Sample records for thermal efficiency

  1. Energy efficient thermal management of data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pramod


    Energy Efficient Thermal Management of Data Centers examines energy flow in today's data centers. Particular focus is given to the state-of-the-art thermal management and thermal design approaches now being implemented across the multiple length scales involved. The impact of future trends in information technology hardware, and emerging software paradigms such as cloud computing and virtualization, on thermal management are also addressed. The book explores computational and experimental characterization approaches for determining temperature and air flow patterns within data centers. Thermodynamic analyses using the second law to improve energy efficiency are introduced and used in proposing improvements in cooling methodologies. Reduced-order modeling and robust multi-objective design of next generation data centers are discussed. This book also: Provides in-depth treatment of energy efficiency ideas based on  fundamental heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, controls, and computer science Focus...

  2. Efficient thermal spin injection in metallic nanostructures (United States)

    Nomura, Tatsuya; Ariki, Taisei; Hu, Shaojie; Kimura, Takashi


    Thermal spin injection is a unique and fascinating method for generating spin current. If magnetization can be controlled by thermal spin injection, various advantages will be provided in spintronic devices, through its wireless controllability. However, the generation efficiency of thermal spin injection is believed to be lower than that of electrical spin injection. Here, we explore a suitable ferromagnetic metal for an efficient thermal spin injection, via systematic experiments based on diffusive spin transport under temperature gradients. Since a ferromagnetic metal with strong spin splitting is expected to have a large spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient, a lateral spin valve based on CoFe electrodes has been fabricated. However, the superior thermal spin injection property has not been observed, because the CoFe electrode retained its crystalline signature—where s-like electrons dominate the transport property in the ferromagnet. To suppress the crystalline signature, we adopt a CoFeAl electrode, in which the Al impurity significantly reduces the contribution from s-like electrons. Highly efficient thermal spin injection has been demonstrated using this CoFeAl electrode. Further optimization for thermal spin injection has been demonstrated by adjusting the Co and Fe composition.

  3. Electrothermal efficiency, temperature and thermal conductivity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A study was made to evaluate the electrothermal efficiency of a DC arc plasma torch and temperature and thermal conductivity of plasma jet in the torch. The torch was operated at power levels from 4 to 20 kW in non-transferred arc mode. The effect of nitrogen in combination with argon as plasma gas on the above ...

  4. Thermal Efficiency of Natural Convection Solar Dryer (United States)

    Seetapong, N.; Chulok, S.; Khoonphunnarai, P.


    The purpose of this research is to study the thermal efficiency of natural convection. The working principle of natural convection solar dryer is, once the air in the solar dryer is heated by solar energy, the air relative humidity will drop and floating up through the drying. This air will take moisture out of the product and flow out to the ambient air. It was found from the experiment that, in the duration of 8.00 am - 4.00 pm on a clear sky day, an all-day average ambient air and inside the chamber temperature were 38.34°C and 63.19°C respectively. At the solar radiation intensity of 759.53W/m2, mass flow rate of air was 0.023 kg/s and the thermal efficiency of the solar dryer was 2.59%.

  5. Increasing the thermal efficiency of boiler plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyanchinov Evgeniy


    Full Text Available The thermal efficiency increase of boiler plant is actual task of scientific and technical researches. The optimization of boiler operating conditions is task complex, which determine by most probable average load of boiler, operating time and characteristics of the auxiliary equipment. The work purpose – the determination of thermodynamic efficiency increase ways for boiler plant with a gas-tube boiler. The tasks, solved at the research are the calculation of heat and fuel demand, the exergetic analysis of boilerhouse and heat network equipment, the determination of hydraulic losses and exergy losses due to restriction. The calculation was shown that the exergy destruction can be reduced by 2.39% due to excess air reducing to 10%; in addition the oxygen enrichment of air can be used that leads to reducing of the exergy destruction rate. The processes of carbon deposition from the side of flame and processes of scale formation on the water side leads to about 4.58% losses of fuel energy at gas-tube boiler. It was shown that the exergy losses may be reduced by 2.31% due to stack gases temperature reducing to 148 °C.



    M. Cvetkovska; Knezevic, M.; Rogac, M.


    This paper presents the use of Finite Element Method for heat transfer analysis. Connections wall-beam-floor structures with different positions of the thermal insulation have been analyzed and conclusions about energy efficiency and energy loss are made. Keywords: heat transfer, numerical analysis, finite elements, thermal insulation, energy efficiency.

  7. Maximally efficient quantum thermal machines: The basic principles


    Popescu, Sandu


    Following the result by Skrzypczyk et al., arXiv:1009.0865, that certain self-contained quantum thermal machines can reach Carnot efficiency, we discuss the functioning of self-contained quantum thermal machines and show, in a very general case, that they can reach the Carnot efficiency limit. Most importantly, the full analytical solution for the functioning of the machines is not required; the efficiency can be deduced from a very small number of fundamental and highly intuitive equations w...

  8. Novel thermal efficiency-based model for determination of thermal conductivity of membrane distillation membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanneste, Johan; Bush, John A.; Hickenbottom, Kerri L.; Marks, Christopher A.; Jassby, David; Turchi, Craig S.; Cath, Tzahi Y.


    Development and selection of membranes for membrane distillation (MD) could be accelerated if all performance-determining characteristics of the membrane could be obtained during MD operation without the need to recur to specialized or cumbersome porosity or thermal conductivity measurement techniques. By redefining the thermal efficiency, the Schofield method could be adapted to describe the flux without prior knowledge of membrane porosity, thickness, or thermal conductivity. A total of 17 commercially available membranes were analyzed in terms of flux and thermal efficiency to assess their suitability for application in MD. The thermal-efficiency based model described the flux with an average %RMSE of 4.5%, which was in the same range as the standard deviation on the measured flux. The redefinition of the thermal efficiency also enabled MD to be used as a novel thermal conductivity measurement device for thin porous hydrophobic films that cannot be measured with the conventional laser flash diffusivity technique.

  9. Quantum efficiency and thermal emittance of metal photocathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Dowell


    Full Text Available Modern electron beams have demonstrated the brilliance needed to drive free electron lasers at x-ray wavelengths with major advances occurring since the invention of the photocathode gun and the realization of emittance compensation. These state-of-the-art electron beams are now becoming limited by the intrinsic thermal emittance of the cathode. In both dc and rf photocathode guns details of the cathode emission physics strongly influence the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance. Therefore improving cathode performance is essential to increasing the brightness of beams. It is especially important to understand the fundamentals of cathode quantum efficiency and thermal emittance. This paper investigates the relationship between the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance for metal cathodes using the Fermi-Dirac model for the electron distribution. We use a consistent theory to derive the quantum efficiency and thermal emittance, and compare our results to those of others.

  10. Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)


    Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

  11. Electrothermal efficiency, temperature and thermal conductivity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A study was made to evaluate the electrothermal efficiency of a DC arc plasma torch and temperature and thermal conductivity of plasma jet in the torch. The torch was operated at power levels from 4 to 20 kW in non-transferred arc mode. The effect of nitrogen in combination with argon as plasma gas on the above ...

  12. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourfar, D. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr Ag, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)


    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  13. Numerical conversion efficiency of thermally isolated Seebeck nanoantennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Briones


    Full Text Available In this letter, we evaluate the conversion efficiency of thermally isolated Seebeck nanoantennas by numerical simulations and discuss their uses and scope for energy harvesting applications. This analysis includes the simple case of titanium-nickel dipoles suspended in air above the substrate by a 200 nm silicon dioxide membrane to isolate the heat dissipation. Results show that substantially thermal gradients are induced along the devices leading to a harvesting efficiency around 10-4 %, 400 % higher than the previously reported Seebeck nanoantennas. In the light of these results, different optimizing strategies should be considered in order to make the Seebeck nanoantennas useful for harvesting applications.

  14. High-efficiency photonic crystal narrowband thermal emitters (United States)

    Farfan, G. B.; Su, M. F.; Reda Taha, M. M.; El-Kady, I.


    Photonic crystals (PhC) are artificial structures fabricated with a periodicity in the dielectric function. This periodic electromagnetic potential results in creation of energy bandgaps where photon propagation is prohibited. PhC structures have promising use in thermal applications if optimized to operate at specific thermal emission spectrum. Here, novel utilization of optimized PhC's in thermal applications is presented. We demonstrate through numerical simulation the modification of the thermal emission spectrum by a metallic photonic crystal (PhC) to create high-efficiency multispectral thermal emitters. These emitters funnel radiation from a broad emission spectrum associated with a Plancklike distribution into a prescribed narrow emission band. A detailed quantitative evaluation of the spectral and power efficiencies of a PhC thermal emitter and its portability across infrared (IR) spectral bands are provided. We show an optimized tungsten PhC with a predominant narrow-band emission profile with an emitter efficiency that is more than double that of an ideal blackbody and ~65-75% more power-efficiency across the IR spectrum. We also report on using optimal three-dimensional Lincoln log photonic crystal (LL-PhC) emitters for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generation as opposed to using a passive filtering approach to truncate the broadband thermal source emission to match the bandgap of a photovoltaic (PV) cell. The emitter performance is optimized for the 1-2μm PV band using different PhC materials, specifically copper, silver and gold. The use of the proposed PhC in TPV devices can produce significant energy savings not reported before. The optimal design of the PhC geometry is obtained by implementing a variety of optimization methods integrated with artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms.

  15. Study of thermally coupled distillation systems for energy-efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Study of thermally coupled distillation systems for energy-efficient distillation. NEHA SAXENA1, NILESH MALI2,* and SATCHIDANAND SATPUTE3. 1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University College of Engineering,. Pune 411046, India. 2 Chemical Engineering and Process ...

  16. Development of the ultra high efficiency thermal power generation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Toshihiro


    In order to prevent global warming, attention is focused on nuclear power generation and renewable energy such as wind and solar power generation. The electric power suppliers of Japan are aiming to increase the amount of nuclear and non-fossil fuel power generation over 50% of the total power generation by 2020. But this means that the remaining half will still be of thermal power generation using fossil fuel and will still play an important role. Under such circumstances, further efficiency improvement of the thermal power generation and its aggressive implementation is ongoing in Japan.

  17. Improving Energy Efficiency In Thermal Oil Recovery Surface Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy Nadella, Narayana


    Thermal oil recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS), Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and In-situ Combustion are being used for recovering heavy oil and bitumen. These processes expend energy to recover oil. The process design of the surface facilities requires optimization to improve the efficiency of oil recovery by minimizing the energy consumption per barrel of oil produced. Optimization involves minimizing external energy use by heat integration. This paper discusses the unit processes and design methodology considering thermodynamic energy requirements and heat integration methods to improve energy efficiency in the surface facilities. A design case study is presented.

  18. Near Zero Emissions at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a 10 year DOE sponsored heavy-duty truck engine program, hereafter referred to as the NZ-50 program. This program was split into two major phases. The first phase was called Near-Zero Emission at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency, and was completed in 2007. The second phase was initiated in 2006, and this phase was named Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems to Enable High-Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engines. This phase was completed in September, 2010. The key objectives of the NZ-50 program for this first phase were to: Quantify thermal efficiency degradation associated with reduction of engine-out NOx emissions to the 2007 regulated level of ~1.1 g/hp-hr. Implement an integrated analytical/experimental development plan for improving subsystem and component capabilities in support of emerging engine technologies for emissions and thermal efficiency goals of the program. Test prototype subsystem hardware featuring technology enhancements and demonstrate effective application on a multi-cylinder, production feasible heavy-duty engine test-bed. Optimize subsystem components and engine controls (calibration) to demonstrate thermal efficiency that is in compliance with the DOE 2005 Joule milestone, meaning greater than 45% thermal efficiency at 2007 emission levels. Develop technology roadmap for meeting emission regulations of 2010 and beyond while mitigating the associated degradation in engine fuel consumption. Ultimately, develop technical prime-path for meeting the overall goal of the NZ-50 program, i.e., 50% thermal efficiency at 2010 regulated emissions. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the NZ-50 program. The most noteworthy achievements in this program are summarized as follows: Demonstrated technologies through advanced integrated experiments and analysis to achieve the technical objectives of the NZ-50 program with 50.2% equivalent thermal efficiency under

  19. Thermal and optical efficiency investigation of a parabolic trough collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tzivanidis


    Full Text Available Solar energy utilization is a promising Renewable Energy source for covering a variety of energy needs of our society. This study presents the most well-known solar concentrating system, the parabolic trough collector, which is operating efficiently in high temperatures. The simulation tool of this analysis is the commercial software Solidworks which simulates complicated problems with an easy way using the finite elements method. A small parabolic trough collector model is designed and simulated for different operating conditions. The goal of this study is to predict the efficiency of this model and to analyze the heat transfer phenomena that take place. The efficiency curve is compared to a one dimensional numerical model in order to make a simple validation. Moreover, the temperature distribution in the absorber and inside the tube is presented while the heat flux distribution in the outer surface of the absorber is given. The heat convection coefficient inside the tube is calculated and compared with the theoretical one according to the literature. Also the angle efficiency modifier is calculated in order to predict the thermal and optical efficiency for different operating conditions. The final results show that the PTC model performs efficiently and all the calculations are validated.

  20. Efficient Pedestrian Detection at Nighttime Using a Thermal Camera. (United States)

    Baek, Jeonghyun; Hong, Sungjun; Kim, Jisu; Kim, Euntai


    Most of the commercial nighttime pedestrian detection (PD) methods reported previously utilized the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) or the local binary pattern (LBP) as the feature and the support vector machine (SVM) as the classifier using thermal camera images. In this paper, we propose a new feature called the thermal-position-intensity-histogram of oriented gradient (TPIHOG or T π HOG) and developed a new combination of the T π HOG and the additive kernel SVM (AKSVM) for efficient nighttime pedestrian detection. The proposed T π HOG includes detailed information on gradient location; therefore, it has more distinctive power than the HOG. The AKSVM performs better than the linear SVM in terms of detection performance, while it is much faster than other kernel SVMs. The combined T π HOG-AKSVM showed effective nighttime PD performance with fast computational time. The proposed method was experimentally tested with the KAIST pedestrian dataset and showed better performance compared with other conventional methods.

  1. Advances in Thermal Insulation. Vacuum Insulation Panels and Thermal Efficiency to Reduce Energy Usage in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsell, Thomas


    procedure incorporates specific steps exposing the wall to different climate conditions, ranging from cold and dry to hot and humid, with and without a pressure gradient. This study showed that air infiltration alone might decrease the thermal resistance of a residential wall by 15 %, more for industrial walls. Results from the research underpin a discussion concerning the importance of a holistic approach to building design if we are to meet the challenge of energy savings and sustainability. Thermal insulation efficiency is a main concept used throughout, and since it measures utilization it is a partial measure of sustainability. It is therefore proposed as a necessary design parameter in addition to a performance indicator when designing building envelopes. The thermal insulation efficiency ranges from below 50 % for a wood stud wall poorly designed with incorporated VIP, while an optimized design with VIP placed in an uninterrupted external layer shows an efficiency of 99 %, almost perfect. Thermal insulation efficiency reflects the measured wall performance full scale test, thus indicating efficiency under varied environmental loads: heat, moisture and pressure. The building design must be as a system, integrating all the subsystems together to function in concert. New design methodologies must be created along with new, more reliable and comprehensive measuring, testing and integrating procedures. New super insulators are capable of reducing energy usage below zero energy in buildings. It would be a shame to waste them by not taking care of the rest of the system. This thesis details the steps that went into this study and shows how this can be done Key words: Vacuum insulation panels, VIP, serpentine edge, thermal bridge, composite film, gas diffusion, defect dominated, holistic approach, building enclosure, integrated testing and modeling, energy equivalent, field performance, air flow, thermal insulation efficiency.

  2. Factors Influencing the Thermal Efficiency of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Di Sipio


    Full Text Available The performance of very shallow geothermal systems (VSGs, interesting the first 2 m of depth from ground level, is strongly correlated to the kind of sediment locally available. These systems are attractive due to their low installation costs, less legal constraints, easy maintenance and possibility for technical improvements. The Improving Thermal Efficiency of horizontal ground heat exchangers Project (ITER aims to understand how to enhance the heat transfer of the sediments surrounding the pipes and to depict the VSGs behavior in extreme thermal situations. In this regard, five helices were installed horizontally surrounded by five different backfilling materials under the same climatic conditions and tested under different operation modes. The field test monitoring concerned: (a monthly measurement of thermal conductivity and moisture content on surface; (b continuous recording of air and ground temperature (inside and outside each helix; (c continuous climatological and ground volumetric water content (VWC data acquisition. The interactions between soils, VSGs, environment and climate are presented here, focusing on the differences and similarities between the behavior of the helix and surrounding material, especially when the heat pump is running in heating mode for a very long time, forcing the ground temperature to drop below 0 °C.

  3. Assessment of thermal efficiency of heat recovery coke making (United States)

    Tiwari, H. P.; Saxena, V. K.; Haldar, S. K.; Sriramoju, S. K.


    The heat recovery stamp charge coke making process is quite complicated due to the evolved volatile matter during coking, is partially combusted in oven crown and sole flue in a controlled manner to provide heat for producing metallurgical coke. Therefore, the control and efficient utilization of heat in the oven crown, and sole flue is difficult, which directly affects the operational efficiency. Considering the complexity and importance of thermal efficiency, evolution of different gases, combustion of gasses in oven crown and sole flue, and heating process of coke oven has been studied. A nonlinear regression methodology was used to predict temperature profile of different depth of coal cake during the coking. It was observed that the predicted temperature profile is in good agreement with the actual temperature profile (R2 = 0.98) and is validated with the actual temperature profile of other ovens. A complete study is being done to calculate the material balance, heat balance, and heat losses. This gives an overall understanding of heat flow which affects the heat penetration into the coal cake. The study confirms that 60% heat was utilized during coking.

  4. High Efficiency and Low Cost Thermal Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division


    BgtL, LLC (BgtL) is focused on developing and commercializing its proprietary compact technology for processes in the energy sector. One such application is a compact high efficiency Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system that utilizes the heat of fusion through phase change between solid and liquid to store and release energy at high temperatures and incorporate state-of-the-art insulation to minimize heat dissipation. BgtL’s TES system would greatly improve the economics of existing nuclear and coal-fired power plants by allowing the power plant to store energy when power prices are low and sell power into the grid when prices are high. Compared to existing battery storage technology, BgtL’s novel thermal energy storage solution can be significantly less costly to acquire and maintain, does not have any waste or environmental emissions, and does not deteriorate over time; it can keep constant efficiency and operates cleanly and safely. BgtL’s engineers are experienced in this field and are able to design and engineer such a system to a specific power plant’s requirements. BgtL also has a strong manufacturing partner to fabricate the system such that it qualifies for an ASME code stamp. BgtL’s vision is to be the leading provider of compact systems for various applications including energy storage. BgtL requests that all technical information about the TES designs be protected as proprietary information. To honor that request, only non-proprietay summaries are included in this report.

  5. Ambient Temperature Based Thermal Aware Energy Efficient ROM Design on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, Rishita; Bansal, Neha; Bansal, Meenakshi


    Thermal aware design is currently gaining importance in VLSI research domain. In this work, we are going to design thermal aware energy efficient ROM on Virtex-5 FPGA. Ambient Temperature, airflow, and heat sink profile play a significant role in thermal aware hardware design life cycle. Ambient...

  6. SSTL Based Low Power Thermal Efficient WLAN Specific 32bit ALU Design on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Das, Teerath


    In this paper we have designed a Thermal energy efficient 32Bit ALU for network processor, the main objective of this design is to provide better thermal efficiency with respect to existing designs. For that purpose we have used six different members of SSTL I/Os standards on 28nm technology alon...

  7. Passive Collecting of Solar Radiation Energy using Transparent Thermal Insulators, Energetic Efficiency of Transparent Thermal Insulators


    Smajo Sulejmanovic; Suad Kunosic; Ema Hankic


    This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to r...

  8. Efficient Solar-Thermal Energy Harvest Driven by Interfacial Plasmonic Heating-Assisted Evaporation. (United States)

    Chang, Chao; Yang, Chao; Liu, Yanming; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Wu, Jianbo; Deng, Tao


    The plasmonic heating effect of noble nanoparticles has recently received tremendous attention for various important applications. Herein, we report the utilization of interfacial plasmonic heating-assisted evaporation for efficient and facile solar-thermal energy harvest. An airlaid paper-supported gold nanoparticle thin film was placed at the thermal energy conversion region within a sealed chamber to convert solar energy into thermal energy. The generated thermal energy instantly vaporizes the water underneath into hot vapors that quickly diffuse to the thermal energy release region of the chamber to condense into liquids and release the collected thermal energy. The condensed water automatically flows back to the thermal energy conversion region under the capillary force from the hydrophilic copper mesh. Such an approach simultaneously realizes efficient solar-to-thermal energy conversion and rapid transportation of converted thermal energy to target application terminals. Compared to conventional external photothermal conversion design, the solar-thermal harvesting device driven by the internal plasmonic heating effect has reduced the overall thermal resistance by more than 50% and has demonstrated more than 25% improvement of solar water heating efficiency.

  9. Passive Collecting of Solar Radiation Energy using Transparent Thermal Insulators, Energetic Efficiency of Transparent Thermal Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajo Sulejmanovic


    Full Text Available This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to reduce in usage of fossil fuels and would help protection of an environment and reduce effects of global warming, etc.

  10. High-efficiency thermal switch based on topological Josephson junctions (United States)

    Sothmann, Björn; Giazotto, Francesco; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.


    We propose theoretically a thermal switch operating by the magnetic-flux controlled diffraction of phase-coherent heat currents in a thermally biased Josephson junction based on a two-dimensional topological insulator. For short junctions, the system shows a sharp switching behavior while for long junctions the switching is smooth. Physically, the switching arises from the Doppler shift of the superconducting condensate due to screening currents induced by a magnetic flux. We suggest a possible experimental realization that exhibits a relative temperature change of 40% between the on and off state for realistic parameters. This is a factor of two larger than in recently realized thermal modulators based on conventional superconducting tunnel junctions.

  11. Energy efficient thermal comfort control for cyber-physical home system


    Cheng, Zhuo; Shein, Wai Wai; Tan, Yasuo; Lim, Azman Osman


    Technology advances allow us to design smart home system for the purpose to achieve high demands on occupants’comfort. In this research, we focus on the thermal comfort control (TCC) system to build an energy efficient thermal comfort control (EETCC) algorithm, which is based on the cyber-physical systems (CPS) approach. By optimizing the actuators; air-conditioner, window and curtain, our proposed algorithm can acquire the desired comfort level with high energy efficiency. Through the raw da...

  12. Computationally efficient thermal-mechanical modelling of selective laser melting (United States)

    Yang, Yabin; Ayas, Can


    The Selective laser melting (SLM) is a powder based additive manufacturing (AM) method to produce high density metal parts with complex topology. However, part distortions and accompanying residual stresses deteriorates the mechanical reliability of SLM products. Modelling of the SLM process is anticipated to be instrumental for understanding and predicting the development of residual stress field during the build process. However, SLM process modelling requires determination of the heat transients within the part being built which is coupled to a mechanical boundary value problem to calculate displacement and residual stress fields. Thermal models associated with SLM are typically complex and computationally demanding. In this paper, we present a simple semi-analytical thermal-mechanical model, developed for SLM that represents the effect of laser scanning vectors with line heat sources. The temperature field within the part being build is attained by superposition of temperature field associated with line heat sources in a semi-infinite medium and a complimentary temperature field which accounts for the actual boundary conditions. An analytical solution of a line heat source in a semi-infinite medium is first described followed by the numerical procedure used for finding the complimentary temperature field. This analytical description of the line heat sources is able to capture the steep temperature gradients in the vicinity of the laser spot which is typically tens of micrometers. In turn, semi-analytical thermal model allows for having a relatively coarse discretisation of the complimentary temperature field. The temperature history determined is used to calculate the thermal strain induced on the SLM part. Finally, a mechanical model governed by elastic-plastic constitutive rule having isotropic hardening is used to predict the residual stresses.

  13. Efficient Thermally Stable Spectral Control Filters for Thermophotovoltaics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The feasibility of radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) power systems has been shown. The best efficiencies reported to date for a TPV module test include front...

  14. Efficiency at maximum power of thermally coupled heat engines. (United States)

    Apertet, Y; Ouerdane, H; Goupil, C; Lecoeur, Ph


    We study the efficiency at maximum power of two coupled heat engines, using thermoelectric generators (TEGs) as engines. Assuming that the heat and electric charge fluxes in the TEGs are strongly coupled, we simulate numerically the dependence of the behavior of the global system on the electrical load resistance of each generator in order to obtain the working condition that permits maximization of the output power. It turns out that this condition is not unique. We derive a simple analytic expression giving the relation between the electrical load resistance of each generator permitting output power maximization. We then focus on the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of the whole system to demonstrate that the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency may not always be recovered: The EMP varies with the specific working conditions of each generator but remains in the range predicted by irreversible thermodynamics theory. We discuss our results in light of nonideal Carnot engine behavior.

  15. An efficient method combining thermal annealing and acid leaching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carried out by using a tungsten lamp furnace to purify silica under controlled atmosphere. This process enables to attract impurities ... To achieve this goal, an efficient purification process for sili- ca is needed. Many studies were ... rinsed with deionized water and dried under vacuum in an oven at a temperature of about 120.

  16. Thermoelectric conversion efficiency in IV-VI semiconductors with reduced thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ishida


    Full Text Available Mid-temperature thermoelectric conversion efficiencies of the IV-VI materials were calculated under the Boltzmann transport theory of carriers, taking the Seebeck, Peltier, and Thomson effects into account. The conversion efficiency was discussed with respect to the lattice thermal conductivity, keeping other parameters such as Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity to the same values. If room temperature lattice thermal conductivity is decreased up to 0.5W/mK, the conversion efficiency of a PbS based material becomes as high as 15% with the temperature difference of 500K between 800K and 300K.

  17. Computational Efficient Upscaling Methodology for Predicting Thermal Conductivity of Nuclear Waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.


    This study evaluated different upscaling methods to predict thermal conductivity in loaded nuclear waste form, a heterogeneous material system. The efficiency and accuracy of these methods were compared. Thermal conductivity in loaded nuclear waste form is an important property specific to scientific researchers, in waste form Integrated performance and safety code (IPSC). The effective thermal conductivity obtained from microstructure information and local thermal conductivity of different components is critical in predicting the life and performance of waste form during storage. How the heat generated during storage is directly related to thermal conductivity, which in turn determining the mechanical deformation behavior, corrosion resistance and aging performance. Several methods, including the Taylor model, Sachs model, self-consistent model, and statistical upscaling models were developed and implemented. Due to the absence of experimental data, prediction results from finite element method (FEM) were used as reference to determine the accuracy of different upscaling models. Micrographs from different loading of nuclear waste were used in the prediction of thermal conductivity. Prediction results demonstrated that in term of efficiency, boundary models (Taylor and Sachs model) are better than self consistent model, statistical upscaling method and FEM. Balancing the computation resource and accuracy, statistical upscaling is a computational efficient method in predicting effective thermal conductivity for nuclear waste form.

  18. An Efficient Algorithm for Server Thermal Fault Diagnosis Based on Infrared Image (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Xie, Ting; Ran, Jian; Gao, Shan


    It is essential for a data center to maintain server security and stability. Long-time overload operation or high room temperature may cause service disruption even a server crash, which would result in great economic loss for business. Currently, the methods to avoid server outages are monitoring and forecasting. Thermal camera can provide fine texture information for monitoring and intelligent thermal management in large data center. This paper presents an efficient method for server thermal fault monitoring and diagnosis based on infrared image. Initially thermal distribution of server is standardized and the interest regions of the image are segmented manually. Then the texture feature, Hu moments feature as well as modified entropy feature are extracted from the segmented regions. These characteristics are applied to analyze and classify thermal faults, and then make efficient energy-saving thermal management decisions such as job migration. For the larger feature space, the principal component analysis is employed to reduce the feature dimensions, and guarantee high processing speed without losing the fault feature information. Finally, different feature vectors are taken as input for SVM training, and do the thermal fault diagnosis after getting the optimized SVM classifier. This method supports suggestions for optimizing data center management, it can improve air conditioning efficiency and reduce the energy consumption of the data center. The experimental results show that the maximum detection accuracy is 81.5%.

  19. Nano-engineered Multiwall Carbon Nanotube-copper Composite Thermal Interface Material for Efficient Heat Conduction (United States)

    Ngo, Quoc; Cruden, Brett A.; Cassell, Alan M.; Sims, Gerard; Li, Jun; Meyyappa, M.; Yang, Cary Y.


    Efforts in integrated circuit (IC) packaging technologies have recently been focused on management of increasing heat density associated with high frequency and high density circuit designs. While current flip-chip package designs can accommodate relatively high amounts of heat density, new materials need to be developed to manage thermal effects of next-generation integrated circuits. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) have been shown to significantly enhance thermal conduction in the axial direction and thus can be considered to be a candidate for future thermal interface materials by facilitating efficient thermal transport. This work focuses on fabrication and characterization of a robust MWNT-copper composite material as an element in IC package designs. We show that using vertically aligned MWNT arrays reduces interfacial thermal resistance by increasing conduction surface area, and furthermore, the embedded copper acts as a lateral heat spreader to efficiently disperse heat, a necessary function for packaging materials. In addition, we demonstrate reusability of the material, and the absence of residue on the contacting material, both novel features of the MWNT-copper composite that are not found in most state-of-the-art thermal interface materials. Electrochemical methods such as metal deposition and etch are discussed for the creation of the MWNT-Cu composite, detailing issues and observations with using such methods. We show that precise engineering of the composite surface affects the ability of this material to act as an efficient thermal interface material. A thermal contact resistance measurement has been designed to obtain a value of thermal contact resistance for a variety of different thermal contact materials.

  20. Design study on the efficiency of the thermal scheme of power unit of thermal power plants in hot climates (United States)

    Sedlov, A.; Dorokhov, Y.; Rybakov, B.; Nenashev, A.


    At the stage of pre-proposals unit of the thermal power plants for regions with a hot climate requires a design study on the efficiency of possible options for the structure of the thermal circuit and a set of key parameters. In this paper, the thermal circuit of the condensing unit powerfully 350 MW. The main feature of the external conditions of thermal power plants in hot climates is the elevated temperature of cooling water of the turbine condensers. For example, in the Persian Gulf region as the cooling water is sea water. In the hot season of the year weighted average sea water temperature of 30.9 °C and during the cold season to 22.8 °C. From the turbine part of the steam is supplied to the distillation-desalination plant. In the hot season of the year heat scheme with pressure fresh pair of 23.54 MPa, temperature 570/560 °C and feed pump with electric drive (EDP) is characterized by a efficiency net of 0.25% higher than thermal schem with feed turbine pump (TDP). However, the supplied power unit with PED is less by 11.6 MW. Calculations of thermal schemes in all seasons of the year allowed us to determine the difference in the profit margin of units of the TDP and EDP. During the year the unit with the TDP provides the ability to obtain the profit margin by 1.55 million dollars more than the unit EDP. When using on the market subsidized price of electricity (Iran) marginal profit of a unit with TDP more at 7.25 million dollars.

  1. High efficiency event-counting thermal neutron imaging using Gd doped micro channel plate


    Tian, Yang; Yang, Yigang; Pan, Jingsheng; Li, Yulan; Li, Yuanjing


    An event-counting thermal neutron imaging detector based on 3 mol % natGd2O3 doped micro channel plate (MCP) has been developed and tested. Thermal neutron imaging experiment was carried out with a low flux neutron beam. Detection efficiency of 33 % was achieved with only one doped MCP. The spatial resolution of 72 {\\mu}m RMS is currently limited by the readout anode. A detector with larger area and improved readout method is now being developed.

  2. Improving the thermal efficiency of a jaggery production module using a fire-tube heat exchanger. (United States)

    La Madrid, Raul; Orbegoso, Elder Mendoza; Saavedra, Rafael; Marcelo, Daniel


    Jaggery is a product obtained after heating and evaporation processes have been applied to sugar cane juice via the addition of thermal energy, followed by the crystallisation process through mechanical agitation. At present, jaggery production uses furnaces and pans that are designed empirically based on trial and error procedures, which results in low ranges of thermal efficiency operation. To rectify these deficiencies, this study proposes the use of fire-tube pans to increase heat transfer from the flue gases to the sugar cane juice. With the aim of increasing the thermal efficiency of a jaggery installation, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD)-based model was used as a numerical tool to design a fire-tube pan that would replace the existing finned flat pan. For this purpose, the original configuration of the jaggery furnace was simulated via a pre-validated CFD model in order to calculate its current thermal performance. Then, the newly-designed fire-tube pan was virtually replaced in the jaggery furnace with the aim of numerically estimating the thermal performance at the same operating conditions. A comparison of both simulations highlighted the growth of the heat transfer rate at around 105% in the heating/evaporation processes when the fire-tube pan replaced the original finned flat pan. This enhancement impacted the jaggery production installation, whereby the thermal efficiency of the installation increased from 31.4% to 42.8%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hierarchical Graphene Foam for Efficient Omnidirectional Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion. (United States)

    Ren, Huaying; Tang, Miao; Guan, Baolu; Wang, Kexin; Yang, Jiawei; Wang, Feifan; Wang, Mingzhan; Shan, Jingyuan; Chen, Zhaolong; Wei, Di; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan


    Efficient solar-thermal energy conversion is essential for the harvesting and transformation of abundant solar energy, leading to the exploration and design of efficient solar-thermal materials. Carbon-based materials, especially graphene, have the advantages of broadband absorption and excellent photothermal properties, and hold promise for solar-thermal energy conversion. However, to date, graphene-based solar-thermal materials with superior omnidirectional light harvesting performances remain elusive. Herein, hierarchical graphene foam (h-G foam) with continuous porosity grown via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is reported, showing dramatic enhancement of broadband and omnidirectional absorption of sunlight, which thereby can enable a considerable elevation of temperature. Used as a heating material, the external solar-thermal energy conversion efficiency of the h-G foam impressively reaches up to ≈93.4%, and the solar-vapor conversion efficiency exceeds 90% for seawater desalination with high endurance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Thermal Efficiency of Cogeneration Units with Multi-Stage Reheating for Russian Municipal Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Lisin


    Full Text Available This paper explores the layout of an optimum process for supplying heat to Russian municipal heating systems operating in a market environment. We analyze and compare the standard cogeneration unit design with two-stage reheating of service water coming from controlled extraction locations and layouts that employ three in-line reheaters with heat the supply controlled by a rotary diaphragm and qualitative/quantitative methods (so-called “uncontrolled extraction”. Cogeneration unit designs are benchmarked in terms of their thermal efficiency expressed as a fuel consumption rate. The specific fuel consumption rate on electricity production is viewed as a key parameter of thermal efficiency.

  5. Multiple regression models for the prediction of the maximum obtainable thermal efficiency of organic Rankine cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Pierobon, Leonardo; Wronski, Jorrit


    to power. In this study we propose four linear regression models to predict the maximum obtainable thermal efficiency for simple and recuperated ORCs. A previously derived methodology is able to determine the maximum thermal efficiency among many combinations of fluids and processes, given the boundary...... conditions of the process. Hundreds of optimised cases with varied design parameters are used as observations in four multiple regression analyses. We analyse the model assumptions, prediction abilities and extrapolations, and compare the results with recent studies in the literature. The models...

  6. Improving Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning Efficiency with Wintertime Cooling using Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES). Application Manual (United States)


    APPLICATION MANUAL Improving Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning Efficiency with Wintertime Cooling using Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage...application projects to increase energy efficiency and occupant comfort. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) technology, energy efficiency, geothermal heat...electrical energy use (kW-hr) for the geothermal heat pump system with and without a dry fluid cooler

  7. Limits to solar power conversion efficiency with applications to quantum and thermal systems (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.


    An analytical framework is presented that permits examination of the limit to the efficiency of various solar power conversion devices. Thermodynamic limits to solar power efficiency are determined for both quantum and thermal systems, and the results are applied to a variety of devices currently considered for use in space systems. The power conversion efficiency for single-threshold energy quantum systems receiving unconcentrated air mass zero solar radiation is limited to 31 percent. This limit applies to photovoltaic cells directly converting solar radiation, or indirectly, as in the case of a thermophotovoltaic system. Photoelectrochemical cells rely on an additional chemical reaction at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which introduces additional second-law demands and a reduction of the solar conversion efficiency. Photochemical systems exhibit even lower possible efficiencies because of their relatively narrow absorption bands. Solar-powered thermal engines in contact with an ambient reservoir at 300 K and operating at maximum power have a peak conversion efficiency of 64 percent, and this occurs for a thermal reservoir at a temperature of 2900 K. The power conversion efficiency of a solar-powered liquid metal magnetohydrodydnamic generator, a solar-powered steam turbine electric generator, and an alkali metal thermoelectric converter is discussed.

  8. Efficient, high rep rate, large-bore kinetically enhanced copper vapor laser with low (thermal assembly. (United States)

    Singh, Bijendra; Subramaniam, V V; Daultabad, S R; Chakraborty, Ashim


    Large-bore kinetically enhanced copper vapor laser (CVL) based on new thermal assembly consisting of different density zones of insulation material (alumina fiber) around the discharge tube is demonstrated for the first time with efficiency eta > or = 1% at extremely low specific input power (SIP) of insulation material, efficiency of approximately 1.2% was achieved at lowest SIP of approximately 0.75 kW/l. Net reduction in the input power of approximately 1 kW was observed on using this thermal assembly as compared to nonprofiled thermal assembly. These results show significant improvement (25%-30%) at low input requirements of the laser on using new thermal assembly around the discharge tube with overall electro-optical efficiency eta > or = 1%. Maximum laser power achieved from the laser was approximately 78 W at approximately 9.8 kHz rep rate with efficiency of approximately 1.4%. This large-bore CVL is also capable of operating efficiently (eta approximately 1%) at high rep rate of -17 kHz with maximum laser power of approximately 50 W. Performance of the laser under various operating conditions is also presented in this short paper.

  9. Detailed analysis of the effect of the turbine and compressor isentropic efficiency on the thermal and exergy efficiency of a Brayton cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Marija


    Full Text Available Energy and exergy analysis of a Brayton cycle with an ideal gas is given. The irreversibility of the adiabatic processes in turbine and compressor is taken into account through their isentropic efficiencies. The net work per cycle, the thermal efficiency and the two exergy efficiencies are expressed as functions of the four dimensionless variables: the isentropic efficiencies of turbine and compressor, the pressure ratio, and the temperature ratio. It is shown that the maximal values of the net work per cycle, the thermal and the exergy efficiency are achieved when the isentropic efficiencies and temperature ratio are as high as possible, while the different values of pressure ratio that maximize the net work per cycle, the thermal and the exergy efficiencies exist. These pressure ratios increase with the increase of the temperature ratio and the isentropic efficiency of compressor and turbine. The increase of the turbine isentropic efficiency has a greater impact on the increase of the net work per cycle and the thermal efficiency of a Brayton cycle than the same increase of compressor isentropic efficiency. Finally, two goal functions are proposed for thermodynamic optimization of a Brayton cycle for given values of the temperature ratio and the compressor and turbine isentropic efficiencies. The first maximizes the sum of the net work per cycle and thermal efficiency while the second the net work per cycle and exergy efficiency. In both cases the optimal pressure ratio is closer to the pressure ratio that maximizes the net work per cycle.

  10. Grey-Box Based Optimal Control for Thermal Systems in Buildings - Unlocking Energy Efficiency and Flexibility


    De Coninck, Roel


    Improving the energy efficiency of building energy systems is a key challenge for the mitigation of climate change. In particular, bad controlnbsp;operation often causes large energy efficiency losses, both in new and old buildings.nbsp;implementation of model predictive control (MPC) in buildings could enable an improved thermal comfort, lower operational costs and lower CO2 emissions. Moreover, such a controller can offer services to the energy market by using the flexibility of the buildin...

  11. Efficient extraction of thin-film thermal parameters from numerical models via parametric model order reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechtold, T.; Hohlfeld, D.; Rudnyi, E.B.; Günther, M.


    In this paper we present a novel highly efficient approach to determine material properties from measurement results. We apply our method to thermal properties of thin-film multilayers with three different materials, amorphous silicon, silicon nitride and silicon oxide. The individual material

  12. Thermal, FT–IR and SHG efficiency studies of L-arginine doped KDP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermal, FT–IR and SHG efficiency studies of L-arginine doped KDP crystals ... In the present study, amino acid L-arginine was doped in KDP. ... Department of Physics, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 360 005, India; Institute of Diploma Studies, Nirma University of Science and Technology, S.G. Highway, Ahmedabad 384 ...

  13. Effective and efficient agricultural drainage pipe mapping with UAS thermal infrared imagery: a case study (United States)

    Effective and efficient methods are needed to map agricultural subsurface drainage systems. Visible (VIS), near infrared (NIR), and/or thermal infrared (TIR) imagery obtained by unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) may provide a means for determining drainage pipe locations. Preliminary UAS surveys wit...

  14. Efficiency gains of photovoltaic system using latent heat thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lippong; Date, Abhijit; Fernandes, Gabriel; Singh, Baljit; Ganguly, Sayantan

    This paper presents experimental assessments of the thermal and electrical performance of photovoltaic (PV) system by comparing the latent heat-cooled PV panel with the naturally-cooled equivalent. It is commonly known that the energy conversion efficiency of the PV cells declines with the increment

  15. A thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery for efficient harvesting of low-grade thermal energy as electrical power

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang


    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Thermal energy was shown to be efficiently converted into electrical power in a thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery (TRAB) using copper-based redox couples [Cu(NH3)4 2+/Cu and Cu(ii)/Cu]. Ammonia addition to the anolyte (2 M ammonia in a copper-nitrate electrolyte) of a single TRAB cell produced a maximum power density of 115 ± 1 W m-2 (based on projected area of a single copper mesh electrode), with an energy density of 453 W h m-3 (normalized to the total electrolyte volume, under maximum power production conditions). Adding a second cell doubled both the voltage and maximum power. Increasing the anolyte ammonia concentration to 3 M further improved the maximum power density to 136 ± 3 W m-2. Volatilization of ammonia from the spent anolyte by heating (simulating distillation), and re-addition of this ammonia to the spent catholyte chamber with subsequent operation of this chamber as the anode (to regenerate copper on the other electrode), produced a maximum power density of 60 ± 3 W m-2, with an average discharge energy efficiency of ∼29% (electrical energy captured versus chemical energy in the starting solutions). Power was restored to 126 ± 5 W m-2 through acid addition to the regenerated catholyte to decrease pH and dissolve Cu(OH)2 precipitates, suggesting that an inexpensive acid or a waste acid could be used to improve performance. These results demonstrated that TRABs using ammonia-based electrolytes and inexpensive copper electrodes can provide a practical method for efficient conversion of low-grade thermal energy into electricity.

  16. Efficient cycles for carbon capture CLC power plants based on thermally balanced redox reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Iloeje, Chukwunwike


    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. The rotary reactor differs from most alternative chemical looping combustion (CLC) reactor designs because it maintains near-thermal equilibrium between the two stages of the redox process by thermally coupling channels undergoing oxidation and reduction. An earlier study showed that this thermal coupling between the oxidation and reduction reactors increases the efficiency by up to 2% points when implemented in a regenerative Brayton cycle. The present study extends this analysis to alternative CLC cycles with the objective of identifying optimal configurations and design tradeoffs. Results show that the increased efficiency from reactor thermal coupling applies only to cycles that are capable of exploiting the increased availability in the reduction reactor exhaust. Thus, in addition to the regenerative cycle, the combined CLC cycle and the combined-regenerative CLC cycle are suitable for integration with the rotary reactor. Parametric studies are used to compare the sensitivity of the different cycle efficiencies to parameters like pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, carrier-gas fraction and purge steam generation. One of the key conclusions from this analysis is that while the optimal efficiency for regenerative CLC cycle was the highest of the three (56% at 3. bars, 1200. °C), the combined-regenerative cycle offers a trade-off that combines a reasonably high efficiency (about 54% at 12. bars, 1200. °C) with much lower gas volumetric flow rate and consequently, smaller reactor size. Unlike the other two cycles, the optimal compressor pressure ratio for the regenerative cycle is weakly dependent on the design turbine inlet temperature. For the regenerative and combined regenerative cycles, steam production in the regenerator below 2× fuel flow rate improves exhaust recovery and consequently, the overall system efficiency. Also, given that the fuel side regenerator flow is unbalanced, it is more efficient to generate steam from the

  17. SSTL Based Low Power Thermal Efficient WLAN Specific 32bit ALU Design on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Das, Teerath


    In this paper we have designed a Thermal energy efficient 32Bit ALU for network processor, the main objective of this design is to provide better thermal efficiency with respect to existing designs. For that purpose we have used six different members of SSTL I/Os standards on 28nm technology along...... with consideration of airflow toward hit sink and different frequency on which ALU operate in network processor or any WLAN devices. We have done total power analysis of WLAN operating on different frequencies. We have considered a set of frequencies, which are based on IEEE 802.11 standards. First we did...... at minimum and maximum temperature as compared to all other considered I/O standards. This design has application where 32bit ALU design is considered for designing an electronic device such as WLAN. The design can be implemented on different nano chips for better efficiency depending upon the design...

  18. A method to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes independently from storage heat losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, M.Y.; Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Andersen, Elsa


    A new method for the calculation of a stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages based on the second law of thermodynamics is presented. The biasing influence of heat losses is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it does not make a difference if the stratification...... efficiency is calculated based on entropy balances or based on exergy balances. In practice, however, exergy balances are less affected by measurement uncertainties, whereas entropy balances can not be recommended if measurement uncertainties are not corrected in a way that the energy balance of the storage...... directly, and a tank-in-tank system whose outer tank is charged and the inner tank is discharged thereafter. The new method has a great potential for the comparison of the stratification efficiencies of thermal energy storages and storage components such as stratifying devices....

  19. Numerical Simulation of the Thermal Efficiency During Laser Deep Penetration Welding (United States)

    Ganser, A.; Pieper, J.; Liebl, S.; Zaeh, M. F.

    The advantages of laser beam welding, such as its high flexibility, its high local energy input, and its fast processing speed, led to a substantial increase of industrial applications of the technology. High losses can be observed during laser welding of materials with a high thermal conductivity, such as aluminum or copper. This is caused by the heat conduction losses in the surrounding area of the process zone and due to reflections. These energy losses lead to a reduced efficiency of the laser welding process. A numerical model based on a CFD simulation is presented, which enables to calculate the molten pool isotherms. The thermal efficiency is determined for different keyhole geometries and welding velocities. This efficiency is defined as the ratio between the energy which is required to melt the volume of metal in the fusion zone and the absorbed laser beam power.

  20. Thermally activated building systems in context of increasing building energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Branislav V.


    Full Text Available One of the possible ways to provide heating to the building is to use thermally activated building systems. This type of heating, besides providing significant increase in building energy efficiency, allows using low-temperature heating sources. In this paper, special attention is given to opaque part of the building façade with integrated thermally activated building systems. Due to fact that this type of system strongly depends on temperature of this construction-thermal element and type and thickness of other materials of the façade, influence of these parameters on energy efficiency was analyzed in this paper. Since the simplest and most promising way of using geothermal energy is to use it directly, for our analysis this source of energy was selected. Building energy needs for heating were obtained for real residential multi-family building in Serbia by using EnergyPlus software. The building with all necessary input for simulation was modeled in Google SketchUp with aid of Open Studio Plug-in. Obtained results were compared with measured heating energy consumption. The results show that thermally activated building systems represent good way to increase building energy efficiency and that applying certain temperatures within this element, low-energy house standard can be achieved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov


    Full Text Available The estimation of thermodynamic perfection of separate technological processes is executed at heat-moisture of handling of fruit and a line of manufacture of fruit apple chips and dried fruits. The technological scheme of a line of processing of fruits and manufactures of fruit chips on the basis of convection and the microwave-dryings suggested resource-saving. The technique is made and results of calculation of thermal expenses for various schemes of manufacture of apple chips are resulted. For the offered scheme material, thermal and power streams on the basis of balance parities of technological processes are certain. The comparative thermal production efficiency of apple chips for a base foreign variant and the offered technological scheme with the closed cycle of use of the heat-carrier and the combined convection-microwave-drying is shown. In this paper we define the thermal and energy flows for the processes of convective drying, pre-microwave drying, hydrothermal treatment and final microwave drying plant material, which are one of the main stages of the production of all kinds of fruit and vegetable concentrates, including fruit apple chips. Resource-saving ways moisture-heat of handling (hydration, blanching, drying, etc. produce raw materials in the production of food concentrates suggested a reduced water flow with a high degree of use of its potential power and microwave sources. To assess the thermal efficiency of the various processes and production schemes used as indicators of thermal efficiency and proposed value of specific heat (kJ / kg given mass productivity per unit of feedstock and translational moisture. The values of the mass fraction of the heat of material flows for the base and the proposed resource-saving production scheme fruit chips, for example, apple, based on a combination of convection-microwave drying each control surface.

  2. Thermal Performance and Efficiency Investigation of Conventional Boost, Z-source and Y-source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadalla, Brwene Salah Abdelkarim; Schaltz, Erik; Siwakoti, Yam Prasad


    not been investigated yet. Therefore this paper presents a comparison between the conventional boost, the Z-source, and the Y-source converters based on the thermal evaluation of semiconductors. In addition, the three topologies are also compared with respect to their efficiency. The operational principle...... the impedance source converters with their unique advantages as having a high voltage gain in a small range of duty cycle ratio. However, the thermal behaviour of the semiconductor devices and passive elements in the impedance source converter is an important issue from a reliability point of view and has......, mathematical derivations, simulation results and finally conclusion comparisons are presented in this paper....

  3. Use of Modern Information Technologies to Improve Energy Efficiency of Thermal Power Plant Operation (United States)

    Arakelyan, E. K.; Andryushin, A. V.; Sabanin, V. R.; Mezin, S. V.; Pashchenko, F. F.


    The report shows the need for the development and implementation of new approaches to operational management of the modes and the efficiency of the equipment of thermal power plants on the basis of modern information technologies to significantly improve the economy of operation of thermal power plants by complex solution of the tasks of block and station levels. The proposed approach is the adjustment of measured parameters, ensuring the accuracy of all the main parameters required for material, heat and energy balances for each unit and the station in general.

  4. Savings on natural gas consumption by doubling thermal efficiencies of balanced-flue space heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanico, Luis E. [Conicet, and Centro Atomico Bariloche e Instituto Balseiro, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Gonzalez, Alejandro D. [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medio Ambiente (Inibioma-Conicet), 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)


    Natural gas is a relatively clean fossil fuel for space heating. However, when it is not used efficiently high consumption can become an environmental problem. In Argentina, individual balanced-flue space heaters are the most extensively used in temperate and cold regions. This furnace is a simple device with a burner set into a metal chamber, separated from the indoor ambient by an enclosing cabinet, and both inlet and outgas chimneys are connected to the outdoor ambient. In previous studies, we measured the performance of these commercial devices, and found very low thermal efficiency (in the range of 39-63% depending on the chimney configuration). The extensive use of these devices is possible due to the availability of unlimited amount of subsidised natural gas to households and businesses. In the present work, we developed a prototype with simple and low cost modifications made on commercial models, and measured the improvements on the thermal efficiency. Findings showed better infrared radiation, enhanced indoor air convection, and passive chimney flow regulation leading to thermal efficiency in the range of 75-85%. These values represent an improvement of 100% when compared to marketed models, and hence, the specific cost of the heater per unit of useful heating power delivered was actually reduced. Considering the large market presence of these furnaces in both residential and business sectors in Argentina, the potential benefits related to gas consumption and environmental emissions are very significant. (author)

  5. Thermal hydraulic behavior and efficiency analysis of an all-vanadium redox flow battery (United States)

    Xiong, Binyu; Zhao, Jiyun; Tseng, K. J.; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Zhang, Yu


    Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) are very competitive for large-capacity energy storage in power grids and in smart buildings due to low maintenance costs, high design flexibility, and long cycle life. Thermal hydraulic modeling of VRB energy storage systems is an important issue and temperature has remarkable impacts on the battery efficiency, the lifetime of material and the stability of the electrolytes. In this paper, a lumped model including auxiliary pump effect is developed to investigate the VRB temperature responses under different operating and surrounding environmental conditions. The impact of electrolyte flow rate and temperature on the battery electrical characteristics and efficiencies are also investigated. A one kilowatt VRB system is selected to conduct numerical simulations. The thermal hydraulic model is benchmarked with experimental data and good agreement is found. Simulation results show that pump power is sensitive to hydraulic design and flow rates. The temperature in the stack and tanks rises up about 10 °C under normal operating conditions for the stack design and electrolyte volume selected. An optimal flow rate of around 90 cm3 s-1 is obtained for the proposed battery configuration to maximize battery efficiency. The models developed in this paper can also be used for the development of a battery control strategy to achieve satisfactory thermal hydraulic performance and maximize energy efficiency.

  6. Highly efficient and broadband mid-infrared metamaterial thermal emitter for optical gas sensing. (United States)

    Gong, Yongkang; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Kang; Uggalla, Leshan; Huang, Jungang; Copner, Nigel; Zhou, Yang; Qiao, Dun; Zhu, Jiuyuan


    Development of a novel, cost-effective, and highly efficient mid-infrared light source has been identified as a major scientific and technological goal within the area of optical gas sensing. We have proposed and investigated a mid-infrared metamaterial thermal emitter based on micro-structured chromium thin film. The results demonstrate that the proposed thermal light source supports broadband and wide angular absorption of both TE- and TM-polarized light, giving rise to broadband thermal radiation with averaged emissivity of ∼0.94 in a mid-infrared atmospheric window of 8-14 μm. The proposed microphotonic concept provides a promising alternative mid-infrared source and paves the way towards novel optical gas sensing platforms for many applications.

  7. Numerical Simulations of Pillar Structured Solid State Thermal Neutron Detector Efficiency and Gamma Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, A; Wang, T; Deo, N; Cheung, C; Nikolic, R


    This work reports numerical simulations of a novel three-dimensionally integrated, {sup 10}boron ({sup 10}B) and silicon p+, intrinsic, n+ (PIN) diode micropillar array for thermal neutron detection. The inter-digitated device structure has a high probability of interaction between the Si PIN pillars and the charged particles (alpha and {sup 7}Li) created from the neutron - {sup 10}B reaction. In this work, the effect of both the 3-D geometry (including pillar diameter, separation and height) and energy loss mechanisms are investigated via simulations to predict the neutron detection efficiency and gamma discrimination of this structure. The simulation results are demonstrated to compare well with the measurement results. This indicates that upon scaling the pillar height, a high efficiency thermal neutron detector is possible.

  8. Efficient quantum-classical method for computing thermal rate constant of recombination: application to ozone formation. (United States)

    Ivanov, Mikhail V; Babikov, Dmitri


    Efficient method is proposed for computing thermal rate constant of recombination reaction that proceeds according to the energy transfer mechanism, when an energized molecule is formed from reactants first, and is stabilized later by collision with quencher. The mixed quantum-classical theory for the collisional energy transfer and the ro-vibrational energy flow [M. Ivanov and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144107 (2011)] is employed to treat the dynamics of molecule + quencher collision. Efficiency is achieved by sampling simultaneously (i) the thermal collision energy, (ii) the impact parameter, and (iii) the incident direction of quencher, as well as (iv) the rotational state of energized molecule. This approach is applied to calculate third-order rate constant of the recombination reaction that forms the (16)O(18)O(16)O isotopomer of ozone. Comparison of the predicted rate vs. experimental result is presented.

  9. Efficient thermal desalination technologies with renewable energy systems: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Yoo, ChangKyoo [Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    Due to the current fossil fuel crisis and associated adverse environmental impacts, renewable energy sources (RES) have drawn interest as alternatives to fossil fuels for powering water desalination systems. Over the last few decades the utility of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and wind to run desalination processes has been explored. However, the expansion of these technologies to larger scales is hampered by techno-economic and thermo-economic challenges. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of renewable energy-powered thermal desalination systems (RE-PTD) to compare their productivity and efficiency through thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses. We performed a comparative study using published data to classify RE-PTD systems technologies on the basis of the energy collection systems that they use. Among RE-PTD systems, solar energy powered-thermal desalination systems demonstrate high thermo-environ-economic efficiency to produce fresh water to meet various scales of demand.

  10. Computationally-efficient finite-element-based thermal and electromagnetic models of electric machines (United States)

    Zhou, Kan

    With the modern trend of transportation electrification, electric machines are a key component of electric/hybrid electric vehicle (EV/HEV) powertrains. It is therefore important that vehicle powertrain-level and system-level designers and control engineers have access to accurate yet computationally-efficient (CE), physics-based modeling tools of the thermal and electromagnetic (EM) behavior of electric machines. In this dissertation, CE yet sufficiently-accurate thermal and EM models for electric machines, which are suitable for use in vehicle powertrain design, optimization, and control, are developed. This includes not only creating fast and accurate thermal and EM models for specific machine designs, but also the ability to quickly generate and determine the performance of new machine designs through the application of scaling techniques to existing designs. With the developed techniques, the thermal and EM performance can be accurately and efficiently estimated. Furthermore, powertrain or system designers can easily and quickly adjust the characteristics and the performance of the machine in ways that are favorable to the overall vehicle performance.

  11. Thin-film ‘Thermal Well’ Emitters and Absorbers for High-Efficiency Thermophotovoltaics (United States)

    Tong, Jonathan K.; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Huang, Yi; Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Chen, Gang


    A new approach is introduced to significantly improve the performance of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems using low-dimensional thermal emitters and photovoltaic (PV) cells. By reducing the thickness of both the emitter and the PV cell, strong spectral selectivity in thermal emission and absorption can be achieved by confining photons in trapped waveguide modes inside the thin-films that act as thermal analogs to quantum wells. Simultaneously, photo-excited carriers travel shorter distances across the thin-films reducing bulk recombination losses resulting in a lower saturation current in the PV cell. We predict a TPV efficiency enhancement with near-field coupling between the thermal emitter and the PV cell up to 38.7% using a thin-film germanium (Ge) emitter at 1000 K and an ultra-thin gallium antimonide (GaSb) cell supported by perfect back reflectors separated by 100 nm. Even in the far-field limit, the efficiency is predicted to reach 31.5%, which is over an order of magnitude higher than the Shockley Queisser limit of 1.6% for a bulk GaSb cell and a blackbody emitter at 1000 K. The proposed design approach does not require nanoscale patterning of the emitter and PV cell surfaces, but instead offers a simple low-cost solution to improve the performance of thermophotovoltaic systems. PMID:26030711

  12. Thin-film 'Thermal Well' Emitters and Absorbers for High-Efficiency Thermophotovoltaics. (United States)

    Tong, Jonathan K; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Huang, Yi; Boriskina, Svetlana V; Chen, Gang


    A new approach is introduced to significantly improve the performance of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems using low-dimensional thermal emitters and photovoltaic (PV) cells. By reducing the thickness of both the emitter and the PV cell, strong spectral selectivity in thermal emission and absorption can be achieved by confining photons in trapped waveguide modes inside the thin-films that act as thermal analogs to quantum wells. Simultaneously, photo-excited carriers travel shorter distances across the thin-films reducing bulk recombination losses resulting in a lower saturation current in the PV cell. We predict a TPV efficiency enhancement with near-field coupling between the thermal emitter and the PV cell up to 38.7% using a thin-film germanium (Ge) emitter at 1000 K and an ultra-thin gallium antimonide (GaSb) cell supported by perfect back reflectors separated by 100 nm. Even in the far-field limit, the efficiency is predicted to reach 31.5%, which is over an order of magnitude higher than the Shockley Queisser limit of 1.6% for a bulk GaSb cell and a blackbody emitter at 1000 K. The proposed design approach does not require nanoscale patterning of the emitter and PV cell surfaces, but instead offers a simple low-cost solution to improve the performance of thermophotovoltaic systems.

  13. Thin-film 'Thermal Well' Emitters and Absorbers for High-Efficiency Thermophotovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Jonathan K; Huang, Yi; Boriskina, Svetlana V; Chen, Gang


    A new approach is introduced to significantly improve the performance of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems by using low-dimensional thermal emitters and photovoltaic (PV) cells. By reducing the thickness of both the emitter and the PV cell, strong spectral selectivity in both thermal emission and absorption can be achieved by confining photons in trapped waveguide modes inside the thin-films that act as thermal analogs to quantum wells. Simultaneously, photo-excited carriers travel shorter distances across the thin-films reducing bulk recombination losses resulting in a lower saturation current in the PV cell. We predict a TPV efficiency enhancement with near-field coupling between the thermal emitter and the PV cell of up to 38.7% using a germanium (Ge) emitter at 1000 K and a gallium antimonide (GaSb) cell with optimized thicknesses separated by 100 nm. Even in the far-field limit, the efficiency is predicted to reach 31.5%, which is an order of magnitude higher than the Shockley Queisser limit of 1.6% for a...

  14. Spectral splitting optimization for high-efficiency solar photovoltaic and thermal power generation (United States)

    Bierman, David M.; Lenert, Andrej; Wang, Evelyn N.


    Utilizing the full solar spectrum is desirable to enhance the conversion efficiency of a solar power generator. In practice, this can be achieved through spectral splitting between multiple converters in parallel. However, it is unclear which wavelength bands should be directed to each converter in order to maximize the efficiency. We developed a model of an ideal hybrid solar converter which utilizes both a single-junction photovoltaic cell and a thermal engine. We determined the limiting efficiencies of this hybrid strategy and the corresponding optimum spectral bandwidth directed to the photovoltaic cell. This optimum width is inversely proportional to the thermal engine efficiency and scales with the bandgap of the photovoltaic cell. This bandwidth was also obtained analytically through an entropy minimization scheme and matches well with our model. We show that the maximum efficiency of the system occurs when it minimizes the spectral entropy generation. This concept can be extended to capture generalized non-idealities to increase the usefulness of this technique for a range of full solar spectrum utilization technologies.

  15. Design and developement of energy efficient miniature devices for energy harvesting, thermal management and biomedical applications


    Çıkım, Taha Abdullah; Cikim, Taha Abdullah


    This thesis aims to make contributions to the literature in the field of energy efficient miniature devices for energy harvesting, thermal management and biomedical applications. In the first part, experimental results related to energy harvesting capability of a miniature power reclamation device based on external liquid flows are represented. The device’s reclamation principle depends on the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy. The mechanical energy in the device was gene...

  16. Graphene-Based Hybrid Composites for Efficient Thermal Management of Electronic Devices. (United States)

    Shtein, Michael; Nadiv, Roey; Buzaglo, Matat; Regev, Oren


    Thermal management has become a critical aspect in next-generation miniaturized electronic devices. Efficient heat dissipation reduces their operating temperatures and insures optimal performance, service life, and efficacy. Shielding against shocks, vibrations, and moisture is also imperative when the electronic circuits are located outdoors. Potting (or encapsulating) them in polymer-based composites with enhanced thermal conductivity (TC) may provide a solution for both thermal management and shielding challenges. In the current study, graphene is employed as a filler to fabricate composites with isotropic ultrahigh TC (>12 W m(-1) K(-1)) and good mechanical properties (>30 MPa flexural and compressive strength). To avoid short-circuiting the electronic assemblies, a dispersion of secondary ceramic-based filler reduces the electrical conductivity and synergistically enhances the TC of composites. When utilized as potting materials, these novel hybrid composites effectively dissipate the heat from electronic devices; their operating temperatures decrease from 110 to 37 °C, and their effective thermal resistances are drastically reduced, by up to 90%. The simple filler dispersion method and the precise manipulation of the composite transport properties via hybrid filling offer a universal approach to the large-scale production of novel materials for thermal management and other applications.

  17. Energy Efficiency Enhancement of Photovoltaics by Phase Change Materials through Thermal Energy Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan


    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panels convert a certain amount of incident solar radiation into electricity, while the rest is converted to heat, leading to a temperature rise in the PV. This elevated temperature deteriorates the power output and induces structural degradation, resulting in reduced PV lifespan. One potential solution entails PV thermal management employing active and passive means. The traditional passive means are found to be largely ineffective, while active means are considered to be energy intensive. A passive thermal management system using phase change materials (PCMs can effectively limit PV temperature rises. The PCM-based approach however is cost inefficient unless the stored thermal energy is recovered effectively. The current article investigates a way to utilize the thermal energy stored in the PCM behind the PV for domestic water heating applications. The system is evaluated in the winter conditions of UAE to deliver heat during water heating demand periods. The proposed system achieved a ~1.3% increase in PV electrical conversion efficiency, along with the recovery of ~41% of the thermal energy compared to the incident solar radiation.

  18. Operational diagnostics of thermal state and efficiency of steam turbines of TPP and NPP (United States)

    Bozhko, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. N.; Lyapunov, V. M.; Khomenok, L. A.


    Various ways for solving complex problems of the strength and operating life of steam turbines of TPP and NPP are studied. Diagnostic characters and technical possibilities for their control during the steam turbine operation are determined. It is shown that the effect of various factors on the reliability, maneuverability, and service life of power installations of TPP and NPP is generally determined by the thermal state of steam-electric generating sets. Leading foreign and domestic manufacturers give major attention to the organization of the control of the thermal state of facilities and the development of systems for accounting ("counter") the service life depletion. Zones of high-temperature sites of shafts and disks with maximum parameters of operating environment are determined. A model for on-line computation of thermal stresses with the diagnostic evaluation of the service life depletion (fatigue accumulation) and forecasting of optimum heating conditions for thermostressed turbine units is briefly stated. An example of a program for diagnostics of the quality of the facility operation is given. The program provides the operative control of thermal stresses and the service life depletion in main units of the turbine under various operation conditions, operates in the real-time mode, calculates and represents currents values of thermal stresses in turbine units, and forms and transmits into the industrial control signals on the occurrence of restrictions with respect to thermal stresses and prohibition of an increase or decrease in the vapor temperature and the load in the case of approaching pressures to maximum permissible ones. In the case of stationary operation conditions, the program computed the current efficiency in high (HPC) and mean (MPC) pressure cylinders.

  19. High-efficiency electrochemical thermal energy harvester using carbon nanotube aerogel sheet electrodes (United States)

    Im, Hyeongwook; Kim, Taewoo; Song, Hyelynn; Choi, Jongho; Park, Jae Sung; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Yang, Hee Doo; Kihm, Kenneth D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Lee, Hong H.; Kang, Tae June; Kim, Yong Hyup


    Conversion of low-grade waste heat into electricity is an important energy harvesting strategy. However, abundant heat from these low-grade thermal streams cannot be harvested readily because of the absence of efficient, inexpensive devices that can convert the waste heat into electricity. Here we fabricate carbon nanotube aerogel-based thermo-electrochemical cells, which are potentially low-cost and relatively high-efficiency materials for this application. When normalized to the cell cross-sectional area, a maximum power output of 6.6 W m−2 is obtained for a 51 °C inter-electrode temperature difference, with a Carnot-relative efficiency of 3.95%. The importance of electrode purity, engineered porosity and catalytic surfaces in enhancing the thermocell performance is demonstrated. PMID:26837457

  20. Unconventional Molecular Design Approach of High-Efficiency Deep Blue Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescent Emitters Using Indolocarbazole as an Acceptor. (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-A; Im, Yirang; Han, Si Hyun; Lee, Chil Won; Lee, Jun Yeob


    Unconventional blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters having electron-donating type indolocarbazole as an acceptor were developed by attaching carbazolylcarbazole or acridine donors to the indolocarbazole acceptor. Three compounds were derived from the indolocarbazole acceptor. The indolocarbazole-acridine combined products showed efficient delayed fluorescent behavior and a high quantum efficiency of 19.5% with a color coordinate of (0.15, 0.16) when they were evaluated as thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters in deep blue fluorescent devices. This is the first demonstration of the use of electron-donating carbazole-derived moieties as efficient acceptor units of blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters.

  1. Thermal and Efficiency Analysis of Five-Level Multilevel-Clamped Multilevel Converter Considering Grid Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Muñoz-Aguilar, R. S.; Rodriguez, Pedro


    In this paper, a five-level multilevel-clamped multilevel converter (5L- MLC2) topology is analyzed based on a typical grid integration application for renewable energy system. The loss and thermal distributions of the power devices in different switching legs are investigated and illustrated und...... the clamping switching legs and the main switching legs; it also shows a good and consistent efficiency characteristic under different output power ranges when complying with the grid codes.......In this paper, a five-level multilevel-clamped multilevel converter (5L- MLC2) topology is analyzed based on a typical grid integration application for renewable energy system. The loss and thermal distributions of the power devices in different switching legs are investigated and illustrated under...... rated condition. Afterward, a loss and efficiency evaluation method is proposed and applied which takes into account various injected reactive power ranges regulated by the grid codes. It is concluded that the loss and thermal distributions of the 5L- MLC2 multilevel topology are unequal between...

  2. Enhanced thermoelectric efficiency via orthogonal electrical and thermal conductances in phosphorene. (United States)

    Fei, Ruixiang; Faghaninia, Alireza; Soklaski, Ryan; Yan, Jia-An; Lo, Cynthia; Yang, Li


    Thermoelectric devices that utilize the Seebeck effect convert heat flow into electrical energy and are highly desirable for the development of portable, solid state, passively powered electronic systems. The conversion efficiencies of such devices are quantified by the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT), which is proportional to the ratio of a device's electrical conductance to its thermal conductance. In this paper, a recently fabricated two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor called phosphorene (monolayer black phosphorus) is assessed for its thermoelectric capabilities. First-principles and model calculations reveal not only that phosphorene possesses a spatially anisotropic electrical conductance, but that its lattice thermal conductance exhibits a pronounced spatial-anisotropy as well. The prominent electrical and thermal conducting directions are orthogonal to one another, enhancing the ratio of these conductances. As a result, ZT may reach the criterion for commercial deployment along the armchair direction of phosphorene at T = 500 K and is close to 1 even at room temperature given moderate doping (∼2 × 10(16) m(-2) or 2 × 10(12) cm(-2)). Ultimately, phosphorene hopefully stands out as an environmentally sound thermoelectric material with unprecedented qualities. Intrinsically, it is a mechanically flexible material that converts heat energy with high efficiency at low temperatures (∼300 K), one whose performance does not require any sophisticated engineering techniques.

  3. Design, Fabrication, and Efficiency Study of a Novel Solar Thermal Water Heating System: Towards Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Khan


    Full Text Available This paper investigated a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal heat-pump system for small scale hot water production for household purposes. The effective use of solar energy is hindered by the intermittent nature of its availability, limiting its use and effectiveness in domestic and industrial applications especially in water heating. The easiest and the most used method is the conversion of solar energy into thermal energy. We developed a prototype solar water heating system for experimental test. We reported the investigation of solar thermal conversion efficiency in different seasons which is 29.24% in summer, 14.75% in winter, and 15.53% in rainy season. This paper also discusses the DC heater for backup system and the current by using thermoelectric generator which are 3.20 V in summer, 2.120 V in winter, and 1.843 V in rainy season. This solar water heating system is mostly suited for its ease of operation and simple maintenance. It is expected that such novel solar thermal technology would further contribute to the development of the renewable energy (solar driven heating/hot water service and therefore lead to significant environmental benefits.

  4. Comprehensive evaluation on efficiency and thermal loading of associated Si and SiC based PV inverter applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Nicolae Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai


    This paper deals with the design, control, efficiency and thermal cycling estimation of associated Si and SiC based three-phase PV-inverters. A novel Electro-Thermal Model able to consider the thermal coupling within the Transistor and Diode integrated on the same package is proposed. For each...... topology, three different cases study are simulated, according to the heatsink repartition: one-leg heatsink, shared heatsink and individual heatsink. Based on the model, it has been determined the minimum required heatsink thermal impedance in order not to overpass the device physically thermal...... limitations. Finally, simulation results are analyzed in order to decide which topology has a higher efficiency and a better thermal loading distribution within the devices....

  5. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy as a cost efficient method for determining thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu


    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging...... for parametrization. Recent research initiated by Barsoukov et al. proposed electrothermal impedance spectroscopy as a novel and non-destructive method of characterizing the thermal properties of batteries by defining frequency dependent thermal impedance. Despite its usefulness, the electrothermal impedance...... spectroscopy method can be still improved in terms of e.g. accuracy and measurement time and it has a potential to be extended to new applications. Performed review indicates that the electrothermal impedance spectroscopy is a very promising, non-destructive, simple and especially cost-efficient method...

  6. Solar thermal and natural gas: an efficient complementarity; Solaire thermique et gaz naturel: une complementarite performante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document summarizes the content of a conference-debate organized by Cegibat, the information service of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, about the complementarity between natural gas and solar thermal energies, in particular for the production of domestic hot water: 1 - the market of solar thermal energy in France (development, energy efficiency, different technical solutions, financial help, questions and answers with the public); 2 - the 'Dolce Vita' solar offer for individual houses (customers expectations, available techniques, fitter's testimony, questions and answers with the public); 3 - presentation of a combines solar system: the direct solar floor; 4 - the domestic solar hot water offer 'Dolce Vita'; 5 -testimonies; 6 - results warranty; 7 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  7. Thermally stable and efficient polymer solar cells based on a novel donor-acceptor copolymer (United States)

    Synooka, O.; Eberhardt, K.-R.; Balko, J.; Thurn-Albrecht, T.; Gobsch, G.; Mitchell, W.; Berny, S.; Carrasco-Orozco, M.; Hoppe, H.


    We report high photovoltaic performance of a novel donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugated polymer poly[2,6[4,8-bis(2-ethyl-hexyl)benzo[1,2-b4,5-b‧]dithiophene-co-2,5-thiophene-co-4,7[5,6-bis-octyloxy-benzo[1,2,5]thiadiazole]-co-2,5-thiophene] (PBDTTBTZT) in bulk heterojunctions with [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM). A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of more than 7% is obtained for optimized charge-extracting electrodes. Upon application of thermal stress via annealing, a superior thermal stability is demonstrated as compared to poly[N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4‧,7‧-di-2-thienyl-2‧,1‧,3‧-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT).

  8. Energy Savings Through Thermally Efficient Crucible Technology: Fundamentals, Process Modeling, and Applications (United States)

    Shi, Wenwu; Pinto, Brian


    Melting and holding molten metals within crucibles accounts for a large portion of total energy demand in the resource-intensive nonferrous foundry industry. Multivariate mathematical modeling aided by detailed material characterization and advancements in crucible technologies can make a significant impact in the areas of cost-efficiency and carbon footprint reduction. Key thermal properties such as conductivity and specific heat capacity were studied to understand their influence on crucible furnace energy consumption during melting and holding processes. The effects of conductivity on thermal stresses and longevity of crucibles were also evaluated. With this information, accurate theoretical models using finite element analysis were developed to study total energy consumption and melting time. By applying these findings to recent crucible developments, considerable improvements in field performance were reported and documented as case studies in applications such as aluminum melting and holding.

  9. Improving efficiency of transport fuels production by thermal hydrolysis of waste activated sludge (United States)

    Gulshin, Igor


    The article deals with issues of transport biofuels. Transport biofuels are an important element of a system of energy security. Moreover, as part of a system it is inextricably linked to the urban, rural or industrial infrastructure. The paper discusses methods of increasing the yield of biogas from anaerobic digesters at wastewater treatment plants. The thermal hydrolysis method was considered. The main advantages and drawbacks of this method were analyzed. The experimental biomass (from SNDOD-bioreactor) and high-organic substrate have been previously studied by respirometry methods. A biomethane potential of the investigated organic substrate has high rates because of substrate composition (the readily biodegradable substrate in the total composition takes about 85%). Waste activated sludge from SNDOD-bioreactor can be used for biofuel producing with high efficiency especially with pre-treatment like a thermal hydrolysis. Further studies have to consider the possibility of withdrawing inhibitors from waste activated sludge.

  10. Intrinsic Flame-Retardant and Thermally Stable Epoxy Endowed by a Highly Efficient, Multifunctional Curing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Dong


    Full Text Available It is difficult to realize flame retardancy of epoxy without suffering much detriment in thermal stability. To solve the problem, a super-efficient phosphorus-nitrogen-containing reactive-type flame retardant, 10-(hydroxy(4-hydroxyphenylmethyl-5,10-dihydrophenophosphazinine-10-oxide (HB-DPPA is synthesized and characterized. When it is used as a co-curing agent of 4,4′-methylenedianiline (DDM for curing diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, the cured epoxy achieves UL-94 V-0 rating with the limiting oxygen index of 29.3%. In this case, the phosphorus content in the system is exceptionally low (0.18 wt %. To the best of our knowledge, it currently has the highest efficiency among similar epoxy systems. Such excellent flame retardancy originates from the exclusive chemical structure of the phenophosphazine moiety, in which the phosphorus element is stabilized by the two adjacent aromatic rings. The action in the condensed phase is enhanced and followed by pressurization of the pyrolytic gases that induces the blowing-out effect during combustion. The cone calorimeter result reveals the formation of a unique intumescent char structure with five discernible layers. Owing to the super-efficient flame retardancy and the rigid molecular structure of HB-DPPA, the flame-retardant epoxy acquires high thermal stability and its initial decomposition temperature only decreases by 4.6 °C as compared with the unmodified one.

  11. Thermal substitution and aerobic efficiency: measuring and predicting effects of heat balance on endotherm diving energetics. (United States)

    Lovvorn, J R


    For diving endotherms, modelling costs of locomotion as a function of prey dispersion requires estimates of the costs of diving to different depths. One approach is to estimate the physical costs of locomotion (Pmech) with biomechanical models and to convert those estimates to chemical energy needs by an aerobic efficiency (eta=Pmech/Vo2) based on oxygen consumption (Vo2) in captive animals. Variations in eta with temperature depend partly on thermal substitution, whereby heat from the inefficiency of exercising muscles or the heat increment of feeding (HIF) can substitute for thermogenesis. However, measurements of substitution have ranged from lack of detection to nearly complete use of exercise heat or HIF. This inconsistency may reflect (i) problems in methods of calculating substitution, (ii) confounding mechanisms of thermoregulatory control, or (iii) varying conditions that affect heat balance and allow substitution to be expressed. At present, understanding of how heat generation is regulated, and how heat is transported among tissues during exercise, digestion, thermal challenge and breath holding, is inadequate for predicting substitution and aerobic efficiencies without direct measurements for conditions of interest. Confirming that work rates during exercise are generally conserved, and identifying temperatures at those work rates below which shivering begins, may allow better prediction of aerobic efficiencies for ecological models.

  12. Efficiency enhancement of the ocean thermal energy conversion system with a vapor–vapor ejector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Saeng Lee


    Full Text Available In this article, 20 kW ocean thermal energy conversion with a vapor–vapor ejector is newly proposed. As a vapor–vapor ejector is installed in the system, the pressure difference between the turbine inlet and outlet increases. Therefore, the amount of the working fluid required for the total turbine work of 20 kW is less than when no vapor–vapor ejector is installed. Therefore, installing a vapor–vapor ejector in the system decreases the evaporation capacity and the pump work. The performance analysis considered the outlet pressure of the high-stage turbine, the mass flow ratio of the working fluid at the outlet of a separator just after the high-stage turbine, and the nozzle diameters of the vapor–vapor ejector. As the outlet pressure of high-stage turbine becomes lower, the turbine gross power of high-stage turbine and system efficiency increase although lower outlet pressure of high-stage turbine results in lower ejector performance. Similarly, in terms of mass flow ratio, the highest system efficiency was shown at mass flow ratio of 0.4 at the outlet of a separator just after the high-stage turbine. On the other hand, the performance of the ejector at mass flow ratio of 0.5 at the outlet of a separator was largest. When the nozzle diameters of the vapor–vapor ejector are properly designed, the vapor–vapor ejector shows the highest performance. After the optimization of the operation parameters, system efficiency of the proposed ocean thermal energy conversion power cycle was 2.47%, relatively 15% higher than that of the basic ocean thermal energy conversion power cycle (2.2%.

  13. Investigation of Thermal Instability of Additive-Based High-Efficiency Organic Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Ping Yao


    Full Text Available Most photovoltaics operate at high temperature under sunlight. In this work, the thermal instability of diiodooctane-based high-efficiency bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic photovoltaics (OPVs is studied. The BHJ layers were heated to various temperatures to investigate the changes in their physical properties using atomic force microscopy phase images. The mobilities of the carriers were characterized at various temperatures using the space-charge-limited current method, and the carrier lifetime was calculated by applying impedance spectroscopy to the simulated equivalent circuit of the OPV devices.

  14. Design, enhanced Thermal and Flow efficiency of a 2KW active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallolio, Stefano; Eriksen, Dan; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    power of 1500 W over a temperature span of 25 K. This paper explains several details of the device, such as the design of the magnet, the regenerator housing and the flow system. In particular, this paper investigates the best geometry for the regenerator bed to achieve a thermal and mechanically...... efficient housing to be used in the AMR system. Particular attention has been given to the reduction of the parasitic losses through the regenerator housing: both heat leaks between the magnetocaloric material (MCM) and an adjacent iron ring and the surroundings through a lid on top of the regenerator...

  15. Methods to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes–Review and theoretical comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, Michel; Cruickshank, Chynthia; Streicher, Wolfgang


    during charging, storing and discharging, and represent this ability with a single numerical value in terms of a stratification efficiency for a given experiment or under given boundary conditions. Existing methods for calculating stratification efficiencies have been applied to hypothetical storage......This paper reviews different methods that have been proposed to characterize thermal stratification in energy storages from a theoretical point of view. Specifically, this paper focuses on the methods that can be used to determine the ability of a storage to promote and maintain stratification...... processes of charging, discharging and storing, and compared with the rate of entropy production caused by mixing calculated for the same experiments. The results depict that only one of the applied methods is in qualitative agreement with the rate of entropy production, however, none of the applied methods...

  16. An Integrated Approach to Thermal Management of International Space Station Logistics Flights, Improving the Efficiency (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; Day, Greg; Roberts, Barry; Leahy, Frank


    The efficiency of re-useable aerospace systems requires a focus on the total operations process rather than just orbital performance. For the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module this activity included special attention to terrestrial conditions both pre-launch and post-landing and how they inter-relate to the mission profile. Several of the efficiencies implemented for the MPLM Mission Engineering were NASA firsts and all served to improve the overall operations activities. This paper will provide an explanation of how various issues were addressed and the resulting solutions. Topics range from statistical analysis of over 30 years of atmospheric data at the launch and landing site to a new approach for operations with the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. In each situation the goal was to "tune" the thermal management of the overall flight system for minimizing requirement risk while optimizing power and energy performance.

  17. Carbon sequestration during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum by an efficient biological pump (United States)

    Ma, Zhongwu; Gray, Ellen; Thomas, Ellen; Murphy, Brandon; Zachos, James; Paytan, Adina


    A perturbation of the carbon cycle and biosphere, linked to globally increased temperatures about 55.9 million years ago, characterized the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Its effect on global oceanic productivity is controversial. Here we present records of marine barite accumulation rates that show distinct peaks during this time interval, suggesting a general increase in export productivity. We propose that changes in marine ecosystems, resulting from high atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 and ocean acidification, led to enhanced carbon export from the photic zone to depth, thereby increasing the efficiency of the biological pump. Higher seawater temperatures at that time increased bacterial activity and organic matter regeneration. Through this process much of the sinking particulate organic matter was probably converted to dissolved inorganic and organic carbon. We estimate that an annual carbon export flux out of the euphotic zone and into the deep ocean waters could have amounted to about 15 Gt during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. About 0.4% of this carbon is expected to have entered the refractory dissolved organic pool, where it could be sequestered from the atmosphere for tens of thousands of years. Our estimates are consistent with the amount of carbon redistribution expected for the recovery from the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

  18. Study of thermal and hydraulic efficiency of supersonic tube of temperature stratification (United States)

    Tsynaeva, Anna A.; Nikitin, Maxim N.; Tsynaeva, Ekaterina A.


    Efficiency of supersonic pipe for temperature stratification with finned subsonic surface of heat transfer is the major of this paper. Thermal and hydraulic analyses of this pipe were conducted to asses effects from installation of longitudinal rectangular and parabolic fins as well as studs of cylindrical, rectangular and parabolic profiles. The analysis was performed based on refined empirical equations of similarity, dedicated to heat transfer of high-speed gas flow with plain wall, and Kármán equation with Nikuradze constants. Results revealed cylindrical studs (with height-to-diameter ratio of 5:1) to be 1.5 times more efficient than rectangular fins of the same height. At the same time rectangular fins (with height-to-thickness ratio of 5:1) were tend to enhance heat transfer rate up to 2.67 times compared to bare walls from subsonic side of the pipe. Longitudinal parabolic fins have minuscule effect on combined efficiency of considered pipe since extra head losses void any gain of heat transfer. Obtained results provide perspective of increasing efficiency of supersonic tube for temperature stratification. This significantly broadens device applicability in thermostatting systems for equipment, cooling systems for energy converting machinery, turbine blades and aerotechnics.

  19. Thermal investigation on high power dfb broad area lasers at 975 nm, with 60% efficiency (United States)

    Mostallino, R.; Garcia, M.; Deshayes, Y.; Larrue, A.; Robert, Y.; Vinet, E.; Bechou, L.; Lecomte, M.; Parillaud, O.; Krakowski, M.


    The demand of high power diode lasers in the range of 910-980nm is regularly growing. This kind of device for many applications, such as fiber laser pumping [1], material processing [1], solid-state laser pumping [1], defense and medical/dental. The key role of this device lies in the efficiency (𝜂𝐸) of converting input electrical power into output optical power. The high value of 𝜂𝐸 allows high power level and reduces the need in heat dissipation. The requirement of wavelength stabilization with temperature is more obvious in the case of multimode 975nm diode lasers used for pumping Yb, Er and Yb/Er co-doped solid-state lasers, due to the narrow absorption line close to this wavelength. Such spectral width property (stabilization (0.07 𝑛𝑚 • °𝐶-1), provided by a uniform distributed feedback grating (DFB) introduced by etching and re-growth process techniques, is achievable in high power diode lasers using optical feedback. This paper reports on the development of the diode laser structure and the process techniques required to write the gratings taking into account of the thermal dissipation and optical performances. Performances are particularly determined in terms of experimental electro-optical characterizations. One of the main objectives is to determine the thermal resistance of the complete assembly to ensure the mastering of the diode laser temperature for operating condition. The classical approach to determine junction temperature is based on the infrared thermal camera, the spectral measurement and the pulse electrical method. In our case, we base our measurement on the spectral measurement but this approach is not well adapted to the high power diodes laser studied. We develop a new measurement based on the pulse electrical method and using the T3STERequipment. This method is well known for electronic devices and LEDs but is weakly developed for the high power diodes laser. This crucial

  20. Thermal efficiency of Duovent array glassing; Eficiencia termica de arreglos de vidrios Duovent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Garcia G; Cortina Leyva, C; Flores Prieto, Jose J [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologico, DGIT SEP, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    This paper presents an experimental study of the thermal performance of duovent glazing with different solar control coatings. The thermal efficiency, {eta}, was determined. The duovent array consists of 6 mm glass+solar coating+air layer+6 mm glass. The width of the air layer between the two glasses is 12 mm. The experimental work was carried out using a calorimeter setup calling DEMETEV. The DEMETEV was specially designed to measure the heat gains through sample glassings. The heat flux, the shading coefficients and the thermal efficiency curve as a function of the temperature difference and incident radiative flux are presented. Comparing the results for duovent with clear glasses with the ones reported by Dubrous show a difference of 2.2%. Also this study verifies the theoretical model reported. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un estudio experimental del comportamiento termico de vidrios Duovent con diferentes filtros solares mediante el calculo de la eficiencia termica, {eta}. El arreglo lo comprende vidrio+filtro+aire+vidrio de 6 mm de espesor con un espacio con aire entre vidrios de 12 mm. El trabajo experimental se llevo a cabo haciendo uso del dispositivo calorimetrico experimental, denominado DEMETEV, que fue disenado especialmente para medir las ganancias de calor a traves de vidrios. Se presentan los flujos de calor, los coeficientes de sombreado y la curva de eficiencia termica como funcion de la diferencia de temperaturas y del flujo radioactivo incidente. Los resultados obtenidos para vidrios claros fueron comparados con los que se obtuvieron en el trabajo reportado por Dubrous obteniendo una diferencia del 2.2%. Tambien se presenta la validacion de los datos experimentales con un modelo teorico reportado.

  1. High efficiency thermal storage system for solar plants (HELSOLAR). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroel, Eduardo; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Lenartz, Jeff; Parysek, Karen


    The project objective was to develop a high temperature Thermal Storage System (TES) based on graphite and able to provide both economical and technical advantages with respect to existing solutions contributing to increase the share of Concentrated Solar Plants (CSP). One of the main disadvantages of most of the renewable energy systems is their dependence to instantaneous irradiation and, thus, lack of predictability. CSP plants with thermal storage have proved to offer a good solution to this problem although still at an elevated price. The identification of alternative concepts able to work more efficiently would help to speed up the convergence of CSP towards grid parity. One way to reduce costs is to work in a range of temperatures higher than those allowed by the actual molten salt systems, currently the benchmark for TES in CSP. This requires the use of alternative energy storage materials such as graphite, as well as the utilization of Heat Transfer Fluids (HTF) other than molten salts or organic oils. The main technical challenges identified are derived from the high temperatures and significant high pressures, which pose risks such as potential graphite and insulation oxidation, creep, fatigue, corrosion and stress-corrosion in the pipes, leakages in the joints, high blower drivers’ electrical power consumption, thermal compatibility or relative deformations of the different materials. At the end, the main challenge of the project, is to identify a technical solution able to overcome all these problems but still at a competitive cost when compared to already existing thermal storage solutions. Special attention is given to all these issues during this project.

  2. Thermal Stability-Enhanced and High-Efficiency Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with Interface Passivation. (United States)

    Zhang, Weihai; Xiong, Juan; Jiang, Li; Wang, Jianying; Mei, Tao; Wang, Xianbao; Gu, Haoshuang; Daoud, Walid A; Li, Jinhua


    As the electron transport layer (ETL) of perovskite solar cells, oxide semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO) has been attracting great attention due to its relatively high mobility, optical transparency, low-temperature fabrication, and good environment stability. However, the nature of ZnO will react with the patron on methylamine, which would deteriorate the performance of cells. Although many methods, including high-temperature annealing, doping, and surface modification, have been studied to improve the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells with ZnO ETL, devices remain relatively low in efficiency and stability. Herein, we adopted a novel multistep annealing method to deposit a porous PbI 2 film and improved the quality and uniformity of perovskite films. The cells with ZnO ETL were fabricated at the temperature of <150 °C by solution processing. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device fabricated by the novel annealing method increased from 15.5 to 17.5%. To enhance the thermal stability of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 (MAPbI 3 ) on the ZnO surface, a thin layer of small molecule [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was inserted between the ZnO layer and perovskite film. Interestingly, the PCE of PCBM-passivated cells could reach nearly 19.1%. To our best knowledge, this is the highest PCE value of ZnO-based perovskite solar cells until now. More importantly, PCBM modification could effectively suppress the decomposition of MAPbI 3 and improve the thermal stability of cells. Therefore, the ZnO is a promising candidate of electron transport material for perovskite solar cells in future applications.

  3. Total-Factor Energy Efficiency (TFEE Evaluation on Thermal Power Industry with DEA, Malmquist and Multiple Regression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Peng Liu


    Full Text Available Under the background of a new round of power market reform, realizing the goals of energy saving and emission reduction, reducing the coal consumption and ensuring the sustainable development are the key issues for thermal power industry. With the biggest economy and energy consumption scales in the world, China should promote the energy efficiency of thermal power industry to solve these problems. Therefore, from multiple perspectives, the factors influential to the energy efficiency of thermal power industry were identified. Based on the economic, social and environmental factors, a combination model with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and Malmquist index was constructed to evaluate the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE in thermal power industry. With the empirical studies from national and provincial levels, the TFEE index can be factorized into the technical efficiency index (TECH, the technical progress index (TPCH, the pure efficiency index (PECH and the scale efficiency index (SECH. The analysis showed that the TFEE was mainly determined by TECH and PECH. Meanwhile, by panel data regression model, unit coal consumption, talents and government supervision were selected as important indexes to have positive effects on TFEE in thermal power industry. In addition, the negative indexes, such as energy price and installed capacity, were also analyzed to control their undesired effects. Finally, considering the analysis results, measures for improving energy efficiency of thermal power industry were discussed widely, such as strengthening technology research and design (R&D, enforcing pollutant and emission reduction, distributing capital and labor rationally and improving the government supervision. Relative study results and suggestions can provide references for Chinese government and enterprises to enhance the energy efficiency level.

  4. Experimental analysis to improving thermosyphon (TPCT) thermal efficiency using nanoparticles/based fluids (water) (United States)

    Hoseinzadeh, S.; Sahebi, S. A. R.; Ghasemiasl, R.; Majidian, A. R.


    In the present study an experimental set-up is used to investigate the effect of a nanofluid as a working fluid to increase thermosyphon efficiency. Nanofluids are a new form of heat transfer media prepared by suspending metallic and nonmetallic nanoparticles in a base fluid. The nanoparticles added to the fluid enhance the thermal characteristics of the base fluid. The nanofluid used in this experiment was a mixture of water and nanoparticles prepared with 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, or 2% (v) concentration of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles and 1%, 2% and 3% (v) concentration of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) in an ultrasonic homogenizer. The results indicate that the SiC/water and Al2O3/water nanofluids increase the thermosyphon performance. The efficiency of the thermosyphon using the 2% (v) (SiC) nanoparticles nanofluid was 1.11 times that of pure water and the highest efficiency occurs for the 3% (Al2O3) nanoparticle concentration with input power of 300 W. The decrease in the temperature difference between the condenser and evaporator confirms these enhancements.

  5. Thermal properties and burning efficiency of crude oils and refined fuel oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Alva, Wilson Ulises Rojas; Mindykowski, Pierrick Anthony


    -90% were obtained for heat fluxes of 40-50 kW/m2 for the crude oils and 80% at 30 kW/m2 for IFO 180. The heat feedback in large scale fires, however, was estimated to be about 17 kW/m2, for which the burning efficiencies were indicate that the increased heat feedback to the fuel......The thermal properties and burning efficiencies of fresh and weathered crude oils and a refined fuel oil were studied in order to improve the available input data for field ignition systems for the in-situ burning of crude oil on water. The time to ignition, surface temperature upon ignition, heat...... release rate, burning rate and burning efficiency of two fresh crude oils (DUC, a light crude and Grane, a heavy crude), one fresh refined fuel oil (IFO 180) and weathered DUC (30-40 wt% evaporated and 40 wt% evaporated with 40 vol% water) were tested. Experiments were conducted in a newly designed water...

  6. SSTL based thermal and power efficient RAM design on 28nm FPGA for spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, D. M.A.


    In this paper, an approach is made to design a Thermal and Power efficient RAM for that reason we have used DDR4L memory and six different members of SSTL I/Os standards on 28nm technology. Every spacecraft requires most energy efficient electronic system and for that very purpose we have designed...... the most energy efficient RAM. In this design, we have taken two main parameters for analysis that is frequency (1600 MHz) and Voltage (1.05V). DDR4L operates at the lowest Voltage compared to available RAM's. Environment (LFM, Heat Sink, and Capacitance) is kept constant. For the simulation of the logic......, Xilinx is used with Verilog as hardware description language. We have done our analysis with different I/O standards for DDR4L RAM. When we scale down from 288.15K to 348.15K there is maximum total power reduction in SSTL135-R as compared to all considered I/O standards. When we compared different...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M


    Hybrid Sulfur cycle is gaining popularity as a possible means for massive production of hydrogen from nuclear energy. Several different ways of carrying out the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis step are being pursued by a number of researchers. These alternatives are evaluated with complete flowsheet simulations and on a common design basis using Aspen Plus{trademark}. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assess the performance potential of each configuration, and the flowsheets are optimized for energy recovery. Net thermal efficiencies are calculated for the best set of operating conditions for each flowsheet and the results compared. This will help focus attention on the most promising electrolysis alternatives. The sensitivity analyses should also help identify those features that offer the greatest potential for improvement.

  8. Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Removal Efficiency for Ventilation Variants in Passenger Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saboora Khatoon


    Full Text Available The realization of a comfortable thermal environment with low energy consumption and improved ventilation in a car has become the aim of manufacturers in recent decades. Novel ventilation concepts with more flexible cabin usage and layouts are appealing owing to their potential for improving passenger comfort and driving power. In this study, three variant ventilation concepts are investigated and their performance is compared with respect to energy efficiency and human comfort of the driver and passenger in front and a child in the rear compartment. FLUENT 16.0, a commercial three-dimensional (3D software, are used for the simulation. A surface-to-surface radiation model is applied under transient conditions for a car parked in summer conditions with its engine in the running condition. The results for the standard Fanger’s model and modified Fanger’s model are analyzed, discussed, and compared for the driver, passenger, and child. The modified Fanger’s model determines the thermal sensation on the basis of mean arterial pressure.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag D Milenković


    Full Text Available In phase of vehicle braking system designing, besides of mechanical characteristics, it is also necessary to take under consideration the system's thermal features. This is because it is not enough just to achieve proper braking power, for the brake system to be effective but equally important thing is the dissipation of heat to the environment. Heat developed in the friction surfaces dissipate into the environment over the disk in one hand and through the brake linings and caliper, in the other. The striving is to make that greatest amount of heat to dissipate not threw the brake pads but threw disc. The experimental researching of heat transfer process taking place at vehicle brakes was made in the R&D Center of "Zastava automobili" car factory in order to increase the efficiency of brake system. The standard laboratory and road test procedures were used, according to factory quality regulations. The modern equipment such as thermo camera, thermo couples, torque transducers, signal amplifiers, optical speed measuring system and laptop computer were used. In this paper will be shown the part of the experimental researching, which refers to the thermal conductivity of brake pad friction linings.

  10. PID-controller with predictor and auto-tuning algorithm: study of efficiency for thermal plants (United States)

    Kuzishchin, V. F.; Merzlikina, E. I.; Hoang, Van Va


    The problem of efficiency estimation of an automatic control system (ACS) with a Smith predictor and PID-algorithm for thermal plants is considered. In order to use the predictor, it is proposed to include an auto-tuning module (ATC) into the controller; the module calculates parameters for a second-order plant module with a time delay. The study was conducted using programmable logical controllers (PLC), one of which performed control, ATC, and predictor functions. A simulation model was used as a control plant, and there were two variants of the model: one of them was built on the basis of a separate PLC, and the other was a physical model of a thermal plant in the form of an electrical heater. Analysis of the efficiency of the ACS with the predictor was carried out for several variants of the second order plant model with time delay, and the analysis was performed on the basis of the comparison of transient processes in the system when the set point was changed and when a disturbance influenced the control plant. The recommendations are given on correction of the PID-algorithm parameters when the predictor is used by means of using the correcting coefficient k for the PID parameters. It is shown that, when the set point is changed, the use of the predictor is effective taking into account the parameters correction with k = 2. When the disturbances influence the plant, the use of the predictor is doubtful, because the transient process is too long. The reason for this is that, in the neighborhood of the zero frequency, the amplitude-frequency characteristic (AFC) of the system with the predictor has an ascent in comparison with the AFC of the system without the predictor.

  11. Recent progress in developing highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics (United States)

    Luo, Jingdong; Liu, Sen; Haller, Marnie A.; Kang, Jae-Wook; Kim, Tae-Dong; Jang, Sei-Hum; Chen, Baoquan; Tucker, Neil; Li, Hongxiang; Tang, Hong-Zhi; Dalton, Larry R.; Liao, Yi; Robinson, Bruce H.; Jen, Alex K.


    Recent development of high-performance nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics (E-O) is reviewed in this paper. A highly efficient and thermally stable nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophore, namely 2-[4-(2-{5-[2-(4-{Bis-(tert-butyl-dimethyl-silanyloxy)-ethyl]-amino}-phenyl)-vinyl]-thiophen-2-yl}-vinyl)-3-cyano-5-trifluoromethyl-5H-furan-2-ylidene]-malononitrile, has been prepared and incorporated in amorphous polycarbonate (APC) composites. The result from high electric field poling shows a very large E-O coefficient (r33 = 94 pm/V at 1.3 μm), 80% of which can be maintained at 85 °C for more than 500 hours. In addition to this guest/host sysytem, a high Tg side-chain polymer, derived from a 3-D cardo-type polimide with dendron-encapsulated chromophores as pendent groups has also been synthesized and characterized. A high degree of chromophore dipole orientation and a large r33 of 71 pm/V at 1.3 μm can be achieved in this poled polyimide. More than 90% of its E-O activity can be maintained at 85 °C for more than 600 hours. To access the full potential of poled polymers for device applications, we have developed a new lattice-hardening approach to overcome the "nonlinearity-stability-tradeoff" of conventional thermoset methods. By using the Diels-Alder lattice-hardening process, we can achieve the same high poling efficiency and large r33value as in a guest-host system while maintaining good thermal stability seen in densely-crosslinked polymers. By modifying the electronic properties of the crosslinking reagents, we can fine-tune the processing temperature window of the Diels-Alder reactions to achieve hardened materials with optimal properties.

  12. Thermal efficiency of low cost solar collectors - CSBC; Eficiencia termica de coletores solares de baixo custo - CSBC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Renato C.; Shiota, Robson T.; Mello, Samuel F.; Assis Junior, Valdir; Bartoli, Julio R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica. Dept. de Tecnologia de Polimeros


    The thermal performance of a low cost flat panel solar collector was measured. This Low Cost Solar Collector is a novel concept for water heating using only thermoplastics materials, used on building: ceiling and tubes made of unplasticized PVC, but without transparent cover. The top side of the UPVC panel was black painted to be the solar radiation absorber surface. Prototypes were installed on two charity houses around Campinas and at the FEQ campus, being used without any trouble for one year. The thermal efficiency analysis followed ABNT NBR 10184 standard at the Green-Solar Laboratory, Brazilian Centre for Development of Solar Thermal Energy, PUC-Minas. It was measured a thermal efficiency of 67%, compared to the 75% usually found on conventional solar collectors made of copper tubes and with glass cover. (author)

  13. Investigation of energy efficiency of innovate thermal insulating materials and their influence on the building heat regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Maxim N.


    Full Text Available A complex model of heat supply system of building was developed by using Matlab. The model allows conducting for a wide range of research related to improving the energy efficiency of buildings. In this work the investigations of energy efficiency of several advanced insulation materials, which is characterized by different thermal characteristics, were carried out. Conclusions about the impact of the thermal protective envelope on the room thermal regime were made. Prognostic heat consumptions values of rooms with different characteristics of thermal insulation materials and main base-load envelopes were determined. Researches were conducted for the winter climatic conditions of Western Siberia: the average daily outdoor temperature is -22 °C, the amplitude of temperature oscillation is 8 °C.

  14. Developing HEAT Scores with H-Res Thermal Imagery to Support Urban Energy Efficiency (United States)

    Hemachandran, Bharanidharan

    As part of The Calgary Community GHG Reduction Plan (2009) The City is seeking an implementation strategy to reduce GHGs and promote low-carbon living, with a focus on improving urban energy efficiency. The most cited obstacle to energy efficiency improvements is the lack of interest from consumers (CUI, 2008). However, Darby (2006) has shown that effective feedback significantly reduces energy consumption. To exploit these findings, the HEAT (Heat Energy Assessment Technologies) Geoweb project integrates high-resolution (H-Res) airborne thermal imagery (TABI 1800) to provide unique energy efficiency feedback to Calgary homeowners in the form of interactive HEAT Maps and Hot Spots (Hay et al., 2011). As a part of the HEAT Phase II program, the goal of this research is to provide enhanced feedback support for urban energy efficiency by meeting two key objectives: (i) develop an appropriate method to define HEAT Scores using TABI 1800 imagery that allows for the comparison of waste heat of one or more houses with all other mapped houses in the community and city, and (ii) develop a multi-scale interactive Geoweb interface that displays the HEAT Scores at City, Community and Residential scales. To achieve these goals, we describe the evolution of three novel HEAT Score techniques based on: (i) a Standardized Score, (ii) the WUFIRTM model and Logistic Regression and (iii ) a novel criteria weighted method that considers: (a) heat transfer through different roofing materials, (b) local climatic conditions and (c) house age and living area attributes. Furthermore, (d) removing or adding houses to analysis based on this 3rd technique, does not affect the HEAT Score of other houses and (e) HEAT Scores can be compared within and across different cities. We also describe how HEAT Scores are incorporated within the HEAT Geoweb architecture. It is envisioned that HEAT Scores will promote energy efficiency among homeowners and urban city planners, as they will quantify and

  15. Evaluation of annual efficiencies of high temperature central receiver concentrated solar power plants with thermal energy storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, Brian David; Gill, David Dennis


    The current study has examined four cases of a central receiver concentrated solar power plant with thermal energy storage using the DELSOL and SOLERGY computer codes. The current state-of-the-art base case was compared with a theoretical high temperature case which was based on the scaling of some input parameters and the estimation of other parameters based on performance targets from the Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This comparison was done for both current and high temperature cases in two configurations: a surround field with an external cylindrical receiver and a north field with a single cavity receiver. There is a fairly dramatic difference between the design point and annual average performance, especially in the solar field and receiver subsystems, and also in energy losses due to the thermal energy storage being full to capacity. Additionally, there are relatively small differences (<2%) in annual average efficiencies between the Base and High Temperature cases, despite an increase in thermal to electric conversion efficiency of over 8%. This is due the increased thermal losses at higher temperature and operational losses due to subsystem start-up and shut-down. Thermal energy storage can mitigate some of these losses by utilizing larger thermal energy storage to ensure that the electric power production system does not need to stop and re-start as often, but solar energy is inherently transient. Economic and cost considerations were not considered here, but will have a significant impact on solar thermal electric power production strategy and sizing.

  16. Investigation of the charge boost technology for the efficiency increase of closed sorption thermal energy storage systems (United States)

    Rohringer, C.; Engel, G.; Köll, R.; Wagner, W.; van Helden, W.


    The inclusion of solar thermal energy into energy systems requires storage possibilities to overcome the gap between supply and demand. Storage of thermal energy with closed sorption thermal energy systems has the advantage of low thermal losses and high energy density. However, the efficiency of these systems needs yet to be increased to become competitive on the market. In this paper, the so-called “charge boost technology” is developed and tested via experiments as a new concept for the efficiency increase of compact thermal energy storages. The main benefit of the charge boost technology is that it can reach a defined state of charge for sorption thermal energy storages at lower temperature levels than classic pure desorption processes. Experiments are conducted to provide a proof of principle for this concept. The results show that the charge boost technology does function as predicted and is a viable option for further improvement of sorption thermal energy storages. Subsequently, a new process application is developed by the author with strong focus on the utilization of the advantages of the charge boost technology over conventional desorption processes. After completion of the conceptual design, the theoretical calculations are validated via experiments.

  17. Sensitizing Efficiency of Some Added Metal Salts on the Thermal and Explosive Characteristics of Hydrazenium Monoperchlorate and Hydrazenium Diperchlorate


    C. Prabhakaran; N. Sadasivan


    Sensitivity to heat, impact and friction of hydrazenium-monoperchlorate and hydrazenium-diperchlorate have been investigated and the sensitizing efficiency of some added metal salts evaluated. The thermal sensitizing efficiency of the additives follow the order CuCrO/sub 4/ > CuCl/sub 2/ >NiO > Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ > MgO. The activation energy values obtained from explosion delay time are comparable with the values reported for thermal decomposition studies and are close to the activ...

  18. An efficient modeling method for thermal stratification simulation in a BWR suppression pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang; Hua Li; Walter Villanueva; Pavel Kudinov


    The suppression pool in a BWR plant not only is the major heat sink within the containment system, but also provides major emergency cooling water for the reactor core. In several accident scenarios, such as LOCA and extended station blackout, thermal stratification tends to form in the pool after the initial rapid venting stage. Accurately predicting the pool stratification phenomenon is important because it affects the peak containment pressure; and the pool temperature distribution also affects the NPSHa (Available Net Positive Suction Head) and therefore the performance of the pump which draws cooling water back to the core. Current safety analysis codes use 0-D lumped parameter methods to calculate the energy and mass balance in the pool and therefore have large uncertainty in prediction of scenarios in which stratification and mixing are important. While 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze realistic 3D configurations, these methods normally require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries, therefore long simulation time. For mixing in stably stratified large enclosures, the BMIX++ code has been developed to implement a highly efficient analysis method for stratification where the ambient fluid volume is represented by 1-D transient partial differential equations and substructures such as free or wall jets are modeled with 1-D integral models. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to 3-D CFD modeling. The POOLEX experiments at Finland, which was designed to study phenomena relevant to Nordic design BWR suppression pool including thermal stratification and mixing, are used for validation. GOTHIC lumped parameter models are used to obtain boundary conditions for BMIX++ code and CFD simulations. Comparison between the BMIX++, GOTHIC, and CFD calculations against the POOLEX experimental data is discussed in detail.

  19. Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBCs) for Low Emission, High Efficiency Diesel Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Brad Beardsley, Caterpillar Inc.; Dr. Darrell Socie, University of Illinois; Dr. Ed Redja, University of Illinois; Dr. Christopher Berndt, State University of New York at Stony Brook


    The objective of this program was to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating (TTBC) systems for application to low heat rejection diesel engine combustion chambers. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impede the application of thermal barrier coating to diesel engines.(1) Areas of TTBC technology examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coating composition, coating design, microstructure and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC "aging" effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Fifteen TTBC ceramic powders were evaluated. These powders were selected to investigate the effects of different chemistries, different manufacturing methods, lot-to-lot variations, different suppliers and varying impurity levels. Each of the fifteen materials has been sprayed using 36 parameters selected by a design of experiments (DOE) to determine the effects of primary gas (Ar and N2), primary gas flow rate, voltage, arc current, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate, and spraying distance. The deposition efficiency, density, and thermal conductivity of the resulting coatings were measured. A coating with a high deposition efficiency and low thermal conductivity is desired from an economic standpoint. An optimum combination of thermal conductivity and disposition efficiency was found for each lot of powder in follow-on experiments and disposition parameters were chosen for full characterization.(2) Strengths of the optimized coatings were determined using 4-point bending specimens. The tensile strength was determined using free-standing coatings made by spraying onto mild steel substrates which were subsequently removed by chemical etching. The compressive strengths of the coatings

  20. Efficient thermal noise removal of Sentinel-1 image and its impacts on sea ice applications (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Won; Korosov, Anton; Babiker, Mohamed


    Wide swath SAR observation from several spaceborne SAR missions played an important role in studying sea ice in the polar region. Sentinel 1A and 1B are producing dual-polarization observation data with the highest temporal resolution ever. For a proper use of dense time-series, radiometric properties must be qualified. Thermal noise is often neglected in many sea ice applications, but is impacting seriously the utility of dual-polarization SAR data. Sentinel-1 TOPSAR image intensity is disturbed by additive thermal noise particularly in cross-polarization channel. Although ESA provides calibrated noise vectors for noise power subtraction, residual noise contribution is significant considering relatively narrow backscattering distribution of cross-polarization channel. In this study, we investigate the noise characteristics and propose an efficient method for noise reduction based on three types of correction: azimuth de-scalloping, noise scaling, and inter-swath power balancing. The core idea is to find optimum correction coefficients resulting in the most noise-uncorrelated gentle backscatter profile over homogeneous region and to combine them with scalloping gain for reconstruction of complete two-dimensional noise field. Denoising is accomplished by subtracting the reconstructed noise field from the original image. The resulting correction coefficients determined by extensive experiments showed different noise characteristics for different Instrument Processing Facility (IPF) versions of Level 1 product generation. Even after thermal noise subtraction, the image still suffers from residual noise, which distorts local statistics. Since this residual noise depends on local signal-to-noise ratio, it can be compensated by variance normalization with coefficients determined from an empirical model. Denoising improved not only visual interpretability but also performances in SAR intensity-based sea ice applications. Results from two applications showed the

  1. Thermal dynamic simulation of wall for building energy efficiency under varied climate environment (United States)

    Wang, Xuejin; Zhang, Yujin; Hong, Jing


    Aiming at different kind of walls in five cities of different zoning for thermal design, using thermal instantaneous response factors method, the author develops software to calculation air conditioning cooling load temperature, thermal response factors, and periodic response factors. On the basis of the data, the author gives the net work analysis about the influence of dynamic thermal of wall on air-conditioning load and thermal environment in building of different zoning for thermal design regional, and put forward the strategy how to design thermal insulation and heat preservation wall base on dynamic thermal characteristic of wall under different zoning for thermal design regional. And then provide the theory basis and the technical references for the further study on the heat preservation with the insulation are in the service of energy saving wall design. All-year thermal dynamic load simulating and energy consumption analysis for new energy-saving building is very important in building environment. This software will provide the referable scientific foundation for all-year new thermal dynamic load simulation, energy consumption analysis, building environment systems control, carrying through farther research on thermal particularity and general particularity evaluation for new energy -saving walls building. Based on which, we will not only expediently design system of building energy, but also analyze building energy consumption and carry through scientific energy management. The study will provide the referable scientific foundation for carrying through farther research on thermal particularity and general particularity evaluation for new energy saving walls building.

  2. Analysis for fin efficiency with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of fractional order energy balance equation using HPST Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patra


    Full Text Available Radiating extended surfaces are usually utilized to enhance the heat transfer between primary surface and the environment. In this paper, temperature distribution, fin efficiency, efficacy of convective straight fins with constant and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity are solved by implementing homotopy perturbation sumudu transform method (HPSTM. The proposed method is very useful and practical for solving the fractional order nonlinear diffusion equation, which is associated with variable thermal conductivity condition. A dimensionless analytical expression has been developed for fin effectiveness. The fin efficiency and the fin effectiveness have been attained as a function of thermo-geometric fin parameter. It can be noticed that the thermal conductivity parameter has a strong influence over the fin efficiency. The analytical solutions acquired by the present method illustrate the approach is easy to implement and computationally very interesting. The obtained results are compared with previously found classical order results using variational iteration method (VIM, Adomian decomposition method, and the results from Galerkin method in order to show the competence of this present method. HPSTM is a simple and effective method for rapid assessment of physical systems although the fractional order energy balance equations comprise with strong nonlinear terms. The subsequent correlation equations can benefit thermal design engineers for designing of innovative straight fins with both constant and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity.

  3. Efficient solar-driven synthesis, carbon capture, and desalinization, STEP: solar thermal electrochemical production of fuels, metals, bleach. (United States)

    Licht, S


    STEP (solar thermal electrochemical production) theory is derived and experimentally verified for the electrosynthesis of energetic molecules at solar energy efficiency greater than any photovoltaic conversion efficiency. In STEP the efficient formation of metals, fuels, chlorine, and carbon capture is driven by solar thermal heated endothermic electrolyses of concentrated reactants occuring at a voltage below that of the room temperature energy stored in the products. One example is CO(2) , which is reduced to either fuels or storable carbon at a solar efficiency of over 50% due to a synergy of efficient solar thermal absorption and electrochemical conversion at high temperature and reactant concentration. CO(2) -free production of iron by STEP, from iron ore, occurs via Fe(III) in molten carbonate. Water is efficiently split to hydrogen by molten hydroxide electrolysis, and chlorine, sodium, and magnesium from molten chlorides. A pathway is provided for the STEP decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels to pre-industial age levels in 10 years. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Enhanced poling efficiency in highly thermal and photostable nonlinear optical chromophores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faccini, M.; Balakrishnan, M.; Diemeer, Mart; Hu, Zhi-Peng; Clays, Koen; Asselberghs, Inge; Leinse, Arne; Driessen, A.; Reinhoudt, David; Verboom, Willem

    A series of nonlinear optical chromophores based on the highly thermal and photostable tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene (TCVDPA) was synthesized and their thermal and optical properties were investigated. Modification of the TCVDPA chromophore with bulky groups provides reduction of

  5. Investigation of Efficiency and Thermal Performance of the Y-source Converters for a Wide Voltage Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadalla, Brwene Salah Abdelkarim; Schaltz, Erik; Siwakoti, Yam Prasad


    The Y-source topology has a unique advantage of having high voltages gain with small shoot through duty cycles. Furthermore, having the advantage of high modulation index increases the power density and improves the performance of the converter. In this paper, a collective thermal and efficiency...

  6. Clock Gating Based Energy Efficient and Thermal Aware Design of Latin Unicode Reader for Natural Language Processing on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ritu; Kalia, Kartik; Minver, M. H.


    Abstract-In this paper we have aimed to design an energy efficient and thermally aware Latin Unicode Reader. Our design is based on 28nm FPGA (Kintex-7) and 40nm FPGA (Artix-7). In order to test the portability of our design, we are operating our design with respective frequency of different mobile...

  7. Clock Gating Based Energy Efficient and Thermal Aware Design for Vedic Equation Solver on 28nm and 40nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Bishwajeet; Pandey, Sujeet; Sharma, Shivani


    equate that sum to zero and find the value of unknown variable. In order to test the portability of our design, we are operating our design with respective frequency of different mobile architecture. Operating frequency of iPhone 6 is 2100MHz. For thermal analysis of our energy efficient design, we have...

  8. Simulation of Thermal Distribution and Airflow for Efficient Energy Consumption in a Small Data Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ni


    Full Text Available Data centers have become ubiquitous in the last few years in an attempt to keep pace with the processing and storage needs of the Internet and cloud computing. The steady growth in the heat densities of IT servers leads to a rise in the energy needed to cool them, and constitutes approximately 40% of the power consumed by data centers. However, many data centers feature redundant air conditioning systems that contribute to inefficient air distribution, which significantly increases energy consumption. This remains an insufficiently explored problem. In this paper, a typical, small data center with tiles for an air supply system with a raised floor is used. We use a fluent (Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD to simulate thermal distribution and airflow, and investigate the optimal conditions of air distribution to save energy. The effects of the airflow outlet angle along the tile, the cooling temperature and the rate of airflow on the beta index as well as the energy utilization index are discussed, and the optimal conditions are obtained. The reasonable airflow distribution achieved using 3D CFD calculations and the parameter settings provided in this paper can help reduce the energy consumption of data centers by improving the efficiency of the air conditioning.

  9. FUV quantum efficiency degradation of cesium iodide photocathodes caused by exposure to thermal atomic oxygen (United States)

    McPhate, Jason; Anne, Joshi; Bacinski, John; Banks, Bruce; Cates, Carey; Christensen, Paul; Cruden, Brett; Dunham, Larry; Graham, Eric; Hughes, David; Kimble, Randy; Lupie, Olivia; Niedner, Malcolm; Osterman, Steven; Penton, Steven; Proffitt, Charles; Pugel, Diane; Siegmund, Oswald; Wheeler, Thomas


    The color dependence of the measured decline of the on-orbit sensitivity of the FUV channel of the HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST-COS) indicated the principal loss mechanism to be degradation of the cesium iodide (CsI) photocathode of the open-faced FUV detector. A possible cause of this degradation is contamination by atomic oxygen (AO), prompting an investigation of the interaction of AO with CsI. To address this question, opaque CsI photocathodes were deposited on stainless steel substrates employing the same deposition techniques and parameters used for the photocathodes of the HST-COS FUV detector. The as-deposited FUV quantum efficiency of these photocathodes was measured in the 117-174 nm range. Several of the photocathodes were exposed to varying levels of thermalized, atomic oxygen (AO) fluence (produced via an RF plasma). The post AO exposure QE's were measured and the degradation of sensitivity versus wavelength and AO fluence are presented.

  10. Experimental Comparison of Photothermal Conversion Efficiency of Gold Nanotriangle and Nanorod in Laser Induced Thermal Therapy. (United States)


    An experimental comparison of the photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE) for gold nanotriangles (GNTs) and nanorods (GNRs) was carried out in the present work. The discrete dipole approximation method was applied to identify the spectral characteristic of GNTs and GNRs with different aspect ratios. On this basis, the PCE of GNTs and GNRs in photothermal therapy were compared theoretically. Afterwards, an in vitro experiment was adopted to investigate the thermal effect of porcine muscle induced by laser irradiation, with and without injected GNTs and GNRs. The influences of laser total power, nanoparticle concentration, and nanoparticle type were investigated. It was found that for the commonly-used wavelengths for photothermal therapy, the PCE of GNTs is higher than that of the GNRs. Furthermore, for GNRs loaded in tissue in vitro, high laser power and high concentration of nanoparticles leads to the degeneration and even carbonization of tissue. However, for the GNTs with the same situation (laser power, nanoparticle volume concentration, and heating time), it could lead to the tissue's evaporation instead of carbonization.

  11. Energy efficiency and comfort conditions in passive solar buildings: Effect of thermal mass at equatorial high altitudes (United States)

    Ogoli, David Mwale

    This dissertation is based on the philosophy that architectural design should not just be a function of aesthetics, but also of energy-efficiency, advanced technologies and passive solar strategies. A lot of published literature is silent regarding buildings in equatorial highland regions. This dissertation is part of the body of knowledge that attempts to provide a study of energy in buildings using thermal mass. The objectives were to establish (1) effect of equatorial high-altitude climate on thermal mass, (2) effect of thermal mass on moderating indoor temperatures, (3) effect of thermal mass in reducing heating and cooling energy, and (4) the amount of time lag and decrement factor of thermal mass. Evidence to analyze the effect of thermal mass issues came from three sources. First, experimental physical models involving four houses were parametrically conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Second, energy computations were made using variations in thermal mass for determining annual energy usage and costs. Third, the data gathered were observed, evaluated, and compared with currently published research. The findings showed that: (1) Equatorial high-altitude climates that have diurnal temperature ranging about 10--15°C allow thermal mass to moderate indoor temperatures; (2) Several equations were established that indicate that indoor mean radiant temperatures can be predicted from outdoor temperatures; (3) Thermal mass can reduce annual energy for heating and cooling by about 71%; (4) Time lag and decrement of 200mm thick stone and concrete thermal mass can be predicted by a new formula; (5) All windows on a building should be shaded. East and west windows when shaded save 51% of the cooling energy. North and south windows when fully shaded account for a further 26% of the cooling energy; (6) Insulation on the outside of a wall reduces energy use by about 19.6% below the levels with insulation on the inside. The basic premise of this dissertation is that decisions that

  12. High efficiency direct thermal to electric energy conversion from radioisotope decay using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Flood, Dennis J.; Lowe, Roland A.


    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1200K. Both selective emitter and filter system TPV systems are feasible. However, requirements on the filter system are severe in order to attain high efficiency. A thin-film of a rare-earth oxide is one method for producing an efficient, rugged selective emitter. An efficiency of 0.14 and power density of 9.2 W/KG at 1200K is calculated for a hypothetical thin-film neodymia (Nd2O3) selective emitter TPV system that uses radioisotope decay as the thermal energy source.

  13. Thermal Efficiency of Power Module “Boiler with Solar Collectors as Additional Heat Source” For Combined Heat Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova A.E.


    Full Text Available The purpose of work is to increase the efficiency of the combined heat supply system with solar collectors as additional thermal generators. In order to optimize the parameters of combined heat supply system the mathematical modeling of thermal processes in multi module solar collectors as additional thermal generators for preheating of the water for boiler have been done. The method of calculation of multi-module solar collectors working with forced circulation for various configurations of hydraulic connection of solar collector modules as the new result of our work have been proposed. The results of numerical simulation of thermal efficiency of solar heat source for boiler of combined heat supply system with the account of design features of the circuit; regime parameters of thermal generators that allow establishing rational conditions of its functioning have been worked out. The conditions of functioning that provide required temperature of heat carrier incoming to boiler and value of flow rate at which the slippage of heat carrier is not possible for different hydraulic circuits of solar modules have been established.

  14. The use of salinity contrast for density difference compensation to improve the thermal recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage systems (United States)

    van Lopik, Jan H.; Hartog, Niels; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan


    The efficiency of heat recovery in high-temperature (>60 °C) aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) systems is limited due to the buoyancy of the injected hot water. This study investigates the potential to improve the efficiency through compensation of the density difference by increased salinity of the injected hot water for a single injection-recovery well scheme. The proposed method was tested through numerical modeling with SEAWATv4, considering seasonal HT-ATES with four consecutive injection-storage-recovery cycles. Recovery efficiencies for the consecutive cycles were investigated for six cases with three simulated scenarios: (a) regular HT-ATES, (b) HT-ATES with density difference compensation using saline water, and (c) theoretical regular HT-ATES without free thermal convection. For the reference case, in which 80 °C water was injected into a high-permeability aquifer, regular HT-ATES had an efficiency of 0.40 after four consecutive recovery cycles. The density difference compensation method resulted in an efficiency of 0.69, approximating the theoretical case (0.76). Sensitivity analysis showed that the net efficiency increase by using the density difference compensation method instead of regular HT-ATES is greater for higher aquifer hydraulic conductivity, larger temperature difference between injection water and ambient groundwater, smaller injection volume, and larger aquifer thickness. This means that density difference compensation allows the application of HT-ATES in thicker, more permeable aquifers and with larger temperatures than would be considered for regular HT-ATES systems.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of heat generation and efficient measurement of fractional thermal loading in a solid-state laser medium (United States)

    Wang, Y. T.; Zhang, R. H.


    In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of heat generation in a solid-state laser medium. The fractional thermal loadings are different for different physical processes in a laser medium, including the fluorescence process, stimulated emission, energy transfer up-conversion and excited-state absorption. Applying this theoretical analysis in a diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1342 nm, and using a simple and efficient method to measure the thermal loading of the solid-state laser medium presented, the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretically calculated results.

  16. Aerial thermal images to assess irrigation efficiency in 'Vitis vinifera' cv. Albariño (United States)

    Gonzalez, Xesús Pablo; Fandiño, María; Rey, Benjamín J.; José Cancela, Javier


    Canopy temperature was defined as key data to irrigation management and to detect crop water stress (Jackson, 1982). Recently, temperature camera was installed on board in a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), thus heterogeneity within field could be determined. Pereira et al. (2012) have defined the conceptual and terminological study of crop water use indicators, mainly water use efficiency (WUE) and water productivity (WP). Actually, it is crucial achieve higher WP and WUE, where crop yield variability between years must be reduced with the smallest irrigation water, but with a correct management of crop water stress during the season. In this study, Albariño cultivar grapevine, priority in Galicia (Spain) in Designation of Origen 'Rías Baixas', was assessed in relation to water productivity index, focus on irrigation treatments aspects, during 2016. Albariño vineyard was planted in 1996 on 110-Richter at a spacing of 3 × 2 m (1667 vines ha-1) (41°57 6 N, 8°49 26 W, elevation 101 m). Vines were trained to a vertical trellis system on a Guyot oriented in the East-West direction. Three irrigation treatments were applied: irrigation from budburst to maturation (T1), from flowering to maturation (T2), and from veraison to maturation (T3), moreover a rain-fed treatment was implemented. All WP index was referred to farm yield level (kg ha-1); where the denominator applied to WP TWUfarm, introduced rainfall and irrigation depth; to WP Irrig, only irrigation depth applied; was used. Moreover, crop water stress index (CWSI) was used to determine homogenize areas within experimental plot, using an UAV with a thermal camera (ThermoMAP, senseFly, SW) to achieve a final map with 14 cm per pixel resolution. During August 11th, at the end of veraison, camera was installed in an 'eBee Ag' UAV (senseFly, SW) with a median flight altitude of 75 m over ground level. Yield per hectare were recorded and total irrigation depth per treatment during the growing season from March to

  17. Modernised Portuguese schools - From IAQ and thermal comfort towards energy efficiency plans (United States)

    Pereira, Luisa Maria Dias

    . The continuous monitoring period varied between schools, from a minimum of 48h monitoring up to three weeks, during the mid-season [spring – autumn period (excluding summer vacation) in 2013]. Air exchange rates (AER), more specifically infiltration rates, are quantified aiming at determining the current airtightness condition of the refurbished schools. A subjective IEQ assessment is also performed, focusing on occupants’ feedback, providing insight on the potential linkages between energy use and occupants’ satisfaction and comfort. The thesis builds on the current EEP panorama and practice, which is based only on cost/energy control, extending it to address the equilibrium between IEQ evaluation and occupants’ perceived conditions/preferences. This approach is applied in two schools – selected based on the previous study on energy and IEQ conditions of the eight schools. The EEP methodology starts by deepening the knowledge of each school, mostly focusing on crossing the schools occupancy schedule with systems operation [(mainly those controlled by the building management system (BMS)]. An analysis on recently updated legislation is also performed (in particular fresh air flow rates requirements). It is shown that some potential energy savings can be achieved and that IEQ conditions can be improved at very low or even negligible costs. Other considerations, namely addressing the thermal energy production systems of the schools (e.g., boilers scheduling), the lighting systems (e.g., lighting circuits) and non-controlled plug loads, are also mentioned. Based upon all these findings, a handbook of good practice is drafted for secondary school buildings in Portugal. This EEP is accompanied by a list of Energy Efficiency Measures (EEM). It is proposed that this document is headed by a School – Energy Performance Certificate (S–EPC) based on the billed energy consumption. This document suggests the establishment of the figure of the Energy Manager.

  18. Investigation on the influence of BBO thermal-induced phase mismatching in 266nm UV laser conversion efficiency (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Jin, Guangyong; Yu, Miao; Huang, Zhulong; Zhai, Ruizhi; Wang, Lei


    266nm UV laser has a wide range of applications in many fields, such as laser medical treatment, laser processing, precision measure and other applications for the reason of its advantages in wavelength, small diffraction effects, high single-photon energy, and high resolution and so on. BBO crystals absorb parts of the fundamental laser energy and second harmonic laser energy are unavoidable, and thus the temperature raise, so that the existing crystal phase matching conditions change, resulting in phase mismatching in the high-power frequency doubling, greatly influence the 266nm UV laser conversion efficiency. To further study the effect of phase mismatching to conversion efficiency, and improve the conversion efficiency, output power and other output characteristics of 266nm laser, the article mainly describe from the following three aspects. Firstly, took the use of three-dimensional nonlinear crystal temperature distribution which is obtained, the process of BBO crystal thermal-induced phase mismatching is analyzed. Secondly, based on frequency doubling theory, the effects of the thermal-induced phase mismatching affected of conversion in crystals are analyzed. Combining with the phase mismatching of the three-dimensional distributions, the fourth harmonic conversion efficiency with thermal phase mismatching changes of BBO 266nm UV laser are simulated for the first time. Thirdly, by using MATLAB software, the effects of phase mismatching to conversion efficiency in crystal for different waist radius, 532nm laser power and the fundamental beam quality are simulated. The results indicate a good physical interpretation of reasons of high power laser frequency doubling system. It shows that the model established explains the reason of the reduction of conversion efficiency, output power and the beam quality excellently. All results make a leading sense to the research on the compensating of the phase mismatching and on the improvement of conversion efficiency.

  19. Operational and environmental performance in China's thermal power industry: Taking an effectiveness measure as complement to an efficiency measure. (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jieming; Wei, Yi-Ming


    The trend toward a more fiercely competitive and strictly environmentally regulated electricity market in several countries, including China has led to efforts by both industry and government to develop advanced performance evaluation models that adapt to new evaluation requirements. Traditional operational and environmental efficiency measures do not fully consider the influence of market competition and environmental regulations and, thus, are not sufficient for the thermal power industry to evaluate its operational performance with respect to specific marketing goals (operational effectiveness) and its environmental performance with respect to specific emissions reduction targets (environmental effectiveness). As a complement to an operational efficiency measure, an operational effectiveness measure not only reflects the capacity of an electricity production system to increase its electricity generation through the improvement of operational efficiency, but it also reflects the system's capability to adjust its electricity generation activities to match electricity demand. In addition, as a complement to an environmental efficiency measure, an environmental effectiveness measure not only reflects the capacity of an electricity production system to decrease its pollutant emissions through the improvement of environmental efficiency, but it also reflects the system's capability to adjust its emissions abatement activities to fulfill environmental regulations. Furthermore, an environmental effectiveness measure helps the government regulator to verify the rationality of its emissions reduction targets assigned to the thermal power industry. Several newly developed effectiveness measurements based on data envelopment analysis (DEA) were utilized in this study to evaluate the operational and environmental performance of the thermal power industry in China during 2006-2013. Both efficiency and effectiveness were evaluated from the three perspectives of operational

  20. Method for manufacturing solid-state thermal neutron detectors with simultaneous high thermal neutron detection efficiency (>50%) and neutron to gamma discrimination (>1.0E4) (United States)

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Heineck, Daniel; Voss, Lars F.; Wang, Tzu Fang; Shao, Qinghui


    Methods for manufacturing solid-state thermal neutron detectors with simultaneous high thermal neutron detection efficiency (>50%) and neutron to gamma discrimination (>10.sup.4) are provided. A structure is provided that includes a p+ region on a first side of an intrinsic region and an n+ region on a second side of the intrinsic region. The thickness of the intrinsic region is minimized to achieve a desired gamma discrimination factor of at least 1.0E+04. Material is removed from one of the p+ region or the n+ region and into the intrinsic layer to produce pillars with open space between each pillar. The open space is filed with a neutron sensitive material. An electrode is placed in contact with the pillars and another electrode is placed in contact with the side that is opposite of the intrinsic layer with respect to the first electrode.

  1. Policy Brief: Enhancing water-use efficiency of thermal power plants in India: need for mandatory water audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, R.K. (ed.)


    This policy brief discusses the challenges of water availability and opportunity to improve the water use efficiency in industries specially the thermal power plants. It presents TERI’s experience from comprehensive water audits conducted for thermal power plants in India. The findings indicate that there is a significant scope for saving water in the waste water discharge, cooling towers, ash handling systems, and the township water supply. Interventions like recycling wastewater, curbing leakages, increasing CoC (Cycles of concentration) in cooling towers, using dry ash handling etc., can significantly reduce the specific water consumption in power plants. However, the first step towards this is undertaking regular water audits. The policy brief highlights the need of mandatory water audits necessary to understand the current water use and losses as well as identify opportunities for water conservation, reduction in specific water consumption, and an overall improvement in water use efficiency in industries.

  2. Thermal efficiency of a non-transferred thermal plasma cannon; Eficiencia termica de un canon de plasma termico no-transferido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, A.; Cota, G.; Merlo, L.; Pacheco, J.; Pena, R.; Cruz, A. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    This work shows a thermal efficiency research ({nu}) for a plasma torch in d.c. which was carried out through the realization of an energy balance around the system under consideration. The plasma torch is manufactured in copper with a tungsten incrustations in cathode. The gas used was argon and the gas fluxes were at the rank of 10 and 40 lt/min to the total pressure of 1.2 bar (1.1 atm). With these conditions it was worked with electric currents at the rank of 40 and 180 A. The data were collected through a data acquisition card which was programmed in Windows environment. (Author)

  3. Development and Implementation of Efficiency-Improving Analysis Methods for the SAGE III on ISS Thermal Model Originating (United States)

    Liles, Kaitlin; Amundsen, Ruth; Davis, Warren; Scola, Salvatore; Tobin, Steven; McLeod, Shawn; Mannu, Sergio; Guglielmo, Corrado; Moeller, Timothy


    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle in 2015. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Several novel methods have been implemented to facilitate efficient payload-level thermal analysis, including the use of a design of experiments (DOE) methodology to determine the worst-case orbits for SAGE III while on ISS, use of TD assemblies to move payloads from the Dragon trunk to the Enhanced Operational Transfer Platform (EOTP) to its final home on the Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station (ExPRESS) Logistics Carrier (ELC)-4, incorporation of older models in varying unit sets, ability to change units easily (including hardcoded logic blocks), case-based logic to facilitate activating heaters and active elements for varying scenarios within a single model, incorporation of several coordinate frames to easily map to structural models with differing geometries and locations, and streamlined results processing using an Excel-based text file plotter developed in-house at LaRC. This document presents an overview of the SAGE III thermal model and describes the development and implementation of these efficiency-improving analysis methods.

  4. The Synergistic Effect of Thermal Collectors Rotation in relation to Their Energy Efficiency and Stagnation Compared with the Static Thermal System in the Conditions of Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Rimar


    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the issue of the efficient use of solar energy potential gained from thermal panels via tracking the Sun’s trajectory. Based on long-term measurements of the selected parameters, the efficiency of the installed system in relation to the ecliptic was evaluated in the static regime as well as in a rotary regime. In the comparison of rotary and fixed system of the collectors the presented results show an increase of the effectiveness of rotary one during the period of the day. On closer view the increase is not constant. During the day it varies: the most significant increase is in the afternoon, while the time from 10:30 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. the effectiveness of both systems almost identical. The utilisation of the rotary system as a suitable instrument for the elimination of the system stagnation was also evaluated.

  5. Highly Efficient and Robust Micropump for Small Spacecraft Thermal Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the introduction of low-cost, small, rapidly configurable spacecraft, the need for robust, versatile, readily deployable, and easily ground-testable thermal...

  6. Assessing energy efficiency of electric car bottom furnaces intended for thermal energization of minerals (United States)

    Nizhegorodov, A. I.


    The paper deals with a new concept of electric furnaces for roasting and thermal energization of vermiculite and other minerals with vibrational transportation of a single-layer mass under constant thermal field. The paper presents performance calculation and comparative assessment of energy data for furnaces of different modifications: flame and electric furnaces with three units, furnaces with six units and ones with series-parallel connection of units, and furnaces of new concept.

  7. Extremely Cost-Effective and Efficient Solar Vapor Generation under Nonconcentrated Illumination Using Thermally Isolated Black Paper. (United States)

    Liu, Zhejun; Song, Haomin; Ji, Dengxin; Li, Chenyu; Cheney, Alec; Liu, Youhai; Zhang, Nan; Zeng, Xie; Chen, Borui; Gao, Jun; Li, Yuesheng; Liu, Xiang; Aga, Diana; Jiang, Suhua; Yu, Zongfu; Gan, Qiaoqiang


    Passive solar vapor generation represents a promising and environmentally benign method of water purification/desalination. However, conventional solar steam generation techniques usually rely on costly and cumbersome optical concentration systems and have relatively low efficiency due to bulk heating of the entire liquid volume. Here, an efficient strategy using extremely low-cost materials, i.e., carbon black (powder), hydrophilic porous paper, and expanded polystyrene foam is reported. Due to the excellent thermal insulation between the surface liquid and the bulk volume of the water and the suppressed radiative and convective losses from the absorber surface to the adjacent heated vapor, a record thermal efficiency of ≈88% is obtained under 1 sun without concentration, corresponding to the evaporation rate of 1.28 kg (m2 h)-1. When scaled up to a 100 cm2 array in a portable solar water still system and placed in an outdoor environment, the freshwater generation rate is 2.4 times of that of a leading commercial product. By simultaneously addressing both the need for high-efficiency operation as well as production cost limitations, this system can provide an approach for individuals to purify water for personal needs, which is particularly suitable for undeveloped regions with limited/no access to electricity.

  8. Internal quantum efficiency mapping analysis for a >20%-efficiency n-type bifacial solar cell with front-side emitter formed by BBr3 thermal diffusion (United States)

    Simayi, Shalamujiang; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kida, Yasuhiro; Shirasawa, Katsuhiko; Takato, Hidetaka


    This paper presents a large-area (239-cm2) high-efficiency n-type bifacial solar cell that is processed using tube-furnace thermal diffusion employing liquid sources BBr3 for the front-side boron emitter and POCl3 for the rear-side phosphorus back surface field (BSF). The SiN x /Al2O3 stack was applied to the front-side boron emitter as a passivation layer. Both the front and rear-side electrodes are obtained using screen-printed contacts with H-patterns. The resulting highest-efficiency solar cell has front- and rear-side efficiencies of 20.3 and 18.7%, respectively, while the corresponding bifaciality is up to 92%. Finally, the passivation quality of the SiN x /Al2O3 stack on the front-side boron emitter and rear-side phosphorus BSF is investigated and visualized by measuring the internal quantum efficiency mapping of the bifacial solar cell.

  9. Efficient Thermal Insulation of Passive House with Curved Façades in Cold Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aznabaev Askar


    Full Text Available In this paper there is exploration of the possibility of creating effective sealed building envelope in zero energy building (ZEB with unique façades. This article describes passive and active measures of decrease of thermal loss through enclosure structures, usage of modern insulation materials; positive effect of rationalization of the façade orientation and form of a building in a plan; on the base of existing architecture concept structural solutions of building envelope are suggested. Using thermal FEA the enclosure structure was optimized. The results of modeling of units and elements of building envelope are: heat transfer coefficient U-value for heterogeneous multilayer structure, picture of temperature distribution and magnitude of the thermal conductivity and temperature of internal wall surface.

  10. Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy as a Cost Efficient Method for Determining Thermal Parameters of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (HEV, PHEV, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging and discharging power capability rates...... by Barsoukov et al. proposed electrothermal impedance spectroscopy (ETIS) as a novel and non-destructive method of characterizing the thermal properties of batteries by defining frequency dependent thermal impedance. This paper aims to systematize the state of knowledge about ETIS, presents measurement methods...

  11. Thermal pre-treatment of wet microalgae harvest for efficient hydrocarbon recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, K.; Okada, S.; Sekino, H.; Imou, K.; Yokoyama, S. [Laboratory of Biological and Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Amano, T. [Technology Research Institute, Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., 1-7-7 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan)


    Botryococcus braunii, a green colonial microalga, is an unusually rich renewable source of hydrocarbons. In this study, wet microalgae harvest was thermally pretreated to enhance hydrocarbon recovery using a solvent extraction process. Samples containing a mixture of B. braunii and water were kept below 100 C for 10 min. The observed hydrocarbon recovery was 97.8% at 90 C. The extraction results suggest that the energy-intensive concentration and drying processes of the harvest could be eliminated. The proposed thermal pretreatment would revolutionize the conventional downstream processes. (author)

  12. Filtration efficiency validation of glass wool during thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of fine atmospheric particles. (United States)

    Hao, Liang; Wu, Dapeng; Ding, Kun; Meng, Hu; Yan, Xiaohui; Guan, Yafeng


    Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS) technique has been widely used for analysis of semi-violate organic compounds on atmospheric aerosol. To prevent GC column from being damaged by fine solid particles during thermal desorption process, glass wool as filter mat is indispensible. However, the filtration efficiency has never been validated. In this paper, the most penetrating particle size and the minimum packing thickness of glass wool were calculated based on classical filtration theory. According to the calculation results, packing parameters of glass wool were optimized experimentally using silica particles. It is demonstrated that glass wool with a packing thickness of 30 mm, solidity of 0.039 can effectively block these fine solid particles from penetrating at normal thermal desorption conditions (T=300°C, u=0.4-4 cm/s). Finally, the filtration efficiency of glass wool was further confirmed with real PM2.5 samples. Under the validated filtration condition, TD-GC-MS was applied for the analysis of non-polar organic compounds on real PM2.5 samples, and very good results were obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Heat rejection and thermal efficiency in model hydrogen-halogen fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balko, E.N.


    The efficiency and heat rejection characteristics of the H/sub 2//Cl/sub 2/, H/sub 2//Br/sub 2/ and H/sub 2//I/sub 2/ fuel cell systems have been studied. The H/sub 2//Cl/sub 2/ and H/sub 2//Br/sub 2/ systems are comparable in terms of efficiency, heat rejection and fuel mass. The H/sub 2//I/sub 2/ system is markedly less efficient.

  14. Graphene-multilayer graphene nanocomposites as highly efficient thermal interface materials. (United States)

    Shahil, Khan M F; Balandin, Alexander A


    We found that the optimized mixture of graphene and multilayer graphene, produced by the high-yield inexpensive liquid-phase-exfoliation technique, can lead to an extremely strong enhancement of the cross-plane thermal conductivity K of the composite. The "laser flash" measurements revealed a record-high enhancement of K by 2300% in the graphene-based polymer at the filler loading fraction f = 10 vol %. It was determined that the relatively high concentration of the single-layer and bilayer graphene flakes (~10-15%) present simultaneously with the thicker multilayers of large lateral size (~1 μm) were essential for the observed unusual K enhancement. The thermal conductivity of the commercial thermal grease was increased from an initial value of ~5.8 W/mK to K = 14 W/mK at the small loading f = 2%, which preserved all mechanical properties of the hybrid. Our modeling results suggest that graphene-multilayer graphene nanocomposite used as the thermal interface material outperforms those with carbon nanotubes or metal nanoparticles owing to graphene's aspect ratio and lower Kapitza resistance at the graphene-matrix interface. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  15. Optimization of thermal efficiency of nuclear central power like as PWR; Otimizacao da eficiencia termica de uma usina nuclear do tipo PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, Nelbia da Silva


    The main purpose of this work is the definition of operational conditions for the steam and power conservation of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant in order to increase its system thermal efficiency without changing any component, based on the optimization of operational parameters of the plant. The thermal efficiency is calculated by a thermal balance program, based on conservation equations for homogeneous modeling. The circuit coefficients are estimated by an optimization tool, allowing a more realistic thermal balance for the plans under analysis, as well as others parameters necessary to some component models. With the operational parameter optimization, it is possible to get a level of thermal efficiency that increase capital gain, due to a better relationship between the electricity production and the amount of fuel used, without any need to change components plant. (author)

  16. High-efficiency electroluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission from a thermally activated delayed fluorescent near-infrared emitter (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeon; D'Aléo, Anthony; Chen, Xian-Kai; Sandanayaka, Atula D. S.; Yao, Dandan; Zhao, Li; Komino, Takeshi; Zaborova, Elena; Canard, Gabriel; Tsuchiya, Youichi; Choi, Eunyoung; Wu, Jeong Weon; Fages, Frédéric; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Adachi, Chihaya


    Near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes and semiconductor lasers could benefit a variety of applications including night-vision displays, sensors and information-secured displays. Organic dyes can generate electroluminescence efficiently at visible wavelengths, but organic light-emitting diodes are still underperforming in the near-infrared region. Here, we report thermally activated delayed fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes that operate at near-infrared wavelengths with a maximum external quantum efficiency of nearly 10% using a boron difluoride curcuminoid derivative. As well as an effective upconversion from triplet to singlet excited states due to the non-adiabatic coupling effect, this donor-acceptor-donor compound also exhibits efficient amplified spontaneous emission. By controlling the polarity of the active medium, the maximum emission wavelength of the electroluminescence spectrum can be tuned from 700 to 780 nm. This study represents an important advance in near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes and the design of alternative molecular architectures for photonic applications based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

  17. Investigation of Different Configurations of a Ventilated Window to Optimize Both Energy Efficiency and Thermal Comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Heiselberg, Per; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova


    ) for the calculation of the thermal and solar properties of commercial and innovative window systems. Additionally, comfort performance is evaluated by inlet air temperature and internal surface temperature of the windows calculated by WIS software. The results of the study show the energy and comfort performance...... the energy consumption or optimizing the thermal comfort. The provided optimal window typologies can be used in residential and commercial buildings for both new constructions and renovations.......The study in this article investigates 15 ventilated window typologies with different pane configurations and glazing types in climates of four European countries (United Kingdom, Denmark, France and Germany) in order to identify the optimum typology with regard to their energy balance and impact...

  18. Thermal Testing and Analysis of an Efficient High-Temperature Multi-Screen Internal Insulation (United States)

    Weiland, Stefan; Handrick, Karin; Daryabeigi, Kamran


    Conventional multi-layer insulations exhibit excellent insulation performance but they are limited to the temperature range to which their components reflective foils and spacer materials are compatible. For high temperature applications, the internal multi-screen insulation IMI has been developed that utilizes unique ceramic material technology to produce reflective screens with high temperature stability. For analytical insulation sizing a parametric material model is developed that includes the main contributors for heat flow which are radiation and conduction. The adaptation of model-parameters based on effective steady-state thermal conductivity measurements performed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) allows for extrapolation to arbitrary stack configurations and temperature ranges beyond the ones that were covered in the conductivity measurements. Experimental validation of the parametric material model was performed during the thermal qualification test of the X-38 Chin-panel, where test results and predictions showed a good agreement.

  19. Investigation of Different Configurations of a Ventilated Window to Optimize Both Energy Efficiency and Thermal Comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Heiselberg, Per; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova


    The study in this article investigates 15 ventilated window typologies with different pane configurations and glazing types in climates of four European countries (United Kingdom, Denmark, France and Germany) in order to identify the optimum typology with regard to their energy balance and impact...... the energy consumption or optimizing the thermal comfort. The provided optimal window typologies can be used in residential and commercial buildings for both new constructions and renovations....... on thermal comfort. Hourly simulations of the heat balances of the windows are conducted on four days representing different typical weather conditions according to the method described in EN ISO 13790. U and g values used in the calculation method are calculated in European software tool (WIS......) for the calculation of the thermal and solar properties of commercial and innovative window systems. Additionally, comfort performance is evaluated by inlet air temperature and internal surface temperature of the windows calculated by WIS software. The results of the study show the energy and comfort performance...

  20. Efficient analysis of mode profiles in elliptical microcavity using dynamic-thermal electron-quantum medium FDTD method. (United States)

    Khoo, E H; Ahmed, I; Goh, R S M; Lee, K H; Hung, T G G; Li, E P


    The dynamic-thermal electron-quantum medium finite-difference time-domain (DTEQM-FDTD) method is used for efficient analysis of mode profile in elliptical microcavity. The resonance peak of the elliptical microcavity is studied by varying the length ratio. It is observed that at some length ratios, cavity mode is excited instead of whispering gallery mode. This depicts that mode profiles are length ratio dependent. Through the implementation of the DTEQM-FDTD on graphic processing unit (GPU), the simulation time is reduced by 300 times as compared to the CPU. This leads to an efficient optimization approach to design microcavity lasers for wide range of applications in photonic integrated circuits.

  1. Thermal and efficiency analysis of five-level multi-level clamped multilevel converter considering grid codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Muñoz-Aguilar, S.; Rodriguez, P.


    In this paper a five-level Multi-Clamped Multilevel Converter (5L-MLC2) topology is analyzed based on a typical grid integration application for renewable energy generation system. The loss and thermal distribution of the power devices in different switching legs are investigated and illustrated...... under rated operation. Afterwards, a loss and efficiency evaluation method is proposed and applied which takes into account various reactive power operation boundaries regulated by the grid codes. It is concluded that the 5L-MLC2 multilevel topology shows a good and consistent efficiency characteristic...... under different output active powers when complying with the active/reactive power operation range regulated by e.g. the German grid codes....

  2. Electric co-heating in the ASHRAE standard method of test for thermal distribution efficiency: Test results on two New York State homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.; Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J.J.


    Electric co-heating tests on two single-family homes with forced-air heating systems were carried out in March 1995. The goal of these tests was to evaluate procedures being considered for incorporation in a Standard Method of Test for thermal distribution system efficiency now being developed by ASHRAE. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the building equipment that produces this thermal energy to the spaces in which it is used. Furthering the project goal, the first objective of the tests was to evaluate electric co-heating as a means of measuring system efficiency. The second objective was to investigate procedures for obtaining the distribution efficiency, using system efficiency as a base. Distribution efficiencies of 0.63 and 0.70 were obtained for the two houses.

  3. Efficiency of thermal relaxation by radiative processes in protoplanetary discs: constraints on hydrodynamic turbulence (United States)

    Malygin, M. G.; Klahr, H.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.; Dullemond, C. P.


    Context. Hydrodynamic, non-magnetic instabilities can provide turbulent stress in the regions of protoplanetary discs, where the magneto-rotational instability can not develop. The induced motions influence the grain growth, from which formation of planetesimals begins. Thermal relaxation of the gas constrains origins of the identified hydrodynamic sources of turbulence in discs. Aims: We aim to estimate the radiative relaxation timescale of temperature perturbations in protoplanetary discs. We study the dependence of the thermal relaxation on the perturbation wavelength, the location within the disc, the disc mass, and the dust-to-gas mass ratio. We then apply thermal relaxation criteria to localise modes of the convective overstability, the vertical shear instability, and the zombie vortex instability. Methods: For a given temperature perturbation, we estimated two timescales: the radiative diffusion timescale tthick and the optically thin emission timescale tthin. The longest of these timescales governs the relaxation: trelax = max (tthick, tthin). We additionally accounted for the collisional coupling to the emitting species. Our calculations employed the latest tabulated dust and gas mean opacities. Results: The relaxation criterion defines the bulk of a typical T Tauri disc as unstable to the development of linear hydrodynamic instabilities. The midplane is unstable to the convective overstability from at most 2au and up to 40au, as well as beyond 140au. The vertical shear instability can develop between 15au and 180au. The successive generation of (zombie) vortices from a seeded noise can work within the inner 0.8au. Conclusions: A map of relaxation timescale constrains the origins of the identified hydrodynamic turbulence-driving mechanisms in protoplanetary discs. Dynamic disc modelling with the evolution of dust and gas opacities is required to clearly localise the hydrodynamic turbulence, and especially its non-linear phase.

  4. Evaluation of thermal hydrolysis efficiency of mechanically dewatered sewage sludge via rheological measurement. (United States)

    Zhang, Jingsi; Xue, Yonggang; Eshtiaghi, Nicky; Dai, Xiaohu; Tao, Wenquan; Li, Zhuo


    In this study, laboratory tests of both low temperature (60-90 °C) and high temperature (120-180 °C) thermal hydrolysis (LTHP and HTHP) were performed on mechanically dewatered high-solid sludges (at total solid of 14.2 wt% and 18.2 wt%) to evaluate the extent of organic solubilization through rheological measurements. The effects of treatment temperature and duration on organic solubilization and viscoelastic behavior of the sludge were comprehensively investigated. The results indicated that the organic solubilization contents including soluble chemical oxygen demand, soluble protein, and soluble polysaccharides increased logarithmically with the treatment time. Protein solubilized considerably faster than polysaccharides during thermal hydrolysis. The rheological curves exhibited the Payne effect in the amplitude sweep oscillation test. The elastic modulus in linear viscoelastic regime decreased logarithmically with treatment time. The viscoelastic behavior of sludge was well modeled by the Kaye-Bernstein-Kearsly-Zapas (KBKZ) model with paralleled Maxwell elements to describe the frequency dependence of elastic modulus and viscous modulus. With respect to the relaxation spectrum, the relaxation modulus first decreased with relaxation time and then increased. The relaxation modulus in each Maxwell element decreased with the treatment temperature and duration. Furthermore, in the HTHP, the influence of treatment temperature on enhancing organic solubilization and decreasing viscoelasticity exceeded the influence of treatment duration. In contrast, the treatment duration played a more important role than temperature in the LTHP. The content of organic matters was linearly related and logarithmically related to the elastic modulus in the LTHP and in the HTHP, respectively. The rheology analyses demonstrated that viscoelastic properties could be used as indicators to estimate the extent of organic matter solubilization in thermal hydrolysis process. The

  5. Efficient Simulation and Abuse Modeling of Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Phenomena in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Chao [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Laboratories; Abraham, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory; Dees, Dennis [Argonne National Laboratory; Yao, Pierre [Argonne National Laboratory


    NREL's Energy Storage team is exploring the effect of mechanical crush of lithium ion cells on their thermal and electrical safety. PHEV cells, fresh as well as ones aged over 8 months under different temperatures, voltage windows, and charging rates, were subjected to destructive physical analysis. Constitutive relationship and failure criteria were developed for the electrodes, separator as well as packaging material. The mechanical models capture well, the various modes of failure across different cell components. Cell level validation is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories.

  6. About Utilization Efficiency Evaluation of Gas-Expansion and Generator Units at Thermal Power Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kachan


    Full Text Available The paper considers methods for determination of gas-expansion and generator unit indices when they are applied at a thermal power station. It is shown, that while relating the effect of additional power-and-heat generation output due to heat taking-off from steam turbines to gas-expansion and generator unit to the operation of this unit a specific fuel consumption of power supply from gas-expansion and generator unit can be lower than fuel equivalent of kilowatt-hour.

  7. Investigation and Measurement of Copper Nanofluid Impact on Thermal Efficiency of Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadi Morteza Khalaji


    Full Text Available This study compared the impacts of using copper nanofliud to enhance the efficiency of flat solar collectors with closed loop and under forced convection heat transfer circumstances to traditional work fluids. Various concentrations of nanoparticles in water and water/glycol, from 250ppm to 3000ppm, were examined for volume fraction impact. Results indicate that the laboratory tests were different from those under real conditions because of the high concentration of nanoparticles used in laboratory tests; however, by using nanofluid (even with low concentrations around 0.3% solar collector efficiency improved (3.2%.Results have also shown that the use of copper nanofluid in ethylene glycol as the base fluid causes a significant reduction in collector efficiency, due to the increase in viscosity. However, using higher flow rates caused the heat transfer rate to rise because of increased turbulence.

  8. Vibronically coherent ultrafast triplet-pair formation and subsequent thermally activated dissociation control efficient endothermic singlet fission (United States)

    Stern, Hannah L.; Cheminal, Alexandre; Yost, Shane R.; Broch, Katharina; Bayliss, Sam L.; Chen, Kai; Tabachnyk, Maxim; Thorley, Karl; Greenham, Neil; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Anthony, John; Head-Gordon, Martin; Musser, Andrew J.; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H.


    Singlet exciton fission (SF), the conversion of one spin-singlet exciton (S1) into two spin-triplet excitons (T1), could provide a means to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit in photovoltaics. SF as measured by the decay of S1 has been shown to occur efficiently and independently of temperature, even when the energy of S1 is as much as 200 meV less than that of 2T1. Here we study films of triisopropylsilyltetracene using transient optical spectroscopy and show that the triplet pair state (TT), which has been proposed to mediate singlet fission, forms on ultrafast timescales (in 300 fs) and that its formation is mediated by the strong coupling of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. This is followed by a slower loss of singlet character as the excitation evolves to become only TT. We observe the TT to be thermally dissociated on 10-100 ns timescales to form free triplets. This provides a model for 'temperature-independent' efficient TT formation and thermally activated TT separation.

  9. Higher Efficiency and Temperature Reliability of Steam Generators at Thermal Power Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Kelbaliev


    Full Text Available Methods for higher power unit efficiency and decrease of specific fuel consumption for electric-power generation have been considered in the paper. The paper reveals that a heat exchange intensification makes a positive effect on efficiency and temperature reliability of power engineering equipment while using coil and artificially turbulized (contoured pipes. Results of experimental investigations on metal temperature at various mode parameters are proposed in the paper. The paper contains equations for determination of conditions initiating heat-transfer drop.

  10. A New Design Strategy for Efficient Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Organic Emitters: From Twisted to Planar Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Xiankai


    In the traditional molecular design of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters composed of electron-donor and electron-acceptor moieties, achieving a small singlet-triplet energy gap (ΔEST ) in strongly twisted structures usually translates into a small fluorescence oscillator strength, which can significantly decrease the emission quantum yield and limit efficiency in organic light-emitting diode devices. Here, based on the results of quantum-chemical calculations on TADF emitters composed of carbazole donor and 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine acceptor moieties, a new strategy is proposed for the molecular design of efficient TADF emitters that combine a small ΔEST with a large fluorescence oscillator strength. Since this strategy goes beyond the traditional framework of structurally twisted, charge-transfer type emitters, importantly, it opens the way for coplanar molecules to be efficient TADF emitters. Here, a new emitter, composed of azatriangulene and diphenyltriazine moieties, is theoretically designed, which is coplanar due to intramolecular H-bonding interactions. The synthesis of this hexamethylazatriangulene-triazine (HMAT-TRZ) emitter and its preliminary photophysical characterizations point to HMAT-TRZ as a potential efficient TADF emitter.

  11. SS-mPEG chemical modification of recombinant phospholipase C for enhanced thermal stability and catalytic efficiency. (United States)

    Fang, Xian; Wang, Xueting; Li, Guiling; Zeng, Jun; Li, Jian; Liu, Jingwen


    PEGylation is one of the most promising and extensively studied strategies for improving the properties of proteins as well as enzymic physical and thermal stability. Phospholipase C, hydrolyzing the phospholipids offers tremendous applications in diverse fields. However, the poor thermal stability and higher cost of production have restricted its industrial application. This study focused on improving the stabilization of recombinant PLC by chemical modification with methoxypolyethylene glycol-Succinimidyl Succinate (SS-mPEG, MW 5000). PLC gene from isolate Bacillus cereus HSL3 was fused with SUMO, a novel small ubiquitin-related modifier expression vector and over expressed in Escherichia coli. The soluble fraction of SUMO-PLC reached 80% of the total recombinant protein. The enzyme exhibited maximum catalytic activity at 80 °C and was relatively thermostable at 40-70 °C. It showed extensive substrate specificity pattern and marked activity toward phosphatidylcholine, which made it a typical non-specific PLC for industrial purpose. SS-mPEG-PLC complex exhibited an enhanced thermal stability at 70-80 °C and the catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km) had increased by 3.03 folds compared with free PLC. CD spectrum of SS-mPEG-PLC indicated a possible enzyme aggregation after chemical modification, which contributed to the higher thermostability of SS-mPEG-PLC. The increase of antiparallel β sheets in secondary structure also made it more stable than parallel β sheets. The presence of SS-mPEG chains on the enzyme molecule surface somewhat changed the binding rate of the substrates, leading to a significant improvement in catalytic efficiency. This study provided an insight into the addition of SS-mPEG for enhancing the industrial applications of phospholipase C at higher temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multilayer Graphene Enables Higher Efficiency in Improving Thermal Conductivities of Graphene/Epoxy Composites. (United States)

    Shen, Xi; Wang, Zhenyu; Wu, Ying; Liu, Xu; He, Yan-Bing; Kim, Jang-Kyo


    The effects of number of graphene layers (n) and size of multilayer graphene sheets on thermal conductivities (TCs) of their epoxy composites are investigated. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the in-plane TCs of graphene sheets and the TCs across the graphene/epoxy interface simultaneously increase with increasing n. However, such higher TCs of multilayer graphene sheets will not translate into higher TCs of bulk composites unless they have large lateral sizes to maintain their aspect ratios comparable to the monolayer counterparts. The benefits of using large, multilayer graphene sheets are confirmed by experiments, showing that the composites made from graphite nanoplatelets (n > 10) with over 30 μm in diameter deliver a TC of ∼1.5 W m(-1) K(-1) at only 2.8 vol %, consistently higher than those containing monolayer or few-layer graphene at the same graphene loading. Our findings offer a guideline to use cost-effective multilayer graphene as conductive fillers for various thermal management applications.

  13. Optimization for energy efficiency of underground building envelope thermal performance in different climate zones of China (United States)

    Shi, Luyang; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Huibo


    The object of this article is to investigate the influence of thermal performance of envelopes in shallow-buried buildings on energy consumption for different climate zones of China. For the purpose of this study, an effective building energy simulation tool (DeST) developed by Tsinghua University was chosen to model the heat transfer in underground buildings. Based on the simulative results, energy consumption for heating and cooling for the whole year was obtained. The results showed that the relationship between energy consumption and U-value of envelopes for underground buildings is different compared with above-ground buildings: improving thermal performance of exterior walls cannot reduce energy consumption, on the contrary, may result in more energy cost. Besides, it is can be derived that optimized U-values of underground building envelopes vary with climate zones of China in this study. For severe cold climate zone, the optimized U-value of underground building envelopes is 0.8W/(m2·K); for cold climate zone, the optimized U-value is 1.5W/(m2·K); for warm climate zone, the U-value is 2.0W/(m2·K).

  14. Sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage with single well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, Jun-Seo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Pasquinelli, Lisa


    , the optimal Latin hypercube sampling with an enhanced stochastic evolutionary algorithm is considered. Then, the recovery efficiency is obtained using a computer model developed by COMSOL Multiphysics. With input and output variables, the surrogate modeling technique, namely the Gaussian-Kriging method...

  15. Modelling Li-ion cell thermal runaway triggered by an internal short circuit device using an efficiency factor and Arrhenius formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Darcy, Eric; Veje, Christian


    accounts for a local short-circuit, which is triggered by the device embedded in the cell windings (jelly roll). The short circuit is modeled by calculating the total available electrical energy and adding an efficiency factor for the conversion of electric energy into thermal energy. The efficiency factor...

  16. Recent developments in thermally-driven seawater desalination: Energy efficiency improvement by hybridization of the MED and AD cycles

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon


    The energy, water and environment nexus is a crucial factor when considering the future development of desalination plants or industry in the water-stressed economies. New generation of desalination processes or plants has to meet the stringent environment discharge requirements and yet the industry remains highly energy efficient and sustainable when producing good potable water. Water sources, either brackish or seawater, have become more contaminated as feed while the demand for desalination capacities increase around the world. One immediate solution for energy efficiency improvement comes from the hybridization of the proven desalination processes to the newer processes of desalination: For example, the integration of the available thermally-driven to adsorption desalination (AD) cycles where significant thermodynamic synergy can be attained when cycles are combined. For these hybrid cycles, a quantum improvement in energy efficiency as well as in increase in water production can be expected. The advent of MED with AD cycles, or simply called the MEDAD cycles, is one such example where seawater desalination can be pursued and operated in cogeneration with the electricity production plants: The hybrid desalination cycles utilize only the low exergy bled-steam at low temperatures, complemented with waste exhaust or renewable solar thermal heat at temperatures between 60 and 80. °C. In this paper, the authors have reported their pioneered research on aspects of AD and related hybrid MEDAD cycles, both at theoretical models and experimental pilots. Using the cogeneration of electricity and desalination concept, the authors examined the cost apportionment of fuel cost by the quality or exergy of working steam for such cogeneration configurations.

  17. Characterisation and efficient simulation of thermal phenomena in SIMOX thermo-optic phase modulators

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, S A


    device has been designed to minimize power requirements, 3dB bandwidths in excess of 1kHz have been achieved for less than 10mW of drive power. A basic set of design parameters is developed which allow estimation of bandwidth and power requirements based on an initial knowledge of the material system and the intended modulator architecture. Silicon can be very effectively exploited in integrated optics due to its well-defined process chemistry and the availability of techniques developed primarily for the semiconductor industry which allow control over dimensions and the creation of arbitrary two dimensional structures with great precision and repeatability. In this thesis the complete design and simulation of thermo-optic phase modulators, realised in silicon-on-insulator (SOI), is presented. Since material thermal and optical parameters vary with temperature, anomalous departure between first-order theory and experimentation can exist when operating under conditions whereby material parameters are markedly ...

  18. Subsurface Thermal Energy Storage for Improved Heating and Air Conditioning Efficiency (United States)


    minimal additional training Achieved. Final Report EW-201013 15 November 21, 2016 3.1. INCREASE ENERGY EFFICIENCY The objective was to...operate this system with minimal additional training . Final Report EW-201013 17 November 21, 2016 4.0 FACILITY/SITE DESCRIPTION 4.1 FACILITY...installed around part of the cooler for aesthetic reasons. Additional system monitoring was added at this time, including the local outside air

  19. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems


    Ho, Tony


    The Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) is proposed as a vapor power cycle that could potentially increase power generation and improve the utilization efficiency of renewable energy and waste heat recovery systems. A brief review of current advanced vapor power cycles including the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), the zeotropic Rankine cycle, the Kalina cycle, the transcritical cycle, and the trilateral flash cycle is presented. The premise and motivation for the OFC concept is that essentially by impro...

  20. Methods of increasing thermal efficiency of steam and gas turbine plants (United States)

    Vasserman, A. A.; Shutenko, M. A.


    Three new methods of increasing efficiency of turbine power plants are described. Increasing average temperature of heat supply in steam turbine plant by mixing steam after overheaters with products of combustion of natural gas in the oxygen. Development of this idea consists in maintaining steam temperature on the major part of expansion in the turbine at level, close to initial temperature. Increasing efficiency of gas turbine plant by way of regenerative heating of the air by gas after its expansion in high pressure turbine and before expansion in the low pressure turbine. Due to this temperature of air, entering combustion chamber, is increased and average temperature of heat supply is consequently increased. At the same time average temperature of heat removal is decreased. Increasing efficiency of combined cycle power plant by avoiding of heat transfer from gas to wet steam and transferring heat from gas to water and superheated steam only. Steam will be generated by multi stage throttling of the water from supercritical pressure and temperature close to critical, to the pressure slightly higher than condensation pressure. Throttling of the water and separation of the wet steam on saturated water and steam does not require complicated technical devices.

  1. Effects of Background Fluid on the Efficiency of Inactivating Yeast with Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (United States)

    Ryu, Young-Hyo; Kim, Yong-Hee; Lee, Jin-Young; Shim, Gun-Bo; Uhm, Han-Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha


    Non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure has been actively applied to sterilization. However, its efficiency for inactivating microorganisms often varies depending on microbial species and environments surrounding the microorganisms. We investigated the influence of environmental factors (surrounding media) on the efficiency of microbial inactivation by plasma using an eukaryotic model microbe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to elucidate the mechanisms for differential efficiency of sterilization by plasma. Yeast cells treated with plasma in water showed the most severe damage in viability and cell morphology as well as damage to membrane lipids, and genomic DNA. Cells in saline were less damaged compared to those in water, and those in YPD (Yeast extract, Peptone, Dextrose) were least impaired. HOG1 mitogen activated protein kinase was activated in cells exposed to plasma in water and saline. Inactivation of yeast cells in water and saline was due to the acidification of the solutions by plasma, but higher survival of yeast cells treated in saline may have resulted from the additional effect related to salt strength. Levels of hydroxyl radical (OH.) produced by plasma were the highest in water and the lowest in YPD. This may have resulted in differential inactivation of yeast cells in water, saline, and YPD by plasma. Taken together, our data suggest that the surrounding media (environment) can crucially affect the outcomes of yeast cell plasma treatment because plasma modulates vital properties of media, and the toxic nature of plasma can also be altered by the surrounding media. PMID:23799081

  2. Facile integration of multiple magnetite nanoparticles for theranostics combining efficient MRI and thermal therapy (United States)

    Huang, Guoming; Zhu, Xianglong; Li, Hui; Wang, Lirong; Chi, Xiaoqin; Chen, Jiahe; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Zhong; Gao, Jinhao


    Multifunctional nanostructures with both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities have attracted considerable attention in biomedical research because they can offer great advantages in disease management and prognosis. In this work, a facile way to transfer the hydrophobic iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles into aqueous media by employing carboxylic graphene oxide (GO-COOH) as the transferring agent has been reported. In this one-step process, IO nanoparticles adhere to GO-COOH and form water-dispersible clusters via hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic ligands of IO nanoparticles and the basal plane of GO-COOH. The multiple IO nanoparticles on GO-COOH sheets (IO/GO-COOH) present a significant increase in T2 contrast enhancement. Moreover, the IO/GO-COOH nanoclusters also display a high photothermal conversion efficiency and can effectively inhibit tumor growth through the photothermal effects. It is envisioned that such IO/GO-COOH nanocomposites combining efficient MRI and photothermal therapy hold great promise in theranostic applications.Multifunctional nanostructures with both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities have attracted considerable attention in biomedical research because they can offer great advantages in disease management and prognosis. In this work, a facile way to transfer the hydrophobic iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles into aqueous media by employing carboxylic graphene oxide (GO-COOH) as the transferring agent has been reported. In this one-step process, IO nanoparticles adhere to GO-COOH and form water-dispersible clusters via hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic ligands of IO nanoparticles and the basal plane of GO-COOH. The multiple IO nanoparticles on GO-COOH sheets (IO/GO-COOH) present a significant increase in T2 contrast enhancement. Moreover, the IO/GO-COOH nanoclusters also display a high photothermal conversion efficiency and can effectively inhibit tumor growth through the photothermal effects. It is envisioned

  3. Highly Efficient Organic UV Photodetectors Based on Polyfluorene and Naphthalenediimide Blends: Effect of Thermal Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkem Memisoglu


    Full Text Available A solution-processed organic ultraviolet photodetector (UV-PD is introduced. The active layer of the UV-PD consists of poly(9,9-dioctyl fluorenyl-2,7–yleneethynylene (PFE and N,N′-bis-n-butyl-1,4,5,8- naphthalenediimide (BNDI with a weight ratio of 3 : 1 in chloroform. The effect of thermal annealing on the device properties was investigated from room temperature to 80∘C. The full device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PFE:BNDI (3 : 1/Al gave responsivity of 410 mA/W at −4 V under 1 mW/cm2 UV light at 368 nm when 60∘C of annealing temperature was used during its preparation. The devices that were annealed over the crystallization temperature of PFE showed a charge transfer resistance increase and a mobility decrease.

  4. A Building Energy Efficiency Optimization Method by Evaluating the Effective Thermal Zones Occupancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cotana


    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency is strongly linked to the operations and control systems, together with the integrated performance of passive and active systems. In new high quality buildings in particular, where these two latter aspects have been already implemented at the design stage, users’ perspective, obtained through post-occupancy assessment, has to be considered to reduce whole energy requirement during service life. This research presents an innovative and low-cost methodology to reduce buildings’ energy requirements through post-occupancy assessment and optimization of energy operations using effective users’ attitudes and requirements as feedback. As a meaningful example, the proposed method is applied to a multipurpose building located in New York City, NY, USA, where real occupancy conditions are assessed. The effectiveness of the method is tested through dynamic simulations using a numerical model of the case study, calibrated through real monitoring data collected on the building. Results show that, for the chosen case study, the method provides optimized building energy operations which allow a reduction of primary energy requirements for HVAC, lighting, room-electricity, and auxiliary supply by about 21%. This paper shows that the proposed strategy represents an effective way to reduce buildings’ energy waste, in particular in those complex and high-efficiency buildings that are not performing as well as expected during the concept-design-commissioning stage, in particular due to the lack of feedback after the building handover.

  5. Synergetic Effect between Lighting Efficiency Enhancement and Building Energy Reduction Using Alternative Thermal Operating System of Indoor LED Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Lip Ahn


    Full Text Available We investigated the synergetic effect between light-emitting diode (LED lighting efficiency and building energy savings in heating and cooling using an alternative thermal operating system (ATOS of indoor LED lighting integrated with the ventilation system of a building as an active cooling device. The heat generated from LED lighting and the indoor lighting illuminance were experimentally determined. The indoor heat gains in cooling and heating periods were determined using measurement data; the annual energy savings of an office building in heating and cooling were calculated through simulation. The LED lighting illuminance increased by approximately 40% and the lighting contribution for indoor heat gain was 7.8% in summer, while 69.8% in winter with the ATOS. Consequently, the annual total energy use of the office building could be reduced by 5.9%; the energy use in cooling and heating was reduced by 18.4% and 3.3%, respectively.

  6. Comparative analysis of possibilities for raising the efficiency in thermal power plant by utilisation of waste heat energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijakovski Vladimir


    Full Text Available The possibility to use flue gases waste heat for increasing the efficiency of thermal power plant (TPP explained in this work refers to lignite fired TPP-Bitola in Macedonia (3x233 MW installed electric capacity. Possibility to utilize low-temperature heat energy at the plant’s cold end is also considered in the analysis. Specific fuel consumption is used as an analysis and comparison parameter. Its reduction, compared to the basic power unit ranges between 0.4% and 3.4%. An analysis presenting economic feasibility of the low-temperature heat energy utilization concept for two different refrigerants used in the heat pump is also presented.

  7. Substitution of efficient electrotechnologies for thermal end-uses to traditional processes : creening of possibilities and applications under study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menga, P.; Grattieri, W. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Rome (Italy); Korn, G. [ENEL, DDI (Italy); Malinverni, R. [Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano (CESI), Milan (Italy)


    ENEL` long-lasting commitment in rationalising the enrgy end-uses, had lead to the assessment of the potential for the substitution, in the field of thermal uses, of traditional processes with efficient electrotechnologies. The evaluation has been performed by taking in account the advanteges for the users , in terms of the reduction in operating cost (energy included), for the electricity industry (increase in kWh sales), and for the society (savings in primary energy consumption). The analysis allowed to identify many applications for which the primary energy saving is jointly obtained with significant extra-energy advantages for the end user. In order to validate the effectiveness of innovative electrotechnologies, a demonstration activity, by means of pilot plants, is in progress.

  8. Efficiency of the Needle Probe Test for Evaluation of Thermal Conductivity of Composite Materials: Two-Scale Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łydżba Dariusz


    Full Text Available The needle probe test, as a thermal conductivity measurement method, has become very popular in recent years. In the present study, the efficiency of this methodology, for the case of composite materials, is investigated based on the numerical simulations. The material under study is a two-phase composite with periodic microstructure of “matrix-inclusion” type. Two-scale analysis, incorporating micromechanics approach, is performed. First, the effective thermal conductivity of the composite considered is found by the solution of the appropriate boundary value problem stated for the single unit cell. Next, numerical simulations of the needle probe test are carried out. In this case, two different locations of the measuring sensor are considered. It is shown that the “equivalent” conductivity, derived from the probe test, is strongly affected by the location of the sensor. Moreover, comparing the results obtained for different scales, one can notice that the “equivalent” conductivity cannot be interpreted as the effective one for the composites considered. Hence, a crude approximation of the effective property is proposed based on the volume fractions of constituents and the equivalent conductivities derived from different sensor locations.

  9. Structurally Deformed MoS2 for Electrochemically Stable, Thermally Resistant, and Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yen-Chang


    The emerging molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) offers intriguing possibilities for realizing a transformative new catalyst for driving the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, the trade-off between catalytic activity and long-term stability represents a formidable challenge and has not been extensively addressed. This study reports that metastable and temperature-sensitive chemically exfoliated MoS2 (ce-MoS2) can be made into electrochemically stable (5000 cycles), and thermally robust (300 °C) while maintaining synthetic scalability and excellent catalytic activity through physical-transformation into 3D structurally deformed nanostructures. The dimensional transition enabled by a high throughput electrohydrodynamic process provides highly accessible, and electrochemically active surface area and facilitates efficient transport across various interfaces. Meanwhile, the hierarchically strained morphology is found to improve electronic coupling between active sites and current collecting substrates without the need for selective engineering the electronically heterogeneous interfaces. Specifically, the synergistic combination of high strain load stemmed from capillarity-induced-self-crumpling and sulfur (S) vacancies intrinsic to chemical exfoliation enables simultaneous modulation of active site density and intrinsic HER activity regardless of continuous operation or elevated temperature. These results provide new insights into how catalytic activity, electrochemical-, and thermal stability can be concurrently enhanced through the physical transformation that is reminiscent of nature, in which properties of biological materials emerge from evolved dimensional transitions.

  10. Including Thermal Fluctuations in Actomyosin Stable States Increases the Predicted Force per Motor and Macroscopic Efficiency in Muscle Modelling. (United States)

    Marcucci, Lorenzo; Washio, Takumi; Yanagida, Toshio


    Muscle contractions are generated by cyclical interactions of myosin heads with actin filaments to form the actomyosin complex. To simulate actomyosin complex stable states, mathematical models usually define an energy landscape with a corresponding number of wells. The jumps between these wells are defined through rate constants. Almost all previous models assign these wells an infinite sharpness by imposing a relatively simple expression for the detailed balance, i.e., the ratio of the rate constants depends exponentially on the sole myosin elastic energy. Physically, this assumption corresponds to neglecting thermal fluctuations in the actomyosin complex stable states. By comparing three mathematical models, we examine the extent to which this hypothesis affects muscle model predictions at the single cross-bridge, single fiber, and organ levels in a ceteris paribus analysis. We show that including fluctuations in stable states allows the lever arm of the myosin to easily and dynamically explore all possible minima in the energy landscape, generating several backward and forward jumps between states during the lifetime of the actomyosin complex, whereas the infinitely sharp minima case is characterized by fewer jumps between states. Moreover, the analysis predicts that thermal fluctuations enable a more efficient contraction mechanism, in which a higher force is sustained by fewer attached cross-bridges.

  11. Laboratory Experiment and Numerical Analysis of a New Type of Solar Tower Efficiently Generating a Thermal Updraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Ohya


    Full Text Available A new type of solar tower was developed through laboratory experiments and numerical analyses. The solar tower mainly consists of three components. The transparent collector area is an aboveground glass roof, with increasing height toward the center. Attached to the center of the inside of the collector is a vertical tower within which a wind turbine is mounted at the lower entry to the tower. When solar radiation heats the ground through the glass roof, ascending warm air is guided to the center and into the tower. A solar tower that can generate electricity using a simple structure that enables easy and less costly maintenance has considerable advantages. However, conversion efficiency from sunshine energy to mechanical turbine energy is very low. Aiming to improve this efficiency, the research project developed a diffuser-type tower instead of a cylindrical tower, and investigated a suitable diffuser shape for practical use. After changing the tower height and diffuser open angle, with a temperature difference between the ambient air aloft and within the collector, various diffuser tower shapes were tested by laboratory experiments and numerical analyses. As a result, it was found that a diffuser tower with a semi-open angle of 4° is an optimal shape, producing the fastest updraft at each temperature difference in both the laboratory experiments and numerical analyses. The relationships between thermal updraft speed and temperature difference and/or tower height were confirmed. It was found that the thermal updraft velocity is proportional to the square root of the tower height and/or temperature difference.

  12. Efficient thermal deglycosylation of ginsenoside Rd and its contribution to the improved anticancer activity of ginseng. (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joo; Yamabe, Noriko; Choi, Pilju; Lee, Jae Wook; Ham, Jungyeob; Kang, Ki Sung


    The root of ginseng is a famous functional food and a herbal medicine. Research into the development of a method for increasing the pharmaceutical effect of ginseng by conversion of ginsenosides, the major active components of ginseng, by high-temperature and high-pressure thermal processing has been conducted. However, changes in the structures of each ginsenoside by heat processing and their contributions to anticancer activity have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether anticancer activity of ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, and Re, was associated with changes in the structures of each ginsenoside by heat processing in human stomach cancer AGS cells. Upon heat processing at 120 °C, most peaks of ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd disappeared and the contents of less-polar ginsenosides 20(S,R)-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5 were newly detected. From the quantitative analysis of ginsenosides, the generated amounts of less-polar ginsenosides were the highest after heat processing of ginsenoside Rd. After heat processing, the diol-type ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd gained significant antiproliferative activity. In particular, ginsenoside Rd induced the strongest cell death among the diol-type ginsenosides, whereas the triol-type gisenoside Re showed weak antiproliferative activity. Ginsenoside Rd-induced cell death was associated with caspase-dependent apoptosis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that deglycosylation of Rd contributes to improved anticancer activity of ginseng and provide new insight on the mechanism of increased anticancer effects of ginsenosides upon heat processing.

  13. Efficiency of Spin-Transfer-Torque Switching and Thermal-Stability Factor in a Spin-Valve Nanopillar with First- and Second-Order Uniaxial Magnetic Anisotropies (United States)

    Matsumoto, Rie; Arai, Hiroko; Yuasa, Shinji; Imamura, Hiroshi


    The efficiency of spin-transfer-torque (STT) switching and the thermal-stability factor are important figures of merit in STT-based magnetoresistive random-access memory. We derive analytical expressions of the STT-switching efficiency and the thermal-stability factor for a perpendicularly magnetized spin-valve nanopillar with the first- and the second-order uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. It is shown that the STT-switching efficiency is maximized when the effective first-order anisotropy constant (Ku 1 ,eff ) is equal to the second-order anisotropy constant (Ku 2). It is also shown that the thermal-stability factor is most (least) sensitive to a variation of the applied current when Ku 2=-0.41 (0.70) Ku 1 ,eff.

  14. Strategy of high efficiency and refined high-intensity focused ultrasound and ultrasound monitoring imaging of thermal lesion and cavitation (United States)

    Wan, Mingxi; Zhang, Siyuan; Lu, Mingzhu; Hu, Hong; Jing, Bowen; Liu, Runna; Zhong, Hui


    We proposed that high efficiency high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) could be achieved by using a splitting transducer with various frequencies and focusing patterns, and explored the feasibility of using ultrafast active cavitation imaging (UACI), pulse inversion (PI) sub-harmonic cavitation imaging and bubble wavelet transform imaging for monitoring of cavitation during HIFU, as well as the ultrasonic B-mode images, differential integrated backscatter (IBS) images, Nakagami images and elastography for monitoring HIFU-induced lesion. The use of HIFU splitting transducer had the potential to increase the size of the thermal lesion in a shorter duration and may improve the ablation efficiency of HIFU and would shorten the exposure duration significantly. The spatial-temporal evolution of residual cavitation bubbles at the tissue-water interface was obtained by UACI and the results showed that the UACI had a frame rate high enough to capture the transient behavior of the cavitation bubbles. The experiments demonstrated that comparing with normal sub-harmonic and PI harmonic images, PI sub-harmonic images had higher sensitivity and CTR, which was conducive to showing cavitation bubbles. The CTR would be further improved by combining PI ultrafast plane wave transmitting with cavitation bubble wavelet transform.

  15. Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in Solar-Thermal Conversion Systems: Understanding Geometry-Dependent Heating Efficiency and System Reliability. (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoliang; Chang, Zhuo; Xu, Guang-Kui; McBride, Fiona; Ho, Alexandra; Zhuola, Zhuola; Michailidis, Marios; Li, Wei; Raval, Rasmita; Akhtar, Riaz; Shchukin, Dmitry


    The performance of solar-thermal conversion systems can be improved by incorporation of nanocarbon-stabilized microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCMs). The geometry of MPCMs in the microcapsules plays an important role for improving their heating efficiency and reliability. Yet few efforts have been made to critically examine the formation mechanism of different geometries and their effect on MPCMs-shell interaction. Herein, through changing the cooling rate of original emulsions, we acquire MPCMs within the nanocarbon microcapsules with a hollow structure of MPCMs (h-MPCMs) or solid PCM core particles (s-MPCMs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy reveals that the capsule shell of the h-MPCMs is enriched with nanocarbons and has a greater MPCMs-shell interaction compared to s-MPCMs. This results in the h-MPCMs being more stable and having greater heat diffusivity within and above the phase transition range than the s-MPCMs do. The geometry-dependent heating efficiency and system stability may have important and general implications for the fundamental understanding of microencapsulation and wider breadth of heating generating systems.

  16. The study of the mobile compressor unit heat losses recovery system waste heat exchanger thermal insulation types influence on the operational efficiency (United States)

    Yusha, V. L.; Chernov, G. I.; Kalashnikov, A. M.


    The paper examines the mobile compressor unit (MCU) heat losses recovery system waste heat exchanger prototype external thermal insulation types influence on the operational efficiency. The study is conducted by means of the numerical method through the modellingof the heat exchange processes carried out in the waste heat exchanger in ANSUS. Thermaflex, mineral wool, penofol, water and air were applied as the heat exchanger external insulation. The study results showed the waste heat exchanger external thermal insulationexistence or absence to have a significant impact on the heat exchanger operational efficiency.

  17. Efficient copper vapor laser using metal (Cu, Ag) chlorides in thermal insulation and performance with new prism resonator configurations. (United States)

    Singh, Bijendra


    A copper vapor laser based on the use of copper chloride and silver chloride mixture embedded inside the laser head thermal insulation is successfully demonstrated. The use of external HCl generator cell containing zirconium chloride normally used for its kinetically enhanced mode of operation is completely eliminated. With this new configuration laser power of ~70 W was achieved from a wide aperture ~47-50 mm bore discharge tube with input power of ~5 kW and overall high efficiency of ~1.4% without external supply of HCl vapors to the laser head. In a typical operational cycle the laser initially operates as low temperature CuCl laser with startup time of few minutes and output power of ~10 W during low tube temperature range of ~300-500 °C. Thereafter, the laser transforms itself into efficient kinetically enhanced copper vapor laser (CVL) at high temperature range of ~1200-1600 °C with maximum laser output power of ~70 W. This dual mode of operation observed in a single CVL system is unique and has not been reported so far in any high temperature copper vapor laser. New resonator configurations, namely, the prism resonator in stable and unstable form are successfully demonstrated for the first time in a copper vapor laser to achieve low divergence beam with dramatic increase in misalignment tolerance to ~25 mrad, which is an improvement of about ~50 times compared to standard CVLs with conventional spherical or plane-plane resonators. With these new resonator configurations the CVL functions almost as an "alignment free laser" system with significantly reduced beam divergence of ~0.2 mrad and high optical extraction efficiency of ~70%-80%.

  18. Lightweight concrete blocks with EVA recycled aggregate: a contribution to the thermal efficiency of building external walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Melo, A. B.


    Full Text Available The regions with lots of shoe production suffer environmental impacts from waste generation during manufacturing of insoles and outsoles. Research conducted in Brazil has demonstrated the technical feasibility to recycle these wastes, especially Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA, as lightweight aggregate, in the production of non-structural cement blocks. This article presents an evaluation of thermal performance with measurements of temperature variation in mini walls (1 m2 built with different materials, including various kinds of EVA block and ceramic bricks. Tests have shown efficient thermal performance for masonry blocks with EVA. These results and supplementary estimates contribute to add value to the EVA block, considering that there are good expectations that the component, with the new geometry proposed, can contribute to the energy efficiency of buildings, highlighting its suitability to most Brazilian bioclimatic regions.Las regiones con una gran producción de calzado sufren impactos ambientales derivados de la generación de residuos durante la producción de plantillas y suelas. Investigaciones realizadas en Brasil han demostrado la viabilidad técnica para el reciclaje de estos residuos, especialmente el Etileno Vinil Acetato (EVA, como agregado ligero en la fabricación de bloques de hormigón no estructurales. Este trabajo presenta una evaluación del rendimiento térmico, con mediciones de la variación de la temperatura en pequeñas paredes (1 m2 construidas con diversos materiales, incluyendo algunos tipos de bloques EVA y ladrillos de cerámica. Las pruebas demostraron actuaciones térmicas eficientes para las muestras con bloques EVA. Estos resultados y cálculos adicionales contribuyen con un aporte de valor añadido al bloque EVA, considerando que existen buenas expectativas del componente, con una nueva propuesta de geometría, pudiendo contribuir a la eficiencia energética de edificios, especialmente por su adecuación a la

  19. Different I/O Standard and Technology Based Thermal Aware Energy Efficient Vedic Multiplier Design for Green Wireless Communication on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Kumar, Tanesh


    with high speed as compared with traditional array and booth multipliers. Vedic Multiplier contains a total of sixteen algorithms/sutras for predominantly logical operations. This research focuses on thermal aspects and energy efficiency of wireless communications systems with the thermal aware low power......This paper deals with low power multiplier design that plays a significant role in green wireless communications systems. Over the period of time, researchers have proposed various multiplier designs in order to get high speed. Vedic multiplier is considered as one of the low power multiplier along...... design of Vedic Multiplier. Temperature plays an important role on the performance of any device. The primary purpose of this research is to enhance the thermal stability of the wireless communications. Energy efficient IO standards are used to decrease the power dissipation of Vedic Multiplier...

  20. A highly efficient silole-containing dithienylethene with excellent thermal stability and fatigue resistance: a promising candidate for optical memory storage materials. (United States)

    Chan, Jacky Chi-Hung; Lam, Wai Han; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah


    Diarylethene compounds are potential candidates for applications in optical memory storage systems and photoswitchable molecular devices; however, they usually show low photocycloreversion quantum yields, which result in ineffective erasure processes. Here, we present the first highly efficient photochromic silole-containing dithienylethene with excellent thermal stability and fatigue resistance. The photochemical quantum yields for photocyclization and photocycloreversion of the compound are found to be high and comparable to each other; the latter of which is rarely found in diarylethene compounds. These would give rise to highly efficient photoswitchable material with effective writing and erasure processes. Incorporation of the silole moiety as a photochromic dithienylethene backbone also was demonstrated to enhance the thermal stability of the closed form, in which the thermal backward reaction to the open form was found to be negligible even at 100 °C, which leads to a promising candidate for use as photoswitchable materials and optical memory storage.

  1. An efficient and accurate framework for calculating lattice thermal conductivity of solids: AFLOW—AAPL Automatic Anharmonic Phonon Library (United States)

    Plata, Jose J.; Nath, Pinku; Usanmaz, Demet; Carrete, Jesús; Toher, Cormac; de Jong, Maarten; Asta, Mark; Fornari, Marco; Nardelli, Marco Buongiorno; Curtarolo, Stefano


    One of the most accurate approaches for calculating lattice thermal conductivity, , is solving the Boltzmann transport equation starting from third-order anharmonic force constants. In addition to the underlying approximations of ab-initio parameterization, two main challenges are associated with this path: high computational costs and lack of automation in the frameworks using this methodology, which affect the discovery rate of novel materials with ad-hoc properties. Here, the Automatic Anharmonic Phonon Library (AAPL) is presented. It efficiently computes interatomic force constants by making effective use of crystal symmetry analysis, it solves the Boltzmann transport equation to obtain , and allows a fully integrated operation with minimum user intervention, a rational addition to the current high-throughput accelerated materials development framework AFLOW. An "experiment vs. theory" study of the approach is shown, comparing accuracy and speed with respect to other available packages, and for materials characterized by strong electron localization and correlation. Combining AAPL with the pseudo-hybrid functional ACBN0 is possible to improve accuracy without increasing computational requirements.

  2. Perpendicular spin transfer torque magnetic random access memories with high spin torque efficiency and thermal stability for embedded applications (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Luc, E-mail:; Jan, Guenole; Zhu, Jian; Liu, Huanlong; Lee, Yuan-Jen; Le, Son; Tong, Ru-Ying; Pi, Keyu; Wang, Yu-Jen; Shen, Dongna; He, Renren; Haq, Jesmin; Teng, Jeffrey; Lam, Vinh; Huang, Kenlin; Zhong, Tom; Torng, Terry; Wang, Po-Kang [TDK-Headway Technologies, Inc., Milpitas, California 95035 (United States)


    Magnetic random access memories based on the spin transfer torque phenomenon (STT-MRAMs) have become one of the leading candidates for next generation memory applications. Among the many attractive features of this technology are its potential for high speed and endurance, read signal margin, low power consumption, scalability, and non-volatility. In this paper, we discuss our recent results on perpendicular STT-MRAM stack designs that show STT efficiency higher than 5 k{sub B}T/μA, energy barriers higher than 100 k{sub B}T at room temperature for sub-40 nm diameter devices, and tunnel magnetoresistance higher than 150%. We use both single device data and results from 8 Mb array to demonstrate data retention sufficient for automotive applications. Moreover, we also demonstrate for the first time thermal stability up to 400 °C exceeding the requirement of Si CMOS back-end processing, thus opening the realm of non-volatile embedded memory to STT-MRAM technology.

  3. Techniques for Mitigating Thermal Fatigue Degradation, Controlling Efficiency, and Extending Lifetime in a ZnO Thermoelectric Using Grain Size Gradient FGMs (United States)

    Cramer, Corson L.; Li, Wenjie; Jin, Zhi-He; Wang, Jue; Ma, Kaka; Holland, Troy B.


    A functionally graded material (FGM) in terms of grain size gradation is fabricated using zinc oxide (ZnO) with spark plasma sintering and an additive manufacturing technique by diffusion bonding layers of material sintered at different temperatures to achieve a thermoelectric generator (TEG) material that can dissipate heat well and retain high energy conversion efficiency for longer-lasting and comparably efficient TEGs. This FGM is compared to a previously made FGM with continuous grain size gradation. Uniform and graded grain size conditions are modeled for thermoelectric output by using thermoelectric properties of the uniform grain size as well as the varying properties seen in the FGMs. The actual thermoelectric output of the samples is measured and compared to the simulations. The grain size has a large effect on the efficiency and efficiency range. The samples are thermally cycled with a fast heating rate to test the thermal stress robustness and degradation, and the resistance at the highest temperature is measured to indicate degradation from thermal stress. The measured efficiency after cycling shows that the FGMs survive longer lifetime than that with uniform small grains.

  4. Effect of openings collectors and solar irradiance on the thermal efficiency of flat plate-finned collector for indirect-type passive solar dryer (United States)

    Batubara, Fatimah; Dina, Sari Farah; Klaudia Kathryn Y., M.; Turmuzi, M.; Siregar, Fitri; Panjaitan, Nora


    Research on the effect of openings solar collector and solar irradiance to thermal efficiency has been done. Solar collector by flat plate-finned type consists of 3 ply insulator namely wood, Styrofoam and Rockwool with thickness respectively are 10 mm, 25 mm and 50 mm. Absorber plate made of aluminum sheet with thickness of 0.30 mm, painted by black-doff. Installation of 19 units fins (length x height x thickness: 1000x20x10 mm) on the collector will increase surface area of absorber so it can receive much more solar energy. The solar collector cover is made of glass (thickness of 5 mm). During the research, the solar irradiance and temperature of collector are measured and recorded every five minutes. Temperature measurement performed on the surface of the absorber plate, inside of collector, surface cover and the outer side insulator (plywood). This data is used to calculate the heat loss due to conduction, convection and radiation on the collector. Openings of collectors vary as follows: 100%, 75%, 15% and 0% (total enclosed). The data collecting was conducted from 09.00 am to 17.00 pm and triplicates. The collector thermal efficiency calculated based on the ratio of the amount of heat received to the solar irradiance absorbed. The results show that each of openings solar collector has different solar irradiance (because it was done on a different day) which is in units of W/m2: 390 (100% open), 376 (75% open), 429 (15% open), and 359 (totally enclosed). The highest thermal efficiency is in openings variation of 15% opened. These results indicate that the efficiency of the collector is influenced by the solar irradiance received by the collector and the temperature on the collector plate. The highest thermal efficiency is in variation of openings 15%. These indicate that the efficiency of the collector was influenced by solar irradiance received by the collector and openings of the collector plate.

  5. Using Leaf Chlorophyll to Parameterize Light-Use-Efficiency Within a Thermal-Based Carbon, Water and Energy Exchange Model (United States)

    Houlborg, Rasmus; Anderson, Martha C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Kustas, W. P.; Rodell, Matthew


    Chlorophylls absorb photosynthetically active radiation and thus function as vital pigments for photosynthesis, which makes leaf chlorophyll content (C(sub ab) useful for monitoring vegetation productivity and an important indicator of the overall plant physiological condition. This study investigates the utility of integrating remotely sensed estimates of C(sub ab) into a thermal-based Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model that estimates land-surface CO2 and energy fluxes using an analytical, light-use-efficiency (LUE) based model of canopy resistance. The LUE model component computes canopy-scale carbon assimilation and transpiration fluxes and incorporates LUE modifications from a nominal (species-dependent) value (LUE(sub n)) in response to short term variations in environmental conditions, However LUE(sub n) may need adjustment on a daily timescale to accommodate changes in plant phenology, physiological condition and nutrient status. Day to day variations in LUE(sub n) were assessed for a heterogeneous corn crop field in Maryland, U,S.A. through model calibration with eddy covariance CO2 flux tower observations. The optimized daily LUE(sub n) values were then compared to estimates of C(sub ab) integrated from gridded maps of chlorophyll content weighted over the tower flux source area. The time continuous maps of daily C(sub ab) over the study field were generated by focusing in-situ measurements with retrievals generated with an integrated radiative transfer modeling tool (accurate to within +/-10%) using at-sensor radiances in green, red and near-infrared wavelengths acquired with an aircraft imaging system. The resultant daily changes in C(sub ab) within the tower flux source area generally correlated well with corresponding changes in daily calibrated LUE(sub n) derived from the tower flux data, and hourly water, energy and carbon flux estimation accuracies from TSEB were significantly improved when using C(sub ab) for delineating spatio

  6. Heat transfer efficiency of Al2O3-MWCNT/thermal oil hybrid nanofluid as a cooling fluid in thermal and energy management applications: An experimental and theoretical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Asadi, Meisam; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza


    The main objective of the present study is to assess the heat transfer efficiency of Al2O3-MWCNT/thermal oil hybrid nanofluid over different temperatures (25–50 °C) and solid concentrations (0.125%–1.5%). To this end, first of all, the stability of the nano-oil has been studied through the Zeta p...

  7. Regular Organic Solar Cells with Efficiency over 10% and Promoted Stability by Ligand- and Thermal Annealing-Free Al-Doped ZnO Cathode Interlayer. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Hai-Qiao; Li, Yaru; Gui, Zhenzhen; Ming, Shuaiqiang; Usman, Khurram; Zhang, Wenjun; Fang, Junfeng


    Landmark power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 10% has been accomplished in the past year for single-junction organic solar cell (OSCs), suggesting a promising potential application of this technology. However, most of the high efficient OSCs are based on inverted configuration. Regular structure OSCs with both high efficiency and good stability are still rarely reported to date. In this work, by utilizing a new designed ligand-free and non-thermal-annealing-treated Al-doped ZnO cathode interlayer, high efficiency and greatly improved stability are simultaneously realized in regular OSCs. The highest PCE of 10.14% is accomplished for single-junction regular OSCs with active blend of poly [[2,6'-4,8-di(5-ethylhexylthienyl)benzo[1,2-b;3,3-b]dithiophene][3-fluoro-2[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno [3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  8. Energy efficiency evaluation of a stationary lithium-ion battery container storage system via electro-thermal modeling and detailed component analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimpe, Michael; Naumann, Maik; Truong, Nam; Hesse, Holger C.; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Saxon, Aron; Jossen, Andreas


    Energy efficiency is a key performance indicator for battery storage systems. A detailed electro-thermal model of a stationary lithium-ion battery system is developed and an evaluation of its energy efficiency is conducted. The model offers a holistic approach to calculating conversion losses and auxiliary power consumption. Sub-models for battery rack, power electronics, thermal management as well as the control and monitoring components are developed and coupled to a comprehensive model. The simulation is parametrized based on a prototype 192 kWh system using lithium iron phosphate batteries connected to the low voltage grid. The key loss mechanisms are identified, thoroughly analyzed and modeled. Generic profiles featuring various system operation modes are evaluated to show the characteristics of stationary battery systems. Typically the losses in the power electronics outweigh the losses in the battery at low power operating points. The auxiliary power consumption dominates for low system utilization rates. For estimation of real-world performance, the grid applications Primary Control Reserve, Secondary Control Reserve and the storage of surplus photovoltaic power are evaluated. Conversion round-trip efficiency is in the range of 70-80%. Overall system efficiency, which also considers system power consumption, is 8-13 percentage points lower for Primary Control Reserve and the photovoltaic-battery application. However, for Secondary Control Reserve, the total round-trip efficiency is found to be extremely low at 23% due to the low energy throughput of this application type.

  9. Supercritical CO2 as an efficient medium for layered silicate organomodification: preparation of thermally stable organoclays and dispersion in polyamide 6


    Naveau, Elodie; Calberg, Cédric; Detrembleur, Christophe; BOURBIGOT, S; Jérôme, Christine; Alexandre, Michaël


    In this study, the preparation of organoclays via a new process using supercritical carbon dioxide is described. This method turns out to be very efficient with various surfactants, in particular nonwater-soluble alkylphosphonium salts. The influence of the surfactant as well as of the clay nature on the thermal stability of the organoclay is evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis. Phosphonium-based montmorillonites are up to 90 °C more stable than ammonium-based montmorillonites. Moreover, ...

  10. High efficiency and low roll-off green OLEDs with simple structure by utilizing thermally activated delayed fluorescence material as the universal host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Bo


    Full Text Available We achieved high-efficiency and low-roll-off green fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs simultaneously by adopting the thermally activated delayed fluorescence material of bis[4-(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridinephenyl]sulfone as the universal host. At a luminance of 1000 cd/m2, fluorescent OLEDs based on C545T get a current efficiency, power efficiency, and external quantum efficiency (EQE of 31.8 cd/A, 25.0 lm/W, and 9.26%, respectively. This is almost the highest efficiency based on C545T at the luminance of 1000 cd/m2 to date. On the other hand, phosphorescent OLEDs with Ir(ppy3 as the emitter realize a maximum current efficiency, power efficiency, and EQE of 64.3 cd/A, 62.4 lm/W, and 18.5%, respectively. More important, the EQE remains 17.8% at the representative luminance of 1000 cd/m2 and the roll-off ratio is just 3.78%. The transient photoluminescence decay measurement demonstrates that the up-conversion of host triplet excitons plays a key role in the high efficiency and low roll-off. More detailed discussions are also given.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Jeffrey J. Swetelitsch


    The objective of this project is to explore microwave-excited thermal-acoustic (META) phenomena for quantitative analysis of granular and powdered materials, with the culmination of the research to be an on-line carbon-in-ash monitor for coal-fired power plants. This technique of analyzing unburned carbon in fly ash could be a less tedious and time consuming method as compared to the traditional LOI manual procedure. Phase 1 of the research focused on off-line single-frequency thermal-acoustic measurements where an off-line fly ash monitor was constructed that could operate as analytical tool to explore instrument and methodology parameters for quantifying the microwave-excited thermal-acoustic effect of carbon in fly ash, and it was determined that the off-line thermal-acoustic technique could predict the carbon content of a random collection of fly ashes with a linear correlation constant of R{sup 2} = 0.778. Much higher correlations are expected for fly ashes generated from a single boiler. Phase 2 of the research developing a methodology to generate microwave spectra of various powders, including fly ash, coal, and inorganic minerals, and to determine if these microwave spectra could be used for chemical analyses. Although different minerals produced different responses, higher resolution microwave spectra would be required to be able to distinguish among minerals. Phase 3 of the research focused on the development of an on-line fly ash monitor that could be adapted to measure either a thermal-acoustic or thermal-elastic response to due microwave excitation of fly ash. The thermal-acoustic response was successfully employed for this purpose but the thermal-elastic response was too weak to yield a useful on-line device.

  12. A FEM comparative analysis of the thermal efficiency among floors made up of clay, concrete and lightweight concrete hollow blocks


    Del Coz Díaz, J.J.; Nieto, P.J. García; Hernández, J. Domínguez; Álvarez Rabanal, F.P.


    Abstract This paper presents a comparative nonlinear thermal analysis for a total of eighteen different in situ cast floors varying both the constituent materials of the hollow blocks (clay, concrete and lightweight concrete) and the shape and number of recesses (six different block types) using the finite element method (FEM). Based on the non-linear thermal analysis of the different configurations by FEM and considering both upward and downward heat flows, it is possible to choos...

  13. Simulation of ventilation efficiency, and pre-closure temperatures in emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using Monte Carlo and composite thermal-pulse methods (United States)

    Case, J.B.; Buesch, D.C.


    Predictions of waste canister and repository driftwall temperatures as functions of space and time are important to evaluate pre-closure performance of the proposed repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Variations in the lithostratigraphic features in densely welded and crystallized rocks of the 12.8-million-year-old Topopah Spring Tuff, especially the porosity resulting from lithophysal cavities, affect thermal properties. A simulated emplacement drift is based on projecting lithophysal cavity porosity values 50 to 800 m from the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block cross drift. Lithophysal cavity porosity varies from 0.00 to 0.05 cm3/cm3 in the middle nonlithophysal zone and from 0.03 to 0.28 cm3/cm3 in the lower lithophysal zone. A ventilation model and computer program titled "Monte Carlo Simulation of Ventilation" (MCSIMVENT), which is based on a composite thermal-pulse calculation, simulates statistical variability and uncertainty of rock-mass thermal properties and ventilation performance along a simulated emplacement drift for a pre-closure period of 50 years. Although ventilation efficiency is relatively insensitive to thermal properties, variations in lithophysal porosity along the drift can result in a range of peak driftwall temperatures can range from 40 to 85??C for the preclosure period. Copyright ?? 2004 by ASME.

  14. Fundamental understanding and integration of rapid thermal processing, PECVD, and screen printing for cost-effective, high-efficiency silicon photovoltaic devices (United States)

    Doshi, Parag Mahendra

    The final hurdle preventing widespread application of photovoltaics is cost-effectiveness. Solar cell efficiencies in the laboratory have reached 24%, but industrial cells, constrained by low-cost, high-throughput processes, are limited to 10-15%. This thesis focuses on industrially relevant technologies such as rapid thermal processing (RTP), PECVD, and screen-printing to simplify and speed up cell processing yet maintain the key features that give high efficiencies in the laboratory. RTP utilizes tungsten-halogen and UV lamps as a source of high energy photons that induce thermal and photophysical effects which can significantly increase the kinetics of semiconductor processes such as diffusion, oxidation, and annealing. PECVD also serves as a promising low-cost candidate for SiN/SiOsb2 antireflection coatings and passivation. Finally, screen printing serves as a very high-throughput technology for contact formation as a low-cost alternative to photolithography. Integration of these technologies into a single cell fabrication sequence, however, revealed the susceptibility to low internal quantum efficiencies in the long and short wavelengths. For example, the inherent rapid cooling during RTP can degrade minority-carrier lifetime and long wavelength response. Lack of knowledge in tailoring RTP emitter diffusion profiles coupled with less than perfect PECVD surface passivation and parasitic SiN absorption was found to limit short wavelength response. Problems like these limited RTP cell efficiencies to only 15.4% prior to this thesis. Through a combination of fundamental understanding of device physics, materials and device characterization, modeling, and cell fabrication these losses were quantified and overcome in this thesis. An in-situ annealing cycle during RTP was optimized to prevent quenching-induced lifetime degradation and to preserve high long wavelength response. Measurement of SiN extinction coefficients to compute parasitic absorption, optimization

  15. Influence of stratification grade in the accumulator tank over la efficiency of solar thermal plate collector facilities; Influencia del grado de estratificacion en el tanque acumulador sobre la eficiencia de las instalaciones fototermicas de colectores planos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silio, D. S.; Renedo, J. C. E.; Castanera, V. H.


    This paper shows a dynamic simulation of a domestic solar thermal installation. This installation produces sanitary hot water and includes different thermal stratification levels in the storage tank The installation consists in a solar flat collector, a tank of water, a source of auxiliary energy, and a device for blending water. The efficiency for each simulation is analyzed and compared. (Author)

  16. Treatment Efficiency by means of a Nonthermal Plasma Combined with Heterogeneous Catalysis of Odoriferous Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from the Thermal Drying of Landfill Leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Almarcha


    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to assess the odoriferous volatile organic compounds depuration efficiency of an experimental nonthermal plasma coupled to a catalytic system used for odor abatement of real emissions from a leachate thermal drying plant installed in an urban solid waste landfill. VOC screening was performed by means of HRGC-MS analysis of samples taken at the inlet and at the outlet of the nonthermal plasma system. Odor concentration by means of dynamic olfactometry, total organic carbon, mercaptans, NH3, and H2S were also determined in order to assess the performance of the system throughout several days. Three plasma frequencies (100, 150, and 200 Hz and two catalyst temperatures (150°C and 50°C were also tested. Under conditions of maximum capacity of the treatment system, the results show VOC depuration efficiencies around 69%, with average depuration efficiencies between 44 and 95% depending on the chemical family of the substance. Compounds belonging to the following families have been detected in the samples: organic acids, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, pyrazines, and reduced sulphur compounds, among others. Average total organic carbon removal efficiency was 88%, while NH3 and H2S removal efficiencies were 88% and 87%, respectively, and odor concentration abatement was 78%.

  17. Highly Efficient All-Inorganic Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells Produced by Thermal Coevaporation of CsI and PbI2. (United States)

    Frolova, Lyubov A; Anokhin, Denis V; Piryazev, Alexey A; Luchkin, Sergey Yu; Dremova, Nadezhda N; Stevenson, Keith J; Troshin, Pavel A


    We report here all inorganic CsPbI3 planar junction perovskite solar cells fabricated by thermal coevaporation of CsI and PbI2 precursors. The best devices delivered power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.3 to 10.5%, thus coming close to the reference MAPbI3-based devices (PCE ≈ 12%). These results emphasize that all inorganic lead halide perovskites can successfully compete in terms of photovoltaic performance with the most widely used hybrid materials such as MAPbI3.

  18. Seasonal Thermal-Energy Storage: A Critical Review on BTES Systems, Modeling, and System Design for Higher System Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lanahan


    Full Text Available Buildings consume approximately ¾ of the total electricity generated in the United States, contributing significantly to fossil fuel emissions. Sustainable and renewable energy production can reduce fossil fuel use, but necessitates storage for energy reliability in order to compensate for the intermittency of renewable energy generation. Energy storage is critical for success in developing a sustainable energy grid because it facilitates higher renewable energy penetration by mitigating the gap between energy generation and demand. This review analyzes recent case studies—numerical and field experiments—seen by borehole thermal energy storage (BTES in space heating and domestic hot water capacities, coupled with solar thermal energy. System design, model development, and working principle(s are the primary focus of this analysis. A synopsis of the current efforts to effectively model BTES is presented as well. The literature review reveals that: (1 energy storage is most effective when diurnal and seasonal storage are used in conjunction; (2 no established link exists between BTES computational fluid dynamics (CFD models integrated with whole building energy analysis tools, rather than parameter-fit component models; (3 BTES has less geographical limitations than Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES and lower installation cost scale than hot water tanks and (4 BTES is more often used for heating than for cooling applications.

  19. Mercury Emissions Capture Efficiency with Activated Carbon Injection at a Russian Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant (United States)

    This EPA-led project, conducted in collaboration with UNEP, the Swedish Environmental Institute and various Russian Institutes, that demonstrates that the mercury emission control efficiencies of activated carbon injection technologies applied at a Russian power plant burning Rus...

  20. Heat transfer efficiency of Al2O3-MWCNT/thermal oil hybrid nanofluid as a cooling fluid in thermal and energy management applications: An experimental and theoretical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Asadi, Meisam; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza


    The main objective of the present study is to assess the heat transfer efficiency of Al2O3-MWCNT/thermal oil hybrid nanofluid over different temperatures (25–50 °C) and solid concentrations (0.125%–1.5%). To this end, first of all, the stability of the nano-oil has been studied through the Zeta p...... concentrations of 1 and 1.5% in internal turbulent flow regimes. The effect of adding nanoparticles on pumping power and convective heat transfer coefficient has also been theoretically investigated....... potential analysis. Then, the dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of the nanofluid have been experimentally investigated. It was found that the nanofluid showed Newtonian behavior over the studied range of temperatures and solid concentrations. The dynamic viscosity showed increasing trend...... efficiency of the nanofluid has been evaluated based on different figures of merit. It is revealed that using this nanofluid instead of the base fluid can be beneficial in all the studied solid concentrations and temperatures for both the internal laminar and turbulent flow regimes except the solid...

  1. Review of Strategies for Thermal Efficiency in Landscape Planning of Cities for Conservation of Energy and Enhanced Climatic Resilience to Urban Warming (United States)

    Imam, Aabshar U. K.; Banerjee, Uttam Kumar


    Thermal discomfort, increased energy consumption, and heat related stress are some of the most prominent consequences of urban warming. Instances of heat related deaths have been reported; the elderly and the poor remain especially vulnerable. Urban greening has often been cited as an economically efficient method for inducing ambient cooling. Consequently, increased impetus is given to provision of public green spaces. However, a general increase in urban green cover especially in the form of parks and green spaces may be inadequate to achieve desired results. This article serves to highlight the thermal heterogeneity of landcape elements and stresses on the need for strategic shade provision. The originality of this study lies in the fact that it provides a comparative review of energy conservation potential of public and private green spaces. It is found that large parks may not have substantial cooling effect on the indoor built environment. Moreover, people tend to spend more time indoors than outdoors. Thus the need for greening of private areas has become an undeniable climatic necessity. The potential of shade trees, green walls, and roof gardens for cooling of built environment are discussed with quantitative evidences of their thermal and economic benefits. Parameters incurring cost expenditure and weaknesses of the greening strategies are enumerated for enabling prudent selection/implementation of strategies. Proposals are generated to improve climatic resilience to urban warming and for diligent planning of cities.

  2. Review of Strategies for Thermal Efficiency in Landscape Planning of Cities for Conservation of Energy and Enhanced Climatic Resilience to Urban Warming (United States)

    Imam, Aabshar U. K.; Banerjee, Uttam Kumar


    Thermal discomfort, increased energy consumption, and heat related stress are some of the most prominent consequences of urban warming. Instances of heat related deaths have been reported; the elderly and the poor remain especially vulnerable. Urban greening has often been cited as an economically efficient method for inducing ambient cooling. Consequently, increased impetus is given to provision of public green spaces. However, a general increase in urban green cover especially in the form of parks and green spaces may be inadequate to achieve desired results. This article serves to highlight the thermal heterogeneity of landcape elements and stresses on the need for strategic shade provision. The originality of this study lies in the fact that it provides a comparative review of energy conservation potential of public and private green spaces. It is found that large parks may not have substantial cooling effect on the indoor built environment. Moreover, people tend to spend more time indoors than outdoors. Thus the need for greening of private areas has become an undeniable climatic necessity. The potential of shade trees, green walls, and roof gardens for cooling of built environment are discussed with quantitative evidences of their thermal and economic benefits. Parameters incurring cost expenditure and weaknesses of the greening strategies are enumerated for enabling prudent selection/implementation of strategies. Proposals are generated to improve climatic resilience to urban warming and for diligent planning of cities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Jankowski


    Full Text Available Ventilation and air conditioning systems are necessary for developing proper parameters of indoor envi-ronment in operating rooms. The main task of ventilation and air conditioning in those specific areas consists in creating desirable temperature, reducing the number of microorganisms and the concen-trations of hazardous gases and substances in the air, as well as ensuring the proper direction of airflow. In Poland, indoor environment in operating rooms has to comply with the requirements set out in three regulations (Journal of Laws of 2002 No. 75, item 690, as amended, Journal of Laws of 2002 No. 217, item 1833, Journal of Laws of 2011 No. 31, item 158, as amended and the document entitled "Guidelines for the design of general hospitals". Given insufficient accuracy of the abovementioned national documents, it is a common practice to use foreign standards, i.e. ASHRAE Standard 170-2013, DIN 1946-4: 2008 and FprCEN TR 16244: 2011. When considering the conditions for thermal comfort, it is important to bear in mind a close link between air flow velocity and air temperature. Air in the zone occupied by patients and medical staff must not cause the sensation of draft. Furthermore, air velocity should be sufficient to eliminate interference caused by the presence of people and other sources of heat. It should also reduce the turbulence level in the air in the operating room. Efficient functioning of ventilation and air conditioning was tested during treatments and operations carried out on three wards of a Warsaw hospital. Tests were performed with the participation of medical staff from various surgical units. They were asked to perform minor manual tasks to simulate work on the op-erating table, and to complete a questionnaire on subjective thermal sensation. The applied methodology is widely used during testing of general and local ventilation in public buildings. Air temperature, relative humidity, air flow supply and exhaust air from the

  4. Efficient up-conversion in Yb:Er:NaT(XO42 thermal nanoprobes. Imaging of their distribution in a perfused mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zaldo

    Full Text Available Yb and Er codoped NaT(XO42 (T = Y, La, Gd, Lu and X = Mo, W disordered oxides show a green (Er3+ related up-conversion (UC efficiency comparable to that of Yb:Er:β-NaYF4 compound and unless 3 times larger UC ratiometric thermal sensitivity. The similar UC efficiency of Yb:Er doped NaT(XO42 and β-NaYF4 compounds allowed testing equal subcutaneous depths of ex-vivo chicken tissue in both cases. This extraordinary behavior for NaT(XO42 oxides with large cutoff phonon energy (ħω≈ 920 cm-1 is ascribed to 4F9/2 electron population recycling to higher energy 4G11/2 level by a phonon assisted transition. Crystalline nanoparticles of Yb:Er:NaLu(MoO42 have been synthesized by sol-gel with sizes most commonly in the 50-80 nm range, showing a relatively small reduction of the UC efficiency with regards to bulk materials. Fluorescence lifetime and multiphoton imaging microscopies show that these nanoparticles can be efficiently distributed to all body organs of a perfused mouse.

  5. Optimization of non-thermal plasma efficiency in the simultaneous elimination of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene from polluted airstreams using response surface methodology. (United States)

    Najafpoor, Ali Asghar; Jonidi Jafari, Ahmad; Hosseinzadeh, Ahmad; Khani Jazani, Reza; Bargozin, Hasan


    Treatment with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) is a new and effective technology applied recently for conversion of gases for air pollution control. This research was initiated to optimize the efficient application of the NTP process in benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal. The effects of four variables including temperature, initial BTEX concentration, voltage, and flow rate on the BTEX elimination efficiency were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The constructed model was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The model goodness-of-fit and statistical significance was assessed using determination coefficients (R (2) and R (2)adj) and the F-test. The results revealed that the R (2) proportion was greater than 0.96 for BTEX removal efficiency. The statistical analysis demonstrated that the BTEX removal efficiency was significantly correlated with the temperature, BTEX concentration, voltage, and flow rate. Voltage was the most influential variable affecting the dependent variable as it exerted a significant effect (p < 0.0001) on the response variable. According to the achieved results, NTP can be applied as a progressive, cost-effective, and practical process for treatment of airstreams polluted with BTEX in conditions of low residence time and high concentrations of pollutants.

  6. Thermal and Daylighting Performance of Energy-Efficient Windows in Highly Glazed Residential Buildings: Case Study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Heon Cheong


    Full Text Available Cooling load in highly glazed residential building can be excessively large due to uncontrolled solar energy entering the indoor space. This study focuses on the cooling load reduction and changes in the daylighting properties via the application of a double window system (DWS with shading with various surface reflectivities in highly glazed residential buildings. Evaluation of thermal and daylighting performances is carried out using simulation tools. The reductions in cooling load and energy cost through the use of DWS are evaluated through a comparative simulation considering conventional windows: a single window and a double window. Three variables of window types, natural ventilation, and shading reflectivity are reflected in the study. According to our results, implementation of DWS reduced cooling load by 43%–61%. Electricity cost during the cooling period was reduced by a maximum of 24%. However, a shading device setting that prioritizes effective cooling load reduction can greatly decrease the daylighting factor and luminance level of indoor space. A DWS implementing shading device with highly reflective at all surfaces is appropriate option for the more comfortable thermal and visual environment, while a shading device with low reflectivity at rear of the surface can contribute an additional 4% cooling load reduction.

  7. Light and Strong Hierarchical Porous SiC Foam for Efficient Electromagnetic Interference Shielding and Thermal Insulation at Elevated Temperatures. (United States)

    Liang, Caiyun; Wang, Zhenfeng; Wu, Lina; Zhang, Xiaochen; Wang, Huan; Wang, Zhijiang


    A novel light but strong SiC foam with hierarchical porous architecture was fabricated by using dough as raw material via carbonization followed by carbothermal reduction with silicon source. A significant synergistic effect is achieved by embedding meso- and nanopores in a microsized porous skeleton, which endows the SiC foam with high-performance electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, thermal insulation, and mechanical properties. The microsized skeleton withstands high stress. The meso- and nanosized pores enhance multiple reflection of the incident electromagnetic waves and elongate the path of heat transfer. For the hierarchical porous SiC foam with 72.8% porosity, EMI shielding can be higher than 20 dB, and specific EMI effectiveness exceeds 24.8 dB·cm3·g-1 at a frequency of 11 GHz at 25-600 °C, which is 3 times higher than that of dense SiC ceramic. The thermal conductivity reaches as low as 0.02 W·m-1·K-1, which is comparable to that of aerogel. The compressive strength is as high as 9.8 MPa. Given the chemical and high-temperature stability of SiC, the fabricated SiC foam is a promising candidate for modern aircraft and automobile applications.

  8. Improvement of Energy Efficiency and Environmental Safety of Thermal Energy Through the Implementation of Contact Energy Exchange Processes (United States)

    Varlamov, Gennadii Borysovich; Romanova, Kateryna Alexandrovna; Nazarova, Iryna; Daschenko, Olga; Kapustiansky, Andry


    Energy efficiency improvement and ecological safety of heat power plants are urgent problems, which require scientifically grounded approaches and solutions. These problems can be solved partly within the presented heat-and-power cycles by including contact energy exchange equipment in the circuits of existing installations. A significant positive effect is obtained in the contact energy exchange installations, such as gas-steam installation `Aquarius' and the contact hydrogen heat generator that also can use hydrogen as a fuel. In these plants, the efficiency increases approximately by 10-12% in comparison with traditional installations, and the concentration of toxic substances, such as nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in flue gas can be reduced to 30 mg/m3 and to 5 mg/m3, respectively. Moreover, the plants additionally `generate' the clean water, which can be used for technical purposes.

  9. Improvement of Energy Efficiency and Environmental Safety of Thermal Energy Through the Implementation of Contact Energy Exchange Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varlamov Gennadii Borysovich


    Full Text Available Energy efficiency improvement and ecological safety of heat power plants are urgent problems, which require scientifically grounded approaches and solutions. These problems can be solved partly within the presented heat-and-power cycles by including contact energy exchange equipment in the circuits of existing installations. A significant positive effect is obtained in the contact energy exchange installations, such as gas-steam installation ‘Aquarius’ and the contact hydrogen heat generator that also can use hydrogen as a fuel. In these plants, the efficiency increases approximately by 10-12% in comparison with traditional installations, and the concentration of toxic substances, such as nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in flue gas can be reduced to 30 mg/m3 and to 5 mg/m3, respectively. Moreover, the plants additionally ‘generate’ the clean water, which can be used for technical purposes.

  10. Influence of the reheat temperature on the efficiency of the wet-steam turbines of thermal power plants that operate under variable conditions (United States)

    Tarelin, A. A.


    A brief analysis of the existing methods for controlling the operating conditions of the turbine units that operate at variable loads is presented. In practice, the outdated rule of operation is most frequently used that states that the higher the parameters of the live and reheat steam and the lower the condenser pressure are, the higher is the efficiency of the turbine unit. However, in the technical literature, there is sufficiently substantiated evidence that this approach is not always correct, especially under low loads. This applies to both the regulation of the initial and final pressure and reheat temperature t r. In the article, particular stress is laid on the controllable parameter t r, the effect of which in the operational practices, according to the results of the analysis, is underestimated. The causes are considered that constrain more effective use of reheat temperature t r as a process variable. The results of field trials to investigate the influence of t r on the efficiency of turbine units of various capacities, viz., of 210, 250, 300, and 325 MW, during operation at varying loads are presented. It is shown that a decrease in t r to an optimal value of 10-30°C, depending on the load and the condenser pressure, increases the thermal efficiency by 1-2%. The following general pattern has been set: the lower the load, the lower the optimal reheat temperature. The main causes and factors that result in more efficient use of the heat phase transition in the steam path of the low-pressure cylinder and increased efficiency of the unit under rational choice of the reheat temperature are studied.

  11. Metodología de cálculo de la eficiencia térmica de generadores de vapor Methodology to calculate thermal efficiency of steam boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Golato


    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método matemático determinístico de procesamiento de registros experimentales, aplicable a un sistema generador de vapor-precalentador de aire en estado estacionario, que opere con uno o dos combustibles simultáneamente, para determinar la eficiencia térmica del mismo y la eficiencia con la que se oxida el combustible, como así también el rendimiento del intercambiador de calor. La mecánica de procesamiento se basa en la resolución de los balances de materia y energía sobre los diferentes equipos que conforman el sistema. Esta metodología es aplicable a aquellos generadores de vapor que empleen, como combustible, bagazo, gas natural o ambos (caldera mixta. Se ilustran, como ejemplos de aplicación, los resultados del cálculo de la eficiencia térmica de diferentes generadores de vapor para cada tipo de combustible procesado, empleando para ello datos de diversos ensayos experimentales. La resolución de los balances de materia y energía en una caldera que quema bagazo, dio como resultado un rendimiento térmico del 53,2% y un índice de generación de 1,38 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo. Para una caldera cuyo combustible es gas natural, se obtuvo un rendimiento térmico del 76,7% y un índice de generación de 9,8 kg de vapor/ Nm³ de gas natural. Para una caldera que quema en forma simultánea bagazo y gas natural, se determinó un rendimiento del 68,3% y un índice de generación de 1,87 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo equivalente. Como validación de esta metodología, se contrastan estos valores de eficiencia con los obtenidos según el código propuesto por la American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME.A deterministic mathematical method for processing experimental data, applied to a steam generator-air heater system in stationary state which operates with one or two fuels simultaneously, was developed to determine the thermal of the system, as well as fuel combustion and heat exchanger efficiency. The methodology is

  12. Immobilization on graphene oxide improves the thermal stability and bioconversion efficiency of D-psicose 3-epimerase for rare sugar production. (United States)

    Dedania, Samir R; Patel, Manisha J; Patel, Dijit M; Akhani, Rekha C; Patel, Darshan H


    D-Psicose (D-ribo-2-hexulose or D-allulose), an epimer of D-fructose is considered as a rare low-calorie sugar displaying important physiological functions. Enzymatic production using ketose 3-epimerases is the feasible process for the production of D-Psicose. However, major drawbacks in application of ketose 3-epimerases are bioconversion efficiency and reusability of the enzyme. We have attempted immobilization of ketose 3-epimerases from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agtu) D-psicose 3-epimerase (DPEase) on graphene oxide. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the enzyme was successfully immobilized on the graphene oxide. Graphene oxide immobilized agtu-DPEase (GO-agtu-DPEase) shows pH optima at 7.5 and 60°C as higher working temperature. Significant improvement in thermal stability was observed which showed half-life of 720min at 60°C whereas Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agtu) DPEase displayed 3.99min. At equilibrium, 40:60 (D-psicose: D-fructose) the bioconversion efficiency was accounted for Graphene oxide immobilized DPEase which is higher than the agtu-DPEase. Graphene oxide immobilized DPEase showed bioconversion efficiency up to 10 cycles of reusability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Practical application of the benchmarking technique to increase reliability and efficiency of power installations and main heat-mechanic equipment of thermal power plants (United States)

    Rimov, A. A.; Chukanova, T. I.; Trofimov, Yu. V.


    Data on the comparative analysis variants of the quality of power installations (benchmarking) applied in the power industry is systematized. It is shown that the most efficient variant of implementation of the benchmarking technique is the analysis of statistical distributions of the indicators in the composed homogenous group of the uniform power installations. The benchmarking technique aimed at revealing the available reserves on improvement of the reliability and heat efficiency indicators of the power installations of the thermal power plants is developed in the furtherance of this approach. The technique provides a possibility of reliable comparison of the quality of the power installations in their homogenous group limited by the number and adoption of the adequate decision on improving some or other technical characteristics of this power installation. The technique provides structuring of the list of the comparison indicators and internal factors affecting them represented according to the requirements of the sectoral standards and taking into account the price formation characteristics in the Russian power industry. The mentioned structuring ensures traceability of the reasons of deviation of the internal influencing factors from the specified values. The starting point for further detail analysis of the delay of the certain power installation indicators from the best practice expressed in the specific money equivalent is positioning of this power installation on distribution of the key indicator being a convolution of the comparison indicators. The distribution of the key indicator is simulated by the Monte-Carlo method after receiving the actual distributions of the comparison indicators: specific lost profit due to the short supply of electric energy and short delivery of power, specific cost of losses due to the nonoptimal expenditures for repairs, and specific cost of excess fuel equivalent consumption. The quality loss indicators are developed

  14. High-efficiency diphenylsulfon derivatives-based organic light-emitting diode exhibiting thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Geon Hyeong


    Novel thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) material with diphenyl sulfone (DPS) as an electron acceptor and 3,6-dimethoxycarbazole (DMOC) and 1,3,6,8-Tetramethyl-9H-carbazole (TMC) as electron donors were investigated theoretically for a blue organic light emitting diode (OLED) emitter. We calculate the energies of the first singlet (S1) and first triplet (T1)-excited states of TADF materials by performing density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations on the ground state using a dependence on charge transfer amounts for the optimal Hartree-Fock percentage in the exchange-correlation of TD-DFT. The calculated {\\Delta}EST values of TMC-DPS (0.094 eV) was smaller than DMOC-DPS (0.386 eV) because of the large dihedral angles between the donor and accepter moieties. We show that TMC-DPS would have a suitable blue OLED emitter, because it has a large dihedral angle that creates a small spatial overlap between the HOMO and the LUMO and, consequently, the small {\\Delta}EST an...

  15. Transfer Efficiency and Cooling Cost by Thermal Loss based on Nitrogen Evaporation Method for Superconducting MAGLEV System (United States)

    Chung, Y. D.; Kim, D. W.; Lee, C. Y.


    This paper presents the feasibility of technical fusion between wireless power transfer (WPT) and superconducting technology to improve the transfer efficiency and evaluate operating costs such as refrigerant consumption. Generally, in WPT technology, the various copper wires have been adopted. From this reason, the transfer efficiency is limited since the copper wires of Q value are intrinsically critical point. On the other hand, as superconducting wires keep larger current density and relatively higher Q value, the superconducting resonance coil can be expected as a reasonable option to deliver large transfer power as well as improve the transfer ratio since it exchanges energy at a much higher rate and keeps stronger magnetic fields out. However, since superconducting wires should be cooled indispensably, the cooling cost of consumed refrigerant for resonance HTS wires should be estimated. In this study, the transmission ratios using HTS resonance receiver (Rx) coil and various cooled and noncooled copper resonance Rx coils were presented under non cooled copper antenna within input power of 200 W of 370 kHz respectively. In addition, authors evaluated cooling cost of liquid nitrogen for HTS resonance coil and various cooled copper resonance coils based on nitrogen evaporation method.

  16. Efficient surface modification of MWCNTs with vitamin B1 and production of poly(ester-imide/MWCNTs nanocomposites containing L-phenylalanine moiety: Thermal and microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mallakpour


    Full Text Available A simple and efficient method was presented for chemical functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs with vitamin B1. Poly(ester-imide (PEI based nanocomposites were prepared by the incorporation of different amounts of modified MWCNTs (5, 10, 15 wt% into a chiral and biodegradable PEI by solution blending and ultrasonic dispersion methods. The chiral PEI was produced by a step-growth polymerization of chiral diacid with 4,4'-thiobis(2-tertbutyl-5-methylphenol. Spectroscopic and microscopic techniques were used to examine the chemical structure, morphology and thermal stability of the functionalized MWCNTs and the obtained nanocomposites. The microstructure study revealed the homogeneous dispersion of modified MWCNTs throughout the PEI matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis results confirmed that the heat stability of the prepared composites was improved compared to the pure PEI.

  17. Thermal analysis of high-bandwidth and energy-efficient 980 nm VCSELs with optimized quantum well gain peak-to-cavity resonance wavelength offset (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wolf, Philip; Jia, Xiaowei; Lott, James A.; Bimberg, Dieter


    The static and dynamic performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) used as light-sources for optical interconnects is highly influenced by temperature. We study the effect of temperature on the performance of high-speed energy-efficient 980 nm VCSELs with a peak wavelength of the quantum well offset to the wavelength of the fundamental longitudinal device cavity mode so that they are aligned at around 60 °C. A simple method to obtain the thermal resistance of the VCSELs as a function of ambient temperature is described, allowing us to extract the active region temperature and the temperature dependence of the dynamic and static parameters. At low bias currents, we can see an increase of the -3 dB modulation bandwidth f-3dB with increasing active region temperature, which is different from the classically known situation. From the detailed analysis of f-3dB versus the active region temperature, we obtain a better understanding of the thermal limitations of VCSELs, giving a basis for next generation device designs with improved temperature stability.

  18. An efficient HW and SW design of H.264 video compression, storage and playback on FPGA devices for handheld thermal imaging systems (United States)

    Gunay, Omer; Ozsarac, Ismail; Kamisli, Fatih


    Video recording is an essential property of new generation military imaging systems. Playback of the stored video on the same device is also desirable as it provides several operational benefits to end users. Two very important constraints for many military imaging systems, especially for hand-held devices and thermal weapon sights, are power consumption and size. To meet these constraints, it is essential to perform most of the processing applied to the video signal, such as preprocessing, compression, storing, decoding, playback and other system functions on a single programmable chip, such as FPGA, DSP, GPU or ASIC. In this work, H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) compatible video compression, storage, decoding and playback blocks are efficiently designed and implemented on FPGA platforms using FPGA fabric and Altera NIOS II soft processor. Many subblocks that are used in video encoding are also used during video decoding in order to save FPGA resources and power. Computationally complex blocks are designed using FPGA fabric, while blocks such as SD card write/read, H.264 syntax decoding and CAVLC decoding are done using NIOS processor to benefit from software flexibility. In addition, to keep power consumption low, the system was designed to require limited external memory access. The design was tested using 640x480 25 fps thermal camera on CYCLONE V FPGA, which is the ALTERA's lowest power FPGA family, and consumes lower than 40% of CYCLONE V 5CEFA7 FPGA resources on average.

  19. Manipulating the Electronic Excited State Energies of Pyrimidine-Based Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters To Realize Efficient Deep-Blue Emission. (United States)

    Komatsu, Ryutaro; Ohsawa, Tatsuya; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Nakao, Kohei; Hayasaka, Yuya; Kido, Junji


    The development of efficient and robust deep-blue emitters is one of the key issues in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) for environmentally friendly, large-area displays or general lighting. As a promising technology that realizes 100% conversion from electrons to photons, thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters have attracted considerable attention. However, only a handful of examples of deep-blue TADF emitters have been reported to date, and the emitters generally show large efficiency roll-off at practical luminance over several hundreds to thousands of cd m-2, most likely because of the long delayed fluorescent lifetime (τd). To overcome this problem, we molecularly manipulated the electronic excited state energies of pyrimidine-based TADF emitters to realize deep-blue emission and reduced τd. We then systematically investigated the relationships among the chemical structure, properties, and device performances. The resultant novel pyrimidine emitters, called Ac-XMHPMs (X = 1, 2, and 3), contain different numbers of bulky methyl substituents at acceptor moieties, increasing the excited singlet (ES) and triplet state (ET) energies. Among them, Ac-3MHPM, with a high ET of 2.95 eV, exhibited a high external quantum efficiency (ηext,max) of 18% and an ηext of 10% at 100 cd m-2 with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of (0.16, 0.15). These efficiencies are among the highest values to date for deep-blue TADF OLEDs. Our molecular design strategy provides fundamental guidance to design novel deep-blue TADF emitters.

  20. Comparative thermal performance of static sunshade and brick cavity wall for energy efficient building envelope in composite climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charde Meghana


    Full Text Available Energy efficient building technologies can reduce energy consumption in buildings. In present paper effect of designed static sunshade, brick cavity wall with brick projections and their combined effect on indoor air temperature has been analyzed by constructing three test rooms each of habitable dimensions (3.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m and studying hourly temperatures on typical days for one month in summer and winter each. The three rooms have also been simulated using a software and the results have been compared with the experimental results. Designed static sunshade increased indoor air temperature in winter while proposed brick cavity wall with brick projections lowered it in summer. Combined effect of building elements lowered indoor air temperature in summer and increased it in winter as compared to outdoor air temperature. It is thus useful for energy conservation in buildings in composite climate.

  1. Input/output Buffer based Vedic Multiplier Design for Thermal Aware Energy Efficient Digital Signal Processing on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar


    Multiplier is used for multiplication of a signal and a constant in digital signal processing (DSP). 28nm technology based Vedic multiplier is implemented with use of VHDL HDL, Xilinx ISE, Kintex-7 FPGA and XPower Analyzer. Vedic multiplier gain speed improvements by parallelizing the generation...... of partial products with their concurrent summations. In this work, we are exploring the feasibility of Vedic multiplier in Data Encryption Algorithm, DSP, reliable system, multimedia and fault tolerant systems. In our work, we are using 11 different IO standards from HSTL (High Speed Transistor Logic...... Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in order to reduce the development cost. The development cost for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are high in compare to FPGA. Selection of the most energy efficient IO standards in place of signal gating is the main design methodology for design of energy...

  2. Toward Efficient and Metal-Free Emissive Devices: A Solution-Processed Host-Guest Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cell Featuring Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence. (United States)

    Lundberg, Petter; Lindh, E Mattias; Tang, Shi; Edman, Ludvig


    The next generation of emissive devices should preferably be efficient, low-cost, and environmentally sustainable, and as such utilize all electrically generated excitons (both singlets and triplets) for the light emission, while being free from rare metals such as iridium. Here, we report on a step toward this vision through the design, fabrication, and operation of a host-guest light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) featuring an organic thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) guest that harvests both singlet and triplet excitons for the emission. The rare-metal-free active material also consists of a polymeric electrolyte and a polymeric compatibilizer for the facilitation of a cost-efficient and scalable solution-based fabrication, and for the use of air-stable electrodes. We report that such TADF-LEC devices can deliver uniform green light emission with a maximum luminance of 228 cd m-2 when driven by a constant-current density of 770 A m-2, and 760 cd m-2 during a voltage ramp, which represents a one-order-of-magnitude improvement in comparison to previous TADF-emitting LECs.

  3. Rendimiento térmico de calderas bagaceras modernas en Tucumán, R. Argentina Thermal efficiency of modern bagasse boilers in Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J. Franck Colombres


    Full Text Available Se evaluaron tres calderas de vapor modernas instaladas en ingenios azucareros de Tucumán, R. Argentina, equipos que se encuadran dentro de las tecnologías de producción más limpia. Tomando como base la metodología de cálculo de la eficiencia térmica de generadores de vapor desarrollada en 2008 por la Sección Ingeniería y Proyectos Agroindustriales de la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, y a partir de los datos recolectados por medio de mediciones y balances de materia y energía, se determinaron sus principales variables características de operación. Las eficiencias energéticas determinadas para cada una fueron del 73,5%; 75,2% y 77,3%. Se realizó además una comparación con las calderas de vapor convencionales y se determinó el ahorro de bagazo que puede obtenerse con las calderas modernas, el cual resultó ser de un 27,6%. Como una ventaja adicional, se hace mención a la posibilidad de mejora del rendimiento térmico del ciclo motriz de la planta, que viene acompañada con el aumento de la presión de trabajo de la caldera.Three modern steam boilers, installed in sugar mills in Tucumán, R. Argentina, to attain a cleaner production, were evaluated. Their major operating variables were determined using the methodology for calculating thermal efficiency of steam generators developed by Sección Ingeniería y Proyectos Agroindustriales of Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres in 2008, and data obtained from measurements and material and energy balances. Energy efficiency values determined for each boiler were 73.5%, 75.2% and 77.3%, respectively. A comparison with conventional steam boilers was drawn and it was found that bagasse savings amounted to about 27.6% when modern boilers were used. The possibility of improving the thermal efficiency of the plant cycle by increasing boiler pressure is mentioned as an additional advantage.

  4. Improving the reversibility of thermal denaturation and catalytic efficiency of Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase through stabilizing a long loop in domain B (United States)

    Li, Zhu; Duan, Xuguo; Chen, Sheng; Wu, Jing


    The reversibility of thermal denaturation and catalytic efficiency of Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase were improved through site-directed mutagenesis. By using multiple sequence alignment and PoPMuSiC algorithm, Ser187 and Asn188, which located within a long loop in Domain B of Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, were selected for mutation. In addition, Ala269, which is adjacent to Ser187 and Asn188, was also investigated. Seven mutants carrying the mutations S187D, N188T, N188S, A269K, A269K/S187D, S187D/N188T, and A269K/S187D/N188T were generated and characterized. The most thermostable mutant, A269K/S187D/N188T, exhibited a 9-fold improvement in half-life at 95°C and pH 5.5, compared with that of the wild-type enzyme. Mutant A269K/S187D/N188T also exhibited improved catalytic efficiency. The catalytic efficiency of mutant A269K/S187D/N188T reached 5.87×103±0.17 g·L-1·s-1 at pH 5.5, which is 1.84-fold larger than the corresponding value determined for the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, the structure analysis showed that immobilization of the loop containing Ser187 and Asn188 plays a significant role in developing the properties of Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase. PMID:28253342

  5. Combined use of thermal methods and seepage meters to efficiently locate, quantify, and monitor focused groundwater discharge to a sand-bed stream (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Briggs, Martin; Delin, Geoffrey N.; Hare, Danielle K.


    Quantifying flow of groundwater through streambeds often is difficult due to the complexity of aquifer-scale heterogeneity combined with local-scale hyporheic exchange. We used fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS), seepage meters, and vertical temperature profiling to locate, quantify, and monitor areas of focused groundwater discharge in a geomorphically simple sand-bed stream. This combined approach allowed us to rapidly focus efforts at locations where prodigious amounts of groundwater discharged to the Quashnet River on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, northeastern USA. FO-DTS detected numerous anomalously cold reaches one to several m long that persisted over two summers. Seepage meters positioned upstream, within, and downstream of 7 anomalously cold reaches indicated that rapid groundwater discharge occurred precisely where the bed was cold; median upward seepage was nearly 5 times faster than seepage measured in streambed areas not identified as cold. Vertical temperature profilers deployed next to 8 seepage meters provided diurnal-signal-based seepage estimates that compared remarkably well with seepage-meter values. Regression slope and R2 values both were near 1 for seepage ranging from 0.05 to 3.0 m d−1. Temperature-based seepage model accuracy was improved with thermal diffusivity determined locally from diurnal signals. Similar calculations provided values for streambed sediment scour and deposition at subdaily resolution. Seepage was strongly heterogeneous even along a sand-bed river that flows over a relatively uniform sand and fine-gravel aquifer. FO-DTS was an efficient method for detecting areas of rapid groundwater discharge, even in a strongly gaining river, that can then be quantified over time with inexpensive streambed thermal methods.

  6. Suppression of thermal carrier escape and efficient photo-carrier generation by two-step photon absorption in InAs quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells using a dot-in-well structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahi, S.; Teranishi, H.; Kasamatsu, N.; Kada, T.; Kaizu, T.; Kita, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)


    We investigated the effects of an increase in the barrier height on the enhancement of the efficiency of two-step photo-excitation in InAs quantum dot (QD) solar cells with a dot-in-well structure. Thermal carrier escape of electrons pumped in QD states was drastically reduced by sandwiching InAs/GaAs QDs with a high potential barrier of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As. The thermal activation energy increased with the introduction of the barrier. The high potential barrier caused suppression of thermal carrier escape and helped realize a high electron density in the QD states. We observed efficient two-step photon absorption as a result of the high occupancy of the QD states at room temperature.

  7. Effect of exogenous metal ions and mechanical stress on rice processed in thermal-solid enzymatic reaction system related to further alcoholic fermentation efficiency. (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Wu, Zhengzong; Jiao, Aiquan; Jin, Zhengyu


    Metal-rich thermal-solid enzymatic processing of rice combined with yeast fermentation was investigated. 8 Metal ions were exogenously supplied at 0.05, 0.5 and 5mmol/100g (MG) rice prior to static high pressure enzymatic cooking (HPEC) and dynamic enzymatic extrusion cooking (EEC). Treated rice and its fermentation efficiency (FE) were characterized by rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA), UV-Vis, FT-IR and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The optimum pH range of enzyme in solid system (>4.9) was broader than in a liquid system (>5.5). Cations decreased enzymatic activity in HPEC probably due to metal-induced aggregation of rice matrix with reduced reacting area as well as strengthened structure of starch/polysaccharides modified by metals. While using the EEC with mechanical mixing/shearing, relative activity was activated to 110 and 120% by Mg(2+) (0.05-0.5MG) and Ca(2+) (0.05-5MG), respectively. Furthermore, the effectiveness of residual ions to promote further FE was found to follow the order: Ca(2+)>K(+)>Zn(2+)>Mg(2+)>Mn(2+)>Na(+)≈Control>Fe(2+)>Cu(2+), individually. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Technical report series on global modeling and data assimilation. Volume 3: An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models (United States)

    Suarex, Max J. (Editor); Chou, Ming-Dah


    A detailed description of a parameterization for thermal infrared radiative transfer designed specifically for use in global climate models is presented. The parameterization includes the effects of the main absorbers of terrestrial radiation: water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone. While being computationally efficient, the schemes compute very accurately the clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates from the Earth's surface to 0.01 mb. This combination of accuracy and speed makes the parameterization suitable for both tropospheric and middle atmospheric modeling applications. Since no transmittances are precomputed the atmospheric layers and the vertical distribution of the absorbers may be freely specified. The scheme can also account for any vertical distribution of fractional cloudiness with arbitrary optical thickness. These features make the parameterization very flexible and extremely well suited for use in climate modeling studies. In addition, the numerics and the FORTRAN implementation have been carefully designed to conserve both memory and computer time. This code should be particularly attractive to those contemplating long-term climate simulations, wishing to model the middle atmosphere, or planning to use a large number of levels in the vertical.

  9. Benzimidazobenzothiazole-based highly-efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters for organic light-emitting diodes: A quantum-chemical TD-DFT study. (United States)

    Zhu, Qiuling; Wen, Keke; Feng, Songyan; Guo, Xugeng; Zhang, Jinglai


    Based upon two thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters 1 and 2, compounds 3-6 have been designed by replacing the carbazol group with the bis(4-biphenyl)amine one (3 and 4) and introducing the electron-withdrawing CF3 group into the acceptor unit of 3 and 4 (5 and 6). It is found that the present calculations predict comparable but relatively large energy differences (approximate 0.5eV) between the lowest singlet S1 and triplet T1 states (∆EST) for the six targeted compounds. In order to explain the highly-efficient TADF behavior observed in compounds 1 and 2, the"triplet reservoir" mechanism has been proposed. In addition, the fluorescence rates of all six compounds are very large, in 107-108 orders of magnitude. According to the present calculations, it is a reasonable assumption that the newly designed compounds 3-6 could be considered as the potential TADF emitters, which needs to be further verified by experimental techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  11. In-situ X-Ray Analysis of Rapid Thermal Processing for Thin-Film Solar Cells: Closing the Gap between Production and Laboratory Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toney, Michael F. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); van Hest, Maikel F. A. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    the application of radiative thermal annealing, an easily scalable processing method, for synthesizing formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) perovskite solar absorbers. Devices fabricated from films formed via radiative thermal annealing have equivalent efficiencies to those annealed using a conventional hotplate. By coupling results from in situ x-ray diffraction using a radiative thermal annealing system with device performances, we mapped the processing phase space of FAPbI3 and corresponding device efficiencies. Our map of processing-structure-performance space suggests the commonly used FAPbI3 annealing time, 10 min at 170 °C, can be significantly reduced to 40 s at 170 °C without affecting the photovoltaic performance. Applying the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model to the decomposition into PbI2, the activation energy was determined. We also presented a well-controlled, manufacturing relevant annealing method, radiative thermal annealing, for the methylammonium lead triiodide films formed by solvent engineering process, with dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide as solvent and diethyl ether as the antisolvent. Radiative thermal annealing can produce high quality perovskite films, evidenced by high efficiency solar cell devices, in a shorter time than the widely-used hotplate annealing. Using in-situ x-ray diffraction during the radiative annealing, we show that the role of the antisolvent is not to form an intermediate compound (a methylammonium iodide, lead iodide, and dimethyl sulfoxide compound) by washing of the main solvent (DMF) but to achieve a pin-hole free, uniform film of methylammonium lead iodide. We find that having the intermediate compound does not guarantee a high quality (pin-hole free) perovskite film. Our study was extended to reveal the effect of annealing environment, annealing temperature profile, and deposition substrate.

  12. Recent development in thermally activated desalination methods: achieving an energy efficiency less than 2.5 kWhelec/m3

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil


    Water-Energy-Environment nexus is a crucial consideration when designing seawater desalination processes, particularly for the water-stressed countries where the annual water availability is less than 250 m3 per capita. Despite the thermodynamics limit for seawater desalination at normal conditions is about 0.78 to 1.09 kWhelec/m3, the specific energy consumption of desalination of real plants is found to operate at several folds higher. Today’s technological advancement in membranes, namely the reverse osmosis processes, has set an energy consumption of around 3.5–5 kWhelec/m3, while the conventional perception of thermally activated processes such as MSF and MED tends to be higher. Although the higher energetic specific consumption of MED or MSF processes appeared to be higher at 60–100 kWhthermal/m3, their true electricity equivalent has been converted, hitherto, using the energetic analyses where the work potential of working steam of the processes cannot be captured adequately. Thermally activated processes, such as MED and MSF, form the bottoming cycle of a cogeneration plant where both electricity and desalination processes operate in tandem in a cascaded manner. Only the bled-steam at lower exergy is extracted for the desalination processes. In this presentation, we demonstrate that in a cogen plant with 30% bled-steam for MED processes, the exergy destruction ratio is found to be less than 7% of the total available exergy that emanated from the boilers. By the exergetic approach, the equivalent electricity consumption of an average 75 kWhthermal/m3 would result in an electrical equivalent of less than 2.5 kWhelec/m3. Also in this presentation, the authors will elaborate the latest developments in the use of hybridization concept where the MED and the AD cycles are thermodynamically integrated and enhancing the overall efficiency of desalination. © 2015 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal-based modeling of coupled carbon, water, and energy fluxes using nominal light use efficiencies constrained by leaf chlorophyll observations (United States)

    Schull, M. A.; Anderson, M. C.; Houborg, R.; Gitelson, A.; Kustas, W. P.


    Recent studies have shown that estimates of leaf chlorophyll content (Chl), defined as the combined mass of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b per unit leaf area, can be useful for constraining estimates of canopy light use efficiency (LUE). Canopy LUE describes the amount of carbon assimilated by a vegetative canopy for a given amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and is a key parameter for modeling land-surface carbon fluxes. A carbon-enabled version of the remote-sensing-based two-source energy balance (TSEB) model simulates coupled canopy transpiration and carbon assimilation using an analytical sub-model of canopy resistance constrained by inputs of nominal LUE (βn), which is modulated within the model in response to varying conditions in light, humidity, ambient CO2 concentration, and temperature. Soil moisture constraints on water and carbon exchange are conveyed to the TSEB-LUE indirectly through thermal infrared measurements of land-surface temperature. We investigate the capability of using Chl estimates for capturing seasonal trends in the canopy βn from in situ measurements of Chl acquired in irrigated and rain-fed fields of soybean and maize near Mead, Nebraska. The results show that field-measured Chl is nonlinearly related to βn, with variability primarily related to phenological changes during early growth and senescence. Utilizing seasonally varying βn inputs based on an empirical relationship with in situ measured Chl resulted in improvements in carbon flux estimates from the TSEB model, while adjusting the partitioning of total water loss between plant transpiration and soil evaporation. The observed Chl-βn relationship provides a functional mechanism for integrating remotely sensed Chl into the TSEB model, with the potential for improved mapping of coupled carbon, water, and energy fluxes across vegetated landscapes.

  14. Thermal-based modeling of coupled carbon, water, and energy fluxes using nominal light use efficiencies constrained by leaf chlorophyll observations

    KAUST Repository

    Schull, M. A.


    Recent studies have shown that estimates of leaf chlorophyll content (Chl), defined as the combined mass of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b per unit leaf area, can be useful for constraining estimates of canopy light use efficiency (LUE). Canopy LUE describes the amount of carbon assimilated by a vegetative canopy for a given amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and is a key parameter for modeling land-surface carbon fluxes. A carbon-enabled version of the remote-sensing-based two-source energy balance (TSEB) model simulates coupled canopy transpiration and carbon assimilation using an analytical sub-model of canopy resistance constrained by inputs of nominal LUE (βn), which is modulated within the model in response to varying conditions in light, humidity, ambient CO2 concentration, and temperature. Soil moisture constraints on water and carbon exchange are conveyed to the TSEB-LUE indirectly through thermal infrared measurements of land-surface temperature. We investigate the capability of using Chl estimates for capturing seasonal trends in the canopy βn from in situ measurements of Chl acquired in irrigated and rain-fed fields of soybean and maize near Mead, Nebraska. The results show that field-measured Chl is nonlinearly related to βn, with variability primarily related to phenological changes during early growth and senescence. Utilizing seasonally varying βn inputs based on an empirical relationship with in situ measured Chl resulted in improvements in carbon flux estimates from the TSEB model, while adjusting the partitioning of total water loss between plant transpiration and soil evaporation. The observed Chl-βn relationship provides a functional mechanism for integrating remotely sensed Chl into the TSEB model, with the potential for improved mapping of coupled carbon, water, and energy fluxes across vegetated landscapes.

  15. Thermal waveguide OPO. (United States)

    Lin, S T; Lin, Y Y; Wang, T D; Huang, Y C


    We report a mid-infrared, CW singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a thermally induced waveguide in its gain crystal. We measured a numerical aperture of 0.0062 for the waveguide at 80-W intracavity power at 3.2 microm. This thermal-guiding effect benefits to the stable operation of an OPO and improves the parametric conversion efficiency by more than a factor of two when compared with that without thermal guiding.

  16. Scalable, "Dip-and-Dry" Fabrication of a Wide-Angle Plasmonic Selective Absorber for High-Efficiency Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion. (United States)

    Mandal, Jyotirmoy; Wang, Derek; Overvig, Adam C; Shi, Norman N; Paley, Daniel; Zangiabadi, Amirali; Cheng, Qian; Barmak, Katayun; Yu, Nanfang; Yang, Yuan


    A galvanic-displacement-reaction-based, room-temperature "dip-and-dry" technique is demonstrated for fabricating selectively solar-absorbing plasmonic-nanoparticle-coated foils (PNFs). The technique, which allows for facile tuning of the PNFs' spectral reflectance to suit different radiative and thermal environments, yields PNFs which exhibit excellent, wide-angle solar absorptance (0.96 at 15°, to 0.97 at 35°, to 0.79 at 80°), and low hemispherical thermal emittance (0.10) without the aid of antireflection coatings. The thermal emittance is on par with those of notable selective solar absorbers (SSAs) in the literature, while the wide-angle solar absorptance surpasses those of previously reported SSAs with comparable optical selectivities. In addition, the PNFs show promising mechanical and thermal stabilities at temperatures of up to 200 °C. Along with the performance of the PNFs, the simplicity, inexpensiveness, and environmental friendliness of the "dip-and-dry" technique makes it an appealing alternative to current methods for fabricating selective solar absorbers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Inyección de aire secundario caliente en calderas de vapor bagaceras y su influencia en el rendimiento térmico Injection of heated secondary air in steam bagasse boilers and its influence on thermal efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Golato


    Full Text Available Como alternativa para aumentar la eficiencia térmica de calderas bagaceras productoras de vapor, se evalúa la inyección de aire secundario al hogar, previamente calentado. Además, se reúne información sobre la combustión y los factores que influyen en dicho fenómeno. Se calculó el rendimiento térmico en una caldera bagacera con inyección de aire secundario frío, mediante el empleo de balances de masa y energía con datos de ensayos experimentales. Se planteó luego un modelo teórico para el caso de calentar todo este aire secundario, y se determinó el nuevo rendimiento térmico. Finalmente se realizó un análisis técnico-económico para evaluar la rentabilidad del uso de esta tecnología, teniendo en cuenta el ahorro de bagazo y su equivalente en gas natural. Para el caso analizado, los resultados mostraron: aumento del rendimiento térmico de la caldera (1,62 puntos; mejora del índice de generación de vapor (2,27%; reducción del consumo de bagazo (2,45%; aceptable periodo de repago de la inversión (114 días de zafra.Previously heated secondary air injection is evaluated as an alternative to increase thermal efficiency of bagasse steam boilers. Aspects regarding the combustion process and the factors affecting it are also described. Tests were made in a bagasse boiler of a sugar mill. Thermal efficiency of the bagasse boiler with cold secondary air injection was determined by solving mass and energy balances. A new thermal efficiency for the case in which all secondary air is pre-heated with hot gases was determined afterwards. Finally, a technical-economic analysis was made to evaluate the yield of this technology, taking into account bagasse saving and its equivalent in natural gas. For the analyzed case, the results showed: an increase in the thermal efficiency of the boiler (1,62 points; a higher steam production index (2,27%; a reduction in bagasse consumption (2,45%; an acceptable payback period of the investment (114

  18. Thermal microactuator dimension analysis (United States)

    Azman, N. D.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.


    The focus of this study was to analyse the stress and thermal flow of thermal microactuator with different type of materials and parameter using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Simulations were conducted on the existing thermal actuator and integrated it to be more efficient, low cost and low power consumption. In this simulation, the U-shaped actuator was designed and five different materials of the microactuator were studied. The result showed that Si Polycrystalline was the most suitable material used to produce thermal actuator for commercialization.

  19. Thermal energy storage to minimize cost and improve efficiency of a polygeneration district energy system in a real-time electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Kody M.; Kim, Jong Suk; Cole, Wesley J.; Kapoor, Kriti; Mojica, Jose L.; Hedengren, John D.; Edgar, Thomas F.


    District energy systems can produce low-cost utilities for large energy networks, but can also be a resource for the electric grid by their ability to ramp production or to store thermal energy by responding to real-time market signals. In this work, dynamic optimization exploits the flexibility of thermal energy storage by determining optimal times to store and extract excess energy. This concept is applied to a polygeneration distributed energy system with combined heat and power, district heating, district cooling, and chilled water thermal energy storage. The system is a university campus responsible for meeting the energy needs of tens of thousands of people. The objective for the dynamic optimization problem is to minimize cost over a 24-h period while meeting multiple loads in real time. The paper presents a novel algorithm to solve this dynamic optimization problem with energy storage by decomposing the problem into multiple static mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problems. Another innovative feature of this work is the study of a large, complex energy network which includes the interrelations of a wide variety of energy technologies. Results indicate that a cost savings of 16.5% is realized when the system can participate in the wholesale electricity market.

  20. Energy-efficient and cost-effective use of district heating bypass for improving the thermal comfort in bathrooms in low-energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Brand, Marek; Svendsen, Svend


    devices and the possibility of venting. Next, the “comfort bathroom” concept optimizes the operation of the whole network outside the heating season. In the case study the distribution heat losses are reduced by additional 13% during summer, in comparison to the “continuous bypass”. Consequently......, in the example considered 10-35% lower than in the traditional “intermittent bypass” case; secondly, it can be used to increase the thermal comfort outside the heating-season in bathrooms through floor heating, without causing overheating. It is important that the building design foresees the use of shading...

  1. Calculi and comparison of efficiency of solar thermal collector for some applications; Calculo y comparacion de rendimientos de captadores solares termicos para distintas aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, F.; Segador, C.; Marcos, C.; Cuadros, F.


    This paper deals with simple procedure, applicable in any part of the world where climatic variables can be estimated, comparing the efficiency of solar collector for designing of specific installations for domestic hot water and general heating. The values of the climatic variables; average daily solar radiation, the max. and min. average monthly temperatures and average monthly hours of sunshine went obtained from the Climwat FAO database. The process, although not taking into account the dynamic evolution of the variables, and using approximate values, is accurate and overall is manageable for its simplicity, comparing rapid the efficiency of the collectors and size the installations. (Author)

  2. Spirobisindane-based polyimide as efficient precursor of thermally-rearranged and carbon molecular sieve membranes for enhanced propylene/propane separation

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Ramy Jawdat


    High performance thermally-rearranged (TR) and carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes made from an intrinsically microporous polymer precursor PIM-6FDA-OH are reported for the separation of propylene from propane. Thermal rearrangement of PIM-6FDA-OH to the corresponding polybenzoxazole (PBO) membrane resulted in a pure-gas C3H6/C3H8 selectivity of 15 and C3H6 permeability of 14 Barrer, positioning it above the polymeric C3H6/C3H8 upper bound. For the first time, the C3H6/C3H8 mixed-gas properties of a TR polymer were investigated and showed a C3H6 permeability of 11 Barrer and C3H6/ C3H8 selectivity of 11, essentially independent of feed pressure up to 5 bar. The CMS membrane made by treatment at 600 C showed further improvement in performance as demonstrated with a pure-gas C3H8/C3H8 selectivity of 33 and a C3H6 permeability of 45 Barrer. The mixed-gas C3H6/C3H8 selectivity dropped from 24 to 17 from 2 to 5 bar feed pressure due to a decrease in C3H6 permeability most likely caused by competitive sorption without any evidence of plasticization. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In-Space technology experiments program. A high efficiency thermal interface (using condensation heat transfer) between a 2-phase fluid loop and heatpipe radiator: Experiment definition phase (United States)

    Pohner, John A.; Dempsey, Brian P.; Herold, Leroy M.


    Space Station elements and advanced military spacecraft will require rejection of tens of kilowatts of waste heat. Large space radiators and two-phase heat transport loops will be required. To minimize radiator size and weight, it is critical to minimize the temperature drop between the heat source and sink. Under an Air Force contract, a unique, high-performance heat exchanger is developed for coupling the radiator to the transport loop. Since fluid flow through the heat exchanger is driven by capillary forces which are easily dominated by gravity forces in ground testing, it is necessary to perform microgravity thermal testing to verify the design. This contract consists of an experiment definition phase leading to a preliminary design and cost estimate for a shuttle-based flight experiment of this heat exchanger design. This program will utilize modified hardware from a ground test program for the heat exchanger.

  4. Thermal cloak-concentrator (United States)

    Shen, Xiangying; Li, Ying; Jiang, Chaoran; Ni, Yushan; Huang, Jiping


    For macroscopically manipulating heat flow at will, thermal metamaterials have opened a practical way, which possesses a single function, such as either cloaking or concentrating the flow of heat even though environmental temperature varies. By developing a theory of transformation heat transfer for multiple functions, here we introduce the concept of intelligent thermal metamaterials with a dual function, which is in contrast to the existing thermal metamaterials with single functions. By assembling homogeneous isotropic materials and shape-memory alloys, we experimentally fabricate a kind of intelligent thermal metamaterials, which can automatically change from a cloak (or concentrator) to a concentrator (or cloak) when the environmental temperature changes. This work paves an efficient way for a controllable gradient of heat, and also provides guidance both for arbitrarily manipulating the flow of heat and for efficiently designing similar intelligent metamaterials in other fields.

  5. Thermal Performance Benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuhui; Moreno, Gilbert; Bennion, Kevin


    The goal for this project is to thoroughly characterize the thermal performance of state-of-the-art (SOA) in-production automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Information obtained from these studies will be used to: evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management strategies; establish baseline metrics for the thermal management systems; identify methods of improvement to advance the SOA; increase the publicly available information related to automotive traction-drive thermal management systems; help guide future electric drive technologies (EDT) research and development (R&D) efforts. The thermal performance results combined with component efficiency and heat generation information obtained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) may then be used to determine the operating temperatures for the EDT components under drive-cycle conditions. In FY16, the 2012 Nissan LEAF power electronics and 2014 Honda Accord Hybrid power electronics thermal management system were characterized. Comparison of the two power electronics thermal management systems was also conducted to provide insight into the various cooling strategies to understand the current SOA in thermal management for automotive power electronics and electric motors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Grachev


    Full Text Available The article considers effectiveness increase of the TPP heat-mechanical equipment repair, manufacturing and maintenance as exemplified by gas-thermal technique for hardening laststages rotor blades of the steam turbines. The rotor blades work under conditions of intense power loading, their airfoil being erosion-corrosion destructed by the action of the moist-steam flow. Repairing companies employ quite a number of technologies to restore some of erosion-worn rotor blades. Inter alia, argon-arc, plasma and gas-powder weld deposition of the original material with subsequent machining, stellite protection recovery, electrical spark alloying the entry edge mat surface, spraying ion-plasma coating on the blade airfoil surface. In domestic turbine building, rotor blades of the steam turbines last stages are manufactured of martensitic class stainless steel. The key condition for successful blade restoration is thermal effect minimizing on the base material for excluding the slag areas possible forming. The laser surface coating technology provides these conditions. They coat the surface of an item being processed by way of melting the base and the adding material. In as much the base melts smallest, the coating characteristics depend mainly on the properties of adding material. The procedure of laser coating passes through several stages including physical contact creation, chemical interaction (laser radiation absorption, volumetrical processes resulting in formation of stable bonds in volume of the materials that have reacted. For the low-pressure cylinder rotor blades supplementary protection against erosion destruction, LLC ‘Technological Systems of Protective Coating’ developed technology of the blade airfoil protective finish by method of high-speed gas-flame sputter. The company realized this technology in 2012 during K-200-12,8 turbine (of the Leningrad Metallurgical Works – LMZ repairing in Zainsk SDPP by JSC ‘Tatenergo’. The

  7. Enhancement of the efficiency of the automatic control system to control the thermal load of steam boilers fired with fuels of several types (United States)

    Ismatkhodzhaev, S. K.; Kuzishchin, V. F.


    An automatic control system to control the thermal load (ACS) in a drum-type boiler under random fluctuations in the blast-furnace and coke-oven gas consumption rates and to control action on the natural gas consumption is considered. The system provides for use of a compensator by the basic disturbance, the blast-furnace gas consumption rate. To enhance the performance of the system, it is proposed to use more accurate mathematical second-order delay models of the channels of the object under control in combination with calculation by frequency methods of the controller parameters as well as determination of the structure and parameters of the compensator considering the statistical characteristics of the disturbances and using simulation. The statistical characteristics of the random blast-furnace gas consumption signal based on experimental data are provided. The random signal is presented in the form of the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components. The models of the correlation functions and spectral densities are developed. The article presents the results of calculating the optimal settings of the control loop with the controlled variable in the form of the "heat" signal with the restricted frequency variation index using three variants of the control performance criteria, viz., the linear and quadratic integral indices under step disturbance and the control error variance under random disturbance by the blastfurnace gas consumption rate. It is recommended to select a compensator designed in the form of series connection of two parts, one of which corresponds to the operator inverse to the transfer function of the PI controller, i.e., in the form of a really differentiating element. This facilitates the realization of the second part of the compensator by the invariance condition similar to transmitting the compensating signal to the object input. The results of simulation under random disturbance by the blast-furnace gas consumption are reported

  8. Advanced thermal management materials

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Guosheng; Kuang, Ken


    ""Advanced Thermal Management Materials"" provides a comprehensive and hands-on treatise on the importance of thermal packaging in high performance systems. These systems, ranging from active electronically-scanned radar arrays to web servers, require components that can dissipate heat efficiently. This requires materials capable of dissipating heat and maintaining compatibility with the packaging and dye. Its coverage includes all aspects of thermal management materials, both traditional and non-traditional, with an emphasis on metal based materials. An in-depth discussion of properties and m

  9. Physico-chemical, spectroscopical and thermal characterization of bio diesel obtained by enzymatic route as a tool to select the most efficient immobilized lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, G.A.M.; Ros, P.C.M. da; Souza, L.T.A.; Costa, A.P.O.; Castro, H.F. de, E-mail: [Engineering School of Lorena. University of Sao Paulo (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil)


    Two microbial lipases from Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas fluorescens were evaluated as catalysts for the enzymatic transesterification of beef tallow with ethanol and the most efficient lipase source was selected by taking into account the properties of the product to be used as fuel. Both lipases were immobilized on an epoxy silica-polyvinyl alcohol composite by covalent immobilization and used to perform the reactions under the following operational conditions: beef tallow-to-ethanol molar ratio of 1:9, 45 degree C and 400 units of enzymatic activity per gram of fat. Products, characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), viscosimetry, thermogravimetry and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, suggested that the bio diesel sample obtained in the reaction catalyzed by Burkholderia cepacia lipase has the best set of properties for fuel usage. (author)

  10. Physico-chemical, spectroscopical and thermal characterization of biodiesel obtained by enzymatic route as a tool to select the most efficient immobilized lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. M. Silva


    Full Text Available Two microbial lipases from Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas fluorescens were evaluated as catalysts for the enzymatic transesterification of beef tallow with ethanol and the most efficient lipase source was selected by taking into account the properties of the product to be used as fuel. Both lipases were immobilized on an epoxy silica-polyvinyl alcohol composite by covalent immobilization and used to perform the reactions under the following operational conditions: beef tallow-to-ethanol molar ratio of 1:9, 45ºC and 400 units of enzymatic activity per gram of fat. Products, characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, viscosimetry, thermogravimetry and ¹H NMR spectroscopy, suggested that the biodiesel sample obtained in the reaction catalyzed by Burkholderia cepacia lipase has the best set of properties for fuel usage.

  11. Anisotropic Thermal Diffusivities of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Akoshima, Megumi; Takahashi, Satoru


    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to shield the blades of gas turbines from heat and wear. There is a pressing need to evaluate the thermal conductivity of TBCs in the thermal design of advanced gas turbines with high energy efficiency. These TBCs consist of a ceramic-based top coat and a bond coat on a superalloy substrate. Usually, the focus is on the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction of the TBC because heat tends to diffuse from the surface of the top coat to the substrate. However, the in-plane thermal conductivity is also important in the thermal design of gas turbines because the temperature distribution within the turbine cannot be ignored. Accordingly, a method is developed in this study for measuring the in-plane thermal diffusivity of the top coat. Yttria-stabilized zirconia top coats are prepared by thermal spraying under different conditions. The in-plane and cross-plane thermal diffusivities of the top coats are measured by the flash method to investigate the anisotropy of thermal conduction in a TBC. It is found that the in-plane thermal diffusivity is higher than the cross-plane one for each top coat and that the top coats have significantly anisotropic thermal diffusivity. The cross-sectional and in-plane microstructures of the top coats are observed, from which their porosities are evaluated. The thermal diffusivity and its anisotropy are discussed in detail in relation to microstructure and porosity.

  12. Energy Performance and Thermal Comfort of a High Efficiency House: RhOME for denCity, Winner of Solar Decathlon Europe 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Battista


    Full Text Available The increase of people living in large cities and the expansion of new urban areas are keys to defining new sustainable models. It is estimated that about 70% of the EU population lives in urban areas, and it is expected to reach 80% by 2030. Consequently, it is important to find a new concept of buildings that can reduce the total energy consumption. The Solar Decathlon is an international university competition, born in 2002, created by the U.S. State Energy Department (DOE. Students are challenged to design and operate a full-scale, innovative and sustainable house able to exploit solar radiation as its sole energy source. The objective of the competition is to promote research and education in sustainable architecture and solar energy fields. This paper presents an overview on the contribution of LIFT (Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Technical Physics of Roma Tre University to the winning project of the Solar Decathlon Europe 2014 competition: The RhOME for denCity. This project consists of a building properly designed to produce a solar-powered house that is cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive.

  13. Electron-Deficient Near-Infrared Pt(II) and Pd(II) Benzoporphyrins with Dual Phosphorescence and Unusually Efficient Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence: First Demonstration of Simultaneous Oxygen and Temperature Sensing with a Single Emitter. (United States)

    Zach, Peter W; Freunberger, Stefan A; Klimant, Ingo; Borisov, Sergey M


    We report a family of Pt and Pd benzoporphyrin dyes with versatile photophysical properties and easy access from cheap and abundant chemicals. Attaching 4 or 8 alkylsulfone groups onto a meso-tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin (TPTBP) macrocylcle renders the dyes highly soluble in organic solvents, photostable, and electron-deficient with the redox potential raised up to 0.65 V versus the parent porphyrin. The new dyes intensively absorb in the blue (Soret band, 440-480 nm) and in the red (Q-band, 620-650 nm) parts of the electromagnetic spectrum and show bright phosphorescence at room-temperature in the NIR with quantum yields up to 30% in solution. The small singlet-triplet energy gap yields unusually efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) at elevated temperatures in solution and in polymeric matrices with quantum yields as high as 27% at 120 °C, which is remarkable for benzoporphyrins. Apart from oxygen sensing, these properties enable unprecedented simultaneous, self-referenced oxygen and temperature sensing with a single indicator dye: whereas oxygen can be determined either via the decay time of phosphorescence or TADF, the temperature is accessed via the ratio of the two emissions. Moreover, the dyes are efficient sensitizers for triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA)-based upconversion making possible longer sensitization wavelength than the conventional benzoporphyrin complexes. The Pt-octa-sulfone dye also features interesting semireversible transformation in basic media, which generates new NIR absorbing species.

  14. Simple InCl3 Doped PEDOT:PSS and UV-Ozone Treatment Strategy: External Quantum Efficiency up to 21% for Solution-Processed Organic Light-Emitting Devices with a Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter. (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Xie, Guohua; Gong, Shaolong; Huang, Manli; Luo, Jiajia; Yang, Chuluo


    A low-cost and easy-process scheme for solution-processed organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) was provided to overcome the flaws of poly(styrene sulfonic acid)-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene) (PEDOT:PSS) together with the indium tin oxide anode. The modified PEDOT:PSS with higher work function (5.66 eV) and more efficient hole injecting ability was obtained by simply mixing the aqueous PEDOT:PSS with InCl3 and then consecutive ultraviolet-ozone treatment. The simply structured and solution-processed OLEDs with our modified PEDOT:PSS achieved a very high external quantum efficiency of 21.0% using a classic thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter, 2,4,5,6-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl)-1,3-dicyanobenzene. The origin of this great promotion was explored through photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy, from which we inferred that InCl3 itself, the losing of insulting PSS outer shell, and transformation to quinoid structure of PEDOT chains accounted for this improvement. Our modification method of PEDOT:PSS is beneficial for promoting solution-processed organic semiconducting devices.

  15. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L


    Full Text Available wider range of temperature limits, saving energy while still satisfying the majority of building occupants. It is also noted that thermal comfort varies significantly between individuals and it is generally not possible to provide a thermal environment...

  16. High efficiency incandescent lighting (United States)

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin


    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  17. A sensitivity study on the effects of particle chemistry, asphericity and size on the mass extinction efficiency of mineral dust in the earth's atmosphere: from the near to thermal IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Hansell Jr.


    Full Text Available To determine a plausible range of mass extinction efficiencies (MEE of terrestrial atmospheric dust from the near to thermal IR, sensitivity analyses are performed over an extended range of dust microphysical and chemistry perturbations. The IR values are subsequently compared to those in the near-IR, to evaluate spectral relationships in their optical properties. Synthesized size distributions consistent with measurements, model particle size, while composition is defined by the refractive indices of minerals routinely observed in dust, including the widely used OPAC/Hess parameterization. Single-scattering properties of representative dust particle shapes are calculated using the T-matrix, Discrete Dipole Approximation and Lorenz-Mie light-scattering codes. For the parameterizations examined, MEE ranges from nearly zero to 1.2 m2 g−1, with the higher values associated with non-spheres composed of quartz and gypsum. At near-IR wavelengths, MEE for non-spheres generally exceeds those for spheres, while in the thermal IR, shape-induced changes in MEE strongly depend on volume median diameter (VMD and wavelength, particularly for MEE evaluated at the mineral resonant frequencies. MEE spectral distributions appear to follow particle geometry and are evidence for shape dependency in the optical properties. It is also shown that non-spheres best reproduce the positions of prominent absorption peaks found in silicates. Generally, angular particles exhibit wider and more symmetric MEE spectral distribution patterns from 8–10 μm than those with smooth surfaces, likely due to their edge-effects. Lastly, MEE ratios allow for inferring dust optical properties across the visible-IR spectrum. We conclude the MEE of dust aerosol are significant for the parameter space investigated, and are a key component for remote sensing applications and the study of direct aerosol radiative effects.

  18. A Sensitivity Study on the Effects of Particle Chemistry, Asphericity and Size on the Mass Extinction Efficiency of Mineral Dust in the Earth's Atmosphere: From the Near to Thermal IR (United States)

    Hansell, R. A., Jr.; Reid, J. S.; Tsay, S. C.; Roush, T. L.; Kalashnikova, O. V.


    To determine a plausible range of mass extinction efficiencies (MEE) of terrestrial atmospheric dust from the near to thermal IR, sensitivity analyses are performed over an extended range of dust microphysical and chemistry perturbations. The IR values are subsequently compared to those in the near-IR, to evaluate spectral relationships in their optical properties. Synthesized size distributions consistent with measurements, model particle size, while composition is defined by the refractive indices of minerals routinely observed in dust, including the widely used OPAC/Hess parameterization. Single-scattering properties of representative dust particle shapes are calculated using the T-matrix, Discrete Dipole Approximation and Lorenz-Mie light-scattering codes. For the parameterizations examined, MEE ranges from nearly zero to 1.2 square meters per gram, with the higher values associated with non-spheres composed of quartz and gypsum. At near-IR wavelengths, MEE for non-spheres generally exceeds those for spheres, while in the thermal IR, shape-induced changes in MEE strongly depend on volume median diameter (VMD) and wavelength, particularly for MEE evaluated at the mineral resonant frequencies. MEE spectral distributions appear to follow particle geometry and are evidence for shape dependency in the optical properties. It is also shown that non-spheres best reproduce the positions of prominent absorption peaks found in silicates. Generally, angular particles exhibit wider and more symmetric MEE spectral distribution patterns from 8-10 micrometers than those with smooth surfaces, likely due to their edge-effects. Lastly, MEE ratios allow for inferring dust optical properties across the visible-IR spectrum. We conclude the MEE of dust aerosol are significant for the parameter space investigated, and are a key component for remote sensing applications and the study of direct aerosol radiative effects.

  19. Structure and photoluminescence properties of red-emitting apatite-type phosphor NaY9(SiO4)6O2:Sm3+ with excellent quantum efficiency and thermal stability for solid-state lighting. (United States)

    Mei, Lefu; Liu, Haikun; Liao, Libing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Kumar, R Vasant


    A novel red-emitting phosphor NaY9(SiO4)6O2:Sm3+ (NYS:Sm3+) was synthesized and the X-ray diffraction and high-resolution TEM testified that the NYS compound belongs to the apatite structure which crystallized in a hexagonal unit cell with space group P63/m. The novel phosphor boasts of such three advantageous properties as perfect compatible match with the commercial UV chips, 73.2% quantum efficiency and 90.9% thermal stability at 150 °C. Details are as follows. NYS:Sm3+ phosphor showed obvious absorption in the UV regions centered at 407 nm, which can be perfectly compatible with the commercial UV chips. The property investigations showed that NYS:Sm3+ phosphor emitted reddish emission with CIE coordination of (0.563, 0.417). The optimum quenching concentration of Sm3+ in NYS phosphor was about 10%mol, and the corresponding concentration quenching mechanism was verified to be the electric dipole-dipole interaction. Upon excitation at 407 nm, the composition-optimized NYS:0.10Sm3+ exhibited a high quantum efficiency of 73.2%, and its luminescence intensity at 150 °C decreased simply to 90.9% of the initial value at room temperature. All of the results indicated that NYS:Sm3+ is a promising candidate as a reddish-emitting UV convertible phosphor for application in white light emitting diodes (w-LEDs).

  20. Synthesis, crystal growth, thermal studies and scaled quantum chemical studies of structural and vibrational spectra of the highly efficient organic NLO crystal: 1-(4-Aminophenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Lynnette [Department of Physics, Bishop Moore College, Mavelikara, Alappuzha 690110, Kerala (India); Department of Physics, C.M.S College, Kottayam 686001, Kerala (India); Sajan, D., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Bishop Moore College, Mavelikara, Alappuzha 690110, Kerala (India); Shettigar, Venkataraya [Department of Physics, Gokhale Centenary College, Ankola 581 314, Karnataka (India); Chaitanya, K. [Key Laboratory of Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of MOE, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Misra, Neeraj [Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 22607 (India); Sundius, Tom [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Němec, I. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Hlavova 8, 128 40 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)


    A new chalcone derivative, 1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one (DMAC) was synthesized and single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of the sample were recorded in the region 3700–100 cm{sup −1} and 4000–400 cm{sup −1}, respectively. The spectra were interpreted with the aid of normal coordinate analysis following structure optimizations and force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. Normal coordinate calculations were performed using the DFT force field, corrected by a recommended set of scaling factors, yielding fairly good agreement between the observed and calculated wavenumbers. DMAC is thermally stable up to 220.0 °C and optically transparent in the visible region. Information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecule has been obtained by mapping electron density isosurface with electrostatic potential surfaces (ESP). The SHG efficiency of DMAC is observed to be 10 times that of standard urea crystal of identical particle size. - Highlights: • A chalcone derivative, DMAC has been synthesized and crystals are grown. • FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra, thermogravimetric and UV–Vis studies were carried out. • SHG effect from a centrosymmetric crystal has been reported.

  1. Lightweight and Energy Efficient Heat Pump Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Spacecraft from the JPL will require increasingly sophisticated thermal control technology. A need exists for efficient, lightweight Vapor Compression Cycle...

  2. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin


    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  3. Power and thermal efficient numerical processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto


    Numerical processing is at the core of applications in many areas ranging from scientific and engineering calculations to financial computing. These applications are usually executed on large servers or supercomputers to exploit their high speed, high level of parallelism and high bandwidth...

  4. Thermal Nanosystems and Nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Volz, Sebastian


    Heat transfer laws for conduction, radiation and convection change when the dimensions of the systems in question shrink. The altered behaviours can be used efficiently in energy conversion, respectively bio- and high-performance materials to control microelectronic devices. To understand and model those thermal mechanisms, specific metrologies have to be established. This book provides an overview of actual devices and materials involving micro-nanoscale heat transfer mechanisms. These are clearly explained and exemplified by a large spectrum of relevant physical models, while the most advanced nanoscale thermal metrologies are presented.

  5. Evaluation of combined photovoltaic/thermal collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrie, S.D.


    The thermal and electric performance of an air and a liquid type combined photovoltaic/thermal solar collector has been evaluated, yielding close correlation with theoretical results. Maximum thermal efficiencies of 42.5% and 40% for the liquid and air collectors without electric power production decreased to 40.4% and 32.9% when electrical power was produced. Maximum electrical efficiencies of 6.8% were measured.

  6. Highly Thermal Conductive Nanocomposites (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Ping (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Veca, Lucia Monica (Inventor)


    Disclosed are methods for forming carbon-based fillers as may be utilized in forming highly thermal conductive nanocomposite materials. Formation methods include treatment of an expanded graphite with an alcohol/water mixture followed by further exfoliation of the graphite to form extremely thin carbon nanosheets that are on the order of between about 2 and about 10 nanometers in thickness. Disclosed carbon nanosheets can be functionalized and/or can be incorporated in nanocomposites with extremely high thermal conductivities. Disclosed methods and materials can prove highly valuable in many technological applications including, for instance, in formation of heat management materials for protective clothing and as may be useful in space exploration or in others that require efficient yet light-weight and flexible thermal management solutions.

  7. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker


    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...

  8. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor


    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...

  9. Multifunctional Aerogel Thermal Protection Systems for Hypersonic Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The push to hypersonic flight regimes requires novel materials that are lightweight as well as thermally and structurally efficient for airframes and thermal...

  10. Thermal management of solid state lighting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.


    Solid-State Lighting (SSL), powered by Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), is an energy-efficient technology for lighting systems. In contrast to incandescent lights which obtain high efficiency at high temperatures, the highest efficiency of LEDs is reached at low temperatures. The thermal management in

  11. 78 FR 79579 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition... (United States)


    ... and consumption; all references to energy efficiency include water efficiency) established for certain... Efficiency 5% (0.05) Thermal Efficiency... 5% (0.05) Commercial Water Heaters or Hot Thermal Efficiency... 5... Performance. Btu/h Cooling Capacity. Integrated Energy Efficiency Ratio. Water-Cooled, Split and Packaged...

  12. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.


    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  13. Thermal defoliation (United States)

    The negative perception some consumers hold regarding agricultural chemicals has resulted in an increased demand for organic foods and fibers, and in increasing political pressure for the regulation of agricultural production practices. This has revived interest in thermal defoliation of cotton and ...

  14. Holographic thermalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Bernamonti, A.; de Boer, J.; Copland, N.; Craps, B.; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Müller, B.; Schäfer, A.; Shigemori, M.; Staessens, W.


    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we probe the scale-dependence of thermalization in strongly coupled field theories following a quench, via calculations of two-point functions, Wilson loops and entanglement entropy in d=2,3,4. In the saddlepoint approximation these probes are computed in AdS space

  15. Thermal Hardware for the Thermal Analyst (United States)

    Steinfeld, David


    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). NCTS 21070-1. Most Thermal analysts do not have a good background into the hardware which thermally controls the spacecraft they design. SINDA and Thermal Desktop models are nice, but knowing how this applies to the actual thermal hardware (heaters, thermostats, thermistors, MLI blanketing, optical coatings, etc...) is just as important. The course will delve into the thermal hardware and their application techniques on actual spacecraft. Knowledge of how thermal hardware is used and applied will make a thermal analyst a better engineer.

  16. Thermal effects in supercapacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Guoping; Fisher, Timothy S


    This Brief reviews contemporary research conducted in university and industry laboratories on thermal management in electrochemical energy storage systems (capacitors and batteries) that have been widely used as power sources in many practical applications, such as automobiles, hybrid transport, renewable energy installations, power backup and electronic devices. Placing a particular emphasis on supercapacitors, the authors discuss how supercapacitors, or ultra capacitors, are complementing and  replacing, batteries because of their faster power delivery, longer life cycle and higher coulombic efficiency, while providing higher energy density than conventional electrolytic capacitors. Recent advances in both macro- and micro capacitor technologies are covered. The work facilitates systematic understanding of thermal transport in such devices that can help develop better power management systems.

  17. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  18. Power Electronics Thermal Management R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilbert; Bennion, Kevin


    This project will develop thermal management strategies to enable efficient and high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronic systems (e.g., emerging inverter and DC-DC converter designs). The use of WBG-based devices in automotive power electronics will improve efficiency and increase driving range in electric-drive vehicles; however, the implementation of this technology is limited, in part, due to thermal issues. This project will develop system-level thermal models to determine the thermal limitations of current automotive power modules under elevated device temperature conditions. Additionally, novel cooling concepts and material selection will be evaluated to enable high-temperature silicon and WBG devices in power electronics components. WBG devices (silicon carbide [SiC], gallium nitride [GaN]) promise to increase efficiency, but will be driven as hard as possible. This creates challenges for thermal management and reliability.

  19. Significant Reduction of Graphene Thermal Conductivity by Phononic Crystal Structure


    Yang, Lina; CHEN, JIE; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen


    We studied the thermal conductivity of graphene phononic crystal (GPnC), also named as graphene nanomesh, by molecular dynamics simulations. The dependences of thermal conductivity of GPnCs on both length and temperature are investigated. It is found that the thermal conductivity of GPnCs is significantly lower than that of graphene and can be efficiently tuned by changing the porosity and period length. For example, the ratio of thermal conductivity of GPnC to thermal conductivity of graphen...

  20. Thermal Clothing (United States)


    Gateway Technologies, Inc. is marketing and developing textile insulation technology originally developed by Triangle Research and Development Corporation. The enhanced thermal insulation stems from Small Business Innovation Research contracts from NASA's Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Air Force. The effectiveness of the insulation comes from the microencapsulated phase-change materials originally made to keep astronauts gloved hands warm. The applications for the product range from outer wear, housing insulation, and blankets to protective firefighting gear and scuba diving suits. Gateway has developed and begun marketing thermal regulating products under the trademark, OUTLAST. Products made from OUTLAST are already on the market, including boot and shoe liners, winter headgear, hats and caps for hunting and other outdoor sports, and a variety of men's and women's ski gloves.

  1. Turbulent Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Micha, Raphael; Micha, Raphael; Tkachev, Igor I.


    We study, analytically and with lattice simulations, the decay of coherent field oscillations and the subsequent thermalization of the resulting stochastic classical wave-field. The problem of reheating of the Universe after inflation constitutes our prime motivation and application of the results. We identify three different stages of these processes. During the initial stage of ``parametric resonance'', only a small fraction of the initial inflaton energy is transferred to fluctuations in the physically relevant case of sufficiently large couplings. A major fraction is transfered in the prompt regime of driven turbulence. The subsequent long stage of thermalization classifies as free turbulence. During the turbulent stages, the evolution of particle distribution functions is self-similar. We show that wave kinetic theory successfully describes the late stages of our lattice calculation. Our analytical results are general and give estimates of reheating time and temperature in terms of coupling constants and...

  2. Thermal Conversion of Methane to Acetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincke, James Russell; Anderson, Raymond Paul; Hyde, Timothy Allen; Wright, Randy Ben; Bewley, Randy Lee; Haggard, Delon C; Swank, William David


    This report describes the experimental demonstration of a process for the direct thermal conversion of methane to acetylene. The process utilizes a thermal plasma heat source to dissociation products react to form a mixture of acetylene and hydrogen. The use of a supersonic expansion of the hot gas is investigated as a method of rapidly cooling (quenching) the product stream to prevent further reaction or thermal decomposition of the acetylene which can lower the overall efficiency of the process.

  3. Searching for a Better Thermal Battery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gur, I; Sawyer, K; Prasher, R


    .... Progress in materials science, chemistry, and engineering may lead to dramatic breakthroughs in thermal energy storage that could improve the efficiency with which we produce, distribute, and consume energy...

  4. Adaptation of thermal power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogmans, Christian W.J.; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.


    When does climate change information lead to adaptation? We analyze thermal power plant adaptation by means of investing in water-saving (cooling) technology to prevent a decrease in plant efficiency and load reduction. A comprehensive power plant investment model, forced with downscaled climate

  5. Variable Thermal Conductivity on Compressible Boundary Layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, variable thermal conductivity on heat transfer over a circular cylinder is presented. The concept of assuming constant thermal conductivity on materials is however not efficient. Hence, the governing partial differential equation is reduced using non-dimensionless variables into a system of coupled non-linear ...

  6. Lifetime Modeling of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, T.S.


    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are applied in gas turbines to enhance their thermal efficiency by isolating the metallic components from the aggressive hot gas. TBC lifetime is limited by damage processes originating at internal interfaces, which may ultimately lead to delamination and spallation.

  7. Hydrokinesitherapy in thermal mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendulić-Slivar Senka


    Full Text Available The treatment of clients in health spa resorts entails various forms of hydrotherapy. Due to specific properties of water, especially thermal mineral waters, hydrokinesitherapy has a positive effect on the locomotor system, aerobic capabilities of organism and overall quality of human life. The effects of use of water in movement therapy are related to the physical and chemical properties of water. The application of hydrotherapy entails precautionary measures, with an individual approach in assessment and prescription. The benefits of treatment in thermal mineral water should be emphasized and protected, as all thermal mineral waters differ in composition. All physical properties of water are more pronounced in thermal mineral waters due to its mineralisation, hence its therapeutical efficiency is greater, as well.

  8. Bioinspired engineering of thermal materials. (United States)

    Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Song, Chengyi; Shen, Qingchen; Zhang, Fangyu; Luo, Zhen; Yi, Nan; Zhang, Di; Deng, Tao


    In the development of next-generation materials with enhanced thermal properties, biological systems in nature provide many examples that have exceptional structural designs and unparalleled performance in their thermal or nonthermal functions. Bioinspired engineering thus offers great promise in the synthesis and fabrication of thermal materials that are difficult to engineer through conventional approaches. In this review, recent progress in the emerging area of bioinspired advanced materials for thermal science and technology is summarized. State-of-the-art developments of bioinspired thermal-management materials, including materials for efficient thermal insulation and heat transfer, and bioinspired materials for thermal/infrared detection, are highlighted. The dynamic balance of bioinspiration and practical engineering, the correlation of inspiration approaches with the targeted applications, and the coexistence of molecule-based inspiration and structure-based inspiration are discussed in the overview of the development. The long-term outlook and short-term focus of this critical area of advanced materials engineering are also presented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Thermal Performance Benchmarking: Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilbert


    The goal for this project is to thoroughly characterize the performance of state-of-the-art (SOA) automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Information obtained from these studies will be used to: Evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management strategies; establish baseline metrics for the thermal management systems; identify methods of improvement to advance the SOA; increase the publicly available information related to automotive traction-drive thermal management systems; help guide future electric drive technologies (EDT) research and development (R&D) efforts. The performance results combined with component efficiency and heat generation information obtained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) may then be used to determine the operating temperatures for the EDT components under drive-cycle conditions. In FY15, the 2012 Nissan LEAF power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems were benchmarked. Testing of the 2014 Honda Accord Hybrid power electronics thermal management system started in FY15; however, due to time constraints it was not possible to include results for this system in this report. The focus of this project is to benchmark the thermal aspects of the systems. ORNL's benchmarking of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technology reports provide detailed descriptions of the electrical and packaging aspects of these automotive systems.

  10. The smallest refrigerators can reach maximal efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrzypczyk, Paul; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Linden, Noah, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom)


    We investigate whether size imposes a fundamental constraint on the efficiency of small thermal machines. We analyse in detail a model of a small self-contained refrigerator consisting of three qubits. We show analytically that this system can reach the Carnot efficiency, thus demonstrating that there exists no complementarity between size and efficiency. (fast track communication)

  11. Preparation of a Novel Water-based Acrylic Multi-Thermal Insulation Coating


    Xiufang YE; Dongchu CHEN; Chang, Menglei; Youtian MO; Wang, Qingxiang


    To efficiently improve the thermal insulation effect of coatings, a novel water-based acrylic multi-thermal insulation coating (multi-WATIC) combined with thermal obstruction, echo, and radiation was prepared. The category and ratio of thermal insulation functional fillers are crucial. First, water-based acrylic thermal insulation coating (WATIC) with single thermal insulation functional fillers was prepared, and the thermal insulation property tests were done. Thereafter, a novel multi-WATIC...

  12. Thermal insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R.; Asada, Y.; Matsuo, Y.; Mikoda, M.


    A thermal insulator comprises an expanded resin body having embedded therein an evacuated powder insulation portion which consists of fine powder and a container of film-like plastics or a film-like composite of plastics and metal for enclosing the powder. The resin body has been expanded by a Freon gas as a blowing agent. Since a Freon gas has a larger molecular diameter than the constituent gases of air, it is less likely to permeate through the container than air. Thus present invention provides a novel composite insulator which fully utilizes the benefits of vacuum insulation without necessitating a strong and costly material for a vacuum container.

  13. Multiscale thermal transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley


    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  14. Colloidal Thermal Fluids (United States)

    Lotzadeh, Saba

    particles where Maxwell's theory is reliable. This method also provides an accurate tool for evaluation of conductivity in colloidal suspensions between Maxwell's limits where theory is inadequate and experiments are limited due to colloidal difficulties. The effect of cluster configuration and degree of aggregation was investigated and showed that clusters of about the same size, but with different structures increases conductivity by different degree. We also showed that even small structural details such as the size of the neck that particles form during aggregation, can change the enhancement significantly. Colloidal clusters conduct heat more efficiently compared to fully dispersed particles at the same volume fraction. We present a predictive model to calculate the thermal conductivity of clusters by extending Maxwell's theory to non-spherical particles. We treat the clusters as spheres with effective thermal conductivity kc and volume fraction φc. We calculate conductivity of the cluster from the upper bound of Maxwell's theory, and the conductivity of a dispersion of such clusters from the lower limit of the theory. We show that structural effects can be represented by a single parameter and a method was provided to obtain this parameter from numerical simulations. We test the theory against simulations as well as dispersions of colloidal cluster and find it to be in very good agreement with both. The results suggest that the variability of literature data and the unusually high values of thermal conductivity that have been reported in the literature can be fully accounted by the presence of clusters. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  15. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (United States)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.


    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  16. Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.


    A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

  17. XFEM for Thermal Crack of Massive Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Liu


    Full Text Available Thermal cracking of massive concrete structures occurs as a result of stresses caused by hydration in real environment conditions. The extended finite element method that combines thermal fields and creep is used in this study to analyze the thermal cracking of massive concrete structures. The temperature field is accurately simulated through an equivalent equation of heat conduction that considers the effect of a cooling pipe system. The time-dependent creep behavior of massive concrete is determined by the viscoelastic constitutive model with Prony series. Based on the degree of hydration, we consider the main properties related to cracking evolving with time. Numerical simulations of a real massive concrete structure are conducted. Results show that the developed method is efficient for numerical calculations of thermal cracks on massive concrete. Further analyses indicate that a cooling system and appropriate heat preservation measures can efficiently prevent the occurrence of thermal cracks.

  18. New guidance for thermal comfort: Design primarily for females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karjalainen, S., Email:


    Until now differences between male and female subjects in terms of thermal comfort requirements have been generally considered to be small and insignificant. However, the results of this extensive literature review show that females express considerably more dissatisfaction than males in the same thermal environments. The target should be to create energy-efficient and thermally comfortable conditions for both genders. (orig.)

  19. 40 CFR 90.427 - Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress resistance... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.427 Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation. (a) The purpose of... catalyst conversion efficiency for Phase 1 engines. The thermal stress is imposed on the test catalyst by...

  20. [Thermal diffusivity of dental cements]. (United States)

    Paroussis, D; Kakaboura, A; Chrysafidis, C; Mauroyiannakis, E


    Thermal insulative efficiency, is one of the desirable properties of the dental cements. In this study, the thermal diffusivity of three types of dental cements, were measured. Thermal diffusivity was determined by the following method. Two thermo-couples were used and connected to a chart record, the first was embedded in the cylindrical block of the cement specimen and the other in a mixing of ice and water (reference thermocouple). All them were set in a apparatus consisting of a double cooling bath. Calculation of thermal diffusivity were based on the curve provided of the record during cooling of the cement and a theoretical mathematic model. Values were ranged from 2,985 to 3,934 cm2.sec-1. ZOE cement exhibited the highest value, the glass-ionomers the lowest and the poly-carboxylates were average. The results showed that the thermal diffusivity of the cements is dependent from the type of the cement but the differences between them were not statistically significant. Additionally, the values obtained were about the same as the dentin, so the dental cements may consider as good thermal insulators.

  1. Integration of Decentralized Thermal Storages Within District Heating (DH) Networks (United States)

    Schuchardt, Georg K.


    Thermal Storages and Thermal Accumulators are an important component within District Heating (DH) systems, adding flexibility and offering additional business opportunities for these systems. Furthermore, these components have a major impact on the energy and exergy efficiency as well as the heat losses of the heat distribution system. Especially the integration of Thermal Storages within ill-conditioned parts of the overall DH system enhances the efficiency of the heat distribution. Regarding an illustrative and simplified example for a DH system, the interactions of different heat storage concepts (centralized and decentralized) and the heat losses, energy and exergy efficiencies will be examined by considering the thermal state of the heat distribution network.

  2. Energy efficient quantum machines (United States)

    Abah, Obinna; Lutz, Eric


    We investigate the performance of a quantum thermal machine operating in finite time based on shortcut-to-adiabaticity techniques. We compute efficiency and power for a paradigmatic harmonic quantum Otto engine by taking the energetic cost of the shortcut driving explicitly into account. We demonstrate that shortcut-to-adiabaticity machines outperform conventional ones for fast cycles. We further derive generic upper bounds on both quantities, valid for any heat engine cycle, using the notion of quantum speed limit for driven systems. We establish that these quantum bounds are tighter than those stemming from the second law of thermodynamics.

  3. Enabling fast charging - Battery thermal considerations (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Pesaran, Ahmad; Li, Qibo; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Dufek, Eric; Shirk, Matthew; Meintz, Andrew; Kreuzer, Cory; Michelbacher, Christopher; Burnham, Andrew; Stephens, Thomas; Francfort, James; Carlson, Barney; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Hardy, Keith; Dias, Fernando; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Scoffield, Don; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Markel, Anthony


    Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  4. Integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar energy conversion systems (United States)

    Samara, G. A.


    A combined photovoltaic/thermal collector has been built and is now being tested. Initial tests have concentrated on evaluating the thermal efficiency of the collector before and after the silicon cells are mounted. With likely improvements in bonding between cells and receiver and in the absorptivity of the cells, thermal efficiencies greater than 50% can be expected for the combined receiver operating at 100 C.

  5. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  6. Thermal Design and Thermal Behaviour of Radio Telescopes and their Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    Greve, Albert


    Radio telescopes as well as communication antennas operate under the influence of gravity, temperature and wind. Among those, temperature influences may degrade the performance of a radio telescope through transient changes of the focus, pointing, path length and sensitivity, often in an unpredictable way. Thermal Design and Thermal Behaviour of Radio Telescopes and their Enclosures reviews the design and construction principles of radio telescopes in view of thermal aspects and heat transfer with the variable thermal environment; it explains supporting thermal model calculations and the application and efficiency of thermal protection and temperature control; it presents many measurements illustrating the thermal behaviour of telescopes in the environment of their observatory sites. The book benefits scientists and radio/communication engineers, telescope designers and construction firms as well as telescope operators, observatory staff, but also the observing astronomer who is directly confronted with the t...

  7. Juggling Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sand; Vedsted, Peter


    on institutional logics, we illustrate how a logic of efficiency organise and give shape to healthcare seeking practices as they manifest in local clinical settings. Overall, patient concerns are reconfigured to fit the local clinical setting and healthcare professionals and patients are required to juggle...... efficiency in order to deal with uncertainties and meet more complex or unpredictable needs. Lastly, building on the empirical case of cancer diagnostics, we discuss the implications of the pervasiveness of the logic of efficiency in the clinical setting and argue that provision of medical care in today......'s primary care settings requires careful balancing of increasing demands of efficiency, greater complexity of biomedical knowledge and consideration for individual patient needs....

  8. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.


    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  9. Fundamentals of Thermal Expansion and Thermal Contraction


    Liu, Zi-Kui; Shang, Shun-Li; Wang, Yi


    Thermal expansion is an important property of substances. Its theoretical prediction has been challenging, particularly in cases the volume decreases with temperature, i.e., thermal contraction or negative thermal expansion at high temperatures. In this paper, a new theory recently developed by the authors has been reviewed and further examined in the framework of fundamental thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Its applications to cerium with colossal thermal expansion and Fe3Pt with th...

  10. Avaliação da eficiência térmica de telha reciclada à base de embalagens longa vida Evaluation of the thermal efficiency of roof tiles made of recycled long-life packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se apresenta o estudo da influência de telha reciclada à base de embalagens longa vida (IBAPLAC® no conforto térmico de instalações zootécnicas. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Campus Experimental da Unesp de Dracena, SP. Foram construídos quatro protótipos, com área de 28 m² cada um, sendo um deles coberto com telha reciclada à base de embalagens longa vida e três protótipos de referência cobertos com telha cerâmica, telha cerâmica pintada de branco e telha de fibrocimento (Brasilit®. Dentro dos protótipos foram instalados termômetros de globo negro e termômetros de bulbo seco e bulbo úmido. Os dados foram coletados no verão de 2006/2007, totalizando 90 dias. Uma análise estatística por inferência e descritiva foi realizada utilizando-se valores médios de índice de temperatura de globo e umidade, carga térmica radiante e índice de temperatura e umidade, referente ao período. Pelos resultados obtidos é possível afirmar que a telha reciclada apresentou índices de conforto térmico semelhantes àqueles encontrados para as telhas cerâmicas, podendo ser indicada como opção de cobertura para instalações zootécnicas.This paper presents a study of the influence of roof tiles made of recycled long-life packaging (brand-name IBAPLAC® on the thermal comfort of zootechnical facilities. The research was conducted at UNESP's Experimental Campus at Dracena, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Four prototypes were built, each with an area of 28 m². One prototype was covered with roof tiles made of recycled long-life packing material and three reference prototypes were roofed with ceramic tiles, ceramic tiles painted white and fiber/cement tiles (Brasilit®, respectively. Black globe thermometers and dry and wet bulb thermometers were installed inside the prototypes. Temperatures inside the structures were recorded in the Summer of 2006/2007 over a 90-day period. A descriptive statistical analysis was made, based

  11. Experiment Investigation on Electrical and Thermal Performances of a Semitransparent Photovoltaic/Thermal System with Water Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqiang Li


    Full Text Available Different from the semitransparent building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T system with air cooling, the semitransparent BIPV/T system with water cooling is rare, especially based on the silicon solar cells. In this paper, a semitransparent photovoltaic/thermal system (SPV/T with water cooling was set up, which not only would provide the electrical power and hot water, but also could attain the natural illumination for the building. The PV efficiency, thermal efficiency, and exergy analysis were all adopted to illustrate the performance of SPV/T system. The results showed that the PV efficiency and the thermal efficiency were about 11.5% and 39.5%, respectively, on the typical sunny day. Furthermore, the PV and thermal efficiencies fit curves were made to demonstrate the SPV/T performance more comprehensively. The performance analysis indicated that the SPV/T system has a good application prospect for building.

  12. CRADA final report: Technical assessment of roll-to-roll operation of lamination process, thermal treatment, and alternative carbon fiber precursors for low-cost, high-efficiency manufacturing of flow battery stacks and other energy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Claus [ORNL; Madden, Thomas [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Wood III, David L [ORNL; Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Warrington, Curtis [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Manson, Hunter [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Smith, Mark A [ORNL; Lu, Yuan [ORNL; Loretz, Jeremy [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)


    Among the various stationary-storage technologies under development, redox flow batteries (RFBs) offer the greatest potential to deliver inexpensive, scalable, and efficient grid-scale electrical-energy storage. Unlike traditional sealed batteries, in a flow battery power and energy are decoupled. Cell area and cell count in the stack determine the device power, and the chemical storage volume determines the total energy. Grid-scale energy-storage applications require megawatt-scale devices, which require the assembly of hundreds of large-area, bipolar cells per power plant. The cell-stack is the single system component with the largest impact on capital cost (due to the large number of highly engineered components) and operating costs (determined by overall round-trip efficiency).

  13. Thermal Insulation Test Apparatuses (United States)

    Berman, Brion


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks to license its Thermal Insulation Test Apparatuses. Designed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, these patented technologies (U.S. Patent Numbers: Cryostat 1 - 6,742,926, Cryostat 2 - 6,487,866, and Cryostat 4 - 6,824,306) allow manufacturers to fabricate and test cryogenic insulation at their production and/or laboratory facilities. These new inventions allow for the thermal performance characterization of cylindrical and flat specimens (e.g., bulk-fill, flat-panel, multilayer, or continuously rolled) over the full range of pressures, from high vacuum to no vacuum, and over the full range of temperatures from 77K to 300K. In today's world, efficient, low-maintenance, low-temperature refrigeration is taking a more significant role, from the food industry, transportation, energy, and medical applications to the Space Shuttle. Most countries (including the United States) have laws requiring commercially available insulation materials to be tested and rated by an accepted methodology. The new Cryostat methods go beyond the formal capabilities of the ASTM methods to provide testing for real systems, including full-temperature differences plus full-range vacuum conditions.

  14. Batch efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Schwickerath, U; Uria, C; CERN. Geneva. IT Department


    A frequent source of concern for resource providers is the efficient use of computing resources in their centers. This has a direct impact on requests for new resources. There are two different but strongly correlated aspects to be considered: while users are mostly interested in a good turn-around time for their jobs, resource providers are mostly interested in a high and efficient usage of their available resources. Both things, the box usage and the efficiency of individual user jobs, need to be closely monitored so that the sources of the inefficiencies can be identified. At CERN, the Lemon monitoring system is used for both purposes. Examples of such sources are poorly written user code, inefficient access to mass storage systems, and dedication of resources to specific user groups. As a first step for improvements CERN has launched a project to develop a scheduler add-on that allows careful overloading of worker nodes that run idle jobs.

  15. High-efficiency solar concentrator (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Dorman, J.


    A new type of solar concentrator is presented using liquid lenses and simple translational tracking mechanism. The concentrator achieves a 100:1 nominal concentration ratio and is compared in performance with a flat-plate collector having two sheets of glazing and non-selective coating. The results of the thermal analysis show that higher temperatures can be obtained with the concentrator than is possible with the non-concentrator flat-plate type. Furthermore, the thermal efficiency far exceeds that of the comparative flat-plate type for all operating conditions.

  16. Mathematical modeling of photovoltaic thermal PV/T system with v-groove collector (United States)

    Zohri, M.; Fudholi, A.; Ruslan, M. H.; Sopian, K.


    The use of v-groove in solar collector has a higher thermal efficiency in references. Dropping the working heat of photovoltaic panel was able to raise the electrical efficiency performance. Electrical and thermal efficiency were produced by photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) system concurrently. Mathematical modeling based on steady-state thermal analysis of PV/T system with v-groove was conducted. With matrix inversion method, the energy balance equations are explained by means of the investigative method. The comparison results show that in the PV/T system with the V-groove collector is higher temperature, thermal and electrical efficiency than other collectors.

  17. Thermal Ignition (United States)

    Boettcher, Philipp Andreas

    Accidental ignition of flammable gases is a critical safety concern in many industrial applications. Particularly in the aviation industry, the main areas of concern on an aircraft are the fuel tank and adjoining regions, where spilled fuel has a high likelihood of creating a flammable mixture. To this end, a fundamental understanding of the ignition phenomenon is necessary in order to develop more accurate test methods and standards as a means of designing safer air vehicles. The focus of this work is thermal ignition, particularly auto-ignition with emphasis on the effect of heating rate, hot surface ignition and flame propagation, and puffing flames. Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels is traditionally separated into slow reaction, cool flame, and ignition regimes based on pressure and temperature. Standard tests, such as the ASTM E659, are used to determine the lowest temperature required to ignite a specific fuel mixed with air at atmospheric pressure. It is expected that the initial pressure and the rate at which the mixture is heated also influences the limiting temperature and the type of combustion. This study investigates the effect of heating rate, between 4 and 15 K/min, and initial pressure, in the range of 25 to 100 kPa, on ignition of n-hexane air mixtures. Mixtures with equivalence ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 were investigated. The problem is also modeled computationally using an extension of Semenov's classical auto-ignition theory with a detailed chemical mechanism. Experiments and simulations both show that in the same reactor either a slow reaction or an ignition event can take place depending on the heating rate. Analysis of the detailed chemistry demonstrates that a mixture which approaches the ignition region slowly undergoes a significant modification of its composition. This change in composition induces a progressive shift of the explosion limit until the mixture is no longer flammable. A mixture that approaches the ignition region

  18. Quantum Thermal Machine as a Thermometer (United States)

    Hofer, Patrick P.; Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Brunner, Nicolas


    We propose the use of a quantum thermal machine for low-temperature thermometry. A hot thermal reservoir coupled to the machine allows for simultaneously cooling the sample while determining its temperature without knowing the model-dependent coupling constants. In its most simple form, the proposed scheme works for all thermal machines that perform at Otto efficiency and can reach Carnot efficiency. We consider a circuit QED implementation that allows for precise thermometry down to ˜15 mK with realistic parameters. Based on the quantum Fisher information, this is close to the optimal achievable performance. This implementation demonstrates that our proposal is particularly promising in systems where thermalization between different components of an experimental setup cannot be guaranteed.

  19. An Improved Flexible Solar Thermal Energy Integration Process for Enhancing the Coal-Based Energy Efficiency and NOx Removal Effectiveness in Coal-Fired Power Plants under Different Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han


    Full Text Available An improved flexible solar-aided power generation system (SAPG for enhancing both selective catalytic reduction (SCR de-NOx efficiency and coal-based energy efficiency of coal-fired power plants is proposed. In the proposed concept, the solar energy injection point is changed for different power plant loads, bringing about different benefits for coal-fired power generation. For partial/low load, solar energy is beneficially used to increase the flue gas temperature to guarantee the SCR de-NOx effectiveness as well as increase the boiler energy input by reheating the combustion air. For high power load, solar energy is used for saving steam bleeds from turbines by heating the feed water. A case study for a typical 1000 MW coal-fired power plant using the proposed concept has been performed and the results showed that, the SCR de-NOx efficiency of proposed SAPG could increase by 3.1% and 7.9% under medium load and low load conditions, respectively, as compared with the reference plant. The standard coal consumption rate of the proposed SAPG could decrease by 2.68 g/kWh, 4.05 g/kWh and 6.31 g/kWh for high, medium and low loads, respectively, with 0.040 USD/kWh of solar generated electricity cost. The proposed concept opens up a novel solar energy integration pattern in coal-fired power plants to improve the pollutant removal effectiveness and decrease the coal consumption of the power plant.

  20. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)


    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  1. Single molecule detection, thermal fluctuation and life (United States)

    YANAGIDA, Toshio; ISHII, Yoshiharu


    Single molecule detection has contributed to our understanding of the unique mechanisms of life. Unlike artificial man-made machines, biological molecular machines integrate thermal noises rather than avoid them. For example, single molecule detection has demonstrated that myosin motors undergo biased Brownian motion for stepwise movement and that single protein molecules spontaneously change their conformation, for switching to interactions with other proteins, in response to thermal fluctuation. Thus, molecular machines have flexibility and efficiency not seen in artificial machines. PMID:28190869

  2. Thermal Implications for Extreme Fast Charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  3. Thermal desalination in GCC and possible development

    KAUST Repository

    Darwish, Mohamed Ali


    The Water Desalination and Reuse Center in King Abdulla University of Science and Technology, in Saudi Arabia, held a workshop on thermal desalination on the 11th and 12th of March, 2013. This paper was presented as part of a lecture at the workshop. It presents the status and possible developments of the two main thermal desalination systems processing large quantities of seawater in the Gulf Cooperation Council, multi-stage flash, and thermal vapor compression systems. Developments of these systems were presented to show how these systems are competing with the more energy-efficient seawater reverse osmosis desalting. © 2013 © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient ICT for efficient smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria


    In this extended abstract the need for efficient and reliable ICT is discussed. Efficiency of ICT not only deals with energy-efficient ICT hardware, but also deals with efficient algorithms, efficient design methods, efficient networking infrastructures, etc. Efficient and reliable ICT is a

  5. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort. (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J


    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Thermal feature extraction of servers in a datacenter using thermal image registration (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Ran, Jian; Xie, Ting; Gao, Shan


    Thermal cameras provide fine-grained thermal information that enhances monitoring and enables automatic thermal management in large datacenters. Recent approaches employing mobile robots or thermal camera networks can already identify the physical locations of hot spots. Other distribution information used to optimize datacenter management can also be obtained automatically using pattern recognition technology. However, most of the features extracted from thermal images, such as shape and gradient, may be affected by changes in the position and direction of the thermal camera. This paper presents a method for extracting the thermal features of a hot spot or a server in a container datacenter. First, thermal and visual images are registered based on textural characteristics extracted from images acquired in datacenters. Then, the thermal distribution of each server is standardized. The features of a hot spot or server extracted from the standard distribution can reduce the impact of camera position and direction. The results of experiments show that image registration is efficient for aligning the corresponding visual and thermal images in the datacenter, and the standardization procedure reduces the impacts of camera position and direction on hot spot or server features.

  7. Data from thermal testing of the Open Source Cryostage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Johannes Lørup; Ramløv, Hans


    The data presented here is related to the research article “An open source cryostage and software analysis method for detection of antifreeze activity” (Buch and Ramløv, 2016) [1]. The design of the Open Source Cryostage (OSC) is tested in terms of thermal limits, thermal efficiency and electrical...... efficiency. This article furthermore includes an overview of the electrical circuitry and a flowchart of the software program controlling the temperature of the OSC. The thermal efficiency data is presented here as degrees per volt and maximum cooling capacity....

  8. Electrical and Thermal Performance Analysis for a Highly Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xu


    Full Text Available A 30 kW highly concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (HCPV/T system has been constructed and tested outdoors. The HCPV/T system consists of 32 modules, each of which consists of point-focus Fresnel lens and triple-junction solar cells with a geometric concentrating ratio of 1090x. The modules are connected to produce both electrical and thermal energy. Performance analysis has been conducted from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. The experimental results show that highest photovoltaic efficiency of 30% and instantaneous thermal efficiency of 30% can be achieved at the same time, which means the total solar energy conversion efficiency of the HCPV/T system is higher than 60%. The photovoltaic efficiency increases with direct irradiance when the direct irradiance is below 580 W/m2, but it remains nearly unchanged when the direct irradiation is higher than 580 W/m2. The instantaneous thermal efficiency decreases during water heating process. However, the electrical performance of the system is not affected obviously by water temperature. Highest exergetic efficiency of 35.4% can be produced by the HCPV/T system. The exergetic efficiency is mainly affected by irradiation level, which is similar to the characteristics of photovoltaic performance.

  9. Probing Nanoscale Thermal Transport in Surfactant Solutions (United States)

    Cao, Fangyu; Liu, Ying; Xu, Jiajun; He, Yadong; Hammouda, B.; Qiao, Rui; Yang, Bao


    Surfactant solutions typically feature tunable nanoscale, internal structures. Although rarely utilized, they can be a powerful platform for probing thermal transport in nanoscale domains and across interfaces with nanometer-size radius. Here, we examine the structure and thermal transport in solution of AOT (Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate) in n-octane liquids using small-angle neutron scattering, thermal conductivity measurements, and molecular dynamics simulations. We report the first experimental observation of a minimum thermal conductivity occurring at the critical micelle concentration (CMC): the thermal conductivity of the surfactant solution decreases as AOT is added till the onset of micellization but increases as more AOT is added. The decrease of thermal conductivity with AOT loading in solutions in which AOT molecules are dispersed as monomers suggests that even the interfaces between individual oleophobic headgroup of AOT molecules and their surrounding non-polar octane molecules can hinder heat transfer. The increase of thermal conductivity with AOT loading after the onset of micellization indicates that the thermal transport in the core of AOT micelles and across the surfactant-oil interfaces, both of which span only a few nanometers, are efficient.

  10. Quantum engine efficiency bound beyond the second law of thermodynamics. (United States)

    Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Mukherjee, Victor; Ghosh, Arnab; Kofman, Abraham G; Kurizki, Gershon


    According to the second law, the efficiency of cyclic heat engines is limited by the Carnot bound that is attained by engines that operate between two thermal baths under the reversibility condition whereby the total entropy does not increase. Quantum engines operating between a thermal and a squeezed-thermal bath have been shown to surpass this bound. Yet, their maximum efficiency cannot be determined by the reversibility condition, which may yield an unachievable efficiency bound above unity. Here we identify the fraction of the exchanged energy between a quantum system and a bath that necessarily causes an entropy change and derive an inequality for this change. This inequality reveals an efficiency bound for quantum engines energised by a non-thermal bath. This bound does not imply reversibility, unless the two baths are thermal. It cannot be solely deduced from the laws of thermodynamics.

  11. Pratt & Whitney thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornstein, N. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Marcin, J. [Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Co., East Hartford, CT (United States)


    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to develop ultra-high efficient, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems. The operating profiles of these industrial gas turbines are long, less cyclic with fewer transients-compared with those for aircraft gas turbine engines. Therefore, creep rather than thermal fatigue, becomes primary life-limiting for hot section components. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) will be used to achieve the objectives of the program. TBCs allow surface temperatures to increase without compromising the structural properties of the alloy. TBCs typically consist of a ceramic insulating layer, deposited onto the substrate with an intervening metallic layer, which imparts oxidation protection to the substrate and provides a surface to which the ceramic layer can adhere.

  12. Claisen thermally rearranged (CTR) polymers (United States)

    Tena, Alberto; Rangou, Sofia; Shishatskiy, Sergey; Filiz, Volkan; Abetz, Volker


    Thermally rearranged (TR) polymers, which are considered the next-generation of membrane materials because of their excellent transport properties and high thermal and chemical stability, are proven to have significant drawbacks because of the high temperature required for the rearrangement and low degree of conversion during this process. We demonstrate that using a [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, the temperature required for the rearrangement of a solid glassy polymer was reduced by 200°C. Conversions of functionalized polyimide to polybenzoxazole of more than 97% were achieved. These highly mechanically stable polymers were almost five times more permeable and had more than two times higher degrees of conversion than the reference polymer treated under the same conditions. Properties of these second-generation TR polymers provide the possibility of preparing efficient polymer membranes in a form of, for example, thin-film composite membranes for various gas and liquid membrane separation applications. PMID:27482538

  13. Optical refrigeration for ultra-efficient photovoltaics (United States)

    Manor, Assaf; Martin, Leopoldo L.; Rotschild, Carmel


    The Shockley-Queisser (SQ) efficiency limit for single-junction photovoltaic cell (PV) is to a great extent due to inherent heat dissipation accompanying the quantum process of electro-chemical potential generation. Concepts such as solar thermophotovoltaics1,2,3 (STPV) and thermo-photonics4 aim to harness this dissipated heat, claiming very high theoretical limit. In practice, none of these concepts have been experimentally proven to overcome the SQ limit, mainly due to the very high operating temperatures, which significantly challenge electro-optical devices. In contrast to the above concepts for harnessing thermal emission at thermal equilibrium, Photoluminescence (PL) is a fundamental light-matter interaction under non-thermal equilibrium, which conventionally involves the absorption of energetic photon, thermalization and the emission of a red-shifted photon. Conversely, in optical-refrigeration the absorption of low energy photon is followed by endothermic-PL of energetic photon5,6. Both aspects were mainly studied where thermal population is far weaker than photonic excitation, obscuring the generalization of PL and thermal emissions. Here we experimentally study endothermic-PL at high temperatures7. In accordance with theory, we show how PL photon rate is conserved with temperature increase, while each photon is blue shifted. Further rise in temperature leads to an abrupt transition to thermal emission where the photon rate increases sharply. We also show how endothermic-PL generates orders of magnitude more energetic photons than thermal emission at similar temperatures. Relying on these observations, we propose and study thermally enhanced PL (TEPL) for highly efficient solar-energy conversion. Here, solar radiation is absorbed by a low-bandgap PL material. The dissipated heat is emitted by endothermic PL, and harvested by a higher-bandgap photovoltaic cell. While such device operates at much lower temperatures than STPV, the theoretical efficiencies

  14. Solar Thermal Energy Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.


    Solar Thermal Energy Technology (PST) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for the advancement of solar thermal systems as a significant energy resource.

  15. Ouellette Thermal Test Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Test Facility is a joint Army/Navy state-of-the-art facility (8,100 ft2) that was designed to:Evaluate and characterize the effect of flame and thermal...

  16. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    With the push to reduce component volumes, lower costs, and reduce weight without sacrificing performance or reliability, the challenges associated with thermal management increase for power electronics and electric motors. Thermal management for electric motors will become more important as the automotive industry continues the transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. The transition to more electrically dominant propulsion systems leads to higher-power duty cycles for electric drive systems. Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform, and as thermal management improves, there will be a direct trade-off between motor performance, efficiency, cost, and the sizing of electric motors to operate within the thermal constraints. The goal of this research project is to support broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management. Work in FY15 focused on two areas related to motor thermal management: passive thermal performance and active convective cooling. Passive thermal performance emphasized the thermal impact of materials and thermal interfaces among materials within an assembled motor. The research tasks supported the publication of test methods and data for thermal contact resistances and direction-dependent thermal conductivity within an electric motor. Active convective cooling focused on measuring convective heat-transfer coefficients using automatic transmission fluid (ATF). Data for average convective heat transfer coefficients for direct impingement of ATF jets was published. Also, experimental hardware for mapping local-scale and stator-scale convective heat transfer coefficients for ATF jet impingement were developed.

  17. Efficiency stud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brundaban Patro


    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of combination tube boilers, as applicable to commercial use, along with the significant features, limitations, and applicability. A heat balance sheet is prepared to know the various heat losses in two different two-pass combination tube boilers, using low grade coal and rice husk as a fuel. Also, the efficiency of the combination tube boilers is studied by the direct and heat loss methods. It is observed that the dry flue gas loss is a major loss in the combination tube boilers. The loss due to the unburnt in the fly ash is very less in the combination tube boilers, due to the surrounded membrane wall. It is also observed that the loss due to the unburnt in the bottom ash has a considerable amount for the heat loss, and cannot be ignored.

  18. Smart Battery Thermal Management for PHEV Efficiency Une gestion avancée de la thermique de la batterie basse tension de traction pour optimiser l’efficacité d’un véhicule hybride électrique rechargeable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefebvre L.


    Full Text Available A smart battery thermal management is crucial for vehicle performances and battery lifetime targets achievements when electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are concerned. The thermal system needs to be designed and tuned in accordance and compromises with powertrain and vehicle requirements, battery pack architecture, environmental constraints, costs, weight, etc., in a process that will be described in the first part of this paper. Among the portfolio of battery thermal management technologies, these items will be illustrated by two examples: thermal management by cabin air and by refrigerant in a direct cooling, enlightening a decision process. A simplified battery thermo-electric simulation model, which the second part of our work focuses on, has been built, first for both thermal and energetic balance dimensioning of the battery thermal management system. Examples are given on these two perspectives. That simplified simulation model has also identified some promising thermal management strategies for improving vehicle efficiency and performances and battery lifetime. That is the task of the last part of this paper. Battery heating has shown opportunities for improving energy and power availability at cold conditions and, thus, electric drive availability and autonomy. Post-cooling the battery at the end of a journey and its pre-conditioning before the following journey, not only improve vehicle efficiency, electric drive availability and autonomy, but also enhance battery lifetime and compromises with cabin thermal comfort. Others promising strategies optimizing the relation between vehicle performances and battery lifetime are still under investigations. L’atteinte des performances et des prestations requises d’un véhicule électrique ou hybride électrique rechargeable nécessite un thermomanagement intelligent de la batterie basse tension de traction. Ce thermomanagement est incontournable pour respecter dans le même temps

  19. Thermal Emission from Structured Media (United States)

    Zimmerman, Ian Andrew

    This dissertation covers a study of the use of macroscopic structure as a means of controlling thermal emission in the THz and mid-IR frequency regions. Chapter 1 presents a brief introduction to the THz frequency region and to the concept of the photonic crystal, the primary type of geometry used. Chapter 2 compares the two most common methods used to calculate the thermal emission of a structure whose components are all at the same temperature. These methods are compared in terms of the results they give and in terms of how computationally involved the methods are. The first method explored involves using Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission which equates the absorptivity and emissivity of a structure. The second method is to calculate the emission directly from the Green's function using the microscopic thermal currents given by the Fluctuation-Dissipation theorem. A derivation of the second method is given, and the equality between the two methods is proven in 1D. It is shown that the Kirchhoff's law method is much more computationally efficient, and it is therefore used for the parametric studies of the structures which make up the remainder of this document. Chapter 3 covers work done in the THz regime. In the THz frequency regime, where a historic lack of sources has in part impeded full exploration and utilization, a photonic crystal design is proposed to control the thermal emission. It is shown that using a 1D bi-layered photonic crystal, composed of alternating section of silicon wafers and vacuum sections, it is possible to tailor many narrowband emission features over a broadband frequency range. In simulation both spectral and directional thermal emission control is demonstrated, and a parametric study is performed to explore how changes in the geometry of the photonic crystal change its thermal emission signature. A description is then given of how the photonic crystal is constructed and how its thermal emission is measured using Fourier transform

  20. Full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion via photonic nanofluids. (United States)

    Liu, Xianglei; Xuan, Yimin


    Volumetric solar thermal conversion is an emerging technique for a plethora of applications such as solar thermal power generation, desalination, and solar water splitting. However, achieving broadband solar thermal absorption via dilute nanofluids is still a daunting challenge. In this work, full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion is demonstrated over a thin layer of the proposed 'photonic nanofluids'. The underlying mechanism is found to be the photonic superposition of core resonances, shell plasmons, and core-shell resonances at different wavelengths, whose coexistence is enabled by the broken symmetry of specially designed composite nanoparticles, i.e., Janus nanoparticles. The solar thermal conversion efficiency can be improved by 10.8% compared with core-shell nanofluids. The extinction coefficient of Janus dimers with various configurations is also investigated to unveil the effects of particle couplings. This work provides the possibility to achieve full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion, and may have potential applications in efficient solar energy harvesting and utilization.

  1. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, G.


    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  2. Dynamic thermal characteristics of heat pipe via segmented thermal resistance model for electric vehicle battery cooling (United States)

    Liu, Feifei; Lan, Fengchong; Chen, Jiqing


    Heat pipe cooling for battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) in electric vehicles (EVs) is growing due to its advantages of high cooling efficiency, compact structure and flexible geometry. Considering the transient conduction, phase change and uncertain thermal conditions in a heat pipe, it is challenging to obtain the dynamic thermal characteristics accurately in such complex heat and mass transfer process. In this paper, a ;segmented; thermal resistance model of a heat pipe is proposed based on thermal circuit method. The equivalent conductivities of different segments, viz. the evaporator and condenser of pipe, are used to determine their own thermal parameters and conditions integrated into the thermal model of battery for a complete three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The proposed ;segmented; model shows more precise than the ;non-segmented; model by the comparison of simulated and experimental temperature distribution and variation of an ultra-thin micro heat pipe (UMHP) battery pack, and has less calculation error to obtain dynamic thermal behavior for exact thermal design, management and control of heat pipe BTMSs. Using the ;segmented; model, the cooling effect of the UMHP pack with different natural/forced convection and arrangements is predicted, and the results correspond well to the tests.

  3. Optothermal Raman Studies of Thermal Properties of Graphene Based Films


    Malekpour, Hoda


    Efficient thermal management is becoming a critical issue for development of the next generation of electronics. As the size of electronic devices shrinks, the dissipated power density increases, demanding a better heat removal. The discovery of graphene’s unique electrical and thermal properties stimulated interest of electronic industry to development of graphene based technologies. In this dissertation, I report the results of my investigation of thermal properties of graphene derivatives ...

  4. Enhanced thermal conductivity of graphene nanoplatelets epoxy composites


    Jarosinski Lukasz; Rybak Andrzej; Gaska Karolina; Kmita Grzegorz; Porebska Renata; Kapusta Czeslaw


    Efficient heat dissipation from modern electronic devices is a key issue for their proper performance. An important role in the assembly of electronic devices is played by polymers, due to their simple application and easiness of processing. The thermal conductivity of pure polymers is relatively low and addition of thermally conductive particles into polymer matrix is the method to enhance the overall thermal conductivity of the composite. The aim of the presented work is to examine a possib...

  5. Thermal diffusivity measurement system applied to polymers (United States)

    Abad, B.; Díaz-Chao, P.; Almarza, A.; Amantia, D.; Vázquez-Campos, S.; Isoda, Y.; Shinohara, Y.; Briones, F.; Martín-González, M. S.


    In the search for cleaner energy sources, the improvement of the efficiency of the actual ones appears as a primary objective. In this way, thermoelectric materials, which are able to convert wasted heat into electricity, are reveal as an interesting way to improve efficiency of car engines, for example. Cost-effective energy harvesting from thermoelectric devices requires materials with high electrical conductivities and Seebeck coefficient, but low thermal conductivity. Conductive polymers can fulfil these conditions if they are doped appropriately. One of the most promising polymers is Polyaniline. In this work, the thermal conductivity of the polyaniline and mixtures of polyaniline with nanoclays has been studied, using a new experimental set-up developed in the lab. The novel system is based on the steady-state method and it is used to obtain the thermal diffusivity of the polymers and the nanocomposites.

  6. Data from thermal testing of the Open Source Cryostage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Johannes Lørup; Ramløv, Hans


    The data presented here is related to the research article "An open source cryostage and software analysis method for detection of antifreeze activity" (Buch and Ramløv, 2016) [1]. The design of the Open Source Cryostage (OSC) is tested in terms of thermal limits, thermal efficiency and electrical...

  7. Convective Concrete : Additive Manufacturing to facilitate activation of thermal mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, D.; de Klijn-Chevalerias, M.L.; Loonen, R.C.G.M.; Hensen, JLM; Knaack, U.; Zimmermann, G


    This paper reports on the research-driven design process of an innovative thermal mass concept: Convective Concrete. The goal is to improve building energy efficiency and comfort levels by addressing some of the shortcomings of conventional building slabs with high thermal storage capacity. Such

  8. Thermal performance of a hot-air solar collector (United States)


    Report contains procedures and results of thermal-performance tests on double-glazed air solar collector. Four types of tests were carried out including thermal-efficiency and stagnation tests, collector time-constant tests to assess effects of transients, and incident-angle modifier tests. Data are presented in tables and as graphs and are discussed and analyzed.

  9. Pulsed pump: Thermal effects in solid state lasers under super ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 67; Issue 6. Pulsed ... Pulse pump; thermal effects; thermal lensing; phase shift; diode-pumped solid state laser; super-Gaussian pump profile. Abstract. Solid state laser (SSL) powers can be realistically scaled when pumped by a real, efficient and multimode pulse.

  10. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dear, R. J. de; Akimoto, T.; Arens, E. A.


    developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we...

  11. Comparative Batch and Column Evaluation of Thermal and Wet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The efficiency of regenerated spent commercial activated carbon for synthetic dye removal was studied using thermal and wet ... Keywords: Activated Carbon, Methyl Red, Chromatography Capacity, Wet and Thermal Regeneration. INTRODUCTION ... processes in wastewater treatment. A number of techniques ...

  12. Eficiência térmica de telhas onduladas de fibrocimento aplicadas em abrigos individuais para bezerros expostos ao sol e à sombra Thermal efficiency of fiber cement corrugated sheets applied to individual housing for calves exposed to sun and shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli


    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um estudo da eficiência térmica de coberturas de bezerreiros individuais expostas ao sol e à sombra, por meio de termografia infravermelha, temperatura interna e índices de conforto térmico. Foram avaliados quatro bezerreiros, três expostos ao sol, a saber: (i cobertos com telhas de fibrocimento sem amianto - pintadas de branco, (ii sem pintura e (iii com sombrite posicionado internamente aos bezerreiros, à distância de 0,10m da face inferior da telha. O quarto bezerreiro foi instalado em área sombreada e coberto com telhas de fibrocimento sem pintura. As coletas de dados foram realizadas durante 21 dias, nos horários das 11h00min, 14h00min e 17h00min. Os resultados mostraram variações significativas na temperatura de superfície das coberturas e nos índices de conforto térmico, entre os tratamentos expostos ao sol e à sombra, para todos os horários avaliados. As imagens termográficas infravermelhas mostraram-se eficientes para melhor compreensão dos processos de transferência de calor da cobertura para o interior das instalações.This research presents a study of roof thermal efficiency in individual housing for calves exposed to sun and shade through infrared thermography, internal temperature and thermal comfort indexes. Four different individual housing for calves covered with asbestos-free fiber-cement corrugated sheets were evaluated. Three of them were directly exposed to the sun: (i corrugated sheets painted white in the external surface, (ii corrugated sheets without painting and (iii with screen shade fabric installed 0.10m under de internal surface of the corrugated sheet. The fourth individual housing was installed in the shade area and covered with unpainted corrugated fiber-cement sheets. The analysis was taken for 21 days at 11h00min, 14h00min and 17h00min. The results indicate significant variations in the roofing surface temperature and thermal comfort indexes among the treatments

  13. Temperature Distribution and Thermal Performance of an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System (United States)

    Ganguly, Sayantan


    Energy conservation and storage has become very crucial to make use of excess energy during times of future demand. Excess thermal energy can be captured and stored in aquifers and this technique is termed as Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Storing seasonal thermal energy in water by injecting it into subsurface and extracting in time of demand is the principle of an ATES system. Using ATES systems leads to energy savings, reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and thus leads to reduction in greenhouse gas emission. This study numerically models an ATES system to store seasonal thermal energy and evaluates the performance of it. A 3D thermo-hydrogeological numerical model for a confined ATES system is presented in this study. The model includes heat transport processes of advection, conduction and heat loss to confining rock media. The model also takes into account regional groundwater flow in the aquifer, geothermal gradient and anisotropy in the aquifer. Results show that thermal injection into the aquifer results in the generation of a thermal-front which grows in size with time. Premature thermal-breakthrough causes thermal interference in the system when the thermal-front reaches the production well and consequences in the fall of system performance and hence should be avoided. This study models the transient temperature distribution in the aquifer for different flow and geological conditions. This may be effectively used in designing an efficient ATES project by ensuring safety from thermal-breakthrough while catering to the energy demand. Based on the model results a safe well spacing is proposed. The thermal energy discharged by the system is determined and strategy to avoid the premature thermal-breakthrough in critical cases is discussed. The present numerical model is applied to simulate an experimental field study which is found to approximate the field results quite well.

  14. Thermal Management and Thermal Protection Systems (United States)

    Hasnain, Aqib


    During my internship in the Thermal Design Branch (ES3), I contributed to two main projects: i) novel passive thermal management system for future human exploration, ii) AVCOAT undercut thermal analysis. i) As NASA prepares to further expand human and robotic presence in space, it is well known that spacecraft architectures will be challenged with unprecedented thermal environments. Future exploration activities will have the need of thermal management systems that can provide higher reliability, mass and power reduction and increased performance. In an effort to start addressing the current technical gaps the NASA Johnson Space Center Passive Thermal Discipline has engaged in technology development activities. One of these activities was done through an in-house Passive Thermal Management System (PTMS) design for a lunar lander. The proposed PTMS, functional in both microgravity and gravity environments, consists of three main components: a heat spreader, a novel hybrid wick Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP), and a radiator. The aim of this PTMS is to keep electronics on a vehicle within their temperature limits (0 and 50 C for the current design) during all mission phases including multiple lunar day/night cycles. The VCHP was tested to verify its thermal performance. I created a thermal math model using Thermal Desktop (TD) and analyzed it to predict the PTMS performance. After testing, the test data provided a means to correlate the thermal math model. This correlation took into account conduction and convection heat transfer, representing the actual benchtop test. Since this PTMS is proposed for space missions, a vacuum test will be taking place to provide confidence that the system is functional in space environments. Therefore, the model was modified to include a vacuum chamber with a liquid nitrogen shroud while taking into account conduction and radiation heat transfer. Infrared Lamps were modelled and introduced into the model to simulate the sun

  15. Enhanced thermal conductivity of waste sawdust-based composite phase change materials with expanded graphite for thermal energy storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Haiyue; Wang, Yazhou; Liu, Zhuangchao; Liang, Daxin; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Wenbo; Di, Xin; Wang, Chengyu; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Hsin


    .... In particular, the application of phase change materials (PCMs) is considered as an effective and efficient approach to thermal energy storage because of the high latent heat storage capacity at small temperature intervals...

  16. Advanced materials for thermal management of electronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Xingcun Colin


    The need for advanced thermal management materials in electronic packaging has been widely recognized as thermal challenges become barriers to the electronic industry's ability to provide continued improvements in device and system performance. With increased performance requirements for smaller, more capable, and more efficient electronic power devices, systems ranging from active electronically scanned radar arrays to web servers all require components that can dissipate heat efficiently. This requires that the materials have high capability of dissipating heat and maintaining compatibility

  17. Quantum Thermal Transistor. (United States)

    Joulain, Karl; Drevillon, Jérémie; Ezzahri, Younès; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose


    We demonstrate that a thermal transistor can be made up with a quantum system of three interacting subsystems, coupled to a thermal reservoir each. This thermal transistor is analogous to an electronic bipolar one with the ability to control the thermal currents at the collector and at the emitter with the imposed thermal current at the base. This is achieved by determining the heat fluxes by means of the strong-coupling formalism. For the case of three interacting spins, in which one of them is coupled to the other two, that are not directly coupled, it is shown that high amplification can be obtained in a wide range of energy parameters and temperatures. The proposed quantum transistor could, in principle, be used to develop devices such as a thermal modulator and a thermal amplifier in nanosystems.

  18. Energy Efficiency of Low-Temperature Deaeration of Makeup Water for a District Heating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharapov, V. I., E-mail:; Kudryavtseva, E. V. [Ulyanovsk State Technical University (Russian Federation)


    It is shown that the temperature of makeup water in district heating systems has a strong effect on the energy efficiency of turbines of thermal power plants. A low-temperature deaeration process that considerably improves the energy efficiency of thermal power plants is developed. The desorbing agent is the gas supplied to the burners of the boiler. The energy efficiency of the process for a typical unit of thermal power plant is assessed.

  19. Advanced high efficiency concentrator cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, R. (Varian Associates, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Varian Research Center)


    This report describes research to develop the technology needed to demonstrate a monolithic, multijunction, two-terminal, concentrator solar cell with a terrestrial power conversion efficiency greater than 35%. Under three previous subcontracts, Varian developed many of the aspects of a technology needed to fabricate very high efficiency concentrator cells. The current project was aimed at exploiting the new understanding of high efficiency solar cells. Key results covered in this report are as follows. (1) A 1.93-eV AlGaAs/1.42-eV GaAs metal-interconnected cascade cell was manufactured with a one-sun efficiency at 27.6% at air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) global. (2) A 1.0eV InGaAs cell was fabricated on the reverse'' side of a low-doped GaAs substrate with a one-sun efficiency of 2.5% AM1.5 diffuse and a short-circuit current of 14.4 mA/cm{sup 2}. (3) Small-scale manufacturing of GaAs p/n concentrator cells was attempted and obtained an excellent yield of high-efficiency cells. (4) Grown-in tunnel junction cell interconnects that are transparent and thermally stable using C and Si dopants were developed. 10 refs.

  20. Evaluating local and overall thermal comfort in buildings using thermal manikins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, E.


    Evaluation methods of human thermal comfort that are based on whole-body heat balance with its surroundings may not be adequate for evaluations in non-uniform thermal conditions. Under these conditions, the human body's segments may experience a wide range of room physical parameters and the evaluation of the local (segmental) thermal comfort becomes necessary. In this work, subjective measurements of skin temperature were carried out to investigate the human body's local responses due to a step change in the room temperature; and the variability in the body's local temperatures under different indoor conditions and exposures as well as the physiological steady state local temperatures. Then, a multi-segmental model of human thermoregulation was developed based on these findings to predict the local skin temperatures of individuals' body segments with a good accuracy. The model predictability of skin temperature was verified for steady state and dynamic conditions using measured data at uniform neutral, cold and warm as well as different asymmetric thermal conditions. The model showed very good predictability with average absolute deviation ranged from 0.3-0.8 K. The model was then implemented onto the control system of the thermal manikin 'THERMINATOR' to adjust the segmental skin temperature set-points based on the indoor conditions. This new control for the manikin was experimentally validated for the prediction of local and overall thermal comfort using the equivalent temperature measure. THERMINATOR with the new control mode was then employed in the evaluation of localized floor-heating system variants towards maximum energy efficiency. This aimed at illustrating a design strategy using the thermal manikin to find the optimum geometry and surface area of a floor-heater for a single seated person. Furthermore, a psychological comfort model that is based on local skin temperature was adapted for the use with the model of human

  1. Perlite-SO3H nanoparticles as an efficient and reusable catalyst for one-pot three-component synthesis of 1,2-dihydro-1-aryl-naphtho[1,2-e][1,3]oxazine-3-one derivatives under both microwave-assisted and thermal solvent-free conditions: Single crystal X-ray structure analysis and theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramazani


    Full Text Available A general synthetic route for the synthesis of 1,2-dihydro-1-aryl-naphtho[1,2-e][1,3]oxazine-3-one derivatives has been developed using perlite-SO3H nanoparticles as efficient catalyst under both microwave-assisted and thermal solvent-free conditions. The combination of 2-naphthol, aldehyde and urea enabled the synthesis of 1,2-dihydro-1-aryl-naphtho[1,2-e][1,3]oxazine-3-one derivatives in the presence of perlite-SO3H nanoparticles in good to excellent yields. This method provides several advantages like simple work-up, environmentally benign, and shorter reaction times along with high yields. In order to explore the recyclability of the catalyst, the perlite-SO3H nanoparticles in solvent-free conditions were used as catalyst for the same reaction repeatedly and the change in their catalytic activity was studied. It was found that perlite-SO3H nanoparticles could be reused for four cycles with negligible loss of their activity. Single crystal X-ray structure analysis and theoretical studies also were investigated for 4i product. The electronic properties of the compound have been analyzed using DFT calculations (B3LYP/6-311+G*. The FMO analysis suggests that charge transfer takes place within the molecule and the HOMO is localized mainly on naphthalene and oxazinone rings whereas the LUMO resides on the naphthalene ring.

  2. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  3. Research on Configurations of Thermally Integrated Distillation Column(TIDC) (United States)

    Sun, Lanyi; Li, Jun; Liu, Xuenuan; Li, Qingsong

    Taking a C3 distillation column as the base case, possible configurations for Thermally Integrated Distillation Columns (TIDC) are proposed and compared to a conventional column and a column with a vapor recompression system (VRC). Thermal efficiency of the TIDC appears to be strongly sensitive to column configuration and a highly efficient asymmetrical configuration with stripping section stages thermally interconnected with the same number of stages in the upper part of the rectifying section emerges as the most promising option. The relationships among pressure ratio of rectifying section to stripping section and energy consumption were also discussed.

  4. Applicability of advanced automotive heat engines to solar thermal power (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.; Evans, D. G.; Alger, D. L.


    The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the solar thermal application. At these reduced power levels it appears that the automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines have the potential to deliver the 40+ percent efficiency goal of the solar thermal program.

  5. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd


    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  6. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenko, R.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Perez-Garcia, S.A.; Perez-Robles, J.F.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, (Mexico); Vorobiev, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Instituto Tec. Del Istmo, Oaxaco (Mexico). Dep. de Ingenieria Electromecanica


    The hybrid PV-thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. Performance of the different panels in the system was investigated, in particular, those made of crystalline (c-) Si, {alpha}-Si and CuInSe{sub 2} as well as different materials and constructions for the thermal contact between the panel and the collector. Our conclusion is that the PVP for application in a hybrid system needs a special design providing efficient heat extraction from it. PVP was designed and made. Its study has shown that this design provides the high electrical and thermal efficiency of the hybrid system. (author)

  7. Ecological Aspects of the Performed Thermal Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucarz M.


    Full Text Available The thermal analysis results of the selected group of binders and the thermal reclamation of one spent moulding sand with organic binder, are presented in the paper. The reclaiming process of the quartz matrix was performed on the basis of the own method of selecting the reclamation temperature. Taking into account thermogravimetric (TG analysis results of the binder, the temperature range - required for performing the efficient reclamation of spent moulding sand containing this binder - was indicated. In order to confirm the assumptions, the thermal reclamation operations were carried out at a temperature similar to the determined on the TG basis and - for comparisons - at lower and higher temperatures. During the reclamation operation the reclaim samples were taken for the loss on ignition testing, aimed at the determination of the process efficiency. Temperature in the reclaimer chamber and gas consumptions were also recorded. On the bases of the thermal analyses, loss on ignition, gas consumption and temperatures of the reclaimed moulding sand bed the recommendations for the realisation of the thermal reclamation were given. These recommendations will allow a better, than currently available, process control in an aspect of decreasing the pyrolysis effect and limiting the emission of substances harmful for the environment.

  8. Thermal Imaging in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Štumper


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the use of thermal imaging in aviation. In the never ending pursuit of lower costs, the Thermal Imaging offers shorter inspection times thanks to its application in aircraft inspections and can reduce the number of costly goarounds using the Enhanced Vision System, which also increases safety in one of the most dangerous parts of flight. Thermal Imaging also offers solutions for Airport Perimeter Security and it can be used for construction of ground surveillance system.

  9. Thermal Hyperbolic Metamaterials


    Guo, Yu; Jacob, Zubin


    We explore the near-field radiative thermal energy transfer properties of hyperbolic metamaterials. The presence of unique electromagnetic states in a broad bandwidth leads to super-planckian thermal energy transfer between metamaterials separated by a nano-gap. We consider practical phonon-polaritonic metamaterials for thermal engineering in the mid-infrared range and show that the effect exists in spite of the losses, absorption and finite unit cell size. For thermophotovoltaic energy conve...

  10. Subsurface Thermal Energy Storage for Improved Air Conditioning Efficiency (United States)


    program for MILCON analysis (NIST, 2016). This program uses the current Department of Energy forecasts for electricity price escalation relative... electrical energy prices remain low over the next 30 years, that this projection would overestimate the future energy costs. However, it seems likely...36 Figure 7.2. Cumulative Electrical Energy Costs for the Base Case and the Case with a Dry Fluid Cooler

  11. An efficient method combining thermal annealing and acid leaching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thus obtained silica was investigated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES) method. Major impurities present in silica sand were Al, K, Fe, Na, Ca, Mg and B. Among the new products, almost major impurities were removed effectively. Indeed purity degree, given by characterization of ...

  12. Study of thermally coupled distillation systems for energy-efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Chemical Engineering, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University College of Engineering, Pune 411046, India; Chemical Engineering and Process Development Division, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008, India; Department of Chemical Engineering, Vishwakarma ...

  13. Heat Engine With Finite Thermal Reservoirs and Nonideal Efficiency (United States)


    sus temperaturas iniciales. La producción total de trabajo y el cambio de entropía de los depósitos se calcula y se relaciona con las eficiencias...el 10% de la temperatura del depósito caliente. Palabras clave: Motor térmico, eficiencia termodinámica, calor y trabajo . PACS: 07.20.Pe, 05.70

  14. Technical efficiency of thermal power units through a stochastic frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Marmolejo-Saucedo


    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un modelo para obtener la frontera estocástica de la función de producción de una empresa mexicana de generación eléctrica. La frontera estocástica permite evaluar los niveles de eficiencia técnica del productor de energía respecto de los insumos utilizados. La generación eléctrica obtenida mediante generación térmica es muy costosa debido a la ineficiencia operativa de las centrales termoeléctricas. Hasta el momento, en México, la eficiencia técnica de las centrales termoeléctricas no ha sido estudiada para el Sistema Eléctrico Nacional. Por lo tanto, con la finalidad de conocer los niveles de productividad de la generación térmica, se realizó una aplicación de un modelo de frontera estocástica utilizando datos de panel de las centrales termoeléctricas del Sistema Eléctrico Mexicano para el periodo 2009-2013.

  15. Сombined Thermal Insulating Module of Mounted Vented Facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabukhina Svetlana


    Full Text Available In order to define an optimum type of mounted vented facades among the existing ones, comparative analysis of two façade modules has been conducted. The first module type is a widespread standard module of hinged vented facade and the second type is less applicable combined thermal insulating module. Those two technologies were compared thermal engineering and energy efficiency parameters. It was defined that the application of a thermal insulating module with combined insulation system improves thermal engineering parameters of the building as well as leads to a substantial savings. This article exposes innovative materials and structure of vented facades which can be applied in modern construction.

  16. Voltage tunability of thermal conductivity in ferroelectric materials (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Hopkins, Patrick Edward


    A method to control thermal energy transport uses mobile coherent interfaces in nanoscale ferroelectric films to scatter phonons. The thermal conductivity can be actively tuned, simply by applying an electrical potential across the ferroelectric material and thereby altering the density of these coherent boundaries to directly impact thermal transport at room temperature and above. The invention eliminates the necessity of using moving components or poor efficiency methods to control heat transfer, enabling a means of thermal energy control at the micro- and nano-scales.

  17. Building Thermal Models (United States)

    Peabody, Hume L.


    This presentation is meant to be an overview of the model building process It is based on typical techniques (Monte Carlo Ray Tracing for radiation exchange, Lumped Parameter, Finite Difference for thermal solution) used by the aerospace industry This is not intended to be a "How to Use ThermalDesktop" course. It is intended to be a "How to Build Thermal Models" course and the techniques will be demonstrated using the capabilities of ThermalDesktop (TD). Other codes may or may not have similar capabilities. The General Model Building Process can be broken into four top level steps: 1. Build Model; 2. Check Model; 3. Execute Model; 4. Verify Results.

  18. Theory of thermal stresses

    CERN Document Server

    Boley, Bruno A


    Highly regarded text presents detailed discussion of fundamental aspects of theory, background, problems with detailed solutions. Basics of thermoelasticity, heat transfer theory, thermal stress analysis, more. 1985 edition.

  19. Power Electronics Thermal Management Research: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The objective for this project is to develop thermal management strategies to enable efficient and high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronic systems (e.g., emerging inverter and DC-DC converter). Reliable WBG devices are capable of operating at elevated temperatures (≥ 175 °Celsius). However, packaging WBG devices within an automotive inverter and operating them at higher junction temperatures will expose other system components (e.g., capacitors and electrical boards) to temperatures that may exceed their safe operating limits. This creates challenges for thermal management and reliability. In this project, system-level thermal analyses are conducted to determine the effect of elevated device temperatures on inverter components. Thermal modeling work is then conducted to evaluate various thermal management strategies that will enable the use of highly efficient WBG devices with automotive power electronic systems.

  20. Micro rectennas: Brownian ratchets for thermal-energy harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Y.; Powell, C. V.; Balocco, C., E-mail: [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Song, A. M. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)


    We experimentally demonstrated the operation of a rectenna for harvesting thermal (blackbody) radiation and converting it into dc electric power. The device integrates an ultrafast rectifier, the self-switching nanodiode, with a wideband log-periodic spiral microantenna. The radiation from the thermal source drives the rectenna out of thermal equilibrium, permitting the rectification of the excess thermal fluctuations from the antenna. The power conversion efficiency increases with the source temperatures up to 0.02% at 973 K. The low efficiency is attributed mainly to the impedance mismatch between antenna and rectifier, and partially to the large field of view of the antenna. Our device not only opens a potential solution for harvesting thermal energy but also provides a platform for experimenting with Brownian ratchets.

  1. Micro rectennas: Brownian ratchets for thermal-energy harvesting (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Powell, C. V.; Song, A. M.; Balocco, C.


    We experimentally demonstrated the operation of a rectenna for harvesting thermal (blackbody) radiation and converting it into dc electric power. The device integrates an ultrafast rectifier, the self-switching nanodiode, with a wideband log-periodic spiral microantenna. The radiation from the thermal source drives the rectenna out of thermal equilibrium, permitting the rectification of the excess thermal fluctuations from the antenna. The power conversion efficiency increases with the source temperatures up to 0.02% at 973 K. The low efficiency is attributed mainly to the impedance mismatch between antenna and rectifier, and partially to the large field of view of the antenna. Our device not only opens a potential solution for harvesting thermal energy but also provides a platform for experimenting with Brownian ratchets.

  2. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket (United States)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Malecha, Richard F.; Chilenskas, Albert A.


    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  3. Integration of Decentralized Thermal Storages Within District Heating (DH Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuchardt Georg K.


    Full Text Available Thermal Storages and Thermal Accumulators are an important component within District Heating (DH systems, adding flexibility and offering additional business opportunities for these systems. Furthermore, these components have a major impact on the energy and exergy efficiency as well as the heat losses of the heat distribution system. Especially the integration of Thermal Storages within ill-conditioned parts of the overall DH system enhances the efficiency of the heat distribution. Regarding an illustrative and simplified example for a DH system, the interactions of different heat storage concepts (centralized and decentralized and the heat losses, energy and exergy efficiencies will be examined by considering the thermal state of the heat distribution network.

  4. Enabling fast charging – Battery thermal considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew; Pesaran, Ahmad; Li, Qibo; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Dufek, Eric; Shirk, Matthew; Meintz, Andrew; Kreuzer, Cory; Michelbacher, Christopher; Burnham, Andrew; Stephens, Thomas; Francfort, James; Carlson, Barney; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Hardy, Keith; Dias, Fernando; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Scoffield, Don; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Markel, Anthony


    Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  5. Thermal-Mechanical Optimization of Folded Core Sandwich Panels for Thermal Protection Systems of Space Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhou


    Full Text Available The integrated thermal protection system (ITPS is a complicated system that addresses both mechanical and thermal considerations. An M-pattern folded core sandwich panel packed with low-density insulation material provides inherently low mass for a potential ITPS panel. Herein, we identify the most influential geometric parameters and establish a viable, computationally efficient optimization procedure. Variables considered for optimization are geometric dimensions of the ITPS, while temperature and deflection are taken as constraints. A one-dimensional (1D thermal model based on a modified form of the rule of mixtures was established, while a three-dimensional (3D model was adopted for linear static analyses. Parametric models were generated to facilitate a design of experiment (DOE study, and approximate models using radial basis functions were obtained to carry out the optimization process. Sensitivity studies were first conducted to investigate the effect of geometric parameters on the ITPS responses. Then optimizations were performed for both thermal and thermal-mechanical constraints. The results show that the simplified 1D thermal model is able to predict temperature through the ITPS thickness satisfactorily. The combined optimization strategy evidently improves the computational efficiency of the design process showing it can be used for initial design of folded core ITPS.

  6. A thermal ground cloak (United States)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei


    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object.

  7. Power Electronics Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Thermal modeling was conducted to evaluate and develop thermal management strategies for high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronics systems. WBG device temperatures of 175 degrees C to 250 degrees C were modeled under various under-hood temperature environments. Modeling result were used to identify the most effective capacitor cooling strategies under high device temperature conditions.

  8. Thermally exfoliated graphite oxide (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)


    A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  9. Conceptual thermal design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijk, R.


    Present thermal design tools and methods insufficiently support the development of structural concepts engaged by typical practicing designers. Research described in this thesis identifies the main thermal design problems in practice. In addition, models and methods are developed that support an

  10. Thermal energy storage (United States)


    The planning and implementation of activities associated with lead center management role and the technical accomplishments pertaining to high temperature thermal energy storage subsystems are described. Major elements reported are: (1) program definition and assessment; (2) research and technology development; (3) industrial storage applications; (4) solar thermal power storage applications; and (5) building heating and cooling applications.

  11. Thermal flow micro sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    A review is given on sensors fabricated by silicon micromachining technology using the thermal domain for the measurement of fluid flow. Attention is paid especially to performance and geometry of the sensors. Three basic types of thermal flow sensors are discussed: anemometers, calorimetric flow

  12. High Thermal Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Subhash L


    Thermal management has become a ‘hot’ field in recent years due to a need to obtain high performance levels in many devices used in such diverse areas as space science, mainframe and desktop computers, optoelectronics and even Formula One racing cars! Thermal solutions require not just taking care of very high thermal flux, but also ‘hot spots’, where the flux densities can exceed 200 W/cm2. High thermal conductivity materials play an important role in addressing thermal management issues. This volume provides readers a basic understanding of the thermal conduction mechanisms in these materials and discusses how the thermal conductivity may be related to their crystal structures as well as microstructures developed as a result of their processing history. The techniques for accurate measurement of these properties on large as well as small scales have been reviewed. Detailed information on the thermal conductivity of diverse materials including aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, a...

  13. Paradoxes of Thermal Radiation (United States)

    Besson, U.


    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal behaviour of objects exposed to a solar-type flux of thermal radiation. It aims to clarify certain apparent inconsistencies between theory and observation, and to give a detailed exposition of some critical points that physics textbooks usually treat in an insufficient or incorrect way. In particular,…

  14. Thermal Activated Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke


    search procedure, the combination of materials and their bonding temperature is found in relation to the envelope effect on a thermal environment inside a defined space. This allows the designer to articulate dynamic composites with time-based thermal functionality, related to the material dynamics...

  15. Radiative Bistability and Thermal Memory (United States)

    Kubytskyi, Viacheslav; Biehs, Svend-Age; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe


    We predict the existence of a thermal bistability in many-body systems out of thermal equilibrium which exchange heat by thermal radiation using insulator-metal transition materials. We propose a writing-reading procedure and demonstrate the possibility to exploit the thermal bistability to make a volatile thermal memory. We show that this thermal memory can be used to store heat and thermal information (via an encoding temperature) for arbitrary long times. The radiative thermal bistability could find broad applications in the domains of thermal management, information processing, and energy storage.

  16. Thermally regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell power cycles (United States)

    Morehouse, J. H.


    Two innovative thermodynamic power cycles are analytically examined for future engineering feasibility. The power cycles use a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell for electrical energy production and use the thermal dissociation of water for regeneration of the hydrogen and oxygen. The TDS (thermal dissociation system) uses a thermal energy input at over 2000 K to thermally dissociate the water. The other cycle, the HTE (high temperature electrolyzer) system, dissociates the water using an electrolyzer operating at high temperature (1300 K) which receives its electrical energy from the fuel cell. The primary advantages of these cycles is that they are basically a no moving parts system, thus having the potential for long life and high reliability, and they have the potential for high thermal efficiency. Both cycles are shown to be classical heat engines with ideal efficiency close to Carnot cycle efficiency. The feasibility of constructing actual cycles is investigated by examining process irreversibilities and device efficiencies for the two types of cycles. The results show that while the processes and devices of the 2000 K TDS exceed current technology limits, the high temperature electrolyzer system appears to be a state-of-the-art technology development. The requirements for very high electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies are seen as determining the feasbility of the HTE system, and these high efficiency devices are currently being developed. It is concluded that a proof-of-concept HTE system experiment can and should be conducted.

  17. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad


    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  18. Thermal Properties and Phonon Spectral Characterization of Synthetic Boron Phosphide for High Thermal Conductivity Applications. (United States)

    Kang, Joon Sang; Wu, Huan; Hu, Yongjie


    Heat dissipation is an increasingly critical technological challenge in modern electronics and photonics as devices continue to shrink to the nanoscale. To address this challenge, high thermal conductivity materials that can efficiently dissipate heat from hot spots and improve device performance are urgently needed. Boron phosphide is a unique high thermal conductivity and refractory material with exceptional chemical inertness, hardness, and high thermal stability, which holds high promises for many practical applications. So far, however, challenges with boron phosphide synthesis and characterization have hampered the understanding of its fundamental properties and potential applications. Here, we describe a systematic thermal transport study based on a synergistic synthesis-experimental-modeling approach: we have chemically synthesized high-quality boron phosphide single crystals and measured their thermal conductivity as a record-high 460 W/mK at room temperature. Through nanoscale ballistic transport, we have, for the first time, mapped the phonon spectra of boron phosphide and experimentally measured its phonon mean free-path spectra with consideration of both natural and isotope-pure abundances. We have also measured the temperature- and size-dependent thermal conductivity and performed corresponding calculations by solving the three-dimensional and spectral-dependent phonon Boltzmann transport equation using the variance-reduced Monte Carlo method. The experimental results are in good agreement with that predicted by multiscale simulations and density functional theory, which together quantify the heat conduction through the phonon mode dependent scattering process. Our finding underscores the promise of boron phosphide as a high thermal conductivity material for a wide range of applications, including thermal management and energy regulation, and provides a detailed, microscopic-level understanding of the phonon spectra and thermal transport mechanisms of

  19. StreamThermal: A software package for calculating thermal metrics from stream temperature data (United States)

    Tsang, Yin-Phan; Infante, Dana M.; Stewart, Jana S.; Wang, Lizhu; Tingly, Ralph; Thornbrugh, Darren; Cooper, Arthur; Wesley, Daniel


    Improving quality and better availability of continuous stream temperature data allows natural resource managers, particularly in fisheries, to understand associations between different characteristics of stream thermal regimes and stream fishes. However, there is no convenient tool to efficiently characterize multiple metrics reflecting stream thermal regimes with the increasing amount of data. This article describes a software program packaged as a library in R to facilitate this process. With this freely-available package, users will be able to quickly summarize metrics that describe five categories of stream thermal regimes: magnitude, variability, frequency, timing, and rate of change. The installation and usage instruction of this package, the definition of calculated thermal metrics, as well as the output format from the package are described, along with an application showing the utility for multiple metrics. We believe this package can be widely utilized by interested stakeholders and greatly assist more studies in fisheries.

  20. Integration of Design, Thermal, Structural, and Optical Analysis, Including Thermal Animation (United States)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.


    In many industries there has recently been a concerted movement toward 'quality management' and the issue of how to accomplish work more efficiently. Part of this effort is focused on concurrent engineering; the idea of integrating the design and analysis processes so that they are not separate, sequential processes (often involving design rework due to analytical findings) but instead form an integrated system with smooth transfers of information. Presented herein are several specific examples of concurrent engineering methods being carried out at Langley Research Center (LaRC): integration of thermal, structural and optical analyses to predict changes in optical performance based on thermal and structural effects; integration of the CAD design process with thermal and structural analyses; and integration of analysis and presentation by animating the thermal response of a system as an active color map -- a highly effective visual indication of heat flow.

  1. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibbetson, James


    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873

  2. Advanced phase change composite by thermally annealed defect-free graphene for thermal energy storage. (United States)

    Xin, Guoqing; Sun, Hongtao; Scott, Spencer Michael; Yao, Tiankai; Lu, Fengyuan; Shao, Dali; Hu, Tao; Wang, Gongkai; Ran, Guang; Lian, Jie


    Organic phase change materials (PCMs) have been utilized as latent heat energy storage and release media for effective thermal management. A major challenge exists for organic PCMs in which their low thermal conductivity leads to a slow transient temperature response and reduced heat transfer efficiency. In this work, 2D thermally annealed defect-free graphene sheets (GSs) can be obtained upon high temperature annealing in removing defects and oxygen functional groups. As a result of greatly reduced phonon scattering centers for thermal transport, the incorporation of ultralight weight and defect free graphene applied as nanoscale additives into a phase change composite (PCC) drastically improve thermal conductivity and meanwhile minimize the reduction of heat of fusion. A high thermal conductivity of the defect-free graphene-PCC can be achieved up to 3.55 W/(m K) at a 10 wt % graphene loading. This represents an enhancement of over 600% as compared to pristine graphene-PCC without annealing at a comparable loading, and a 16-fold enhancement than the pure PCM (1-octadecanol). The defect-free graphene-PCC displays rapid temperature response and superior heat transfer capability as compared to the pristine graphene-PCC or pure PCM, enabling transformational thermal energy storage and management.

  3. Steady-state low thermal resistance characterization apparatus: The bulk thermal tester (United States)

    Burg, Brian R.; Kolly, Manuel; Blasakis, Nicolas; Gschwend, Dominic; Zürcher, Jonas; Brunschwiler, Thomas


    The reliability of microelectronic devices is largely dependent on electronic packaging, which includes heat removal. The appropriate packaging design therefore necessitates precise knowledge of the relevant material properties, including thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. Thin materials and high conductivity layers make their thermal characterization challenging. A steady state measurement technique is presented and evaluated with the purpose to characterize samples with a thermal resistance below 100 mm2 K/W. It is based on the heat flow meter bar approach made up by two copper blocks and relies exclusively on temperature measurements from thermocouples. The importance of thermocouple calibration is emphasized in order to obtain accurate temperature readings. An in depth error analysis, based on Gaussian error propagation, is carried out. An error sensitivity analysis highlights the importance of the precise knowledge of the thermal interface materials required for the measurements. Reference measurements on Mo samples reveal a measurement uncertainty in the range of 5% and most accurate measurements are obtained at high heat fluxes. Measurement techniques for homogeneous bulk samples, layered materials, and protruding cavity samples are discussed. Ultimately, a comprehensive overview of a steady state thermal characterization technique is provided, evaluating the accuracy of sample measurements with thermal resistances well below state of the art setups. Accurate characterization of materials used in heat removal applications, such as electronic packaging, will enable more efficient designs and ultimately contribute to energy savings.

  4. Solar-thermal conversion and thermal energy storage of graphene foam-based composites. (United States)

    Zhang, Lianbin; Li, Renyuan; Tang, Bo; Wang, Peng


    Among various utilizations of solar energy, solar-thermal conversion has recently gained renewed research interest due to its extremely high energy efficiency. However, one limiting factor common to all solar-based energy conversion technologies is the intermittent nature of solar irradiation, which makes them unable to stand-alone to satisfy the continuous energy need. Herein, we report a three-dimensional (3D) graphene foam and phase change material (PCM) composite for the seamlessly combined solar-thermal conversion and thermal storage for sustained energy release. The composite is obtained by infiltrating the 3D graphene foam with a commonly used PCM, paraffin wax. The high macroporosity and low density of the graphene foam allow for high weight fraction of the PCM to be incorporated, which enhances the heat storage capacity of the composite. The interconnected graphene sheets in the composite provide (1) the solar-thermal conversion capability, (2) high thermal conductivity and (3) form stability of the composite. Under light irradiation, the composite effectively collects and converts the light energy into thermal energy, and the converted thermal energy is stored in the PCM and released in an elongated period of time for sustained utilization. This study provides a promising route for sustainable utilization of solar energy.

  5. Solar-thermal conversion and thermal energy storage of graphene foam-based composite

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin


    Among various utilizations of solar energy, solar-thermal conversion has recently gained renewed research interest due to its extremely high energy efficiency. However, one limiting factor common to all solar-based energy conversion technologies is the intermittent nature of solar irradiation, which makes them unable to stand-alone to satisfy continuous energy need. Herein, we report a three-dimensional (3D) graphene foam and phase change material (PCM) composite for the seamlessly combined solar-thermal conversion and thermal storage for sustained energy release. The composite is obtained by infiltrating the 3D graphene foam with a commonly used PCM, paraffin wax. The high macroporosity and low density of the graphene foam allow for high weight fraction of the PCM to be incorporated, which enhances heat storage capacity of the composite. The interconnected graphene sheets in the composite provide (1) the solar-thermal conversion capability, (2) high thermal conductivity and (3) form stability of the composite. Under light irradiation, the composite effectively collects and converts the light energy into thermal energy, and the converted thermal energy is stored in the PCM and released in an elongated period of time for sustained utilization. This study provides a promising route for sustainable utilization of solar energy.

  6. Steady-state low thermal resistance characterization apparatus: The bulk thermal tester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burg, Brian R.; Kolly, Manuel; Blasakis, Nicolas; Gschwend, Dominic; Zürcher, Jonas; Brunschwiler, Thomas, E-mail: [IBM Research—Zurich, 8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland)


    The reliability of microelectronic devices is largely dependent on electronic packaging, which includes heat removal. The appropriate packaging design therefore necessitates precise knowledge of the relevant material properties, including thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. Thin materials and high conductivity layers make their thermal characterization challenging. A steady state measurement technique is presented and evaluated with the purpose to characterize samples with a thermal resistance below 100 mm{sup 2} K/W. It is based on the heat flow meter bar approach made up by two copper blocks and relies exclusively on temperature measurements from thermocouples. The importance of thermocouple calibration is emphasized in order to obtain accurate temperature readings. An in depth error analysis, based on Gaussian error propagation, is carried out. An error sensitivity analysis highlights the importance of the precise knowledge of the thermal interface materials required for the measurements. Reference measurements on Mo samples reveal a measurement uncertainty in the range of 5% and most accurate measurements are obtained at high heat fluxes. Measurement techniques for homogeneous bulk samples, layered materials, and protruding cavity samples are discussed. Ultimately, a comprehensive overview of a steady state thermal characterization technique is provided, evaluating the accuracy of sample measurements with thermal resistances well below state of the art setups. Accurate characterization of materials used in heat removal applications, such as electronic packaging, will enable more efficient designs and ultimately contribute to energy savings.

  7. Steady-state low thermal resistance characterization apparatus: The bulk thermal tester. (United States)

    Burg, Brian R; Kolly, Manuel; Blasakis, Nicolas; Gschwend, Dominic; Zürcher, Jonas; Brunschwiler, Thomas


    The reliability of microelectronic devices is largely dependent on electronic packaging, which includes heat removal. The appropriate packaging design therefore necessitates precise knowledge of the relevant material properties, including thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. Thin materials and high conductivity layers make their thermal characterization challenging. A steady state measurement technique is presented and evaluated with the purpose to characterize samples with a thermal resistance below 100 mm(2) K/W. It is based on the heat flow meter bar approach made up by two copper blocks and relies exclusively on temperature measurements from thermocouples. The importance of thermocouple calibration is emphasized in order to obtain accurate temperature readings. An in depth error analysis, based on Gaussian error propagation, is carried out. An error sensitivity analysis highlights the importance of the precise knowledge of the thermal interface materials required for the measurements. Reference measurements on Mo samples reveal a measurement uncertainty in the range of 5% and most accurate measurements are obtained at high heat fluxes. Measurement techniques for homogeneous bulk samples, layered materials, and protruding cavity samples are discussed. Ultimately, a comprehensive overview of a steady state thermal characterization technique is provided, evaluating the accuracy of sample measurements with thermal resistances well below state of the art setups. Accurate characterization of materials used in heat removal applications, such as electronic packaging, will enable more efficient designs and ultimately contribute to energy savings.

  8. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand


    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  9. New numerical model for thermal quenching mechanism in quartz based on two-stage thermal stimulation of thermoluminescence model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kadari


    Full Text Available The effect of thermal quenching plays an important role in the thermoluminescence (TL of quartz on which many applications of TL are based. The studies of the stability and kinetics of the 325 °C thermoluminescence peak in quartz are described by Wintle (1975, which show the occurrence of thermal quenching, the decrease in luminescence efficiency with rise in temperature. The thermal quenching of thermoluminescence in quartz was studied experimentally by several authors. The simulations work presented in the literature is based on the single-stage thermal stimulation model of thermoluminescence, in spite of that the mechanisms of this effect remain incomplete. This paper presents a new numerical model for thermal quenching in quartz, using the previously published two-stage thermal stimulation of thermoluminescence model.

  10. Thermal imaging in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Ogorevc


    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Body temperature monitoring is one of the oldest and still one of the most basic diagnostic methods in medicine. In recent years thermal imaging has been increasingly used in measurements of body temperature for diagnostic purposes. Thermal imaging is non-invasive, non-contact method for measuring surface body temperature. Method is quick, painless and patient is not exposed to ionizing radiation or any other body burden.Application of thermal imaging in medicine: Pathological conditions can be indicated as hyper- or hypothermic patterns in many cases. Thermal imaging is presented as a diagnostic method, which can detect such thermal anomalies. This article provides an overview of the thermal imaging applications in various fields of medicine. Thermal imaging has proven to be a suitable method for human febrile temperature screening, for the detection of sites of fractures and infections, a reliable diagnostic tool in the detection of breast cancer and determining the type of skin cancer tumour. It is useful in monitoring the course of a therapy after spinal cord injury, in the detection of food allergies and detecting complications at hemodialysis and is also very effective at the course of treatment of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. With thermal imaging is possible to determine the degrees of burns and early detection of osteomyelitis in diabetic foot phenomenon. The most common and the oldest application of thermal imaging in medicine is the field of rheumatology.Recommendations for use and standards: Essential performance of a thermal imaging camera, measurement method, preparation of a patient and environmental conditions are very important for proper interpretation of measurement results in medical applications of thermal imaging. Standard for screening thermographs was formed for the human febrile temperature screening application.Conclusion: Based on presented examples it is shown that thermal imaging can

  11. Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.; Scholtens, Brekke E.


    Efficient methods for characterizing thermal performance of materials under cryogenic and vacuum conditions have been developed. These methods provide thermal conductivity data on materials under actual-use conditions and are complementary to established methods. The actual-use environment of full temperature difference in combination with vacuum-pressure is essential for understanding insulation system performance. Test articles include solids, foams, powders, layered blankets, composite panels, and other materials. Test methodology and apparatus design for several insulation test cryostats are discussed. The measurement principle is liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimetry. Heat flux capability ranges from approximately 0.5 to 500 watts per square meter; corresponding apparent thermal conductivity values range from below 0.01 up to about 60 mW/m- K. Example data for different insulation materials are also presented. Upon further standardization work, these patented insulation test cryostats can be available to industry for a wide range of practical applications.

  12. Nanomembrane-Based, Thermal-Transport Biosensor for Living Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.


    Knowledge of materials\\' thermal-transport properties, conductivity and diffusivity, is crucial for several applications within areas of biology, material science and engineering. Specifically, a microsized, flexible, biologically integrated thermal transport sensor is beneficial to a plethora of applications, ranging across plants physiological ecology and thermal imaging and treatment of cancerous cells, to thermal dissipation in flexible semiconductors and thermoelectrics. Living cells pose extra challenges, due to their small volumes and irregular curvilinear shapes. Here a novel approach of simultaneously measuring thermal conductivity and diffusivity of different materials and its applicability to single cells is demonstrated. This technique is based on increasing phonon-boundary-scattering rate in nanomembranes, having extremely low flexural rigidities, to induce a considerable spectral dependence of the bandgap-emission over excitation-laser intensity. It is demonstrated that once in contact with organic or inorganic materials, the nanomembranes\\' emission spectrally shift based on the material\\'s thermal diffusivity and conductivity. This NM-based technique is further applied to differentiate between different types and subtypes of cancer cells, based on their thermal-transport properties. It is anticipated that this novel technique to enable an efficient single-cell thermal targeting, allow better modeling of cellular thermal distribution and enable novel diagnostic techniques based on variations of single-cell thermal-transport properties.

  13. Enhanced thermal conductivity of graphene nanoplatelets epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosinski Lukasz


    Full Text Available Efficient heat dissipation from modern electronic devices is a key issue for their proper performance. An important role in the assembly of electronic devices is played by polymers, due to their simple application and easiness of processing. The thermal conductivity of pure polymers is relatively low and addition of thermally conductive particles into polymer matrix is the method to enhance the overall thermal conductivity of the composite. The aim of the presented work is to examine a possibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of the filled epoxy resin systems, applicable for electrical insulation, by the use of composites filled with graphene nanoplatelets. It is remarkable that the addition of only 4 wt.% of graphene could lead to 132 % increase in thermal conductivity. In this study, several new aspects of graphene composites such as sedimentation effects or temperature dependence of thermal conductivity have been presented. The thermal conductivity results were also compared with the newest model. The obtained results show potential for application of the graphene nanocomposites for electrical insulation with enhanced thermal conductivity. This paper also presents and discusses the unique temperature dependencies of thermal conductivity in a wide temperature range, significant for full understanding thermal transport mechanisms.

  14. Thermal properties of nanofluids. (United States)

    Philip, John; Shima, P D


    Colloidal suspensions of fine nanomaterials in the size range of 1-100 nm in carrier fluids are known as nanofluids. For the last one decade, nanofluids have been a topic of intense research due to their enhanced thermal properties and possible heat transfer applications. Miniaturization and increased operating speeds of gadgets warranted the need for new and innovative cooling concepts for better performance. The low thermal conductivity of conventional heat transfer fluid has been a serious impediment for improving the performance and compactness of engineering equipments. Initial studies on thermal conductivity of suspensions with micrometer-sized particles encountered problems of rapid settling of particles, clogging of flow channels and increased pressure drop in the fluid. These problems are resolved by using dispersions of fine nanometer-sized particles. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical studies, it is still unclear whether the thermal conductivity enhancement in nanofluids is anomalous or within the predictions of effective medium theory. Further, many reports on thermal conductivity of nanofluids are conflicting due to the complex issues associated with the surface chemistry of nanofluids. This review provides an overview of recent advances in the field of nanofluids, especially the important material properties that affect the thermal properties of nanofluids and novel approaches to achieve extremely high thermal conductivities. The background information is also provided for beginners to better understand the subject. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme (United States)

    White, Alexander


    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on "sensible heat" storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  16. Thermalized axion inflation (United States)

    Ferreira, Ricardo Z.; Notari, Alessio


    We analyze the dynamics of inflationary models with a coupling of the inflaton phi to gauge fields of the form phi F tilde F/f, as in the case of axions. It is known that this leads to an instability, with exponential amplification of gauge fields, controlled by the parameter ξ= dot phi/(2fH), which can strongly affect the generation of cosmological perturbations and even the background. We show that scattering rates involving gauge fields can become larger than the expansion rate H, due to the very large occupation numbers, and create a thermal bath of particles of temperature T during inflation. In the thermal regime, energy is transferred to smaller scales, radically modifying the predictions of this scenario. We thus argue that previous constraints on ξ are alleviated. If the gauge fields have Standard Model interactions, which naturally provides reheating, they thermalize already at ξgtrsim2.9, before perturbativity constraints and also before backreaction takes place. In absence of SM interactions (i.e. for a dark photon), we find that gauge fields and inflaton perturbations thermalize if ξgtrsim3.4 however, observations require ξgtrsim6, which is above the perturbativity and backreaction bounds and so a dedicated study is required. After thermalization, though, the system should evolve non-trivially due to the competition between the instability and the gauge field thermal mass. If the thermal mass and the instabilities equilibrate, we expect an equilibrium temperature of Teq simeq ξ H/bar g where bar g is the effective gauge coupling. Finally, we estimate the spectrum of perturbations if phi is thermal and find that the tensor to scalar ratio is suppressed by H/(2T), if tensors do not thermalize.

  17. Carbon nanotube thermal interfaces and related applications (United States)

    Hodson, Stephen L.

    The development of thermal interface materials (TIMs) is necessitated by the temperature drop across interfacing materials arising from macro and microscopic irregularities of their surfaces that constricts heat through small contact regions as well as mismatches in their thermal properties. Similar to other types of TIMs, CNT TIMs alleviate the thermal resistance across the interface by thermally bridging two materials together with cylindrical, high-aspect ratio, and nominally vertical conducting elements. Within the community of TIM engineers, the vision driving the development of CNT TIMs was born from measurements that revealed impressively high thermal conductivities of individual CNTs. This vision was then projected to efforts focused on packing many individual CNTs on a single substrate that efficiently conduct heat in parallel and ultimately through many contact regions at CNT-to-substrate contacts. This thesis encompasses a comprehensive investigation of the viability of carbon nanotube based thermal interface materials (CNT TIMs) to efficiently conduct heat across two contacting materials. The efforts in this work were initially devoted to engaging CNT TIMs with an opposing substrate using two bonding techniques. Using palladium hexadecanethiolate, Pd(SC16H35)2 the CNT ends were bonded to an opposing substrate (one-sided interface) or opposing CNT array (two-sided interface) to enhance contact conductance while maintaining a compliant joint. The palladium weld is particularly attractive for its mechanical stability at high temperatures. The engagement of CNT TIMs with an opposing substrate was also achieved by inserting a solder foil between the CNT TIM and opposing substrate and subsequently raising the temperature of the interface above the eutectic point of the solder foil. This bonding technique creates a strong weld that not only reduces the thermal resistance significantly but also minimizes the change in thermal resistance with an applied

  18. Alternatives to eigenstate thermalization. (United States)

    Rigol, Marcos; Srednicki, Mark


    An isolated quantum many-body system in an initial pure state will come to thermal equilibrium if it satisfies the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH). We consider alternatives to ETH that have been proposed. We first show that von Neumann's quantum ergodic theorem relies on an assumption that is essentially equivalent to ETH. We also investigate whether, following a sudden quench, special classes of pure states can lead to thermal behavior in systems that do not obey ETH, namely, integrable systems. We find examples of this, but only for initial states that obeyed ETH before the quench.

  19. Thermal energy transformer (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.; Thiele, C. L. (Inventor)


    For use in combination with a heat engine, a thermal energy transformer is presented. It is comprised of a flux receiver having a first wall defining therein a radiation absorption cavity for converting solar flux to thermal energy, and a second wall defining an energy transfer wall for the heat engine. There is a heat pipe chamber interposed between the first and second walls having a working fluid disposed within the chamber and a wick lining the chamber for conducting the working fluid from the second wall to the first wall. Thermal energy is transferred from the radiation absorption cavity to the heat engine.

  20. Mathematical model for thermal solar collectors by using magnetohydrodynamic Maxwell nanofluid with slip conditions, thermal radiation and variable thermal conductivity (United States)

    Mahmood, Asif; Aziz, Asim; Jamshed, Wasim; Hussain, Sajid

    Solar energy is the cleanest, renewable and most abundant source of energy available on earth. The main use of solar energy is to heat and cool buildings, heat water and to generate electricity. There are two types of solar energy collection system, the photovoltaic systems and the solar thermal collectors. The efficiency of any solar thermal system depend on the thermophysical properties of the operating fluids and the geometry/length of the system in which fluid is flowing. In the present research a simplified mathematical model for the solar thermal collectors is considered in the form of non-uniform unsteady stretching surface. The flow is induced by a non-uniform stretching of the porous sheet and the uniform magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction to the flow. The non-Newtonian Maxwell fluid model is utilized for the working fluid along with slip boundary conditions. Moreover the high temperature effect of thermal radiation and temperature dependent thermal conductivity are also included in the present model. The mathematical formulation is carried out through a boundary layer approach and the numerical computations are carried out for cu-water and TiO2 -water nanofluids. Results are presented for the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number and the discussion is concluded on the effect of various governing parameters on the motion, temperature variation, velocity gradient and the rate of heat transfer at the boundary.

  1. Tailoring photonic metamaterial resonances for thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bermel Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Selective solar absorbers generally have limited effectiveness in unconcentrated sunlight, because of reradiation losses over a broad range of wavelengths and angles. However, metamaterials offer the potential to limit radiation exchange to a proscribed range of angles and wavelengths, which has the potential to dramatically boost performance. After globally optimizing one particular class of such designs, we find thermal transfer efficiencies of 78% at temperatures over 1,000°C, with overall system energy conversion efficiencies of 37%, exceeding the Shockley-Quiesser efficiency limit of 31% for photovoltaic conversion under unconcentrated sunlight. This represents a 250% increase in efficiency and 94% decrease in selective emitter area compared to a standard, angular-insensitive selective absorber. PACS: 42.70.Qs; 81.05.Xj; 78.67.Pt; 42.79.Ek

  2. Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)


    Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

  3. Thermal Runaway in Jammed Networks (United States)

    Lechman, Jeremy; Yarrington, Cole; Bolintineanu, Dan


    The study of thermal explosion has a long history. Names such as Semenov and Frank-Kamenetskii are associated with classical model descriptions under particular assumptions. In this talk we revisit this problem with particular focus on the latter's model for conduction dominated thermal transport and Arrenhius-type reaction chemistry. We extend this description to the case of inhomogeneous microstructure generated by packing mono-sized spheres via a well-defined ``Jamming'' protocol. With these material structures in hand, we recast the Frank-Kamenetskii problem into a reduced-order network form for conduction in particle packs. With this model we can efficiently investigate the variability of the time to ignition due to the random microstructure. Additionally, we propose a modal decomposition and stability analysis of the model akin to stability of linear systems. We highlight the physical insights this approach can give with respect to questions of material dependent performance variability. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Paradoxes of thermal radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, U [Department of Physics ' A Volta' , University of Pavia, Via A Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)], E-mail:


    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal behaviour of objects exposed to a solar-type flux of thermal radiation. It aims to clarify certain apparent inconsistencies between theory and observation, and to give a detailed exposition of some critical points that physics textbooks usually treat in an insufficient or incorrect way. In particular, the paper examines the equilibrium temperature reached by objects exposed to solar thermal radiation and the temperature difference between their illuminated and shaded sides. These problems are studied first by analysing the simple ideal case of an isolated object, subsequently by taking into account the thermal radiation emitted by the environment, and finally by considering also the heat exchange with the surrounding air. Some examples are developed and numerical data are provided. The topic is developed in a way that can be suitable for both undergraduate student and general physicist.

  5. Compliant thermal microactuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsmann, Jacques; Sigmund, Ole; Bouwstra, Siebe


    Two dimensional compliant metallic thermal microactuators are designed using topology optimisation, and microfabricated using rapid prototyping techniques. Structures are characterised using advanced image analysis, yielding a very high precision. Characterised structures behave in a way which can...

  6. Compliant thermal microactuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsmann, Jacques; Sigmund, Ole; Bouwstra, Siebe


    Two dimensional compliant metallic thermal microactuators are designed using topology optimisation, and microfabricated using rapid prototyping techniques. Structures are characterised using advanced image analysis, yielding a very high precision. Characterised structures behave in accordance...

  7. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, Jon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hurley, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonks, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gofryk, Krzysztof [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fielding, Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knight, Collin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Mitch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  8. Graphene thermal flux transistor. (United States)

    Shafranjuk, S E


    Insufficient flexibility of existing approaches to controlling the thermal transport in atomic monolayers limits their capability for use in many applications. Here, we examine the means of electrode doping to control the thermal flux Q due to phonons propagating along the atomic monolayer. We found that the frequency of the electron-restricted phonon scattering strongly depends on the concentration nC. of the electric charge carriers, established by the electric potentials applied to local gates. As a result of the electrode doping, nC is increased, causing a sharp rise in both the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, while the thermal conductivity tumbles. Therefore, the effect of the thermal transistor improves the figure of merit of nanoelectronic circuits.

  9. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.


    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  10. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  11. Thermal hyperbolic metamaterials. (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Jacob, Zubin


    We explore the near-field radiative thermal energy transfer properties of hyperbolic metamaterials. The presence of unique electromagnetic states in a broad bandwidth leads to super-planckian thermal energy transfer between metamaterials separated by a nano-gap. We consider practical phonon-polaritonic metamaterials for thermal engineering in the mid-infrared range and show that the effect exists in spite of the losses, absorption and finite unit cell size. For thermophotovoltaic energy conversion applications requiring energy transfer in the near-infrared range we introduce high temperature hyperbolic metamaterials based on plasmonic materials with a high melting point. Our work paves the way for practical high temperature radiative thermal energy transfer applications of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  12. Preparation of a Novel Water-based Acrylic Multi-Thermal Insulation Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang YE


    Full Text Available To efficiently improve the thermal insulation effect of coatings, a novel water-based acrylic multi-thermal insulation coating (multi-WATIC combined with thermal obstruction, echo, and radiation was prepared. The category and ratio of thermal insulation functional fillers are crucial. First, water-based acrylic thermal insulation coating (WATIC with single thermal insulation functional fillers was prepared, and the thermal insulation property tests were done. Thereafter, a novel multi-WATIC was prepared combined with the 3 thermal insulation functional fillers together, and the formula of the novel multi-WATIC was optimized based on single factor experiments by response surface methodology (RSM. Test results showed that multi-WATIC has excellent thermal insulation property, and the fitting result obtained by RSM is in good agreement with test data.DOI:

  13. Eliminating thermal violin spikes from LIGO noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamore, D. H.; Levin, Yuri


    We have developed a scheme for reducing LIGO suspension thermal noise close to violin-mode resonances. The idea is to monitor directly the thermally induced motion of a small portion of (a 'point' on) each suspension fiber, thereby recording the random forces driving the test-mass motion close to each violin-mode frequency. One can then suppress the thermal noise by optimally subtracting the recorded fiber motions from the measured motion of the test mass, i.e., from the LIGO output. The proposed method is a modification of an analogous but more technically difficult scheme by Braginsky, Levin and Vyatchanin for reducing broad-band suspension thermal noise. The efficiency of our method is limited by the sensitivity of the sensor used to monitor the fiber motion. If the sensor has no intrinsic noise (i.e. has unlimited sensitivity), then our method allows, in principle, a complete removal of violin spikes from the thermal-noise spectrum. We find that in LIGO-II interferometers, in order to suppress violin spikes below the shot-noise level, the intrinsic noise of the sensor must be less than {approx}2 x 10{sup -13} cm/Hz. This sensitivity is two orders of magnitude greater than that of currently available sensors.

  14. Ultrahigh Thermal Conductive yet Superflexible Graphene Films. (United States)

    Peng, Li; Xu, Zhen; Liu, Zheng; Guo, Yan; Li, Peng; Gao, Chao


    Electrical devices generate heat at work. The heat should be transferred away immediately by a thermal manager to keep proper functions, especially for high-frequency apparatuses. Besides high thermal conductivity (K), the thermal manager material requires good foldability for the next generation flexible electronics. Unfortunately, metals have satisfactory ductility but inferior K (≤429 W m(-1) K(-1) ), and highly thermal-conductive nonmetallic materials are generally brittle. Therefore, fabricating a foldable macroscopic material with a prominent K is still under challenge. This study solves the problem by folding atomic thin graphene into microfolds. The debris-free giant graphene sheets endow graphene film (GF) with a high K of 1940 ± 113 W m(-1) K(-1) . Simultaneously, the microfolds render GF superflexible with a high fracture elongation up to 16%, enabling it more than 6000 cycles of ultimate folding. The large-area multifunctional GFs can be easily integrated into high-power flexible devices for highly efficient thermal management. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Hot leptogenesis from thermal Dark Matter (United States)

    Bernal, Nicolás; Fong, Chee Sheng


    In this work, we investigate a scenario in which heavy Majorana Right-Handed Neutrinos (RHNs) are in thermal equilibrium with a dark sector with temperature higher than the Standard Model (SM) thermal bath. Specifically, we consider the scenario in which thermal Dark Matter (DM) abundance is fixed from the freeze-out of DM annihilations into RHNs. Due to the inert nature of the RHNs, we show that it is possible for the two sectors to remain thermally decoupled by having more than two generations of the RHNs. The hotter temperature implies higher abundances of DM and RHNs with the following consequences. For leptogenesis, an enhancement in efficiency up to a factor of 51.6 can be obtained, though a resonant enhancement of CP violation is still required due to an upper mass bound of about 4 TeV for the RHNs. For the DM, an enhanced annihilation cross section up to a factor of 51.6 is required to obtain the correct DM abundance. This scenario can be probed via indirect detection of DM annihilating into RHNs, which then decay into h ν, Z ν and W± lmp with an enhanced annihilation cross section above the typical thermal value.

  16. Vacuum evacuated thermal storage in Sengenthal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, B.; Hofbeck, K. [Georg-Simon-Ohm Hochschule Nuernberg (Germany). Fakultaet Allgemeinwissenschaften; Faulstich, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Rohstoff- und Energietechnologie


    This paper describes a vacuum insulated and stratified thermal hot water storage which will be built in Sengenthal in March 2011. The thermal storage is loaded with different types of renewable energy sources, especially firewood and solar thermal energy. With the high efficient tank it is possible to reduce the carbon dioxide emission by 90% and reduce the thermal losses of the storage by 80%. Within the project in Sengenthal the vacuum evacuated storage saves expectedly about 7.500 Euro fuel costs each year without regarding the advance in prices. This fact is caused by the substitution of a gas boiler by using the described tank as a buffer tank within a local heating plant which is covered by a firewood boiler. The concrete problem of the local heating plant was the fact that the power of the firewood boiler is too low to cover the demand of a new building. Without the described thermal storage with vacuum insulation there would be a need of an additional gas boiler. (orig.)

  17. ThermalTracker Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The software processes recorded thermal video and detects the flight tracks of birds and bats that passed through the camera's field of view. The output is a set of images that show complete flight tracks for any detections, with the direction of travel indicated and the thermal image of the animal delineated. A report of the descriptive features of each detected track is also output in the form of a comma-separated value text file.

  18. Thermal Anemometry Grid Sensor


    Martin Arlit; Eckhard Schleicher; Uwe Hampel


    A novel thermal anemometry grid sensor was developed for the simultaneous measurement of cross-sectional temperature and axial velocity distribution in a fluid flow. The sensor consists of a set of platinum resistors arranged in a regular grid. Each platinum resistor allows the simultaneous measurement of fluid temperature via electrical resistance and flow velocity via constant voltage thermal anemometry. Cross-sectional measurement was enabled by applying a special multiplexing-excitation s...

  19. Thermal conveyance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meador, J.T.


    The purpose of the evaluation is to characterize modern technology for long-distance, large-diameter, underground steam and high-temperature water (HTW) transport systems and for hot-water and chilled-water systems that distribute thermal energy within communities. Data on the status of existing systems have been compiled and compared with recommended design factors for fluid flow to aid in parameter selection for assessing performance in transporting and distributing thermal energy.

  20. Thermal properties examples


    Bantle, Michael


    Thermal properties of selected organic products were investigated using novel DSC technique and methods of determination. The report includes determination of freezing temperatures, glass transition temperatures, amount of ice, and end of freezing point, heat capacity and thermal conductivity for selected cases. One part of the experimental work was devoted to investigate the difference between oils extracted from organic and conventional salmon. The main aim of the investigation was to u...

  1. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Siegel, Robert


    Further expanding on the changes made to the fifth edition, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The book explains the fundamentals of radiative transfer, introduces the energy and radiative transfer equations, covers a variety of approaches used to gauge radiative heat exchange between different surfaces and structures, and provides solution techniques for solving the RTE.

  2. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  3. Local Thermal Insulating Materials For Thermal Energy Storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal insulation is one of the most important components of a thermal energy storage system. In this paper the thermal properties of selected potential local materials which can be used for high temperature insulation are presented. Thermal properties of seven different samples were measured. Samples consisted of: ...

  4. Effects of water and sawdust additives on thermal effusivity, thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of water and sawdust additives on the thermal effusivity (e), thermal conductivity (λ), and durability of cement-stabilized laterites were investigated. The thermal effusivity (e) and conductivity(λ) have direct influ-ence on heat transfer and thermal insulation in buildings, and the parameters were determined by hot ...

  5. Neutron scintillators with high detection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, T.; Katagiri, M. E-mail:; Tsutsui, N.; Imai, K.; Matsubayashi, M.; Sakasai, K


    We have developed three kinds of phosphor/neutron-converter scintillators aiming to increase the detection efficiency of the neutron imaging detectors. One is the ZnS:Ag/{sup 6}LiF (powder) scintillator, which contained {sup 6}LiF about twice in amount comparing to the commercial product (Bicron, BC-704) and painted in a sheet, and the 0.4-mm-thick scintillator sheet exhibited the detection efficiency of 43.5% for thermal neutrons. This value was improved {approx}1.5 times than that of BC-704. Another developed scintillator was a ZnS:Ag/{sup 10}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (powder), which contained {sup 10}B as a neutron converter. The scintillator was fabricated by sintering up to the temperature of 500 or 600 deg. C, and it exhibited the detection efficiency of 30% for thermal neutrons. Moreover, we developed ZnS:Ag/{sup 10}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass-scintillator, which was fabricated by increasing the amount of {sup 10}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to 70-90% of the constituents and by sintering the scintillator materials up to the temperature of 650 deg. C. The fabricated glass scintillators, which had a thickness of 0.9-1 mm, exhibited the detection efficiency of 20-40% for thermal neutrons.

  6. Aerogels for Thermal Insulation of Thermoelectric Devices (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Snyder, Jeffrey; Jones, Steven; Caillat, Thierry


    Silica aerogels have been shown to be attractive for use as thermal-insulation materials for thermoelectric devices. It is desirable to thermally insulate the legs of thermoelectric devices to suppress lateral heat leaks that degrade thermal efficiency. Aerogels offer not only high thermal- insulation effectiveness, but also a combination of other properties that are especially advantageous in thermoelectric- device applications. Aerogels are synthesized by means of sol-gel chemistry, which is ideal for casting insulation into place. As the scale of the devices to be insulated decreases, the castability from liquid solutions becomes increasingly advantageous: By virtue of castability, aerogel insulation can be made to encapsulate devices having any size from macroscopic down to nanoscopic and possibly having complex, three-dimensional shapes. Castable aerogels can permeate voids having characteristic dimensions as small as nanometers. Hence, practically all the void space surrounding the legs of thermoelectric devices could be filled with aerogel insulation, making the insulation highly effective. Because aerogels have the lowest densities of any known solid materials, they would add very little mass to the encapsulated devices. The thermal-conductivity values of aerogels are among the lowest reported for any material, even after taking account of the contributions of convection and radiation (in addition to true thermal conduction) to overall effective thermal conductivities. Even in ambient air, the contribution of convection to effective overall thermal conductivity of an aerogel is extremely low because of the highly tortuous nature of the flow paths through the porous aerogel structure. For applications that involve operating temperatures high enough to give rise to significant amounts of infrared radiation, opacifiers could be added to aerogels to reduce the radiative contributions to overall effective thermal conductivities. One example of an opacifier is

  7. Design of Modern Reactors for Synthesis of Thermally Expanded Graphite (United States)

    Strativnov, Eugene V.


    One of the most progressive trends in the development of modern science and technology is the creation of energy-efficient technologies for the synthesis of nanomaterials. Nanolayered graphite (thermally exfoliated graphite) is one of the key important nanomaterials of carbon origin. Due to its unique properties (chemical and thermal stability, ability to form without a binder, elasticity, etc.), it can be used as an effective absorber of organic substances and a material for seal manufacturing for such important industries as gas transportation and automobile. Thermally expanded graphite is a promising material for the hydrogen and nuclear energy industries. The development of thermally expanded graphite production is resisted by high specific energy consumption during its manufacturing and by some technological difficulties. Therefore, the creation of energy-efficient technology for its production is very promising.

  8. Power Electronics Thermal Management R&D: Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilbert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The objective for this project is to develop thermal management strategies to enable efficient and high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronic systems (e.g., emerging inverter and DC-DC converter). Device- and system-level thermal analyses are conducted to determine the thermal limitations of current automotive power modules under elevated device temperature conditions. Additionally, novel cooling concepts and material selection will be evaluated to enable high-temperature silicon and WBG devices in power electronics components. WBG devices (silicon carbide [SiC], gallium nitride [GaN]) promise to increase efficiency, but will be driven as hard as possible. This creates challenges for thermal management and reliability.

  9. Tunable Radiative Thermal Rectifiers : Toward Thermal Logical Circuits


    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Joulain, Karl; Drevillon, Jérémie


    International audience; Thermal rectification can be defined as an asymmetry in the heat flux when the temperature difference between two interacting thermal reservoirs is reversed. We present a thermal rectifier concept based on far-field radiative heat transfer. The device is composed of two opaque thermal baths 1 and 2 at temperatures T 1 and T 2 respectively and exchanging heat through thermal radiation. The two interacting bodies are made of spectrally selective photonic structures with ...

  10. Hypothermia Prevention During Surgery: Comparison Between Thermal Mattress And Thermal Blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Marques Moysés


    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the efficiency of the thermal blanket and thermal mattress in the prevention of hypothermia during surgery. Thirty-eight randomized patients were divided into two groups (G1 – thermal blanket and G2 - thermal mattress. The variables studied were: length of surgery, length of stay in the post-anesthetic care unit, period without using the device after thermal induction, transport time from the operating room to post-anesthetic care unit, intraoperative fluid infusion, surgery size, anesthetic technique, age, body mass index, esophageal, axillary and operating room temperature. In G2, length of surgery and starch infusion longer was higher (both p=0.03, but no hypothermia occurred. During the surgical anesthetic procedure, the axillary temperature was higher at 120 minutes (p=0.04, and esophageal temperature was higher at 120 (p=0.002 and 180 minutes (p=0.03 and at the end of the procedure (p=0.002. The thermal mattress was more effective in preventing hypothermia during surgery.

  11. Thermal-Insulation Properties of Multilayer Textile Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiak Małgorzata


    Full Text Available Thermal-insulation properties of textile materials play a significant role in material engineering of protective clothing. Thermal-insulation properties are very important from the point of view of thermal comfort of the clothing user as well as the protective efficiency against low or high temperature. Thermal protective clothing usually is a multilayer construction. Its thermal insulation is a resultant of a number of layers and their order, as well as the thermalinsulation properties of a single textile material creating particular layers. The aim of the presented work was to investigate the relationships between the thermal-insulation properties of single materials and multilayer textile packages composed of these materials. Measurement of the thermal-insulation properties of single and multilayer textile materials has been performed with the Alambeta. The following properties have been investigated: thermal conductivity, resistance and absorptivity. Investigated textile packages were composed of two, three and four layers made of woven and knitted fabrics, as well as nonwovens. On the basis of the obtained results an analysis has been carried out in order to assess the dependency of the resultant values of the thermal-insulation properties of multilayer packages on the appropriate values of particular components.

  12. Landsat and Thermal Infrared Imaging (United States)

    Arvidson, Terry; Barsi, Julia; Jhabvala, Murzy; Reuter, Dennis


    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the collection of thermal images by Landsat sensors already on orbit and to introduce the new thermal sensor to be launched in 2013. The chapter describes the thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) sensors, the calibration of their thermal bands, and the design and prelaunch calibration of the new thermal infrared sensor (TIRS).

  13. Solidification thermal parameters affecting the columnar-to-equiaxed transition


    Siqueira, CA; Cheung, N; Garcia, A


    Experiments were conducted to analyze the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) during the upward unsteady-state directional solidification of Al-Cu and Sn-Pb alloys, under different conditions of superheat and heat-transfer efficiencies at the metal/mold interface. A combined theoretical and experimental approach is developed to quantitatively determine the solidification thermal parameters: transient heat-transfer coefficients, tip growth rates, thermal gradients, and cooling rates. The obs...

  14. The future of thermal waste treatment; Zukunft der thermischen Restabfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, K.; Kern, M. (eds.); Tappen, I.; Weber-Wied, R. (comps.)


    Contents: State of the art of energy-efficient thermal waste treatment processes and practical examples; Regional and economic aspects; Licensing problems of thermal waste treatment plants. [German] Der vorliegende Tagungsband zum 2. Stassfurter Abfall- und Energieforum beschreibt den aktuellen Stand energieeffizienter thermischer Abfallbehandlungsmethoden an praktischen Beispielen und stellt den Bezug dieser Massnahmen zum raeumlich-wirtschaftlichen Umfeld dar. Darueber hinaus werden vergaberechtliche Fragen im Zusammenhang mit der europaweiten Ausschreibungspflicht fuer die Errichtung thermischer Abfallbehandlungsanlagen aufgezeigt und eroertert. (orig.)

  15. The advantage of selection of mineral thermal insulation materials with the structural properties for thermal insulation in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janžekovič Ines M.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of energy efficiency in Serbia. It gives a general overview of the energy losses and focuses on energy losses in buildings, which is recognized as one of the most problematic sectors as the energy losses concerns. By the very fact there is a need for more efficient implementation of measures to reduce energy losses through education and increased awareness of citizens about the proper ways of performing thermal protection of buildings. The paper points out the problems that arise when selecting the inadequate solutions of performing thermal insulation of buildings and suggests some solutions for the proper selection of materials for thermal insulation and in setting the appropriate requirements for thermal envelope for buildings.

  16. Slocum-TREC Thermal Glider (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Jones, Jack A.; Valdez, Thomas; Stirbl, Rob


    JPL is now teaming with Teledyne-Webb-Research to produce the first thermal glider that uses PCM for direct buoyancy control (not electronic pumps) and to produce all other required electricity. TWR has increased electrical production total efficiency from 0.45 to 0.61. JPL performed over 6000 cycles (2.4 years) of accelerated life testing of a piston accumulator. Design, fabrication, and testing will be performed in 2012, with deployment by Rutgers University in late 2012. The proposed goal of the ocean endurance tests was 3 months, but will be extended to at last 1 year. The piston accumulator was cycled over 6,000 times in a three-month period in order to simulate continuous glider life of about 2.4 years, The life test data suggests that we might accumulate roughly 0.5 cc of gas in the oil bladders for each cycle. PCM canisters will be fabricated with a compressed aluminum foam core, 7.5% foam selected (< 42 minutes to freeze anticipated) An Axi 5345/18 3-Phase AC alternator selected for power generation, 61% energy storage efficiency A 4-Cell A123 Energy Storage Systems battery selected for energy storage, buss voltage 14.4 to 12.5 V (13.2 V nominal) Glider deployment expected in late 2012

  17. Fabrication of Pillar-Structured Thermal Neutron Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, R J; Conway, A M; Reinhardt, C E; Graff, R T; Wang, T F; Deo, N; Cheung, C L


    Pillar detector is an innovative solid state device structure that leverages advanced semiconductor fabrication technology to produce a device for thermal neutron detection. State-of-the-art thermal neutron detectors have shortcomings in achieving simultaneously high efficiency, low operating voltage while maintaining adequate fieldability performance. By using a 3-dimensional silicon PIN diode pillar array filled with isotopic boron 10, ({sup 10}B) a high efficiency device is theoretically possible. The fabricated pillar structures reported in this work are composed of 2 {micro}m diameter silicon pillars with a 4 {micro}m pitch and pillar heights of 6 and 12 {micro}m. The pillar detector with a 12 {micro}m height achieved a thermal neutron detection efficiency of 7.3% at 2V.

  18. Power and Thermal Management of System-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei

    , are necessary at the chip design level. In this work, we investigate the power and thermal management of System-on- Chips (SoCs). Thermal analysis is performed in a SPICE simulation approach based on the electrical-thermal analogy. We investigate the impact of inter- connects on heat distribution......With greater integration of VLSI circuits, power consumption and power density have increased dramatically resulting in high chip temperatures and presenting a heat removal challenge. To effectively limit the high temperature inside a chip, thermal specific approaches, besides low power techniques...... of power efficient dividers on the energy consumption and thermal distribution within the FPU and the on-chip cache. We also characterize the temperature dependent static dissipation to evaluate the reduction in leakage obtained from the decrease in temperature....

  19. Thermal conductivity of disperse insulation materials and their mixtures (United States)

    Geža, V.; Jakovičs, A.; Gendelis, S.; Usiļonoks, I.; Timofejevs, J.


    Development of new, more efficient thermal insulation materials is a key to reduction of heat losses and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. Two innovative materials developed at Thermeko LLC are Izoprok and Izopearl. This research is devoted to experimental study of thermal insulation properties of both materials as well as their mixture. Results show that mixture of 40% Izoprok and 60% of Izopearl has lower thermal conductivity than pure materials. In this work, material thermal conductivity dependence temperature is also measured. Novel modelling approach is used to model spatial distribution of disperse insulation material. Computational fluid dynamics approach is also used to estimate role of different heat transfer phenomena in such porous mixture. Modelling results show that thermal convection plays small role in heat transfer despite large fraction of air within material pores.

  20. Thermal Propulsion Capture System Heat Exchanger Design (United States)

    Richard, Evan M.


    One of the biggest challenges of manned spaceflight beyond low earth orbit and the moon is harmful radiation that astronauts would be exposed to on their long journey to Mars and further destinations. Using nuclear energy has the potential to be a more effective means of propulsion compared to traditional chemical engines (higher specific impulse). An upper stage nuclear engine would allow astronauts to reach their destination faster and more fuel efficiently. Testing these engines poses engineering challenges due to the need to totally capture the engine exhaust. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System is a concept for cost effectively and safely testing Nuclear Thermal Engines. Nominally, hydrogen exhausted from the engine is not radioactive, but is treated as such in case of fuel element failure. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System involves injecting liquid oxygen to convert the hydrogen exhaust into steam. The steam is then cooled and condensed into liquid water to allow for storage. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System concept for ground testing of a nuclear powered engine involves capturing the engine exhaust to be cooled and condensed before being stored. The hydrogen exhaust is injected with liquid oxygen and burned to form steam. That steam must be cooled to saturation temperatures before being condensed into liquid water. A crossflow heat exchanger using water as a working fluid will be designed to accomplish this goal. Design a cross flow heat exchanger for the Thermal Propulsion Capture System testing which: Eliminates the need for water injection cooling, Cools steam from 5800 F to saturation temperature, and Is efficient and minimizes water requirement.


    Water temperature is a key driver of ecological processes in aquatic environments and can influence biological connectivity among riverine habitats. Riverine fish and other mobile aquatic species often must navigate a variety of physical barriers such as dams and culverts. For Pacific salmon, warm water can also pose barriers to migration, but the presence of patches of cooler water within rivers can serve as important refuges and potentially as stepping stones at times of day when temperatures are elsewhere unsuitable along the migratory corridor. Rising water temperature associated with climate change has become a major conservation concern for freshwater species and poses challenges for natural resource managers who must consider multiple factors in addition to uncertainty in climate predictions. Thermal refuges can contribute to watershed-scale thermal resilience and are increasingly considered in water quality regulations; however, monitoring such refuges and effectively operationalizing the concept for management has proved difficult. We review what is known about use of thermal refuges by coldwater fishes in natural systems, and then we present two case study applications in which we characterize thermal patterns in rivers (e.g., the frequency, size, spacing, and location of thermal patches) and consider effects on salmon in a management context. In our first example, we illustrate methods for quantifying spatial heterogeneity in stream temperatures at bi

  2. Thermal energy storage using phase change materials fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Amy S


    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the use of solid‐liquid phase change materials to store significant amounts of energy in the latent heat of fusion. The proper selection of materials for different applications is covered in detail, as is the use of high conductivity additives to enhance thermal diffusivity. Dr. Fleischer explores how applications of PCMS have expanded over the past 10 years to include the development of high efficiency building materials to reduce heating and cooling needs, smart material design for clothing, portable electronic systems thermal management, solar thermal power plant design and many others. Additional future research directions and challenges are also discussed.

  3. Printable, flexible and stretchable diamond for thermal management (United States)

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Dae Hyeong; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Carlisle, John


    Various heat-sinked components and methods of making heat-sinked components are disclosed where diamond in thermal contact with one or more heat-generating components are capable of dissipating heat, thereby providing thermally-regulated components. Thermally conductive diamond is provided in patterns capable of providing efficient and maximum heat transfer away from components that may be susceptible to damage by elevated temperatures. The devices and methods are used to cool flexible electronics, integrated circuits and other complex electronics that tend to generate significant heat. Also provided are methods of making printable diamond patterns that can be used in a range of devices and device components.

  4. Efficiency wages and bargaining


    Walsh, Frank


    I argue that in contrast to the literature to date efficiency wage and bargaining solutions will typically be independent. If the bargained wage satisfies the efficiency wage constraint efficiency wages are irrelevant. If it does not, typically we have the efficiency wage solution and bargaining is irrelevant.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitaytseva Elena Khalilovna


    Full Text Available Solar thermal system are its constituent elements with their connection between each other, thermal processes within them and also input/output data. The conjunction of external and internal factors determines the efficiency of solar thermal system. No excess heat as well as its deficiency displays us high level efficiency of system. The initial data for modeling of solar thermal systems functioning are dissimilar. Parameters of system’s equipment are constant. Solar radiation amount and water consumption are variable data. The more close initial data to reality, the more definite simulated result is. The main problem is in unpredictability of water consumption by the reason of daily regime and requirement of each user. In this way user is the most instable element of the system. In this study the input data for mathematical modeling of solar thermal systems was analyzed. The climatic databases and standard specifications of hot water demand were also analyzed. The operability estimation method for solar thermal systems with variable input data was offered. The extent of suitability of any solar thermal system can be defined by certain characteristic. The value of this characteristic displays energy accumulation process.

  6. A Study of the Effects of Altitude on Thermal Ice Protection System Performance (United States)

    Addy, Gene; Oleskiw, Myron; Broeren, Andy P.; Orchard, David


    Thermal ice protection systems use heat energy to prevent a dangerous buildup of ice on an aircraft. As aircraft become more efficient, less heat energy is available to operate a thermal ice protections system. This requires that thermal ice protection systems be designed to more exacting standards so as to more efficiently prevent a dangerous ice buildup without adversely affecting aircraft safety. While the effects of altitude have always beeing taked into account in the design of thermal ice protection systems, a better understanding of these effects is needed so as to enable more exact design, testing, and evaluation of these systems.

  7. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P


    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  8. Technical efficiency, efficiency change, technical progress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In May 2006, the Ministers of Health of all the countries on the African continent, at a special session of the African Union, undertook to institutionalise efficiency monitoring within their respective national health information management systems. The specific objectives of this study were: (i) to assess the technical efficiency of ...

  9. Concepts in Thermal Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Stephen J


    This modern introduction to thermal physics contains a step-by-step presentation of the key concepts. The text is copiously illustrated and each chapter contains several worked examples. - ;An understanding of thermal physics is crucial to much of modern physics, chemistry and engineering. This book provides a modern introduction to the main principles that are foundational to thermal physics, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics. The key concepts are carefully presented in a clear way, and new ideas are illustrated with copious worked examples as well as a description of the historical background to their discovery. Applications are presented to subjects as. diverse as stellar astrophysics, information and communication theory, condensed matter physics, and climate change. Each chapter concludes with detailed exercises. -

  10. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity (United States)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    After a Sect. 1.1 devoted to electrical conductivity and a section that deals with magnetic and dielectric losses ( 1.2 ), this chapter explores the theory of thermal conduction in solids. The examined categories of solids are: metals Sect. 1.3.2 , Dielectrics Sects. 1.3.3 and 1.3.4 and Nanocomposites Sect. 1.3.5 . In Sect. 1.3.6 the problem of thermal and electrical contact between materials is considered because contact resistance occurring at conductor joints in magnets or other high power applications can lead to undesirable electrical losses. At low temperature, thermal contact is also critical in the mounting of temperature sensors, where bad contacts can lead to erroneous results, in particular when superconductivity phenomena are involved.

  11. Thermal Responsive Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke


    alterations, their respective durability and copper’s architectural (visual and transformative) aesthetic qualities. Through the use of an evolutionary solver, the composite structure of the elements are organised to find the bending behaviour specified by and for the thermal environments. The entire model......The paper presents an architectural computational method and model, which, through additive and subtractive processes, create composite elements with bending behaviour based on thermal variations in the surrounding climatic environment. The present effort is focused on the manipulation of assembly...... composite layers and their relative layer lengths thereby embedding the merged material effect to create a responsive behavioural architectural envelope. Copper and polypropylene are used as base materials for the composite structure due to their high differences in thermal expansion, surface emissivity...

  12. Design without thermal bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltseva Irina


    Full Text Available The main focus of the article is on the quality design and implementation of the thermal insulation of buildings. Shells of buildings consist not only of conventional structures (wall, roof, ceiling, but also of edges, corners, joints and places of disruption of the outer thermal insulation shell integrity (due to through passage of pipelines, ventilation ducts and etc.. In all these places, heat losses are generally increased in comparison with conventional surfaces. Some of them are easily taken into account by calculation, using a special method proposed by the authors. Other thermal bridges due to unfavorable structural details can be avoided by observing the rules and recommendations that are classified and discussed in detail in this article.

  13. Thermodynamic Efficiency of Pumped Heat Electricity Storage (United States)

    Thess, André


    Pumped heat electricity storage (PHES) has been recently suggested as a potential solution to the large-scale energy storage problem. PHES requires neither underground caverns as compressed air energy storage (CAES) nor kilometer-sized water reservoirs like pumped hydrostorage and can therefore be constructed anywhere in the world. However, since no large PHES system exists yet, and theoretical predictions are scarce, the efficiency of such systems is unknown. Here we formulate a simple thermodynamic model that predicts the efficiency of PHES as a function of the temperature of the thermal energy storage at maximum output power. The resulting equation is free of adjustable parameters and nearly as simple as the well-known Carnot formula. Our theory predicts that for storage temperatures above 400°C PHES has a higher efficiency than existing CAES and that PHES can even compete with the efficiencies predicted for advanced-adiabatic CAES.

  14. Measures for energy efficiency improvement of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Ana V.


    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption in buildings causes the need to propose energy efficiency improvement measures. Urban planning in accordance with micro location conditions can lead to energy consumption reduction in buildings through the passive solar design. While satisfying the thermal comfort to the user space purpose, energy efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the architectural and construction parameters such as shape of the building, envelope structure and the percentage of glazing. The improvement of the proposed measures, including the use of renewable energy sources, can meet requirements of Directive 2010/31 / EU of 'nearly zero energy buildings'.

  15. Thermal Anemometry Grid Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Arlit


    Full Text Available A novel thermal anemometry grid sensor was developed for the simultaneous measurement of cross-sectional temperature and axial velocity distribution in a fluid flow. The sensor consists of a set of platinum resistors arranged in a regular grid. Each platinum resistor allows the simultaneous measurement of fluid temperature via electrical resistance and flow velocity via constant voltage thermal anemometry. Cross-sectional measurement was enabled by applying a special multiplexing-excitation scheme. In this paper, we present the design and characterization of a prototypical sensor for measurements in a range of very low velocities.

  16. Thermal management of batteries (United States)

    Gibbard, H. F.; Chen, C.-C.

    Control of the internal temperature during high rate discharge or charge can be a major design problem for large, high energy density battery systems. A systematic approach to the thermal management of such systems is described for different load profiles based on: thermodynamic calculations of internal heat generation; calorimetric measurements of heat flux; analytical and finite difference calculations of the internal temperature distribution; appropriate system designs for heat removal and temperature control. Examples are presented of thermal studies on large lead-acid batteries for electrical utility load levelling and nickel-zinc and lithium-iron sulphide batteries for electric vehicle propulsion.

  17. Thermal Anemometry Grid Sensor. (United States)

    Arlit, Martin; Schleicher, Eckhard; Hampel, Uwe


    A novel thermal anemometry grid sensor was developed for the simultaneous measurement of cross-sectional temperature and axial velocity distribution in a fluid flow. The sensor consists of a set of platinum resistors arranged in a regular grid. Each platinum resistor allows the simultaneous measurement of fluid temperature via electrical resistance and flow velocity via constant voltage thermal anemometry. Cross-sectional measurement was enabled by applying a special multiplexing-excitation scheme. In this paper, we present the design and characterization of a prototypical sensor for measurements in a range of very low velocities.

  18. No Thermalization without Correlations (United States)

    Zhdanov, Dmitry V.; Bondar, Denys I.; Seideman, Tamar


    The proof of the long-standing conjecture is presented that Markovian quantum master equations are at odds with quantum thermodynamics under conventional assumptions of fluctuation-dissipation theorems (implying a translation invariant dissipation). Specifically, except for identified systems, persistent system-bath correlations of at least one kind, spatial or temporal, are obligatory for thermalization. A systematic procedure is proposed to construct translation invariant bath models producing steady states that well approximate thermal states. A quantum optical scheme for the laboratory assessment of the developed procedure is outlined.

  19. Thermal Inactivation of Viruses (United States)


    S) VIKU3FS THERMAL RESISTANCE FOODS FLUIDS FOOD PROCESSING FOOD PRESERVATION CONTAMINATION HEAT VIRAL NUCLEIC ACIDS ao’.AjUsTNACT ( rm**— •**» It nmc +nmy m>d Id+atttr by M«o* fmbm) A review of the literature pertaining to thermal inactivation of virus in fluid media» fluid...vacuum packaged in cans or in flexible pouches , frozen to ca. -40 C, and irradiated within a temperature range of -40 C to -8 C to obtain the

  20. Thermal Network Modelling Handbook (United States)


    Thermal mathematical modelling is discussed in detail. A three-fold purpose was established: (1) to acquaint the new user with the terminology and concepts used in thermal mathematical modelling, (2) to present the more experienced and occasional user with quick formulas and methods for solving everyday problems, coupled with study cases which lend insight into the relationships that exist among the various solution techniques and parameters, and (3) to begin to catalog in an orderly fashion the common formulas which may be applied to automated conversational language techniques.