar calcification stages. The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive and crosssectional research project. Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs of 99 males and 110 females in the age range of 7 to 18 years 7 months were evaluated with Demirjian Index (DI) and cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI) of Hassel and Farman. A null hypothesis was proposed that there is no relation between CVMI and DI. A highly significant association (Pearson's contingency coefficient 0.713 for males and 0.863 for females) was found between DI and CVMI. In males, the DI stage E corresponded to stage 2 of CVMI (pre-peak of pubertal growth spurt) and DI stages F and G corresponded to stages 3 and 4 of CVMI (peak of pubertal growth spurt). DI stage H was associated with stages 5 and 6 of CVMI (end of pubertal growth spurt). In females, the DI stages C, D corresponded to CVMI stages 1, 2; DI stages E, F with CVMI stages 3, 4; DI stages G, H with CVMI stages 5, 6. Mandibular second molar calcification stages can be used as indicators for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  1. Cervical vertebral maturation as a biologic indicator of skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rodrigo César; de Miranda Costa, Luiz Felipe; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2012-11-01

    To identify and review the literature regarding the reliability of cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) staging to predict the pubertal spurt. The selection criteria included cross-sectional and longitudinal descriptive studies in humans that evaluated qualitatively or quantitatively the accuracy and reproducibility of the CVM method on lateral cephalometric radiographs, as well as the correlation with a standard method established by hand-wrist radiographs. The searches retrieved 343 unique citations. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Six articles had moderate to high scores, while 17 of 23 had low scores. Analysis also showed a moderate to high statistically significant correlation between CVM and hand-wrist maturation methods. There was a moderate to high reproducibility of the CVM method, and only one specific study investigated the accuracy of the CVM index in detecting peak pubertal growth. This systematic review has shown that the studies on CVM method for radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation stages suffer from serious methodological failures. Better-designed studies with adequate accuracy, reproducibility, and correlation analysis, including studies with appropriate sensitivity-specificity analysis, should be performed.

  2. Product Maturation Guide - A Digital Simulation Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    . Tolerance analysis tools, those optimizing the individual part tolerances at the time of design can generate a product maturation guide that eliminates many problem solving procedures and saves time on root cause analysis. Assume a first product built on a new assembly line was found to need improvements....... To conclude the actions we need information about all the dimensions of child parts and processes involved and their influence. At the time of product design, the tolerance analysis system works with the same variables with a given range of variations virtually. For a practical build, instead of variation...... range, it has to consider one fixed value measured from initial parts. By adding information about process characteristics, like speed, cost, etc. to all the dimensions, the system can directly guide the manufacturing team, on which parameter to modify, which direction and how much. At the same time...

  3. Maturation curves of sweet sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Silva e Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] stands out as a complementary crop to sugarcane Saccharum spp. for the production of ethanol, since it has juicy stems with directly fermentable sugars. Due to this fact, there is a need for the analysis of sweet sorghum properties in order to meet the agro-industry demand. This work aimed to develop and study the maturation curves of seven sweet sorghum cultivars in ten harvest dates. The results showed a significant difference between cultivars and harvest dates for all parameters analysed (p≤0.01. Regarding the sugar content, the cultivars BRS508, XBWS80147 and CMSX629 showed the highest means for the total reducing sugars (TRS and recoverable sugar (RS. In the production of ethanol per tonne of biomass (EP, the cultivars BRS508 and CMSX629 presented the best results.

  4. Quantitative skeletal evaluation based on cervical vertebral maturation: a longitudinal study of adolescents with normal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Liu, J; Xu, T; Long, X; Lin, J

    2010-07-01

    The study aims were to investigate the correlation between vertebral shape and hand-wrist maturation and to select characteristic parameters of C2-C5 (the second to fifth cervical vertebrae) for cervical vertebral maturation determination by mixed longitudinal data. 87 adolescents (32 males, 55 females) aged 8-18 years with normal occlusion were studied. Sequential lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist radiographs were taken annually for 6 consecutive years. Lateral cephalograms were divided into 11 maturation groups according to Fishman Skeletal Maturity Indicators (SMI). 62 morphological measurements of C2-C5 at 11 different developmental stages (SMI1-11) were measured and analysed. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing, correlation coefficient analysis and variable cluster analysis were used for statistical analysis. Of the 62 cervical vertebral parameters, 44 were positively correlated with SMI, 6 were negatively correlated and 12 were not correlated. The correlation coefficients between cervical vertebral parameters and SMI were relatively high. Characteristic parameters for quantitative analysis of cervical vertebral maturation were selected. In summary, cervical vertebral maturation could be used reliably to evaluate the skeletal stage instead of the hand-wrist radiographic method. Selected characteristic parameters offered a simple and objective reference for the assessment of skeletal maturity and timing of orthognathic surgery. Copyright 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermophysical Parameters of Organic PCM Coconut Oil from T-History Method and Its Potential as Thermal Energy Storage in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Alfriska O.; Sukmawati, Nissa; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2017-07-01

    The thermophysical parameters of organic phase change material (PCM) of coconut oil (co_oil) have been studied by analyzing the temperature vs time data during liquid-solid phase transition (solidification process) based on T-history method, adopting the original version and its modified form to extract the values of mean specific heats of the solid and liquid co_oil and the heat of fusion related to phase transition of co_oil. We found that the liquid-solid phase transition occurs rather gradually, which might be due to the fact that co_oil consists of many kinds of fatty acids with the largest amount of lauric acid (about 50%), with relatively small supercooling degree. For this reason, the end of phase transition region become smeared out, although the inflection point in the temperature derivative is clearly observed signifying the drastic temperature variation between the phase transition and solid phase periods. The data have led to the values of mean specific heat of the solid and liquid co_oil that are comparable to the pure lauric acid, while the value for heat of fusion is resemble to those of the DSC result, both from references data. The advantage of co_oil as the potential sensible and latent TES for room-temperature conditioning application in Indonesia is discussed in terms of its rather broad working temperature range due to its mixture composition characteristic.

  6. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also

  7. Studies on dielectric properties, opto-electrical parameters and electronic polarizability of thermally evaporated amorphous Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanien, Ahmed Saeed, E-mail: a.s.hassanien@gmail.com [Engineering Mathematics and Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering (Shoubra), Benha University (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Humanities in Ad-Dawadmi, Shaqra University, 11911 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-25

    The objective of this work is to study the influence of the addition of more Se on dielectric properties, opto-electrical parameters and electronic polarizability of amorphous chalcogenide Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} thin films (30 ≤ x ≤ 50 at%). Thin films of thickness 200 nm were synthesized by vacuum deposition at ≈8.2 × 10{sup −4} Pa. Both refractive index and extinction coefficient were used to obtain all the studied parameters. The high frequency dielectric constant, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant were discussed. Drude theory was applied to investigate opto-electrical parameters, like optical carrier concentration, optical mobility and optical resistivity. Moreover, other parameters were investigated and studied, e.g. Drude parameters, volume and surface energy loss functions, dielectric loss factor, dielectric relaxation time, complex optical conductivity and electronic polarizability as well as optical electronegativity and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility. Values of electronic polarizability and nonlinear optical susceptibility were found to be decreased while optical electronegativity increased as Se-content was increased. Increment of Se-content in amorphous Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} thin films has also led to minimize the energy losses when electromagnetic waves propagate through films as well as optical conductivity and the speed of light increased. The other studied properties and parameters of Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} films were found to be strongly dependent upon Se-content. - Highlights: • Thermally evaporated amorphous Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} (30 ≤ x ≤ 50) thin films were deposited. • Refractive index and absorption index were used to determine almost all properties. • Dielectric properties, Drude parameters and electronic polarizability were studied. • Addition of more Se to CdSSe matrix led to improve the opto-electrical properties. • New data were obtained and

  8. Attributions, future time perspective and career maturity in nursing undergraduates: correlational study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Liu; Chen, Yuxia; Zou, Huijing; Su, Yonggang; Fan, Xiuzhen

    2016-01-25

    Career maturity is an important parameter as nursing undergraduates prepare for their future careers. However, little is known regarding the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity among nursing undergraduates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of career maturity and its relationship with attributions and future time perspective. A cross-sectional survey was designed. This survey was administered to 431 Chinese nursing undergraduates. Independent-sample t-tests and one-way ANOVA were performed to examine the mean differences between categories of binary and categorical demographic characteristics, respectively. Pearson correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to test the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity. The degree of career maturity was moderate among nursing undergraduates and that internal attributions of academic achievement, future efficacy and future purpose consciousness were positively associated with career maturity (all p time perspective and to facilitate their transition from school to clinical practice.

  9. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of red-sore disease in centrarchids. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1978-07-01

    The implications from these studies are varied, sometimes clear and sometimes less so, for many of the results have raised new and even more critical questions. Thus, our data clearly show that Aeromonas hydrophila is the etiological agent for red-sore disease. Furthermore, they suggest that the effects of temperature are twofold, first in increasing the density of the pathogen in the water column and then in affecting the physiology of the host organism to such an extent as to increase the probability of acquiring the pathogen. On the other hand, organic loading, suggested by other investigators as being important in red-sore disease, was not identified as being significant in the present study. However, if organic loading, or any of its consequences, can be shown to induce stress, then it may be as important in other systems as temperature is in Par Pond. Thus it is quite conceivable that it (organic loading), or some other water quality parameter, may create conditions conducive to increasing densities of A. hydrophila while simultaneously producing water quality characteristics which would lead to stress in fish, and then to increasing the probability of fish acquiring red-sore disease. An enigmatic observation (see Hazen, 1978, for details) is that A. hydrophila has been recovered from a variety of habitats throughout the U.S., yet red-sore disease is known to occur only in the southeast. This peculiar distribution pattern raises several important questions regarding the epizootiology of red-sore, not the least of which is the possibility of there existing differentially virulent strains of A. hydrophila and/or more or less susceptible populations of potential hosts in various parts of the country. Other significant questions are related to the variability in amplitude of red-sore disease from one year to the next among bass in Par Pond, the mode of entry of the pathogen into largemouth bass, and the basic, cellular mechanisms of stress in largemouth bass.

  10. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of red-sore disease in centrarchids. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1978-07-01

    The implications from these studies are varied, sometimes clear and sometimes less so, for many of the results have raised new and even more critical questions. Thus, our data clearly show that Aeromonas hydrophila is the etiological agent for red-sore disease. Furthermore, they suggest that the effects of temperature are twofold, first in increasing the density of the pathogen in the water column and then in affecting the physiology of the host organism to such an extent as to increase the probability of acquiring the pathogen. On the other hand, organic loading, suggested by other investigators as being important in red-sore disease, was not identified as being significant in the present study. However, if organic loading, or any of its consequences, can be shown to induce stress, then it may be as important in other systems as temperature is in Par Pond. Thus it is quite conceivable that it (organic loading), or some other water quality parameter, may create conditions conducive to increasing densities of A. hydrophila while simultaneously producing water quality characteristics which would lead to stress in fish, and then to increasing the probability of fish acquiring red-sore disease. An enigmatic observation (see Hazen, 1978, for details) is that A. hydrophila has been recovered from a variety of habitats throughout the U.S., yet red-sore disease is known to occur only in the southeast. This peculiar distribution pattern raises several important questions regarding the epizootiology of red-sore, not the least of which is the possibility of there existing differentially virulent strains of A. hydrophila and/or more or less susceptible populations of potential hosts in various parts of the country. Other significant questions are related to the variability in amplitude of red-sore disease from one year to the next among bass in Par Pond, the mode of entry of the pathogen into largemouth bass, and the basic, cellular mechanisms of stress in largemouth bass

  11. Influence of process parameters on the cavitation resistance of arc thermally sprayed cobalt stainless steel; Influencia dos parametros de processo na resistencia a cavitacao de uma liga inoxidavel com cobalto aspergido a arco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukasiewicz, A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Capra, A.R.; Chandelier, J. da L. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: anderson.geraldo@lactec.org.br; Paredes, R.S.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    In this work the influence of the arc thermal spraying process on the microstructure, oxide volumetric fraction, porosity and cavitation resistance was studied. The characterization was performed by optical and electrical microscopy, microhardness and ultrasonic cavitation test, ASTM G32-96 in AS895HY cobalt stainless steel. The increase in air pressure, 280 to 410 kPa, modified the oxide fraction from 17,2 +- 3,6% to 10,9 +-1,8%, in the samples without pre-heating treatment. With 120 deg C pre-heating treatment the oxide fraction increase from 24,1 +- 2,8% to 12,8 +- 1,9% when the air pressure was modified from 280 to 550 kPa. The mass loss in vibration-induced cavitation were 1,55 and 1,42 mg/h for 410 kPa AS895HY samples, with and without pre heating treatment, and 2,12 mg/h for 280 kPa samples without pre heating treatment. The results showed that the process parameters modified the microstructure and the cavitation resistance of the arc thermal spraying coatings. (author)

  12. Parâmetros genéticos do peso no início da estação de monta, considerado indicativo do peso adulto de matrizes Nelore Genetic parameters for weight at the beginning of breeding season, considered indicative of mature weight of Nelore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Zerlotti Mercadante

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Parâmetros genéticos foram estimados para peso na entrada da monta (PEM, considerado como indicativo do peso adulto de vacas Nelore. O arquivo de dados continha 7.902 registros de 1.556 vacas pertencentes a um experimento de seleção conduzido na Estação Experimental de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho, SP, Brasil. O PEM foi analisado como o último peso disponível para cada vaca no arquivo (PEM_U ou como registros repetidos, incluindo todos os pesos (PEM_R. As análises foram feitas também em dois outros arquivos excluindo os registros das vacas descartadas antes de chegar aos 4 anos de idade, para o último peso registrado (PEM_U2 e para os registros repetidos (PEM_R2. Os componentes de variância foram estimados por máxima verossimilhança restrita, ajustando modelo animal uni e multivariado. O modelo multivariado incluiu pesos à seleção ajustados para 378 (somente machos e 550 (somente fêmeas dias de idade. As estimativas de herdabilidade obtidas nas análises univariadas foram 0,30±0,05; 0,37±0,06; 0,35±0,04; e 0,42±0,05, para PEM_U, PEM_U2, PEM_R e PEM_R2, respectivamente. Os valores correspondentes para as análises multivariadas foram 0,34; 0,42; 0,56; e 0,57. As estimativas de repetibilidade de PEM_R e PEM_R2 foram 0,58±0,01 e 0,69±0,01 nas análises univariadas e 0,61 e 0,72 nas análises multivariadas. As estimativas da mudança genética em PEM foram positivas e significativas, iguais a 0,40±0,08 e 0,35±0,07 por cento da média ao ano, para os dois rebanhos selecionados do experimento. Há evidências de que o emprego de modelos multivariados incluindo registros repetidos e os pesos à seleção de machos e fêmeas seja mais apropriado que a utilização de apenas o último PEM como indicativo do peso adulto. O PEM poderia ser incluído em um programa de seleção visando mudanças (aumento ou diminuição ou monitoração, para manter o peso adulto desejável.Genetic parameters were estimated for weight at the beginning

  13. Assessment of organic compound exposures, thermal comfort parameters, and HVAC system-driven air exchange rates in public school portable classrooms in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendell, Derek Garth [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    indoor air guideline ''target level'', and concentrations of most target VOCs were low. O and M questionnaire results suggested insufficient training and communication between custodians and SD offices concerning HVAC systems. Future studies should attempt larger sample sizes and cover larger geographical areas but continue to assess multiple IEQ parameters during occupied hours. Teachers, custodians, and SD staff must be educated on the importance of adequate ventilation with filtered outdoor air.

  14. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or soft...

  15. Genotype x environmental interaction for mature size and rate of maturing for Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte infected fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelin, B A; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Johnson, Z B; Kellogg, D W; Stelzleni, A M

    2002-12-01

    Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated in 177 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue over a 4-yr period to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Data were collected every 28 d until cows were approximately 18 mo of age and then at prebreeding, postcalving, and weaning of calf. All cows with weight data to at least 42 mo of age were included in the analysis. Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated using the three-parameter growth curve model described by Brody (1945). Data were pooled over year and analyzed by the general linear model procedure of SAS. Included in the models for mature weight and rate of maturing were the independent variables of genotype, environment, and genotype x environment interaction. There was a genotype x environment interaction (P < 0.01) for mature body weight (BW) but not for rate of maturing. Angus cows grazing fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.01) mean mature BW than Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (611 +/- 17 vs 546 +/- 16 kg). Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass had lower (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than Brahman x Angus cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected fescue and Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (546 +/- 16 vs 624 +/- 19, 614 +/- 22 and 598 +/- 20 kg, respectively). Brahman cows grazing endophyte-infected fescue had smaller (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than all genotype x forage combinations except for Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass. Angus cows had a smaller (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Angus x Brahman and Brahman x Angus cows (0.039 +/- 0.002 vs 0.054 +/- 0.002 and 0.049 +/- 0.002%/mo, respectively), respectively, and Angus x Brahman cows had a larger (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Brahman x Angus and Brahman cows (0.054 +/- 0.002 vs 0.049 +/- 0.002 and 0.041 +/- 0.002 %/mo, respectively). There was a direct breed x forage interaction (P < 0.05) for mature BW. These data suggest that the

  16. Procedimiento para el cálculo de los parámetros de un modelo térmico simplificado del motor asincrónico Parameter estimation procedure for an asynchronous motor simplified thermal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio R Gómez Sarduy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un método para estimar las conductancias y capacitancias de un modelo térmico simplificado del motor asincrónico, utilizando una técnica de baja invasividad. El procedimiento permite predecir el incremento de temperatura del estator del motor asincrónico, tanto para régimen dinámico como en condiciones de estabilidad térmica. Se basa en la estimación paramétrica mediante un modelo de referencia, utilizando como optimizador un algoritmo genético (AG. Se logra en definitiva obtener los parámetros del modelo térmico con un ensayo más sencillo que lo requerido por otros métodos experimentales complejos o cálculos analíticos basados en datos de diseño. El procedimiento propuesto se puede llevar a cabo en condiciones propias de la industria y resulta atractivo su empleo en el análisis de calentamiento de estas máquinas. El método se valida a partir de un estudio de caso reportado en la literatura y se aplica a un caso real en la industria, lográndose una buena precisión.In this paper, an asynchronous motor simplified thermal model method for conductances and capacitances estimation is presented. A low invasive technique is used. The developed procedure allows the stator temperature rise prediction, not only for dynamic regimes, but also in case of thermal stability. A parametric estimation is done through a reference model, using a genetic algorithm (GA as optimizing method. The thermal model parameters are finally obtained with an easer experimental work, than the required by other complex experimental methods or by analytical calculations based on design data. The proposed procedure can be carry out in the particular conditions of industrial environment. Its application is specially useful for asynchronous machine thermal analysis. Using the data of a study case reported in literature, the method validation is done, and is applied in an industrial real case, with good precision resulted from it.

  17. Preparation, spectroscopic, thermal, antihepatotoxicity, hematological parameters and liver antioxidant capacity characterizations of Cd(II), Hg(II), and Pb(II) mononuclear complexes of paracetamol anti-inflammatory drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Megharbel, Samy M.; Hamza, Reham Z.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2014-10-01

    Keeping in view that some metal complexes are found to be more potent than their parent drugs, therefore, our present paper aimed to synthesized Cd(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) complexes of paracetamol (Para) anti-inflammatory drug. Paracetamol complexes with general formula [M(Para)2(H2O)2]·nH2O have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, conductivity, IR and thermal (TG/DTG), 1H NMR, electronic spectral studies. The conductivity data of these complexes have non-electrolytic nature. Comparative antimicrobial (bacteria and fungi) behaviors and molecular weights of paracetamol with their complexes have been studied. In vivo the antihepatotoxicity effect and some liver function parameters levels (serum total protein, ALT, AST, and LDH) were measured. Hematological parameters and liver antioxidant capacities of both Para and their complexes were performed. The Cd2+ + Para complex was recorded amelioration of antioxidant capacities in liver homogenates compared to other Para complexes treated groups.

  18. Academic Achievement of High School Students in Relation to Their Anxiety, Emotional Maturity and Social Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puar, Surjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…

  19. Maturity models in supply chain sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia, Elisabete; Carvalho, Helena; Azevedo, Susana G.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope...... of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models...

  20. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... Maturity Model (CMM). Only recently have there been some research efforts to standardize maturity model development. We also identify three dominant views of maturity models and provide guidelines for various approaches of constructing maturity models with a standard vocabulary. We finally propose using...

  1. Maturity in the Styrian Basin. Maturitaet im Steirischen Tertiaerbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachsenhofer, R.F. (Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften/Geologie)

    1991-01-01

    The Styrian basin, situated at the south-eastern margin of the Alps, contains up to 3 km of Ottnangian to Pliocene sedimentary rocks. Main subsidence occured between Ottnangian and Sarmatian. Miocene and Plio-/Pleistocene volcanic phases can be distinguished. Maturity in the Styrian basin was studied with vitrinite reflectance curves of 25 boreholes. The oil window lies at shallow depths in the vicinty of Miocene volcanos. This is due to high heating rate during Karpatian to Lower Badenian times. Depth and thickness of the oil window increase with increasing distance from these volcanos. At a distance of some kilometers the thermal influence of this Miocene volcanism disappears. According to high recent heat flow the oil window is located below 1 500 to 2 000 m in these parts of the basin. An influence of Plio-/Pleistocene volcanism on maturity cannot be observed. (orig.).

  2. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  4. The maturity of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Favini, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The ever-increasing use of atomic energy since 1950 has generated a set of rules called for practical reasons Nuclear Law. This branch of law covers a wide scope of related activities and, specialized studies have apparently foreseen all conceivable hypotheses. The international character of Nuclear Law explains the basic harmony of international legislation. The methods of comparative Law and International Private Law as well as the joint, indepth work of scientists and jurists will bring about steady progress towards legislative unity and prompt solution to conflicts. The expectable revitalization of nuclear-electric programs early in the 21st. century will give rise to a Nuclear juridical community which can already be perceived through the maturity Nuclear Law has reached. (Author) [es

  5. Impact of dia- and catagenesis on sulphur and oxygen sequestration of biomarkers as revealed by artificial maturation of an immature sedimentary rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, M.P.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrous pyrolysis of an immature (R(a)??? 0.25%) sulphur-rich marl from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation (Messinian) in the Vena del Gesso Basin was carried out at 160C ??? T ???330 C for 72 h, to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the abundance and distribution of sulphur-containing and sulphur- and oxygen-linked carbon skeletons in low-molecular-weight and highmolecular-weight fractions (e.g. kerogen). To this end, compounds in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction, monoaromatic hydrocarbon fraction, polyaromatic hydrocarbon fraction, alkylsulphide fraction and ketone fraction were quantified, as well as compounds released after desulphurisation of the polar fraction and HI/LiAIH4 treatment of the desulphurised polar fraction. Sulphur-bound phytane and (20R)-5??,14??,17??(H) and (20R)-5??,14??,17??(H) C27 C29 steranes in the polar fraction become less abundant with increasing maturation temperature, whereas the amount of their corresponding hydrocarbons increases in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction. Carbon skeletons that are bound in the kerogen by multiple bonds (e.g. C38 n-alkane and isorenieratane) are first released into the polar fraction, and then as free hydrocarbons. These changes occur at relatively low levels of thermal maturity (R(a) <0.6%), as evidenced by the 'immature' values of biomarker maturity parameters such as the ????/(????+ ???? + ????) C35 hopane ratio and the 22S/(22S + 22R)-17??,21??(H) C35 hopane ratio. Sulphur- and oxygen-bound moieties, present in the polar fraction, are not stable with increasing thermal maturation. However, alkylthiophenes, ketones. 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes and free n-alkanes seem to be stable thermal degradation products of these sulphur- and oxygen-bound moieties. Thus, apart from free n-alkanes, which are abundantly present in more mature sedimentary rocks and crude oils, alkylthiophenes, 1,2-di-n-alkylbenzenes and ketones can also be expected to occur. The positions of the thiophene

  6. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian

    2011-01-01

    of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set......In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  7. A maturity model for blockchain adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huaiqing; Chen, Kun; Xu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rapid development of the blockchain technology and its various applications has rendered it important to understand the guidelines for adopting it. Methods: The comparative analysis method is used to analyze different dimensions of the maturity model, which is mainly based on the commonly used capability maturity model. Results: The blockchain maturity model and its adoption process have been discussed and presented. Conclusions: This study serves as a guide to institutions to...

  8. Simulating the Probability of Grain Sorghum Maturity before the First Frost in Northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S. McMaster

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Expanding grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] production northward from southeastern Colorado is thought to be limited by shorter growing seasons due to lower temperatures and earlier frost dates. This study used a simulation model for predicting crop phenology (PhenologyMMS to estimate the probability of reaching physiological maturity before the first fall frost for a variety of agronomic practices in northeastern Colorado. Physiological maturity for seven planting dates (1 May to 12 June, four seedbed moisture conditions affecting seedling emergence (from Optimum to Planted in Dust, and three maturity classes (Early, Medium, and Late were simulated using historical weather data from nine locations for both irrigated and dryland phenological parameters. The probability of reaching maturity before the first frost was slightly higher under dryland conditions, decreased as latitude, longitude, and elevation increased, planting date was delayed, and for later maturity classes. The results provide producers with estimates of the reliability of growing grain sorghum in northeastern Colorado.

  9. Abscisic Acid and the Maturation of Cacao Embryos in Vitro 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Valerie Creaser

    1992-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) was tested for its ability to affect development of immature zygotic embryos of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in vitro, by adding exogenous ABA, fluridone, or mefluidide to cultured embryos. Endogenous ABA levels, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were increased by exogenous ABA or by culture on sucrose increasing to 21%, and were decreased by fluridone and, to a lesser extent, by mefluidide. The effects of these on maturation were measured as effects on anthocyanins, lipids, and fatty acid saturation, all of which increase with maturation of the cacao embryo. Maturation was stimulated by increasing sucrose and, to a lesser degree, the addition of ABA, but decreasing endogenous ABA by treating with fluridone significantly inhibited all maturation parameters. Although desiccation tolerance does not develop in cacao embryos, these results suggest that ABA and sucrose are both needed for the initiation of events associated with maturation in vitro. PMID:16668805

  10. A Set Theoretical Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    characterized by equifinality, multiple conjunctural causation, and case diversity. We prescribe methodological guidelines consisting of a six-step procedure to systematically apply set theoretic methods to conceptualize, develop, and empirically derive maturity models and provide a demonstration......Maturity Model research in IS has been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. To address these criticisms, this paper proposes a novel set-theoretical approach to maturity models...

  11. Temperature studies of optical parameters of (Ag3AsS3)0.6(As2S3)0.4 thin films prepared by rapid thermal evaporation and pulse laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenyak, I. P.; Kutsyk, M. M.; Buchuk, M. Yu.; Rati, Y. Y.; Neimet, Yu. Yu.; Izai, V. Yu.; Kökényesi, S.; Nemec, P.

    2016-02-01

    (Ag3AsS3)0.6(As2S3)0.4 thin films were deposited using rapid thermal evaporation (RTE) and pulse laser deposition (PLD) techniques. Ag-enriched micrometre-sized cones (RTE) and bubbles (PLD) were observed on the thin film surface. Optical transmission spectra of the thin films were studied in the temperature range 77-300 K. The Urbach behaviour of the optical absorption edge in the thin films due to strong electron-phonon interaction was observed, the main parameters of the Urbach absorption edge were determined. Temperature dependences of the energy position of the exponential absorption edge and the Urbach energy are well described in the Einstein model. Dispersion and temperature dependences of refractive indices were analysed; a non-linear increase of the refractive indices with temperature was revealed. Disordering processes in the thin films were studied and compared with bulk composites, the differences between the thin films prepared by RTE and PLD were analysed.

  12. Thermal Intertias of Main-Belt Asteroids from Wise Thermal Infrared Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Josef; Delbo', Marco; Durech, Josef; Alí-Lagoa, Victor

    2014-11-01

    By means of a modified thermophysical model (TPM) that takes into account asteroid shape and pole uncertainties, we analyze the thermal infrared data acquired by the NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) of about 300 asteroids with derived convex shape models. We adopt convex shape models from the DAMIT database (Durech et al., 2010, A&A 513, A46) and present new determinations based on optical disk-integrated photometry and the lightcurve inversion method (Kaasalainen & Torppa, 2001, Icarus 153, 37). This work more than double the number of asteroids with determined thermophysical properties. We also discuss cases in which shape uncertainties prevent the determination of reliable thermophysical properties. This is per-se a novel result, as the effect of shape has been often neglected in thermophysical modeling of asteroids.We also present the main results of the statistical study of derived thermophysical parameters within the whole population of MBAs and within few asteroid families. The thermal inertia increases with decreasing size, but a large range of thermal inertia values is observed within the similar size ranges between 10-100 km. Surprisingly, we derive low (10 km, indicating a very fine and mature regolith on these small bodies. The work of JH and MD was carried under the contract 11-BS56-008 (SHOCKS) of the French Agence National de la Recherche (ANR), and JD has been supported by the grant GACR P209/10/0537 of the Czech Science Foundation.

  13. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  14. Quantitative assessment of cervical vertebral maturation using cone beam computed tomography in Korean girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Bo-Ram; Kim, Yong-Il; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Son, Woo-Sung

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the correlation between skeletal maturation status and parameters from the odontoid process/body of the second vertebra and the bodies of third and fourth cervical vertebrae and simultaneously build multiple regression models to be able to estimate skeletal maturation status in Korean girls. Hand-wrist radiographs and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained from 74 Korean girls (6-18 years of age). CBCT-generated cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) was used to demarcate the odontoid process and the body of the second cervical vertebra, based on the dentocentral synchondrosis. Correlation coefficient analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used for each parameter of the cervical vertebrae (P cervical vertebral body and odontoid process, respectively, for the multiple regression models. This suggests that quantitative analysis might be used to estimate skeletal maturation status.

  15. Amorphous silica maturation in chemically weathered clastic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, Moritz; Milke, Ralf; Berthold, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    A detailed understanding of silica postdepositional transformation mechanisms is fundamental for its use as a palaeobiologic and palaeoenvironmental archive. Amorphous silica (opal-A) is an important biomineral, an alteration product of silicate rocks on the surface of Earth and Mars, and a precursor material for stable silica phases. During diagenesis, amorphous silica gradually and gradationally transforms to opal-CT, opal-C, and eventually quartz. Here we demonstrate the early-stage maturation of several million year old opal-A from deeply weathered Early Cretaceous and Ordovician sedimentary rocks of the Great Artesian Basin (central Australia). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalyses show that the mineralogical maturation of the nanosphere material is decoupled from its chemical properties and begins significantly earlier than micromorphology suggests. Non-destructive and locally highly resolved X-ray microdiffraction (μ-XRD2) reveals an almost linear positive correlation between the main peak position (3.97 to 4.06 Å) and a new asymmetry parameter, AP. Heating experiments and calculated diffractograms indicate that nucleation and growth of tridymite-rich nanodomains induce systematic peak shifts and symmetry variations in diffraction patterns of morphologically juvenile opal-A. Our results show that the asymmetry parameter traces the early-stage maturation of amorphous silica, and that the mineralogical opal-A/CT stage extends to smaller d-spacings and larger FWHM values than previously suggested.

  16. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott; Collins, Josh; Wilson, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) development effort was initiated by NASA Glenn Research Center with contractor Sunpower, Inc., to develop high-efficiency thermal-to-electric power conversion technology for NASA Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs). Early successful performance demonstrations led to the expansion of the project as well as adoption of the technology by the Department of Energy (DOE) and system integration contractor Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company as part of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight project. The ASRG integrates a pair of ASCs to convert the heat from a pair of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules into electrical power. The expanded NASA ASC effort included development of several generations of ASC prototypes or engineering units to help prepare the ASC technology and Sunpower for flight implementation. Sunpower later had two parallel contracts allowing the last of the NASA engineering units called ASC-E3 to serve as pathfinders for the ASC-F flight convertors being built for DOE. The ASC-E3 convertors utilized the ASC-F flight specifications and were built using the ASC-F design and process documentation. Shortly after the first ASC-F pair achieved initial operation, due to budget constraints, the DOE ASRG flight development contract was terminated. NASA continues to invest in the development of Stirling RPS technology including continued production of the ASC-E3 convertors, seven of which have been delivered with one additional unit in production. Starting in fiscal year 2015, Stirling Convertor Technology Maturation has been reorganized as an element of the RPS Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project and long-term plans for continued Stirling technology advancement are in reformulation. This paper provides a status on the ASC project, an overview of advancements made in the design and production of the ASC at Sunpower, and a summary of acceptance tests, reliability tests, and tactical

  17. The maturing of microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas M

    2006-09-01

    A.J. Kluyver and C.B. van Niel introduced many scientists to the exceptional metabolic capacity of microbes and their remarkable ability to adapt to changing environments in The Microbe's Contribution to Biology. Beyond providing an overview of the physiology and adaptability of microbes, the book outlined many of the basic principles for the emerging discipline of microbial ecology. While the study of pure cultures was highlighted, provided a unifying framework for understanding the vast metabolic potential of microbes and their roles in the global cycling of elements, extrapolation from pure cultures to natural environments has often been overshadowed by microbiologists inability to culture many of the microbes seen in natural environments. A combination of genomic approaches is now providing a culture-independent view of the microbial world, revealing a more diverse and dynamic community of microbes than originally anticipated. As methods for determining the diversity of microbial communities become increasingly accessible, a major challenge to microbial ecologists is to link the structure of natural microbial communities with their functions. This article presents several examples from studies of aquatic and terrestrial microbial communities in which culture and culture-independent methods are providing an enhanced appreciation for the microbe's contribution to the evolution and maintenance of life on Earth, and offers some thoughts about the graduate-level educational programs needed to enhance the maturing field of microbial ecology.

  18. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  19. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  20. Antenatal assessment of fetal maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, G.; Reinold, E.; Wolf, G.

    1979-01-01

    334 ultrasound-cephalometries and 231 X-ray fetographies were performed for antenatal assessment of fetal maturity as well as for exact estimation of gestational age in women with unknown date of confinement. The accuracy of the predictions was compared. Ultrasound-cephalometry gave best results when performed until the 20th week of gestation. A correct prediction was obtained in 80.4% of cases. After the 20th week of gestation, the accuracy of prediction decreased. Radiology on the contrary gave optimal results at the end of pregnancy. A correct prediction of the date of confinement was obtained in 73.8% of cases, when the X-ray fetography was performed between the 37th and 40th week of gestation. At the end of gestation radiography should be performed, if there is a discrepancy between ultrasound and clinical estimation or if ultrasound-cephalometry was not carried out in early pregnancy - especially if induction of labour is necessary. (author)

  1. Maturation related changes in the distribution of ester bound fatty acids and alcohols in a coal series from the New Zealand Coal Band covering diagenetic to catagenetic coalification levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glombitza, C.; Mangelsdorf, K.; Horsfield, B. [German Research Cemter of Geoscience GFZ, Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Several lignites and coals of low to moderate maturation levels from the New Zealand Coal Band were investigated using alkaline ester cleavage experiments to reveal compositional changes of ester bound components during increasing maturation. Ester bound alcohols are found to be present in highest amounts in the very immature lignite samples but show a rapid decrease during early diagenesis. Ester bound fatty acids also show an initial exponential decrease during diagenesis but reveal an intermittent increase during early catagenesis before decreasing again during main catagenesis. This was related to the short chain fatty acids. To obtain a maturity related signal and to eliminate facies related scattering in the amounts of fatty acids in the coal samples, the carbon preference index of fatty acids (CPIFA) parameter is introduced. For the long chain fatty acids the CPIFA decreases with increasing maturity. During diagenesis, the same trend can be observed for the short chain fatty acids but the intermittent increase in the amounts of short chain fatty acids is also accompanied by high CPIFA values. This indicates less altered organic biomass at this maturation level and is in contrast to the mature CPIFA signal of the long chain fatty acids of the same samples. Thus could be due to extremely different amounts of short and long chain fatty acids in the original source organic matter or it could due to the incorporation of immature bacterial biomass from deep microbial communities containing C{sub 16} and C{sub 18} fatty acids as main cell membrane components. Deep microbial life might be stimulated at this interval by the increasing release of thermally generated potential substrates from the organic matrix during early catagenesis. The high amounts of alcohols in the immature lignite samples are also visible in the alkene distribution from the open system pyrolysis experiments of the organic matrix before and after saponification.

  2. THE POSSIBILITIES TO DETERMINE FETAL MATURITY BY ULTRASOUND DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Lysenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extragenital disorders in a pregnant patient, as well as complications of pregnancy often necessitate preterm delivery, when the state of the fetus is one of the criteria determining terms and type of delivery. In connection with this, the physician faces the challenge of accurate assessment of fetal maturity. Aim: To identify ultrasound signs of functional fetal maturity. Materials and methods: 120 pregnant patients were assessed at 35 to 40 weeks of gestation. Beyond a standard fetometry, we assessed interhemispheric cerebellar size, the biggest size of the Beclard’s nucleus, the ratio of cortical to medullar substance of fetal adrenal glands (adrenal coefficient, the ration between ultrasound density of lungs, liver and ultrasound density of fetal urine (histogram analysis. Results: Up to 36 weeks of gestation, the interhemispheric cerebellar size was below 52 mm, starting from 37 weeks, above 53 mm and from week 40 on, above 58 mm. All newborns, which had their interhemispheric cerebellar size ≥ 53 mm antenatally, were assessed as being mature at birth (p < 0.05. All newborns, which had Beclard’s nucleus size ≥ 5 mm antenatally, were assessed as being mature at birth (p < 0.05. At 35–35.6 weeks of gestation, mean adrenal coefficients in all cases exceeded 1. Starting with full 36 weeks of gestation onwards, this parameter decreased to 0.94 and showed a steady decrease thereafter. There were no signs of functional immaturity or respiratory distress among newborns with antenatal adrenal coefficient of ≤ 0.99 (p < 0.05. The ratio between ultrasound density of lungs to ultrasound density of bladder contents increases up to 37 weeks of gestation and remains stable up to 40 weeks. The ratio of liver density to the same substrate is non-significantly lower due to lower ultrasound density of the liver itself. The ratio of ultrasound density of the lung to that of the liver up to 36 weeks was at least 1.41 and decreased

  3. PREDICTION OF THE DURATION OF DISTRACTION REGENERATED BONE MATURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Tushina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study the characteristics of changes of serum biochemical parameters in dogs with delayed maturation of the distraction regenerate after surgical lengthening the leg bones by Ilizarov. The comparative analysis of biochemical changes in blood serum of animals with delayed regenerated bone osteogenesis after surgical leg bone lengthening according to Ilizarov has been made in the work. The development of persistent and marked hypocalcemia, significant accumulation of blood serum nonoxidized degradation products during limb bone surgical lengthening according to Ilizarov have been revealed to be adverse signs evidencing of the high probability of the disorder of further formation of the regenerated bone and its subsequent maturation at the stage of fixation.

  4. Digital Maturity of the Firm's Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs; Vemula, Sreekanth

    We propose a digital maturity assessment model as an instrument for researchers and a strategic tool for managers. Existing literature lacks a conceptually clear way to measure the construct of digital maturity at the level of the firms business model. Our proposed instrument thus opens avenues f...

  5. A maturity model for industrial supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameri, A.P.; McKay, K.N.; Wiers, V.C.S.

    2013-01-01

    This article takes an evolutionary view of supply chains to suggest a series of distinct, contextual phases for supply chain execution and what maturity might mean at each phase. For example, what is best practice in a mature industry might not be best practice in a pioneering situation.Three

  6. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral will be the maturity date applicable to the original loan... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING...

  7. Cone and Seed Maturation of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1976-01-01

    If slightly reduced yields and viability are acceptable, loblolly and slash cone collections can begin 2 to 3 weeks before maturity if the cones are stored before processing. Longleaf(P. palestris Mill.) pine cones should be collected only when mature, as storage decreased germination of seeds from immature cones. Biochemical analyses to determine reducing sugar...

  8. POSTTREATMENT NEUROBLASTOMA MATURATION TO GANGLIONIC CELL TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ryzhova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells can differentiate into more mature forms in undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumors, such as medulloblastomas with increased nodularity, as well as neuroblastomas. The authors describe 2 cases of neuroblastoma maturation into ganglioneuroblastoma 5 months after chemotherapy in a 2-year-old girl and 3 years after radiotherapy in a 16-year-old girl.

  9. Moving towards maturity in business model definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    The field of business models has, as is the case with all emerging fields of practice, slowly matured through the development of frameworks, models, concepts and ideas over the last 15 years. New concepts, theories and models typically transcend a series of maturity phases. For the concept of Bus...

  10. Assessing the Harvest Maturity of Brazilian Mangoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, T.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Torricelli, A.; Filgueiras, H.; Spinelli, L.

    2010-01-01

    No clear criterion exists to determine the optimum time to harvest mango. Some empirical relations are used to assess maturity, such as shoulder development. Moreover, as a result of the typical growing conditions in tropical climates, a huge variation in maturity and ripeness exists, seriously

  11. Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

  12. Correlation of Improved Version of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Indicator with Other Growth Maturity Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Tikku

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The correlation between middle phalanx of 3rd finger (MP3 and cervical vertebral maturation method (CVMI and CVMS was higher as compared to the correlation of either of the cervical vertebral maturation method or MP3 with dental maturation indicator.

  13. Assessing healthcare process maturity: challenges of using a business process maturity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarhan, A.; Turetken, O.; van den Biggelaar, F.J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Doi: 10.4108/icst.pervasivehealth.2015.259105 The quality of healthcare services is influenced by the maturity of healthcare processes used to develop it. A maturity model is an instrument to assess and continually improve organizational processes. In the last decade, a number of maturity models

  14. Modelling phenolic and technological maturities of grapes by means of the multivariate relation between organoleptic and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, E; Ortiz, M C; Sarabia, L A; Íñiguez, M; Puras, P

    2013-01-25

    The ripeness of grapes at the harvest time is one of the most important parameters for obtaining high quality red wines. Traditionally the decision of harvesting is to be taken only after analysing sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH of the grape juice (technological maturity). However, these parameters only provide information about the pulp ripeness and overlook the real degree of skins and seeds maturities (phenolic maturity). Both maturities, technological and phenolic, are not simultaneously reached, on the contrary they tend to separate depending on several factors: grape variety, cultivar, adverse weather conditions, soil, water availability and cultural practices. Besides, this divergence is increasing as a consequence of the climate change (larger quantities of CO(2), less rain, and higher temperatures). 247 samples collected in vineyards representative of the qualified designation of origin Rioja from 2007 to 2011 have been analysed. Samples contain the four grape varieties usual in the elaboration of Rioja wines ('tempranillo', 'garnacha', 'mazuelo' and 'graciano'). The present study is the first systematic investigation on the maturity of grapes that includes the organoleptic evaluation of the degree of grapes maturity (sugars/acidity maturity, aromatic maturity of the pulp, aromatic maturity of the skins and tannins maturity) together with the values of the physicochemical parameters (probable alcohol degree, total acidity, pH, malic acid, K, total index polyphenolics, anthocyans, absorbances at 420, 520 and 620 nm, colour index and tartaric acid) determined over the same samples. A varimax rotation of the latent variables of a PLS model between the physicochemical variables and the mean of four sensory variables allows identifying both maturities. Besides, the position of the samples in the first plane defines the effect that the different factors exert on both phenolic and technological maturities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Set-Theoretic Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan

    Despite being widely accepted and applied, maturity models in Information Systems (IS) have been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. This PhD thesis focuses on addressing...... these criticisms by incorporating recent developments in configuration theory, in particular application of set-theoretic approaches. The aim is to show the potential of employing a set-theoretic approach for maturity model research and empirically demonstrating equifinal paths to maturity. Specifically...... methodological guidelines consisting of detailed procedures to systematically apply set theoretic approaches for maturity model research and provides demonstrations of it application on three datasets. The thesis is a collection of six research papers that are written in a sequential manner. The first paper...

  16. Study of compost maturity produced in the composting plant in Granollers (Barcelona, Spain); Estudio de la madurez del compost producido en la planta de compostaje de Granollers (Barcelona)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez Fontanet, E.; Alba Munoz, G.; Aguilera Riba, F.; Sanchez Ferrer, A.

    2000-07-01

    The following article presents the determination of important parameters, which have been traditionally used in the evaluation of the compost maturity. Compost from a tunnel plant placed in Granollers (Barcelona) has been chosen during the maturation stage. The results showed that self-heating test and organic material content are the most significant maturity indexes, whereas Solvita differed from the rest of analysis. Other important parameters, such as ion exchange capacity, water content, conductivity and pH were also determined. (Author)

  17. Influence of bondcoat composition and manufacturing parameters on the lifetime of thermal barrier coatings under cyclic temperature loading; Einfluss der Bondcoatzusammensetzung und Herstellungsparameter auf die Lebensdauer von Waermedaemmschichten bei zyklischer Temperaturbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subanovic, Marko

    2008-08-21

    In the present study the influence of the bond coat composition on the lifetime of thermal barrier coatings during thermal cycling was investigated. The knowledge, that the reactive elements (RE), which are essential for the improvement of the oxide scale adhesion, are ''lost'', during the bond coat processing, made it necessary to investigate systematically the influence of the different manufacturing stages on the RE distribution. After VPS (vacuum plasma spraying) with a high oxygen partial pressure in the spraying chamber, the reactive elements in the NiCoCrAl-coating were tied up in oxide precipitates, and thus their beneficial effect on the scale adhesion was inhibited. Another important observation is that the RE's are depleted during the bondcoat vacuum heat-treatment. The degree of Y-depletion depends not only on the Y-reservoir in the coating (Y-content and thickness) but also on the heat-treatment parameters, such as vacuum quality and temperature. A thin, dense alumina oxide scale with a smooth interface between bond coat and TGO doesn't necessary lead to a lifetime extension of the EB-PVD TBC's. TBC's with such oxide morphology typically failed due to crack formation and propagation along the interface between the TGO and the bondcoat. By addition of zirconium it was possible to shift the failure initiation from the interface TGO/bondcoat to the interface TBC/TGO, which can apparently accommodate more thermal strain energy before failure. The shift of the failure location was achieved by a change of the oxide morphology, which mainly relies on adjusting a non-even wavy interface between the TGO and the bond coat and formation of defected oxide layers. In contrast, a defected oxide scale with a high growth rate shortened the life time of APSTBC's. Porosity and spinel formation weakened the mechanical integrity of the oxide scale, and facilitated the crack formation and propagation of the already existing

  18. Thermal balance of Nellore cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Neto, Marcos Chiquitelli; de França Carvalho Fonsêca, Vinícius

    2018-05-01

    This work aimed at characterizing the thermal balance of Nellore cattle from the system of indirect calorimetry using a facial mask. The study was conducted at the Animal Biometeorology Laboratory of the São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, Brazil. Five male Nellore weighing 750 ± 62 kg, at similar ages and body conditions were distributed in four 5 × 5 Latin squares (5 days of records and five schedules) during 20 days. Physiological and environmental measurements were obtained from the indirect calorimetry system using a facial mask. Respiratory parameters, hair coat, skin, and rectal temperature were continuously recorded. From this, metabolic heat production, sensible and latent ways of heat transfer were calculated. Metabolic heat production had an average value of 146.7 ± 0.49 W m-2 and did not change ( P > 0.05) over the range of air temperature (24 to 35 °C). Sensible heat flow reached 60.08 ± 0.81 W m-2 when air temperature ranged from 24 to 25 °C, being negligible in conditions of temperature above 33 °C. Most of the heat produced by metabolism was dissipated by cutaneous evaporation when air temperature was greater than 30 °C. Respiratory parameters like respiratory rate and ventilation remained stable ( P > 0.05) in the range of temperature studied. Under shade conditions and air temperature range from 24 to 35 °C, metabolic heat production, respiratory rate, and ventilation of mature Nellore cattle remain stable, which is indicative of low energetic cost to the thermoregulation.

  19. Influence of composition on optical and dispersion parameters of thermally evaporated non-crystalline Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanien, A.S., E-mail: a.s.hassanien@gmail.com [Engineering Mathematics and Physics Dept., Faculty of Engineering (Shoubra), Benha University (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Humanities in Ad-Dawadmi, Shaqra University, 11911 (Saudi Arabia); Akl, Alaa A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Humanities in Ad-Dawadmi, Shaqra University, 11911 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-11-05

    Non-crystalline thin films of chalcogenide Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} system (30 ≤ x ≤ 50) were obtained by thermal evaporation technique onto a pre-cleaned glass substrate at a vacuum of 8.2 × 10{sup −4} Pa. The deposition rate and film thickness were kept constant at about 8 nm/s and 200 nm, respectively. Amorphous/crystalline nature and chemical composition of films have been checked using X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Optical properties of thin films were investigated and studied using the corrected transmittance, T(λ) and corrected reflectance, R(λ) measurements. Obtained data reveal that, the indirect optical energy gap (E{sub g}) was decreased from 2.21 to 1.57 eV. On the contrary, Urbach energy (band tail width), E{sub U} was found to be increased from 0.29 to 0.45 eV. This behavior is believed to be associated with the increase of Se-content instead of S-content in the thin films of Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} system. Chemical bond approach model, CBA was used to analyze the obtained values of E{sub g} and E{sub U}. Optical density, skin depth, extinction coefficient, refractive index and optical conductivity of chalcogenide CdSSe thin films were discussed as functions of Se-content. Using Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model, the refractive index dispersion and energy parameters and their dependence on Se content were studied. - Highlights: • Amorphous thin films of thickness 200 nm of Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} (30 ≤ x ≤ 50) have prepared. • Optical properties, indirect optical energy gap and band tail width were studied. • Chemical bond approach, CBA was used to analyze the obtained values of E{sub g} and E{sub U}. • New data of dispersion refractive index parameters were investigated and discussed.

  20. Geothermal regime and Jurassic source rock maturity of the Junggar basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansheng, Qiu; Zhihuan, Zhang; Ershe, Xu

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the thermal gradient distribution of the Junggar basin based on oil-test and well-logging temperature data. The basin-wide average thermal gradient in the depth interval of 0-4000 m is 22.6 °C/km, which is lower than other sedimentary basins in China. We report 21 measured terrestrial heat flow values based on detailed thermal conductivity data and systematical steady-state temperature data. These values vary from 27.0 to 54.1 mW/m 2 with a mean of 41.8 ± 7.8 mW/m 2. The Junggar basin appears to be a cool basin in terms of its thermal regime. The heat flow distribution within the basin shows the following characteristics. (1) The heat flow decreases from the Luliang Uplift to the Southern Depression; (2) relatively high heat flow values over 50 mW/m 2 are confined to the northern part of the Eastern Uplift and the adjacent parts of the Eastern Luliang Uplift and Central Depression; (3) The lowest heat flow of smaller than 35 mW/m 2 occurs in the southern parts of the basin. This low thermal regime of the Junggar basin is consistent with the geodynamic setting, the extrusion of plates around the basin, the considerably thick crust, the dense lithospheric mantle, the relatively stable continental basement of the basin, low heat generation and underground water flow of the basin. The heat flow of this basin is of great significance to oil exploration and hydrocarbon resource assessment, because it bears directly on issues of petroleum source-rock maturation. Almost all oil fields are limited to the areas of higher heat flows. The relatively low heat flow values in the Junggar basin will deepen the maturity threshold, making the deep-seated widespread Permian and Jurassic source rocks in the Junggar basin favorable for oil and gas generation. In addition, the maturity evolution of the Lower Jurassic Badaowan Group (J 1b) and Middle Jurassic Xishanyao Group (J 2x) were calculated based on the thermal data and burial depth. The maturity of the Jurassic

  1. Inventory parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.

  2. In vivo and in vitro pollen maturation in Lilium: influence of carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Clement

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a protocol for in vitro conform pollen maturation, as a model to study the involvement of carbohydrates on pollen maturation in Lilium. In vivo and in vitro pollen maturations were followed and compared by transmission electron microscopy, and several in vitro parameters were tested in terms of carbohydrate physiology. In vivo, pollen maturation was initiated at the vacuolated microspore stage, and consisted of two successive phases. The first phase was characterized by reactivation of microspore organelles, followed by microspore mitosis, starch synthesis and vacuole breakdown. During the second phase, starch was progressively degraded whereas lipid and phytine reserves accumulated. In vivo, pollen maturation occured within 14 days and pollen germination rate was 73.6 ± 2.2%. We then attempted to realise in vitro pollen maturation starting from the vacuolated microspore stage. The best results were obtained with flower buds cultivated at 26oC, in 100 µmol/m2/s light, with a 16h/8h photoperiod on a modified Heller's medium supplemented with NAA (10-2 mg/l and sucrose (M/6. In these conditions, pollen maturation occured within 7 days only. In vitro matured pollen is cytologically comparable to in vivo developed pollen grains and the germination rate was 72.4 ± 3.7%. When flower buds were cultivated in the dark, the germination rate decreased, but this could be compensated by providing high sucrose concentrations (1M in the medium. Further, photosynthesis inhibitors had the same effect on pollen maturation than the darkness, strongly suggesting that photosynthesis occurs in the flower bud and is important for pollen maturation in Lilium.

  3. Game Maturity Model for Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan C; Adriani, Paul; van Houwelingen, Jan Willem; Geerts, A

    2016-04-01

    This article introduces the Game Maturity Model for the healthcare industry as an extension to the general Game Maturity Model and describes the usage by two case studies of applied health games. The Game Maturity Model for healthcare provides a practical and value-adding method to assess existing games and to determine strategic considerations for application of applied health games. Our forecast is that within 5 years the use and development of applied games will have a role in our daily lives and the way we organize health care that will be similar to the role social media has today.

  4. Service Quality and Process Maturity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serek Radomir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with service quality and the methods for its measurement and improvements to reach the so called service excellence. Besides older methods such as SERVQUAL and SERPERF, there are also shortly described capability maturity models based on which the own methodology is developed and used for process maturity assessment in organizations providing technical services. This method is equally described and accompanied by examples on pictures. The verification of method functionality is explored on finding a correlation between service employee satisfaction and average process maturity in a service organization. The results seem to be quite promising and open an arena for further studies.

  5. Maturity grids as tools for change management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2011-01-01

    A maturity grid is a change management tool. Levels of maturity are assigned against aspects of an area under study, thus creating a grid. Text descriptions at the resulting intersections describe the typical behaviour exhibited by a firm for each area under study and from the basis...... for the assessment scale. It is a flexible assessment technique that is used by practitioners in industry, consultants and researchers in academia for diagnostic, reflective and improvement purposes. A large number of maturity grids have been proposed to assess a range of capabilities including quality management...

  6. A review of performance measurement’s maturity models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Bertolli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In a context as dynamic as today, SMEs need performance measurement systems (PMS that are able to generate useful, relevant and reliable information to manage. Measuring the maturity of PMS is an essential step to achieve its evolution to an ideal state that allows a better control of the results and to act consequently, improving management and decision making. Objective: To develop a bibliographic review to identify and characterize PMS maturity models, recognizing between them the most feasible models to apply in SMEs, in order to generate a contribution for the strengthening of such systems, facilitating effective and timely decision making in organizations. Methodology: The research question defined is: which existing PMS maturity model can be used by industrial SMEs? Google Scholar database was consulted for searching information, using certain search parameters. Based on a previous criteria definition, the selected models are compared. Finally, the conclusions about these models are elaborated. Results: From the results obtained through the bibliographic search in Google Scholar, different criteria were used to select the models to be characterized and compared. The four models selected were the proposed by Wettstein and Kueng, Van Aken, Tangen and Aho. Conclusions: The models considered most adequate are those proposed by Wettstein and Kueng (2002 and Aho (2012, due to their easy application and the low requirement of resource use. However, as such models do not have an evaluation tool, it has to be defined by the company.

  7. Maturation of arteriovenous fistula: Analysis of key factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Siddiqui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing proportion of individuals suffering from chronic kidney disease has considerable repercussions for both kidney specialists and primary care. Progressive and permanent renal failure is most frequently treated with hemodialysis. The efficiency of hemodialysis treatment relies on the functional status of vascular access. Determining the type of vascular access has prime significance for maximizing successful maturation of a fistula and avoiding surgical revision. Despite the frequency of arteriovenous fistula procedures, there are no consistent criteria applied before creation of arteriovenous fistulae. Increased prevalence and use of arteriovenous fistulae would result if there were reliable criteria to assess which arteriovenous fistulae are more likely to reach maturity without additional procedures. Published studies assessing the predictive markers of fistula maturation vary to a great extent with regard to definitions, design, study size, patient sample, and clinical factors. As a result, surgeons and specialists must decide which possible risk factors are most likely to occur, as well as which parameters to employ when evaluating the success rate of fistula development in patients awaiting the creation of permanent access. The purpose of this literature review is to discuss the role of patient factors and blood markers in the development of arteriovenous fistulae.

  8. 7 CFR 1710.115 - Final maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Policies § 1710.115 Final maturity. (a) RUS is authorized to make loans and loan guarantees with a... due, in part, to obsolescence. Operating loans to finance working capital required for the initial...

  9. Geospatial Information System Capability Maturity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    To explore how State departments of transportation (DOTs) evaluate geospatial tool applications and services within their own agencies, particularly their experiences using capability maturity models (CMMs) such as the Urban and Regional Information ...

  10. Pristipomoides filamentosus Size at Maturity Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information used to help determine median size at 50% maturity for the bottomfish species, Pristipomoides filamentosus in the Main Hawaiian...

  11. Optical maturity variation in lunar spectra as measured by Moon Mineralogy Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, J.W.; Staid, M.; Besse, S.; Boardman, J.; Clark, R.N.; Dhingra, D.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Pieters, C.M.; Taylor, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    High spectral and spatial resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument on Chandrayaan-1 are used to investigate in detail changes in the optical properties of lunar materials accompanying space weathering. Three spectral parameters were developed and used to quantify spectral effects commonly thought to be associated with increasing optical maturity: an increase in spectral slope ("reddening"), a decrease in albedo ("darkening"), and loss of spectral contrast (decrease in absorption band depth). Small regions of study were defined that sample the ejecta deposits of small fresh craters that contain relatively crystalline (immature) material that grade into local background (mature) soils. Selected craters are small enough that they can be assumed to be of constant composition and thus are useful for evaluating trends in optical maturity. Color composites were also used to identify the most immature material in a region and show that maturity trends can also be identified using regional soil trends. The high resolution M3 data are well suited to quantifying the spectral changes that accompany space weathering and are able to capture subtle spectral variations in maturity trends. However, the spectral changes that occur as a function of maturity were observed to be dependent on local composition. Given the complexity of space weathering processes, this was not unexpected but poses challenges for absolute measures of optical maturity across diverse lunar terrains. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Asymptotic weight and maturing rate in mice selected for body conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Masso Ricardo J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth patterns of four lines of mice selected for body conformation were analyzed with the logistic function, in order to provide baseline information about the relationship between asymptotic weight and maturing rate of body weight. Two lines were divergently selected favoring the phenotypic correlation between body weight and tail length (agonistic selection: CBi+, high body weight and long tail; CBi-, low body weight and short tail, whereas the other two lines were generated by a disruptive selection performed against the correlation between the aforementioned traits (antagonistic selection: CBi/C, high body weight and short tail; CBi/L, low body weight and long tail. The logistic parameters A (asymptotic weight and k (maturing rate behaved in CBi/C and CBi- mice and in CBi+ females as expected in terms of the negative genetic relationship between mature size and earliness of maturing. An altered growth pattern was found in CBi/L mice and in CBi+ males, because in the former genotype, selected for low body weight, the time taken to mature increased, whereas in the latter, selected for high body weight, there was a non-significant increase in the same trait. In accordance with the selective criterion, different sources of genetic variation for body weight could be exploited: one inversely associated with earliness of maturing (agonistic selection, and the other independent of maturing rate (antagonistic selection, showing that genetic variation of A is partly independent of k.

  13. Artificial maturation of an immature sulfur- and organic matter-rich limestone from the Ghareb Formation, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, M.P.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Damste, J.S.S.

    1998-01-01

    An immature (Ro=0.39%), S-rich (S(org)/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt. % TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220 ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The alkylthiophene isomer distributions do not change significantly with increasing thermal maturation, indicating the applicability of alkylthiophenes as biomarkers at relatively high levels of thermal maturity. For a given carbon skeleton, the saturated hydrocarbon, alkylthiophenes and alkylbenzo[b]thiophenes are stable forms at relatively high temperatures, whereas the alkylsulfides are not stable. The large amount of alkylthiophenes produced relative to the alkanes may be explained by the large number of monosulfide links per carbon skeleton. These results are in good agreement with those obtained previously for an artificial maturation series of an immature S-rich sample from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation.An immature (Ro = 0.39%), S-rich (Sorg/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt.% TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220, ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The

  14. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y. [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305 (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.) With 2 figs., 18 refs.

  15. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.)

  16. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  17. Intra-follicular interactions affecting mammalian oocyte maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, H.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313871817

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear oocyte maturation is defined as reinitiation and progression of the first meiotic division and subsequently formation of the methaphase II (MII) plate. Concomitantly with nuclear maturation, cytoplasmic maturation which is essential for proper fertilization and early embryo development is

  18. Mature students' perspectives of studying radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Decker, S.

    2009-01-01

    The study set out to explore the experiences of all final year mature students on a diagnostic radiography course, in one United Kingdom University. The aims were to identify any difficulties they may have had and to make recommendations to improve mature students' learning experiences with the hope of lowering attrition rates in this group. A qualitative study involving one-to-one audio recorded interviews was utilised. Analysis of the transcripts of interviews suggested that the group believed that their maturity and previous experiences helped them in the clinical environment and put them in a good position, when asked, to counsel younger students. However for some of the mature students these experiential skills did not extend fully into seeking appropriate support for themselves. The mature students were found to be highly motivated but there was a conflict between balancing clinical and academic aspects of studying as well as balancing studying with home life. The group was found to be unprepared for the volume of academic work and its detrimental effect on family life as they sacrificed other aspects of their lives in order to complete the course. It is recommended that forewarning and forearming prospective mature students be considered by radiography education providers. Setting up and utilising an on-line forum providing a 24/7 peer support environment would aid in coping with academic, clinical or personal problems

  19. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  20. Breeding of cocksfoot cultivars with different maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in breeding process of perennial grasses is maturity. Cultivars with different maturity play a very important role in utilization of perennial grasses, by providing the ability to create a mixture of different aspects utilization and time. The first grass species in Serbia whose breeding program involved this criterion was cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.. In general cocksfoot is early to medium-early in maturity in comparison with other grasses and legumes, and that is mayor problem since in the optimum phase for cutting, cocksfoot is often earlier then other species in mixtures. As a result of this work, in the previous period, two cultivars of different maturity were released, Kruševačka 24 (K-24 and Kruševačka 25 (K-25. K-24 is medium and K-25 is late in maturity. New material is adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and productive in the same time. In breeding process of both cultivars initial material originated from autochthonous populations collected in eastern and central Serbia. Material from the wild flora is selected based on medium and late maturity which is already adapted and has good productivity. We applied the standard method of phenotypic recurrent selection with the creation of synthetic varieties by polycross.

  1. Low-level laser irradiation promotes the proliferation and maturation of keratinocytes during epithelial wound repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Felipe F.; Simões, Alyne; Corrêa, Luciana; Aranha, Ana Cecília C.; Giudice, Fernanda S.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Sousa, Suzana C.O.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been extensively employed to improve epithelial wound healing, though the exact response of epithelium maturation and stratification after LLLT is unknown. Thus, this study aimed to assess the in vitro growth and differentiation of keratinocytes (KCs) and in vivo wound healing response when treated with LLLT. Human KCs (HaCaT cells) showed an enhanced proliferation with all the employed laser energy densities (3, 6 and 12 J/cm2, 660nm, 100mW), together with an increased expression of Cyclin D1. Moreover, the immunoexpression of proteins related to epithelial proliferation and maturation (p63, CK10, CK14) all indicated a faster maturation of the migrating KCs in the LLLT-treated wounds. In that way, an improved epithelial healing was promoted by LLLT with the employed parameters; this improvement was confirmed by changes in the expression of several proteins related to epithelial proliferation and maturation. PMID:25411997

  2. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliarini, Celine; Chaumoitre, Katia; Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine; Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliarini, Celine [Faculte Timone, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, Marseille (France); Chaumoitre, Katia [Hopital Nord, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine [Hopital Timone, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique [Hopital Timone, Department of Pathology, Marseille (France)

    2005-08-01

    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  4. Outdoor thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-06-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.

  5. Thermal Properties of Starch From New Corn Lines as Impacted by Environment and During Line Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenihan, Elizabeth M [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to further characterize exotic by adapted corn inbreds by studying the impact of environment on their starch thermal properties, and investigating the development of starch thermal properties during kernel maturation by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A method to expedite identification of unusual starch thermal traits was investigated by examining five corn kernels at a time, instead of one kernel, which the previous screening methods used. Corn lines with known thermal functions were blended with background starch (control) in ratios of unique starch to control starch, and analyzed by using DSC. Control starch was representative of typical corn starch. The values for each ratio within a mutant type were unique (α < 0.01) for most DSC measurements. These results supported the five-kernel method for rapidly screening large amounts of corn germplasm to identify unusual starch traits. The effects of 5 growing locations on starch thermal properties from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines were studied using DSC. The warmest location, Missouri, generally produced starch with greater gelatinization onset temperature (ToG), narrower range of gelatinization (RG), and greater enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔHG). The coolest location, Illinois, generally resulted in starch with lower ToG, wider RG, and lower ΔHG. Starch from the Ames 1 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Illinois, whereas starch from the Ames 2 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Missouri. The temperature at Ames 2 may have been warmer since it was located near a river; however, soil type and quality also were different. Final corn starch structure and function change during development and maturity. Thus, the changes in starch thermal properties during 5 stages of endosperm development from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines at two locations were

  6. Methodology used for the determination of physical and mechanical properties of crushed coal and new criteria for the selection of calculating parameters according to which coal bins in thermal power plants are dimensioned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obradovic, R. [Mining Institute Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-07-01

    In order to acquire the data necessary for design engineering of coal bins in thermal power plants (TPP), an enhanced research method has been adopted, along with new criteria for the interpretation of the results obtained in the course of crushed coal testing, considering the shearing strength values and the expected elastic deformations of bin walls. The investigations presented in this paper have been carried out in the Thermal Power Plant - Nikola Tesla-B, (TPPNT) in Obrenovac, Yugoslavia. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Quantitative Assessment of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Korean Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Ram Byun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the correlation between skeletal maturation status and parameters from the odontoid process/body of the second vertebra and the bodies of third and fourth cervical vertebrae and simultaneously build multiple regression models to be able to estimate skeletal maturation status in Korean girls. Hand-wrist radiographs and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images were obtained from 74 Korean girls (6–18 years of age. CBCT-generated cervical vertebral maturation (CVM was used to demarcate the odontoid process and the body of the second cervical vertebra, based on the dentocentral synchondrosis. Correlation coefficient analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used for each parameter of the cervical vertebrae (P<0.05. Forty-seven of 64 parameters from CBCT-generated CVM (independent variables exhibited statistically significant correlations (P<0.05. The multiple regression model with the greatest R2 had six parameters (PH2/W2, UW2/W2, (OH+AH2/LW2, UW3/LW3, D3, and H4/W4 as independent variables with a variance inflation factor (VIF of <2. CBCT-generated CVM was able to include parameters from the second cervical vertebral body and odontoid process, respectively, for the multiple regression models. This suggests that quantitative analysis might be used to estimate skeletal maturation status.

  8. Adjustable thermal resistor by reversibly folding a graphene sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qichen; An, Meng; Chen, Xiandong; Peng, Zhan; Zang, Jianfeng; Yang, Nuo

    2016-08-11

    Phononic (thermal) devices such as thermal diodes, thermal transistors, thermal logic gates, and thermal memories have been studied intensively. However, tunable thermal resistors have not been demonstrated yet. Here, we propose an instantaneously adjustable thermal resistor based on folded graphene. Through theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, we study the phonon-folding scattering effect and the dependence of thermal resistivity on the length between two folds and the overall length. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility of realizing instantaneously adjustable thermal resistors in experiment. Our studies bring new insights into designing thermal resistors and understanding the thermal modulation of 2D materials by adjusting basic structure parameters.

  9. Maturation history modeling of Sufyan Depression, northwest Muglad Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Wang, Hongmei; Pang, Xiongqi

    2016-08-01

    The Sufyan Depression is located in the northwest of Muglad Basin and is considered as a favorable exploration area by both previous studies and present oil shows. In this study, 16 wells are used or referred, the burial history model was built with new seismic, logging and well data, and the thermal maturity (Ro, %) of proved AG source rocks was predicted based on heat flow calculation and EASY %Ro modeling. The results show that the present heat flow range is 36 mW/m2∼50 mW/m2 (average 39 mW/m2) in 13 wells and 15 mW/m2∼55 mW/m2 in the whole depression. Accordingly, the geothermal gradient is 20 °C/km∼26 °C/km and 12 °C/km∼30 °C/km, respectively. The paleo-heat flow has three peaks, namely AG-3 period, lower Bentiu period and Early Paleogene, with the value decreases from the first to the last, which is corresponding to the tectonic evolution history. Corresponding to the heat flow distribution feature, the AG source rocks become mature earlier and have higher present marurity in the south area. For AG-2_down and AG-3_up source rocks that are proved to be good-excellent, most of them are mature with Ro as 0.5%-1.1%. But they can only generate plentiful oil and gas to charge reservoirs in the middle and south areas where their Ro is within 0.7%-1.1%, which is consistent with the present oil shows. Besides, the oil shows from AG-2_down reservoir in the middle area of the Sufyan Depression are believed to be contributed by the underlying AG-3_up source rock or the source rocks in the south area.

  10. Bomb parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.; Young, Rebert W.; Cullings, Harry M.; Christry, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  11. Vermicomposting of Food Waste: Assessing the Stability and Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Majlessi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vermicompost using earthworms (Eisenia Fetida was produced from food waste and chemical parameters (EC, pH, carbon to nitrogen contents(C/N and germination bioassaywas examined in order to assess the stability and maturity indicators during the vermicomposting process. The seed used in the germination bioassay was cress.The ranges of EC,pH, C/N and germination index were 7.5-4.9 mS/cm, 5.6-7.53, 30.13-14.32% and 12.8- 58.4%, espectively. The germination index (GI value revealed that vermicompost rendered as moderate phytotoxic to cress seed.Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between the parameters. High statistically significant correlation coefficient was calculated between the GI value and EC in the vermicompost at the 99% confidence level.The C/N value showed that the vermicompost was stable. As a result of these observations, stability test alone, was not able to ensure high vermicompost quality. Therefore, it appears that determining vermicompost quality requires a simultaneous use of maturity and stability tests.

  12. Maturity Model for Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Mark; Widergren, Steven E.; Mater, J.; Montgomery, Austin

    2013-10-28

    Abstract—Interoperability is about the properties of devices and systems to connect and work properly. Advancing interoperability eases integration and maintenance of the resulting interconnection. This leads to faster integration, lower labor and component costs, predictability of projects and the resulting performance, and evolutionary paths for upgrade. When specifications are shared and standardized, competition and novel solutions can bring new value streams to the community of stakeholders involved. Advancing interoperability involves reaching agreement for how things join at their interfaces. The quality of the agreements and the alignment of parties involved in the agreement present challenges that are best met with process improvement techniques. The G