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Sample records for thermal dominant state

  1. Testing the single-state dominance hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, R. [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda. Juan Herrera 4, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno, O.; Moya de Guerra, E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sarriguren, P. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (CSIC), Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Šimkovic, F. [Comenius University, SK-842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faessler, A. [University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2013-12-30

    We present a theoretical analysis of the single-state dominance hypothesis for the two-neutrino double-beta decay process. The theoretical framework is a proton-neutron QRPA based on a deformed Hartree-Fock mean field with BCS pairing correlations. We focus on the decays of {sup 100}Mo, {sup 116}Cd and {sup 128}Te. We do not find clear evidences for single-state dominance within the present approach.

  2. Floating plant dominance as a stable state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Szabo, S.; Gragnani, A.; Nes, van E.H.; Rinaldi, S.; Kautsky, N.; Norberg, J.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Franken, R.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The authors demonstrate that floating-plant dominance can be a self-stabilizing ecosystem state, which may explain its notorious persistence in many situations. Their results, based on experiments, field data, and models (in Dutch ditches and Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe), represent evidence for

  3. State, power, and domination. An approach on its mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola García Reyes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an approach to the interactions between State and social actors, based on the analysis of three cases in which opportunistic or violent actors were associated with policies to promote growing of palm oil in Colombia. We move away from other approaches which describe these interactions as cooptation and suggest they can be better understood as processes associated with the exercise of indirect domination by the State. To this end, we present an overall framework of analysis, review relevant policies, offer a description of the cases, and propose three mechanisms of indirect state domination: privateers, friends and Gullivers.

  4. Equation of State and Duration to Radiation Domination after Inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanov, Kaloian D; Amin, Mustafa A

    2017-08-11

    We calculate the equation of state after inflation and provide an upper bound on the duration before radiation domination by taking the nonlinear dynamics of the fragmented inflaton field into account. A broad class of single-field inflationary models with observationally consistent flattening of the potential at a scale M away from the origin, V(ϕ)∝|ϕ|^{2n} near the origin, and where the couplings to other fields are ignored, is included in our analysis. We find that the equation of state parameter w→0 for n=1 and w→1/3 (after sufficient time) for n≳1. We calculate how the number of e-folds to radiation domination depends on both n and M when M∼m_{Pl}, whereas when M≪m_{Pl}, we find that the duration to radiation domination is negligible. Our results are explained in terms of a linear instability analysis in an expanding universe and scaling arguments, and are supported by 3+1-dimensional lattice simulations. We show that our upper bound on the postinflationary duration before radiation domination reduces the uncertainty in inflationary observables even when couplings to additional light fields are included (at least under the assumption of perturbative decay).

  5. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Leehwa

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that any multimode positive definite quadratic Hamiltonian can be transformed into a Hamiltonian of uncoupled harmonic oscillators. Based on this theorem, the multimode thermal squeezed coherent states are constructed in terms of density operators. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states is investigated via the characteristic function and it is shown that the decohered (reduced) states are still thermal squeezed coherent states in general.

  6. Germany versus the United States: Monetary Dominance in the Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Heong Quah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study inspects if there is greater convergence with Germany amongst the Eurozone founding members and if their relations with the hegemonic economy have been more symmetrical after “euroization”. The dimensions explored are those inspired by the optimum currency areas (OCA framework. To some extent, the findings could signify if real convergence has been significantly endogenous. At the same time, to assess the relative dominance of Germany, the features against Germany are compared to those against US. In addition, the paper also appraises some aspects of economic performance to check whether economic conditions across the states have improved and converged after unification. In some convergence aspects, findings suggest remarkable convergence with Germany and across the states but also relative convergence with US. On economic performance, results indicate substantial improvements in inflation and unemployment. Amongst the founding states, Ireland has idiosyncratically shown serious divergences in a number of the convergence and performance measures.

  7. Cratons' thermal state in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijuan; Zhang, Linyou

    2017-04-01

    There are three cratons in China, the North China Craton, the Tarim Craton, and the Yangtze Craton. Each craton has experienced complicated evolution histories since their formation, presents distinct thermal regime, and displays different stability. The Tarim Craton keeps its stability till now. The eastern North China Craton has been destructed in the Mesozoic, but the western North China Craton still stable. The stability of the Yangtze craton is a controversial issue, and the newest study believed it experienced similar tectono-thermal events as the North China Craton and has also been destructed in the Mesozoic. Several sedimentary basins developed in these cratons, and most of them are rich of oil-gas resources. These basins have different formation mechanism and experienced distinct tectono-thermal evolution, which resulted in individual thermal histories. The sedimentary basins have recorded distinct thermal evolution of these craton. We analyze the heat flow data, lithospheric thermal thickness, basins' thermal histories together with tectono-thermal events in these cratons, with aim to provide ideas for geodynamical mechanism on the craton stability/destruction, as well as implications for hydrocarbon generation.

  8. Winter thermal inversion and Trichodesmium dominance in north-western Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Biraja Kumar; Baliarsingh, Sanjiba Kumar; Lotliker, Aneesh A.; Parida, Chandanlal; Srichandan, Suchismita; Sahu, Kali Charan

    2017-06-01

    Clear thermal inversion was observed with cold surface waters ( 26°C) subsurface water in the coastal waters of the northwestern Bay of Bengal during winter (January 2015). Simultaneously, preponderance of the cyanobacteria Trichodesmium erythraeum was observed dominating the phytoplankton community with > 90% of total population, reaching maximum density of 9.8 × 105 filaments/L. Further, the Trichodesmium predominance was associated with low water temperature (< 24°C).

  9. Thermalization through unitary evolution of pure states

    OpenAIRE

    Skrøvseth, Stein Olav

    2006-01-01

    The unitary time evolution of a critical quantum spin chain with an impurity is calculated, and the entanglement evolution is shown. Moreover, we show that the reduced density matrix of a part of the chain evolves such that the fidelity of its spectrum is very high with respect to a state in thermal equilibrium. Hence, a thermal state occurs through unitary time evolution in a simple spin chain with impurity.

  10. The diversity in thermal behavior of novel catanionic cholates: The dominant effect of quaternary ammonium centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihelj, Tea, E-mail: tmihelj@irb.hr [Department of Physical Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, POB 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Vojta, Danijela [Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, POB 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Tomašić, Vlasta [Department of Physical Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, POB 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quaternary ammonium cholates characterized as crystal smectics at room temperature. • The domination of quaternary ammonium center seen through diverse thermal behavior. • Thermal changes of cholates keto–enol balance results with prevalence of one form. • Polynomial regression of isotropisation temperatures vs. dodecyl chain number. • Linear descending trend of isotropisation temperatures with higher headgroup number. - Abstract: The thermal behavior of novel catanionic compounds based on cholate anion was examined. The study explains the effect of the raising dodecyl chain number, as well as of the raising headgroup number in quaternary ammonium salts on their physico-chemical properties. The examined samples are crystal smectic phases at room temperature. Their rich and diverse thermal behavior is seen through polymorphic phase transitions, thermotropic mesomorphism of smectic nature and in some cases, kinetically managed crystallization that lasts in days. The changes of the cholates keto–enol isomer balance during thermal treatment are obtained. For both groups of samples temperatures of isotropisation and the thermodynamic parameters follow polynomial regression. Introduction of the new dodecyl chain leads to more ordered structure, while implementation the new headgroup leads to advanced polymer-like structure. The obtained results demonstrate an effort for getting and controlling the regularity of the physico-chemical and thermotropic properties for new compounds by systematic changing of cationic part of the molecule. These informations could provide in the future the easiest way for selection of potentially new and targeted applicable materials.

  11. Thermal management of solid state lighting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL), powered by Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), is an energy-efficient technology for lighting systems. In contrast to incandescent lights which obtain high efficiency at high temperatures, the highest efficiency of LEDs is reached at low temperatures. The thermal management in

  12. Fiscal Support for Education in American States: The "Parity-to-Dominance" View Examined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenneth K.

    1989-01-01

    At the aggregate level it appears that the state share of public school financing has shifted from parity to dominance. However, there is substantial diversity among states. Through a synthesis of the literature on fiscal federalism, political culture, state politics, and public policy, explanations are offered for this interstate divergence.…

  13. Influence of hydrological connectivity on water, carbon and thermal dynamics in peat-dominated catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Soulsby, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Extended peatlands are characteristic of many upland catchments. Peaty soils in riparian zones are an important interface between subsurface, terrestrial and aquatic environments that can regulate hydrological and biogeochemical fluxes between the hillslope and stream. This buffering potential is spatially and temporally variable due to both horizontal and vertical subsurface heterogeneity within the riparian area and is linked to soil type, hydrology and biogeochemical processes. It is important to understand how this heterogeneity affects the connectivity between landscapes and the river network and how this interacts with variability in hydrology, stream water quality and ecosystem function. Here, we present high resolution monitoring of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) and spatially distributed water temperature data from a 3.2 km2 upland watershed in the NE Scottish Highlands. This data will be coupled to understand how temporal and spatial variation in the connectivity of the riparian peat wetlands and the stream network modulates stream water chemistry and its thermal fingerprint. This potential to regulate water quality is deeply rooted in the different hydrological flow paths and stores water takes prior to entering stream flow. Initial results indicate a seasonally varying link between runoff and DOC, with lower base flows generally having lowest concentrations. Over the course of high-flow events, concentrations are high but decrease rapidly as the soils are depleted of DOC. Replenishment by subsurface biological processes occurs at short time scales in summer. Stream water temperature profiles show distinct differences in drivers with varying flow conditions; temperatures during low flows suggest strong atmospheric controls whereas during high flows an increasing influx of groundwater is evident. Furthermore, the dissolved oxygen data are used in modelling the stream metabolism to assess the eco-hydrological response

  14. High Power Solid State Retrofit Lamp Thermal Characterization and Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovenko, J.; Formanek, J.; Janicek, V.; Husak, M.; R. Werkhoven

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D thermal lamp model for further thermal optimization. Simulations are performed with ANSYS and CoventorWare software tools to compere different simulation approaches. Simulated thermal distribution ...

  15. Temperature and field-dependent transport measurements in continuously tunable tantalum oxide memristors expose the dominant state variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Catherine E.; Dávila, Noraica; Merced-Grafals, Emmanuelle J.; Lam, Si-Ty; Strachan, John Paul; Williams, R. Stanley

    2017-03-01

    Applications of memristor devices are quickly moving beyond computer memory to areas of analog and neuromorphic computation. These applications require the design of devices with different characteristics from binary memory, such as a large tunable range of conductance. A complete understanding of the conduction mechanisms and their corresponding state variable(s) is crucial for optimizing performance and designs in these applications. Here we present measurements of low bias I-V characteristics of 6 states in a Ta/ tantalum-oxide (TaOx)/Pt memristor spanning over 2 orders of magnitude in conductance and temperatures from 100 K to 500 K. Our measurements show that the 300 K device conduction is dominated by a temperature-insensitive current that varies with non-volatile memristor state, with an additional leakage contribution from a thermally-activated current channel that is nearly independent of the memristor state. We interpret these results with a parallel conduction model of Mott hopping and Schottky emission channels, fitting the voltage and temperature dependent experimental data for all memristor states with only two free parameters. The memristor conductance is linearly correlated with N, the density of electrons near EF participating in the Mott hopping conduction, revealing N to be the dominant state variable for low bias conduction in this system. Finally, we show that the Mott hopping sites can be ascribed to oxygen vacancies, where the local oxygen vacancy density responsible for critical hopping pathways controls the memristor conductance.

  16. Optical Tomography of Photon-Added Coherent States, Even/Odd Coherent States and Thermal States

    OpenAIRE

    Korennoy, Ya. A.; Man'ko, V I

    2011-01-01

    Explicit expressions for optical tomograms of the photon-added coherent states, even/odd photon-added coherent states and photon-added thermal states are given in terms of Hermite polynomials. Suggestions for experimental homodyne detection of the considered photon states are presented.

  17. On the Current Thermal State of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grott, M.; Breuer, D.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: The current thermal state of Mars is a fundamental unknown in Mars science. Although is has a huge influence on the planet's current geodynamic activity and controls the possibility for basal melting at the polar caps [1], constraints on this quantities are very scarce. This situation has lately been improved by the study of lithospheric deformation at the north polar cap [2] which constrained the current Martian elastic lithosphere thickness Te, an indirect measure of the temperatures in the planetary interior. Using radar sounding data obtained bySHARAD, the shallow radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, [2] found that the current Martian lithosphere is extremely stiff and Te is larger than 300 km today. This is surprising as this value is almost twice as large as previously estimated from theoretical considerations and flexure studies [3][1]. In order to be consistent with the planets thermal evolution, [2] argue that the amount of radioactive elements in the Martian interior needs to be subchondritic. This appears to be problematic as geochemical analysis of the SNC meteorites implies higher concentrations of radioactive elements [4]. Furthermore, if the concentration of heat producing elements is indeed reduced, the resulting low interior temperatures will inhibit partial mantle melting and magmatism. However, geological evidence suggests that Mars has been volcanically active in the recent past [5]. In order to address these inconsistencies, we reinvestigate the thermal evolution of Mars and examine its current thermal state for a wide range of initial condition using the current elastic thickness Te and the potential for partial mantle melting to constrain our models. Modeling: We investigate the thermal evolution of Mars by solving the energy balance equations for the core and mantle, treating the mantle energy transport by parametrized convection models. This is done using scaling laws for stagnant lid convection and our model is

  18. Pulsed pump: Thermal effects in solid state lasers under super ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 67; Issue 6. Pulsed ... Pulse pump; thermal effects; thermal lensing; phase shift; diode-pumped solid state laser; super-Gaussian pump profile. Abstract. Solid state laser (SSL) powers can be realistically scaled when pumped by a real, efficient and multimode pulse.

  19. Thermal state of the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the thermal state. In Ü2, we investigate quantum mechanical solution of the general time-dependent har- monic oscillator. The thermal state of the system is discussed in Ü3 on the basis of. Liouville–von Neumann approach. InÜ4, we will apply our theory for a special case which is the forced Caldirola–Kanai oscillator.

  20. Physical and thermal properties of mud-dominant sediment from the Joetsu Basin in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shusaku; Yamano, Makoto; Morita, Sumito; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Kataoka, Satsuki; Tanahashi, Manabu; Matsumoto, Ryo

    2017-12-01

    Physical properties (bulk density and porosity) and thermal properties (thermal conductivity, heat capacity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity) of sediment are crucial parameters for basin modeling. We measured these physical and thermal properties for mud-dominant sediment recovered from the Joetsu Basin, in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. To determine thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity, the dual-needle probe method was applied. Grain density and grain thermal properties for the mud-dominant sediment were estimated from the measured physical and thermal properties by applying existing models of physical and thermal properties of sediment. We suggest that the grain density, grain thermal conductivity, and grain thermal diffusivity depend on the sediment mineral composition. Conversely, the grain heat capacity and grain specific heat showed hardly any dependency on the mineral composition. We propose empirical formulae for the relationships between: thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity, and heat capacity and thermal conductivity for the sediment in the Joetsu Basin. These relationships are different from those for mud-dominant sediment in the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge presented in previous work, suggesting a difference in mineral composition, probably mainly in the amount of quartz, between the sediments in that area and the Joetsu Basin. Similar studies in several areas of sediments with various mineral compositions would enhance knowledge of the influence of mineral composition.

  1. Is the United States still dominant in the global pharmaceutical innovation network?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjia Hu

    Full Text Available The dramatic growth of research and development activities in the pharmaceutical sector in emerging economies raises the question of whether the United States still keeps its dominant role in the global pharmaceutical innovation landscape. This paper focuses on investigating the role of the United States in global pharmaceutical innovation, and differs from previous studies by shifting attention to a network analytic perspective to track the global distribution of pharmaceutical inventions. Our sample is composed of key patents covering all new drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration between 1996 and 2010. The results show that the United States still dominates in the global pharmaceutical innovation network, especially when it comes to essential core inventions. However, the United States shows a slightly decreasing prominence in the networks of either total new drugs or New Molecular Entity (NME drugs in the time period 2006-2010 as compared to previous time periods, revealed by subtle traces of network centralities.

  2. Interaction quench in the Holstein model: Thermalization crossover from electron- to phonon-dominated relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yuta; Werner, Philipp; Tsuji, Naoto; Aoki, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    We study the relaxation of the Holstein model after a sudden switch-on of the interaction by means of the nonequilibrium dynamical mean field theory, with the self-consistent Migdal approximation as an impurity solver. We show that there exists a qualitative change in the thermalization dynamics as the interaction is varied in the weak-coupling regime. On the weaker interaction side of this crossover, the phonon oscillations are damped more rapidly than the electron thermalization time scale, as determined from the relaxation of the electron momentum distribution function. On the stronger interaction side, the relaxation of the electrons becomes faster than the phonon damping. In this regime, despite long-lived phonon oscillations, a thermalized momentum distribution is realized temporarily. The origin of the "thermalization crossover" found here is traced back to different behaviors of the electron and phonon self-energies as a function of the electron-phonon coupling. In addition, the importance of the phonon dynamics is demonstrated by comparing the self-consistent Migdal results with those obtained with a simpler Hartree-Fock impurity solver that neglects the phonon self-energy. The latter scheme does not properly describe the evolution and thermalization of isolated electron-phonon systems.

  3. Thermal microwave states acting on a superconducting qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, Jan; Mueting, Miriam; Haeberlein, Max; Wulschner, Friedrich; Fischer, Michael; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Xie, Edwar; Eder, Peter; Deppe, Frank; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstrasse 4, 80799 Muenchen (Germany); Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the influence of broadband thermal states in the microwave regime on the coherence properties of a superconducting (transmon) qubit coupled to a transmission line resonator. We generate the thermal states inside the resonator by heating a 30 dB attenuator to emit blackbody radiation into a transmission line. In the absence of thermal fluctuations, the qubit coherence time is limited by relaxation. We find that the relaxation rate is almost unaffected by the presence of a thermal field inside the resonator. However, such states induce significant dephasing which increases quadratically with the number of thermal photons, whereas for a coherent population of the resonator, the increase shows a linear behavior. These results confirm the different photon statistics, being Poissonian for a coherent population and super-Poissonian for a thermal population of the resonator.

  4. Microscale solid-state thermal diodes enabling ambient temperature thermal circuits for energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Song

    2017-05-10

    Thermal diodes, or devices that transport thermal energy asymmetrically, analogous to electrical diodes, hold promise for thermal energy harvesting and conservation, as well as for phononics or information processing. The junction of a phase change material and phase invariant material can form a thermal diode; however, there are limited constituent materials available for a given target temperature, particularly near ambient. In this work, we demonstrate that a micro and nanoporous polystyrene foam can house a paraffin-based phase change material, fused to PMMA, to produce mechanically robust, solid-state thermal diodes capable of ambient operation with Young\\'s moduli larger than 11.5 MPa and 55.2 MPa above and below the melting transition point, respectively. Moreover, the composites show significant changes in thermal conductivity above and below the melting point of the constituent paraffin and rectification that is well-described by our previous theory and the Maxwell–Eucken model. Maximum thermal rectifications range from 1.18 to 1.34. We show that such devices perform reliably enough to operate in thermal diode bridges, dynamic thermal circuits capable of transforming oscillating temperature inputs into single polarity temperature differences – analogous to an electrical diode bridge with widespread implications for transient thermal energy harvesting and conservation. Overall, our approach yields mechanically robust, solid-state thermal diodes capable of engineering design from a mathematical model of phase change and thermal transport, with implications for energy harvesting.

  5. High Power Solid State Retrofit Lamp Thermal Characterization and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakovenko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL retrofit LED lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D thermal lamp model for further thermal optimization. Simulations are performed with ANSYS and CoventorWare software tools to compere different simulation approaches. Simulated thermal distribution has been validated with thermal measurement on a commercial 8W LED lamp. Materials parametric study has been carried out to discover problematic parts for heat transfer from power LEDs to ambient and future solutions are proposed. The objectives are to predict the thermal management by simulation of LED lamp, get more understanding in the effect of lamp shape and used materials in order to design more effective LED lamps and predict light quality, life time and reliability.

  6. Thermal degradation kinetics and solid state, temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Phenothiazine derivatives belong to a big group of aromatic compounds. These derivatives are substituted in ... Elemental analysis for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur were done using Vario EL III CHNS ... The aim of the kinetic study of thermal analysis data is to find out the most probable kinetic model which best ...

  7. State Paths of Clay Dominated Soils of Coastal Marshland: Scale Effect and Hydrodynamic Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo Radimy, Raymond; Dudoignon, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    The paper is focused on clayey dominated sediments of coastal marshes of the West Atlantic coast of France because of their homogeneity in texture and mineralogy, and their vertical structure evolution from dried and solid state in surface down to saturated plastic-to-liquid state in depth. It proposes a “review” of the complementary petrographic and hydromechanical data obtained on theses clay dominated soils and a method of calculation for the relationships prevailing between the hydro-mechanical properties and microstructure behaviour of the clay matrices. This tool, based on the shrinkage curve of the clay matrix is applied as aid to the hydraulic management of marshlands regarding the soil-plant interactions.

  8. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  9. High thermal stability of core-shell structures dominated by negative interface energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Ning; Jin, Bo; Zhao, Ming; Jiang, Qing

    2017-03-29

    Nanoscale core/shell structures are of interest in catalysis due to their superior catalytic properties. Here we investigated the thermal stability of the coherent core-shell structures in a thermodynamic way by considering the impact from the core with the bulk melting point Tm(∞) lower or higher than the shell. When a low-Tm(∞) core is adopted, core-shell melting induced by the melting depression of the core does not occur upon heating because of the superheating, although the melting depression of the core can be triggered ultimately by the preferential melting of the high-Tm(∞) shell for small cores. The superheating of the core is contributed by the negative solid-solid interface energy, while the depression is originated from the positive solid-liquid interface energy. Owing to the presence of the negative interface energy, moreover, the low-Tm(∞)-core structure possesses a low difference in thermal expansion between the core and the shell, high activation energy of outward atomic diffusion from the core to shell, and low heat capacity. This result is beneficial for the core-shell structure design for its application in catalysis.

  10. Thermal properties of three sub-states of quasi-single helicity states on RFX-mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Auriemma, F.; Fassina, A.; Lorenzini, R.; Terranova, D.; Momo, B.; Martines, E.

    2017-12-01

    Quasi-single helicity (QSH) state has been widely observed in reversed field pinch devices to sustain thermal structures, enclosed by steep temperature gradients interpreted as electron internal transport barriers (eITB). Within the evolution of a QSH cycle, three sub-states can be identified in the RFX-mod experiment, named DAx, SHAx n and SHAx w , where the subscript n and w indicate narrow and wide thermal structures, respectively. Such sub-states feature different magnetic topologies as well as different width of the thermal structures. This paper presents a characterization of the three QSH sub-states mainly devoted to describe the properties of the eITB temperature gradients. The analyses show a decreasing trend of the absolute value of the thermal gradient as the dominant mode increases. Further study on the thermal diffusivity confirms that these behaviors are essentially due to the local change of the heat transport. Besides, the thermal gradient in DAx and SHAx n groups shows an increasing trend with the decrease of secondary modes. Such behavior has been studied and it can be explained by stochastic transport in agreement with what found for SHAX w (Lorenzini et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 062004). As for SHAx w group, the thermal gradient suddenly decreases with respect to DAx and SHAx n values. This behavior can still be explained in the framework of stochastic transport considering the structure of magnetic perturbations at the location of thermal gradients (Lorenzini et al 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 185002). The total energy confinement time {τ }E has also been evaluated, adopting a more appropriate method. The result shows that the energy confinement time increases up to 40% from DAx to SHAx w .

  11. Effect of thermal state and thermal comfort on cycling performance in the heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulze, E.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Levels, K.; Casadio, J.R.; Plews, D.J.; Kliding, A.E.; Siegel, R.; Laursen, P.B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of thermal state and thermal comfort on cycling performance in the heat. Methods: Seven well-trained male triathletes completed 3 performance trials consisting of 60 min cycling at a fixed rating of perceived exertion (14) followed immediately by a 20-km time trial

  12. Internal Roof and Attic Thermal Radiation Control Retrofit Strategies for Cooling-Dominated Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahi, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Durschlag, H. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Elliott, D. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Hartsough, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Shukla, N. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Kosny, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This project evaluates the cooling energy savings and cost effectiveness of radiation control retrofit strategies for residential attics in U.S. cooling-dominated climates. Usually, in residential applications, radiation control retrofit strategies are applied below the roof deck or on top of the attic floor insulation. They offer an alternative option to the addition of conventional bulkinsulation such as fiberglass or cellulose insulation. Radiation control is a potentially low-cost energy efficiency retrofit strategy that does not require significant changes to existing homes. In this project, two groups of low-cost radiation control strategies were evaluated for southern U.S. applications. One uses a radiant barrier composed of two aluminum foils combined with an enclosedreflective air space and the second uses spray-applied interior radiation control coatings (IRCC).

  13. Internal Roof and Attic Thermal Radiation Control Retrofit Strategies for Cooling-Dominated Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahi, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Duraschlag, H. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Elliott, D. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Hartsough, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Shukla, N. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Kosny, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This project evaluates the cooling energy savings and cost effectiveness of radiation control retrofit strategies for residential attics in U.S. cooling-dominated climates. Usually, in residential applications, radiation control retrofit strategies are applied below the roof deck or on top of the attic floor insulation. They offer an alternative option to the addition of conventional bulk insulation such as fiberglass or cellulose insulation. Radiation control is a potentially low-cost energy efficiency retrofit strategy that does not require significant changes to existing homes. In this project, two groups of low-cost radiation control strategies were evaluated for southern U.S. applications. One uses a radiant barrier composed of two aluminum foils combined with an enclosed reflective air space and the second uses spray-applied interior radiation control coatings (IRCC).

  14. High resolution steady-state measurements of thermal contact resistance across thermal interface material junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzoha, Ronald J.; Donovan, Brian F.

    2017-09-01

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are meant to reduce the interfacial thermal resistance (RT) across bare metal contacts in commercial electronics packaging systems. However, there is little scientific consensus governing material design for optimized thermal performance. This is principally due to the inability to separate the effects of the intrinsic material thermal properties from the magnitude of heat flow crossing the TIM-substrate junction (RC). To date, efforts to isolate these effects using standard thermal interface material characterization techniques have not been successful. In this work, we develop an infrared thermography-based steady-state heat meter bar apparatus with a novel in situ thickness measurement system having 0.5 nm sensitivity. These in situ thickness measurements allow us to simultaneously determine RT and RC independently across current state-of-the-art TIMs with ±5% uncertainty. In this work, thermal pastes with bond line thicknesses ranging between 5 and 50 μ m are used to illustrate the capability of the apparatus to measure extremely thin materials that are expected to achieve relatively low values of RT. Results suggest that the contribution of the thermal contact resistance to the total thermal resistance can range from 5% to 80% for these materials. This finding highlights the need for appropriate metrology and independent measurements of RC and RT to better optimize thermal interface materials for a number of important electronics applications.

  15. Electrical Conductivity of Rocks and Dominant Charge Carriers. Part 1; Thermally Activated Positive Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann T.; Freund, Minoru M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevailing view in the geophysics community is that the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth's continental crust over the 5-35 km depth range can best be understood by assuming the presence of intergranular fluids and/or of intragranular carbon films. Based on single crystal studies of melt-grown MgO, magma-derived sanidine and anorthosite feldspars and upper mantle olivine, we present evidence for the presence of electronic charge carriers, which derive from peroxy defects that are introduced during cooling, under non-equilibrium conditions, through a redox conversion of pairs of solute hydroxyl arising from dissolution of H2O.The peroxy defects become thermally activated in a 2-step process, leading to the release of defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice. Known as positive holes and symbolized by h(dot), these electronic charge carriers are highly mobile. Chemically equivalent to O(-) in a matrix of O(2-) they are highly oxidizing. Being metastable they can exist in the matrix of minerals, which crystallized in highly reduced environments. The h(dot) are highly mobile. They appear to control the electrical conductivity of crustal rocks in much of the 5-35 km depth range.

  16. Uncultured archaea dominate in the thermal groundwater of Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardanov, Andrey V; Gumerov, Vadim M; Beletsky, Alexey V; Perevalova, Anna A; Karpov, Gennady A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Ravin, Nikolai V

    2011-05-01

    The thermoacidophilic microbial community inhabiting the groundwater with pH 4.0 and temperature 50°C at the East Thermal Field of Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, was examined using pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacteria comprise about 30% of microorganisms and are represented primarily by aerobic lithoautotrophs using the energy sources of volcanic origin--thermoacidophilic methanotrophs of the phylum Verrucomicrobia and Acidithiobacillus spp. oxidising metals and reduced sulfur compounds. More than 70% of microbial population in this habitat were represented by archaea, in majority affiliated with "uncultured" lineages. The most numerous group (39% of all archaea) represented a novel division in the phylum Euryarchaeota related to the order Thermoplasmatales. Another abundant group (33% of all archaea) was related to MCG1 lineage of the phylum Crenarchaeota, originally detected in the Yellowstone hot spring as the environmental clone pJP89. The organisms belonging to these two groups are widely spread in hydrothermal environments worldwide. These data indicate an important environmental role of these two archaeal groups and should stimulate the investigation of their metabolism by cultivation or metagenomic approaches.

  17. Initial state, parton saturation and thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L. [Physics Department, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Physics Department, China Central Normal University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-06-15

    The early time behavior of heavy ion collisions involves new forms of matter such as the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma. An area of much recent work involves attempts to understand the development of the Glasma into a thermalized Quark Gluon Plasma. The evolution of the Glasma involves turbulent Yang–Mills fields, and might also have condensates and non-trivial topological excitations. The proton–nucleus collision experiments at the LHC accelerator may provide unique insight into these forms of matter and the role they play at various times in hadronic collisions. I introduce and review aspects of these forms of matter as related to experiments at the LHC and RHIC accelerators.

  18. Steady-state low thermal resistance characterization apparatus: The bulk thermal tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Brian R.; Kolly, Manuel; Blasakis, Nicolas; Gschwend, Dominic; Zürcher, Jonas; Brunschwiler, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The reliability of microelectronic devices is largely dependent on electronic packaging, which includes heat removal. The appropriate packaging design therefore necessitates precise knowledge of the relevant material properties, including thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. Thin materials and high conductivity layers make their thermal characterization challenging. A steady state measurement technique is presented and evaluated with the purpose to characterize samples with a thermal resistance below 100 mm2 K/W. It is based on the heat flow meter bar approach made up by two copper blocks and relies exclusively on temperature measurements from thermocouples. The importance of thermocouple calibration is emphasized in order to obtain accurate temperature readings. An in depth error analysis, based on Gaussian error propagation, is carried out. An error sensitivity analysis highlights the importance of the precise knowledge of the thermal interface materials required for the measurements. Reference measurements on Mo samples reveal a measurement uncertainty in the range of 5% and most accurate measurements are obtained at high heat fluxes. Measurement techniques for homogeneous bulk samples, layered materials, and protruding cavity samples are discussed. Ultimately, a comprehensive overview of a steady state thermal characterization technique is provided, evaluating the accuracy of sample measurements with thermal resistances well below state of the art setups. Accurate characterization of materials used in heat removal applications, such as electronic packaging, will enable more efficient designs and ultimately contribute to energy savings.

  19. Steady-state low thermal resistance characterization apparatus: The bulk thermal tester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burg, Brian R.; Kolly, Manuel; Blasakis, Nicolas; Gschwend, Dominic; Zürcher, Jonas; Brunschwiler, Thomas, E-mail: tbr@zurich.ibm.com [IBM Research—Zurich, 8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    The reliability of microelectronic devices is largely dependent on electronic packaging, which includes heat removal. The appropriate packaging design therefore necessitates precise knowledge of the relevant material properties, including thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. Thin materials and high conductivity layers make their thermal characterization challenging. A steady state measurement technique is presented and evaluated with the purpose to characterize samples with a thermal resistance below 100 mm{sup 2} K/W. It is based on the heat flow meter bar approach made up by two copper blocks and relies exclusively on temperature measurements from thermocouples. The importance of thermocouple calibration is emphasized in order to obtain accurate temperature readings. An in depth error analysis, based on Gaussian error propagation, is carried out. An error sensitivity analysis highlights the importance of the precise knowledge of the thermal interface materials required for the measurements. Reference measurements on Mo samples reveal a measurement uncertainty in the range of 5% and most accurate measurements are obtained at high heat fluxes. Measurement techniques for homogeneous bulk samples, layered materials, and protruding cavity samples are discussed. Ultimately, a comprehensive overview of a steady state thermal characterization technique is provided, evaluating the accuracy of sample measurements with thermal resistances well below state of the art setups. Accurate characterization of materials used in heat removal applications, such as electronic packaging, will enable more efficient designs and ultimately contribute to energy savings.

  20. Steady-state low thermal resistance characterization apparatus: The bulk thermal tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Brian R; Kolly, Manuel; Blasakis, Nicolas; Gschwend, Dominic; Zürcher, Jonas; Brunschwiler, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The reliability of microelectronic devices is largely dependent on electronic packaging, which includes heat removal. The appropriate packaging design therefore necessitates precise knowledge of the relevant material properties, including thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. Thin materials and high conductivity layers make their thermal characterization challenging. A steady state measurement technique is presented and evaluated with the purpose to characterize samples with a thermal resistance below 100 mm(2) K/W. It is based on the heat flow meter bar approach made up by two copper blocks and relies exclusively on temperature measurements from thermocouples. The importance of thermocouple calibration is emphasized in order to obtain accurate temperature readings. An in depth error analysis, based on Gaussian error propagation, is carried out. An error sensitivity analysis highlights the importance of the precise knowledge of the thermal interface materials required for the measurements. Reference measurements on Mo samples reveal a measurement uncertainty in the range of 5% and most accurate measurements are obtained at high heat fluxes. Measurement techniques for homogeneous bulk samples, layered materials, and protruding cavity samples are discussed. Ultimately, a comprehensive overview of a steady state thermal characterization technique is provided, evaluating the accuracy of sample measurements with thermal resistances well below state of the art setups. Accurate characterization of materials used in heat removal applications, such as electronic packaging, will enable more efficient designs and ultimately contribute to energy savings.

  1. Dynamic thermal analysis of machines in running state

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lihui

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing complexity and dynamism in today’s machine design and development, more precise, robust and practical approaches and systems are needed to support machine design. Existing design methods treat the targeted machine as stationery. Analysis and simulation are mostly performed at the component level. Although there are some computer-aided engineering tools capable of motion analysis and vibration simulation etc., the machine itself is in the dry-run state. For effective machine design, understanding its thermal behaviours is crucial in achieving the desired performance in real situation. Dynamic Thermal Analysis of Machines in Running State presents a set of innovative solutions to dynamic thermal analysis of machines when they are put under actual working conditions. The objective is to better understand the thermal behaviours of a machine in real situation while at the design stage. The book has two major sections, with the first section presenting a broad-based review of the key areas of ...

  2. THERMAL COMFORT ZONES FORSTEADY-STATE ENERGY BALANCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer KAYNAKLI

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the various thermal comfort parameters including temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, metabolic activity and clothing resistance and their effect to each other are examined. The heat transfer equations given for steady state energy balance between body and environment and the empirical equations which give thermal comfort and physiological control mechanisms of body are used. According to the ASHRAE Standard 55-1992, an environment can be assumed comfortable while Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD is less than % 10. Considering this, thermal comfort zones in various conditions are studied and results are presented and discussed

  3. Thermal transport in topological-insulator-based superconducting hybrid structures with mixed singlet and triplet pairing states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Zhao, Yuan Yuan

    2017-11-01

    In the framework of the Bogoliubov–de Gennes equation, we investigate the thermal transport properties in topological-insulator-based superconducting hybrid structures with mixed spin-singlet and spin-triplet pairing states, and emphasize the different manifestations of the spin-singlet and spin-triplet pairing states in the thermal transport signatures. It is revealed that the temperature-dependent differential thermal conductance strongly depends on the components of the pairing state, and the negative differential thermal conductance only occurs in the spin-singlet pairing state dominated regime. It is also found that the thermal conductance is profoundly sensitive to the components of the pairing state. In the spin-singlet pairing state controlled regime, the thermal conductance obviously oscillates with the phase difference and junction length. With increasing the proportion of the spin-triplet pairing state, the oscillating characteristic of the thermal conductance fades out distinctly. These results suggest an alternative route for distinguishing the components of pairing states in topological-insulator-based superconducting hybrid structures.

  4. The thermal state of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Courtier, A.; Halama, R.; Jackson, M.; Larson, A. M.; Lawrence, J.; Wang, Z.; Warren, J.; Workman, R.; Xu, W.; Hirschmann, M.; Hart, S.; Stixrude, L.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Chen, W.

    2006-12-01

    There is currently a debate over whether the mantle source regions of "hotspots" are hotter than the ambient mantle. Some of the assumptions involved in estimating mantle temperatures have been questioned, leading to the suggestion that temperatures beneath "hotspots" may fall within the range of that beneath mid-ocean ridges. If "hotspots" are not hot, the existence of hot thermal plumes originating from a hot lower thermal boundary layer would be called into question. To shed light on this debate, we present independent estimates of the potential temperature of the mantle beneath ridges (ambient) and hotspots. Mantle potential temperatures were determined in four independent ways: 1) the calculated primary magma compositions of a global compilation of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and ocean island basalts (OIBs); 2) transition zone thicknesses from SS precursors and receiver functions, 3) comparisons between melting models and the average thickness of oceanic crust, and 4) the bathymetry of ridge axes. Primary magma compositions for both MORBs and OIBs were calculated by incremental equilibrium addition of olivine back into primitive magmas until an olivine composition of forsterite 90 was reached. The calculated primary composition was assumed to represent the aggregate of polybaric fractional melts. The MgO and SiO2 contents of the primary magma were then used with an established olivine thermometer and a new barometer based on silica activity to calculate, respectively, the average temperature and pressure of equilibration with the mantle. The average potential temperature of the Earth's mantle based on thermobarometry of MORBs is 1370 +/- 50 oC. Seismic estimates of the transition zone thickness coupled with a thermodynamic-based model on how the transition zone thickness varies as a function of temperature yield a similar mantle potential temperature. Finally, average mantle potential temperature inferred from the thickness of oceanic crust and seafloor

  5. Thermally excited multiplet states in macerals separated from bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckowski; Pilawa; Swiatkowska; Wojtowicz; Slowik; Lewandowski

    2000-07-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance searches of thermally excited multiplet states in macerals, exinite, vitrinite, and inertinite of Polish medium-rank coal (85.6 wt% C), were performed. Numerical analysis of lineshape indicates a multicomponent structure of the EPR spectra of macerals heated at 300 degrees and 650 degrees C. EPR spectra of exinite and vitrinite are a superposition of broad Gauss, broad Lorentz (Lorentz 1), and narrow Lorentz (Lorentz 3) lines. Two narrow Lorentz (Lorentz 2 and Lorentz 3) lines were observed in the resonance absorption curves of inertinite. The influence of the measuring temperature (100-300 K) on the EPR lines of the macerals was also studied. The experimentally obtained temperature dependence of the EPR line intensities were fitted by the theoretical functions characteristic for paramagnetic centers with ground doublet state (S = 12) and paramagnetic centers with thermally excited triplet (S = 1) and quadruplet (S = 32) states. Thermally excited multiplet states were found in exinite and vitrinite. Both paramagnetic centers with doublet ground state (S = 12) and paramagnetic centers with thermally excited states, probably quadruplet states (S = 32), exist in the group of paramagnetic centers of exinite and vitrinite with the broad Lorentz 1 lines. Intensities (I) of the broad Gauss and the narrow Lorentz 3 lines of exinite and vitrinite changes with temperature according to the Curie law (I = C/T). The existence of thermally excited multiplet states was not stated for inertinite. The two groups of paramagnetic centers of inertinite with Lorentz 2 and Lorentz 3 lines obey the Curie law. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Multiphoton subtracted thermal states: Description, preparation, and reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Yu. I.; Katamadze, K. G.; Avosopiants, G. V.; Belinsky, L. V.; Bogdanova, N. A.; Kalinkin, A. A.; Kulik, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    We present a study of optical quantum states generated by subtraction of photons from the thermal state. Some aspects of their photon number and quadrature distributions are discussed and checked experimentally. We demonstrate an original method of up to ten photon subtracted state preparation with use of just one single-photon detector. All the states were measured with use of a balanced homodyne technique and the corresponding density matrices were reconstructed. The fidelity between desired and reconstructed states exceeds 99 % . Combined with homodyne detection it can also be used for precise measurement of high-order autocorrelation functions.

  7. Exotic dense matter states pumped by relativistic laser plasma in the radiation dominant regime

    CERN Document Server

    Colgan, J; Jr.,; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, S A; Wagenaars, E; Booth, N; Brown, C R D; Culfa, O; Dance, R J; Evans, R G; Gray, R J; Hoarty, D J; Kaempfer, T; Lancaster, K L; McKenna, P; Rossall, A L; Skobelev, I Yu; Schulze, K S; Uschmann, I; Zhidkov, A G; Woolsey, N C

    2012-01-01

    The properties of high energy density plasma are under increasing scrutiny in recent years due to their importance to our understanding of stellar interiors, the cores of giant planets$^{1}$, and the properties of hot plasma in inertial confinement fusion devices$^2$. When matter is heated by X-rays, electrons in the inner shells are ionized before the valence electrons. Ionization from the inside out creates atoms or ions with empty internal electron shells, which are known as hollow atoms (or ions)$^{3,4,5}$. Recent advances in free-electron laser (FEL) technology$^{6,7,8,9}$ have made possible the creation of condensed matter consisting predominantly of hollow atoms. In this Letter, we demonstrate that such exotic states of matter, which are very far from equilibrium, can also be formed by more conventional optical laser technology when the laser intensity approaches the radiation dominant regime$^{10}$. Such photon-dominated systems are relevant to studies of photoionized plasmas found in active galactic ...

  8. Impaired inflammatory pain and thermal hyperalgesia in mice expressing neuron-specific dominant negative mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have implicated spinal extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs as mediators of nociceptive plasticity. These studies have utilized pharmacological inhibition of MEK to demonstrate a role for ERK signaling in pain, but this approach cannot distinguish between effects of ERK in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. The present studies were undertaken to test the specific role of neuronal ERK in formalin-induced inflammatory pain. Dominant negative MEK (DN MEK mutant mice in which MEK function is suppressed exclusively in neurons were tested in the formalin model of inflammatory pain. Results Formalin-induced second phase spontaneous pain behaviors as well as thermal hyperalgesia measured 1 – 3 hours post-formalin were significantly reduced in the DN MEK mice when compared to their wild type littermate controls. In addition, spinal ERK phosphorylation following formalin injection was significantly reduced in the DN MEK mice. This was not due to a reduction of the number of unmyelinated fibers in the periphery, since these were almost double the number observed in wild type controls. Further examination of the effects of suppression of MEK function on a downstream target of ERK phosphorylation, the A-type potassium channel, showed that the ERK-dependent modulation of the A-type currents is significantly reduced in neurons from DN MEK mice compared to littermate wild type controls. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the neuronal MEK-ERK pathway is indeed an important intracellular cascade that is associated with formalin-induced inflammatory pain and thermal hyperalgesia.

  9. Thermal state of the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Taking advantage of dynamical invariant operator, we derived quantum mechanical solution of general time-dependent harmonic oscillator. The uncertainty relation of the system is always larger than ħ=2 not only in number but also in the thermal state as expected. We used the diagonal elements of density operator ...

  10. Determination of dominant frequency of resting-state brain interaction within one functional system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jin; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Han; Biswal, Bharat B; Lu, Chun-Ming; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has revealed that the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) is frequency specific and functional system dependent. Determination of dominant frequency of RSFC (RSFC(df)) within a functional system, therefore, is of importance for further understanding the brain interaction and accurately assessing the RSFC within the system. Given the unique advantages over other imaging techniques, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) holds distinct merits for RSFC(df) determination. However, an obstacle that hinders fNIRS from potential RSFC(df) investigation is the interference of various global noises in fNIRS data which could bring spurious connectivity at the frequencies unrelated to spontaneous neural activity. In this study, we first quantitatively evaluated the interferences of multiple systemic physiological noises and the motion artifact by using simulated data. We then proposed a functional system dependent and frequency specific analysis method to solve the problem by introducing anatomical priori information on the functional system of interest. Both the simulated and real resting-state fNIRS experiments showed that the proposed method outperforms the traditional one by effectively eliminating the negative effects of the global noises and significantly improving the accuracy of the RSFC(df) estimation. The present study thus provides an effective approach to RSFC(df) determination for its further potential applications in basic and clinical neurosciences.

  11. Quantum non-equilibrium effects in rigidly-rotating thermal states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E. Ambruş

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on known analytic results, the thermal expectation value of the stress-energy tensor (SET operator for the massless Dirac field is analysed from a hydrodynamic perspective. Key to this analysis is the Landau decomposition of the SET, with the aid of which we find terms which are not present in the ideal SET predicted by kinetic theory. Moreover, the quantum corrections become dominant in the vicinity of the speed of light surface (SOL. While rigidly-rotating thermal states cannot be constructed for the Klein–Gordon field, we perform a similar analysis at the level of quantum corrections previously reported in the literature and we show that the Landau frame is well-defined only when the system is enclosed inside a boundary located inside or on the SOL. We discuss the relevance of these results for accretion disks around rapidly-rotating pulsars.

  12. Quantum non-equilibrium effects in rigidly-rotating thermal states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambruş, Victor E.

    2017-08-01

    Based on known analytic results, the thermal expectation value of the stress-energy tensor (SET) operator for the massless Dirac field is analysed from a hydrodynamic perspective. Key to this analysis is the Landau decomposition of the SET, with the aid of which we find terms which are not present in the ideal SET predicted by kinetic theory. Moreover, the quantum corrections become dominant in the vicinity of the speed of light surface (SOL). While rigidly-rotating thermal states cannot be constructed for the Klein-Gordon field, we perform a similar analysis at the level of quantum corrections previously reported in the literature and we show that the Landau frame is well-defined only when the system is enclosed inside a boundary located inside or on the SOL. We discuss the relevance of these results for accretion disks around rapidly-rotating pulsars.

  13. Thermal states of the Kitaev honeycomb model: Bures metric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasto, Damian F.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the Bures metric over the canonical thermal states for the Kitaev honeycomb mode. In this way the effects of finite temperature on topological phase transitions can be studied. Different regions in the parameter space of the model can be clearly identified in terms of different temperature scaling behavior of the Bures metric tensor. Furthermore, we show a simple relation between the metric elements and the crossover temperature between the quasicritical and the quasiclassical regions. These results extend the analysis of Zhao and Zhou [e-print arXiv:/0803.0814v1] and Yang [Phys. Rev. A 78, 012304 (2008)] to finite temperatures.

  14. Unitary equilibration after a quantum quench of a thermal state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, N. Tobias; Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Zanardi, Paolo

    2011-08-01

    In this work we investigate the equilibration dynamics after a sudden Hamiltonian quench of a quantum spin system initially prepared in a thermal state. To characterize the equilibration we evaluate the Loschmidt echo, a global measure for the degree of distinguishability between the initial and time-evolved quenched states. We present general results valid for small quenches and detailed analysis of the quantum XY chain. The result is that quantum criticality manifests, even at small but finite temperatures, in a universal double-peaked form of the echo statistics and poor equilibration for sufficiently relevant perturbations. In addition, for this model we find a tight lower bound on the Loschmidt echo in terms of the purity of the initial state and the more easily evaluated Hilbert-Schmidt inner product between initial and time-evolved quenched states. This bound allows us to relate the time-averaged Loschmidt echo with the purity of the time-averaged state, a quantity that has been shown to provide an upper bound on the variance of observables.

  15. Unitary equilibration after a quantum quench of a thermal state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, N. Tobias [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Venuti, Lorenzo Campos [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Viale Settimio Severo 65, I-10133 Torino (Italy); Zanardi, Paolo [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Viale Settimio Severo 65, I-10133 Torino (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    In this work we investigate the equilibration dynamics after a sudden Hamiltonian quench of a quantum spin system initially prepared in a thermal state. To characterize the equilibration we evaluate the Loschmidt echo, a global measure for the degree of distinguishability between the initial and time-evolved quenched states. We present general results valid for small quenches and detailed analysis of the quantum XY chain. The result is that quantum criticality manifests, even at small but finite temperatures, in a universal double-peaked form of the echo statistics and poor equilibration for sufficiently relevant perturbations. In addition, for this model we find a tight lower bound on the Loschmidt echo in terms of the purity of the initial state and the more easily evaluated Hilbert-Schmidt inner product between initial and time-evolved quenched states. This bound allows us to relate the time-averaged Loschmidt echo with the purity of the time-averaged state, a quantity that has been shown to provide an upper bound on the variance of observables.

  16. Thermal state of permafrost in North America: A contribution to the international polar year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S.L.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Lewkowicz, A.G.; Burn, C.R.; Allard, M.; Clow, G.D.; Yoshikawa, K.; Throop, J.

    2010-01-01

    A snapshot of the thermal state of permafrost in northern North America during the International Polar Year (IPY) was developed using ground temperature data collected from 350 boreholes. More than half these were established during IPY to enhance the network in sparsely monitored regions. The measurement sites span a diverse range of ecoclimatic and geological conditions across the continent and are at various elevations within the Cordillera. The ground temperatures within the discontinuous permafrost zone are generally above -3°C, and range down to -15°C in the continuous zone. Ground temperature envelopes vary according to substrate, with shallow depths of zero annual amplitude for peat and mineral soils, and much greater depths for bedrock. New monitoring sites in the mountains of southern and central Yukon suggest that permafrost may be limited in extent. In concert with regional air temperatures, permafrost has generally been warming across North America for the past several decades, as indicated by measurements from the western Arctic since the 1970s and from parts of eastern Canada since the early 1990s. The rates of ground warming have been variable, but are generally greater north of the treeline. Latent heat effects in the southern discontinuous zone dominate the permafrost thermal regime close to 0°C and allow permafrost to persist under a warming climate. Consequently, the spatial diversity of permafrost thermal conditions is decreasing over time.

  17. Heat flow in vapor dominated areas of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field: implications for the thermal budget of the Yellowstone Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Harris, Robert; Werner, Cynthia Anne; Murphy, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Characterizing the vigor of magmatic activity in Yellowstone requires knowledge of the mechanisms and rates of heat transport between magma and the ground surface. We present results from a heat flow study in two vapor dominated, acid-sulfate thermal areas in the Yellowstone Caldera, the 0.11 km2 Obsidian Pool Thermal Area (OPTA) and the 0.25 km2 Solfatara Plateau Thermal Area (SPTA). Conductive heat flux through a low permeability layer capping large vapor reservoirs is calculated from soil temperature measurements at >600 locations and from laboratory measurements of soil properties. The conductive heat output is 3.6 ± 0.4 MW and 7.5 ± 0.4 MW from the OPTA and the SPTA, respectively. The advective heat output from soils is 1.3 ± 0.3 MW and 1.2 ± 0.3 MW from the OPTA and the SPTA, respectively and the heat output from thermal pools in the OPTA is 6.8 ± 1.4 MW. These estimates result in a total heat output of 11.8 ± 1.4 MW and 8.8 ± 0.4 MW from OPTA and SPTA, respectively. Focused zones of high heat flux in both thermal areas are roughly aligned with regional faults suggesting that faults in both areas serve as conduits for the rising acid vapor. Extrapolation of the average heat flux from the OPTA (103 ± 2 W·m−2) and SPTA (35 ± 3 W·m−2) to the ~35 km2 of vapor dominated areas in Yellowstone yields 3.6 and 1.2 GW, respectively, which is less than the total heat output transported by steam from the Yellowstone Caldera as estimated by the chloride inventory method (4.0 to 8.0 GW).

  18. Phytoplankton abundance, dominance and coexistence in an eutrophic reservoir in the state of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulliari A. S. T. Lira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the phytoplankton abundance, dominance and co-existence relationships in the eutrophic Carpina reservoir, Pernambuco, Brazil. Sampling was carried out at six different depths bimonthly at a single reservoir spanning two climatic periods: dry season (January, September, and November 2006 and rainy season (March, May, and July 2006. Density, abundance, dominance, specific diversity and equitability of the community were determined, along with chlorophyll a, and physical and chemical variables of the environment. Eight species were considered abundant, and their densities corresponded to more than 90% of the total phytoplankton community quantified. Cyanobacteria represented more than 80% of this density. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was the only dominant taxon in the dry season, and was co-dominant in the rainy season. C. raciborskii, Planktothrix agardhii and Geitlerinema amphibium had the greatest densities and lowest vertical variation coefficients. The statistical analysis indicated relationships with vertical and seasonal variations in the phytoplankton community and the following variables: total dissolved solids, water temperature, electrical conductivity and pH. The changes in the environmental variables were discrete and regulated by the establishment of precipitation however, they were able to promote vertical and seasonal instability in the structure of the phytoplankton community.O presente estudo remete às relações de abundância, dominância e co-existência fitoplanctônica no reservatório eutrófico de Carpina, Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram realizadas amostragens bimensalmente, em seis profundidades, em um único ponto do reservatório, contemplando dois períodos sazonais: seco (janeiro, setembro e novembro/2006 e chuvoso (março, maio e julho/2006. A densidade, abundância, dominância, diversidade específica e equitabilidade foram determinadas, além da clorofila a e algumas variáveis físicas e qu

  19. Resource theory of quantum states out of thermal equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fernando G S L; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Renes, Joseph M; Spekkens, Robert W

    2013-12-20

    The ideas of thermodynamics have proved fruitful in the setting of quantum information theory, in particular the notion that when the allowed transformations of a system are restricted, certain states of the system become useful resources with which one can prepare previously inaccessible states. The theory of entanglement is perhaps the best-known and most well-understood resource theory in this sense. Here, we return to the basic questions of thermodynamics using the formalism of resource theories developed in quantum information theory and show that the free energy of thermodynamics emerges naturally from the resource theory of energy-preserving transformations. Specifically, the free energy quantifies the amount of useful work which can be extracted from asymptotically many copies of a quantum system when using only reversible energy-preserving transformations and a thermal bath at fixed temperature. The free energy also quantifies the rate at which resource states can be reversibly interconverted asymptotically, provided that a sublinear amount of coherent superposition over energy levels is available, a situation analogous to the sublinear amount of classical communication required for entanglement dilution.

  20. Direct observation of surface-state thermal oscillations in SmB6 oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Brian; Stern, Alex; Efimkin, Dmitry K.; Fisk, Zachary; Xia, Jing

    2018-01-01

    SmB6 is a mixed valence Kondo insulator that exhibits a sharp increase in resistance following an activated behavior that levels off and saturates below 4 K. This behavior can be explained by the proposal of SmB6 representing a new state of matter, a topological Kondo insulator, in which a Kondo gap is developed, and topologically protected surface conduction dominates low-temperature transport. Exploiting its nonlinear dynamics, a tunable SmB6 oscillator device was recently demonstrated, where a small dc current generates large oscillating voltages at frequencies from a few Hz to hundreds of MHz. This behavior was explained by a theoretical model describing the thermal and electronic dynamics of coupled surface and bulk states. However, a crucial aspect of this model, the predicted temperature oscillation in the surface state, has not been experimentally observed to date. This is largely due to the technical difficulty of detecting an oscillating temperature of the very thin surface state. Here we report direct measurements of the time-dependent surface-state temperature in SmB6 with a RuO2 microthermometer. Our results agree quantitatively with the theoretically simulated temperature waveform, and hence support the validity of the oscillator model, which will provide accurate theoretical guidance for developing future SmB6 oscillators at higher frequencies.

  1. Healthy lifestyle as contemporary dominant of state youth policy in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Khozhylo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with actual issue of healthy lifestyle promotion as component of native state youth policy. The review of main legislative and regulatory legal acts on healthy lifestyle promotion of Ukraine is conducted. The main focus is on analysis of perspective regulatory legal acts that regulate activities on healthy lifestyle promotion and realization at the context of execution of international liabilities of Ukraine. Structure of program provision of international liabilities execution on healthy lifestyle promotion and realization in youth environment by Ukrainian state at the context of legal, organizational, financial and social mechanisms of public administration is thoroughly analyzed.

  2. Separation of Church and Welfare State: Dominant State Conceptions and the Financing of Churches in Postwar Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, M.

    Three decades ago the Dutch state terminated its last direct financial ties with the churches. “The silver cords,” as one MP called the payments to the churches in 1983, “have been ended with a golden handshake, and I hope the state will never again establish any galling bonds with the church.” 1

  3. Near-surface seismic velocity changes in a salt-dominated environment due to shaking and thermal stressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tom; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Kind, Rainer; Asch, Günter

    2014-05-01

    We report on results from a seismic station of the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) showing a superior sensitivity of seismic velocity changes in the surrounding medium to shaking and temperature. 5 years of daily autocorrelations of the IPOC network are analyzed with passive image interferometry. Due to the particular geological conditions we observe a high sensitivity of the medium around the station near Patache (PATCX) resulting in annual periodic velocity variations and temporary velocity reductions induced by ground shaking. We observe a linear relationship between the amplitude of the velocity reductions and the peak ground acceleration (PGA) of nearby earthquakes at station PATCX. Although velocity reductions are also observed at other stations of the IPOC array for the Mw 7.7 Tocopilla earthquake a clear relationship between the PGA of this earthquake and the induced velocity reductions at the different stations is not visible. Furthermore, we observe velocity variations with an annual and daily period. We present different arguments that these periodic changes are caused by variations of the atmospheric temperature. In this context we construct a model that starts at observed temperature variations and evaluates thermal stresses induced by the temperature gradients. Using radiative transfer based sensitivity kernels and third order elastic constants we relate the distribution of thermal stress in the subsurface to observable time shifts of coda waves. The model is able to reproduce the major features confirming that stress changes in the subsurface can be detected with noise based monitoring.

  4. Dominant Indicators of Bank Crises: Comparative Analysis for States with Different Levels of Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Vladislav I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to identification of common and distinctive regularities of development of banking systems with different levels of development of economy through study of the most important macro-economic and financial indicators. The article uses instruments of the applied statistics. The study is based on comparison of mean values of indicators in two groups of countries (countries with a high level of income and countries with a medium level of income, each of which is divided into two sub-groups based on whether there was banking crisis in 2008 or not. In the result of the study the article shows that there are both common and distinctive features of development of banking systems of countries with different levels of economic development. Thus, a typical scenario, characteristic for countries with developed economy that had banking crisis in 2008, includes availability of a relatively large-scale crediting of the economy under conditions of relatively low rates of economic growth and close connections of the national banking systems with banking systems of other countries. Development of banking systems of developing countries during the pre-crisis period is characterised with the following specific features: relatively high rates of growth of scales of crediting of the economy and high rates of economic growth under conditions of use of significant volumes of resources, borrowed in financial markets, and close connection of the national banking systems with banking systems of other countries. The study allows a more efficient use of experience of states with developed economy, since the described results give a possibility to adjust experience of other states, taking into account characteristic features of banking systems of developing countries. Also the study identified states, experience of which should be studied. The conducted analysis of interrelations of indicators could be used for building models of assessment of

  5. A novel mechanism for red emission carbon dots: hydrogen bond dominated molecular states emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxiang; Zhu, Jinyang; Zhai, Yue; Wang, He; Bai, Xue; Dong, Biao; Wang, Haiyu; Song, Hongwei

    2017-09-14

    Carbon dots (CDs) have emerged as novel fluorescent probes due to their remarkable optical properties; however, red emission is still rare, has a relatively low efficiency, and its mechanism remains ambiguous. Herein, relatively efficient red-emission CDs based on p-phenylenediamine were prepared through various solvothermal means, where the highest quantum yield approached 41.1% in n-amyl alcohol, which was the most efficient quantum yield reported to date. Various structural characterizations were performed and confirmed that the red emission originated from the molecular states consisting of a nitrogen-containing organic fluorophore. The CDs were dispersed in different organic solvents and showed tunable emission, evolving from green to orange-red in aprotic solvents and a red emission in protic solvents. Further solvent correlation studies indicated that the hydrogen bond effect between the CDs and solvents was the main mechanism leading to the spectral shift. Accordingly, solid-state luminescent CDs-polymers were fabricated, which also demonstrated continuously tunable emission properties. This work opens a new window for recognizing the generation of tunable and red-emission CDs.

  6. Thermal Environment Evaluation in Commercial Kitchens of United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The differences between type (fast food, dining, etc.) and climatic zone can have an influence on the environment conditions...... and on the employees´ perception of kitchens thermal conditions. Moreover, size and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., complicate further an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in kitchens. The on field physical measurements together with the occupants´ feedback is the effective way...... of defining the values of thermal comfort parameters in kitchens. It can also help to evaluate if the standardized methods are applicable for such non-uniform environment, like commercial kitchens. By using an established method and procedure for evaluating the indoor thermal comfort in commercial kitchens...

  7. Volcanic Infillings of Large Basins on Mercury as Indicators of Mantle Thermal State and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovan, Sebastiano; Tosi, Nicola; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Ruedas, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The crust of Mercury is mostly the cumulative result of partial melting in the mantle associated with solid-state convection [1]. The details of how the surface composition represents the result of dynamical processes in the interior are difficult to elucidate. Explanations for the observed geochemically varied surface include a heterogeneous mantle, the effects of ancient giant impacts, an evolving mantle composition, or a combination of these processes [e.g., 2]. Here we explore the effects of large impacts on mantle dynamics and associated melt production. With the convection code GAIA we compute thermal evolution histories of Mercury compatible with the expected amount of heat producing elements in the mantle and with the crustal thickness inferred from gravity and topography data. We estimate the thermal anomalies in the mantle generated by large impacts using scaling laws [3]. Impactors have a velocity of 42 km/s and an impact angle of 45°, as appropriate for Mercury [4]. Their size is varied in order to produce basins with diameters in the range from 715 km (Rembrandt) to 1550 km (Caloris). Depending on the timing of the impact, the melt erupting in the basin interior is a combination of convective melt generated at depth and shallow melt resulting from shallow impact-induced convective currents. The volcanic infillings following an impact happening early in the evolution of the planet, when convection is still vigorous, are dominated by convective melt. Later in the evolution, the erupted melt shows the signature of the impact-induced shallow melt. We show that the properties of melt sheets within the young large basins Caloris and Rembrandt depend on the mantle thermal state and composition. In particular, we predict the source depth of the volcanic plains within large young basins to be different from the source depth of older surface units, a result that can help explaining the peculiar composition of the volcanic plains inside Caloris [2, 5]. [1] Tosi

  8. Tendency to occupy a statistically dominant spatial state of the flow as a driving force for turbulent transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmarev, Sergei F

    2013-03-01

    The transition from laminar to turbulent fluid motion occurring at large Reynolds numbers is generally associated with the instability of the laminar flow. On the other hand, since the turbulent flow characteristically appears in the form of spatially localized structures (e.g., eddies) filling the flow field, a tendency to occupy such a structured state of the flow cannot be ruled out as a driving force for turbulent transition. To examine this possibility, we propose a simple analytical model that treats the flow as a collection of localized spatial structures, each of which consists of elementary cells in which the behavior of the particles (atoms or molecules) is uncorrelated. This allows us to introduce the Reynolds number, associating it with the ratio between the total phase volume for the system and that for the elementary cell. Using the principle of maximum entropy to calculate the most probable size distribution of the localized structures, we show that as the Reynolds number increases, the elementary cells group into the localized structures, which successfully explains turbulent transition and some other general properties of turbulent flows. An important feature of the present model is that a bridge between the spatial-statistical description of the flow and hydrodynamic equations is established. We show that the basic assumptions underlying the model, i.e., that the particles are indistinguishable and elementary volumes of phase space exist in which the state of the particles is uncertain, are involved in the derivation of the Navier-Stokes equation. Taking into account that the model captures essential features of turbulent flows, this suggests that the driving force for the turbulent transition is basically the same as in the present model, i.e., the tendency of the system to occupy a statistically dominant state plays a key role. The instability of the flow at high Reynolds numbers can then be a mechanism to initiate structural rearrangement of

  9. Influence of Imperfections of Radiation and Technology on the Thermally Deformed State of Optical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanin, Yu. I.; Shanin, O. I.; Chernykh, A. V.; Sharapov, I. S.

    2017-05-01

    The authors have performed calculation and an analysis of the thermally stressed state of optical elements (mirror, passage windows, and beam splitters). A study has been made of the temperature fields, stresses, bending thermal displacements, and expansions of the optical surface of these elements under inhomogeneous local conditions of their loading depending on the defects existing in them.

  10. Aerodynamic state diagnosing method of aircraft with thermal field usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Kazak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The method of aerodynamic condition of the aircraft on the thermal fields was developed as a research result. Based on the mathematical and natural experiments, there are identified the regularities of formation of temperature gradients in the boundary layer of air that occurs after damage of external contours; there are detected parameters that affect the behavior of the temperature gradient arising from damage.

  11. Thermality and excited state Rényi entropy in two-dimensional CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Feng-Li [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University,Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Wang, Huajia [Department of Physics, University of Illinois,Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Zhang, Jia-ju [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-11-21

    We evaluate one-interval Rényi entropy and entanglement entropy for the excited states of two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) on a cylinder, and examine their differences from the ones for the thermal state. We assume the interval to be short so that we can use operator product expansion (OPE) of twist operators to calculate Rényi entropy in terms of sum of one-point functions of OPE blocks. We find that the entanglement entropy for highly excited state and thermal state behave the same way after appropriate identification of the conformal weight of the state with the temperature. However, there exists no such universal identification for the Rényi entropy in the short-interval expansion. Therefore, the highly excited state does not look thermal when comparing its Rényi entropy to the thermal state one. As the Rényi entropy captures the higher moments of the reduced density matrix but the entanglement entropy only the average, our results imply that the emergence of thermality depends on how refined we look into the entanglement structure of the underlying pure excited state.

  12. Bell violation for the thermal states of an XXZ spin chain with Dzialoshiski-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaosan; Wang, Anmin

    2010-11-01

    The effect of Dzialoshiski-Moriya (DM) interaction on the violation of Bell inequality for thermal states of interacting qubits via a two-qubit XXZ spin chain is investigated. Our results imply that the DM interaction and anisotropy taking a large positive value can enhance the Bell violation and improve the threshold temperatures of it. By the comparison between the Bell violation and thermal entanglement, we find that the threshold temperatures of thermal entanglement are higher than those of the Bell violation. This implies that some states are entangled but the Bell inequality is not violated.

  13. Noisy bases in Hilbert space: A new class of thermal coherent states and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourdas, A.; Bishop, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Coherent mixed states (or thermal coherent states) associated with the displaced harmonic oscillator at finite temperature, are introduced as a 'random' (or 'thermal' or 'noisy') basis in Hilbert space. A resolution of the identity for these states is proved and used to generalize the usual coherent state formalism for the finite temperature case. The Bargmann representation of an operator is introduced and its relation to the P and Q representations is studied. Generalized P and Q representations for the finite temperature case are also considered and several interesting relations among them are derived.

  14. Stability of global entanglement in thermal states of spin chains

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin K. Brennen; Bullock, Stephen S

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement properties of a one dimensional chain of spin qubits coupled via nearest neighbor interactions. The entanglement measure used is the n-concurrence, which is distinct from other measures on spin chains such as bipartite entanglement in that it can quantify "global" entanglement across the spin chain. Specifically, it computes the overlap of a quantum state with its time-reversed state. As such this measure is well suited to study ground states of spin chain Hami...

  15. Interplay between stochastic and deterministic processes in the maintenance of alternative community states in Verrucomicrobia-dominated shallow lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llames, Maria E; Huber, Paula; Metz, Sebastián; Unrein, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    We analyzed the interplay between neutral and deterministic processes in maintaining contrasting alternative bacterioplankton communities through time in highly productive shallow lakes and evaluated the relevance of these processes when a regime shift from a clear to a turbid state occurred. We observed that local assembly is ruled primary deterministically, via local habitat filtering, with a secondary role of stochastic processes. We also found a hierarchy in the environmental sorting: while an unusual Verrucomicrobia dominance characterizes the three systems, local conditions limit within-bacterial community membership to closely phylogenetically related and ecologically similar taxa. These results indicate that bacterial abilities to establish in these lakes are strongly determined by their traits, and point toward special physiological adaptations to persist when these systems undergo a regime shift. Altogether, these results hint to a divergence in function among these alternative communities, mediated by major shifts in bacterial community trait structure, particularly regarding carbon use. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Late Pleistocene C 4Plant Dominance and Summer Rainfall in the Southwestern United States from Isotopic Study of Herbivore Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connin, Sean L.; Betancourt, Julio; Quade, Jay

    1998-09-01

    Patterns of climate and C 4plant abundance in the southwestern United States during the last glaciation were evaluated from isotopic study of herbivore tooth enamel. Enamel δ 13C values revealed a substantial eastward increase in C 4plant consumption for Mammuthusspp., Bisonspp., Equusspp., and Camelopsspp. The δ 13C values were greatest in Bisonspp. (-6.9 to +1.7‰) and Mammuthusspp. (-9.0 to +0.3‰), and in some locales indicated C 4-dominated grazing. The δ 13C values of Antilocaprids were lowest among taxa (-12.5 to -7.9‰) and indicated C 3feeding at all sites. On the basis of modern correlations between climate and C 4grass abundance, the enamel data imply significant summer rain in parts of southern Arizona and New Mexico throughout the last glaciation. Enamel δ 18O values range from +19.0 to +31.0‰ and generally increase to the east. This pattern could point to a tropical or subtropical source of summer rainfall. At a synoptic scale, the isotope data indicate that interactions of seasonal moisture, temperature, and lowered atmospheric pCO 2determined glacial-age C 4abundance patterns.

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF CAPITALISM AND OF STATE IN PORTUGAL: PASSAGE OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL GROUPS DOMINATED BY THE PORTUGUESE CAPITAL FOR GROUPS DOMINATED BY MULTINATIONAL CAPITAL, AND OF A PROTECTOR STATE FOR A SUBSERVIENT STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugénio Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the capitalism characteristics in the Portuguese social formation, considering economic groups in Portugal before and after of April 25. Detailing the characteristics of these economic groups, the author concludes that the principal shareholders of most economic and financial groups operating in Portugal, are transnational groups, some companies belonging to foreign States and other large economic and financial groups operating on a global scale. Accordingly, the State role, given the fragility towards these groups, is of simple server and executor of policies dictated by these groups directly or, indirectly by international organizations that represent and defend their interests, like the IMF, the Commission European, the World Bank, even the OECD, etc. Argues that given the growing globalization and increased threats of all kinds, one needs in Portugal is a strong State that defend the national sovereignty, able of promote the growth and sustained development of the country, and to defend the Portuguese of threats and constant attacks to a life with a minimum of human dignity.

  18. Bures metric over thermal state manifolds and quantum criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Paolo; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Giorda, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    We analyze the Bures metric over the manifold of thermal density matrices for systems featuring a zero temperature quantum phase transition. We show that the quantum critical region can be characterized in terms of the temperature scaling behavior of the metric tensor itself. Furthermore, the analysis of the metric tensor when both temperature and an external field are varied, allows one to complement the understanding of the phase diagram including crossover regions which are not characterized by any singular behavior. These results provide a further extension of the scope of the metric approach to quantum criticality.

  19. No-go theorem for ground state cooling given initial system-thermal bath factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Segal, Dvira; Brumer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Ground-state cooling and pure state preparation of a small object that is embedded in a thermal environment is an important challenge and a highly desirable quantum technology. This paper proves, with two different methods, that a fundamental constraint on the cooling dynamic implies that it is impossible to cool, via a unitary system-bath quantum evolution, a system that is embedded in a thermal environment down to its ground state, if the initial state is a factorized product of system and bath states. The latter is a crucial but artificial assumption included in numerous tools that treat system-bath dynamics, such as master equation approaches and Kraus operator based methods. Adopting these approaches to address ground state and even approximate ground state cooling dynamics should therefore be done with caution, considering the fundamental theorem exposed in this work.

  20. Bounds for entanglement of formation of two mode squeezed thermal states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Pei-Liang

    2003-07-28

    The upper and lower bounds of entanglement of formation are given for two mode squeezed thermal state. The bounds are compared with other entanglement measure or bounds. The entanglement distillation and the relative entropy of entanglement of infinitive squeezed state are obtained at the postulation of hashing inequality.

  1. Generation of Werner-like stationary states of two qubits in a thermal reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobczyk, Lech, E-mail: ljak@ift.uni.wroc.p [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Plac Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-01-14

    The dynamics of entanglement between two-level atoms immersed in the common photon reservoir at finite temperature is investigated. It is shown that in the regime of strong correlations there are nontrivial asymptotic states which can be interpreted in terms of thermal generalization of Werner states.

  2. Decoherence, the Density Matrix, the Thermal State and the Classical World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, Bernard; Schulman, Lawrence S.

    2017-12-01

    Decoherence has been the basis for understanding the emergence of the classical world from its quantum underpinnings. Unfortunately the calculations establishing decoherence overshoot and, based on assumptions that break down, predict that with the passage of time the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix become arbitrarily small. It has been recognized by some authors that the thermal state, assumed to hold for systems in equilibrium, places a bound on off diagonal terms. In this article we establish—preserving the conservation of energy, as is not the case for previous work—that indeed the thermal state is an attractor under scattering. Moreover, the bound on the off-diagonal terms present in the thermal state does not contradict everyday experience.

  3. Solid state phase change materials for thermal energy storage in passive solar heated buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Christensen, C.

    1983-11-01

    A set of solid state phase change materials was evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol, pentaglycerine and neopentyl glycol. Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature within the range from less than 25 deg to 188 deg. Thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, density and volumetric expansion were measured. Computer simulations were used to predict the performance of various Trombe wall designs incorporating solid state phase change materials. Optimum performance was found to be sensitive to the choice of phase change temperatures and to the thermal conductivity of the phase change material. A molecular mechanism of the solid state phase transition is proposed and supported by infrared spectroscopic evidence.

  4. Finite-element analysis of elastic sound-proof coupling thermal state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyss, V. G.; Strokov, I. M.; Sergaeva, M. Yu

    2018-01-01

    The aim is in calculated determining of the elastic rubber-metal element thermal state of soundproof coupling ship shafting under variable influence during loads in time. Thermal coupling calculation is performed with finite element method using NX Simens software with Nastran solver. As a result of studies, the following results were obtained: - a volumetric picture of the temperature distribution over the array of the deformed coupling body is obtained; - time to reach steady-state thermal coupling mode has been determined; - dependences of maximum temperature and time to reach state on the established operation mode on rotation frequency and ambient temperature are determined. The findings prove the conclusion that usage of finite element analysis modern software can significantly speed up problem solving.

  5. SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries.

  6. Excited-state entanglement and thermal mutual information in random spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yichen; Moore, Joel E.

    2014-12-01

    Entanglement properties of excited eigenstates (or of thermal mixed states) are difficult to study with conventional analytical methods. We approach this problem for random spin chains using a recently developed real-space renormalization group technique for excited states ("RSRG-X"). For the random XX and quantum Ising chains, which have logarithmic divergences in the entanglement entropy of their (infinite-randomness) critical ground states, we show that the entanglement entropy of excited eigenstates retains a logarithmic divergence while the mutual information of thermal mixed states does not. However, in the XX case the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence extends from the universal ground-state value to a universal interval due to the degeneracy of excited eigenstates. These models are noninteracting in the sense of having free-fermion representations, allowing strong numerical checks of our analytical predictions.

  7. Risperidone – Solid-state characterization and pharmaceutical compatibility using thermal and non-thermal techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Josiane Souza Pereira; Veronez, Isabela Pianna; Rodrigues, Larissa Lopes [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Trevisan, Marcello G. [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); National Institute of Bioanalytics Science and Technology – INCTBio, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, 13084-653, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Garcia, Jerusa Simone, E-mail: jerusa.garcia@unifal-mg.edu.br [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • DSC was used to characterize Risperidone and study its compatibility with excipients. • FT-IR associated with PCA was used to complement DSC data. • LC analyzes confirmed the DSC and FT-IR/PCA results. • Risperidone was incompatible with three among five excipients evaluated. - Abstract: A full solid-state characterization of risperidone was conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine its physicochemical properties and polymorphism. The primary aim of this work was to study the compatibility of risperidone with pharmaceutical excipients using DSC to obtain and compare the curves of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the excipients with their 1:1 (w/w) binary mixtures. These same binary mixtures were turned to room temperature and analyzed by FT-IR combined with principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate solid-state incompatibilities. The chemical incompatibilities of these samples were verified using a stability-indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method to assay for the API and evaluate the formation of degradation products. All of these methods showed incompatibilities between risperidone and the excipients magnesium stearate, lactose and cellulose microcrystalline.

  8. Molecularly Engineered Azobenzene Derivatives for High Energy Density Solid-State Solar Thermal Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eugene N; Zhitomirsky, David; Han, Grace G D; Liu, Yun; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-03-15

    Solar thermal fuels (STFs) harvest and store solar energy in a closed cycle system through conformational change of molecules and can release the energy in the form of heat on demand. With the aim of developing tunable and optimized STFs for solid-state applications, we designed three azobenzene derivatives functionalized with bulky aromatic groups (phenyl, biphenyl, and tert-butyl phenyl groups). In contrast to pristine azobenzene, which crystallizes and makes nonuniform films, the bulky azobenzene derivatives formed uniform amorphous films that can be charged and discharged with light and heat for many cycles. Thermal stability of the films, a critical metric for thermally triggerable STFs, was greatly increased by the bulky functionalization (up to 180 °C), and we were able to achieve record high energy density of 135 J/g for solid-state STFs, over a 30% improvement compared to previous solid-state reports. Furthermore, the chargeability in the solid state was improved, up to 80% charged from 40% charged in previous solid-state reports. Our results point toward molecular engineering as an effective method to increase energy storage in STFs, improve chargeability, and improve the thermal stability of the thin film.

  9. Bioenergy harvest impacts to biodiversity and resilience vary across aspen-dominated forest ecosystems in the Lake States region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda T. Curzon; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Kris Verheyen

    2016-01-01

    Questions: Does the increase in disturbance associated with removing harvest residues negatively impact biodiversity and resilience in aspen-dominated forest ecosystems? How do responses of functional diversity measures relate to community recovery and standing biomass? Location: Aspen (Populus tremuloides, Michx.) mixedwood forests in Minnesota...

  10. Refining the oak-fire hypothesis for management of oak-dominated forests of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary A. Arthur; Heather D. Alexander; Daniel C. Dey; Callie J. Schweitzer; David L. Loftis

    2012-01-01

    Prescribed fires are increasingly implemented throughout eastern deciduous forests to accomplish various management objectives, including maintenance of oak-dominated (Quercus spp.) forests. Despite a regional research-based understanding of prehistoric and historic fire regimes, a parallel understanding of contemporary fire use to preserve oak...

  11. Thermal imagers: from ancient analog video output to state-of-the-art video streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haan, Hubertus; Feuchter, Timo; Münzberg, Mario; Fritze, Jörg; Schlemmer, Harry

    2013-06-01

    The video output of thermal imagers stayed constant over almost two decades. When the famous Common Modules were employed a thermal image at first was presented to the observer in the eye piece only. In the early 1990s TV cameras were attached and the standard output was CCIR. In the civil camera market output standards changed to digital formats a decade ago with digital video streaming being nowadays state-of-the-art. The reasons why the output technique in the thermal world stayed unchanged over such a long time are: the very conservative view of the military community, long planning and turn-around times of programs and a slower growth of pixel number of TIs in comparison to consumer cameras. With megapixel detectors the CCIR output format is not sufficient any longer. The paper discusses the state-of-the-art compression and streaming solutions for TIs.

  12. Numerical modeling of thermal performance: Natural convection and radiation of solid state lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.; Gielen, A.W.J.; Zeijl, H.W. van; Werkhoven, R.J.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    The increased electrical currents used to drive light emitting diode (LED) cause significant heat generation in the solid state lighting (SSL) system. As the temperature will directly affect the maximum light output, quality, reliability and the life time of the SSL system, thermal management is a

  13. Eigenstate thermalization hypothesis and quantum Jarzynski relation for pure initial states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, F.; Steinigeweg, R.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.; Campisi, M.; Gemmer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Since the first suggestion of the Jarzynski equality many derivations of this equality have been presented in both the classical and the quantum context. While the approaches and settings differ greatly from one another, they all appear to rely on the condition that the initial state is a thermal

  14. Quasi-steady state thermal performances of a solar air heater with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quasi-steady state thermal performance of a solar air heater with a combined absorber is studied. The whole energy balance equations related to the system were articulated as a linear system of temperature equations. Solutions to this linear system were assessed from program based on an iterative process. The mean ...

  15. Effects of microwave heating on the thermal states of biological tissues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of microwave heating on the thermal states of biological tissues. Nabil TM El-dabe, Mona AA Mohamed, Asma F El-Sayed. Abstract. A mathematical analysis of microwave heating equations in one-dimensional multi-layer model has been discussed. Maxwell's equations and transient bioheat transfer equation were ...

  16. Thermal state of the Roer Valley Graben, part of the European Cenozoic Rift System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, E.; ter Voorde, M.; van Balen, R.T.; Verweij, H.; Simmelink, E.

    2010-01-01

    We performed a detailed analysis of the thermal state of the Cenozoic Roer Valley Graben, the north-western branch of the European Cenozoic Rift System, based on a new set of temperature data. We developed a numerical technique for correcting bottom hole temperatures, including an evaluation of the

  17. Thermal state of the Roer Valley Graben, part of the European Cenozoic Rift System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, E.; ter Voorde, M.; van Balen, R.T.; Verweij, H.; Simmelink, E.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a detailed analysis of the thermal state of the Cenozoic Roer Valley Graben, the north-western branch of the European Cenozoic Rift System, based on a new set of temperature data. We developed a numerical technique for correcting bottom hole temperatures, including an evaluation of the

  18. CEN standards for solar thermal systems - State of the art and expectted impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, B.G.C. van der; Pauschinger, Th.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1994, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee TC 312 has been active in producing European Standards for thermal solar energy systems and components. In this paper, an overview of the present State of the Art of the draft standards is presented. These standards

  19. Operational diagnostics of thermal state and efficiency of steam turbines of TPP and NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhko, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. N.; Lyapunov, V. M.; Khomenok, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    Various ways for solving complex problems of the strength and operating life of steam turbines of TPP and NPP are studied. Diagnostic characters and technical possibilities for their control during the steam turbine operation are determined. It is shown that the effect of various factors on the reliability, maneuverability, and service life of power installations of TPP and NPP is generally determined by the thermal state of steam-electric generating sets. Leading foreign and domestic manufacturers give major attention to the organization of the control of the thermal state of facilities and the development of systems for accounting ("counter") the service life depletion. Zones of high-temperature sites of shafts and disks with maximum parameters of operating environment are determined. A model for on-line computation of thermal stresses with the diagnostic evaluation of the service life depletion (fatigue accumulation) and forecasting of optimum heating conditions for thermostressed turbine units is briefly stated. An example of a program for diagnostics of the quality of the facility operation is given. The program provides the operative control of thermal stresses and the service life depletion in main units of the turbine under various operation conditions, operates in the real-time mode, calculates and represents currents values of thermal stresses in turbine units, and forms and transmits into the industrial control signals on the occurrence of restrictions with respect to thermal stresses and prohibition of an increase or decrease in the vapor temperature and the load in the case of approaching pressures to maximum permissible ones. In the case of stationary operation conditions, the program computed the current efficiency in high (HPC) and mean (MPC) pressure cylinders.

  20. Effect of Hydration State of Martian Perchlorate Salts on Their Decomposition Temperatures During Thermal Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Samuel H.; Montgomery, Wren; Kounaves, Samuel P.; Sephton, Mark A.

    2017-12-01

    Three Mars missions have analyzed the composition of surface samples using thermal extraction techniques. The temperatures of decomposition have been used as diagnostic information for the materials present. One compound of great current interest is perchlorate, a relatively recently discovered component of Mars' surface geochemistry that leads to deleterious effects on organic matter during thermal extraction. Knowledge of the thermal decomposition behavior of perchlorate salts is essential for mineral identification and possible avoidance of confounding interactions with organic matter. We have performed a series of experiments which reveal that the hydration state of magnesium perchlorate has a significant effect on decomposition temperature, with differing temperature releases of oxygen corresponding to different perchlorate hydration states (peak of O2 release shifts from 500 to 600°C as the proportion of the tetrahydrate form in the sample increases). Changes in crystallinity/crystal size may also have a secondary effect on the temperature of decomposition, and although these surface effects appear to be minor for our samples, further investigation may be warranted. A less than full appreciation of the hydration state of perchlorate salts during thermal extraction analyses could lead to misidentification of the number and the nature of perchlorate phases present.

  1. Minimally entangled typical thermal states versus matrix product purifications for the simulation of equilibrium states and time evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Moritz; Barthel, Thomas

    We compare matrix product purifications and minimally entangled typical thermal states (METTS) for the simulation of equilibrium states and finite-temperature response functions of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems. For METTS, we highlight the interplay of statistical and DMRG truncation errors, discuss the use of self-averaging effects, and describe schemes for the computation of response functions. We assess the computation costs and accuracies of the two methods for critical and gapped spin chains and the Bose-Hubbard model. For the same computation cost, purifications yield more accurate results than METTS except for temperatures well below the system's energy gap.

  2. Steady State Transportation Cooling in Porous Media Under Local, Non-Thermal Equilibrium Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Alvaro Che

    2002-01-01

    An analytical solution to the steady-state fluid temperature for 1-D (one dimensional) transpiration cooling has been derived. Transpiration cooling has potential use in the aerospace industry for protection against high heating environments for re-entry vehicles. Literature for analytical treatments of transpiration cooling has been largely confined to the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the porous matrix and fluid. In the present analysis, the fundamental fluid and matrix equations are coupled through a volumetric heat transfer coefficient and investigated in non-thermal equilibrium. The effects of varying the thermal conductivity of the solid matrix and the heat transfer coefficient are investigated. The results are also compared to existing experimental data.

  3. Coherent-state constellations and polar codes for thermal Gaussian channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Felipe; Renes, Joseph M.; Scholz, Volkher B.

    2017-06-01

    Optical communication channels are ultimately quantum mechanical in nature, and we must therefore look beyond classical information theory to determine their communication capacity as well as to find efficient encoding and decoding schemes of the highest rates. Thermal channels, which arise from linear coupling of the field to a thermal environment, are of particular practical relevance; their classical capacity has been recently established, but their quantum capacity remains unknown. While the capacity sets the ultimate limit on reliable communication rates, it does not promise that such rates are achievable by practical means. Here we construct efficiently encodable codes for thermal channels which achieve the classical capacity and the so-called Gaussian coherent information for transmission of classical and quantum information, respectively. Our codes are based on combining polar codes with a discretization of the channel input into a finite "constellation" of coherent states. Encoding of classical information can be done using linear optics.

  4. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...... of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. DE FACTO STATES IN THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD: BETWEEN RUSSIAN DOMINATION AND EUROPEAN (DISENGAGEMENT. THE CASE OF ABKHAZIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian RELITZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the ratification of the Association Agreements with Georgia and Moldova in 2014, the European Union (EU has been confronted in its integration policies with several post-Soviet de facto states (Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria. The paper clarifies the concept of the de facto state and discusses how non-recognition affects the sustainability and international position of these entities. It will be argued, that de facto states can be considered as a permanent part of the international system rather than just temporal anomalies and that they confront the EU with a serious action dilemma. Based on the Abkhazian case study, I will analyse the strategies and instruments the EU is implementing to achieve its policy objectives, identify key obstacles such as the growing Russian presence in the region and highlight the practical consequences of the action dilemma.

  6. Solid-State Thermal Decoposition Method for the Preparation of CuO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dehno Khalaji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, CuO nanoparticles  have been synthesized via solid- state thermal decomposition using copper(II Schiff base complexes as new precursors at 600ºC under air atmosphere for 3 h. Surface morphology of the products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  7. Forest Disturbance Across the Conterminous United States from 1985-2012: The Emerging Dominance of Forest Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Warren B.; Yang, Zhiqiang; Stehman, Stephen; Schroeder, Todd; Bell, David M.; Masek, Jeffrey; Huang, Chengquan; Meigs, Garrett W.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of shifting dominance among major forest disturbance agent classes regionally to globally has been emerging in the literature. For example, climate-related stress and secondary stressors on forests (e.g., insect and disease, fire) have dramatically increased since the turn of the century globally, while harvest rates in the western US and elsewhere have declined. For shifts to be quantified, accurate historical forest disturbance estimates are required as a baseline for examining current trends. We report annual disturbance rates (with uncertainties) in the aggregate and by major change causal agent class for the conterminous US and five geographic subregions between 1985 and 2012. Results are based on human interpretations of Landsat time series from a probability sample of 7200 plots (30 m) distributed throughout the study area. Forest disturbance information was recorded with a Landsat time series visualization and data collection tool that incorporates ancillary high-resolution data. National rates of disturbance varied between 1.5% and 4.5% of forest area per year, with trends being strongly affected by shifting dominance among specific disturbance agent influences at the regional scale. Throughout the time series, national harvest disturbance rates varied between one and two percent, and were largely a function of harvest in the more heavily forested regions of the US (Mountain West, Northeast, and Southeast). During the first part of the time series, national disturbance rates largely reflected trends in harvest disturbance. Beginning in the mid-90s, forest decline-related disturbances associated with diminishing forest health (e.g., physiological stress leading to tree canopy cover loss, increases in tree mortality above background levels), especially in the Mountain West and Lowland West regions of the US, increased dramatically. Consequently, national disturbance rates greatly increased by 2000, and remained high for much of the decade. Decline

  8. Physicochemical properties and thermal stability of quercetin hydrates in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, G.S., E-mail: greicefarm@yahoo.com.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Carini, J.P. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Honorato, S.B.; Ayala, A.P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, CEP 60.455-970, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Moreira, J.C.F. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600, CEP 90035-003, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bassani, V.L. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 2752, CEP 90.610-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin raw materials may present different degree of hydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal stability of quercetin in the solid state depends on its degree of hydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin dehydrate is thermodynamically more stable than the other crystal forms. - Abstract: In the present work three samples of quercetin raw materials (QCTa, QCTb and QCTc), purchased from different Brazilian suppliers, were characterized employing scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, simultaneous thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and variable temperature-powder X-ray diffraction, in order to know their physicochemical properties, specially the thermal stability in solid state. The results demonstrated that the raw materials of quercetin analyzed present distinct crystalline structures, ascribed to the different degree of hydration of their crystal lattice. The thermal stability of these quercetin raw materials in the solid state was highly dependent on their degree of hydration, where QCTa (quercetin dihydrate) was thermodynamically more stable than the other two samples.

  9. Glassy-state stabilization of a dominant negative inhibitor anthrax vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide and glycopyranoside lipid A adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Kimberly J; Vance, David J; Jain, Nishant K; Sahni, Neha; Rabia, Lilia A; Cousins, Megan C; Joshi, Sangeeta; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell; Mantis, Nicholas J; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2015-02-01

    During transport and storage, vaccines may be exposed to temperatures outside of the range recommended for storage, potentially causing efficacy losses. To better understand and prevent such losses, dominant negative inhibitor (DNI), a recombinant protein antigen for a candidate vaccine against anthrax, was formulated as a liquid and as a glassy lyophilized powder with the adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and glycopyranoside lipid A (GLA). Freeze-thawing of the liquid vaccine caused the adjuvants to aggregate and decreased its immunogenicity in mice. Immunogenicity of liquid vaccines also decreased when stored at 40°C for 8 weeks, as measured by decreases in neutralizing antibody titers in vaccinated mice. Concomitant with efficacy losses at elevated temperatures, changes in DNI structure were detected by fluorescence spectroscopy and increased deamidation was observed by capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) after only 1 week of storage of the liquid formulation at 40°C. In contrast, upon lyophilization, no additional deamidation after 4 weeks at 40°C and no detectable changes in DNI structure or reduction in immunogenicity after 16 weeks at 40°C were observed. Vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide and GLA elicited higher immune responses than vaccines adjuvanted with only aluminum hydroxide, with more mice responding to a single dose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Keeping wetlands wet in the western United States: adaptations to drought in agriculture-dominated human-natural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downard, Rebekah; Endter-Wada, Joanna

    2013-12-15

    Water is critical to protecting wetlands in arid regions, especially in agriculture-dominated watersheds. This comparative case study analyzes three federal wildlife refuges in the Bear River Basin of the U.S. West where refuge managers secured water supplies by adapting to their local environmental context and their refuge's relationship to agriculture in being either irrigation-dependent, reservoir-adjacent or diked-delta wetlands. We found that each refuge's position confers different opportunities for securing a water supply and entails unique management challenges linked to agricultural water uses. Acquiring contextually-appropriate water rights portfolios was important for protecting these arid region wetlands and was accomplished through various strategies. Once acquired, water is managed to buffer wetlands against fluctuations caused by a dynamic climate and agricultural demands, especially during droughts. Management plans are responsive to needs of neighboring water users and values of the public at large. Such context-specific adaptations will be critical as the West faces climate change and population growth that threaten wetlands and agricultural systems to which they are linked. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Solid-State Autocatalysis and Oscillatory Reactions in Thermally Processed Hydrogen Loaded Germanosilicate Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canning, John; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Solid-state autocatalysis leading to oscillatory behaviour in GeOH and SiOH formation is demonstrated in optical fibres processed at 500o C. The results confirm the proposed view that hydrogen accelerates change in processed optical fibres principally through autocatalysis. Diffusion of OH through...... hydrogen hopping is thought to be instrumental in terminating this process. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of solid-state autocatalysis in a non-decomposing medium. The demonstration of complexity offers potentially much more sophisticated tailoring of thermally processed and UV processed...... device properties....

  12. Thermal Equilibrium of a Macroscopic Quantum System in a Pure State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Huse, David A; Lebowitz, Joel L; Tumulka, Roderich

    2015-09-04

    We consider the notion of thermal equilibrium for an individual closed macroscopic quantum system in a pure state, i.e., described by a wave function. The macroscopic properties in thermal equilibrium of such a system, determined by its wave function, must be the same as those obtained from thermodynamics, e.g., spatial uniformity of temperature and chemical potential. When this is true we say that the system is in macroscopic thermal equilibrium (MATE). Such a system may, however, not be in microscopic thermal equilibrium (MITE). The latter requires that the reduced density matrices of small subsystems be close to those obtained from the microcanonical, equivalently the canonical, ensemble for the whole system. The distinction between MITE and MATE is particularly relevant for systems with many-body localization for which the energy eigenfuctions fail to be in MITE while necessarily most of them, but not all, are in MATE. We note, however, that for generic macroscopic systems, including those with MBL, most wave functions in an energy shell are in both MATE and MITE. For a classical macroscopic system, MATE holds for most phase points on the energy surface, but MITE fails to hold for any phase point.

  13. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL STATE OF TRACTION BRUSHLESS PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR FOR MINE ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Matyuschenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study was conducted to analyze thermal state of the traction permanent magnet synchronous motor for mine electric battery locomotive when operating in continuous and short-time duty modes. These operating modes are selected for study, as they are typical for mine electric locomotives. Methodology. Thermal calculation was performed by means of FEM in three-dimensional formulation of problem using Jmag-Designer. Results. The modeling results of thermal state of the PMSM in continuous and short-time duty operation modes showed good agreement with experimental results. The results showed that the temperature of PM is higher than temperature of the stator winding in continuous operation mode. It was found that PM temperature might reach excessive values because of the high presence of eddy current losses in neodymium PM. Therefore, special attention in the design and testing of PMSM should be paid to the temperature of PM in various operation modes. Practical value. It was recommended to use high temperature permanent magnets in traction PMSM to avoid demagnetization of PM and performance degradation.

  14. State-to-State Thermal/Hyperthermal Collision Dynamics of Atmospheric Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    CO2 + perfluorinated polyether (PFPE) and molecular dynamics simulations of CO2 + fluorinated self- assembled monolayers (F-SAMs).6 At low incident...Interface: F + Squalane (C30H62) One powerful direction has been to use direct infrared laser absorption spectroscopy to probe fast chemical ...a partial but incomplete “heat sink” for vibrational energy flow on the time scale of the chemical reaction event. D. 3D Quantum State Resolved

  15. Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, J; Abdallah, J; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, S A; Wagenaars, E; Booth, N; Culfa, O; Dance, R J; Evans, R G; Gray, R J; Kaempfer, T; Lancaster, K L; McKenna, P; Rossall, A L; Skobelev, I Yu; Schulze, K S; Uschmann, I; Zhidkov, A G; Woolsey, N C

    2013-03-22

    In high-spectral resolution experiments with the petawatt Vulcan laser, strong x-ray radiation of KK hollow atoms (atoms without n = 1 electrons) from thin Al foils was observed at pulse intensities of 3 × 10(20) W/cm(2). The observations of spectra from these exotic states of matter are supported by detailed kinetics calculations, and are consistent with a picture in which an intense polychromatic x-ray field, formed from Thomson scattering and bremsstrahlung in the electrostatic fields at the target surface, drives the KK hollow atom production. We estimate that this x-ray field has an intensity of >5 × 10(18) W/cm(2) and is in the 3 keV range.

  16. Transient Thermal State of an Active Braille Matrix with Incorporated Thermal Actuators by Means of Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alutei, Alexandra-Maria; Szelitzky, Emoke; Mandru, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors present the transient thermal analysis for a developed thermal linear actuator based on wax paraffin used to drive the cells of a Braille device. A numerical investigation of transient heat transfer phenomenon during paraffin melting and solidification in an encapsulated recipient has been carried out using the ANSYS…

  17. Efficient thermal desalination technologies with renewable energy systems: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Yoo, ChangKyoo [Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Due to the current fossil fuel crisis and associated adverse environmental impacts, renewable energy sources (RES) have drawn interest as alternatives to fossil fuels for powering water desalination systems. Over the last few decades the utility of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and wind to run desalination processes has been explored. However, the expansion of these technologies to larger scales is hampered by techno-economic and thermo-economic challenges. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of renewable energy-powered thermal desalination systems (RE-PTD) to compare their productivity and efficiency through thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses. We performed a comparative study using published data to classify RE-PTD systems technologies on the basis of the energy collection systems that they use. Among RE-PTD systems, solar energy powered-thermal desalination systems demonstrate high thermo-environ-economic efficiency to produce fresh water to meet various scales of demand.

  18. The SESAME project. State of the art liquid metal thermal hydraulics and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, F.; Shams, A.; Batta, A.; Moreau, V.; Di Piazza, I.; Gerschenfeld, A.; Planquart, P.; Tarantino, M. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    The European Sustainable Nuclear Industry Initiative (ESNII) aims at industrial application of fast reactor technology for a sustainable nuclear energy production. Currently four demonstration projects have a promising outlook in Europe, i.e. the ASTRID project in France, the MYRRHA project in Belgium, the ALFRED pan-European project to be realized in Romania, and SEALER in Sweden. Sodium and lead(-alloys) are envisaged as coolants for these reactors. Obviously, in the development of these reactors, thermal-hydraulics is recognized as a key challenge with emphasis on safety issues. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art knowledge with respect to experiments and simulation techniques as pursued in the Horizon 2020 SESAME (thermal hydraulics Simulations and Experiments for the Safety Assessment of MEtal cooled reactors) project.

  19. Thermal states of neutron stars with a consistent model of interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, M.; Taranto, G.; Burgio, G. F.; Haensel, P.; Schulze, H.-J.; Zdunik, J. L.

    2018-01-01

    We model the thermal states of both isolated neutron stars and accreting neutron stars in X-ray transients in quiescence and confront them with observations. We use an equation of state calculated using realistic two-body and three-body nucleon interactions, and superfluid nucleon gaps obtained using the same microscopic approach in the BCS approximation. Consistency with low-luminous accreting neutron stars is obtained, as the direct Urca process is operating in neutron stars with mass larger than 1.1M⊙ for the employed equation of state. In addition, proton superfluidity and sufficiently weak neutron superfluidity, obtained using a scaling factor for the gaps, are necessary to explain the cooling of middle-aged neutron stars and to obtain a realistic distribution of neutron star masses.

  20. Analyzing Density Operator in Thermal State for Complicated Time-Dependent Optical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Ryeol Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Density operator of oscillatory optical systems with time-dependent parameters is analyzed. In this case, a system is described by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. Invariant operator theory is introduced in order to describe time-varying behavior of the system. Due to the time dependence of parameters, the frequency of oscillation, so-called a modified frequency of the system, is somewhat different from the natural frequency. In general, density operator of a time-dependent optical system is represented in terms of the modified frequency. We showed how to determine density operator of complicated time-dependent optical systems in thermal state. Usually, density operator description of quantum states is more general than the one described in terms of the state vector.

  1. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......-state thermal environments. Therefore, the first objective of the current paper was to compare a recently introduced unsteady-state model with previously used steady-state model using data obtained under both constant and transient temperature conditions. The second objective was to explore a relationship...

  2. One-Party Dominance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    colonial domination and build an independent state-nation, a major problem confronting its leaders was the issue of ... ordinary citizenry that this party and its leaders had a legitimate claim to be heirs to the colonially constructed ...... nal of Modern African Studies vol 33 no.3 pp381-402. Daniel, J., R. Southall, andM. Szeftel ...

  3. Quantum discord of thermal states of a spin chain with Calogero-Moser type interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, XiaoSan; Qiao, Ying; Zhao, GuangXing; Wang, AnMin

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the effect of Calogero-Moser type interaction on the quantum discord of thermal states of a spin chain. Our results imply that the quantum discord depends on the relative distance between the spins, the external magnetic field, and the temperature. By a comparison between the quantum discord and the entanglement of formation, the quantum discord is more robust than the entanglement of formation in the sense that the latter takes a zero value in a large range of the parameters, while the former takes a nonzero value.

  4. Solid state polymerization: its action on thermal and rheological properties of PET/PC reactive blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid state polymerization (SSP of PET/PC reactive extrusion blends - with and without cobalt catalyst - at different polymer ratios was studied. Thermal and rheological evaluations were performed. DSC results showed changes in the PET's Tg, Tch, Tm and Xc.. The melt flow rate (MFR decreased for PET and the blends. The intrinsic viscosity increased. The variation in calorimetric and rheological properties might be attributed to the PET's chain extension reactions - esterification and transesterification. These reactions led to an increase in the PET's molar mass, consequently shifting the PET's Tg to lower temperature and PET's crystallization, besides reducing the blend miscibility and flowability.

  5. Correlation between seismicity and the distribution of thermal and carbonate water in southern and Baja California, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastil, Gordon; Bertine, Kathe

    1986-04-01

    A comparison of the distribution of thermal and thermal-related springs and wells in southern California, United States, and Baja California, Mexico, with the abundance of earthquakes of magnitude 4 or greater shows as close a relationship between thermal waters and the distribution of seismicity as to the distribution of active faults. It appears that the distribution of thermal water variations in the geothermal gradient in turn influences the stress accumulation capability of the rocks at depth. Thus, areas with abundant thermal waters (and hence steep geothermal gradients) release stress by frequent moderate earthquakes; areas lacking thermal waters, such as the central Transverse Ranges, accumulate stresses that are released by infrequent large earthquakes.

  6. Chimera states in a Hodgkin-Huxley model of thermally sensitive neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Tera A.; Lewis, Scott; Bahar, Sonya

    2016-08-01

    Chimera states occur when identically coupled groups of nonlinear oscillators exhibit radically different dynamics, with one group exhibiting synchronized oscillations and the other desynchronized behavior. This dynamical phenomenon has recently been studied in computational models and demonstrated experimentally in mechanical, optical, and chemical systems. The theoretical basis of these states is currently under active investigation. Chimera behavior is of particular relevance in the context of neural synchronization, given the phenomenon of unihemispheric sleep and the recent observation of asymmetric sleep in human patients with sleep apnea. The similarity of neural chimera states to neural "bump" states, which have been suggested as a model for working memory and visual orientation tuning in the cortex, adds to their interest as objects of study. Chimera states have been demonstrated in the FitzHugh-Nagumo model of excitable cells and in the Hindmarsh-Rose neural model. Here, we demonstrate chimera states and chimera-like behaviors in a Hodgkin-Huxley-type model of thermally sensitive neurons both in a system with Abrams-Strogatz (mean field) coupling and in a system with Kuramoto (distance-dependent) coupling. We map the regions of parameter space for which chimera behavior occurs in each of the two coupling schemes.

  7. Measurement of tissue-radiation dosage using a thermal steady-state elastic shear wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sheng-Yi; Hsieh, Tung-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Ru; Chen, Jin-Chung; Chou, Chien

    2017-08-01

    A biodosimeter based on thermal-induced elastic shear wave (TIESW) in silicone acellular porcine dermis (SAPD) at thermal steady state has been proposed and demonstrated. A square slab SAPD treated with ionizing radiation was tested. The SAPD becomes a continuous homogeneous and isotropic viscoelastic medium due to the generation of randomly coiled collagen fibers formed from their bundle-like structure in the dermis. A harmonic TIESW then propagates on the surface of the SAPD as measured by a nanometer-scaled strain-stress response under thermal equilibrium conditions at room temperature. TIESW oscillation frequency was noninvasively measured in real time by monitoring the transverse displacement of the TIESW on the SAPD surface. Because the elastic shear modulus is highly sensitive to absorbed doses of ionizing radiation, this proposed biodosimeter can become a highly sensitive and noninvasive method for quantitatively determining tissue-absorbed dosage in terms of TIESW’s oscillation frequency. Detection sensitivity at 1 cGy and dynamic ranges covering 1 to 40 cGy and 80 to 500 cGy were demonstrated.

  8. Microscopic and probabilistic approach to thermal steady state based on a dice and coin toy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Pasquale; Malgieri, Massimiliano; Moggio, Lorenzo; Oss, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    In this article we present an educational approach to thermal equilibrium which was tested on a group of 13 undergraduate students at the University of Trento. The approach is based on a stochastic toy model, in which bodies in thermal contact are represented by rows of squares on a cardboard table, which exchange coins placed on the squares based on the roll of two dice. The discussion of several physical principles, such as the exponential approach to equilibrium, the determination of the equilibrium temperature, and the interpretation of the equilibrium state as the most probable macrostate, proceeds through a continual comparison between the outcomes obtained with the toy model and the results of a real experiment on the thermal contact of two masses of water at different temperatures. At the end of the sequence, a re-analysis of the experimental results in view of both the Boltzmann and Clausius definitions of entropy reveals some limits of the toy model, but also allows for a critical discussion of the concepts of temperature and entropy. In order to provide the reader with a feeling of how the sequence was received by students, and how it helped them understand the topics introduced, we discuss some excerpts from their answers to a conceptual item given at the end of the sequence.

  9. Steady-State Thermal Properties of Rectangular Straw-Bales (RSB for Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Conti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Straw is an inevitable product of cereal production and is available in huge quantities in the world. In order to use straw-bales as a building material, the characteristic values of the thermal performances should be determined. To not lose the benefits of the cheapness and sustainability of the material, the characteristics must be determined with simple and inexpensive means and procedures. This research aims to implement tools and methods focused at the determination of the thermal properties of straw-bales. For this study, the guidelines dictated by ASTM and ISO were followed. A measurement system consisting of a Metering Chamber (MC was realized. The MC was placed inside a Climate Chamber (CC. During the test, a known quantity of energy is introduced inside MC. When the steady-state is reached, all the energy put into MC passes through its walls in CC, where it is absorbed by the air-conditioner. A series of thermopiles detect the temperature of the surfaces of the measurement system and of the specimen. Determining the amount of energy transmitted by the various parts of MC and by the specimen, it is possible to apply Fourier’s law to calculate the thermal conductivity of the specimen.

  10. 3D numerical modelling of the thermal state of deep geological nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, Yu. N.

    2017-09-01

    One of the important aspects of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal in deep geological repositories is ensuring the integrity of the engineered barriers which is, among other phenomena, considerably influenced by the thermal loads. As the HLW produce significant amount of heat, the design of the repository should maintain the balance between the cost-effectiveness of the construction and the sufficiency of the safety margins, including those imposed on the thermal conditions of the barriers. The 3D finite-element computer code FENIA was developed as a tool for simulation of thermal processes in deep geological repositories. Further the models for mechanical phenomena and groundwater hydraulics will be added resulting in a fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) solution. The long-term simulations of the thermal state were performed for two possible layouts of the repository. One was based on the proposed project of Russian repository, and another features larger HLW amount within the same space. The obtained results describe the spatial and temporal evolution of the temperature filed inside the repository and in the surrounding rock for 3500 years. These results show that practically all generated heat was ultimately absorbed by the host rock without any significant temperature increase. Still in the short time span even in case of smaller amount of the HLW the temperature maximum exceeds 100 °C, and for larger amount of the HLW the local temperature remains above 100 °C for considerable time. Thus, the substantiation of the long-term stability of the repository would require an extensive study of the materials properties and behaviour in order to remove the excessive conservatism from the simulations and to reduce the uncertainty of the input data.

  11. More on the rainbow chain: entanglement, space-time geometry and thermal states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Laguna, Javier; Dubail, Jérôme; Ramírez, Giovanni; Calabrese, Pasquale; Sierra, Germán

    2017-04-01

    The rainbow chain is an inhomogenous exactly solvable local spin model that, in its ground state, displays a half-chain entanglement entropy growing linearly with the system size. Although many exact results about the rainbow chain are known, the structure of the underlying quantum field theory has not yet been unraveled. Here we show that the universal scaling features of this model are captured by a massless Dirac fermion in a curved space-time with constant negative curvature R  =  -h 2 (h is the amplitude of the inhomogeneity). This identification allows us to use recently developed techniques to study inhomogeneous conformal systems and to analytically characterise the entanglement entropies of more general bipartitions. These results are carefully tested against exact numerical calculations. Finally, we study the entanglement entropies of the rainbow chain in thermal states, and find that there is a non-trivial interplay between the rainbow effective temperature T R and the physical temperature T.

  12. Symmetric minimally entangled typical thermal states for canonical and grand-canonical ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Moritz; Barthel, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Based on the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at finite temperatures can be simulated by sampling over a certain class of pure matrix product states (MPS) called minimally entangled typical thermal states (METTS). When a system features symmetries, these can be utilized to substantially reduce MPS computation costs. It is conceptually straightforward to simulate canonical ensembles using symmetric METTS. In practice, it is important to alternate between different symmetric collapse bases to decrease autocorrelations in the Markov chain of METTS. To this purpose, we introduce symmetric Fourier and Haar-random block bases that are efficiently mixing. We also show how grand-canonical ensembles can be simulated efficiently with symmetric METTS. We demonstrate these approaches for spin-1 /2 X X Z chains and discuss how the choice of the collapse bases influences autocorrelations as well as the distribution of measurement values and, hence, convergence speeds.

  13. Development of Solid State Thermal Sensors for Aeroshell TPS Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ed; Oishi, Tomo; Gorbonov, Sergey

    2005-01-01

    In-situ Thermal Protection System (TPS) sensors are required to provide verification by traceability of TPS performance and sizing tools. Traceability will lead to higher fidelity design tools, which in turn will lead to lower design safety margins, and decreased heatshield mass. Decreasing TPS mass will enable certain missions that are not otherwise feasible, and directly increase science payload. NASA Ames is currently developing two flight measurements as essential to advancing the state of TPS traceability for material modeling and aerothermal simulation: heat flux and surface recession (for ablators). The heat flux gage is applicable to both ablators and non-ablators and is therefore the more generalized sensor concept of the two with wider applicability to mission scenarios. This paper describes the continuing development of a thermal microsensor capable of surface and in-depth temperature and heat flux measurements for TPS materials appropriate to Titan, Neptune, and Mars aerocapture, and direct entry. The thermal sensor is a monolithic solid state device composed of thick film platinum RTD on an alumina substrate. Choice of materials and critical dimensions are used to tailor gage response, determined during calibration activities, to specific (forebody vs. aftbody) heating environments. Current design has maximum operating temperature of 1500K, and allowable constant heat flux of q=28.7 W/cm(sup 2), and time constants between 0.05 and 0.2 seconds. The catalytic and radiative response of these heat flux gages can also be changed through the use of appropriate coatings. By using several co-located gages with various surface coatings, data can be obtained to isolate surface heat flux components due to radiation, catalycity and convection. Selectivity to radiative heat flux is a useful feature even for an in-depth gage, as radiative transport may be a significant heat transport mechanism for porous TPS materials in Titan aerocapture.

  14. Hypohydration and acute thermal stress affect mood state but not cognition or dynamic postural balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Brett R; Sollanek, Kurt J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lieberman, Harris R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported in the few studies that examined the impact of ambient temperature (T a) and hypohydration on cognition and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of acute exposure to a range of ambient temperatures (T(a) 10-40 °C) in euhydration (EUH) and hypohydration (HYP) states on cognition, mood and dynamic balance. Thirty-two men (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass 85.4 ± 10.8 kg) were grouped into four matched cohorts (n = 8), and tested in one of the four T(a) (10, 20, 30, 40 °C) when EUH and HYP (-4 % body mass via exercise-heat exposure). Cognition was assessed using psychomotor vigilance, 4-choice reaction time, matching to sample, and grammatical reasoning. Mood was evaluated by profile of mood states and dynamic postural balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Thermal sensation (TS), core (T core) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were obtained throughout testing. Volunteers lost -4.1 ± 0.4 % body mass during HYP. T sk and TS increased with increasing T(a), with no effect of hydration. Cognitive performance was not altered by HYP or thermal stress. Total mood disturbance (TMD), fatigue, confusion, anger, and depression increased during HYP at all T(a). Dynamic balance was unaffected by HYP, but 10 °C exposure impaired balance compared to all other T(a). Despite an increase in TMD during HYP, cognitive function was maintained in all testing environments, demonstrating cognitive resiliency in response to body fluid deficits. Dynamic postural stability at 10 °C appeared to be hampered by low-grade shivering, but was otherwise maintained during HYP and thermal stress.

  15. Thermal isomerization of azobenzenes: on the performance of Eyring transition state theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietze, Clemens; Titov, Evgenii; Lindner, Steven; Saalfrank, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The thermal Z\\to E (back-)isomerization of azobenzenes is a prototypical reaction occurring in molecular switches. It has been studied for decades, yet its kinetics is not fully understood. In this paper, quantum chemical calculations are performed to model the kinetics of an experimental benchmark system, where a modified azobenzene (AzoBiPyB) is embedded in a metal-organic framework (MOF). The molecule can be switched thermally from cis to trans, under solvent-free conditions. We critically test the validity of Eyring transition state theory for this reaction. As previously found for other azobenzenes (albeit in solution), good agreement between theory and experiment emerges for activation energies and activation free energies, already at a comparatively simple level of theory, B3LYP/6-31G* including dispersion corrections. However, theoretical Arrhenius prefactors and activation entropies are in qualitiative disagreement with experiment. Several factors are discussed that may have an influence on activation entropies, among them dynamical and geometric constraints (imposed by the MOF). For a simpler model—Z\\to E isomerization in azobenzene—a systematic test of quantum chemical methods from both density functional theory and wavefunction theory is carried out in the context of Eyring theory. Also, the effect of anharmonicities on activation entropies is discussed for this model system. Our work highlights capabilities and shortcomings of Eyring transition state theory and quantum chemical methods, when applied for the Z\\to E (back-)isomerization of azobenzenes under solvent-free conditions.

  16. Effect of severe environmental thermal stress on redox state in salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Nakano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish are exposed to many kinds of environmental stressors and the chances of succumbing to infectious diseases may be increased a result. For example, an acute increase in temperature can induce numerous physiological changes in the body. In the present study, we examined the redox state in response to a severe acute stress resulting from heat shock in teleost coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch. The plasma lipid peroxides levels in fish gradually increased after heat shock treatment. By 2.5 h post-heat stress, plasma glutathione (GSH levels had decreased, but they had returned to basal levels by 17.5 h post-stress. Plasma superoxide dismutase activities in stressed fish were significantly increased compared with those in control fish at 17.5 h post-stress, but had returned to basal levels by 48 h post-stress. Expression levels of hepatic GSH and heat shock protein 70 gradually increased after heat shock treatment. These results concerning the changing patterns of multiple important redox-related biomarkers suggest that severe thermal stressors can affect the redox state and induce oxidative stress in ectothermal animals, such as fish, in vivo. Hence, manipulation of appropriate thermal treatment may possibly be useful to control fish fitness.

  17. Numerical investigation of steady-state thermal behavior of an infrared detector cryo chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Mayank

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An infrared (IR detector is simply a transducer of radiant energy, converting radiant energy into a measurable form. Since radiation does not rely on visible light, it offers the possibility of seeing in the dark or through obscured conditions, by detecting the IR energy emitted by objects. One of the prime applications of IR detector systems for military use is in target acquisition and tracking of projectile systems. The IR detectors also have great potential in commercial market. Typically, IR detectors perform best when cooled to cryogenic temperatures in the range of nearly 120 K. However, the necessity to operate in such cryogenic regimes makes the application of IR detectors extremely complex. Further, prior to proceeding on to a full blown transient thermal analysis it is worthwhile to perform a steady-state numerical analysis for ascertaining the effect of variation in viz., material, gas conduction coefficient, h, emissivity, ε, on the temperature profile along the cryo chamber length. This would enable understanding the interaction between the cryo chamber and its environment. Hence, the present work focuses on the development of steady-state numerical models for thermal analysis of IR cryo chamber using MATLAB. The numerical results show that gas conduction coefficient has marked influence on the temperature profile of the cryo chamber whereas the emissivity has a weak effect. The experimental validation of numerical results has also been presented.

  18. Microfabrication of a gadolinium-derived solid-state sensor for thermal neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Achyuthan, Komandoor E; Allen, Matthew; Denton, Michele L B; Siegal, Michael P; Manginell, Ronald P

    2017-07-01

    Neutron sensing is critical in civilian and military applications. Conventional neutron sensors are limited by size, weight, cost, portability and helium supply. Here the microfabrication of gadolinium (Gd) conversion material-based heterojunction diodes for detecting thermal neutrons using electrical signals produced by internal conversion electrons (ICEs) is described. Films with negligible stress were produced at the tensile-compressive crossover point, enabling Gd coatings of any desired thickness by controlling the radiofrequency sputtering power and using the zero-point near p(Ar) of 50 mTorr at 100 W. Post-deposition Gd oxidation-induced spallation was eliminated by growing a residual stress-free 50 nm neodymium-doped aluminum cap layer atop Gd. The resultant coatings were stable for at least 6 years, demonstrating excellent stability and product shelf-life. Depositing Gd directly on the diode surface eliminated the air gap, leading to a 200-fold increase in electron capture efficiency and facilitating monolithic microfabrication. The conversion electron spectrum was dominated by ICEs with energies of 72, 132 and 174 keV. Results are reported for neutron reflection and moderation by polyethylene for enhanced sensitivity, and γ- and X-ray elimination for improved specificity. The optimal Gd thickness was 10.4 μm for a 300 μm-thick partially depleted diode of 300 mm2 active surface area. Fast detection (within 10 min) at a neutron source-to-diode distance of 11.7 cm was achieved with this configuration. All ICE energies along with γ-ray and Kα,β X-rays were modeled to emphasize correlations between experiment and theory. Semi-conductor thermal neutron detectors offer advantages for field-sensing of radioactive neutron sources. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  19. Microfabrication of a gadolinium-derived solid-state sensor for thermal neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Allen, Matthew; Denton, Michele L. B.; Siegal, Michael P.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Neutron sensing is critical in civilian and military applications. Conventional neutron sensors are limited by size, weight, cost, portability and helium supply. Here the microfabrication of gadolinium (Gd) conversion material–based heterojunction diodes for detecting thermal neutrons using electrical signals produced by internal conversion electrons (ICEs) is described. Films with negligible stress were produced at the tensile-compressive crossover point, enabling Gd coatings of any desired thickness by controlling the radiofrequency sputtering power and using the zero-point near p(Ar) of 50 mTorr at 100 W. Post-deposition Gd oxidation–induced spallation was eliminated by growing a residual stress-free 50 nm neodymium-doped aluminum cap layer atop Gd. The resultant coatings were stable for at least 6 years, demonstrating excellent stability and product shelf-life. Depositing Gd directly on the diode surface eliminated the air gap, leading to a 200-fold increase in electron capture efficiency and facilitating monolithic microfabrication. The conversion electron spectrum was dominated by ICEs with energies of 72, 132 and 174 keV. Results are reported for neutron reflection and moderation by polyethylene for enhanced sensitivity, and γ- and X-ray elimination for improved specificity. The optimal Gd thickness was 10.4 μm for a 300 μm-thick partially depleted diode of 300 mm2 active surface area. Fast detection (within 10 min) at a neutron source-to-diode distance of 11.7 cm was achieved with this configuration. All ICE energies along with γ-ray and Kα,β X-rays were modeled to emphasize correlations between experiment and theory. Semi-conductor thermal neutron detectors offer advantages for field-sensing of radioactive neutron sources. PMID:28369631

  20. Domination, Eternal Domination, and Clique Covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klostermeyer William F.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eternal and m-eternal domination are concerned with using mobile guards to protect a graph against infinite sequences of attacks at vertices. Eternal domination allows one guard to move per attack, whereas more than one guard may move per attack in the m-eternal domination model. Inequality chains consisting of the domination, eternal domination, m-eternal domination, independence, and clique covering numbers of graph are explored in this paper.

  1. Experimentally Studied Thermal Piston-head State of the Internal-Combustion Engine with a Thermal Layer Formed by Micro-Arc Oxidation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Dudareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental study to show the efficiency of reducing thermal tension of internal combustion engine (ICE pistons through forming a thermal barrier coating on the piston-head. During the engine operation the piston is under the most thermal stress. High temperatures in the combustion chamber may lead to the piston-head burnout and destruction and engine failure.Micro-arc oxidation (MAO method was selected as the technology to create a thermal barrier coating. MAO technology allows us to form the ceramic coating with a thickness of 400μm on the surface of aluminum alloy, which have high heat resistance, and have good adhesion to the substrate even under thermal cycling stresses.Deliverables of MAO method used to protect pistons described in the scientific literature are insufficient, as they are either calculated or experimentally obtained at the special plants (units, which do not reproduce piston operation in a real engine. This work aims to fill this gap. The aim of the work is an experimental study of the thermal protective ability of MAO-layer formed on the piston-head with simulation of thermal processes of the real engine.The tests were performed on a specially designed and manufactured stand free of motor, which reproduces operation conditions maximum close to those of the real engine. The piston is heated by a fire source - gas burner with isobutene balloon, cooling is carried out by the water circulation system through the water-cooling jacket.Tests have been conducted to compare the thermal state of the regular engine piston without thermal protection and the piston with a heat layer formed on the piston-head by MAO method. The study findings show that the thermal protective MAO-layer with thickness of 100μm allows us to reduce thermal tension of piston on average by 8,5 %. Thus at high temperatures there is the most pronounced effect that is important for the uprated engines.The obtained findings can

  2. The thermal state of the Arabian plate derived from heat flow measurements in Oman and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolandone, Frederique; Lucazeau, Francis; Leroy, Sylvie; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jorand, Rachel; Goutorbe, Bruno; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of the Afar plume and the rifting of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden affect the present-day thermal regime of the Arabian plate. However, the Arabian plate is a Precambrian shield covered on its eastern part by a Phanerozoic platform and its thermal regime, before the plume and rifting activities, should be similar to that of other Precambrian shields with a thick and stable lithosphere. The first heat flow measurements in the shield, in Saudi Arabia, yielded low values (35-44 mW/m2), similar to the typical shields values. Recent heat flow measurements in Jordan indicate higher values (56-66 mW/m2). As part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory), we have conducted heat flow measurements in southern and northern Oman to obtain 10 new heat flux values in the eastern Arabian plate. We also derived 20 heat flux values in Yemen and Oman by processing thermal data from oil exploration wells. The surface heat flux in these different locations is uniformly low (45 mW/m2). The heat production in samples from the Dhofar and Socotra Precambrian basement is also low (0.7 µW/m3). Differences in heat flow between the eastern (60 mW/m2) and the western (45 mW/m2) parts of Arabia reflect differences in crustal heat production as well as a higher mantle heat flux in the west. We have calculated a steady state geotherm for the Arabian platform that intersects the isentropic temperature profile at a depth of about 150 km, consistent with the seismic observations. Seismic tomography studies of the mantle beneath Arabia also show this east-west contrast. Seismic studies have shown that the lithosphere is rather thin, 100 km or less below the shield and 150 km below the platform. The lithospheric thickness for the Arabian plate is 150 km, and the progressive thinning near the Red Sea, caused by the thermal erosion of the plume material, is too recent to be detected at the surface. The Afar plume mostly affects the base of the Arabian lithosphere along

  3. Comprehensive analysis of heat generation and efficient measurement of fractional thermal loading in a solid-state laser medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. T.; Zhang, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of heat generation in a solid-state laser medium. The fractional thermal loadings are different for different physical processes in a laser medium, including the fluorescence process, stimulated emission, energy transfer up-conversion and excited-state absorption. Applying this theoretical analysis in a diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1342 nm, and using a simple and efficient method to measure the thermal loading of the solid-state laser medium presented, the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretically calculated results.

  4. Constraining the composition and thermal state of Mars from inversion of geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A.; Connolly, J. A. D.

    2008-07-01

    We invert the most recent determinations of Martian second degree tidal Love number, tidal dissipation factor, mean density and moment of inertia for mantle composition and thermal state using a stochastic sampling algorithm. We employ Gibbs energy minimization to compute the stable mineralogy of the Martian mantle in the model system CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. This procedure yields density and P and S-wave velocities in the mantle as a function of depth and temperature and permits direct inversion for composition and thermal state. We find a Martian mantle composition resembling the model composition based on geochemical analyses of Martian meteorites. A prominent discontinuity in all physical properties occurs at ~1100 km depth, marking the onset of the mantle transition zone and coincides with the olivine -> wadsleyite + ringwoodite phase transition. A smaller discontinuity in the upper mantle related to the orthopyroxene -> C2/c-pyroxene + garnet is also apparent. A lower mantle discontinuity is not observed, as pressure and temperature conditions at the core mantle boundary (~20 GPa, ~1800°C) are insufficient to stabilize perovskite and magnesiowüstite. The most probable core radius is ~1680 km; core state and composition are most consistent with a liquid metallic core and a density of ~6.7 g/cm3. This implies a high S content (>20 wt%), assuming that S is the major alloying element. The most probable bulk Fe/Si ratio is ~1.2, indicating that Mars most probably accreted from material with a nonchondritic (CI) Fe/Si ratio, such as the ordinary chondrites (L and LL), which also have oxygen isotopic ratios matching those in Martian meteorites.

  5. Physico-Geometrical Kinetics of Solid-State Reactions in an Undergraduate Thermal Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nobuyoshi; Goshi, Yuri; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    An undergraduate kinetic experiment of the thermal decomposition of solids by microscopic observation and thermal analysis was developed by investigating a suitable reaction, applicable techniques of thermal analysis and microscopic observation, and a reliable kinetic calculation method. The thermal decomposition of sodium hydrogen carbonate is…

  6. Effect of the lithospheric thermal state on the Moho interface: A case study in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherbandi, Mohammad; Bai, Yongliang; Sjöberg, Lars E.; Tenzer, Robert; Abrehdary, Majid; Miranda, Silvia; Alcacer Sanchez, Juan M.

    2017-07-01

    Gravimetric methods applied for Moho recovery in areas with sparse and irregular distribution of seismic data often assume only a constant crustal density. Results of latest studies, however, indicate that corrections for crustal density heterogeneities could improve the gravimetric result, especially in regions with a complex geologic/tectonic structure. Moreover, the isostatic mass balance reflects also the density structure within the lithosphere. The gravimetric methods should therefore incorporate an additional correction for the lithospheric mantle as well as deeper mantle density heterogeneities. Following this principle, we solve the Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) inverse problem of isostasy constrained by seismic data to determine the Moho depth of the South American tectonic plate including surrounding oceans, while taking into consideration the crustal and mantle density heterogeneities. Our numerical result confirms that contribution of sediments significantly modifies the estimation of the Moho geometry especially along the continental margins with large sediment deposits. To account for the mantle density heterogeneities we develop and apply a method in order to correct the Moho geometry for the contribution of the lithospheric thermal state (i.e., the lithospheric thermal-pressure correction). In addition, the misfit between the isostatic and seismic Moho models, attributed mainly to deep mantle density heterogeneities and other geophysical phenomena, is corrected for by applying the non-isostatic correction. The results reveal that the application of the lithospheric thermal-pressure correction improves the RMS fit of the VMM gravimetric Moho solution to the CRUST1.0 (improves ∼ 1.9 km) and GEMMA (∼1.1 km) models and the point-wise seismic data (∼0.7 km) in South America.

  7. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SPEED MODES OF THERMAL STERILIZATION OF CANNED FOOD «TOMATOES MARINADED» IN A STATIC STATE CANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Demirova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducted research on the development of energy-saving modes of thermal sterilization of canned food "Tomatoes marinaded" using speed sterilization static cans. The proposed formula for expressing the speed modes of thermal sterilization of conserved products instatic state. Developed modes of sterilization of canned food "Tomatoes marinaded in banks by the volume of 0.5, 1.0, and 2,0 l

  8. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SPEED MODES OF THERMAL STERILIZATION OF CANNED FOOD «TOMATOES MARINADED» IN A STATIC STATE CANS

    OpenAIRE

    A. F. Demirova; M. E. Akhmedov; V. V. Pinyskin; S. S. Shikhaliyev; N. G. Zagirov

    2014-01-01

    Conducted research on the development of energy-saving modes of thermal sterilization of canned food "Tomatoes marinaded" using speed sterilization static cans. The proposed formula for expressing the speed modes of thermal sterilization of conserved products instatic state. Developed modes of sterilization of canned food "Tomatoes marinaded in banks by the volume of 0.5, 1.0, and 2,0 l

  9. A Synthesis of the Basal Thermal State of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, J. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Catania, G. A.; Aschwanden, A.; Clow, G. D.; Colgan, W. T.; Gogineni, S. P.; Morlighem, M.; Nowicki, S. M. J.; Paden, J. D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Greenland's thick ice sheet insulates the bedrock below from the cold temperatures at the surface, so the bottom of the ice is often tens of degrees warmer than at the top, because the ice bottom is slowly warmed by heat coming from the Earth's depths. Knowing whether Greenland's ice lies on wet, slippery ground or is anchored to dry, frozen bedrock is essential for predicting how this ice will flow in the future. But scientists have very few direct observations of the thermal conditions beneath the ice sheet, obtained through fewer than two dozen boreholes that have reached the bottom. Our study synthesizes several independent methods to infer the Greenland Ice Sheet's basal thermal state -whether the bottom of the ice is melted or not-leading to the first map that identifies frozen and thawed areas across the whole ice sheet. This map will guide targets for future investigations of the Greenland Ice Sheet toward the most vulnerable and poorly understood regions, ultimately improving our understanding of its dynamics and contribution to future sea-level rise. It is of particular relevance to ongoing Operation IceBridge activities and future large-scale airborne missions over Greenland.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of polyimide thin films obtained by thermal evaporation and solid state reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ajaj Ikram Atta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research polyimide films were prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD, using solid state reaction of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA and p-phenylene diamine (PDA to form poly(amic acid (PAA films. The resultant films were converted to polyimide by thermal treatment, usually below 300 °C. For this study, a FT-IR spectrometer has been used to measure the effect of imidization temperature on the chemical structure of the vapor-deposited thin films of aromatic PI. When temperature increased, an increase in all absorption peaks was observed. This suggests that residual PAA monomers continued to be converted into PI. The surface topology of the PI films obtained at imidization temperatures of 150, 200, 250 °C for 1 hour was further examined by using AFM atomic force microscopy. It can be clearly seen that the surface became rougher with increasing imidization temperature. The thermal stability of polyimide was also studied by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA.

  11. Restructuring of the coal industry and thermal power sector in the Commonwealth of Independent States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The paper summarizes the most recent developments in the transformation of the coal and thermal power sector in Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Ukraine to market economy conditions. It also provides statistical data concerning the dynamics of the major indicators of restructuring, such as the allocation of state subsidies, productivity growth, employment and investment. Over the last three years, the restructuring of the coal and thermal power sectors has progressed differently in the above three countries. Both sectors and especially the coal industry sector have been forced to restructure with extreme rapidity under unstable conditions, such as economic decline, absence of stable economic and fiscal laws, hyperinflation, loss of purchasing power, collapse of payment system. The transformation has been management restructuring rather than technical or reinvestment. The programmes of restructuring were mor ambitious than their realistic implementation as the lack of financial resources had, in many cases, delayed or even postponed the deadlines and objectives. The first stage has been completed in the Russian Federation, but has not yet started in Ukraine. In Kazakhstan, the coal industry has been fully privatized, mainly by foreign companies, power generation is now following along the same lines. Both sectors adapt their structure to new market requirements.

  12. Ignition phase and steady-state structures of a non-thermal air plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lu Xin Pei

    2003-01-01

    An AC-driven, non-thermal, atmospheric pressure air plasma is generated within the gap separating a disc-shaped metal electrode and a water electrode. The ignition phase and the steady-state are studied by a high-speed CCD camera. It is found that the plasma always initiates at the surface of the water electrode. The plasma exhibits different structures depending on the polarity of the water electrode: when the water electrode plays the role of cathode, a relatively wide but visibly dim plasma column is generated. At the maximum driving voltage, the gas temperature is between 800 and 900 K, and the peak current is 67 mA; when the water electrode is anode, the plasma column narrows but increases its light emission. The gas temperature in this case is measured to be in the 1400-1500 K range, and the peak current is 81 mA.

  13. Burn-up dependent steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis of Pakistan research reactor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Atta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The burn-up dependent steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis of Pakistan research reactor-1, reference operating core, has been carried out utilizing standard computer codes WIMS/D4, CITATION, and RELAP5/MOD3.4. Reactor codes WIMS/D4 and CITATION have been used for the calculations of neutronic parameters including peaking factors and power profiles at different burn-up considering a xenon free core and also the equilibrium xenon values. RELAP5/MOD3.4 code was utilized for the determination of peak fuel centerline, clad and coolant temperatures to ensure the safety of the reactor throughout the cycle. The calculations reveal that the reactor is safe and no nucleate boiling will commence at any part of the core throughout the cycle and that the safety margin increases with burnup as peaking factors decrease.

  14. Confinement physics for thermal, neutral, high-charge-state plasmas in nested-well solenoidal traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolliver, D D; Ordonez, C A

    1999-06-01

    A theoretical study is presented which indicates that it is possible to confine a neutral plasma using static electric and solenoidal magnetic fields. The plasma consists of equal temperature electrons and highly stripped ions. The solenoidal magnetic field provides radial confinement, while the electric field, which produces an axial nested-well potential profile, provides axial confinement. A self-consistent, multidimensional numerical solution for the electric potential is obtained, and a fully kinetic theoretical treatment on axial transport is used to determine an axial confinement time scale. The effect on confinement of the presence of a radial electric field is explored with the use of ion trajectory calculations. A thermal, neutral, high-charge-state plasma confined in a nested-well trap opens new possibilities for fundamental studies on plasma recombination and cross-field transport processes under highly controlled conditions.

  15. Steady thermal stress and strain rates in a rotating circular cylinder under steady state temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stress and strain rates in a thick walled rotating cylinder under steady state temperature has been derived by using Seth’s transition theory. For elastic-plastic stage, it is seen that with the increase of temperature, the cylinder having smaller radii ratios requires lesser angular velocity to become fully plastic as compared to cylinder having higher radii ratios The circumferential stress becomes larger and larger with the increase in temperature. With increase in thickness ratio stresses must be decrease. For the creep stage, it is seen that circumferential stresses for incompressible materials maximum at the internal surface as compared to compressible material, which increase with the increase in temperature and measure n.

  16. Mathematical Modeling of the Thermal State of the Spatial Layered Rod Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Stankevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the features of finite element technology to determine the temperature state of layered rod structures with complex spatial design. The area of research, on the one hand, is defined by the fact that the rod structures (frames are so-called “skeletal framework” of aviation, machinery, shipbuilding products and structures for industrial construction and an issue of implementation of most research and industrial projects, strongly promising from the practical point of view, depends largely on the level of reliability, bearing capacity, and general performance of its “skeletal framework”. On the other hand, the laminates have a wide range and unique combination of valuable properties such as high strength, corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, heat resistance, abrasion resistance and many others. The use of layered metal compositions allows to increase the reliability and durability of a large range of parts and equipment and to reduce significantly the consumption of high-alloyed steels and nonferrous metals. A temperature field is one of the main factors to determine the expected performance of multilayer rod structures, operation conditions of which imply intensive thermal loading.The paper shows how within a single finite element model that approximates the spatial design of steel structures consisting of multilayer curvilinear rods, at the stage of discretization in space to take into account the thermo-physical properties of all materials, forming layer of each timber. Using the technique described in the paper has been created a complex of application programs that allows us to solve a wide class of scientific and applied problems, and explore the impact of various structural, technological and operational factors on the temperature state of multilayer rod structures. The paper presents research results of the multilayer rod design. It shows that the high conductivity layer available

  17. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  18. Nonlocal quantum macroscopic superposition in a high-thermal low-purity state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, Mark E; Liu, Bin

    2008-12-16

    Quantum state exchange between light and matter is an important ingredient for future quantum information networks as well as other applications. Photons are the fastest and simplest carriers of information for transmission but in general, it is difficult to localize and store photons, so usually one prefers choosing matter as quantum memory elements. Macroscopic superposition and nonlocal quantum interactions have received considerable interest for this purpose over recent years in fields ranging from quantum computers to cryptography, in addition to providing major insights into physical laws. However, these experiments are generally performed either with equipment or under conditions that are unrealistic for practical applications. Ideally, the two can be combined using conventional equipment and conditions to generate a "quantum teleportation"-like state, particularly with a very small amount of purity existing in an overall highly mixed thermal state (relatively low decoherence at high temperatures). In this study we used an experimental design to demonstrate these principles. We performed optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a thermal source at room temperatures of a specifically designed target in the sample arm. Here, position uncertainty (i.e., dispersion) was induced in the reference arm. In the sample arm (target) we placed two glass plates separated by a different medium while altering position uncertainty in the reference arm. This resulted in a chirped signal between the glass plate reflective surfaces in the combined interferogram. The chirping frequency, as measured by the fast Fourier transform (FFT), varies with the medium between the plates, which is a nonclassical phenomenon. These results are statistically significant and occur from a superposition between the glass surface and the medium with increasing position uncertainty, a true quantum-mechanical phenomenon produced by photon pressure from two-photon interference. The differences in

  19. Constraining the composition and thermal state of the moon from an inversion of electromagnetic lunar day-side transfer functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Amir; Connolly, J.A.D.; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    go beyond the conventional approach by inverting directly for chemical composition and thermal state, using the model system CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, rather than subsurface electrical conductivity structure, which is only an indirect means of estimating the former parameters. Using Gibbs free energy......We present a general method to constrain planetary composition and thermal state from an inversion of long-period electromagnetic sounding data. As an example of our approach, we reexamine the problem of inverting lunar day-side transfer functions to constrain the internal structure of the Moon. We...

  20. Thermal gradients in Southwestern United States and the effect on bridge bearing loads : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Thermal gradients became a component of bridge design after soffit cracking in prestressed concrete bridges was attributed to nonlinear temperature distribution through the depth of the bridge. While the effect of thermal gradient on stress distribut...

  1. Cathode material comparison of thermal runaway behavior of Li-ion cells at different state of charges including over charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Hernandez, Omar Samuel; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Nishikawa, Yuuki; Maruyama, Yuki; Umeda, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of Li-ion secondary cells under outstanding conditions, as overcharge and high temperatures, is important to determine thermal abuse characteristics of electroactive materials and precise risk assessments on Li-ion cells. In this work, the thermal runaway behavior of LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4 cathode materials were compared at different state of charges (SOCs), including overcharge, by carrying out accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) measurements using 18650 Li-ion cells. Onset temperatures of self-heating reactions and thermal runaway behavior were identified, and by using these onset points thermal mapping plots were made. We were able to identify non-self-heating, self-heating and thermal runaway regions as a function of state of charge and temperature. The cell using LiMn2O4 cathode material was found to be more thermally stable than the cell using LiCoO2. In parallel with the ARC measurements, the electrochemical behavior of the cells was monitored by measuring the OCV and internal resistance of the cells. The electrochemical behavior of the cells showed a slightly dependency on SOC.

  2. Green luminescence and excited state thermalization in Er-doped gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J. T.; Hoemmerich, U. H. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Steckl, A. J.; Birkhahn, B. R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnatii, OH (United States); Zavada, J. M. [US Army European Research Office, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    The optical properties in the {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} channels of Er-doped GaN have been investigated. The GaN:Er was grown on Si substrates by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The resulting Er concentration was {approx}2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}, and the unintentional oxygen impurity was observed to be {approx}10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. Optical spectroscopy revealed that the lifetime decay at the {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} state was mainly due to a strong thermalization between the {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and the {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} states. The green luminescence ({sup 4}S{sub 3/2} and {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) efficiency at 300 K was much higher than 56 %. Photoluminescence and lifetime measurements with different excitation channels suggest the existence of multiple Er-sites in GaN.

  3. Domination versus disjunctive domination in graphs | Henning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A dominating set in a graph G is a set S of vertices of G such that every vertex not in S is adjacent to a vertex of S. The domination number of G is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set of G. For a positive integer b, a set S of vertices in a graph G is a b-disjunctive dominating set in G if every vertex v not in S is adjacent ...

  4. Evaluation of NIPER thermal EOR research, state-of-the-art and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.; Mahmood, S.M.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1993-06-01

    The Thermal Oil Production Research Group at NIPER has conducted research on behalf of the US Department of Energy on thermal methods of oil production (steam and for 1 year, in situ combustion) since 1983. Research projects performed by this group have attempted to adapt to the needs and direction of the DOE`s oil research program and that of industry. This report summarizes the research that has been conducted, analyses the contributions of the research, describes how the technology was transferred to potential users, analyzes current trends in thermal research and thermal oil production, and makes suggestions for future research where NIPER could contribute to advances in thermal oil production.

  5. Method for manufacturing solid-state thermal neutron detectors with simultaneous high thermal neutron detection efficiency (>50%) and neutron to gamma discrimination (>1.0E4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Heineck, Daniel; Voss, Lars F.; Wang, Tzu Fang; Shao, Qinghui

    2013-10-15

    Methods for manufacturing solid-state thermal neutron detectors with simultaneous high thermal neutron detection efficiency (>50%) and neutron to gamma discrimination (>10.sup.4) are provided. A structure is provided that includes a p+ region on a first side of an intrinsic region and an n+ region on a second side of the intrinsic region. The thickness of the intrinsic region is minimized to achieve a desired gamma discrimination factor of at least 1.0E+04. Material is removed from one of the p+ region or the n+ region and into the intrinsic layer to produce pillars with open space between each pillar. The open space is filed with a neutron sensitive material. An electrode is placed in contact with the pillars and another electrode is placed in contact with the side that is opposite of the intrinsic layer with respect to the first electrode.

  6. Entanglement of the Thermal State of an Anisotropic XYZ Spin Chain in an Inhomogeneous Constant Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    -S. F. Obada, A.; M. Abd Al-Kadar, G.; K. Faramawy, F.; A. Youssef, A.

    2012-03-01

    A system of a two-qubit Heisenberg anisotropic XYZ spin chain in an inhomogeneous constant magnetic field with the Dzyaloshinskii—Moriya interaction is studied. The energy eigenvalues, the corresponding eigenstates and the thermal states of the system are evaluated. The entanglement is investigated according to Wootter's concurrence. The concurrence is studied against temperature for different values of the parameters involved.

  7. Nutritional mitigation of winter thermal stress in gilthead seabream associated metabolic pathways and potential indicators of nutritional state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Nadege; Silva, Tomé S.; Wulff, Tune

    2016-01-01

    and phenylalanine/tyrosine catabolism, and induced higher aerobic metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Results support the notion that WF diet had a positive effect on fish nutritional state by partially counteracting the effect of thermal stress and underlined the sensitivity of proteome data for nutritional...

  8. Simulation of Solid-State Weld Microstructures in Ti-17 via Thermal and Thermo- Mechanical Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsborn, Jonathan

    Solid-state welding processes are very important to the advancement of aviation technology; since they enable the joining of dissimilar metals without the additional weight and bulk of fastening systems, the processes can create for stronger and lighter parts to increase payload and efficiency. However, since the processes are not equilibrium, not much is understood about what happens to the materials during the process. During a solid-state weld, the materials being welded are exposed to rapid heating rates, high maximum temperatures, large and varying amounts of deformation, short hold times at temperature, and fast cooling rates. Due to the dynamic nature of the process it is very hard to measure the strains and temperatures experienced by the materials. This work attempted to simulate the microstructures observed in solid-state welds of Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Cr-4Mo, or Ti-17. If the microstructures could be replicated in a controlled and repeatable fashion, then perhaps the conditions of the welding process could be indirectly determined. The simulations were performed by rapidly heating Ti-17 specimens, holding them for a very short time, and rapidly cooling. Some of the samples were also subjected to deformation while at high temperatures. The microstructures resulting from the thermal and thermo-mechanical exposures were then compared with microstructures from an actual solid-state weld of Ti-17. It was determined that the presence of untransformed secondary alpha indicates the temperature did not exceed the beta transus of the alloy (˜900 °C), the presence of untransformed primary alpha indicates that the temperature did not exceed ˜1100 °C, homogenized beta grains indicate that the temperature did exceed 1100°C, and the presence of ghost alpha is indicative that the temperature likely exceeded ˜950 °C. These numbers are rough estimates, as time at temperature and heating rate both factor into the process, and shorter times at higher temperatures can

  9. Mathematical model of the crystallizing blank`s thermal state at the horizontal continuous casting machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryukov Igor Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the development of the mathematical model, which describes thermal state and crystallization process of the rectangular cross-section blank while continious process of extraction from a horysontal continious casting machine (HCCM.The developed model took cue for the heat-transfer properties of non-iron metal teeming; its temperature on entry to the casting mold; cooling conditions of blank in the carbon molds in the presence of a copper water cooler. Besides, has been considered the asymmetry of heat interchange from blank`s head and drag at mold, coming out from fluid contraction and features of the horizontal casting mold. The developed mathematical model allows to determine alterations in crystallizing blank of the following factors with respect to time: temperature pattern of crystallizing blank under different technical working regimes of HCCM; boundaries of solid two-phase field and liquid two-phase filed; blank`s thickness variation under shrinkage of the ingot`s material

  10. Reconfiguration of dominant coupling modes in mild traumatic brain injury mediated by δ-band activity: A resting state MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakakis, Marios; Dimitriadis, Stavros I; Zervakis, Michalis; Papanicolaou, Andrew C; Zouridakis, George

    2017-07-25

    During the last few years, rich-club (RC) organization has been studied as a possible brain-connectivity organization model for large-scale brain networks. At the same time, empirical and simulated data of neurophysiological models have demonstrated the significant role of intra-frequency and inter-frequency coupling among distinct brain areas. The current study investigates further the importance of these couplings using recordings of resting-state magnetoencephalographic activity obtained from 30 mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) subjects and 50 healthy controls. Intra-frequency and inter-frequency coupling modes are incorporated in a single graph to detect group differences within individual rich-club subnetworks (type I networks) and networks connecting RC nodes with the rest of the nodes (type II networks). Our results show a higher probability of inter-frequency coupling for (δ-γ1), (δ-γ2), (θ-β), (θ-γ2), (α-γ2), (γ1-γ2) and intra-frequency coupling for (γ1-γ1) and (δ-δ) for both type I and type II networks in the mTBI group. Additionally, mTBI and control subjects can be correctly classified with high accuracy (98.6%), whereas a general linear regression model can effectively predict the subject group using the ratio of type I and type II coupling in the (δ, θ), (δ, β), (δ, γ1), and (δ, γ2) frequency pairs. These findings support the presence of an RC organization simultaneously with dominant frequency interactions within a single functional graph. Our results demonstrate a hyperactivation of intrinsic RC networks in mTBI subjects compared to controls, which can be seen as a plausible compensatory mechanism for alternative frequency-dependent routes of information flow in mTBI subjects. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Different patterns of spontaneous brain activity between tremor-dominant and postural instability/gait difficulty subtypes of Parkinson's disease: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Min; Wang, Zhi-Jiang; Fang, Jin-Ping; Gao, Li-Yan; Ma, Ling-Yan; Wu, Tao; Hou, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Jia-Rong; Feng, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD) and tremor-dominant (TD) subtypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) show different clinical manifestations; however, their underlying neural substrates remain incompletely understood. This study aimed at investigating the subtype-specific patterns of spontaneous brain activity in PD. Thirty-one patients with PD (12 TD/19 PIGD) and 22 healthy gender- and age-matched controls were recruited. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected, and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) was measured. Voxelwise one-way analysis of covariance and post hoc analyses of ALFF were performed among the three groups, with age and gender as covariates (levodopa daily dosage and gray matter volume as additional covariates for validation analysis). Correlations of clinical variables (e.g., disease duration and PIGD/tremor subscale score) with ALFF values were examined. Compared with controls, patients with TD exhibited higher ALFF in the right cerebellar posterior lobe and patients with PIGD exhibited lower ALFF in the bilateral putamen and cerebellar posterior lobe, and higher values primarily in several cortical areas including the inferior and superior temporal gyrus, superior frontal, and parietal gyrus. Compared with patients with PIGD, patients with TD had higher ALFF in the bilateral putamen and the cerebellar posterior lobe, as well as lower ALFF in the bilateral temporal gyrus and the left superior parietal lobule. In all patients, ALFF in the bilateral cerebellar posterior lobe positively correlated with tremor score and ALFF in the bilateral putamen negatively correlated with PIGD score. Different patterns of spontaneous neural activity in the cerebellum and putamen may underlie the neural substrate of PD motor subtypes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. LED driver thermal design considerations for solid-state lighting technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perpiñà, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Vellvehi, M.; Jordà, X.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Jakovenko, J.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study into the thermal influence of an LED driver board on an SSL Lamp. Full thermal characterization of an LED lamp and driver board is carried out by infrared thermography and by monitoring specific locations with thermocouples. The experimental results have been used to

  13. Effects of microwave heating on the thermal states of biological tissues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    thermal wave propagation in biological tissues by dual reciprocity boundary element method. Preliminary survey on the mechanism of the wave-like behaviors of heat transfer in living tissues has been discussed by Liu (2000) who introduced a new concept of multi-mode energy coupling, a phenomenological thermal.

  14. BUT IS IT SPEECH? MAKING CRITICAL SENSE OF THE DOMINANT CONSTITUTIONAL DISCOURSE ON PORNOGRAPHY, MORALITY AND HARM UNDER THE PERVASIVE INFLUENCE OF UNITED STATES FIRST AMENDMENT JURISPRUDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letetia van der Poll

    2012-08-01

    that “non-obscene” sexually explicit material has social value, as do esteemed works of literature and art. Secondly, the court assumes that all individuals have equal access to the means of expression and dissemination of ideas and thus fails to acknowledge substantive (and gendered structural inequalities. A closer inspection reveals that the Supreme Court’s justification of why freedom of expression is such a fundamental freedom in a constitutional democracy (and the reason that “non-obscene” sexually explicit material consequently enjoys constitutional protection is highly suspect, both intellectually and philosophically. And yet the South African Constitutional Court has explicitly recognised the same philosophical justification as the basis for free speech and expression. The Constitutional Court has, in fact, both supported and emphasised the idea that freedom of expression stands central to the concepts of democracy and political transformation through participation, and has expressly confirmed the association between freedom of expression and the political rights safeguarded under the Bill of Rights. Moreover, the Constitutional Court has also endorsed the conception of adult gender-specific sexually explicit material as a form of free expression. And yet by embracing a moralistic, libertarian model of free expression, the very ideal of a free, democratic and equal society, one in which women can live secure from the threat of harm, is put at risk. A moralistic, libertarian model is simply not capable of conceptualising sexually explicit material as a possible violation of women’s fundamental interests in equality, dignity and physical integrity.This article has a two-fold objective. The first is to critically examine the dominant discourse on adult gender-specific sexually explicit material emanating from United States jurisprudence (and its resonance in South African constitutional thought, and secondly, to assess whether this particular

  15. Endorsement of sexist ideology in Taiwan and the United States: social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, and deferential family norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Despite close relationships between men and women in daily lives, gender inequality is ubiquitous and often supported by sexist ideology. The understanding of potential bases of sexist ideology is thus important. According to Duckitt's dual-process model (2001), different worldviews may explain different types of sexist ideology. Individuals who hold a "competitive world" worldview tend to endorse group-based dominance. This lends itself to the endorsement of hostile sexism, because hostile sexism is an obvious form of male dominance. Conversely, individuals who hold a "dangerous world" worldview tend to adhere to social cohesion, collective security, and social traditions. This lends itself to the endorsement of benevolent sexism, because benevolent sexism values women who conform to gender norms. As predicted by Duckitt's model, research has shown that social dominance orientation, a general orientation towards the endorsement of group-based dominance, is closely associated with hostile sexism. Furthermore, right-wing authoritarianism, which measures adherence to social traditions, is closely associated with benevolent sexism. Due to the interdependent nature of gender relationships, the current research proposed that a relationship-based belief in hierarchy, deferential family norms, and norms depicting proper manners among family members should predict the endorsement of hostile and benevolent sexism, after controlling for social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism. As predicted, according to student samples collected in Taiwan and the US, the endorsement of deferential family norms predicted the endorsement of hostile sexism and of benevolent sexism, respectively. In addition, among men and women, social dominance orientation predicted hostile sexism more strongly (as opposed to benevolent sexism), whereas right-wing authoritarianism predicted benevolent sexism more strongly (as opposed to hostile sexism). Implications regarding relationship

  16. Entanglement between atomic thermal states and coherent or squeezed photons in a damping cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadollahi, F.; Safaiee, R.; Golshan, M. M.

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, the standard Jaynes-Cummings model, in a lossy cavity, is employed to characterize the entanglement between atoms and photons when the former is initially in a thermal state (mixed ensemble) while the latter is described by either coherent or squeezed distributions. The whole system is thus assumed to be in equilibrium with a heat reservoir at a finite temperature T, and the measure of negativity is used to determine the time evolution of atom-photon entanglement. To this end, the master equation for the density matrix, in the secular approximation, is solved and a partial transposition of the result is made. The degree of atom-photon entanglement is then numerically computed, through the negativity, as a function of time and temperature. To justify the behavior of atom-photon entanglement, moreover, we employ the so obtained total density matrix to compute and analyze the time evolution of the initial photonic coherent or squeezed probability distributions and the squeezing parameters. On more practical points, our results demonstrate that as the initial photon mean number increases, the atom-photon entanglement decays at a faster pace for the coherent distribution compared to the squeezed one. Moreover, it is shown that the degree of atom-photon entanglement is much higher and more stable for the squeezed distribution than that for the coherent one. Consequently, we conclude that the time intervals during which the atom-photon entanglement is distillable is longer for the squeezed distribution. It is also illustrated that as the temperature increases the rate of approaching separability is faster for the coherent initial distribution. The novel point of the present report is the calculation of dynamical density matrix (containing all physical information) for the combined system of atom-photon in a lossy cavity, as well as the corresponding negativity, at a finite temperature.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and thermal behaviour of solid-state compounds of benzoates with some bivalent transition metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano B. Siqueira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state MBz compounds, where M stands for bivalent Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn and Bz is benzoate, have been synthesized. Simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, infrared spectroscopy and complexometry were used to characterize and to study the thermal behaviour of these compounds. The procedure used in the preparation of the compounds via reaction of basic carbonates with benzoic acid is not efficient in eliminating excess acid. However the TG-DTA curves permitted to verify that the binary compounds can be obtained by thermosynthesis, because the benzoic acid can be eliminated before the thermal decomposition of these compounds. The results led to information about the composition, dehydration, thermal stability, thermal decomposition and structure of the isolated compounds. On heating, these compounds decompose in two (Mn, Co, Ni, Zn or three (Fe, Cu steps with formation of the respective oxide (Mn3O4, Fe2O3, Co3O4, NiO, CuO and ZnO as final residue. The theoretical and experimental spectroscopic studies suggest a covalent bidentate bond between ligand and metallic center.

  18. Solar cooling - state of the art of solar thermally driven heat pumps for cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Part of: Thermally driven heat pumps for heating and cooling. – Ed.: Annett Kühn – Berlin: Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin, 2013 ISBN 978-3-7983-2686-6 (print) ISBN 978-3-7983-2596-8 (online) urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-39458 [http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:83-opus4-39458] An attractive alternative to conventional electricity driven cooling systems is solar cooling, which combines thermally driven heat pumps/chillers with solar thermal collectors. Solar co...

  19. Non-two-state thermal denaturation of ferricytochrome c at neutral and slightly acidic pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varhač, Rastislav; Sedláková, Dagmar; Stupák, Marek; Sedlák, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Thermal denaturation of ferricytochrome c (cyt c) has been methodically studied by absorbance, fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy, viscosimetry and differential scanning calorimetry in pH range from pH 3.5 to 7.5. Thermal transitions have been monitored by intrinsic local probes of heme region such as absorbance at Soret, 620nm and 695nm bands and circular dichroism signals at 417nm. Global conformational changes were analyzed by circular dichroism signal at 222nm, fluorescence of the single tryptophan, reduced viscosity and differential scanning calorimetry. We show that cyt c thermal denaturation above pH ~5 can be described by an apparent two-step transition in which the heme iron stays in a low-spin state. The thermal denaturations of cyt c below pH ~5 proceed in one step to an unfolded highly compact form with a high-spin state of the heme iron. Cyt c conformational plasticity is discussed in regard to its physiological functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. What's Wrong with Domination?

    OpenAIRE

    Hearn, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the concept of ‘domination’ as it is treated in the second edition of Steven Lukes’ (2005) Power: A radical view. It argues that Lukes’ conception of domination is preoccupied with the condition of being dominated, neglecting to adequately define dominance and the relationship of domination. This conceptual imbalance is closely related to intrinsic problems of distinguishing between domination and ‘social control’ more generally. The conclusion offers a provisional, disa...

  1. Dominous: simulador libre de dominó

    OpenAIRE

    Palomo Duarte, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Dominous es un simulador libre de dominó internacional (por parejas y a 300 puntos). Permite participar a un jugador y busca fomentar el aprendizaje y la renovación de un juego clásico y con mucha profundidad. Para ello, Dominous implementa la inteligencia artificial de los jugadores controlados por la máquina mediante sistemas expertos. El programa está disponible tanto para Windows como para GNU/Linux, no tiene grandes requerimientos técnicos para funcionar y está liberado con licencia GNU...

  2. Thermal effects in solid state lasers under super-Gaussian pulses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... thermal conductivity, mass density and crystal specific heat, respectively. For short pulses, the pulse duration is usually assumed smaller than the transfer time of the heat. So when the pulse is off, we can investigate eq. (1) with Q(r, t) = 0, that is,. ∂T. ∂t. = κ∇2T,. (2) where κ = K/ρc is defined as thermal diffusivity [10].

  3. High pulse number thermal shock tests on tungsten with steady state particle background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, M.; Kreter, A.; Linke, J.; Loewenhoff, Th; Pintsuk, G.; Sergienko, G.; Steudel, I.; Unterberg, B.; Wessel, E.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal fatigue of metallic materials, which will be exposed to severe environmental conditions e.g. plasma facing materials in future fusion reactors, is an important issue in order to predict the life time of complete wall components. Therefore experiments in the linear plasma device PSI-2 were performed to investigate the synergistic effects of high pulse number thermal shock events (L = 0.38 GW m‑2, Δt = 0.5 ms) and stationary D/He (6%) plasma particle background on the thermal fatigue behavior of tungsten. Similar to experiments with pure thermal loads, the induced microstructural and surface modifications such as recrystallization and roughening as well as crack formation become more pronounced with increasing number of thermal shock events. However, the amount of damage significantly increases for synergistic loads showing severe surface roughening, plastic deformation and erosion resulting from the degradation of the mechanical properties caused by bombardment and diffusion of D/He to the surface and the bulk of the material. Additionally, D/He induced blistering and bubble formation were observed for all tested samples, which could change the thermal and mechanical properties of near surface regions.

  4. Induction Motor Thermal Protection: Models, State and Parameter Estimation and Laboratory Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga Zegarra, Antenor Segundo

    To provide adequate thermal motor protection, the stator winding and rotor bar temperature should be monitored. This research presents methods to estimate these temperatures using stator and rotor thermal models, which describe the stator and rotor thermal characteristics. The stator copper loss and iron core losses are considered as the heat inputs to the stator thermal model. The rotor copper loss is that heat input to the rotor thermal model. Effects of terminal voltage unbalance and slip are considered in the computation of the rotor heat input. When the motor is equipped with temperature sensors, Kalman filter techniques are used to optimally process these data to estimate the stator winding temperature. The extended Kalman filter was used to estimate the RTD thermal time constant. Accurate results were obtained when the temperature estimation methods were evaluated using a 7.5 HP induction motor. The computational complexity of these methods is such that the algorithms can be implemented in real time using present microprocessor technology.

  5. Performance of tungsten-based materials and components under ITER and DEMO relevant steady-state thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritz, Guillaume Henri

    2011-07-01

    In nuclear fusion devices the surfaces directly facing the plasma are irradiated with high energy fluxes. The most intense loads are deposited on the divertor located at the bottom of the plasma chamber, which has to withstand continuous heat loads with a power density of several MW . m{sup -2} as well as transient events. These are much shorter (in the millisecond and sub-millisecond regime) but deposit a higher power densities of a few GW . m{sup -2}. The search for materials that can survive to those severe loading conditions led to the choice of tungsten which possesses advantageous attributes such as a high melting point, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion and an acceptable activation rate. These properties made it an attractive and promising candidate as armor material for divertors of future fusion devices such as ITER and DEMO. For the DEMO divertor, conceptual studies on helium-cooled tungsten plasma-facing components were performed. The concept was realized and tested under DEMO specific cyclic thermal loads. The examination of the plasma-facing components by microstructural analyses before and after thermal loading enabled to determine the mechanisms for components failure. Among others, it clearly showed the impact of the tungsten grade and the thermal stress induced crack formation on the performance of the armor material and in general of the plasma-facing component under high heat loads. A tungsten qualification program was launched to study the behaviour of various tungsten grades, in particular the crack formation, under fusion relevant steady-state thermal loads. In total, seven commercially available materials from two industrial suppliers were investigated. As the material's thermal response is strongly related to its microstructure, this program comprised different material geometries and manufacturing technologies. It also included the utilization of an actively cooled specimen holder which has been designed to perform

  6. The myotubular myopathies: differential diagnosis of the X linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive forms and present state of DNA studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallgren-Pettersson, C.; Clarke, A.; Samson, F.; Fardeau, M.; Dubowitz, V.; Moser, H.; Grimm, T.; Barohn, R. J.; Barth, P. G.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical differences exist between the three forms of myotubular myopathy. They differ regarding age at onset, severity of the disease, and prognosis, and also regarding some of the clinical characteristics. The autosomal dominant form mostly has a later onset and milder course than the X linked

  7. Observation of interference effects via four photon excitation of highly excited Rydberg states in thermal cesium vapor

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, Jorge M; Guttridge, Alex; Wade, Christopher G; De Melo, Natalia R; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    We report on the observation of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) and Absorption (EIA) of highly-excited Rydberg states in thermal Cs vapor using a 4-step excitation scheme. The advantage of this 4-step scheme is that the final transition to the Rydberg state has a large dipole moment and one can achieve similar Rabi frequencies to 2 or 3 step excitation schemes using two orders of magnitude less laser power. Consequently each step is driven by a relatively low power infra-red diode laser opening up the prospect for new applications. The observed lineshapes are in good agreement with simulations based on multilevel optical Bloch equations.

  8. The thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere during polar mesosphere winter echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.-J. Lübken

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2005, a total of 18 rockets were launched from the Andøya Rocket Range in Northern Norway (69° N into strong VHF radar echoes called 'Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes' (PMWE. The echoes were observed in the lower and middle mesosphere during large solar proton fluxes. In general, PMWE occur much more seldom compared to their summer counterparts PMSE (typical occurrence rates at 69° N are 1–3% vs. 80%, respectively. Our in-situ measurements by falling sphere, chaff, and instrumented payloads provide detailed information about the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere and therefore allow an unprecedented study of the background atmosphere during PMWE. There are a number of independent observations indicating that neutral air turbulence has caused PMWE. Ion density fluctuations show a turbulence spectrum within PMWE and no fluctuations outside. Temperature lapse rates close to the adiabatic gradient are observed in the vicinity of PMWE indicating persistent turbulent mixing. The spectral broadening of radar echoes is consistent with turbulent velocity fluctuations. Turbulence also explains the mean occurrence height of PMWE (~68–75 km: viscosity increases rapidly with altitude and destroys any small scale fluctuations in the upper mesosphere, whereas electron densities are usually too low in the lower mesosphere to cause significant backscatter. The seasonal variation of echoes in the lower mesosphere is in agreement with a turbulence climatology derived from earlier sounding rocket flights. We have performed model calculations to study the radar backscatter from plasma fluctuations caused by neutral air turbulence. We find that volume reflectivities observed during PMWE are in quantitative agreement with theory. Apart from turbulence the most crucial requirement for PMWE is a sufficiently large number of electrons, for example produced by solar proton events. We have studied the sensitivity of the radar echo strength on

  9. Including Thermal Fluctuations in Actomyosin Stable States Increases the Predicted Force per Motor and Macroscopic Efficiency in Muscle Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Lorenzo; Washio, Takumi; Yanagida, Toshio

    2016-09-01

    Muscle contractions are generated by cyclical interactions of myosin heads with actin filaments to form the actomyosin complex. To simulate actomyosin complex stable states, mathematical models usually define an energy landscape with a corresponding number of wells. The jumps between these wells are defined through rate constants. Almost all previous models assign these wells an infinite sharpness by imposing a relatively simple expression for the detailed balance, i.e., the ratio of the rate constants depends exponentially on the sole myosin elastic energy. Physically, this assumption corresponds to neglecting thermal fluctuations in the actomyosin complex stable states. By comparing three mathematical models, we examine the extent to which this hypothesis affects muscle model predictions at the single cross-bridge, single fiber, and organ levels in a ceteris paribus analysis. We show that including fluctuations in stable states allows the lever arm of the myosin to easily and dynamically explore all possible minima in the energy landscape, generating several backward and forward jumps between states during the lifetime of the actomyosin complex, whereas the infinitely sharp minima case is characterized by fewer jumps between states. Moreover, the analysis predicts that thermal fluctuations enable a more efficient contraction mechanism, in which a higher force is sustained by fewer attached cross-bridges.

  10. Modeling steady-state thermal defectoscopy of steel solids using two side testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Boban R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, performing the thermal defectoscopy of a steel solid body by applying the thermovision camera, finite element method and method of filtering experimental data is proposed and implemented. Defect thickness, depth and size are analysed by defined temperature reference levels and simplified methodology. The thermal image processing is based on the proposed method. The applicability of this method can be confirmed by comparing analysis of obtained results with already known methods. The conducted experiment indicates that contactless method is efficient in the defects detection of thin non-complex prismatic parts.

  11. An investigation about the solid state thermal degradation of acetylsalicylic acid: polymer formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edna M. de A; Melo, Dulce M. de A; Moura, Maria de F.V. de; Farias, Robson F. de

    2004-05-06

    An investigation about the thermal degradation of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is performed. It is verified that the thermal degradation of ASA produces not only salicylic acid (SA) and acetic acid (AA) as products but also an ASA polymer, which is transparent and solid. And also verified that the temperature in which the polymer is obtained influences its physical consistence (solid or semi-solid). Furthermore, the ASA polymer is very stable from a thermic point of view, as verified by TG and DSC analysis. X-ray diffraction patterns obtained for the ASA polymer show that it exhibits a low crystallinity.

  12. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  13. Dominating Sets and Domination Polynomials of Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Alikhani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Let G=(V,E be a simple graph. A set S⊆V is a dominating set of G, if every vertex in V\\S is adjacent to at least one vertex in S. Let 𝒫ni be the family of all dominating sets of a path Pn with cardinality i, and let d(Pn,j=|𝒫nj|. In this paper, we construct 𝒫ni, and obtain a recursive formula for d(Pn,i. Using this recursive formula, we consider the polynomial D(Pn,x=∑i=⌈n/3⌉nd(Pn,ixi, which we call domination polynomial of paths and obtain some properties of this polynomial.

  14. Finite element code FENIA verification and application for 3D modelling of thermal state of radioactive waste deep geological repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, U. N.

    2017-11-01

    The verification of the FENIA finite element code on some problems and an example of its application are presented in the paper. The code is being developing for 3D modelling of thermal, mechanical and hydrodynamical (THM) problems related to the functioning of deep geological repositories. Verification of the code for two analytical problems has been performed. The first one is point heat source with exponential heat decrease, the second one - linear heat source with similar behavior. Analytical solutions have been obtained by the authors. The problems have been chosen because they reflect the processes influencing the thermal state of deep geological repository of radioactive waste. Verification was performed for several meshes with different resolution. Good convergence between analytical and numerical solutions was achieved. The application of the FENIA code is illustrated by 3D modelling of thermal state of a prototypic deep geological repository of radioactive waste. The repository is designed for disposal of radioactive waste in a rock at depth of several hundred meters with no intention of later retrieval. Vitrified radioactive waste is placed in the containers, which are placed in vertical boreholes. The residual decay heat of radioactive waste leads to containers, engineered safety barriers and host rock heating. Maximum temperatures and corresponding times of their establishment have been determined.

  15. Solid state green synthesis and catalytic activity of CuO nanorods in thermal decomposition of potassium periodate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinay Kumar; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2017-09-01

    The present study reports a facile solid state green synthesis process using the leaf extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis to synthesize CuO nanorods with average diameters of 15-20 nm and lengths up to 100 nm. The as-synthesized CuO nanorods were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The formation mechanism of CuO nanorods has been explained by involving the individual role of amide I (amino groups) and carboxylate groups under excess hydroxyl ions released from NaOH. The catalytic activity of CuO nanorods in thermal decomposition of potassium periodate microparticles (µ-KIO4) microparticles was studied by thermo gravimetric analysis measurement. The original size (~100 µm) of commercially procured potassium periodate was reduced to microscale length scale to about one-tenth by PEG200 assisted emulsion process. The CuO nanorods prepared by solid state green route were found to catalyze the thermal decomposition of µ-KIO4 with a reduction of 18 °C in the final thermal decomposition temperature of potassium periodate.

  16. Mapping the Thermal State of Permafrost Through Modelling and Remote Sensing in ESA GlobPermafrost Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obu, J.; Westermann, S.; Kaab, A.; Bartsch, A.

    2016-12-01

    Permafrost cannot be directly detected from space, but many permafrost surface properties and features are observable with a variety of earth observation sensors. ESA's GlobPermafrost project develops, validates and implements different permafrost information products to support the research communities and related international organisations. Within GlobPermafrost, we aim to produce a circum-polar map of permafrost extent and thermal state. The thermal state of the ground cannot be directly inferred from spaceborne platforms with current remote sensing technologies. We overcome these limitations by combining the information content of several remote sensing products, namely time series of remotely sensed land surface temperature, snow cover and snow water equivalent. These products are employed to force ground thermal models at 1km resolution which deliver ground temperatures and probability of permafrost occurrence within a grid cell. This semi-empirical approach has been tested in non-glaciated, land area in the North Atlantic region. Mean annual ground temperatures were estimated at a spatial resolution of 1 km at using MODIS land surface temperatures and ERA reanalysis products. The results are compared to in-situ temperature measurements and show accuracy of approximately 2.5 °C. This procedure was improved with land surface temperature gap filling, snow water equivalent information and ground surface properties. We present first results and discuss the challenges in application of the scheme on the circumpolar scale.

  17. quasi-steady state thermal performances of a solar air heater with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-17

    Jan 17, 2017 ... this linear system were assessed from program based on an iterative process. The mean temperature variation with time and the thermal performance parameters were .... 5 cm each, (6) an adiabatic envelope of protection made of wood. A fraction of the incident solar radiation G0 falling on the collector is ...

  18. Thermal equation of state of synthetic orthoferrosilite at lunar pressures and temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Jacobs, J.M.G.; van den Berg, A.P.; Wehber, M.; Lathe, C.; McCammon, C.A.; van Westrenen, W.

    2013-01-01

    Iron-rich orthopyroxene plays an important role in models of the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon, but its density at high pressure and high temperature is not well-constrained. We present in situ measurements of the unit-cell volume of a synthetic polycrystalline end-member

  19. The social dominance paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jennifer Louise; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Heyes, Cecilia M; Cools, Roshan

    2014-12-01

    Dominant individuals report high levels of self-sufficiency, self-esteem, and authoritarianism. The lay stereotype suggests that such individuals ignore information from others, preferring to make their own choices. However, the nonhuman animal literature presents a conflicting view, suggesting that dominant individuals are avid social learners, whereas subordinates focus on learning from private experience. Whether dominant humans are best characterized by the lay stereotype or the animal view is currently unknown. Here, we present a "social dominance paradox": using self-report scales and computerized tasks, we demonstrate that socially dominant people explicitly value independence, but, paradoxically, in a complex decision-making task, they show an enhanced reliance (relative to subordinate individuals) on social learning. More specifically, socially dominant people employed a strategy of copying other agents when the agents' responses had a history of being correct. However, in humans, two subtypes of dominance have been identified: aggressive and social. Aggressively dominant individuals, who are as likely to "get their own way" as socially dominant individuals but who do so through the use of aggressive or Machiavellian tactics, did not use social information, even when it was beneficial to do so. This paper presents the first study of dominance and social learning in humans and challenges the lay stereotype in which all dominant individuals ignore others' views. The more subtle perspective we offer could have important implications for decision making in both the boardroom and the classroom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Novel Dominant Mutation in SAG, the Arrestin-1 Gene, Is a Common Cause of Retinitis Pigmentosa in Hispanic Families in the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lori S; Bowne, Sara J; Koboldt, Daniel C; Cadena, Elizabeth L; Heckenlively, John R; Branham, Kari E; Wheaton, Dianna H; Jones, Kaylie D; Ruiz, Richard S; Pennesi, Mark E; Yang, Paul; Davis-Boozer, David; Northrup, Hope; Gurevich, Vsevold V; Chen, Rui; Xu, Mingchu; Li, Yumei; Birch, David G; Daiger, Stephen P

    2017-05-01

    To identify the causes of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) in a cohort of families without mutations in known adRP genes and consequently to characterize a novel dominant-acting missense mutation in SAG. Patients underwent ophthalmologic testing and were screened for mutations using targeted-capture and whole-exome next-generation sequencing. Confirmation and additional screening were done by Sanger sequencing. Haplotypes segregating with the mutation were determined using short tandem repeat and single nucleotide variant polymorphisms. Genealogies were established by interviews of family members. Eight families in a cohort of 300 adRP families, and four additional families, were found to have a novel heterozygous mutation in the SAG gene, c.440G>T; p.Cys147Phe. Patients exhibited symptoms of retinitis pigmentosa and none showed symptoms characteristic of Oguchi disease. All families are of Hispanic descent and most were ascertained in Texas or California. A single haplotype including the SAG mutation was identified in all families. The mutation dramatically alters a conserved amino acid, is extremely rare in global databases, and was not found in 4000+ exomes from Hispanic controls. Molecular modeling based on the crystal structure of bovine arrestin-1 predicts protein misfolding/instability. This is the first dominant-acting mutation identified in SAG, a founder mutation possibly originating in Mexico several centuries ago. The phenotype is clearly adRP and is distinct from the previously reported phenotypes of recessive null mutations, that is, Oguchi disease and recessive RP. The mutation accounts for 3% of the 300 families in the adRP Cohort and 36% of Hispanic families in this cohort.

  1. Numerical Simulations of Pillar Structured Solid State Thermal Neutron Detector Efficiency and Gamma Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, A; Wang, T; Deo, N; Cheung, C; Nikolic, R

    2008-06-24

    This work reports numerical simulations of a novel three-dimensionally integrated, {sup 10}boron ({sup 10}B) and silicon p+, intrinsic, n+ (PIN) diode micropillar array for thermal neutron detection. The inter-digitated device structure has a high probability of interaction between the Si PIN pillars and the charged particles (alpha and {sup 7}Li) created from the neutron - {sup 10}B reaction. In this work, the effect of both the 3-D geometry (including pillar diameter, separation and height) and energy loss mechanisms are investigated via simulations to predict the neutron detection efficiency and gamma discrimination of this structure. The simulation results are demonstrated to compare well with the measurement results. This indicates that upon scaling the pillar height, a high efficiency thermal neutron detector is possible.

  2. State of the art in medical applications using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Kenji; Mizuno, Masaaki; Toyokuni, Shinya; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Hori, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    Plasma medical science is a novel interdisciplinary field that combines studies on plasma science and medical science, with the anticipation that understanding the scientific principles governing plasma medical science will lead to innovations in the field. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma has been used for medical treatments, such as for cancer, blood coagulation, and wound healing. The interactions that occur between plasma and cells/tissues have been analyzed extensively. Direct and indirect treatment of cells with plasma has broadened the applications of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma in medicine. Examples of indirect treatment include plasma-assisted immune-therapy and plasma-activated medium. Controlling intracellular redox balance may be key in plasma cancer treatment. Animal studies are required to test the effectiveness and safety of these treatments for future clinical applications.

  3. State-of-the - art technologies of oil shale thermal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, O. P.; Khaskhachikh, V. V.; Gerasimov, G. Ya

    2017-11-01

    Development of advanced oil shale processing technologies for production of liquid and gaseous fuels, as well as chemical raw materials, is a very topical problem. The article provides information on commercially implemented oil shale thermal processing technologies which use gaseous (Fushun, Kiviter and Petrosix) and solid (Lurgi-Ruhrgas, Tosco II, Aostra-Tasiyuk, Galoter) heat carriers. The authors note that the Galoter process implemented in plants with solid heat carriers has significant advantages compared to other processes.

  4. Altered language network in benign childhood epilepsy patients with spikes from non-dominant side: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiajia; Chen, Sihan; Luo, Cheng; Gong, Qiyong; An, Dongmei; Zhou, Dong

    2017-10-01

    Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is one of the most common childhood epilepsy syndromes, and language deficits associated with BECTS have become a hot topic. This study investigated alterations of the language network in BECTS children with spikes from the non-dominant side in comparison with healthy controls. Twenty-three children with BECTS and 20 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Region of interest -based whole brain functional connectivity analysis was used to identify the potential differences in the functional connectivity of the Broca's area between the two groups. Increased positive functional connectivity within the Broca's region was detected mainly at the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 8), bilateral insula, and anterior and posterior cingulate in the BECTS group. No regions showed significantly decreased connection in the BECTS patients compared to the controls. This study suggested alterations in the language network that was related with the Broca's area in children with BECTS from the non-dominant side. Further studies with longitudinal assessments from the perceptive of functional neuroimaging are needed to illustrate the dynamic course of language development and corresponding neuroimaging evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fast Transition between High-soft and Low-soft States in GRS 1915 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    (Chen et al. 1997). Based on extensive X-ray studies, Muno, Morgan & Remillard. (1999) classified the behavior of the source into two distinct states, spectrally hard- state with the presence of narrow QPOs, dominated by a power-law component and the soft-state with the absence of QPOs, dominated by thermal emission.

  6. Nickel Oxide (NiO nanoparticles prepared by solid-state thermal decomposition of Nickel (II schiff base precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Dehno Khalaji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, plate-like NiO nanoparticles were prepared by one-pot solid-state thermal decomposition of nickel (II Schiff base complex as new precursor. First, the nickel (II Schiff base precursor was prepared by solid-state grinding using nickel (II nitrate hexahydrate, Ni(NO32∙6H2O, and the Schiff base ligand N,N′-bis-(salicylidene benzene-1,4-diamine for 30 min without using any solvent, catalyst, template or surfactant. It was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and elemental analysis (CHN. The resultant solid was subsequently annealed in the electrical furnace at 450 °C for 3 h in air atmosphere. Nanoparticles of NiO were produced and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD at 2θ degree 0-140°, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The XRD and FT-IR results showed that the product is pure and has good crystallinity with cubic structure because no characteristic peaks of impurity were observed, while the SEM and TEM results showed that the obtained product is tiny, aggregated with plate-like shape, narrow size distribution with an average size between 10-40 nm. Results show that the solid state thermal decomposition method is simple, environmentally friendly, safe and suitable for preparation of NiO nanoparticles. This method can also be used to synthesize nanoparticles of other metal oxides.

  7. Low temperature thermal energy storage: a state-of-the-art survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylin, F.

    1979-07-01

    The preliminary version of an analysis of activities in research, development, and demonstration of low temperature thermal energy storage (TES) technologies having applications in renewable energy systems is presented. Three major categories of thermal storage devices are considered: sensible heat; phase change materials (PCM); and reversible thermochemical reactions. Both short-term and annual thermal energy storage technologies based on prinicples of sensible heat are discussed. Storage media considered are water, earth, and rocks. Annual storage technologies include solar ponds, aquifers, and large tanks or beds of water, earth, or rocks. PCM storage devices considered employ salt hydrates and organic compounds. The sole application of reversible chemical reactions outlined is for the chemical heat pump. All program processes from basic research through commercialization efforts are investigated. Nongovernment-funded industrial programs and foreign efforts are outlined as well. Data describing low temperature TES activities are presented also as project descriptions. Projects for all these programs are grouped into seven categories: short-term sensible heat storage; annual sensible heat storage; PCM storage; heat transfer and exchange; industrial waste heat recovery and storage; reversible chemical reaction storage; and models, economic analyses, and support studies. Summary information about yearly funding and brief descriptions of project goals and accomplishments are included.

  8. Host Coenzyme Q Redox State Is an Early Biomarker of Thermal Stress in the Coral Acropora millepora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Adrian; Raina, Jean-Baptiste; Motti, Cherie A; Miller, David J; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2015-01-01

    Bleaching episodes caused by increasing seawater temperatures may induce mass coral mortality and are regarded as one of the biggest threats to coral reef ecosystems worldwide. The current consensus is that this phenomenon results from enhanced production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) that disrupt the symbiosis between corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates, Symbiodinium. Here, the responses of two important antioxidant defence components, the host coenzyme Q (CoQ) and symbiont plastoquinone (PQ) pools, are investigated for the first time in colonies of the scleractinian coral, Acropora millepora, during experimentally-induced bleaching under ecologically relevant conditions. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to quantify the states of these two pools, together with physiological parameters assessing the general state of the symbiosis (including photosystem II photochemical efficiency, chlorophyll concentration and Symbiodinium cell densities). The results show that the responses of the two antioxidant systems occur on different timescales: (i) the redox state of the Symbiodinium PQ pool remained stable until twelve days into the experiment, after which there was an abrupt oxidative shift; (ii) by contrast, an oxidative shift of approximately 10% had occurred in the host CoQ pool after 6 days of thermal stress, prior to significant changes in any other physiological parameter measured. Host CoQ pool oxidation is thus an early biomarker of thermal stress in corals, and this antioxidant pool is likely to play a key role in quenching thermally-induced ROS in the coral-algal symbiosis. This study adds to a growing body of work that indicates host cellular responses may precede the bleaching process and symbiont dysfunction.

  9. Thermal Entanglement of Two Qubits with Dipolar Ordered Initial State Coupled to a Spin Chain in MQ NMR System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M. R.; Rezaee, Ladan

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we aim to provide a theoretical study of thermal entanglement of two qubits coupled to a spin chain with considering multiple-spin correlations which accompanies decay in multiple quantum nuclear magnetic resonance (MQ NMR) system. We show an explicit connection between the coherence factor and entanglement, and numerically and analytically study the dynamical process of entanglement in weak coupling cases for dipolar ordered initial states. We provide results that the entanglement evolution depends not only on the coupling constant between central two qubits and the system-environment couplings but also on temperature and the number of spins in chain.

  10. Constraining the composition and thermal state of the mantle beneath Europe from inversion of long-period electromagnetic sounding data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Amir; Connolly, J.A.D.; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    We reexamine the problem of inverting C responses, covering periods between 1 month and 1 year collected from 42 European observatories, to constrain the internal structure of the Earth. Earlier studies used the C responses, which connect the magnetic vertical component and the horizontal gradient...... of the horizontal components of electromagnetic variations, to obtain the conductivity profile of the Earth's mantle. Here, we go beyond this approach by inverting directly for chemical composition and thermal state of the Earth, rather than subsurface electrical conductivity structure. The primary inversion...

  11. Thermal solar energy in Spain. State of the art and objectives; Energie solaire thermique en Espagne. Etat actuel et objectifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Jaouen

    2006-07-01

    According the Kyoto protocol, Spain has to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions at 330 millions of tons (a decrease of 18 % from the level of 2003). From the european commission policy, the energy resources will be of 12 % of renewable energies. In this context, Spain developed an energy policy in favor of the solar energy. This document provides information on: the energy market in Spain, the thermal solar energy operating, the CO{sub 2} emissions, the state of the art in the domain in spain, the 2010 objectives, the programs and the assistance, some data on the solar market in comparison with the Europe. (A.L.B.)

  12. Enriched Boron-Doped Amorphous Selenium Based Position-Sensitive Solid-State Thermal Neutron Detector for MPACT Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Krishna [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2017-09-29

    High-efficiency thermal neutron detectors with compact size, low power-rating and high spatial, temporal and energy resolution are essential to execute non-proliferation and safeguard protocols. The demands of such detector are not fully covered by the current detection system such as gas proportional counters or scintillator-photomultiplier tube combinations, which are limited by their detection efficiency, stability of response, speed of operation, and physical size. Furthermore, world-wide shortage of 3He gas, required for widely used gas detection method, has further prompted to design an alternative system. Therefore, a solid-state neutron detection system without the requirement of 3He will be very desirable. To address the above technology gap, we had proposed to develop new room temperature solidstate thermal neutron detectors based on enriched boron (10B) and enriched lithium (6Li) doped amorphous Se (As- 0.52%, Cl 5 ppm) semiconductor for MPACT applications. The proposed alloy materials have been identified for its many favorable characteristics - a wide bandgap (~2.2 eV at 300 K) for room temperature operation, high glass transition temperature (tg ~ 85°C), a high thermal neutron cross-section (for boron ~ 3840 barns, for lithium ~ 940 barns, 1 barn = 10-24 cm2), low effective atomic number of Se for small gamma ray sensitivity, and high radiation tolerance due to its amorphous structure.

  13. Location Study of Solar Thermal Power Plant in the State of Pernambuco Using Geoprocessing Technologies and Multiple-Criteria Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Wilma B. Azevêdo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar Thermal Technology for the generation of electricity in large scale has been a reality in the world since the 1980s, when the first large-sized solar plants in the United States were introduced. Brazil presents great potential for the development of large-scale projects, although it is noted that the main barriers for the insertion of this technology in Brazilian market are the lack of incentives and goals and associated costs. In a way to contribute to the insertion of solar thermal technology in Brazil, this paper presents a macro-spatial approach, based on the use of Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis and Geoprocessing, for the location of solar thermal power plants. The applied methodology for Pernambuco, located in the Northeast Region of Brazil, considered the implantation of parabolic trough solar power plant of 80 MW, operating only in solar mode, without heat storage. Based on performed analysis, it was confirmed that Pernambuco presents great potential for the installation of solar power plants, especially in the backlands of Pernambuco. Performed validations in the model demonstrate that the methodology attended the objective once the consistence between the assigned weights to the thematic layers, individually, and the final Map of site suitability were evidenced.

  14. Onset dominance in lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C

    1997-03-01

    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  15. Transition state theory thermal rate constants and RRKM-based branching ratios for the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction based on multi-state and multi-reference ab initio calculations of interest for the Titan's chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouk, Chanda-Malis; Zvereva-Loëte, Natalia; Scribano, Yohann; Bussery-Honvault, Béatrice

    2012-10-30

    Multireference single and double configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations including Davidson (+Q) or Pople (+P) corrections have been conducted in this work for the reactants, products, and extrema of the doublet ground state potential energy surface involved in the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction. Such highly correlated ab initio calculations are then compared with previous PMP4, CCSD(T), W1, and DFT/B3LYP studies. Large relative differences are observed in particular for the transition state in the entrance channel resolving the disagreement between previous ab initio calculations. We confirm the existence of a small but positive potential barrier (3.86 ± 0.84 kJ mol(-1) (MR-AQCC) and 3.89 kJ mol(-1) (MRCI+P)) in the entrance channel of the title reaction. The correlation is seen to change significantly the energetic position of the two minima and five saddle points of this system together with the dissociation channels but not their relative order. The influence of the electronic correlation into the energetic of the system is clearly demonstrated by the thermal rate constant evaluation and it temperature dependance by means of the transition state theory. Indeed, only MRCI values are able to reproduce the experimental rate constant of the title reaction and its behavior with temperature. Similarly, product branching ratios, evaluated by means of unimolecular RRKM theory, confirm the NH production of Umemoto et al., whereas previous works based on less accurate ab initio calculations failed. We confirm the previous findings that the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction proceeds via an insertion-dissociation mechanism and that the dominant product channels are CH(2)NH + H and CH(3) + NH. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Thermal decay rate of a metastable state with two degrees of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. I I GONTCHAR1 2 M V CHUSHNYAKOVA2 3. Physics and Chemistry Department, Omsk State Transport University, Omsk, Russia; Physics Department, Omsk State Technical University, Omsk, Russia; Institute of Physics and Technology, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia ...

  17. Geothermal Resource/Reservoir Investigations Based on Heat Flow and Thermal Gradient Data for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. D. Blackwell; K. W. Wisian; M. C. Richards; J. L. Steele

    2000-04-01

    Several activities related to geothermal resources in the western United States are described in this report. A database of geothermal site-specific thermal gradient and heat flow results from individual exploration wells in the western US has been assembled. Extensive temperature gradient and heat flow exploration data from the active exploration of the 1970's and 1980's were collected, compiled, and synthesized, emphasizing previously unavailable company data. Examples of the use and applications of the database are described. The database and results are available on the world wide web. In this report numerical models are used to establish basic qualitative relationships between structure, heat input, and permeability distribution, and the resulting geothermal system. A series of steady state, two-dimensional numerical models evaluate the effect of permeability and structural variations on an idealized, generic Basin and Range geothermal system and the results are described.

  18. Rapid characterization of chemical compounds in liquid and solid states using thermal desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Zhou, Chi-Chang; Liu, De-Lin; Jhang, Siou-Sian; Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Shiea, Jentaie

    2013-10-01

    Rapid characterization of thermally stable chemical compounds in solid or liquid states is achieved through thermal desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TD-ESI/MS). A feature of this technique is that sampling, desorption, ionization, and mass spectrometric detection are four separate events with respect to time and location. A metal probe was used to sample analytes in their solid or liquid states. The probe was then inserted in a preheated oven to thermally desorb the analytes on the probe. The desorbed analytes were carried by a nitrogen gas stream into an ESI plume, where analyte ions were formed via interactions with charged solvent species generated in the ESI plume. The analyte ions were subsequently detected by a mass analyzer attached to the TD-ESI source. Quantification of acetaminophen in aqueous solutions using TD-ESI/MS was also performed in which a linear response for acetaminophen was obtained between 25 and 500 ppb (R(2) = 0.9978). The standard deviation for a reproducibility test for ten liquid samples was 9.6%. Since sample preparation for TD-ESI/MS is unnecessary, a typical analysis can be completed in less than 10 s. Analytes such as the active ingredients in over-the-counter drugs were rapidly characterized regardless of the different physical properties of said drugs, which included liquid eye drops, viscous cold syrup solution, ointment cream, and a drug tablet. This approach was also used to detect trace chemical compounds in illicit drugs and explosives, in which samples were obtained from the surfaces of a cell phone, piece of luggage made from hard plastic, business card, and wooden desk.

  19. Steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis and flow channel blockage accident analysis of JRR-4 silicide LEU core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Shukichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-09-01

    JRR-4 is a light water moderated and cooled, graphite reflected pool type research reactor using high enriched uranium (HEU) plate-type fuels. Its thermal power is 3.5 MW. The core conversion program from HEU fuel to uranium-silicon-aluminum (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al) dispersion type fuel (Silicide fuel) with low enriched uranium (LEU) is currently conducted at the JRR-4. This report describes about the steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis results and the flow channel blockage accident analysis result. In JRR-4, there are two operation mode. One is high power operation mode up to 3.5 MW, under forced convection cooling using the primary and the secondary cooling systems. The other is low power operation mode up to 200 kW, under natural circulation cooling between the reactor core and the reactor pool without the primary and the secondary cooling systems. For the analysis of the high power operation mode under forced convection cooling and the flow channel blockage accident, COOLOD code was used. On the other hand, for the analysis of low power operation under natural convection cooling, COOLOD-N2 code was used. From steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis results of both forced and natural convection cooling, fuel temperature, minimum DNBR etc. meet the design criteria and JRR-4 LEU silicide core has enough safety margin under normal operation conditions. Furthermore, flow channel blockage accident analysis results show that one channel flow blockage accident meet the safety criteria for accident conditions which have been established for JRR-4 LEU silicide core. (author)

  20. Quantity, Quality, and Availability of Waste Heat from United States Thermal Power Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-07-21

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJ(th) of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.

  1. Design and construction of a new steady-state apparatus for medium thermal conductivity measurement at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Xiao, Peng; Dai, Jingmin

    2017-10-01

    A new steady-state apparatus is designed and constructed for the measurement of thermal conductivity (up to 25 W/mK) on a square specimen (300 mm side) with a heating temperature range from 30 °C to 900 °C. A vacuum container, of which the pressure can reach to 1 Pa, is also built for materials which can be easily oxidized. The structure of the facility is different from that of traditional steady-state devices, especially for the design of heating plate and heat sink. To verify the temperature uniformity of the heating plate, a simulation analysis is carried out in this paper. Besides, the heating system, the heat sink, the measuring system, and the vacuum system are presented in detail. In addition, the thermal conductivities of a heat insulation tile, 304L stainless steel, n-docosane, and erythritol are measured by this apparatus. Finally, an uncertainty analysis is discussed depending on different temperatures and materials.

  2. The effects of the overriding plate thermal state on the slab dip in an ocean-continent subduction system

    CERN Document Server

    Roda, Manuel; Spalla, Maria Iole; 10.1016/j.crte.2011.01.005

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of variations in the thermal state of the overriding plate on the slab dip in an ocean-continent subduction system, a 2-D finite element thermo-mechanical model was implemented. The lithosphere base was located at the depth of the 1600 K isotherm. Numerical simulations were performed while taking into account four different initial thicknesses for the oceanic lithosphere (60, 80, 95 and 110 km) and five different thicknesses of the overriding plate, as compared in terms of the continental-oceanic plate thickness ratio (100, 120, 140, 160 and 200% of the oceanic lithosphere thickness). The results of numerical modeling indicate that a high variability of the subducting plate geometry occurs for an oceanic lithosphere thickness ranging from 60 to 80 km, while the variability decreases where the oceanic plates are thicker (95 and 110 km). Furthermore, the slab dip strongly depends on the thermal state of the overriding plate, and, in particular, the slab dip decreases with the increase in...

  3. Design and construction of a new steady-state apparatus for medium thermal conductivity measurement at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Xiao, Peng; Dai, Jingmin

    2017-10-01

    A new steady-state apparatus is designed and constructed for the measurement of thermal conductivity (up to 25 W/mK) on a square specimen (300 mm side) with a heating temperature range from 30 °C to 900 °C. A vacuum container, of which the pressure can reach to 1 Pa, is also built for materials which can be easily oxidized. The structure of the facility is different from that of traditional steady-state devices, especially for the design of heating plate and heat sink. To verify the temperature uniformity of the heating plate, a simulation analysis is carried out in this paper. Besides, the heating system, the heat sink, the measuring system, and the vacuum system are presented in detail. In addition, the thermal conductivities of a heat insulation tile, 304L stainless steel, n-docosane, and erythritol are measured by this apparatus. Finally, an uncertainty analysis is discussed depending on different temperatures and materials.

  4. Steady-state thermal studies on the HIE-ISOLDE high-$\\beta$ superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Alberty, L

    2013-01-01

    The activity of the High Intensity and Energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project aims to construct a superconducting linac based on 101.28 MHz niobium sputtered Quarter Wave Resonators (QWRs). For this, several prototypes of superconducting cavities are currently being developed at CERN using OFE copper as substrate material for Niobium film coating. Two main concepts are currently under development: one consists of rolled, machined, deepdrawed and welded parts; the other is based on machined parts which are put together using electron beam welding. This study presents the results of simulations carried out in order to assess the thermal performance of different designs. The interest for such analysis was raised up before launching the manufacture of the first industrial series, since both rolled and bulk approaches seemed possible.

  5. Position sensitive detection of thermal neutrons with solid state detectors (Gd Si planar detectors)

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckner, G; Rauch, H; Weilhammer, P

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology of position sensitive silicon detectors and the corresponding electronics allow the construction of fast time response thermal neutron detectors. These detectors also exhibit excellent position resolution by combination of silicon detectors with thin Gd converter foils. We constructed several one- and two-dimensional prototype detectors, using DC and AC coupled silicon strip detectors, pad detectors and different VLSI readout electronics. The position resolution and the detector efficiency for different converters at wavelengths from 1.1 to 3.3 A were determined at the TRIGA reactor in Vienna and at the ILL in Grenoble. Spatial resolutions of less than 100 mu m and efficiencies up to 40% have been achieved. The results of these measurements are compared with a Monte Carlo simulation of the detector operation. These detectors can also be used for phase topography experiments using perfect crystal neutron interferometers. In certain cases an increase of the sensitivity in the o...

  6. Thermal hydraulic core simulation of the MYRRHA Reactor in steady state operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferandes, Gustavo H.N.; Ramos, Mário C.; Carvalho, Athos M.S.S.; Cabrera, Carlos E.V.; Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia, E-mail: ghnfernandes@gmail.com, E-mail: marc5663@gmail.com, E-mail: athos1495@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: carlosvelcab@hotmail.com, E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose Hybrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is a prototype nuclear subcritical reactor driven by a particle accelerator. As a special property, the reactor maintains the nuclear fission chain reaction by means of an external neutron source provided by a particle accelerator. The main aim of this work is to study two types of coolants, LBE (Lead-Bismuth Eutectic) and Na (Sodium) that are two strong candidates to be used in ADS systems as well as in Generation IV (GEN-IV) reactors. Firstly, it was developed a thermal hydraulic model of the MYRRHA core using the RELAP5-3D, considering LBE as coolant (original project). After this, the LBE was substituted by Na coolant to investigate the reactor behavior in such case. Results have demonstrated the high heat transfer capacity of the LBE coolant in this type of system. (author)

  7. Thermal State Of Permafrost In Urban Environment Under Changing Climatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V. I.; Kerimov, A. G.; Kurchatova, A.; Andruschenko, F.; Gubanov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Risks and damage, caused by deformation of building and constructions in cryolithozone, are growing for decades. Worsening of cryo-ecological situation and loss of engineering-geocryological safety are induced by both technogenic influences on frozen basement and climate change. In such towns on permafrost as Vorkuta, Dixon more than 60% of objects are deformed, in Yakutsk, Igarka- nearly 40%, in Norilsk, Talnakh, Mirnij 35%, in old indigenous villages - approximately 100%; more than 80% ground dams with frozen cores are in poor condition. This situation is accompanied by activation of dangerous cryogenic processes. For example in growing seasonally-thaw layer is strengthening frost heave of pipeline foundation: only on Yamburg gas condensate field (Taz Peninsula) are damaged by frost heave and cut or completely replaced 3000 - 5000 foundations of gas pipelines. Intensity of negative effects strongly depends on regional geocryology, technogenic loads and climatic trends, and in Arctic we see a temperature rise - warming, which cause permafrost temperature rise and thaw). In built areas heat loads are more diverse: cold foundations (under the buildings with ventilated cellars or near termosyphons) are close to warm areas with technogenic beddings (mainly sandy), that accumulate heat, close to underground collectors for communications, growing thaw zones around, close to storages of snows, etc. Note that towns create specific microclimate with higher air temperature. So towns are powerful technogenic (basically, thermal) presses, placed on permafrost; in cooperation with climate changes (air temperature rise, increase of precipitation) they cause permafrost degradation. The analysis of dozens of urban thermal fields, formed in variable cryological and soil conditions, showed, that nearly 70% have warming trend, 20% - cooling and in 10% of cases the situation after construction is stable. Triggered by warming of climate changes of vegetation, depth and temperature of

  8. Evaluation of deep moonquake source parameters: Implication for fault characteristics and thermal state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Taichi; Lognonné, Philippe; Nishikawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2017-07-01

    While deep moonquakes are seismic events commonly observed on the Moon, their source mechanism is still unexplained. The two main issues are poorly constrained source parameters and incompatibilities between the thermal profiles suggested by many studies and the apparent need for brittle properties at these depths. In this study, we reinvestigated the deep moonquake data to reestimate its source parameters and uncover the characteristics of deep moonquake faults that differ from those on Earth. We first improve the estimation of source parameters through spectral analysis using "new" broadband seismic records made by combining those of the Apollo long- and short-period seismometers. We use the broader frequency band of the combined spectra to estimate corner frequencies and DC values of spectra, which are important parameters to constrain the source parameters. We further use the spectral features to estimate seismic moments and stress drops for more than 100 deep moonquake events from three different source regions. This study revealed that deep moonquake faults are extremely smooth compared to terrestrial faults. Second, we reevaluate the brittle-ductile transition temperature that is consistent with the obtained source parameters. We show that the source parameters imply that the tidal stress is the main source of the stress glut causing deep moonquakes and the large strain rate from tides makes the brittle-ductile transition temperature higher. Higher transition temperatures open a new possibility to construct a thermal model that is consistent with deep moonquake occurrence and pressure condition and thereby improve our understandings of the deep moonquake source mechanism.

  9. Sexual Positioning and Race-Based Attraction by Preferences for Social Dominance Among Gay Asian/Pacific Islander Men in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Judy Y.; Pratto, Felicia; Operario, Don; Dworkin, Shari L.

    2013-01-01

    For gay men in the United States, race/ethnicity has been demonstrated to factor importantly into sexual preferences, and race-based beliefs regarding certain racial groups are prevalent within the gay male community. For gay men of color, such beliefs may differentially influence their sexual preferences. Yet, little is known about the social-psychological factors underlying differences in sexual preferences among gay men of color. The present study examined how personal preferences for soci...

  10. Thermal springs list for the United States; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Key to Geophysical Records Documentation No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.W.; Grim, P.J.; Ikelman, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    The compilation has 1702 thermal spring locations in 23 of the 50 States, arranged alphabetically by State (Postal Service abbreviation) and degrees of latitude and longitude within the State. It shows spring name, surface temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius; USGS Professional Paper 492 number, USGS Circular 790 number, NOAA number, north to south on each degree of latitude and longitude of the listed. USGS 1:250,000-scale (AMS) map; and the USGS topographic map coverage, 1:63360- or 1:62500-scale (15-minute) or 1:24000-scale (7.5-minute) quadrangle also included is an alphabetized list showing only the spring name and the State in which it is located. Unnamed springs are omitted. The list includes natural surface hydrothermal features: springs, pools, mud pots, mud volcanoes, geysers, fumaroles, and steam vents at temperature of 20{sup 0}C (68[sup 0}F) or greater. It does not include wells or mines, except at sites where they supplement or replace natural vents presently or recently active, or, in some places, where orifices are not distinguishable as natural or artificial. The listed springs are located on the USGS 1:250,000 (AMS) topographic maps. (MHR)

  11. Thermal Performance Benchmarking: Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuhui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center

    2017-10-19

    In FY16, the thermal performance of the 2014 Honda Accord Hybrid power electronics thermal management systems were benchmarked. Both experiments and numerical simulation were utilized to thoroughly study the thermal resistances and temperature distribution in the power module. Experimental results obtained from the water-ethylene glycol tests provided the junction-to-liquid thermal resistance. The finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were found to yield a good match with experimental results. Both experimental and modeling results demonstrate that the passive stack is the dominant thermal resistance for both the motor and power electronics systems. The 2014 Accord power electronics systems yield steady-state thermal resistance values around 42- 50 mm to the 2nd power K/W, depending on the flow rates. At a typical flow rate of 10 liters per minute, the thermal resistance of the Accord system was found to be about 44 percent lower than that of the 2012 Nissan LEAF system that was benchmarked in FY15. The main reason for the difference is that the Accord power module used a metalized-ceramic substrate and eliminated the thermal interface material layers. FEA models were developed to study the transient performance of 2012 Nissan LEAF, 2014 Accord, and two other systems that feature conventional power module designs. The simulation results indicate that the 2012 LEAF power module has lowest thermal impedance at a time scale less than one second. This is probably due to moving low thermally conductive materials further away from the heat source and enhancing the heat spreading effect from the copper-molybdenum plate close to the insulated gate bipolar transistors. When approaching steady state, the Honda system shows lower thermal impedance. Measurement results of the thermal resistance of the 2015 BMW i3 power electronic system indicate that the i3 insulated gate bipolar transistor module has significantly lower junction

  12. In-situ characterization of the thermal state of resonant optical interferometers via tracking of their higher-order mode resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Chris L; Adhikari, Rana X; Arai, Koji; Brooks, Aidan F; Chakraborty, Rijuparna; Frolov, Valery V; Fritschel, Peter; King, Eleanor J; Tanner, David B; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Mueller, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Thermal lensing in resonant optical interferometers such as those used for gravitational wave detection is a concern due to the negative impact on control signals and instrument sensitivity. In this paper we describe a method for monitoring the thermal state of such interferometers by probing the higher-order spatial mode resonances of the cavities within them. We demonstrate the use of this technique to measure changes in the Advanced LIGO input mode cleaner cavity geometry as a function of input power, and subsequently infer the optical absorption at the mirror surfaces at the level of 1 ppm per mirror. We also demonstrate the generation of a useful error signal for thermal state of the Advanced LIGO power recycling cavity by continuously tracking the first order spatial mode resonance frequency. Such an error signal could be used as an input to thermal compensation systems to maintain the interferometer cavity geometries in the presence of transients in circulating light power levels, thereby maintaining o...

  13. Morphological and enzymatic response of the thermotolerant fungus Fomes sp. EUM1 in solid state fermentation under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz-Hernández, Armando; Ortega-Sánchez, Eric; Montesinos-Matías, Roberto; Hernández-Martínez, Ricardo; Torres-Martínez, Daniel; Loera, Octavio

    2016-08-01

    Thermotolerance of the fungus Fomes sp. EUM1 was evaluated in solid state fermentation (SSF). This thermotolerant strain improved both hyphal invasiveness (38%) and length (17%) in adverse thermal conditions exceeding 30°C and to a maximum of 40°C. In contrast, hyphal branching decreased by 46% at 45°C. The production of cellulases over corn stover increased 1.6-fold in 30°C culture conditions, xylanases increased 2.8-fold at 40°C, while laccase production improved 2.7-fold at 35°C. Maximum production of lignocellulolytic enzymes was obtained at elevated temperatures in shorter fermentation times (8-6 days), although the proteases appeared as a thermal stress response associated with a drop in lignocellulolytic activities. Novel and multiple isoenzymes of xylanase (four bands) and cellulase (six bands) were secreted in the range of 20-150 kDa during growth in adverse temperature conditions. However, only a single laccase isoenzyme (46 kDa) was detected. This is the first report describing the advantages of a thermotolerant white-rot fungus in SSF. These results have important implications for large-scale SSF, where effects of metabolic heat are detrimental to growth and enzyme production, which are severely affected by the formation of high temperature gradients. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. On an analytical evaluation of the flux and dominant eigenvalue problem for the steady state multi-group multi-layer neutron diffusion equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceolin, Celina; Schramm, Marcelo; Bodmann, Bardo Ernst Josef; Vilhena, Marco Tullio Mena Barreto de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Bogado Leite, Sergio de Queiroz [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    In this work the authors solved the steady state neutron diffusion equation for a multi-layer slab assuming the multi-group energy model. The method to solve the equation system is based on an expansion in Taylor Series resulting in an analytical expression. The results obtained can be used as initial condition for neutron space kinetics problems. The neutron scalar flux was expanded in a power series, and the coefficients were found by using the ordinary differential equation and the boundary and interface conditions. The effective multiplication factor k was evaluated using the power method. We divided the domain into several slabs to guarantee the convergence with a low truncation order. We present the formalism together with some numerical simulations.

  15. Thermal evolution of the one-flavour Schwinger model using matrix product states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, H.; Jansen, K. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann Institute for Computing; Banuls, M.C.; Cirac, J.I. [Max-Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, Garching (Germany); Cichy, K. [Frankfurt am Main Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics

    2015-11-15

    The Schwinger model, or 1+1 dimensional QED, offers an interesting object of study, both at zero and non-zero temperature, because of its similarities to QCD. In this proceeding, we present the a full calculation of the temperature dependent chiral condensate of this model in the continuum limit using Matrix Product States (MPS). MPS methods, in general tensor networks, constitute a very promising technique for the non-perturbative study of Hamiltonian quantum systems. In the last few years, they have shown their suitability as ansatzes for ground states and low-lying excitations of lattice gauge theories. We show the feasibility of the approach also for finite temperature, both in the massless and in the massive case.

  16. Use of solid-state phase transitions for thermal energy storage. Final report, June 1, 1977--August 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffler, A.J.; Myers, J.; Weinstein, D.

    1978-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the feasibility of using solid-state phase transitions for thermal energy storage. As part of this study a literature search was made to identify the most promising types of compounds and a synthesis program was carried out to prepare certain of these substances. In addition a large number of compounds for testing were obtained from commercial sources. All of the compounds were screened for transitions using a Perkin Elmer DSC-1B differential scanning calorimeter. From this program seven compounds were found that have transition energies from 20-30 cal/g in the temperatre range of 335-405 K. The most promising compound found is 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid anhydride having a transition of 22.6 cal/g at 366 K and an estimated cost of peparation of $0.40/lb..

  17. Contrast and phase-shift of a trapped atom interferometer using a thermal ensemble with internal state labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Nivet, M.; Westbrook, C. I.; Schwartz, S.

    2016-11-01

    We report a theoretical study of a double-well Ramsey interferometer using internal state labelling. We consider the use of a thermal ensemble of cold atoms rather than a Bose-Einstein condensate to minimise the effects of atomic interactions. To maintain a satisfactory level of coherence in this case, a high degree of symmetry is required between the two arms of the interferometer. Assuming that the splitting and recombination processes are adiabatic, we theoretically derive the phase-shift and the contrast of such an interferometer in the presence of a gravity or an acceleration field. We also consider using a ‘shortcut to adiabaticity’ protocol to speed up the splitting process and discuss how such a procedure affects the phase shift and contrast. We find that the two procedures lead to phase-shifts of the same form.

  18. Thermally activated delayed fluorescence as a cycling process between excited singlet and triplet states: application to the fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleizão, Carlos; Berberan-Santos, Mário N

    2007-05-28

    In efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) the excited chromophore alternates randomly between the singlet and triplet manifolds a large number of times before emission occurs. In this work, the average number of cycles n is obtained and is shown to have a simple experimental meaning: n+1 is the intensification factor of the prompt fluorescence intensity, owing to the occurrence of TADF. A new method of data analysis for the determination of the quantum yield of triplet formation, combining steady-state and time-resolved data in a single plot, is also presented. Application of the theoretical results to the TADF of [70]fullerenes shows a general good agreement between different methods of fluorescence analysis and allows the determination of several photophysical parameters.

  19. Differences between young adults and elderly in thermal comfort, productivity, and thermal physiology in response to a moderate temperature drift and a steady-state condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellen, L; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D; Loomans, M G L C; Toftum, J; de Wit, M H

    2010-08-01

    Results from naturally ventilated buildings show that allowing the indoor temperature to drift does not necessarily result in thermal discomfort and may allow for a reduction in energy use. However, for stationary conditions, several studies indicate that the thermal neutral temperature and optimum thermal condition differ between young adults and elderly. There is a lack of studies that describe the effect of aging on thermal comfort and productivity during a moderate temperature drift. In this study, the effect of a moderate temperature drift on physiological responses, thermal comfort, and productivity of eight young adults (age 22-25 year) and eight older subjects (age 67-73 year) was investigated. They were exposed to two different conditions: S1-a control condition; constant temperature of 21.5 degrees C; duration: 8 h; and S2-a transient condition; temperature range: 17-25 degrees C, duration: 8 h, temperature drift: first 4 h: +2 K/h, last 4 h: -2 K/h. The results indicate that thermal sensation of the elderly was, in general, 0.5 scale units lower in comparison with their younger counterparts. Furthermore, the elderly showed more distal vasoconstriction during both conditions. Nevertheless, TS of the elderly was related to air temperature only, while TS of the younger adults also was related to skin temperature. During the constant temperature session, the elderly preferred a higher temperature in comparison with the young adults. Because the stock of fossil fuels is limited, energy savings play an important role. Thermal comfort is one of the most important performance indicators to successfully apply measures to reduce the energy need in buildings. Allowing drifts in indoor temperature is one of the options to reduce the energy demand. This study contributes to the knowledge concerning the effects of a moderate temperature drift and the age of the inhabitants on their thermal comfort.

  20. The thermal state and strength of the lithosphere in the Spanish Central System and Tajo Basin from crustal heat production and thermal isostasy

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Díaz, Alberto; Ruiz Pérez, Javier; Villaseca González, Carlos; Tejero López, Rosa; Capote del Villar, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    In this work we have modeled the thermal structure of the lithosphere of the Spanish Central System and the Tajo Basin, and their implications for lithospheric strength. For his, we have used refined heatproducing elements (HPE) values to obtain new estimates of heat production rates in the Spanish Central System and Tajo Basin areas, which have been used joined to the relation between topography and thermal structure of the lithosphere to calculate the best- it surface heat flows in the stu...

  1. Direct Chromatin PCR (DC-PCR): Hypotonic Conditions Allow Differentiation of Chromatin States during Thermal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatolin, Sergei; Khan, Shahper N.; Reu, Frederic J.

    2012-01-01

    Current methods to study chromatin configuration are not well suited for high throughput drug screening since they require large cell numbers and multiple experimental steps that include centrifugation for isolation of nuclei or DNA. Here we show that site specific chromatin analysis can be achieved in one step by simply performing direct chromatin PCR (DC-PCR) on cells. The basic underlying observation was that standard hypotonic PCR buffers prevent global cellular chromatin solubilization during thermal cycling while more loosely organized chromatin can be amplified. Despite repeated heating to >90°C, 41 of 61 tested 5′ sequences of silenced genes (CDKN2A, PU.1, IRF4, FOSB, CD34) were not amplifiable while 47 could be amplified from expressing cells. Two gene regions (IRF4, FOSB) even required pre-heating of cells in isotonic media to allow this differentiation; otherwise none of 19 assayed sequences yielded PCR products. Cells with baseline expression or epigenetic reactivation gave similar DC-PCR results. Silencing during differentiation of CD34 positive cord blood cells closed respective chromatin while treatment of myeloma cells with an IRF4 transcriptional inhibitor opened a site to DC-PCR that was occupied by RNA polymerase II and NFκB as determined by ChIP. Translation into real-time PCR can not be achieved with commercial real-time PCR buffers which potently open chromatin, but even with simple ethidium bromide addition to standard PCR mastermix we were able to identify hits in small molecules screens that suppressed IRF4 expression or reactivated CDKN2A in myeloma cells using densitometry or visual inspection of PCR plates under UV light. While need in drug development inspired this work, application to genome-wide analysis appears feasible using phi29 for selective amplification of open cellular chromatin followed by library construction from supernatants since such supernatants yielded similar results as gene specific DC-PCR. PMID:22984542

  2. Thermal monitoring as a method for estimation of technical state of digital devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrich Yu. N.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Requirements to the reliability level of modern element base are so high that traditional methods of assessing the technical condition of electronics become ineffective, the modern theory of reliability has almost no practical applications [1], and reliability index does not reflect the true state of an electronic device due to an insufficient amount of information received during testing of electronic devices. The majority of modern electronics are limitedly easy-to-test. They are equipped with small number of tools for direct measurement that leads to a delayed troubleshooting and the inability to take measures efficiently. Despite the fact that new generations of electronics use modern components and new design technologies, their performance is still defined by two states — serviceability or failure, and the failure still happens unexpectedly. We may note, that failure is an uncontrolled result of an irreversible degradation process, taking place in time and having appropriate time parameters, but it's not the critical act. Research of various structural and hierarchical levels of functional units of digital electronics show that temperature control can be used for automatic condition monitoring of such devices in real time. As a generalized control parameter, it is advisable to use the temperature of the case of the element, and the case itself — as a generalized point.

  3. Mathematical Modeling of the Thermal Shell State of the Cylindrical Cryogenic Tank During Filling and Emptying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid hydrogen and oxygen are used as the oxidizer and fuel for liquid rocket engines. Liquefied natural gas, which is based on methane, is seen as a promising motor fuel for internal combustion engines. One of the technical problems arising from the use of said cryogenic liquid is to provide containers for storage, transport and use in the propulsion system. In the design and operation of such vessels it is necessary to have reliable information about their temperature condition, on which depend the loss of cryogenic fluids due to evaporation and the stress-strain state of the structural elements of the containers.Uneven temperature distribution along the generatrix of the cylindrical thin-walled shell of rocket cryogenic tanks, in a localized zone of cryogenic liquid level leads to a curvature of the shell and reduce the permissible axle load in a hazard shell buckling in the preparation for the start of the missile in flight with an increasing acceleration. Moving the level of the cryogenic liquid during filling or emptying the tank at a certain combination of parameters results in an increase of the local temperature distribution nonuniformity.Along with experimental study of the shell temperature state of the cryogenic container, methods of mathematical modeling allow to have information needed for designing and testing the construction of cryogenic tanks. In this study a mathematical model is built taking into account features of heat transfer in a cryogenic container, including the boiling cryogenic liquid in the inner surface of the container. This mathematical model describes the temperature state of the thin-walled shell of cylindrical cryogenic tank during filling and emptying. The work also presents a quantitative analysis of this model in case of fixed liquid level, its movement at a constant speed, and harmonic oscillations relative to a middle position. The quantitative analysis of this model has allowed to find the limit options

  4. Probabilistic Cloning of two Single-Atom States via Thermal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Pin-Shu; Liu, Dao-Jun

    2016-12-01

    We propose a cavity QED scheme for implementing the 1 → 2 probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) of two single-atom states. In our scheme, after the to-be-cloned atom and the assistant atom passing through the first cavity, a measurement is carried out on the assistant atom. Based on the measurement outcome we can judge whether the PQC should be continued. If the cloning fails, the other operations are omitted. This makes our scheme economical. If the PQC is continued (with the optimal probability) according to the measurement outcome, two more cavities and some unitary operations are used for achieving the PQC in a deterministic way. Our scheme is insensitive to the decays of the cavities and the atoms.

  5. Investigating Potential Causes for An Abrupt Change of Thermal State in Earth's Upper Mantle During the Great Oxygenation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; McNamara, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    The oxygenic photosynthesis might have well evolved about 3 billion years ago, but there seems no great increase of atmospheric oxygen until the great oxygenation event (GOE) at about 2.4 Ga. One possibility for the suppressing of atmospheric oxygen level before the GOE is through consumption of oxygen by reduced volcanic gasses. The amount of atmospheric oxygen that could be consumed by volcanic gases depends on the absolute amount of volcanic gases as well as the redox state of the upper mantle. Evidence from the redox sensitive V/Sc ratio have shown that the redox state of the upper mantle have remained constant for the last 3.5 billion years (e.g., Li and Lee, 2004). If so, abrupt changes in thermal state of Earth's upper mantle could explain the rapid changes of degassing rate at the time of GOE. The Earth's lowermost mantle has been shown to be compositionally heterogeneous, which could be caused by the presence of dense, primordial material resulting from early differentiation processes. An important question is how do chemical heterogeneities in the lowermost mantle influence the secular cooling of the upper mantle. Here, we performed numerical calculations to explore the effects of themochemical convection on the thermal evolution of Earth's upper mantle. A large parameter space is explored, with varying Rayleigh number, viscosity, internal heating and density of chemical heterogeneities. We start with an initially hot mantle with a layer of dense material in the lowermost mantle. We found that when the mantle is hot, the dense material remains layered and covers the entire CMB, leading to low CMB heat flux. In this stage, the upper mantle cools down rapidly. However, as the mantle cools, the dense material is swept into discrete thermochemical piles by cold downwellings, leading to increasing CMB heat flux. The cooling rate of the mantle is temporarily reduced as this transition occurs. This occurs at a time consistent with the GOE event. Li, Z. X. A. and

  6. Searching for world domination

    CERN Multimedia

    Quillen, E

    2004-01-01

    "Optimists might believe Microsoft suffered a setback last week that will impede its progress toward world domination, but I suspect the company has already found a way to prevail. At issue before the European Union was Microsoft's bundling of its Windows Media Player with its operating system" (1 page)

  7. Autosomal dominant polycystisk nyresygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naver, Signe Vinsand; Ørskov, Bjarne; Jensen, Anja Møller

    2017-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic disorder which causes end stage renal disease. In Denmark, estimated 5,000 patients are living with the disease. Most of the patients are in regular contact with physicians due to the progression of kidney failure...

  8. Iron dominated magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

  9. Solid state, thermal synthesis of site-specific protein-boron cluster conjugates and their physicochemical and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goszczyński, Tomasz M; Kowalski, Konrad; Leśnikowski, Zbigniew J; Boratyński, Janusz

    2015-02-01

    Boron clusters represent a vast family of boron-rich compounds with extraordinary properties that provide the opportunity of exploitation in different areas of chemistry and biology. In addition, boron clusters are clinically used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of tumors. In this paper, a novel, in solid state (solvent free), thermal method for protein modification with boron clusters has been proposed. The method is based on a cyclic ether ring opening in oxonium adduct of cyclic ether and a boron cluster with nucleophilic centers of the protein. Lysozyme was used as the model protein, and the physicochemical and biological properties of the obtained conjugates were characterized. The main residues of modification were identified as arginine-128 and threonine-51. No significant changes in the secondary or tertiary structures of the protein after tethering of the boron cluster were found using mass spectrometry and circular dichroism measurements. However, some changes in the intermolecular interactions and hydrodynamic and catalytic properties were observed. To the best of our knowledge, we have described the first example of an application of cyclic ether ring opening in the oxonium adducts of a boron cluster for protein modification. In addition, a distinctive feature of the proposed approach is performing the reaction in solid state and at elevated temperature. The proposed methodology provides a new route to protein modification with boron clusters and extends the range of innovative molecules available for biological and medical testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Extended Kalman filter method for state of charge estimation of vanadium redox flow battery using thermal-dependent electrical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Binyu; Zhao, Jiyun; Wei, Zhongbao; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2014-09-01

    State of charge (SOC) estimation is a key issue for battery management since an accurate estimation method can ensure safe operation and prevent the over-charge/discharge of a battery. Traditionally, open circuit voltage (OCV) method is utilized to estimate the stack SOC and one open flow cell is needed in each battery stack [1,2]. In this paper, an alternative method, extended Kalman filter (EKF) method, is proposed for SOC estimation for VRBs. By measuring the stack terminal voltages and applied currents, SOC can be predicted with a state estimator instead of an additional open circuit flow cell. To implement EKF estimator, an electrical model is required for battery analysis. A thermal-dependent electrical circuit model is proposed to describe the charge/discharge characteristics of the VRB. Two scenarios are tested for the robustness of the EKF. For the lab testing scenarios, the filtered stack voltage tracks the experimental data despite the model errors. For the online operation, the simulated temperature rise is observed and the maximum SOC error is within 5.5%. It is concluded that EKF method is capable of accurately predicting SOC using stack terminal voltages and applied currents in the absence of an open flow cell for OCV measurement.

  11. Analysis of structural and thermal stability in the positive electrode for sulfide-based all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Otoyama, Misae; Mori, Yota; Mori, Shigeo; Morimoto, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Sulfide-based all-solid-state batteries using a non-flammable inorganic solid electrolyte are promising candidates as a next-generation power source owing to their safety and excellent charge-discharge cycle characteristics. In this study, we thus focus on the positive electrode and investigated structural stabilities of the interface between the positive electrode active material LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) and the 75Li2S·25P2S5 (LPS) glass electrolyte after charge-discharge cycles via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To evaluate the thermal stability of the fabricated all-solid-state cell, in-situ TEM observations for the positive electrode during heating are conducted. As a result, structural and morphological changes are detected in the LPS glasses. Thus, exothermal reaction present in the NMC-LPS composite positive electrode after the initial charging is attributable to the crystallization of LPS glasses. On the basis of a comparison with crystallization behavior in single LPS glasses, the origin of exothermal reaction in the NMC-LPS composites is discussed.

  12. The Preliminary GAMMA Code Thermal hydraulic Analysis for the Steady State of HTR-10 Initial Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Ji Su; Lim, Hong Sik; Lee, Won Jae

    2006-07-15

    This report describes the preliminary thermalhydraulic analysis of HTR-10 steady state full power initial core to provide a benchmark calculation of VHTGR(Very High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors) safety analysis code of GAMMA(GAs Multicomponent Mixture Analysis). The input data of GAMMA code are produced for the models of fluid block, wall block, radiation heat transfer and each component material properties in HTR-10 reactor. The temperature and flow distributions of HTR-10 steady state 10 MW{sub th} full power initial core are calculated by GAMMA code with boundary conditions of total reactor inlet flow rate of 4.32 kg/s, inlet temperature of 250 .deg. C, inlet pressure of 3 MPa, outlet pressure of 2.992 MPa and the fixed temperature at RCCS water cooling tube of 50 .deg C. The calculation results are compared with the measured solid material temperatures at 22 fixed instrumentation positions in HTR-10. The wall temperature distribution in pebble bed core shows that the minimum temperature of 358 .deg. C is located at upper core, a higher temperature zone than 829 .deg. C is located at the inner region of 0.45 m radius at the bottom of core centre, and the maximum wall temperature is 897 .deg. C. The wall temperatures linearly decreases at radially and axially farther side from the bottom of core centre. The maximum temperature of RPV is 230 .deg. C, and the maximum values of fuel average temperature and TRISO centreline temperature are 907 .deg. C and 929 .deg. C, respectively and they are much lower than the fuel temperature limitation of 1230 .deg. C. The comparsion between the GAMMA code predictions and the measured temperature data shows that the calculation results are very close to the measured values in top and side reflector region, but a great difference is appeared in bottom reflector region. Some measured data are abnormally high in bottom reflector region, and so the confirmation of data is necessary in future. Fifteen of twenty two data have a

  13. Investigating the thermal and dynamic state of Mars using seismic data from the upcoming InSight Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, R.; Hempel, S.; Teanby, N. A.; Wookey, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The surface of Mars exhibits convincing evidence for mantle flow. For example, the huge Tharsis volcanic province is widely believed to represent the surface expression of a stable, deep-seated mantle plume. Unlike the Earth, however, Mars does not have active tectonics, and much of the surface has been volcanically dead for billions of years. For this reason, the interior dynamics of the planet are very poorly understood. As planetary dynamics controls a range of important processes such as the rate of cooling of the interior, sources of volcanism and the preservation of geochemical reservoirs, new geophysical constraints have been eagerly awaited for several decades. In November 2018, NASA's InSight Mission will land on Mars. The lander will carry two three-component seismometers, a heat-flow probe and an accurate X-band radar ranging instrument. With these instruments, the mission will place new and exciting constraints on the deep Martian interior. In this study, we investigate InSight's ability to constrain the thermal and dynamic state of the planet. We create a series of interior structure models which are consistent with the mass, moment of inertia and tidal properties of the planet, and use these to create seismic synthetics similar to those which will be recorded by InSight's SEIS experiment. We discuss the features of these synthetics which are sensitive to the properties of the thermal boundary layers at the base of the lithosphere and core mantle boundary. We show that InSight will be able to place important new constraints on the temperature and rheology of Mars' mantle. We provide several diagnostic features which may be used even with limited data return from the mission.

  14. The concerted impact of galaxies and QSOs on the ionization and thermal state of the intergalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiichi, Koki; Graziani, Luca; Ciardi, Benedetta; Meiksin, Avery; Compostella, Michele; Eide, Marius B.; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2017-07-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the ionization and thermal structure of the intergalactic medium (IGM) around a high-redshift (z = 10) QSO, using a large suite of cosmological, multifrequency radiative transfer simulations, exploring the contribution from galaxies as well as the QSO, and the effect of X-rays and secondary ionization. We show that in high-z QSO environments both the central QSO and the surrounding galaxies concertedly control the reionization morphology of hydrogen and helium and have a non-linear impact on the thermal structure of the IGM. A QSO imprints a distinctive morphology on H II regions if its total ionizing photon budget exceeds that of the surrounding galaxies since the onset of hydrogen reionization; otherwise, the morphology shows little difference from that of H II regions produced only by galaxies. In addition, the spectral shape of the collective radiation field from galaxies and QSOs controls the thickness of the I-fronts. While a UV-obscured QSO can broaden the I-front, the contribution from other UV sources, either galaxies or unobscured QSOs, is sufficient to maintain a sharp I-front. X-ray photons from the QSO are responsible for a prominent extended tail of partial ionization ahead of the I-front. QSOs leave a unique imprint on the morphology of He II/He III regions. We suggest that, while the physical state of the IGM is modified by QSOs, the most direct test to understand the role of galaxies and QSOs during reionization is to perform galaxy surveys in a region of sky imaged by 21 cm tomography.

  15. The folding trajectory of RNase H is dominated by its topology and not local stability: a protein engineering study of variants that fold via two-state and three-state mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Katelyn B; Miller, Erik J; Marqusee, Susan

    2009-08-14

    Proteins can sample a variety of partially folded conformations during the transition between the unfolded and native states. Some proteins never significantly populate these high-energy states and fold by an apparently two-state process. However, many proteins populate detectable, partially folded forms during the folding process. The role of such intermediates is a matter of considerable debate. A single amino acid change can convert Escherichia coli ribonuclease H from a three-state folder that populates a kinetic intermediate to one that folds in an apparent two-state fashion. We have compared the folding trajectories of the three-state RNase H and the two-state RNase H, proteins with the same native-state topology but altered regional stability, using a protein engineering approach. Our data suggest that both versions of RNase H fold through a similar trajectory with similar high-energy conformations. Mutations in the core and the periphery of the protein affect similar aspects of folding for both variants, suggesting a common trajectory with folding of the core region followed by the folding of the periphery. Our results suggest that formation of specific partially folded conformations may be a general feature of protein folding that can promote, rather than hinder, efficient folding.

  16. Dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenaers, Guy; Hamel, Christian; Delettre, Cécile

    2012-01-01

    DEFINITION OF THE DISEASE: Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC......) and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain....

  17. Edge domination in grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klostermeyer, William F.; Yeo, Anders

    2015-01-01

    It has been conjectured that the edge domination number of the m × n grid graph, denoted by γ′(Pm□Pn), is ⌊mn/3⌋, when m,n ≥ 2. Our main result gives support for this conjecture by proving that ⌊mn/3⌋ ≤ -γ′{Pm□Pn) ≤ mn/3 + n/12 + 1, when m,n ≥ 2. We furthermore show that the conjecture holds when...

  18. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on two-dimensional delocalized electronic states of the epitaxial N δ-doped layer in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Harada, Yukihiro; Baba, Takeshi; Kaizu, Toshiyuki; Kita, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2016-03-14

    We have conducted rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for improving the two-dimensional (2D) arrangement of electronic states in the epitaxial nitrogen (N) δ-doped layer in GaAs. RTA rearranged the N-pair configurations in the GaAs (001) plane and reduced the number of non-radiative recombination centers. Furthermore, a Landau shift, representing the 2D delocalized electronic states in the (001) plane, was observed at around zero magnetic field intensity in the Faraday configuration.

  19. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Small Text Medium Text Large Text Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease YESTERDAY Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) resulted ...

  20. Analysis of injection tests in liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.M.

    1984-12-01

    The objective was to develop procedures for analyzing nonisothermal injection test data during the early phases of injection. In particular, methods for determining the permeability-thickness of the formation, skin factor of the well and tracking the movement of the thermal front have been developed. The techniques developed for interpreting injection pressure transients are closely akin to conventional groundwater and petroleum techniques for evaluating these parameters. The approach taken was to numerically simulate injection with a variety of temperatures, reservoir parameters and flowrates, in order to determine the characteristic responses due to nonisothermal injection. Two characteristic responses were identified: moving front dominated behavior and composite reservoir behavior. Analysis procedures for calculating the permeability-thickness of the formation and the skin factor of the well have been developed for each of these cases. In order to interpret the composite reservior behavior, a new concept has been developed; that of a ''fluid skin factor'', which accounts for the steady-state pressure buildup due to the region inside the thermal front. Based on this same concept, a procedure for tracking the movement of the thermal front has been established. The results also identify the dangers of not accounting the nonisothermal effects when analyzing injection test data. Both the permeability-thickness and skin factor of the well can be grossly miscalculated if the effects of the cold-region around the well are not taken into consideration. 47 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. When rare is just a matter of sampling: unexpected dominance of clubtail dragonflies (Odonata, Gomphidae through different collecting methods at Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Oliveira de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When rare is just a matter of sampling: Unexpected dominance of clubtail dragonflies (Odonata, Gomphidae through different collecting methods at Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Capture of dragonfly adults during two short expeditions to Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais State, using three distinct collecting methodsaerial nets, Malaise and light sheet trapsis reported. The results are outstanding due the high number of species of Gomphidae (7 out of 26 Odonata species, including a new species of Cyanogomphus Selys, 1873, obtained by two non-traditional collecting methods. Because active collecting with aerial nets is the standard approach for dragonfly inventories, we discuss some aspects of the use of traps, comparing our results with those in the literature, suggesting they should be used as complementary methods in faunistic studies. Furthermore, Zonophora campanulata annulata Belle, 1983 is recorded for the first time from Minas Gerais State and taxonomic notes about Phyllogomphoides regularis (Selys, 1873 and Progomphus complicatus Selys, 1854 are also given.

  2. Solid-state thermal behavior and stability studies of theophylline-citric acid cocrystals prepared by neat cogrinding or thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Hong-Liang [Department of Biotechnology, Yuanpei University, Hsin Chu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shun-Li, E-mail: wangshunli@mail.ncyu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chia Yi University, Chia Yi, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shan-Yang, E-mail: sylin@mail.ypu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, Yuanpei University, Hsin Chu, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    To investigate the thermal behavior of cocrystal formed between anhydrous theophylline (TP) and anhydrous citric acid (CA) by neat manual cogrinding or thermal treatment, DSC and FTIR microspectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis were applied. The physical mixture and 60-min ground mixture were stored at 55{+-}0.5 Degree-Sign C/40{+-}2% RH condition to determine their stability behavior. Typical TP-CA cocrystals were prepared by slow solvent evaporation method. Results indicate that the cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. The IR spectral peak shift from 3495 to 3512 cm{sup -1} and the stepwise appearance of several new IR peaks at 1731, 1712, 1676, 1651, 1557 and 1265 cm{sup -1} with cogrinding time suggest that the mechanism of TP-CA cocrystal formation was evidenced by interacting TP with CA through the intermolecular O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O hydrogen bonding. The stability of 60-min ground mixture of TP-CA was confirmed at 55{+-}0.5 Degree-Sign C/40{+-}2% RH condition over a storage time of 60 days. - Garphical abstract: Cogrinding, thermal and solvent-evaporation methods might easily induce the theophylline-citric acid cocrystal formation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TP-CA cocrystal was formed through the intermolecular O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O hydrogen bonding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 60-min TP-CA ground mixture was similar to the solvent-evaporated cocrystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal-induced TP-CA cocrystal formation was confirmed by pre-heating the physical mixture to 152 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 60-min TP-CA ground mixture was stable at accelerated condition over a storage time of 60 days.

  3. FRAPCON-2: A Computer Code for the Calculation of Steady State Thermal-Mechanical Behavior of Oxide Fuel Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, G. A; Bohn, M. P.; Rausch, W. N.; Williford, R. E.; Lanning, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    FRAPCON-2 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady state response of light Mater reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, deformation, and tai lure histories of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (a) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (b) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (c) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (d) fission gas release, (e} fuel rod internal gas pressure, (f) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (g) cladding oxidation, and (h) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat transfer correlations. FRAPCON-2 is programmed for use on the CDC Cyber 175 and 176 computers. The FRAPCON-2 code Is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by either the FRAP-T6 computer code or the thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP4/MOD7 Version 2.

  4. In-situ investigation of thermal instabilities and solid state dewetting in polycrystalline platinum thin films via confocal laser microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, S.; Cheng, Xuan; Huang, H. H.; Ihlefeld, J.; Nagarajan, V.

    2014-10-01

    Solid state dewetting and the subsequent morphological changes for platinum thin films grown on zinc oxide (ZnO) buffered (001) silicon substrates (Pt/ZnO/SiO2/(001)Si system) is investigated under vacuum conditions via a custom-designed confocal laser microscope coupled with a laser heating system. Live imaging of thin film dewetting under a range of heating and quenching vacuum ambients reveals events including hillock formation, hole formation, and hole growth that lead to formation of a network of Pt ligaments, break up of Pt ligaments to individual islands and subsequent Pt islands shape reformation, in chronological fashion. These findings are corroborated by ex-situ materials characterization and quantitative electron microscopy analysis. A secondary hole formation via blistering before film rupture is revealed to be the critical stage, after which a rapid dewetting catastrophe occurs. This process is instantaneous and cannot be captured by ex-situ methods. Finally, an intermetallic phase forms at 900 °C and alters the morphology of Pt islands, suggesting a practical limit to the thermal environments that may be used for these platinized silicon wafers in vacuum conditions.

  5. In-situ investigation of thermal instabilities and solid state dewetting in polycrystalline platinum thin films via confocal laser microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahangir, S.; Cheng, Xuan; Huang, H. H.; Nagarajan, V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Ihlefeld, J. [Electronic, Optical, and Nanomaterials Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    Solid state dewetting and the subsequent morphological changes for platinum thin films grown on zinc oxide (ZnO) buffered (001) silicon substrates (Pt/ZnO/SiO{sub 2}/(001)Si system) is investigated under vacuum conditions via a custom-designed confocal laser microscope coupled with a laser heating system. Live imaging of thin film dewetting under a range of heating and quenching vacuum ambients reveals events including hillock formation, hole formation, and hole growth that lead to formation of a network of Pt ligaments, break up of Pt ligaments to individual islands and subsequent Pt islands shape reformation, in chronological fashion. These findings are corroborated by ex-situ materials characterization and quantitative electron microscopy analysis. A secondary hole formation via blistering before film rupture is revealed to be the critical stage, after which a rapid dewetting catastrophe occurs. This process is instantaneous and cannot be captured by ex-situ methods. Finally, an intermetallic phase forms at 900 °C and alters the morphology of Pt islands, suggesting a practical limit to the thermal environments that may be used for these platinized silicon wafers in vacuum conditions.

  6. State of the art on high temperature thermal energy storage for power generation. Part 1. Concepts, materials and modellization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Antoni; Medrano, Marc; Martorell, Ingrid; Cabeza, Luisa F. [GREA Innovacio Concurrent, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001-Lleida (Spain); Lazaro, Ana; Dolado, Pablo; Zalba, Belen [Instituto de Investigacion en Ingenieria de Aragon, I3A, Grupo de Ingenieria Termica y Sistemas Energeticos (GITSE), Dpto. Ingenieria Mecanica, Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Universidad de Zaragoza, Campus Politecnico Rio Ebro, Edificio ' Agustin de Betancourt' , Maria de Luna s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Concentrated solar thermal power generation is becoming a very attractive renewable energy production system among all the different renewable options, as it has have a better potential for dispatchability. This dispatchability is inevitably linked with an efficient and cost-effective thermal storage system. Thus, of all components, thermal storage is a key one. However, it is also one of the less developed. Only a few plants in the world have tested high temperature thermal energy storage systems. In this paper, the different storage concepts are reviewed and classified. All materials considered in literature or plants are listed. And finally, modellization of such systems is reviewed. (author)

  7. Ouellette Thermal Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Test Facility is a joint Army/Navy state-of-the-art facility (8,100 ft2) that was designed to:Evaluate and characterize the effect of flame and thermal...

  8. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  9. Vortex dominated flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ting, Lu; Knio, Omar M

    2007-01-01

    Addressed to both graduate students and researchers this monograph provides in-depth analyses of vortex dominated flows via matched and multiscale asymptotics, and it demonstrates how insight gained through these analyses can be exploited in the construction of robust, efficient, and accurate numerical techniques. The dynamics of slender vortex filaments is discussed in detail, including fundamental derivations, compressible core structure, weakly non-linear limit regimes, and associated numerical methods. Similarly, the volume covers asymptotic analysis and computational techniques for weakly compressible flows involving vortex generated sound and thermoacoustics.

  10. From nature-dominated to human-dominated environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerli, Bruno; Grosjean, Martin; Hofer, Thomas; Núñez, Lautaro; Pfister, Christian

    2000-01-01

    To what extent is it realistic and useful to view human history as a sequence of changes from highly vulnerable societies of hunters and gatherers through periods with less vulnerable, well buffered and highly productive agrarian-urban societies to a world with regions of extreme overpopulation and overuse of life support systems, so that vulnerability to climatic-environmental changes and extreme events is again increasing? This question cannot be fully answered in our present state of knowledge, but at least we can try to illustrate, with three case studies from different continents, time periods and ecosystems, some fundamental changes in the relationship between natural processes and human activities that occur, as we pass from a nature-dominated to a human dominated environment. 1. Early-mid Holocene: Nature dominated environment — human adaptation, mitigation, and migration. In the central Andes, the Holocene climate changed from humid (10,800-8000 BP) to extreme arid (8000-3600 BP) conditions. Over the same period, prehistoric hunting communities adopted a more sedentary pattern of resource use by settling close to the few perennial water bodies, where they began the process of domesticating camelids around 5000 BP and irrigation from about 3100 BP. 2. Historical period: An agrarian society in transition from an "enduring" to an innovative human response. Detailed documentary evidence from Western Europe may be used to reconstruct quite precisely the impacts of climatic variations on agrarian societies. The period considered spans a major transition from an apparently passive response to the vagaries of the environment during the 16th century to an active and innovative attitude from the onset of the agrarian revolution in the late 18th century through to the present day. The associated changes in technology and in agricultural practices helped to create a society better able to survive the impact of climatic extremes. 3. The present day: A human dominated

  11. STEADY-STATE HEAT REJECTION RATES FOR A COAXIAL BOREHOLE HEAT EXCHANGER DURING PASSIVE AND ACTIVE COOLING DETERMINED WITH THE NOVEL STEP THERMAL RESPONSE TEST METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Macenić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At three locations in Zagreb, classical and extended thermal response test (TRT was conducted on installed coaxial heat exchangers. With classic TR test, thermogeological properties of the ground and thermal resistance of the borehole were determined at each location. It is seen that thermal conductivity of the ground varies, due to difference in geological profile of the sites. In addition, experimental research of steady-state thermal response step test (SSTRST was carried out to determine heat rejection rates for passive and active cooling in steady state regime. Results showed that heat rejection rate is only between 8-11 W/m, which indicates that coaxial system is not suitable for passive cooling demands. Furthermore, the heat pump in passive cooling mode uses additional plate heat exchanger where there is additional temperature drop of working fluid by approximately 1,5 °C. Therefore, steady-state rejection rate for passive cooling is even lower for a real case project. Coaxial heat exchanger should be always designed for an active cooling regime with an operation of a heat pump compressor in a classical vapour compression refrigeration cycle.

  12. Pinwheel Stabilization by Ocular Dominance Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Lars; Löwel, Siegrid; Wolf, Fred

    2009-05-01

    We present an analytical approach for studying the coupled development of ocular dominance and orientation preference columns. Using this approach we demonstrate that ocular dominance segregation can induce the stabilization and even the production of pinwheels by their crystallization in two types of periodic lattices. Pinwheel crystallization depends on the overall dominance of one eye over the other, a condition that is fulfilled during early cortical development. Increasing the strength of intermap coupling induces a transition from pinwheel-free stripe solutions to intermediate and high pinwheel density states.

  13. Heterometallic molecular precursors for a lithium-iron oxide material: synthesis, solid state structure, solution and gas-phase behaviour, and thermal decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haixiang; Wei, Zheng; Barry, Matthew C; Filatov, Alexander S; Dikarev, Evgeny V

    2017-05-02

    Three heterometallic single-source precursors with a Li : Fe = 1 : 1 ratio for a LiFeO2 oxide material are reported. Heterometallic compounds LiFeL3 (L = tbaoac (1), ptac (2), and acac(3)) have been obtained on a large scale, in nearly quantitative yields by one-step reactions that employ readily available reagents. The heterometallic precursor LiFe(acac)3 (3) with small, symmetric substituents on the ligand (acac = pentane-2,4-dionate), maintains a 1D polymeric structure in the solid state that limits its volatility and prevents solubility in non-coordinating solvents. The application of the unsymmetrical ligands, tbaoac (tert-butyl acetoacetate) and ptac (1,1,1-trifluoro-5,5-dimethyl-2,4-hexanedionate), that exhibit different bridging properties at the two ends of the ligand, allowed us to change the connectivity pattern within the heterometallic assembly. The latter was demonstrated by structural characterization of heterometallic complexes LiFe(tbaoac)3 (1) and LiFe(ptac)3 (2) that consist of discrete heterocyclic tetranuclear molecules Li2Fe2L6. The compounds are highly volatile and exhibit a congruent sublimation character. DART mass spectrometric investigation revealed the presence of heterometallic molecules in the gas phase. The positive mode spectra are dominated by the presence of [M - L]+ peaks (M = Li2Fe2L6). In accord with their discrete molecular structure, complexes 1 and 2 are highly soluble in nearly all common solvents. In order to test the retention of the heterometallic structure in solution, the diamagnetic analog of 1, LiMg(tbaoac)3 (4), has been isolated. Its tetranuclear molecular structure was found to be isomorphous to that of the iron counterpart. 1H and 7Li NMR spectroscopy unambiguously confirmed the presence of heterometallic molecules in solutions of non-coordinating solvents. The heterometallic precursor 1 was shown to exhibit clean thermal decomposition in air that results in phase-pure α-modification of layered oxide Li

  14. Solid-state thermal behavior and stability studies of theophylline-citric acid cocrystals prepared by neat cogrinding or thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Hong-Liang; Wang, Shun-Li; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the thermal behavior of cocrystal formed between anhydrous theophylline (TP) and anhydrous citric acid (CA) by neat manual cogrinding or thermal treatment, DSC and FTIR microspectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis were applied. The physical mixture and 60-min ground mixture were stored at 55±0.5 °C/40±2% RH condition to determine their stability behavior. Typical TP-CA cocrystals were prepared by slow solvent evaporation method. Results indicate that the cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. The IR spectral peak shift from 3495 to 3512 cm-1 and the stepwise appearance of several new IR peaks at 1731, 1712, 1676, 1651, 1557 and 1265 cm-1 with cogrinding time suggest that the mechanism of TP-CA cocrystal formation was evidenced by interacting TP with CA through the intermolecular O-H···O hydrogen bonding. The stability of 60-min ground mixture of TP-CA was confirmed at 55±0.5 °C/40±2% RH condition over a storage time of 60 days.

  15. Whole core pin-by-pin coupled neutronic-thermal-hydraulic steady state and transient calculations using COBAYA3 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Herrero, J. J.; Cuervo, D.; Aragones, J. M., E-mail: jimenez@din.upm.e [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Jose Gutierrez Abascal No. 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Nowadays coupled 3-dimensional neutron kinetics and thermal-hydraulic core calculations are performed by applying a radial average channel approach using a meshing of one quarter of assembly in the best case. This approach does not take into account the subchannels effects due to the averaging of the physical fields and the loose of heterogeneity in the thermal-hydraulic model. Therefore the models do not have enough resolution to predict those subchannels effects which are important for the fuel design safety margins, because it is in the local scale, where we can search the hottest pellet or the maximum heat flux. The Polytechnic University of Madrid advanced multi-scale neutron-kinetics and thermal-hydraulics methodologies being implemented in COBAYA3 include domain decomposition by alternate core dissections for the local 3-dimensional fine-mesh scale problems (pin cells/subchannels) and an analytical nodal diffusion solver for the coarse mesh scale coupled with the thermal-hydraulic using a model of one channel per assembly or per quarter of assembly. In this work, we address the domain decomposition by the alternate core dissections methodology applied to solve coupled 3-dimensional neutronic-thermal-hydraulic problems at the fine-mesh scale. The neutronic-thermal-hydraulic coupling at the cell-subchannel scale allows the treatment of the effects of the detailed thermal-hydraulic feedbacks on cross-sections, thus resulting in better estimates of the local safety margins at the pin level. (Author)

  16. Modelling of the steady state thermal behaviour of a permanent magnet direct current motor with commutator. 3D finite elements study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, R.; Cuchet, D. [ECIA Lab. Electricite-Electronique, Audincourt (France); Glises, R.; Chamagne, D.; Kauffmann, J.M.

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this work concerns the development and the validation of a thermal steady state model applied to a permanent magnet direct current motor with commutator. The rated power of the machine is 120 W. Design has been realized thanks to the thermal modulus of the computation software with the finite element method Flux3D. It is shown in this work how it is possible to use only the heat equation to simulate the thermal behaviour of the motor. It implies calculating of new fluid conductivities (considering also all thermal modes) by comparison of calculated and experimental temperatures. To realize these 3D modelizations, it is necessary to know and to locate all the losses of the motor which are considered as thermal sources. The experimental temperatures are given by 40 chromel-alumel thermocouples of 100 {mu}m diameter located in the rotor and the stator of the machine. Numerical computations use Dirichlet boundary layer conditions given by an IR camera. (orig.)

  17. a. Structural Perturbations of the Electronic Excited States of Zinc Complexes. B. Construction of a Thermal Modulation Emission Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin James

    Zinc(II) complexes containing both 2,9-dimethyl -1,10,-phenanthroline and substituted benzenethiol ligands were found to crystallize in different phases. Subtle changes in emission lifetimes and bandshapes recorded over periods of months from the same batch were manifestations of slow interphase conversions. Heating the crystals to near their melting points generated the unique high temperature phases. Two phases of the benzenethiol complex were characterized by x-ray crystallography. The 2500 cm^ {-1} energy difference between the peak of the 77 K emission from the ligand-ligand charge-transfer (LLCT) transition in the two phases was considered to arise from the sensitivities of the donor orbitals to rotation of the benzene rings about the sulfur-carbon bonds. The energy of the ^3pipi^ * emission from the nitrogen heterocycle was found to be insensitive both to complexation with Zn(II) and to the presence of the LLCT transitions. The intensity decrease of the ^3pipi^ * phosphorescence in alcoholic glasses with UV exposure was related to the generation of free radicals. Multiple LLCT lifetimes and emission bands with the longer-lived components at higher energies were found in the rigid glasses. LLCT emissions from an analogous dithiol complex revealed similar characteristics. Also the relative intensities of the LLCT components were independent of excitation wavelength. These results indicated that the multiple emissions were not attributable to multiple geometrical conformations. Thermally -modulated emission (TME) spectra were obtained from compounds dispersed in rigid glasses. For bis(cis-1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethylene)Rh(I) perchlorate the maximum temperature excursion was 3.5 and 4.5 K for the resistive and infra-red absorption heating methods respectively. The TME spectrum of crystalline (Cr(urea)_6) Cl_3 .3H_2O demonstrated the technique's advantages for the vibronic analysis of emissions from near-degenerate excited states. The negative signal of the

  18. Gluon dominance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoulina, Elena; Kutov, Andrey

    2017-03-01

    Study of multi-particle production has longer than the semi-centennial history. As it is known, with the growth of energy of accelerators, the new channels of reaction are being opened, the average number of secondary particles is increasing. Physicists are able to accelerate stable particles, such as electrons, positrons, protons, antiprotons, ions (both light and heavy). Rarely, they accelerate kaons and pions. The obtained experimental material stimulates the development of the different theoretical approaches. Since appearance of the modern theory of strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), our understanding of multi-particle production is advanced significantly. The language of quarks and gluons is basic one at the explanation of observable phenomena. This review is devoted to the history of appearance and the following development of the gluon dominance model. This model is based on the pQCD and the phenomenological description of the hadronization stage. It permits to describe multiplicity distributions both for lepton and hadron interactions, especially in the high multiplicity region.

  19. Dirac-surface-state-dominated spin to charge current conversion in the topological insulator (Bi0.22Sb0.78)2Te3 films at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, J. B. S.; Alves Santos, O.; Holanda, J.; Loreto, R. P.; de Araujo, C. I. L.; Chang, Cui-Zu; Moodera, J. S.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    We report the spin-to-charge current conversion in an intrinsic topological insulator (TI) (Bi0.22Sb0.78) 2T e3 film at room temperature. The spin currents are generated in a thin layer of permalloy (Py) by two different processes, the spin pumping effect (SPE) and the spin Seebeck effect (SSE). In the first, we use microwave-driven ferromagnetic resonance of the Py film to generate a SPE spin current that is injected into the TI (Bi0.22Sb0.78) 2T e3 layer in direct contact with Py. In the second, we use the SSE in the longitudinal configuration in Py without contamination by the anomalous Nernst effect, which was made possible with a thin NiO layer between the Py and (Bi0.22Sb0.78) 2T e3 layers. The spin-to-charge current conversion is dominated by the TI surface states and is attributed to the inverse Edelstein effect (IEE), which is made possible by the spin-momentum locking in the electron Fermi contours due to the Rashba field. The measurements by the two techniques yield very similar values for the IEE parameter, which are larger than the reported values in the previous studies on topological insulators.

  20. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  1. Dark Matter Freeze-out During Matter Domination

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan, Saleh; Unwin, James

    2017-01-01

    We highlight the general scenario of dark matter freeze-out whilst the energy density of the universe is dominated by a decoupled non-relativistic species. Decoupling during matter domination changes the freeze-out dynamics, since the Hubble rate is parametrically different for matter and radiation domination. Furthermore, for successful Big Bang Nucleosynthesis the state dominating the early universe energy density must decay, this dilutes (or repopulates) the dark matter. As a result, the m...

  2. Studies on reducing the thermal loads of solar-pumped solid state lasers; Taiyoko reiki laser no netsufuka teigen ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Yugami, H.; Naito, H.; Arashi, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    It was intended to reduce the thermal loads of solar-pumped solid state lasers (highly densified solar light is irradiated directly onto a laser medium to cause excitation. No electric power is required for the excitation.). For this purpose, experiments were performed by using a selective permeation film. Solar light includes wavelengths not effective for excitation, which causes heat generation and thermal loads such as lens heating effect and thermal stress compounded refraction, degrading the laser beam quality. The Nd:YAG was used as a laser medium, and a multi-layered film (composed of SiO2 and TiO2) which cuts wavelength below 500 nm as a selective permeation film to cut light having wavelengths not required for excitation. A laser transmitting experiment revealed that the slope efficiency is improved by 27% as compared to not using the film. Beam fluctuation was improved to 45%. Using the selective permeation film has realized more efficient conversion of the solar light into a beam with better quality. The results for calculation of heat lens effect by using temperature distribution simulation showed good agreement with experimental values. Using the selective permeation film can suppress the maximum temperature of a laser rod to 68%, as well as the thermal stress. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The Influence of Organic-Soil Horizons on Thermal Dynamics in High-Latitude Soils: Identifying Thresholds for Permafrost State Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ODonnell, J. A.; Harden, J. W.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2014-12-01

    Organic-soil horizons exert significant control on soil temperature and permafrost dynamics in high-latitude regions. Ecosystem protection of permafrost is governed by the low thermal conductivity of organic soils, which is sensitive to changes in horizon thickness (OHT), moisture content, and decomposition extent (and thus, porosity, and density) of organic matter. At broad spatial scales, the occurrence of permafrost is positively correlated with OHT when organic horizons are relatively thin (governed by the contrasting thermal properties of upper organic-soil horizons and the underlying deep organic-soil and mineral-soil horizons. As documented with prior investigations on snow thermal properties, we find that that the underlying layers can have a profound impact on the insulating effect of the overlying layer. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examine the sensitivity of permafrost to soil properties (OHT, moisture content, and texture) and their variations across landscape positions and drainage class using field-based observations and generalized simulations using the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Laboratory model (GIPL). We observed significant negative correlations between minimum daily ground-surface temperature during summer and OHT across upland forest sites in interior Alaska. In peatlands, ground-surface temperature and OHT appear to be decoupled, which is likely due to variation in deposit thickness as determined by the timing of peatland formation across the region. Model results highlight the role of moisture content and water table position, both as controls on organic matter accumulation and on permafrost extent and thermal state.

  4. Perfect secure domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Divya Rashmi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let $G=(V,E$ be a graph. A subset $S$ of $V$ is a dominating set of $G$ if every vertex in $Vsetminus  S$ is adjacent to a vertex in $S.$ A dominating set $S$ is called a secure dominating set if for each $vin Vsetminus S$ there exists $uin S$ such that $v$ is adjacent to $u$ and $S_1=(Ssetminus{u}cup {v}$ is a dominating set. If further the vertex $uin S$ is unique, then $S$ is called a perfect secure dominating set. The minimum cardinality of a perfect secure dominating set of $G$ is called the perfect  secure domination number of $G$ and is denoted by $gamma_{ps}(G.$ In this paper we initiate a study of this parameter and present several basic results.

  5. Dominant optic atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenaers Guy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain. Epidemiology The prevalence of the disease varies from 1/10000 in Denmark due to a founder effect, to 1/30000 in the rest of the world. Clinical description DOA patients usually suffer of moderate visual loss, associated with central or paracentral visual field deficits and color vision defects. The severity of the disease is highly variable, the visual acuity ranging from normal to legal blindness. The ophthalmic examination discloses on fundoscopy isolated optic disc pallor or atrophy, related to the RGC death. About 20% of DOA patients harbour extraocular multi-systemic features, including neurosensory hearing loss, or less commonly chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, multiple sclerosis-like illness, spastic paraplegia or cataracts. Aetiology Two genes (OPA1, OPA3 encoding inner mitochondrial membrane proteins and three loci (OPA4, OPA5, OPA8 are currently known for DOA. Additional loci and genes (OPA2, OPA6 and OPA7 are responsible for X-linked or recessive optic atrophy. All OPA genes yet identified encode mitochondrial proteins embedded in the inner membrane and ubiquitously expressed, as are the proteins mutated in the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. OPA1 mutations affect mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism, control of apoptosis, calcium clearance and maintenance of mitochondrial genome integrity. OPA3 mutations only affect the energy metabolism and the control of apoptosis. Diagnosis Patients are usually diagnosed during their early childhood, because of

  6. Dominant optic atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaers, Guy; Hamel, Christian; Delettre, Cécile; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Procaccio, Vincent; Bonneau, Dominique; Reynier, Pascal; Milea, Dan

    2012-07-09

    DEFINITION OF THE DISEASE: Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain. The prevalence of the disease varies from 1/10000 in Denmark due to a founder effect, to 1/30000 in the rest of the world. DOA patients usually suffer of moderate visual loss, associated with central or paracentral visual field deficits and color vision defects. The severity of the disease is highly variable, the visual acuity ranging from normal to legal blindness. The ophthalmic examination discloses on fundoscopy isolated optic disc pallor or atrophy, related to the RGC death. About 20% of DOA patients harbour extraocular multi-systemic features, including neurosensory hearing loss, or less commonly chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, multiple sclerosis-like illness, spastic paraplegia or cataracts. Two genes (OPA1, OPA3) encoding inner mitochondrial membrane proteins and three loci (OPA4, OPA5, OPA8) are currently known for DOA. Additional loci and genes (OPA2, OPA6 and OPA7) are responsible for X-linked or recessive optic atrophy. All OPA genes yet identified encode mitochondrial proteins embedded in the inner membrane and ubiquitously expressed, as are the proteins mutated in the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. OPA1 mutations affect mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism, control of apoptosis, calcium clearance and maintenance of mitochondrial genome integrity. OPA3 mutations only affect the energy metabolism and the control of apoptosis. Patients are usually diagnosed during their early childhood, because of bilateral, mild, otherwise unexplained visual loss related to optic discs

  7. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON ABUSE OF DOMINANT POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Maican

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Article 82 (formerly 86 EC contains four essential elements (an undertaking, a dominant position, an abuse of that position and the abuse must affect trade between member states. The term undertakings is subject to the same broad interpretation as that applied to article 81 (formerly 85 EC and covers the same activities, both public and private.The Community interest must be also taken into account. Although it is not clear precisely what this element of article 86 requires, it will clearly curtail the scope of the exception provided under this article. Although abusive behavior of undertakings in a dominant position is prohibited, it must be recalled that merely being in a strong position is not a problem in itself. It is necessary for major players in a market to be aware of their position because practices which would not fall foul of article 82 (formerly 86 EC, where an undertaking is not dominant, will do so where dominance is established. A refusal to deal by a non-dominant undertaking would not be an abuse within article 82 (formerly 86 EC, but it will be so where the undertaking is dominant.

  8. Thermodynamical analysis of spin-state transitions in LaCo O3 : Negative energy of mixing to assist thermal excitation to the high-spin excited state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyômen, Tôru; Asaka, Yoshinori; Itoh, Mitsuru

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity due to the spin-state transition in LaCoO3 were calculated by a molecular-field model in which the energy-level diagram of high-spin state reported by Ropka and Radwanski [Phys. Rev. B 67, 172401 (2003)] is assumed for the excited state, and the energy and entropy of mixing of high-spin Co ions and low-spin Co ions are introduced phenomenologically. The experimental data below 300K were well reproduced by this model, which proposes that the high-spin excited state can be populated even if the energy of high-spin state is much larger than that of low-spin state, because the negatively large energy of mixing reduces the net excitation energy. The stability of each spin state including the intermediate-spin state is discussed based on the present results and other reports.

  9. High-level direct-dynamics variational transition state theory calculations including multidimensional tunneling of the thermal rate constants, branching ratios, and kinetic isotope effects of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from methanol by atomic hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Truhlar, Donald G; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio

    2011-03-07

    We report a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reaction from methanol by atomic hydrogen. The study includes the analysis of thermal rate constants, branching ratios, and kinetic isotope effects. Specifically, we have performed high-level computations at the MC3BB level together with direct dynamics calculations by canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) with the microcanonically optimized multidimensional tunneling (μOMT) transmission coefficient (CVT/μOMT) to study both the CH(3)OH+H→CH(2)OH+H(2) (R1) reaction and the CH(3)OH+H→CH(3)O+H(2) (R2) reaction. The CVT/μOMT calculations show that reaction R1 dominates in the whole range 298≤T (K)≤2500 and that anharmonic effects on the torsional mode about the C-O bond are important, mainly at high temperatures. The activation energy for the total reaction sum of R1 and R2 reactions changes substantially with temperature and, therefore, the use of straight-line Arrhenius plots is not valid. We recommend the use of new expressions for the total R1 + R2 reaction and for the R1 and R2 individual reactions. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Airborne thermal imaging for the leakage monitoring and state estimation in Dresden. Leak location and leak monitoring; Luftgestuetzte Thermografie zur Leckueberwachung und Zustandsermittlung in Dresden. Leckortung und -ueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehnert, Frank [Drewag Netz GmbH, Dresden (Germany). Anlagenmanagement Rohrnetze; Krickau, Hans-Joerg [Scandat Gesellschaft fuer Fernerkundungstechnologien mbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    In the spring of 2012, Drewag Netz GmbH (Dresden, Federal Republic of Germany) engaged Scandad GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) to map the complete district heating grid of Dresden by means of airborne thermal imaging. The recommendation came from district heating operators already having applied this technology successfully. The scope of this technology is to get information on leaks in district heating grids as well as supplementary information on the state of the total district heating grid. These information are directly included in the strategy of maintenance for the next twenty years.

  11. Color Rendering Index Thermal Stability Improvement of Glass-Based Phosphor-Converted White Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chin Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High color rendering index performance has been required for phosphor-converted warm-white light-emitting diodes (PC-WWLEDs in lighting industry. The characteristics of low-temperature fabricated phosphor (yellow: Ce3+:YAG, green: Tb3+:YAG, and red: CaAlClSiN3:Eu2+ doped glass were presented for applications to high color rendering index warm-white-light-emitting diodes. Color coordinates (x, y = (0.36, 0.29, quantum yield (QY = 55.6%, color rending index (CRI = 85.3, and correlated color temperature (CCT = 3923 K were characterized. Glass-based PC-WWLEDs was found able to maintain good thermal stability for long-time high-temperature operation. QY decay, CRI remenance, and chromaticity shift were also analyzed for glass- and silicone-based high-power PC-WLEDs by thermal aging at 150°C and 250°C for industrial test standard’s aging time 1008 hours. Better than the silicone’s, thermal stability of glass-based PC-WLEDs has been improved. The resulted high color rendering index (CRI glass phosphor potentially can be used as a phosphor layer for high-performance and low-cost PC-WLEDs used in next-generation indoor solid-state lighting applications.

  12. Polarization, excited states, trans-cis properties and anisotropy of thermal and electrical conductivity of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline in PVA matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Siyamak; Filippovich, Liudmila; Sheikhi, Masoome; Kumar, Rakesh; Dikusar, Evgenij; Yahyaei, Hooriye; Muravsky, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, Polarization, Excited States, Trans-Cis (E → Z) Isomerization Properties and Anisotropy of Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix were studied. DFT, UV/Vis, IR-Spectroscopies and Indicator Method were used for Determination of Thermal Conductivity of polymer films. The absorption spectra of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline in dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent and in aqueous medium were calculated. The nature of absorption peaks of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline in the UV/Vis spectral regions were interpreted. The solvent effect on the absorption spectrum of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline has established. The molecular HOMO-LUMO, excitation energies and oscillator strengths for E and Z isomers of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline have also been calculated and presented. Optical Properties of the PVA-films containing 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline have been also investigated. Polarizing Efficiency (PE) of obtained PVA-film is 98-99% at Stretching Degree (Rs) 3.5. Anisotropy of thermal and electrical conductivity of PVA-films containing E and Z isomers of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline was also measured and discussed.

  13. Eternal Domination: Criticality and Reachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klostermeyer William F.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that for every minimum eternal dominating set, D, of a graph G and every vertex v ∈ D, there is a sequence of attacks at the vertices of G which can be defended in such a way that an eternal dominating set not containing v is reached. The study of the stronger assertion that such a set can be reached after a single attack is defended leads to the study of graphs which are critical in the sense that deleting any vertex reduces the eternal domination number. Examples of these graphs and tight bounds on connectivity, edge-connectivity and diameter are given. It is also shown that there exist graphs in which deletion of any edge increases the eternal domination number, and graphs in which addition of any edge decreases the eternal domination number.

  14. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity for Next Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockstaller, Michael [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The low thermal conductivity of state-of-the-art polymer encapsulants (k ~ 0.15 Wm-1K-1) limits the efficiency and power density of current phosphor conversion light emitting diodes (pc-LEDs). The technical objective of this project was to demonstrate synthesis and processing schemes for the fabrication of polymer hybrid encapsulants with a thermal conductivity exceeding k = 0.4 Wm-1K-1 for LED applications. The ‘hybrid polymer’ approach encompasses the dispersion of high thermal conductivity particle fillers (zinc oxide, ZnO as well as the alpha-polymorph of alumina, Al2O3) within a polysiloxane matrix (poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS as well as poly(phenyl methyl siloxane), PPMS) to increase the thermal conductivity while maintaining optical transparency and photothermal stability at levels consistent with LED applications. To accomplish this goal, a novel synthesis method for the fabrication of nanosized ZnO particles was developed and a novel surface chemistry was established to modify the surface of zinc oxide particle fillers and thus to enable their dispersion in poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix polymers. Molecular dynamics and Mie simulations were used to optimize ligand structure and to enable the concurrent mixing of particles in PDMS/PPMS embedding media while also minimizing the thermal boundary resistance as well as optical scattering of particle fillers. Using this approach the synthesis of PDMS/ZnO hybrid encapsulants exhibiting a thermal conductivity of 0.64 Wm-1K-1 and optical transparency > 0.7 mm-1 was demonstrated. A forming process based on micromolding was developed to demonstrate the forming of particle filled PDMS into film and lens shapes. Photothermal stability testing revealed stability of the materials for approximately 4000 min when exposed to blue light LED (450 nm, 30 W/cm2). One postgraduate and seven graduate students were supported by the project. The research performed within this project led to fifteen publications in peer

  15. Thermal transport in tantalum oxide films for memristive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Colin D.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Blea-Kirby, Mia; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Marinella, Matthew J.; Beechem, Thomas E.

    2015-07-01

    The thermal conductivity of amorphous TaOx memristive films having variable oxygen content is measured using time domain thermoreflectance. Thermal transport is described by a two-part model where the electrical contribution is quantified via the Wiedemann-Franz relation and the vibrational contribution by the minimum thermal conductivity limit for amorphous solids. The vibrational contribution remains constant near 0.9 W/mK regardless of oxygen concentration, while the electrical contribution varies from 0 to 3.3 W/mK. Thus, the dominant thermal carrier in TaOx switches between vibrations and charge carriers and is controllable either by oxygen content during deposition, or dynamically by field-induced charge state migration.

  16. Thermal transport in tantalum oxide films for memristive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landon, Colin D.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Blea-Kirby, Mia; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Marinella, Matthew J.; Beechem, Thomas E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Brennecka, Geoff L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-07-13

    The thermal conductivity of amorphous TaO{sub x} memristive films having variable oxygen content is measured using time domain thermoreflectance. Thermal transport is described by a two-part model where the electrical contribution is quantified via the Wiedemann-Franz relation and the vibrational contribution by the minimum thermal conductivity limit for amorphous solids. The vibrational contribution remains constant near 0.9 W/mK regardless of oxygen concentration, while the electrical contribution varies from 0 to 3.3 W/mK. Thus, the dominant thermal carrier in TaO{sub x} switches between vibrations and charge carriers and is controllable either by oxygen content during deposition, or dynamically by field-induced charge state migration.

  17. Chemical and nanometer-scale structure of kerogen and its change during thermal maturation investigated by advanced solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Fang, X.; Lan, Y.; Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Xu, L.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have used advanced and quantitative solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate structural changes in a series of type II kerogen samples from the New Albany Shale across a range of maturity (vitrinite reflectance R0 from 0.29% to 1.27%). Specific functional groups such as CH3, CH2, alkyl CH, aromatic CH, aromatic C-O, and other nonprotonated aromatics, as well as "oil prone" and "gas prone" carbons, have been quantified by 13C NMR; atomic H/C and O/C ratios calculated from the NMR data agree with elemental analysis. Relationships between NMR structural parameters and vitrinite reflectance, a proxy for thermal maturity, were evaluated. The aromatic cluster size is probed in terms of the fraction of aromatic carbons that are protonated (???30%) and the average distance of aromatic C from the nearest protons in long-range H-C dephasing, both of which do not increase much with maturation, in spite of a great increase in aromaticity. The aromatic clusters in the most mature sample consist of ???30 carbons, and of ???20 carbons in the least mature samples. Proof of many links between alkyl chains and aromatic rings is provided by short-range and long-range 1H-13C correlation NMR. The alkyl segments provide most H in the samples; even at a carbon aromaticity of 83%, the fraction of aromatic H is only 38%. While aromaticity increases with thermal maturity, most other NMR structural parameters, including the aromatic C-O fractions, decrease. Aromaticity is confirmed as an excellent NMR structural parameter for assessing thermal maturity. In this series of samples, thermal maturation mostly increases aromaticity by reducing the length of the alkyl chains attached to the aromatic cores, not by pronounced growth of the size of the fused aromatic ring clusters. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diamond as a solid state micro-fission chamber for thermal neutron detection at the VR-1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomorski, Michal; Mer-Calfati, Christine [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Foulon, Francois [CEA, National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sklenka, Lubomir; Rataj, Jan; Bily, Tomas [Department of Nuclear Reactors,Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University, V. Holesovickach 2, 180 00 PRAHA 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-01

    Diamond exhibits a combination of properties which makes it attractive for neutron detection in hostile conditions. In the particular case of detection in a nuclear reactor, it is resilient to radiation, exhibits a natural low sensitivity to gamma rays, and its small size (as compared with that of gas ionisation chambers) enables fluency monitoring with a high position resolution. We report here on the use of synthetic CVD diamond as a solid state micro-fission chamber with U-235 converting material for in-core thermal neutron monitoring. Two types of thin diamond detectors were developed for this application. The first type of detector is fabricated using thin diamond membrane obtained by etching low-cost commercially available single crystal CVD intrinsic diamond, so called 'optical grade' material. Starting from a few hundred of micrometre thick samples, the sample is sliced with a laser and then plasma etched down to a few tenths of micrometre. Here we report the result obtained with a 17 μm thick device. The detection surface of this detector is equal to 1 mm{sup 2}. Detectors with surfaces up to 1 cm{sup 2} can be fabricated with this technique. The second type of detector is fabricated by growing successively two thin films of diamond, by the microwave enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique, on HPHT single crystal diamond. A first, a film of boron doped (p+) single crystal diamond, a few microns thick, is deposited. Then a second film of intrinsic diamond with a thickness of a few tens of microns is deposited. This results in a P doped, Intrinsic, Metal structure (PIM) structure in which the intrinsic volume id the active part of the detector. Here we report the results obtained with a 20 μm thick intrinsic whose detection surface is equal to 0.5 mm{sup 2}, with the possibility to enlarge the surface of the detector up to 1 cm{sup 2}. These two types of detector were tested at the VR-1 research reactor at the Czech Technical University in

  19. The Thermal State Computational Research of the Low-Thrust Oxygen-Methane Gaseous-Propellant Rocket Engine in the Pulse Mode of Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Vorozheeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently promising development direction of space propulsion engineering is to use, as spacecraft controls, low-thrust rocket engines (RDTM on clean fuels, such as oxygen-methane. Modern RDTM are characterized by a lack regenerative cooling and pulse mode of operation, during which there is accumulation of heat energy to lead to the high thermal stress of RDTM structural elements. To get an idea about the thermal state of its elements, which further will reduce the number of fire tests is therefore necessary in the development phase of a new product. Accordingly, the aim of this work is the mathematical modeling and computational study of the thermal state of gaseous oxygen-methane propellant RDMT operating in pulse mode.In this paper we consider a model RDTM working on gaseous propellants oxygen-methane in pulse mode.To calculate the temperature field of the chamber wall of model RDMT under consideration is used the mathematical model of non-stationary heat conduction in a two-dimensional axisymmetric formulation that takes into account both the axial heat leakages and the nonstationary processes occurring inside the chamber during pulse operation of RDMT.As a result of numerical study of the thermal state of model RDMT, are obtained the temperature fields during engine operation based on convective, conductive, and radiative mechanisms of heat transfer from the combustion products to the wall.It is shown that the elements of flanges of combustion chamber of model RDMT act as heat sinks structural elements. Temperatures in the wall of the combustion chamber during the engine mode of operation are considered relatively low.Raised temperatures can also occur in the mixing head in the feeding area of the oxidant into the combustion chamber.During engine operation in the area forming the critical section, there is an intensive heating of a wall, which can result in its melting, which in turn will increase the minimum nozzle throat area and hence

  20. Up-Conversion Intersystem Crossing Rates in Organic Emitters for Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence: Impact of the Nature of Singlet vs Triplet Excited States

    KAUST Repository

    Samanta, Pralok Kumar

    2017-02-28

    The rates for up-conversion intersystem crossing (UISC) from the T1 state to the S1 state are calculated for a series of organic emitters with an emphasis on thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials. Both the spin-orbit coupling and the energy difference between the S1 and T1 states (ΔEST) are evaluated, at the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT levels. The calculated UISC rates and ΔEST values are found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. Our results underline that small ΔEST values and sizable spin-orbit coupling matrix elements have to be simultaneously realized in order to facilitate UISC and ultimately TADF. Importantly, the spatial separation of the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of the emitter, a widely accepted strategy for the design of TADF molecules, does not necessarily lead to a sufficient reduction in ΔEST; in fact, either a significant charge-transfer (CT) contribution to the T1 state or a minimal energy difference between the local-excitation and charge-transfer triplet states is required to achieve a small ΔEST. Also, having S1 and T1 states of a different nature is found to strongly enhance spin-orbit coupling, which is consistent with the El-Sayed rule for ISC rates. Overall, our results indicate that having either similar energies for the local-excitation and charge-transfer triplet states or the right balance between a substantial CT contribution to T1 and somewhat different natures of the S1 and T1 states, paves the way toward UISC enhancement and thus TADF efficiency improvement.

  1. Measurements of the effects of thermal contact resistance on steady state heat transfer in phosphoric-acid fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Alkasab, Kalil A.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the thermal contact resistance on the heat transfer between the electrode plates, and the cooling system plate in a phosphoric-acid fuel-cell stack was experimentally investigated. The investigation was conducted using a set-up that simulates the operating conditions prevailing in a phosphoric acid fuel-cell stack. The fuel-cell cooling system utilized three types of coolants, water, engine oil, and air, to remove excess heat generated in the cell electrode and to maintain a reasonably uniform temperature distribution in the electrode plate. The thermal contact resistance was measured as a function of pressure at the interface between the electrode plate and the cooling system plate. The interface pressure range was from 0 kPa to 3448 kPa, while the Reynolds number for the cooling limits varied from 15 to 79 for oil, 1165 to 6165 for water, and 700 to 6864 for air. Results showed that increasing the interface pressure resulted in a higher heat transfer coefficient.

  2. Heat Capacity and Thermal Conductance Measurements of a Superconducting-Normal Mixed State by Detection of Single 3 eV Photons in a Magnetic Penetration Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Balvin, M. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Denis, K. L.; Lee, S.-J.; Nagler, P. C.; Smith, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    We report on measurements of the detected signal pulses in a molybdenum-gold Magnetic Penetration Thermometer (MPT) in response to absorption of one or more 3 eV photons. We designed and used this MPT sensor for x-ray microcalorimetry. In this device, the diamagnetic response of a superconducting MoAu bilayer is used to sense temperature changes in response to absorbed photons, and responsivity is enhanced by a Meissner transition in which the magnetic flux penetrating the sensor changes rapidly to minimize free energy in a mixed superconducting normal state. We have previously reported on use of our MPT to study a thermal phonon energy loss to the substrate when absorbing x-rays. We now describe results of extracting heat capacity C and thermal conductance G values from pulse height and decay time of MPT pulses generated by 3 eV photons. The variation in C and G at temperatures near the Meissner transition temperature (set by an internal magnetic bias field) allow us to probe the behavior in superconducting normal mixed state of the condensation energy and the electron cooling power resulting from quasi-particle recombination and phonon emission. The information gained on electron cooling power is also relevant to the operation of other superconducting detectors, such as Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors.

  3. Balmer-Dominated Shocks: A Concise Review

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    A concise and critical review of Balmer-dominated shocks (BDSs) is presented, summarizing the state of theory and observations, including models with/without shock precursors and their synergy with atomic physics. Observations of BDSs in supernova remnants are reviewed on an object-by-object basis. The relevance of BDSs towards understanding the acceleration of cosmic rays in shocks is emphasized. Probable and possible detections of BDSs in astrophysical objects other than supernova remnants,...

  4. Domination criticality in product graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Chithra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A connected dominating set is an important notion and has many applications in routing and management of networks. Graph products have turned out to be a good model of interconnection networks. This motivated us to study the Cartesian product of graphs G with connected domination number, γc(G=2,3 and characterize such graphs. Also, we characterize the k−γ-vertex (edge critical graphs and k−γc-vertex (edge critical graphs for k=2,3 where γ denotes the domination number of G. We also discuss the vertex criticality in grids.

  5. Generalized connected domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kouider

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As a generalization of connected domination in a graph G we consider domination by sets having at most k components. The order γ c k (G of such a smallest set we relate to γ c (G, the order of a smallest connected dominating set. For a tree T we give bounds on γ c k (T in terms of minimum valency and diameter. For trees the inequality γ c k (T≤ n-k-1 is known to hold, we determine the class of trees, for which equality holds.

  6. "You Must Be Thinking What a Lesbian Man Teacher Is Doing in a Nice Place Like Dipane Letsie School?": Enacting, Negotiating and Reproducing Dominant Understandings of Gender in a Rural School in the Free State, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    In this article I explore two questions -- how does, Thatho, a transgendered life orientation teacher enact, resist and reproduce dominant understandings of gender and sexuality in terms of his own identity and practice; and what specific possibilities, challenges and resistances exist for a transgender educator in the rural. Using life-history…

  7. Application Experience of Composite Materials with Macro-Heterogeneous Structure for Normalization of Thermal-Mechanical State of Steam Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Kobzar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application experience of composite materials with macro-hetero-geneous structure for normalization of thermo-mechanical state of steam turbines. It has been shown that the developed repairing technology with application of composite materials with macro-heterogeneous structure makes it possible to ensure thermo-mechanical state of steam turbines after their reconstruction  at the level of newly assembled ones.

  8. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  9. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  10. LMFBR in-core thermal-hydraulics: the state of the art and US research and development needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, E.U.

    1980-04-01

    A detailed critical review is presented of the literature relevant to predicting coolant flow and temperature fields in LMFBR core assemblies for nominal and non-nominal rod bundle geometries and reactor operating conditions. The review covers existing thermal-hydraulic models, computational methods, and experimental data useful for the design of an LMFBR core. The literature search made for this review included publications listed by Nuclear Science Abstracts and Energy Data Base as well as papers presented at key nuclear conferences. Based on this extensive review, the report discusses the accuracy with which the models predict flow and temperature fields in rod assemblies, identifying areas where analytical, experimental, and model development needs exist.

  11. Restrained roman domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roushini Leely Pushpam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (RDF on a graph G = (V,E is defined to be a function satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. A set S V is a Restrained dominating set if every vertex not in S is adjacent to a vertex in S and to a vertex in . We define a Restrained Roman dominating function on a graph G = (V,E to be a function satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2 and at least one vertex w for which f(w = 0. The weight of a Restrained Roman dominating function is the value . The minimum weight of a Restrained Roman dominating function on a graph G is called the Restrained Roman domination number of G and denoted by . In this paper, we initiate a study of this parameter.

  12. Neural mechanisms of social dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriya eWatanabe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a group setting, individuals’ perceptions of their own level of dominance or of the dominance level of others, and the ability to adequately control their behavior based on these perceptions are crucial for living within a social environment. Recent advances in neural imaging and molecular technology have enabled researchers to investigate the neural substrates that support the perception of social dominance and the formation of a social hierarchy in humans. At the systems’ level, recent studies showed that dominance perception is represented in broad brain regions which include the amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, and various cortical networks such as the prefrontal, and parietal cortices. Additionally, neurotransmitter systems such as the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, modulate and are modulated by the formation of the social hierarchy in a group. While these monoamine systems have a wide distribution and multiple functions, it was recently found that the Neuropeptide B/W contributes to the perception of dominance and is present in neurons that have a limited projection primarily to the amygdala. The present review discusses the specific roles of these neural regions and neurotransmitter systems in the perception of dominance and in hierarchy formation.

  13. Alternatives to eigenstate thermalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, Marcos; Srednicki, Mark

    2012-03-16

    An isolated quantum many-body system in an initial pure state will come to thermal equilibrium if it satisfies the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH). We consider alternatives to ETH that have been proposed. We first show that von Neumann's quantum ergodic theorem relies on an assumption that is essentially equivalent to ETH. We also investigate whether, following a sudden quench, special classes of pure states can lead to thermal behavior in systems that do not obey ETH, namely, integrable systems. We find examples of this, but only for initial states that obeyed ETH before the quench.

  14. Thermal Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yu; Jacob, Zubin

    2013-01-01

    We explore the near-field radiative thermal energy transfer properties of hyperbolic metamaterials. The presence of unique electromagnetic states in a broad bandwidth leads to super-planckian thermal energy transfer between metamaterials separated by a nano-gap. We consider practical phonon-polaritonic metamaterials for thermal engineering in the mid-infrared range and show that the effect exists in spite of the losses, absorption and finite unit cell size. For thermophotovoltaic energy conve...

  15. Transport properties of dense monatomic and molecular fluids and their mixtures, and the corresponding states principle I. shear viscosity and thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loef, J. J.

    1984-06-01

    A corresponding states analysis of the shear viscosity and the thermal conductivity of dense monatomic and molecular fluids composed of either diatomic molecules and CO 2 or light hydrocarbons is presented. The transport coefficients are reduced using Lennard-Jones parameters σ and ε/ kB, the values of which are chosen such that the reduced critical density and the reduced critical temperature have the same values for each of the fluids considered. Using evaluated transport coefficients along isotherms and isobars ( P ⩽ 100 MPa), it appears that the reduced fluidity and reduced thermal resistivity increase closely linearly with the reduced molar volume in a large fraction of the liquid range. Presenting a comprehensive set of data this way it is easy, a) to verify that the transport coefficients of monatomic fluids (except 4He) obey corresponding states principle, b) to compare the experimental data with molecular dynamical calculations, c) to estimate transport coefficients of the superheated monatomic liquid of known density, d) to investigate to which extent transport coefficients of molecular fluids correspond with those of the monatomic ones, e) to predict transport coefficients of a molecular liquid of a type similar to those for which η s and λ are available, provided the equation of state is known (e.g. CO, NO, C 2H 2), f) to discriminate data sources using a consistency test (e.g. η s of liquid CO and Cl 2), g) to predict transport coefficients of binary monatomic and molecular liquid mixtures provided their molar volume is known, using the Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rules to determine η and ε/ kB (e.g. (Ar + Kr), (Ar + CH 4), (Kr + CH 4) , (N 2 + CH 4)).

  16. Effective thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance of gas diffusion layers in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Part 2: Hysteresis effect under cyclic compressive load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, E. [Dept. Mechanical Eng., and Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC (Canada); Mechatronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC (Canada); Djilali, N. [Dept. Mechanical Eng., and Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bahrami, M. [Mechatronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Heat transfer through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) is a key process in the design and operation of a PEM fuel cell. The analysis of this process requires the determination of the effective thermal conductivity as well as the thermal contact resistance between the GDL and adjacent surfaces/layers. The Part 1 companion paper describes an experimental procedure and a test bed devised to allow separation of the effective thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance, and presents measurements under a range of static compressive loads. In practice, during operation of a fuel cell stack, the compressive load on the GDL changes. In the present study, experiments are performed on Toray carbon papers with 78% porosity and 5% PTFE under a cyclic compressive load. Results show a significant hysteresis in the loading and unloading cycle data for total thermal resistance, thermal contact resistance (TCR), effective thermal conductivity, thickness, and porosity. It is found that after 5 loading-unloading cycles, the geometrical, mechanical, and thermal parameters reach a ''steady-state'' condition and remain unchanged. A key finding of this study is that the TCR is the dominant component of the GDL total thermal resistance with a significant hysteresis resulting in up to a 34% difference between the loading and unloading cycle data. This work aims to clarify the impact of unsteady/cyclic compression on the thermal and structural properties of GDLs and provides new insights on the importance of TCR which is a critical interfacial transport phenomenon. (author)

  17. Structural, thermal, magnetic and optical characterization of undoped nanocrystalline ZnS prepared by solid state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faita, F.L., E-mail: flffisica@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Ersching, K. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Catarinense – Campus Camboriú, 88340-000 Camboriú, SC (Brazil); Poffo, C.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000 Japiim, 69077000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Benetti, L.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Trichês, D.M.; Souza, S.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000 Japiim, 69077000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Viegas, A.D.C.; Lima, J.C. de [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline zinc blende and wurtzite ZnS phases produced by mechanical alloying. • Sulfur and/or zinc vacancies in the ZnS as-milled. • Magnetic and semiconductor behavior for the as-milled ZnS-10h. • Irreversible demagnetization and Curie temperature above room temperature. • Structural stability after annealing and aged of the ZnS-10h sample. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline zinc blende and wurtzite ZnS phases with sulfur and/or zinc vacancies were obtained from a mechanically alloyed Zn{sub 50}S{sub 50} powder mixture. Structural, thermal, magnetic, optical and photoacoustic studies were carried out using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, vibrating sample magnetometer, UV–Vis absorption, photoluminescence and photoacoustic spectroscopy techniques. The cubic zinc blende (ZnS{sup ZB}) and hexagonal wurtzite (ZnS{sup WZ}) phases were nucleated in 3 h of milling and remained until 10 h when the milling process was stopped. The coexistence of these two phases was confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction measurements attested the structural stability of the sample milled for 10 h and aged for eighteen months and of the sample milled 10 h and annealed at 300 °C and 600 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed the unreacted sulfur in molecular form (rings and/or chains). Magnetic behavior was observed for as-milled sample and Curie temperature was estimated at 430 °C. Moreover, an irreversible behavior of magnetic properties was observed and correlated with changes on the structural vacancies densities. The UV–Vis absorption spectra and McLean analysis showed an optical band gap around 3.4 eV and 3.9 for ZnS{sup ZB} and ZnS{sup WZ} phases, respectively. The sample milled for 10 h showed low blue photoemission intensity centered at 470 nm and thermal diffusivity around 0.02 cm{sup 2}/s.

  18. Development and Evaluation of Active Thermal Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries using Solid-State Thermoelectric Heat Pump and Heat Pipes with Electric Vehicular Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Bhaumik Kamlesh

    Lithium-Ion batteries have become a popular choice for use in energy storage systems in electric vehicles (EV) and Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) because of high power and high energy density. But the use of EV and HEV in all climates demands for a battery thermal management system (BTMS) since temperature effects their performance, cycle life and, safety. Hence the BTMS plays a crucial role in the performance of EV and HEV. In this paper, three thermal management systems are studied: (a) simple aluminum as heat spreader material, (b) heat pipes as heat spreader, and (c) advanced combined solid state thermoelectric heat pump (TE) and heat pipe system; these will be subsequently referred to as Design A, B and C, respectively. A detailed description of the designs and the experimental setup is presented. The experimental procedure is divided into two broad categories: Cooling mode and Warming-up mode. Cooling mode covers the conditions when a BTMS is responsible to cool the battery pack through heat dissipation and Warming-up mode covers the conditions when the BTMS is responsible to warm the battery pack in a low temperature ambient condition, maintaining a safe operating temperature of the battery pack in both modes. The experimental procedure analyzes the thermal management system by evaluating the effect of each variable like heat sink area, battery heat generation rate, cooling air temperature, air flow rate and TE power on parameters like maximum temperature of the battery pack (T max), maximum temperature difference (DeltaT) and, heat transfer through heat sink/cooling power of TE (Q c). The results show that Design C outperforms Design A and Design B in spite of design issues which reduce its efficiency, but can still be improved to achieve better performance.

  19. Frontal brain activity and behavioral indicators of affective states are weakly affected by thermal stimuli in sheep living in different housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eVögeli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many stimuli evoke short-term emotional reactions. These reactions may play an important role in assessing how a subject perceives a stimulus. Additionally, long-term mood may modulate the emotional reactions but it is still unclear in what way. The question seems to be important in terms of animal welfare, as a negative mood may taint emotional reactions. In the present study with sheep, we investigated the effects of thermal stimuli on emotional reactions and the potential modulating effect of mood induced by manipulations of the housing conditions. We assume that unpredictable, stimulus-poor conditions lead to a negative and predictable, stimulus-rich conditions to a positive mood state. The thermal stimuli were applied to the upper breast during warm ambient temperatures: hot (as presumably negative, intermediate, and cold (as presumably positive. We recorded cortical activity by functional near-infrared spectroscopy, restlessness behavior (e.g. locomotor activity, aversive behaviors and ear postures as indicators of emotional reactions. The strongest hemodynamic reaction was found during a stimulus of intermediate valence independent of the animal’s housing conditions, whereas locomotor activity, ear movements and aversive behaviors were seen most in sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, independent of stimulus valence. We conclude that, sheep perceived the thermal stimuli and differentiated between some of them. An adequate interpretation of the neuronal activity pattern remains difficult, though. The effects of housing conditions were small indicating that the induction of mood was only modestly efficacious. Therefore, a modulating effect of mood on the emotional reaction was not found.

  20. Fluctuation theorems and orbital magnetism in nonequilibrium state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rare and are related to transient second law violating contributions. These theo- rems are useful to probe nonequilibrium states in nanophysics and biology. In these systems energies involved are typically small and hence thermal fluctuations play a significant role. In fact, variance in some of the physical quantities dominate.

  1. Are Quasar Jets Matter Or Poynting Flux Dominated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, Marek; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr.; Madejski, Greg M.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Lasota, Jean-Pierre; /Paris, Inst. Astrophys.; Begelman, Mitchell C.; /JILA,

    2005-10-03

    If quasar jets are accelerated by magnetic fields but terminate as matter dominated, where and how does the transition occur between the Poynting-dominated and matter-dominated regimes? To address this question, we study constraints which are imposed on the jet structure by observations at different spatial scales. We demonstrate that observational data are consistent with a scenario where the acceleration of a jet occurs within 10{sup 3-4}R{sub g}. In this picture, the non-thermal flares--important defining attributes of the blazar phenomenon--are produced by strong shocks formed in the region where the jet inertia becomes dominated by matter. Such shocks may be formed due to collisions between the portions of a jet accelerated to different velocities, and the acceleration differentiation is very likely to be related to global MHD instabilities.

  2. Possible Phonon Density of States of High-Temperature Phase Structure of the Negative Thermal Expansion Compound ZrW2O8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Saito, Kazuya

    2007-12-01

    To study the phonon properties of β-ZrW2O8 showing the negative thermal expansion (NTE), the heat capacities of Zr1-xMxW2O8-y (M = Sc, Lu; x = 0.02, 0.04) at low temperatures were measured and analyzed. The analysis presents the effective phonon density of states (DOS) of β-ZrW2O8, showing a rounded form around 5 meV. The rounded phonon DOS of β-ZrW2O8 is in marked contrast to that of the low-temperature phase of ZrW2O8, and their distinction is consistent with the difference in NTE nature between two structures.

  3. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  4. Are Quasar Jets Dominated by Poynting Flux?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, M

    2005-02-02

    The formation of relativistic astrophysical jets is presumably mediated by magnetic fields threading accretion disks and central, rapidly rotating objects. As it is accelerated by magnetic stresses, the jet's kinetic energy flux grows at the expense of its Poynting flux. However, it is unclear how efficient is the conversion from magnetic to kinetic energy and whether there are any observational signatures of this process. We address this issue in the context of jets in quasars. Using data from all spatial scales, we demonstrate that in these objects the conversion from Poynting-flux-dominated to matter-dominated jets is very likely to take place closer to the black hole than the region where most of the Doppler boosted radiation observed in blazars is produced. We briefly discuss the possibility that blazar activity can be induced by global MHD instabilities, e.g., via the production of localized velocity gradients that lead to dissipative events such as shocks or magnetic reconnection, where acceleration of relativistic particles and production of non-thermal flares is taking place.

  5. On dominator colorings in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    yx ∈ N ¯G(x) ∩ Y. Then x dominates the color class which contains yx. Thus C is a dom- inator coloring of ¯G and χd( ¯G) = ω( ¯G). Now suppose there exists x ∈ X such that. N ¯G(x) ∩ Y = ∅. Then in any dominator coloring of ¯G, the color class which x domi- nates is of the form {x1} where x1 ∈ X and hence it follows that ...

  6. Conception and state of the radiometric analysis breadboard (RAB) for the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeuberlich, T.; Lorenz, E.; Skrbek, W.

    2006-08-01

    As a part of the ESA deep space mission to mercury - BepiColombo - investigations of mercury's surface layer using a push-broom thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (MERTIS) with a high spectral resolution is planned. One of the scientific goals is the measurement of Christiansen Features which are emissivity maxima resulting from rapid changes in the real part of the mineral's refractive index. Their positions within the spectral range of 7-14μm deliver information about mineralogical compositions. For these measurement MERTIS needs to have a high spectral resolution of 90nm. The planet will be mapped with a resolution of 500m and a S/N ratio of at least 100. For the measurement of the surface radiation a micro-bolometer detector array will be used. A detectivity of 1.0E9 is required. High sensitive TIR systems commonly use cooled detectors with a large mass budget and high electrical power consumption. One of the challenges of MERTIS is the use of an uncooled micro-bolometer detector. The development of MERTIS is currently in an early phase but a breadboard concept will be presented. Special attention is payed to the first of two phases of the breadboard concept: The Radiometric Breadboard (RAB) has been configured for the development of the opto-electronical components and for the investigation of radiometric calibration methods and algorithms. The design of the RAB is already a spectrometer configuration but it cannot reach the performance the technical and scientific requirements demand. The Spectro-Radiometric Breadboard (SRB) will be implemented for investigations of the performances of the optics and detector of MERTIS. Relevant components have to be developed and validated particularly in the spectral domain. The SRB will be the prototype of MERTIS.

  7. Global outlook from the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P): Changes in thermal state of permafrost and active layer thickness over the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Biskaborn, B. K.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Smith, S. L.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Nötzli, J.; Vieira, G.; Schoeneich, P.; Lanckman, J. P. F.; Lantuit, H.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term monitoring permafrost thermal state and active layer thickness (ALT) is critical in providing the baseline for assessment of climate change impacts in polar and high mountain regions, modeling of ecosystem processes and as an input for many engineering applications on permafrost among others. The Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) provides systematic long-term measurements of permafrost temperature and ALT, and is part of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). The GTN-P launched a sophisticated data management system (DMS), which allows automatic data submission, standardization, quality control, and processing. Presently 1250 permafrost boreholes and 250 active layers sites are registered within the DMS (gtnpdatabase.org), but the geographic distribution of sites and length of observations vary considerably among regions. Using DMS capabilities we selected sites with data available during the last International Polar Year (IPY) and in the recent 4 years and estimated changes in thermal state of permafrost and active layer thickness between the two reference periods. The results show that following air temperature trends, permafrost temperature has generally increased across permafrost domain, however, there is considerable spatial variability. The highest increases in permafrost temperature are found in Canadian High Arctic and are pronounced in regions with cold continuous permafrost such as Siberia and North America. In the sub-arctic, where permafrost temperatures are relatively high, the warming trend is less pronounced and permafrost temperature is similar to that of the IPY snapshot. In alpine permafrost areas, however, most measurement sites also show significant warming since 2009. ALT exhibits large interannual variability, but has generally increased in the majority of regions, especially in European Arctic sector where several sites experienced permafrost degradation. In

  8. Power, Domination and Kafka’s Castle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel Karadaş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The propositions of the Enlightenment philosophy, which valued the individual and his/her freedom, began to lose effect in the middle of the 19th century, with the increasing dominance of the ‘social’ and ‘class’ brought about by the growing industrialization. This dominance, which was the result of the modern capitalist society and the beurocratic state power it gave rise to, drove the intellectuals and thinkers of the time to question the individual freedom ideals of the Enlightenment and the early stages of modernity. In the intellectual sphere this questioning gained speed with Marx but became most apparent in the propositions of the Frankfurt School, which showed a lean on Weber’s idea of beurocratic structures of the modern state. Franz Kafka’s The Castle contributes to this questioning from a literary perspective. The Castle is also important because it was written in Germany where the mechanisms of the beurocratic dominance structures were most overt. The novel strikingly represents how these mechanisms of dominance affect the individuals and the relationships between them. This study handles the individual ideal of the Enlightenment and the criticisms directed to this ideal in the modern times, and it analyzes Kafka’s The Castle in terms of how it takes its place among the criticisms to this ideal with a literary dimension. In his famous work Castle, Kafka, evaluate the modern bureaucracy and its impact on the society in a different perspective from Weber who deal with modern society with the context of rationalization. For a better understanding of the novel, it may be necessary to make a double-layer reading of it. Because, until the last pages of the novel, it is thought that modern bureaucracy as a structure is constructed in the context of “nonsense” not “rationality”. The bureucratic mechanism that woven by hundreds of details in the novel, neither its officality nor its domination built on invididuals, and

  9. Response to comments received from the State of Colorado and the public on the Environmental Assessment for resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this document to respond to comments from the State of Colorado and the public on the draft Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Resumption of Thermal Stabilization of Plutonium Oxide in Building 707 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The draft EA was provided to the State of Colorado and the public on September 8, 1993, for a comment period of 60 days. The Department`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1021.301) requires that prior to approval of the EA, DOE is to allow the host State and Indian Tribe a period of from 14 to 30 days to review and comment on the EA. The Department established a comment period of 60 days for this EA in response to requests by the public during the first public meeting on July 7, 1993, before preparation of the EA. Other issues raised at the July 7 meeting included the range of alternatives to be considered, the time period for preparation of the EA, and the amount of material to be thermally stabilized. These and other comments made by the public at that meeting were carefully considered in preparation of the EA. In addition to providing the preapproval draft EA to the State of Colorado, DOE distributed the EA to all persons and groups on the RFP public information mailing list and placed the EA and reference documents in the DOE Public Reading Rooms in the RFP area. A public meeting was held on October 6, 1993, to hear public comments on the draft EA. All comments on the draft EA, those received both at the October 6 public meeting and through correspondence, have been reproduced in their entirety in this Response to Comments document. Responses to the commenters` questions and concerns are provided, and changes made to the body of the EA are indicated in the responses. All comments received have been considered in the revision of the EA.

  10. Hand dominance in orthopaedic surgeons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lui, Darren F

    2012-08-01

    Handedness is perhaps the most studied human asymmetry. Laterality is the preference shown for one side and it has been studied in many aspects of medicine. Studies have shown that some orthopaedic procedures had poorer outcomes and identified laterality as a contributing factor. We developed a questionnaire to assess laterality in orthopaedic surgery and compared this to an established scoring system. Sixty-two orthopaedic surgeons surveyed with the validated Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire (WHQ) were compared with the self developed Orthopaedic Handedness Questionnaire (OHQ). Fifty-eight were found to be right hand dominant (RHD) and 4 left hand dominant (LHD). In RHD surgeons, the average WHQ score was 44.9% and OHQ 15%. For LHD surgeons the WHQ score was 30.2% and OHQ 9.4%. This represents a significant amount of time using the non dominant hand but does not necessarily determine satisfactory or successful dexterity transferable to the operating room. Training may be required for the non dominant side.

  11. Dominance and Age in Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines the relationship between age and dominance in bilingual populations. Age in bilingualism is understood as the point in development at which second language (L2) acquisition begins and as the chronological age of users of two languages. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a factor in determining which of a bilingual's two…

  12. Dominant resistance against plant viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronde, de D.; Butterbach, P.B.E.; Kormelink, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified

  13. Vector-meson dominance revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terschlüsen Carla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of mesons with electromagnetism is often well described by the concept of vector-meson dominance (VMD. However, there are also examples where VMD fails. A simple chiral Lagrangian for pions, rho and omega mesons is presented which can account for the respective agreement and disagreement between VMD and phenomenology in the sector of light mesons.

  14. Post-transition state dynamics and product energy partitioning following thermal excitation of the F⋯HCH2CN transition state: Disagreement with experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihar, Subha; Ma, Xinyou; Xie, Jing; Scott, Rebecca; Gao, Eric; Ruscic, Branko; Aquino, Adelia J. A.; Setser, Donald W.; Hase, William L.

    2017-10-01

    Born-Oppenheimer direct dynamics simulations were performed to study atomistic details of the F + CH3CN → HF + CH2CN H-atom abstraction reaction. The simulation trajectories were calculated with a combined M06-2X/MP2 algorithm utilizing the 6-311++G** basis set. The experiments were performed at 300 K, and assuming the accuracy of transition state theory (TST), the trajectories were initiated at the F⋯HCH2CN abstraction TS with a 300 K Boltzmann distribution of energy and directed towards products. Recrossing of the TS was negligible, confirming the accuracy of TST. HF formation was rapid, occurring within 0.014 ps of the trajectory initiation. The intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) for reaction involves rotation of HF about CH2CN and then trapping in the CH2CN⋯HF post-reaction potential energy well of ˜10 kcal/mol with respect to the HF + CH2CN products. In contrast to this IRC, five different trajectory types were observed: the majority proceeded by direct H-atom transfer and only 11% approximately following the IRC. The HF vibrational and rotational quantum numbers, n and J, were calculated when HF was initially formed and they increase as potential energy is released in forming the HF + CH2CN products. The population of the HF product vibrational states is only in qualitative agreement with experiment, with the simulations showing depressed and enhanced populations of the n = 1 and 2 states as compared to experiment. Simulations with an anharmonic zero-point energy constraint gave product distributions for relative translation, HF rotation, HF vibration, CH2CN rotation, and CH2CN vibration as 5%, 11%, 60%, 7%, and 16%, respectively. In contrast, the experimental energy partitioning percentages to HF rotation and vibration are 6% and 41%. Comparisons are made between the current simulation and those for other F + H-atom abstraction reactions. The simulation product energy partitioning and HF vibrational population for F + CH3CN → HF + CH2CN

  15. Solid state polymerization of pet/pc extruded blend: effect of reaction temperature on thermal, morphological and viscosity properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Claudio Mendes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of solid state polymerization (SSP, concerning the melt extruded blend of poly(ethylene terephthalate/polycarbonate (catalyzed PET/PC, 80/20 wt %, as a function of temperature range (180-190°C for a fixed time (6 h is presented. The materials obtained were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG, optical microscopy (OM and intrinsic viscosity (IV analysis. After SSP, at all reaction temperatures, PET glass transition and heating crystallization temperatures slightly decreased, melting temperature slightly increased, while degree of crystallinity was practically invariable. The DTG curves indicated that, at least, three phases remained. The OM images revealed that the morphology is constituted of a PET matrix and a PC dispersed phase. In the interfacial region we noticed the appearance of structures like bridges linking the matrix and the dispersed domains. These bridges were correlated to the PET/PC block copolymer obtained during blending in the molten state. IV increased for all polymerization temperatures, due to the occurrence of PET chain extension reactions - esterification and transesterification. The IV range for bottle grade PET was achieved.

  16. Steady-State Thermal-Hydraulics Analyses for the Conversion of the BR2 Reactor to LEU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, J. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bergeron, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Van den Branden, G. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Kalcheva, S [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Sikik, E [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Koonen, E [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium)

    2016-09-01

    BR2 is a research reactor used for radioisotope production and materials testing. It’s a tank-in-pool type reactor cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and light water. The reactor core consists of a beryllium moderator forming a matrix of 79 hexagonal prisms in a hyperboloid configuration; each having a central bore that can contain a variety of different components such as a fuel assembly, a control or regulating rod, an experimental device, or a beryllium or aluminum plug. Based on a series of tests, the BR2 operation is currently limited to a maximum allowable heat flux of 470 W/cm2 to ensure fuel plate integrity during steady-state operation and after a loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure accident. A feasibility study for the conversion of the BR2 reactor from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel was previously performed to verify it can operate safely at the same maximum nominal steady-state heat flux. An assessment was also performed to quantify the heat fluxes at which the onset of flow instability and critical heat flux occur for each fuel type. This document updates and expands these results for the current representative core configuration (assuming a fresh beryllium matrix) by evaluating the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB), onset of fully developed nucleate boiling (FDNB), onset of flow instability (OFI) and critical heat flux (CHF).

  17. Replacement of unsteady heat transfer coefficient by equivalent steady-state one when calculating temperature oscillations in a thermal layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supel’nyak, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    Features of calculation of temperature oscillations which are damped in a surface layer of a solid and which are having a small range in comparison with range of temperature of the fluid medium surrounding the solid at heat transfer coefficient changing in time under the periodic law are considered. For the specified case the equations for approximate definition of constant and oscillating components of temperature field of a solid are received. The possibility of use of appropriately chosen steady-state coefficient when calculating the temperature oscillations instead of unsteady heat-transfer coefficient is investigated. Dependence for definition of such equivalent constant heat-transfer coefficient is determined. With its help the research of temperature oscillations of solids with canonical form for some specific conditions of heat transfer is undertaken. Comparison of the obtained data with results of exact solutions of a problem of heat conductivity by which the limits to applicability of the offered approach are defined is carried out.

  18. Steady-State Thermal-Hydraulics Analyses for the Conversion of the BR2 Reactor to LEU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, J. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bergeron, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Van den Branden, G. [SCK CEN (Belgium); Kalcheva, S. [SCK CEN (Belgium); Sikik, E. [SCK CEN (Belgium); Koonen, E. [SCK CEN (Belgium)

    2015-12-01

    BR2 is a research reactor used for radioisotope production and materials testing. It’s a tank-in-pool type reactor cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and light water (Figure 1). The reactor core consists of a beryllium moderator forming a matrix of 79 hexagonal prisms in a hyperboloid configuration; each having a central bore that can contain a variety of different components such as a fuel assembly, a control or regulating rod, an experimental device, or a beryllium or aluminum plug. Based on a series of tests, the BR2 operation is currently limited to a maximum allowable heat flux of 470 W/cm2 to ensure fuel plate integrity during steady-state operation and after a loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure accident.

  19. Post-transition state dynamics and product energy partitioning following thermal excitation of the F⋯HCH2 CN transition state: Disagreement with experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratihar, Subha [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061, USA; Ma, Xinyou [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061, USA; Xie, Jing [Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA; Scott, Rebecca [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061, USA; Gao, Eric [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061, USA; Ruscic, Branko [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA and Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Aquino, Adelia J. A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061, USA; School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, People’s Republic of China; Institute for Soil Research University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna, Austria; Setser, Donald W. [Institute for Soil Research University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna, Austria; Hase, William L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061, USA

    2017-10-14

    Born-Oppenheimer direct dynamics simulations were performed to study atomistic details of the F + CH3CN → HF + CH2CN H-atom abstraction reaction. The simulation trajectories were calculated with a combined M06-2X/MP2 algorithm utilizing the 6-311++G** basis set. In accord with experiment and assuming the accuracy of transition state theory (TST), the trajectories were initiated at the F-HCH2CN abstraction TS with a 300 K Boltzmann distribution of energy and directed towards products. Recrossing of the TS was negligible, confirming the accuracy of TST for the simulation. HF formation was rapid, occurring within 0.014 ps of the trajectory initiation. The intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) for reaction involves rotation of HF about CH2CN and then trapping in the CH2CN-HF post-reaction potential energy well of ~10 kcal/mol with respect to the HF + CH2CN products. In contrast to this IRC, five different trajectory types were observed, with the majority involving direct dissociation and only 11% approximately following the IRC. The HF vibrational and rotational quantum numbers, n and J, were calculated when HF was initially formed and they increase as potential energy is released in forming the HF + CH2CN products. The population of the HF product vibrational states is only in qualitative agreement with experiment, with the simulations showing depressed and enhanced populations of the n = 1 and 2 states as compared to experiment. From the simulations and with an anharmonic zero-point energy constraint, the percentage partitioning of the product energy to relative translation, HF rotation, HF vibration, CH2CN rotation and CH2CN vibration is 5, 11, 60, 7, and 16%, respectively. In contrast the experimental energy partitioning percentages to HF rotation and vibration are 6 and 41%. Comparisons are made between the current simulation and those for other F + H

  20. Thermal comfort: research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitja Mazej; Jan Hensen; Ir. Joost van Hoof

    2010-01-01

    Thermal comfort -the state of mind, which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment- is an important aspect of the building design process as modern man spends most of the day indoors. This paper reviews the developments in indoor thermal comfort research and practice since the second half

  1. THERMAL PHASES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS: ESTIMATING THERMAL INERTIA FROM ECCENTRICITY, OBLIQUITY, AND DIURNAL FORCING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Voigt, Aiko [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: n-cowan@nortwestern.edu [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    In order to understand the climate on terrestrial planets orbiting nearby Sun-like stars, one would like to know their thermal inertia. We use a global climate model to simulate the thermal phase variations of Earth analogs and test whether these data could distinguish between planets with different heat storage and heat transport characteristics. In particular, we consider a temperate climate with polar ice caps (like the modern Earth) and a snowball state where the oceans are globally covered in ice. We first quantitatively study the periodic radiative forcing from, and climatic response to, rotation, obliquity, and eccentricity. Orbital eccentricity and seasonal changes in albedo cause variations in the global-mean absorbed flux. The responses of the two climates to these global seasons indicate that the temperate planet has 3 Multiplication-Sign the bulk heat capacity of the snowball planet due to the presence of liquid water oceans. The obliquity seasons in the temperate simulation are weaker than one would expect based on thermal inertia alone; this is due to cross-equatorial oceanic and atmospheric energy transport. Thermal inertia and cross-equatorial heat transport have qualitatively different effects on obliquity seasons, insofar as heat transport tends to reduce seasonal amplitude without inducing a phase lag. For an Earth-like planet, however, this effect is masked by the mixing of signals from low thermal inertia regions (sea ice and land) with that from high thermal inertia regions (oceans), which also produces a damped response with small phase lag. We then simulate thermal light curves as they would appear to a high-contrast imaging mission (TPF-I/Darwin). In order of importance to the present simulations, which use modern-Earth orbital parameters, the three drivers of thermal phase variations are (1) obliquity seasons, (2) diurnal cycle, and (3) global seasons. Obliquity seasons are the dominant source of phase variations for most viewing angles. A

  2. Connected domination stable graphs upon edge addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set S of vertices in a graph G is a connected dominating set of G if S dominates G and the subgraph induced by S is connected. We study the graphs for which adding any edge does not change the connected domination number. Keywords: Connected domination, connected domination stable, edge addition ...

  3. New Solutions for Synchronized Domineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Sahil; Kruskal, Clyde P.

    Cincotti and Iida invented the game of Synchronized Domineering, and analyzed a few special cases. We develop a more general technique of analysis, and obtain results for many more special cases. We obtain complete results for board sizes 3 ×n, 5 ×n, 7 ×n, and 9 ×n (for n large enough) and partial results for board sizes 2×n, 4 ×n, and 6 ×n.

  4. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  5. Simulated biomass and soil carbon of loblolly pine and cottonwood plantations across a thermal gradient in southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxmoore, Robert J [ORNL; Tharp, M Lynn [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Changes in biomass and soil carbon with nitrogen fertilization were simulated for a 25-year loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation and for three consecutive 7-year short-rotation cottonwood (Populus deltoides) stands. Simulations were conducted for 17 locations in the southeastern United States with mean annual temperatures ranging from 13.1 to 19.4 C. The LINKAGES stand growth model, modified to include the "RothC" soil C and soil N model, simulated tree growth and soil C status. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased cumulative cottonwood aboveground biomass in the three rotations from a site average of 106 to 272 Mg/ha in 21 years, whereas the equivalent site averages for loblolly pine were unchanged at 176 and 184 Mg/ha in 25 years. Location results, compared on the annual sum of daily mean air temperatures above 5.5 C (growing-degree-days), showed contrasts. Loblolly pine biomass increased whereas cottonwood decreased with increasing growing-degree-days, particularly in cottonwood stands receiving N fertilization. The increment of biomass due to N addition per unit of control biomass (relative response) declined in both plantations with increase in growing-degree-days. Average soil C in loblolly pine stands increased from 24.3 to 40.4 Mg/ha in 25 years and in cottonwood soil C decreased from 14.7 to 13.7 Mg/ha after three 7-year rotations. Soil C did not decrease with increasing growing-degree-days in either plantation type suggesting that global warming may not initially affect soil C. Nitrogen fertilizer increased soil C slightly in cottonwood plantations and had no significant effect on the soil C of loblolly stands.

  6. Thermal management for LED applications

    CERN Document Server

    Poppe, András

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Management for LED Applications provides state-of-the-art information on recent developments in thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems and their applications. Coverage begins with an overview of the basics of thermal management including thermal design for LEDs, thermal characterization and testing of LEDs, and issues related to failure mechanisms and reliability and performance in harsh environments. Advances and recent developments in thermal management round out the book with discussions on advances in TIMs (thermal interface materials) for LED applications, advances in forced convection cooling of LEDs, and advances in heat sinks for LED assemblies. This book also: Presents a comprehensive overview of the basics of thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems Discusses both design and thermal management considerations when manufacturing LEDs and LED-based systems Covers reliability and performance of LEDs in harsh environments Has a hands-on applications a...

  7. Thermal Performance Benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuhui; Moreno, Gilbert; Bennion, Kevin

    2016-06-07

    The goal for this project is to thoroughly characterize the thermal performance of state-of-the-art (SOA) in-production automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Information obtained from these studies will be used to: evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management strategies; establish baseline metrics for the thermal management systems; identify methods of improvement to advance the SOA; increase the publicly available information related to automotive traction-drive thermal management systems; help guide future electric drive technologies (EDT) research and development (R&D) efforts. The thermal performance results combined with component efficiency and heat generation information obtained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) may then be used to determine the operating temperatures for the EDT components under drive-cycle conditions. In FY16, the 2012 Nissan LEAF power electronics and 2014 Honda Accord Hybrid power electronics thermal management system were characterized. Comparison of the two power electronics thermal management systems was also conducted to provide insight into the various cooling strategies to understand the current SOA in thermal management for automotive power electronics and electric motors.

  8. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available wider range of temperature limits, saving energy while still satisfying the majority of building occupants. It is also noted that thermal comfort varies significantly between individuals and it is generally not possible to provide a thermal environment...

  9. New $\\alpha$ ANC measurement of the 1/2$^+$ state in $^{17}$O at 6.356 MeV, that dominates the $^{13}$C($\\alpha$,n)$^{16}$O reaction rate at temperatures relevant for the s-process

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, M L; Koshchiy, E; Baby, L T; Belarge, J; Kemper, K W; Kuchera, A N; Santiago-Gonzalez, D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of the $^{13}$C($\\alpha$,$n$)$^{16}$O reaction cross section is important for the understanding of the s-process in AGB stars, since it is considered to be the main source of neutrons. The sub-threshold 1/2$^+$ state at excitation energy of 6.356 MeV in $^{17}$O has a strong influence on the reaction cross section at energies relevant for astrophysics. Several experiments have been performed to determine the contribution of this state to the $^{13}$C($\\alpha,n)^{16}$O reaction rate. Nevertheless, significant discrepancies between different measurements remain. Purpose: The aim of this work is to investigate these discrepancies. Method: An 8 MeV $^{13}$C beam (below the Coulomb barrier) was used to study the $\\alpha$-transfer reaction $^6$Li($^{13}$C,$d$)$^{17}$O. Results: The squared Coulomb modified ANC of the 1/2$^+$ state in $^{17}$O measured in this work is $(\\tilde C^{^{17}\\text{O}(1/2+)}_{\\alpha-^{13}\\text{C}})^2=3.6\\pm0.7\\hspace{0.2cm}\\text{fm}^{-1}$. Conclusions: Discrep...

  10. Development of steady-state electrical-heating fluorescence-sensing (SEF) technique for thermal characterization of one dimensional (1D) structures by employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiang; Li, Changzheng; Yue, Yanan; Xie, Danmei; Xue, Meixin; Hu, Niansu

    2016-11-01

    A fluorescence signal has been demonstrated as an effective implement for micro/nanoscale temperature measurement which can be realized by either direct fluorescence excitation from materials or by employing nanoparticles as sensors. In this work, a steady-state electrical-heating fluorescence-sensing (SEF) technique is developed for the thermal characterization of one-dimensional (1D) materials. In this method, the sample is suspended between two electrodes and applied with steady-state Joule heating. The temperature response of the sample is monitored by collecting a simultaneous fluorescence signal from the sample itself or nanoparticles uniformly attached on it. According to the 1D heat conduction model, a linear temperature dependence of heating powers is obtained, thus the thermal conductivity of the sample can be readily determined. In this work, a standard platinum wire is selected to measure its thermal conductivity to validate this technique. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are employed as the fluorescence agent for temperature sensing. Parallel measurement by using the transient electro-thermal (TET) technique demonstrates that a small dose of GQDs has negligible influence on the intrinsic thermal property of platinum wire. This SEF technique can be applied in two ways: for samples with a fluorescence excitation capability, this method can be implemented directly; for others with weak or no fluorescence excitation, a very small portion of nanoparticles with excellent fluorescence excitation can be used for temperature probing and thermophysical property measurement.

  11. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  12. The STAT7 Code for Statistical Propagation of Uncertainties In Steady-State Thermal Hydraulics Analysis of Plate-Fueled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Floyd E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hu, Lin-wen [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.; Wilson, Erik [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The STAT code was written to automate many of the steady-state thermal hydraulic safety calculations for the MIT research reactor, both for conversion of the reactor from high enrichment uranium fuel to low enrichment uranium fuel and for future fuel re-loads after the conversion. A Monte-Carlo statistical propagation approach is used to treat uncertainties in important parameters in the analysis. These safety calculations are ultimately intended to protect against high fuel plate temperatures due to critical heat flux or departure from nucleate boiling or onset of flow instability; but additional margin is obtained by basing the limiting safety settings on avoiding onset of nucleate boiling. STAT7 can simultaneously analyze all of the axial nodes of all of the fuel plates and all of the coolant channels for one stripe of a fuel element. The stripes run the length of the fuel, from the bottom to the top. Power splits are calculated for each axial node of each plate to determine how much of the power goes out each face of the plate. By running STAT7 multiple times, full core analysis has been performed by analyzing the margin to ONB for each axial node of each stripe of each plate of each element in the core.

  13. Thermal rate constants for the O(3P) + HBr and O(3P) + DBr reactions: transition-state theory and quantum mechanical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira-Filho, Antonio G S; Ornellas, Fernando R; Peterson, Kirk A; Mielke, Steven L

    2013-12-05

    The O((3)P) + HBr → OH + Br and O((3)P) + DBr → OD + Br reactions are studied on a recent high-quality ab initio-based potential energy surface. Thermal rate constants over the 200-1000 K temperature range, calculated using variational transition-state theory (VTST) with the small-curvature tunneling (SCT) correction and quantum mechanical methods with the J-shifting approximation (QM/JS) for zero total angular momentum (J = 0), are reported. These results are compared to the available experimental data, which lie in the ranges of 221-554 and 295-419 K for O + HBr and O + DBr, respectively. The rate constants, in cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and at 298 K, for the O + HBr reaction are 3.66 × 10(-14) for VTST, 3.80 × 10(-14) for QM/JS, and 3.66 × 10(-14) for the average of eight experimental measurements.

  14. Comparative Studies on Thermal, Mechanical, and Flame Retardant Properties of PBT Nanocomposites via Different Oxidation State Phosphorus-Containing Agents Modified Amino-CNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-E Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance poly(1,4-butylene terephthalate (PBT nanocomposites have been developed via the consideration of phosphorus-containing agents and amino-carbon nanotube (A-CNT. One-pot functionalization method has been adopted to prepare functionalized CNTs via the reaction between A-CNT and different oxidation state phosphorus-containing agents, including chlorodiphenylphosphine (DPP-Cl, diphenylphosphinic chloride (DPP(O-Cl, and diphenyl phosphoryl chloride (DPP(O3-Cl. These functionalized CNTs, DPP(Ox-A-CNTs (x = 0, 1, 3, were, respectively, mixed with PBT to obtain the CNT-based polymer nanocomposites through a melt blending method. Scanning electron microscope observations demonstrated that DPP(Ox-A-CNT nanoadditives were homogeneously distributed within PBT matrix compared to A-CNT. The incorporation of DPP(Ox-A-CNT improved the thermal stability of PBT. Moreover, PBT/DPP(O3-A-CNT showed the highest crystallization temperature and tensile strength, due to the superior dispersion and interfacial interactions between DPP(O3-A-CNT and PBT. PBT/DPP(O-A-CNT exhibited the best flame retardancy resulting from the excellent carbonization effect. The radicals generated from decomposed polymer were effectively trapped by DPP(O-A-CNT, leading to the reduction of heat release rate, smoke production rate, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide release during cone calorimeter tests.

  15. Fine-grained clay fraction (,0.2 {mu}m): An interesting tool to approach the present thermal and permeability state in active geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrier, P.; Papapanagiotou, P.; Beaufort, D.; Traineau, H.; Bril, H.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated by X-ray diffraction the very fine grained secondary minerals (< 0.2 {micro}m) developed in geothermal systems, in relation with their present thermal and permeability state. Because the smallest particles are the most reactive part of a rock, they are the youngest mineral phases of the geothermal fields. This study has been performed on two active geothermal fields: Milos field, Greece (130 < T < 320 C) and Chipilapa field, Salvador (90 < T < 215 C). In the Milos field, the mineralogical composition of the < 0.2 {micro}m clay fraction observed in the reservoir strongly differs from the overlying altered metamorphic schists in the presence of abundant quantities of saponite and talc/saponite interstratified minerals at unusually high temperature. These phases are considered to be kinetically control-led ''metastable'' minerals which rapidly evolve towards actinolite and talc for present temperatures higher than 300 C. Their occurrence is a good indicator of discharge in highly permeable zones. In the geothermal field of Chipilapa, the mineralogical composition of the < 0.2 {micro}m clay fractions fairly agrees with the temperatures presently measured in the wells, whereas several discrepancies may be pointed out from the compositions of coarser clay fractions (< 5 {micro}m) which contain minerals inherited from higher temperature stages. Permeable zones may be evidenced from an increase of expandable components in the interstratified minerals and a decrease of the coherent domain of the unexpandable clay particles (chlorite).

  16. Manipulating the Electronic Excited State Energies of Pyrimidine-Based Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters To Realize Efficient Deep-Blue Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Ryutaro; Ohsawa, Tatsuya; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Nakao, Kohei; Hayasaka, Yuya; Kido, Junji

    2017-02-08

    The development of efficient and robust deep-blue emitters is one of the key issues in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) for environmentally friendly, large-area displays or general lighting. As a promising technology that realizes 100% conversion from electrons to photons, thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters have attracted considerable attention. However, only a handful of examples of deep-blue TADF emitters have been reported to date, and the emitters generally show large efficiency roll-off at practical luminance over several hundreds to thousands of cd m-2, most likely because of the long delayed fluorescent lifetime (τd). To overcome this problem, we molecularly manipulated the electronic excited state energies of pyrimidine-based TADF emitters to realize deep-blue emission and reduced τd. We then systematically investigated the relationships among the chemical structure, properties, and device performances. The resultant novel pyrimidine emitters, called Ac-XMHPMs (X = 1, 2, and 3), contain different numbers of bulky methyl substituents at acceptor moieties, increasing the excited singlet (ES) and triplet state (ET) energies. Among them, Ac-3MHPM, with a high ET of 2.95 eV, exhibited a high external quantum efficiency (ηext,max) of 18% and an ηext of 10% at 100 cd m-2 with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of (0.16, 0.15). These efficiencies are among the highest values to date for deep-blue TADF OLEDs. Our molecular design strategy provides fundamental guidance to design novel deep-blue TADF emitters.

  17. Red clothing increases perceived dominance, aggression and anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Diana; Burt, D. Michael; Hill, Russell A.; Barton, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence and intensity of red coloration correlate with male dominance and testosterone in a variety of animal species, and even artificial red stimuli can influence dominance interactions. In humans, red stimuli are perceived as more threatening and dominant than other colours, and wearing red increases the probability of winning sporting contests. We investigated whether red clothing biases the perception of aggression and dominance outside of competitive settings, and whether red influences decoding of emotional expressions. Participants rated digitally manipulated images of men for aggression and dominance and categorized the emotional state of these stimuli. Men were rated as more aggressive and more dominant when presented in red than when presented in either blue or grey. The effect on perceived aggression was found for male and female raters, but only male raters were sensitive to red as a signal of dominance. In a categorization test, images were significantly more often categorized as ‘angry’ when presented in the red condition, demonstrating that colour stimuli affect perceptions of emotions. This suggests that the colour red may be a cue used to predict propensity for dominance and aggression in human males. PMID:25972401

  18. Analytical model of unsteady-state convective heat transfer between the heat carrier and the finite sizes plate adjusted for the thermal relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarushkin Danila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hyperbolic boundary value problem of the thermal conduction of a two-dimensional plate with the third kind boundary conditions is formulated. The transient thermal process in the plate is due to the temperature changes of the external medium over time and along the plate length, and also by a multiple step change of the plate surface heat transfer coefficient throughout the transient process. An analytical solution with improved convergence adjusted for thermal relaxation and thermal damping is obtained for the temperature field in the plate.

  19. Dominant perceptions on the age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komatina Slavica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary developed society, despite the fact that it is constantly and intensively ageing, is characterized by deeply rooted numerous negative stereotypes on old people and old age as a life period. The study of dominant perceptions on the age of Belgrade population takes not only the universal character of negative connotation of old age into consideration, but also the concrete unfavorable social context. The delicate problematic of stereotypes on old age and old people has been analyzed mostly indirectly, through questions on the beginning of old age, advantages and difficulties which we experience during ageing, the first subjective conscious encounter with one’s own ageing, the concept of ideal old age, changes in the persons traits and directly through questions on dominant negative perceptions which prevail on old people in our surrounding. Ageing in the Belgrade milieu is most commonly identified with illness and with the decline of physical potentials, and at the same time a number of other negative qualifications of old age as well. Research results indicate to a pronounced ambivalent standpoint towards ageing, to different observation of one’s own to old age of other people, to different consideration of old age among the sexes and to obvious aversion towards old people. This is expected, taking into consideration that living and ageing are developing nowadays under aggressive influence of contemporary mass culture which affirms youth, beauty, physical strength, health as dominant values, namely everything that is contrary to ageing and old age. On the other hand, our society is today confronted with, as well as in the near past, exceptional political, economic and cultural difficulties which cause specific problems with various age groups, as well as the lowering of the level of mutual endurance and tolerance. The atmosphere of straining the old people and emergence of new antagonisms causes the intensification of

  20. Thermal Casimir-Polder forces on a V-type three-level atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen-Ran; Xu, Jing-Ping; Al-amri, M.; Zhu, Cheng-Jie; Xie, Shuang-Yuan; Yang, Ya-Ping

    2017-09-01

    We study the thermal Casimir-Polder (CP) forces on a V-type three-level atom. The competition between the thermal effect and the quantum interference of the two transition dipoles on the force is investigated. To shed light onto the role of the quantum interference, we analyze two kinds of initial states of the atom, i.e., the superradiant state and the subradiant state. Considering the atom being in the thermal reservoir, the resonant CP force arising from the real photon emission dominates in the evolution of the CP force. Under the zero-temperature condition, the quantum interference can effectively modify the amplitude and the evolution of the force, leading to a long-time force or even the cancellation of the force. Our results reveal that in the finite-temperature case, the thermal photons can enhance the amplitude of all force elements, but have no influence on the net resonant CP force in the steady state, which means that the second law of thermodynamics still works. For the ideal degenerate V-type atom with parallel dipoles under the initial subradiant state, the robust destructive quantum interference overrides the thermal fluctuations, leading to the trapping of the atom in the subradiant state and the disappearance of the CP force. However, in terms of a realistic Zeeman atom, the thermal photons play a significant role during the evolution of the CP force. The thermal fluctuations can enhance the amplitude of the initial CP force by increasing the temperature, and weaken the influence of the quantum interference on the evolution of the CP force from the initial superradiant (subradiant) state to the steady state.

  1. On dominator colorings in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ), Kalasalingam University, Anand Nagar, Krishnankoil 626126, India; School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia; Department of Computer Science, Ball State ...

  2. Near-Field Thermal Radiation for Solar Thermophotovoltaics and High Temperature Thermal Logic and Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzouka, Mahmoud

    This dissertation investigates Near-Field Thermal Radiation (NFTR) applied to MEMS-based concentrated solar thermophotovoltaics (STPV) energy conversion and thermal memory and logics. NFTR is the exchange of thermal radiation energy at nano/microscale; when separation between the hot and cold objects is less than dominant radiation wavelength (˜1 mum). NFTR is particularly of interest to the above applications due to its high rate of energy transfer, exceeding the blackbody limit by orders of magnitude, and its strong dependence on separation gap size, surface nano/microstructure and material properties. Concentrated STPV system converts solar radiation to electricity using heat as an intermediary through a thermally coupled absorber/emitter, which causes STPV to have one of the highest solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency limits (85.4%). Modeling of a near-field concentrated STPV microsystem is carried out to investigate the use of STPV based solid-state energy conversion as high power density MEMS power generator. Numerical results for In 0.18Ga0.82Sb PV cell illuminated with tungsten emitter showed significant enhancement in energy transfer, resulting in output power densities as high as 60 W/cm2; 30 times higher than the equivalent far-field power density. On thermal computing, this dissertation demonstrates near-field heat transfer enabled high temperature NanoThermoMechanical memory and logics. Unlike electronics, NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices use heat instead of electricity to record and process data; hence they can operate in harsh environments where electronics typically fail. NanoThermoMechanical devices achieve memory and thermal rectification functions through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion in microstructures, resulting in nonlinear heat transfer between two temperature terminals. Numerical modeling of a conceptual NanoThermoMechanical is carried out; results include the dynamic response under

  3. Impact of Building Walls of Historic Objects from Half-Timbered Wall in their State of Thermal Protection / Wpływ Budowy Ścian Historycznych Budynków z Muru Pruskiego Na Ich Stan Ochrony Cieplnej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymanowska-Gwiżdż Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problems connected with preserved examples of buildings in Upper Silesia that contain the elements of half-timbered walls. This type of construction currently characterizes houses of various utility functions. Often, their formation was related to the construction of patron settlements, accompanied by the development of industrial plants. Today, there is a problem of insufficient thermal insulation of barriers in half-timbered houses and numerous attempts to improve their thermal parameters are observed. In this type of projects, the correct determination of the existing state in terms of construction of the barrier and thermal protection seems to be important, as the starting points for further analysis. The study determines the insulation of frame walls with ceramic fill, with a variety of material and construction solutions. Literature examples and in situ measurements results were used for the research.

  4. Thermally induced delamination of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Sarraute, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    1998-01-01

    Steady-state delamination of multilayered structures, caused by stresses arising during processing due to thermal expansion mismatch, is analyzed by a fracture mechanics model based on laminate theory. It is found that inserting just a few interlayers with intermediate thermal expansion coefficie......Steady-state delamination of multilayered structures, caused by stresses arising during processing due to thermal expansion mismatch, is analyzed by a fracture mechanics model based on laminate theory. It is found that inserting just a few interlayers with intermediate thermal expansion...

  5. Thermal links for the implementation of an optical refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epsteiin, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Scott R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Parker, John [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Mar, David [HARVEY MUDD GOLLEGE; Von Der Porten, Steven [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Hankinson, John [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Byram, Kevin [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Lee, Chris [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Mayeda, Kai [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Haskell, Richard [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Yang, Qimin [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE

    2008-01-01

    Optical refrigeration has been demonstrated by several groups of researchers, but the cooling elements have not been thermally linked to realistic heat loads in ways that achieve the desired temperatures. The ideal thermal link will have minimal surface area, provide complete optical isolation for the load, and possess high thermal conductivity. We have designed thermal links that minimize the absorption of fluoresced photons by the heat load using multiple mirrors and geometric shapes including a hemisphere, a kinked waveguide, and a tapered waveguide. While total link performance is dependent on additional factors, we have observed net transmission of photons with the tapered link as low as 0.04%. Our optical tests have been performed with a surrogate source that operates at 625 nm and mimics the angular distribution of light emitted from the cooling element of the Los Alamos solid state optical refrigerator. We have confirmed the optical performance of our various link geometries with computer simulations using CODE V optical modeling software. In addition we have used the thermal modeling tool in COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS to investigate other heating factors that affect the thermal performance of the optical refrigerator. Assuming an ideal cooling element and a nonabsorptive dielectric trapping mirror, the three dominant heating factors are (1) absorption of fluoresced photons transmitted through the thermal link, (2) blackbody radiation from the surrounding environment, and (3) conductive heat transfer through mechanical supports. Modeling results show that a 1 cm{sup 3} load can be chilled to 107 K with a 100 W pump laser. We have used the simulated steady-state cooling temperatures of the heat load to compare link designs and system configurations.

  6. A dynamic climate and ecosystem state during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: inferences from dinoflagellate cyst assemblages on the New Jersey Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sluijs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Late Paleocene and Early Eocene climates and ecosystems underwent significant change during several transient global warming phases, associated with rapidly increasing atmospheric carbon concentrations, of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~55.5 Ma is best studied. While biotic response to the PETM as a whole (~170 kyrs has been relatively well documented, variations during the PETM have been neglected. Here we present organic dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst distribution patterns across two stratigraphically expanded PETM sections from the New Jersey Shelf, Bass River and Wilson Lake. Many previously studied sites show a uniform abundance of the thermophilic and presumably heterotrophic taxon Apectodinium that spans the entire carbon isotope excursion (CIE of the PETM. In contrast, the New Jersey sections show large variations in abundances of many taxa during the PETM, including the new species Florentinia reichartii that we formally propose. We infer paleoecological preferences of taxa that show temporal abundance peaks, both qualitative and absolute quantitative, from empirical as well as statistical information, i.e., principle (PCA and canonical correspondence analyses (CCA. In the CCAs, we combine the dinocyst data with previously published environmental proxy data from these locations, such as TEX86 paleothermometry, magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary size fraction. The combined information supports previous inferences that sea level rose during the PETM, but also indicates a (regional increase in fresh-water runoff that started ~10 kyr after the onset of the CIE, and perhaps precession-paced cycles in sea surface productivity. The highly variable dinocyst assemblages of the PETM contrast with rather stable Upper Paleocene assemblages, which suggests that carbon input caused a dynamic climate state, at least regionally.

  7. Eu3+-doped Bi4Si3O12 red phosphor for solid state lighting: microwave synthesis, characterization, photoluminescence properties and thermal quenching mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Jiayue; Cui, Qingzhi; Yang, Bobo

    2017-02-01

    Europium-doped bismuth silicate (Bi4Si3O12) phosphor has been prepared by microwave irradiation method and its crystal structure is determined using Rietveld method. As-prepared phosphor consists of spherical, monodispersed particles with few agglomeration, high crystallinity, and narrow grain size distribution. The phosphor can be efficiently excited in the wavelength range of 260-400 nm, which matched well with the emission wavelengths of NUV LED chips. The photoluminescence spectra exhibit the highest emission peak at 703 nm originating from 5D0 → 7F4 transition of Eu3+ under NUV excitation. The luminescence lifetime for Bi4Si3O12: 2 at% Eu3+ phosphor decreases from 2.11 to 1.86 ms with increasing temperature from 10 to 498 K. This behavior of decays is discussed in terms of radiative and nonradiative decays dependence on temperature. The thermal quenching mechanism of 5D0 emission of Eu3+ in Bi4Si3O12 phosphor is a crossover process from the 5D0 level of Eu3+ to a ligand-to-europium (O2- → Eu3+) charge transfer state. The quantum efficiency of the phosphor under 393 nm excitation is found to be 14.5%, which is higher than that of the commercial red phosphors Y2O3: Eu3+, Y2O2S: Eu3+. The temperature effect on CIE coordinate was discussed in order to further investigate the potential applications.

  8. No Thermalization without Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Dmitry V.; Bondar, Denys I.; Seideman, Tamar

    2017-10-01

    The proof of the long-standing conjecture is presented that Markovian quantum master equations are at odds with quantum thermodynamics under conventional assumptions of fluctuation-dissipation theorems (implying a translation invariant dissipation). Specifically, except for identified systems, persistent system-bath correlations of at least one kind, spatial or temporal, are obligatory for thermalization. A systematic procedure is proposed to construct translation invariant bath models producing steady states that well approximate thermal states. A quantum optical scheme for the laboratory assessment of the developed procedure is outlined.

  9. Economic Dominance with Political Incompetence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The fraudulent claims by policymakers and pundits that the United States is losing its economic competitiveness due to a failing education system continue unabated. However, the latest data on competitiveness suggest that it is poor economic policy, not education, that is holding back the economy.

  10. Influence of refractive correction on ocular dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Nanami; Kawamorita, Takushi; Uozato, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the effects of refractive correction and refractive defocus on the assessment of sensory ocular dominance. In 25 healthy subjects (4 males and 21 females) aged between 20 and 31 years, a quantitative measurement of sensory ocular dominance was performed with refractive correction and the addition of a positive lens on the dominant eye. Sensory ocular dominance was measured with a chart using binocular rivalry targets. The reversal point changed after the addition of a +1.00 D lens on the dominant eye in all subjects. However, sighting ocular dominance and stereopsis did not change after the addition of a positive lens on the dominant eye ( P > 0:05, Wilcoxon test). These results suggest that refractive correction affects sensory ocular dominance, indicating the possible development of a new type of occlusion for amblyopia in the future.

  11. On The Roman Domination Stable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajian Majid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (or just RDF on a graph G = (V,E is a function f : V → {0, 1, 2} satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. The weight of an RDF f is the value f(V (G = Pu2V (G f(u. The Roman domination number of a graph G, denoted by R(G, is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on G. A graph G is Roman domination stable if the Roman domination number of G remains unchanged under removal of any vertex. In this paper we present upper bounds for the Roman domination number in the class of Roman domination stable graphs, improving bounds posed in [V. Samodivkin, Roman domination in graphs: the class RUV R, Discrete Math. Algorithms Appl. 8 (2016 1650049].

  12. Thermal hyperbolic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Jacob, Zubin

    2013-06-17

    We explore the near-field radiative thermal energy transfer properties of hyperbolic metamaterials. The presence of unique electromagnetic states in a broad bandwidth leads to super-planckian thermal energy transfer between metamaterials separated by a nano-gap. We consider practical phonon-polaritonic metamaterials for thermal engineering in the mid-infrared range and show that the effect exists in spite of the losses, absorption and finite unit cell size. For thermophotovoltaic energy conversion applications requiring energy transfer in the near-infrared range we introduce high temperature hyperbolic metamaterials based on plasmonic materials with a high melting point. Our work paves the way for practical high temperature radiative thermal energy transfer applications of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  13. Hydrothermal Alteration Maps of the Central and Southern Basin and Range Province of the United States Compiled From Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map...

  14. Dominant limb asymmetry associated with prospective injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to identify associations between dominant lower limb asymmetry in unanticipated agility performance and prospective injury occurrence. Female netball players (N=24) performed unanticipated 180° turn agility sprints on both the dominant and non-dominant legs interspersed with an additional ...

  15. 38 CFR 4.69 - Dominant hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dominant hand. 4.69... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.69 Dominant hand. Handedness for the purpose of.... Only one hand shall be considered dominant. The injured hand, or the most severely injured hand, of an...

  16. 5 CFR 532.305 - Dominant industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dominant industry. 532.305 Section 532... SYSTEMS Determining Rates for Principal Types of Positions § 532.305 Dominant industry. (a)(1) A specialized industry is a “dominant industry” if the number of wage employees in the wage area who are subject...

  17. Epigenetic dominance of prion conformers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Saijo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although they share certain biological properties with nucleic acid based infectious agents, prions, the causative agents of invariably fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative disorders such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, sheep scrapie, and human Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, propagate by conformational templating of host encoded proteins. Once thought to be unique to these diseases, this mechanism is now recognized as a ubiquitous means of information transfer in biological systems, including other protein misfolding disorders such as those causing Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. To address the poorly understood mechanism by which host prion protein (PrP primary structures interact with distinct prion conformations to influence pathogenesis, we produced transgenic (Tg mice expressing different sheep scrapie susceptibility alleles, varying only at a single amino acid at PrP residue 136. Tg mice expressing ovine PrP with alanine (A at (OvPrP-A136 infected with SSBP/1 scrapie prions propagated a relatively stable (S prion conformation, which accumulated as punctate aggregates in the brain, and produced prolonged incubation times. In contrast, Tg mice expressing OvPrP with valine (V at 136 (OvPrP-V136 infected with the same prions developed disease rapidly, and the converted prion was comprised of an unstable (U, diffusely distributed conformer. Infected Tg mice co-expressing both alleles manifested properties consistent with the U conformer, suggesting a dominant effect resulting from exclusive conversion of OvPrP-V136 but not OvPrP-A136. Surprisingly, however, studies with monoclonal antibody (mAb PRC5, which discriminates OvPrP-A136 from OvPrP-V136, revealed substantial conversion of OvPrP-A136. Moreover, the resulting OvPrP-A136 prion acquired the characteristics of the U conformer. These results, substantiated by in vitro analyses, indicated that co-expression of OvPrP-V136 altered the conversion potential of OvPrP-A136 from the S to

  18. Renewable Energy Essentials: Concentrating Solar Thermal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) is a re-emerging market. The Luz Company built 354 MWe of commercial plants in California, still in operations today, during 1984-1991. Activity re-started with the construction of an 11-MW plant in Spain, and a 64-MW plant in Nevada, by 2006. There are currently hundreds of MW under construction, and thousands of MW under development worldwide. Spain and the United States together represent 90% of the market. Algeria, Egypt and Morocco are building integrated solar combined cycle plants, while Australia, China, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Mexico, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates are finalising or considering projects. While trough technology remains the dominant technology, several important innovations took place over 2007-2009: the first commercial solar towers, the first commercial plants with multi-hour capacities, the first Linear Fresnel Reflector plants went into line.

  19. Poynting flux dominated jets challenged by their photospheric emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bégué, Damien [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova, University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-12-17

    One of the key open question for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) jets, is the magnetization of the outflow. Here we consider the photospheric emission of Poynting flux dominated outflows, when the dynamics is mediated by magnetic reconnection. We show that thermal three-particle processes, responsible for the thermalization of the plasma, become inefficient far below the photosphere. Conservation of the total photon number above this radius, combined with Compton scattering below the photosphere enforces kinetic equilibrium between electrons and photons. This, in turn, leads to an increase in the observed photon temperature, which reaches ≳ 8 MeV (observed energy) when decoupling the plasma at the photosphere. This result is weakly dependent on the free model parameters. The predicted peak energy is more than an order of magnitude higher than the observed peak energy of most GRBs, which puts strong constraints on the magnetization of these outflows.

  20. Ash properties of some dominant Greek forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liodakis, S. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece)]. E-mail: liodakis@central.ntua.gr; Katsigiannis, G. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece); Kakali, G. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece)

    2005-10-15

    The elemental and chemical wood ash compositions of six dominant Greek fuels was investigated using a variety of techniques, including thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the alkalinity of wood ash was determined by titration. The ash was prepared by combustion at low (600 deg. C), middle (800 deg. C) and high temperatures (1000 deg. C). The ash composition is very important because thousands of hectares of wildlands are burned annually in Greece. The resulting deposits affect soil properties (i.e., pH) and provide a source of inorganic constituents (i.e., Ca, K, Na, Mg, etc.), while the most soluble compounds (i.e., sodium and potassium hydroxides and carbonates) do not persist through the wet season. The samples selected were: Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine), Pinus brutia (Calabrian pine), Olea europaea (Olive), Cupressus sempervirens (Italian cypress), Pistacia lentiscus (Mastic tree), Quercus coccifera (Holly oak)

  1. Constraining the composition and thermal state of lithospheric mantle from inversion of seismic data: Implications for the Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuskov, Oleg; Kronrod, Victor; Prokofyev, Alexey; Zhidikova, Alevtina

    2010-05-01

    Quantitative estimation of the temperature distribution in the Earth's mantle is a key problem in petrology and geophysics. In this study, we discuss the method of estimating temperature, composition and thickness of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath some Archean cratons from absolute seismic velocities. The phase composition and physical properties of the lithospheric mantle were modelled within the Na2O-TiO2-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system including the non-ideal solid solution phases. For the computation of the phase diagram for a given chemical composition, we have used a method of minimization of the total Gibbs free energy combined with a Mie-Grüneisen equation of state. Our forward calculation of phase diagram, seismic velocities and density and inverse calculation of temperature includes anharmonic and anelastic parameters as well as mineral reaction effects, including modes and chemical compositions of coexisting phases. Sensitivity of density and velocities to temperature, pressure and composition was studied. Inverse code computes the temperature distribution in the upper mantle from seismic and compositional constraints. The output results contain the self-consistent information on phase assemblages, densities and velocities. The approach used here requires a small number of thermodynamically defined parameters and has important advantages over earlier procedures, which contain no information about entropy, enthalpy and Grüneisen parameter. We inverted for temperature the recent P and S velocity models of the Kaapvaal craton as well as the IASP91 reference Earth model. Several long-range seismic profiles were carried out in Russia with Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE). The velocity models from PNEs recorded along these profiles were used to infer upper mantle temperature profiles beneath the Siberian craton. The seismic profiles were inverted on the basis of low and high temperature xenoliths of garnet peridotites from kimberlite pipes of

  2. Spacecraft thermal modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, J. H.; Panczak, T. D.; Fried, L.

    1992-09-01

    Thermal modeling of spacecraft requires approaches which can handle dominant radiative heat transfers and many special thermal control components. Present network-type thermal analyzers allow simulation, especially for components with rectangular geometries, but at the expense of considerable awkwardness and much error-prone manual input. The user interfaces for pre- and postprocessing for these analyzers are also very deficient. Finite element thermal analyzers solve some of the analytical difficulties, but are not widely used because they lack the flexibility to simulate special operations. The Galerkin finite element method (GFEM) distributes the contributions within an element to the element nodal points. The assembly of the contributions from all elements yields a system of energy balance equations for the nodal points of the system. Monte Carlo raytracing, in conjunction with a GFEM energy distribution to element nodal points, yields a procedure of consistent nonisothermal surface radiation exchange. This procedure reduces a source of simulation error caused by nonuniform element illumination and shading. Orbital heating, fluid flow and special analysis features are discussed. The main analysis program is interfaced to the preprocessing and postprocessing modules.

  3. Ocular Dominance and Handedness in Golf Putting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kristine; Guillon, Michel; Naroo, Shehzad A

    2015-10-01

    In golf, the impact of eye-hand dominance on putting performance has long been debated. Eye-hand dominance is thought to impact how golfers judge the alignment of the ball with the target and the club with the ball, as well as how golfers visualize the line of the putt when making decisions about the force needed to hit the ball. Previous studies have all measured ocular dominance in primary gaze only, despite golfers spending a significant amount of their time in a putting stance (bent at the hips, head tilted down). Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess ocular dominance in both primary gaze (aligning the ball with the target) and putting gaze (addressing the ball and aligning the club). This study investigated measuring pointing ocular dominance in both primary and putting gaze positions on 31 golfers (14 amateur, 7 club professionals, and 10 top professionals). All players were right-handed golfers, although one reported having no hand dominance and one reported being strongly left hand dominant. The results showed that (1) primary and putting gaze ocular dominances are not equal, nor are they predictive of each other; (2) the magnitude of putting ocular dominance is significantly less than the magnitude of primary gaze ocular dominance; (3) ocular dominance is not correlated with handedness in either primary or putting gaze; and (4) eye-hand dominance is not associated with increased putting skill, although ocular dominance may be associated with increased putting success. It is important that coaches assess golfers' ocular dominance in both primary and putting gaze positions to ensure they have the most accurate information upon which to base their vision strategy decisions.

  4. Mantle Calcium Dominates Continental Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Depaolo, D. J.; Bachmann, O.

    2009-12-01

    crustal component is clear (like the FCT), the importance of mantle magma input can be shown with Ca isotopes. The Ca isotopic compositions of the Lava Creek Tuff = 0.28±0.09 (2 σ, n=4) and Huckleberry Ridge Tuff = 0.11±0.17 (2 σ, n=1) of Yellowstone also imply substantial mantle sources. Crystal-poor ignimbrites from the SJVF exhibit similar to slightly higher ɛCai values. These include the Sapinero Mesa Tuff that has an ɛCai = 0.32±0.41 (2 σ, n=5), the Tuff of Saguache = 0.55±0.12 (2 σ, n=2), and the Blue Mesa Tuff = 1.77±0.64 (2 σ, n=3), respectively. Where ɛCai is clearly higher than zero (i.e., above +1.5), it is a good indication that the silicic magma has a source in the continental crust. In extrusions where low ɛNd could also be due to melting from enriched reservoirs in the mantle lithosphere, the combination of high ɛCai with low ɛNd clearly identifies crustal melts. The mantle dominated isotopic composition of a major lithophile element in silicic magmas suggests that a significant component of their source rocks were either poor in incompatible elements and/or that the silicic magmas represent recent additions to the continental crust.

  5. Electric co-heating in the ASHRAE standard method of test for thermal distribution efficiency: Test results on two New York State homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.; Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    Electric co-heating tests on two single-family homes with forced-air heating systems were carried out in March 1995. The goal of these tests was to evaluate procedures being considered for incorporation in a Standard Method of Test for thermal distribution system efficiency now being developed by ASHRAE. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the building equipment that produces this thermal energy to the spaces in which it is used. Furthering the project goal, the first objective of the tests was to evaluate electric co-heating as a means of measuring system efficiency. The second objective was to investigate procedures for obtaining the distribution efficiency, using system efficiency as a base. Distribution efficiencies of 0.63 and 0.70 were obtained for the two houses.

  6. The dominance behavioral system and manic temperament: motivation for dominance, self-perceptions of power, and socially dominant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S

    2012-12-15

    The dominance behavioral system has been conceptualized as a biologically based system comprising motivation to achieve social power and self-perceptions of power. Biological, behavioral, and social correlates of dominance motivation and self-perceived power have been related to a range of psychopathological tendencies. Preliminary evidence suggests that mania and risk for mania (manic temperament) relate to the dominance system. Four studies examine whether manic temperament, measured with the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS), is related to elevations in dominance motivation, self-perceptions of power, and engagement in socially dominant behavior across multiple measures. In Study 1, the HPS correlated with measures of dominance motivation and the pursuit of extrinsically-oriented ambitions for fame and wealth among 454 undergraduates. In Study 2, the HPS correlated with perceptions of power and extrinsically-oriented lifetime ambitions among 780 undergraduates. In Study 3, the HPS was related to trait-like tendencies to experience hubristic (dominance-related) pride, as well as dominance motivation and pursuit of extrinsically-oriented ambitions. In Study 4, we developed the Socially Dominant Behavior Scale to capture behaviors reflecting high power. The scale correlated highly with the HPS among 514 undergraduates. The studies rely on self-ratings of manic temperament and dominance constructs, and findings have not yet been generalized to a clinical sample. Taken together, results support the hypothesis that manic temperament is related to a focus on achieving social dominance, ambitions related to achieving social recognition, perceptions of having achieved power, tendencies to experience dominance-related pride, and engagement in social behaviors consistent with this elevated sense of power. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    concentrator optical efficiency was found to decrease significantly with increasing aperture width beyond 0.5 m due to parasitic waveguide out-coupling loss and low-level absorption that become dominant at larger scale. A heat transfer model was subsequently implemented to predict collector fluid heat gain and outlet temperature as a function of flow rate using the optical model as a flux input. It was found that the aperture width size limitation imposed by the optical efficiency characteristics of the waveguide limits the absolute optical power delivered to the heat transfer element per unit length. As compared to state-of-the-art parabolic trough CPV system aperture widths approaching 5 m, this limitation leads to an approximate factor of order of magnitude increase in heat transfer tube length to achieve the same heat transfer fluid outlet temperature. The conclusion of this work is that scattering solar thermal concentration cannot be implemented at the scale and efficiency required to compete with the performance of current parabolic trough CSP systems. Applied within the alternate context of CPV, however, the results of this work have likely opened up a transformative new path that enables quasi-static, high efficiency CPV to be implemented on rooftops in the form factor of traditional fixed-panel photovoltaics.

  8. Ocular dominance and visual function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Ferreira, D; Neves, H; Queiros, A; Faria-Ribeiro, M; Peixoto-de-Matos, S C; González-Méijome, J M

    2013-01-01

    To show the distribution of ocular dominance as measured with sensory and eye sighting methods and its potential relationship with high and low contrast LogMAR visual acuity in presbyopic subjects. Forty-four presbyopes (48.5 ± 3.5 years) participated in this study. Ocular dominance was determined by eye sighting (hole-in-card) and sensorial (+1.50 D lens induced blur) methods. According to the dominance detected with each method (RE: right eye or LE: left eye), patients were classified in dominance type 1 (RE/RE), type 2 (RE/LE), type 3 (LE/RE) and type 4 (LE/LE). Baseline refractive error (MSE) was RE:-0.36 ± 1.67 D and LE:-0.35 ± 1.85 D (P = 0.930). RE was the dominant eye in 61.4% and 70.5% of times as obtained from sensorial and sighting methods, respectively. Most frequent dominance was of type 1 (52.3%), in this case the RE showed statistically significant better distance low contrast LogMAR VA (0.04 LogMAR units) compared to the LE (P eye sighting and sensorial methods to define ocular dominance agreed in more than half of cases. Amount of MSE was not significantly different between dominant and non-dominant eye. But in case of right dominance, the RE presented better distance low contrast VA compared to the LE.

  9. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) is the only test facility in the United States of its type. This unique facility provides experimental engineering...

  10. Thermal energy at the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    These lecture notes provide a detailed treatment of the thermal energy storage and transport by conduction in natural and fabricated structures. Thermal energy in two carriers, i.e. phonons and electrons -- are explored from first principles. For solid-state transport, a common Landauer framework is used for heat flow. Issues including the quantum of thermal conductance, ballistic interface resistance, and carrier scattering are elucidated. Bulk material properties, such as thermal and electrical conductivity, are derived from particle transport theories, and the effects of spatial confinement on these properties are established. Readership: Students and professionals in physics and engineering.

  11. Thermal Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Philipp Andreas

    sufficiently rapidly undergoes only a moderate amount of thermal decomposition and explodes quite violently. This behavior can also be captured and analyzed using a one-step reaction model, where the heat release is in competition with the depletion of reactants. Hot surface ignition is examined using a glow plug or heated nickel element in a series of premixed n-hexane air mixtures. High-speed schlieren photography, a thermocouple, and a fast response pressure transducer are used to record flame characteristics such as ignition temperature, flame speed, pressure rises, and combustion mode. The ignition event is captured by considering the dominant balance of diffusion and chemical reaction that occurs near a hot surface. Experiments and models show a dependence of ignition temperature on mixture composition, initial pressure, and hot surface size. The mixtures exhibit the known lower flammability limit where the maximum temperature of the hot surface was insufficient at igniting the mixture. Away from the lower flammability limit, the ignition temperature drops to an almost constant value over a wide range of equivalence ratios (0.7 to 2.8) with large variations as the upper flammability limit is approached. Variations in the initial pressure and equivalence ratio also give rise to different modes of combustion: single flame, re-ignition, and puffing flames. These results are successfully compared to computational results obtained using a flamelet model and a detailed chemical mechanism for n-heptane. These different regimes can be delineated by considering the competition between inertia, i.e., flame propagation, and buoyancy, which can be expressed in the Richardson number. In experiments of hot surface ignition and subsequent flame propagation a 10 Hz puffing flame instability is visible in mixtures that are stagnant and premixed prior to the ignition sequence. By varying the size of the hot surface, power input, and combustion vessel volume, we determined that the

  12. Girth and Total Domination in Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders

    2012-01-01

    A set S of vertices in a graph G without isolated vertices is a total dominating set of G if every vertex of G is adjacent to some vertex in S. The minimum cardinality of a total dominating set of G is the total domination number γ t(G) of G. The girth of G is the length of a shortest cycle in G...

  13. 2-domination number of generalized Petersen graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    35

    domination number of G is the cardinality of the smallest k-dominating set of G. In this paper, we shall prove that the 2-domination number of generalized Petersen graphs P(5k+1,2) and P(5k+2,2), for k > 0, is 4k + 2 and 4k + 3, respectively. This proves two conjectures due to Yi-Jie Cheng (PhD thesis, National Chiao Tung ...

  14. Towards a rain-dominated Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintanja, Richard; Andry, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Current climate models project a strong increase in Arctic precipitation over the coming century, which has been attributed primarily to enhanced surface evaporation associated with sea-ice retreat. Since the Arctic is still quite cold, especially in winter, it is often (implicitly) assumed that the additional precipitation will fall mostly as snow. However, very little is known about future changes in rain/snow distribution in the Arctic, notwithstanding the importance for hydrology and biology. Here we use 37 state-of-the-art climate models in standardised twenty-first-century (2006-2100) simulations to show that 70° - 90°N average annual Arctic snowfall will actually decrease, despite the strong increase in precipitation, and that most of the additional precipitation in the future (2091-2100) will fall as rain. In fact, rain is even projected to become the dominant form of precipitation in the Arctic region. This is because Arctic atmospheric warming causes a greater fraction of snowfall to melt before it reaches the surface, in particular over the North Atlantic and the Barents Sea. The reduction in Arctic snowfall is most pronounced during summer and autumn when temperatures are close to the melting point, but also winter rainfall is found to intensify considerably. Projected (seasonal) trends in rain/snowfall will heavily impact Arctic hydrology (e.g. river discharge, permafrost melt), climatology (e.g. snow, sea ice albedo and melt) and ecology (e.g. water and food availability).

  15. Semi-strong split domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alwardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G = (V,E$, a dominating set $D subseteq V$ is called a semi-strong split dominating set of $G$ if $|V setminus D| geq 1$ and the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by $V setminus D$ is 1. The minimum cardinality of a semi-strong split dominating set (SSSDS of G is the semi-strong split domination number of G, denoted $gamma_{sss}(G$. In this work, we introduce the concept and prove several results regarding it.

  16. Ocular Dominance and Visual Function Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lopes-Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To show the distribution of ocular dominance as measured with sensory and eye sighting methods and its potential relationship with high and low contrast LogMAR visual acuity in presbyopic subjects. Method. Forty-four presbyopes (48.5 ± 3.5 years participated in this study. Ocular dominance was determined by eye sighting (hole-in-card and sensorial (+1.50 D lens induced blur methods. According to the dominance detected with each method (RE: right eye or LE: left eye, patients were classified in dominance type 1 (RE/RE, type 2 (RE/LE, type 3 (LE/RE and type 4 (LE/LE. Results. Baseline refractive error (MSE was RE:−0.36 ± 1.67 D and LE:−0.35 ± 1.85 D (P=0.930. RE was the dominant eye in 61.4% and 70.5% of times as obtained from sensorial and sighting methods, respectively. Most frequent dominance was of type 1 (52.3%, in this case the RE showed statistically significant better distance low contrast LogMAR VA (0.04 LogMAR units compared to the LE (P<0.05. Conclusions. The dominance was more frequent in RE in this sample. The eye sighting and sensorial methods to define ocular dominance agreed in more than half of cases. Amount of MSE was not significantly different between dominant and non-dominant eye. But in case of right dominance, the RE presented better distance low contrast VA compared to the LE.

  17. The Thermal Entropy Density of Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjia Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the notion of thermal entropy density via the first law of thermodynamics and assuming the Einstein equation as an equation of thermal state, we obtain the thermal entropy density of any arbitrary spacetime without assuming a temperature or a horizon. The results confirm that there is a profound connection between gravity and thermodynamics.

  18. Measurement Techniques for Thermal Conductivity and Interfacial Thermal Conductance of Bulk and Thin Film Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Dongliang; Qian, Xin; Gu, Xiaokun; Jajja, Saad Ayub; Yang, Ronggui

    2016-01-01

    Thermal conductivity and interfacial thermal conductance play crucial roles in the design of engineering systems where temperature and thermal stress are of concerns. To date, a variety of measurement techniques are available for both bulk and thin film solid-state materials with a broad temperature range. For thermal characterization of bulk material, the steady-state absolute method, laser flash diffusivity method, and transient plane source method are most used. For thin film measurement, ...

  19. The domination number of a random graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The domination number γ(G) of a graph G is the minimum cardinality of a set S of vertices so that every vertex outside S is adjacent to a vertex in S, while its total domination number γt(G) is the minimum cardinality of a set S of vertices so that every vertex in the graph is adjacent to a vertex...

  20. Local surface orientation dominates haptic curvature discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijntjes, M.W.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831816; Sato, A.; Hayward, V.; Kappers, A.M.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07445370X

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that local surface orientation is a dominant source of information for haptic curvature perception in static conditions. We show that this dominance holds for dynamic touch, just as was shown earlier for static touch. Using an apparatus specifically developed for this

  1. Equivalence domination in graphs | Arumugam | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Click on the link to view the abstract. Keywords: Equivalence domination, total domination, P3-forming set. Quaestiones Mathematicae 36(2013), 331-340. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/16073606.2013.779959 · AJOL African ...

  2. Computation of term dominance in text documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Travis L [Albuquerque, NM; Benz, Zachary O [Albuquerque, NM; Verzi, Stephen J [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-04-24

    An improved entropy-based term dominance metric useful for characterizing a corpus of text documents, and is useful for comparing the term dominance metrics of a first corpus of documents to a second corpus having a different number of documents.

  3. 78 FR 70080 - Market Dominant Price Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... market dominant products. The adjustments are scheduled to take effect January 26, 2014. This notice..., 2013, follows. Table of Contents I. Overview II. Promotions III. Summary of Price Changes by Class of... and international market dominant products and are scheduled to take effect January 26, 2014.\\2...

  4. Political Pragmatism of Empire. [Book Review: Münkler, H. Empire. The Logic of Domination over the World: from Ancient Rome to the United States [Text] / Herfried Münkler ; Translated from German by L. V. Lannik, edited by T. A. Grablevsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Igor Ivanovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication is a review of Herfried Münkler’s book “Empire: The logic of domination over the world - from Ancient Rome to the United States”, published in translation from German language in 2015. The reviewer describes the specifics of publication, focusing on the fact that the author analyzes in the framework of the political science discourse pressing issues regarding the development of empires as the powers affecting the militarystrategic, economic and social aspects. On the pages of his book, Münkler carefully analyzes discussions about the fate and quality of empire in the United States. H. Münkler raises questions about “boundaries of an Empire”, including those important subjects that are of great interest to political scientists who study the dynamics of relations between states and other actors in contemporary world politics. The reviewer notes that the author in the book overcomes taboo on imperial discourse in relation to modern democracies, which was initially due to the collapse of the USSR and the collapse of the Warsaw Pact, as well as the concepts of liberal democracy triumph.

  5. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...

  6. Time-dependent thermal state of the lithosphere in the foreland of the Eastern Carpathians bend. Insights from new geothermal measurements and modelling results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetrescu, Crisan; Wilhelm, H.; Tumanian, M.

    2007-01-01

    in establishing the temperature field in the depth range of geothermal measurements. The lateral variation of the palaeoclimatically corrected surface heat flux from the centre of the Focsani Depression (40 mW m-2) to its margin and the foreland platform (70 mW m-2) is mainly the result of the lateral variation...... words: Carpathians foreland, geothermics, heat flow, lithosphere rheology, sedimentation, thermal modelling.  ...

  7. Transient thermal camouflage and heat signature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian-Zhi; Su, Yishu; Xu, Weikai; Yang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-09-01

    Thermal metamaterials have been proposed to manipulate heat flux as a new way to cloak or camouflage objects in the infrared world. To date, however, thermal metamaterials only operate in the steady-state and exhibit detectable, transient heat signatures. In this letter, the theoretical basis for a thermal camouflaging technique with controlled transient diffusion is presented. This technique renders an object invisible in real time. More importantly, the thermal camouflaging device instantaneously generates a pre-designed heat signature and behaves as a perfect thermal illusion device. A metamaterial coating with homogeneous and isotropic thermal conductivity, density, and volumetric heat capacity was fabricated and very good camouflaging performance was achieved.

  8. Gallium-Based Liquid Metal Amalgams: Transitional-State Metallic Mixtures (TransM2ixes) with Enhanced and Tunable Electrical, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianbo; Zhao, Xi; Li, Jing; Guo, Rui; Zhou, Yuan; Liu, Jing

    2017-10-18

    Metals are excellent choices for electrical- and thermal-current conducting. However, either the stiffness of solid metals or the fluidity of liquid metals could be troublesome when flexibility and formability are both desired. To address this problem, a reliable two-stage route to improve the functionalities of gallium-based liquid metals is proposed. A series of stable semiliquid/semisolid gallium-based liquid metal amalgams with well-controlled particle packing ratios, which we call TransM2ixes, are prepared and characterized. Through effectively packing the liquid metal with copper particles (which are found to turn into intermetallic compound, CuGa2, after dispersing), remarkable enhancements in electrical conductivity (6 × 106 S m-1, ∼80% increase) and thermal conductivity (50 W m-1 K-1, ∼100% increase) are obtained, making the TransM2ixes stand out from current conductive soft materials. The TransM2ixes also exhibit appealing semiliquid/semisolid mechanical behaviors such as excellent adhesion, tunable formability, and self-healing ability. As a class of highly conductive yet editable metallic mixtures, the TransM2ixes demonstrate potential applications in fields like printed and/or flexible electronics and thermal interface materials, as well as other circumstances where the flexibility and conductivity of interfaces and connections are crucial.

  9. Defect induced phonon scattering for tuning the lattice thermal conductivity of SiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the thermal properties of nanoscale SiO2 thin films have been systematically investigated with respect to the thickness, crystal orientations and the void defects using non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics (NEMD simulation. Size effect for the lattice thermal conductivity of nanoscale SiO2 thin films was observed. Additionally, SiO2 thin films with [001] oriented exhibited greater thermal conductivity compared with other crystal orientations which was discussed in terms of phonon density of states (PDOS. Furthermore, the porosity of void defects was introduced to quantify the influence of defects for thermal conductivity. Results exhibited that the thermal conductivity degraded with the increase of porosity. Two thermal conductivity suppression mechanisms, namely, void defects induced material loss interdicting heat conduction and phonon scattering enhanced by the boundary of defects, were proposed. Then, a further simulation was deployed to find that the effect of boundary scattering of defects was dominant in thermal conductivity degradation compared with material loss mechanism. The conclusion suggests that the thermal conductivity could be configured via regulating the distribution of PDOS directly associated with void defects.

  10. Subcritical Thermal Convection of Liquid Metals in a Rapidly Rotating Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, E. J.; Schaeffer, N.; Vidal, J.; Cardin, P.

    2017-09-01

    Planetary cores consist of liquid metals (low Prandtl number Pr) that convect as the core cools. Here, we study nonlinear convection in a rotating (low Ekman number Ek) planetary core using a fully 3D direct numerical simulation. Near the critical thermal forcing (Rayleigh number Ra), convection onsets as thermal Rossby waves, but as Ra increases, this state is superseded by one dominated by advection. At moderate rotation, these states (here called the weak branch and strong branch, respectively) are smoothly connected. As the planetary core rotates faster, the smooth transition is replaced by hysteresis cycles and subcriticality until the weak branch disappears entirely and the strong branch onsets in a turbulent state at Ek <10-6. Here, the strong branch persists even as the thermal forcing drops well below the linear onset of convection (Ra =0.7 Racrit in this study). We highlight the importance of the Reynolds stress, which is required for convection to subsist below the linear onset. In addition, the Péclet number is consistently above 10 in the strong branch. We further note the presence of a strong zonal flow that is nonetheless unimportant to the convective state. Our study suggests that, in the asymptotic regime of rapid rotation relevant for planetary interiors, thermal convection of liquid metals in a sphere onsets through a subcritical bifurcation.

  11. The effect of moisture content on the thermal conductivity of moss and organic soil horizons from black spruce ecosystems in interior alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. A.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Organic soil horizons function as important controls on the thermal state of near-surface soil and permafrost in high-latitude ecosystems. The thermal conductivity of organic horizons is typically lower than mineral soils and is closely linked to moisture content, bulk density, and water phase. In this study, we examined the relationship between thermal conductivity and soil moisture for different moss and organic horizon types in black spruce ecosystems of interior Alaska. We sampled organic horizons from feather moss-dominated and Sphagnum-dominated stands and divided horizons into live moss and fibrous and amorphous organic matter. Thermal conductivity measurements were made across a range of moisture contents using the transient line heat source method. Our findings indicate a strong positive and linear relationship between thawed thermal conductivity (Kt) and volumetric water content. We observed similar regression parameters (?? or slope) across moss types and organic horizons types and small differences in ??0 (y intercept) across organic horizon types. Live Sphagnum spp. had a higher range of Kt than did live feather moss because of the field capacity (laboratory based) of live Sphagnum spp. In northern regions, the thermal properties of organic soil horizons play a critical role in mediating the effects of climate warming on permafrost conditions. Findings from this study could improve model parameterization of thermal properties in organic horizons and enhance our understanding of future permafrost and ecosystem dynamics. ?? 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  12. Thermal defoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The negative perception some consumers hold regarding agricultural chemicals has resulted in an increased demand for organic foods and fibers, and in increasing political pressure for the regulation of agricultural production practices. This has revived interest in thermal defoliation of cotton and ...

  13. Holographic thermalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Bernamonti, A.; de Boer, J.; Copland, N.; Craps, B.; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Müller, B.; Schäfer, A.; Shigemori, M.; Staessens, W.

    2011-01-01

    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we probe the scale-dependence of thermalization in strongly coupled field theories following a quench, via calculations of two-point functions, Wilson loops and entanglement entropy in d=2,3,4. In the saddlepoint approximation these probes are computed in AdS space

  14. Total dominator chromatic number of a graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel P. Kazemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G$, the total dominator coloring problem seeks a proper coloring of $G$ with the additional property that every vertex in the graph is adjacent to all vertices of a color class. We seek to minimize the number of color classes. We initiate to study this problem on several classes of graphs, as well as finding general bounds and characterizations. We also compare the total dominator chromatic number of a graph with the chromatic number and the total domination number of it.

  15. Ocular dominance and visual function testing

    OpenAIRE

    D. Lopes-Ferreira; Neves, H; A. Queiros; Faria-Ribeiro, M.; Peixoto-de-Matos, S. C.; J. M. González-Méijome

    2013-01-01

    To show the distribution of ocular dominance as measured with sensory and eye sighting methods and its potential relationship with high and low contrast LogMAR visual acuity in presbyopic subjects. Method. Forty-four presbyopes (48.5 ± 3.5 years) participated in this study. Ocular dominance was determined by eye sighting (hole-in-card) and sensorial (+1.50 D lens induced blur) methods. According to the dominance detected with each method (RE: right eye or LE: left eye), patients were classifi...

  16. Thermal Hardware for the Thermal Analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, David

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). NCTS 21070-1. Most Thermal analysts do not have a good background into the hardware which thermally controls the spacecraft they design. SINDA and Thermal Desktop models are nice, but knowing how this applies to the actual thermal hardware (heaters, thermostats, thermistors, MLI blanketing, optical coatings, etc...) is just as important. The course will delve into the thermal hardware and their application techniques on actual spacecraft. Knowledge of how thermal hardware is used and applied will make a thermal analyst a better engineer.

  17. Giant thermal Hall effect in multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideue, T.; Kurumaji, T.; Ishiwata, S.; Tokura, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Multiferroics, in which dielectric and magnetic orders coexist and couple with each other, attract renewed interest for their cross-correlated phenomena, offering a fundamental platform for novel functionalities. Elementary excitations in such systems are strongly affected by the lattice-spin interaction, as exemplified by the electromagnons and the magneto-thermal transport. Here we report an unprecedented coupling between magnetism and phonons in multiferroics, namely, the giant thermal Hall effect. The thermal transport of insulating polar magnets (ZnxFe1-x)2Mo3O8 is dominated by phonons, yet extremely sensitive to the magnetic structure. In particular, large thermal Hall conductivities are observed in the ferrimagnetic phase, indicating unconventional lattice-spin interactions and a new mechanism for the Hall effect in insulators. Our results show that the thermal Hall effect in multiferroic materials can be an effective probe for strong lattice-spin interactions and provide a new tool for magnetic control of thermal currents.

  18. On Helium-Dominated Stellar Evolution: The Mysterious Role of the O(He)-Type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, N.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Todt, H.

    2014-01-01

    Context. About a quarter of all post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are hydrogen-deficient. Stellar evolutionary models explain the carbon-dominated H-deficient stars by a (very) late thermal pulse scenario where the hydrogen-rich envelope is mixed with the helium-rich intershell layer. Depending on the particular time at which the final flash occurs, the entire hydrogen envelope may be burned. In contrast, helium-dominated post-AGB stars and their evolution are not yet understood. Aims. A small group of very hot, helium-dominated stars is formed by O(He)-type stars. A precise analysis of their photospheric abundances will establish constraints to their evolution. Methods. We performed a detailed spectral analysis of ultraviolet and optical spectra of four O(He) stars by means of state-of-the-art non-LTE model-atmosphere techniques. Results. We determined effective temperatures, surface gravities, and the abundances of H, He, C, N, O, F, Ne, Si, P, S, Ar, and Fe. By deriving upper limits for the mass-loss rates of the O(He) stars, we found that they do not exhibit enhanced mass-loss. The comparison with evolutionary models shows that the status of the O(He) stars remains uncertain. Their abundances match predictions of a double helium white dwarf (WD) merger scenario, suggesting that they might be the progeny of the compact and of the luminous helium-rich sdO-type stars. The existence of planetary nebulae that do not show helium enrichment around every other O(He) star precludes a merger origin for these stars. These stars must have formed in a different way, for instance via enhanced mass-loss during their post-AGB evolution or a merger within a common-envelope (CE) of a CO-WD and a red giant or AGB star. Conclusions. A helium-dominated stellar evolutionary sequence exists that may be fed by different types of mergers or CE scenarios. It appears likely that all these pass through the O(He) phase just before they become WDs.

  19. A Boundary Property for Upper Domination

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2016-08-08

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality.The problem of finding an upper dominating set is generally NP-hard, but can be solved in polynomial time in some restricted graph classes, such as P4-free graphs or 2K2-free graphs.For classes defined by finitely many forbidden induced subgraphs, the boundary separating difficult instances of the problem from polynomially solvable ones consists of the so called boundary classes.However, none of such classes has been identified so far for the upper dominating set problem.In the present paper, we discover the first boundary class for this problem.

  20. Dominant Strategy Mechanisms with Multidimensional Types

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, R.J.; Gui, H. (Hongsheng); Vohra, R

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a characterization of dominant strategy mechanisms with quasi-linear utilities and multi-dimensional types for a variety of preference domains. These characterizations are in terms of a monotonicity property on the underlying allocation rule.

  1. A dynamic domination problem in trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Klostermeyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider a dynamic domination problem for graphs in which an infinite sequence of attacks occur at vertices with guards and the guard at the attacked vertex is required to vacate the vertex by moving to a neighboring vertex with no guard. Other guards are allowed to move at the same time, and before and after each attack and the resulting guard movements, the vertices containing guards form a dominating set of the graph. The minimum number of guards that can successfully defend the graph against such an arbitrary sequence of attacks is the m-eviction number. This parameter lies between the domination and independence numbers of the graph. We characterize the classes of trees for which the m-eviction number equals the domination number and the independence number, respectively.

  2. Magneto-thermally activated spin-state transition in La0.95Ca0.05CoO3: magnetically-tunable dipolar glass and giant magneto-electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Suchita; Kumar, Jitender; Awasthi, A M

    2016-03-07

    The magneto-dielectric spectroscopy of La0.95Ca0.05CoO3 covering the crossover of spin states reveals the strong coupling of its spin and dipolar degrees of freedom. The signature of the spin-state transition at 30 K clearly manifests in the magnetization data at a 1 Tesla optimal field. Our Co L3,2-edge X-ray absorption spectrum on the doped specimen is consistent with its suppressed low-to-intermediate spin-state transition temperature at ∼30 K compared to ∼150 K, documented for pure LaCoO3. The dispersive activation step in the dielectric constant with the associated relaxation peak in imaginary permittivity characterize the allied influence of coexistent spin-states on the dielectric character. Dipolar relaxation in the low-spin regime below the transition temperature is partly segmental (Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) kinetics) and features magnetic-field tunability, whereas in the low/intermediate-spin disordered state above ∼30 K, it is uncorrelated (Arrhenic kinetics) and almost impervious to the magnetic field H. Kinetics-switchover defines the dipolar-glass transition temperature Tg(H) (=27 K|0T), below which their magneto-thermally-activated cooperative relaxations freeze out by the VFT temperature T0(H) (=15 K|0T). An applied magnetic field facilitates thermal activation in toggling the low spins up into the intermediate states. Consequently, the downsized dipolar-glass segments in the low-spin state and the independent dipoles in the intermediate state exhibit accelerated dynamics. A critical 5 Tesla field collapses the entire relaxation kinetics into a single Arrhenic behaviour, signaling that the dipolar glass is completely devitrified under all higher fields. The magneto-electricity (ME) spanning sizeable thermo-spectral range registers diverse signatures here in kinetic, spectral, and field behaviors, in contrast to the static/perturbative ME observed close to the spin-ordering in typical multiferroics. Intrinsic magneto-dielectricity (50%) along

  3. Agonism and dominance in female blue monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Keren; Cords, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Agonistic behavior features prominently in hypotheses that explain how social variation relates to ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. Dominance systems vary along axes of despotism, tolerance, and nepotism, and comparative studies examine cross-species patterns in these classifications. To contribute to such studies, we present a comprehensive picture of agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in wild female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), an arboreal guenon, with data from 9 groups spanning 18 years. We assessed where blue monkeys fall along despotic, tolerant, and nepotistic spectra, how their dominance system compares to other primates, primarily cercopithecines, and whether their agonistic behavior matches socioecological model predictions. Blue monkeys showed low rates of mainly low-intensity agonism and little counter-aggression. Rates increased with rank and group size. Dominance asymmetry varied at different organizational levels, being more pronounced at the level of interactions than dyad or group. Hierarchies were quite stable, had moderate-to-high linearity and directional consistency and moderate steepness. There was clear maternal rank inheritance, but inconsistent adherence to Kawamura's rules. There was little between-group variation, although hierarchy metrics showed considerable variation across group-years. Overall, blue monkeys have moderately despotic, moderately tolerant, and nepotistic dominance hierarchies. They resemble other cercopithecines in having significantly linear and steep hierarchies with a generally stable, matriline-based structure, suggesting a phylogenetic basis to this aspect of their social system. Blue monkeys most closely match Sterck et al.'s [1997] Resident-Nepotistic-Tolerant dominance category, although they do not fully conform to predictions of any one socioecological model. Our results suggest that socioecological models might better predict variation within than across clades, thereby

  4. La Domination masculine de Pierre Bourdieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileva Filipović

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available L’objet de cet article est de mettre en evidence quelques questions soulevées par La domination masculine de Pierre Bourdieu: sa construction sociale, sa dehistorisation, et sa naturalisation, sa légitimité, la permanence dans les changements et la révolution dans la connaissance pour transformer le principe de la perpétuation caractérisant ce rapport de domination.

  5. Freeze-Drying From Organic Cosolvent Systems, Part 1: Thermal Analysis of Cosolvent-Based Placebo Formulations in the Frozen State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Claudia; Schuldt-Lieb, Sonja; Gieseler, Henning

    2017-11-10

    The use of cosolvent systems has been demonstrated to shorten lengthy freeze-drying processes and improve the solubility and stability of certain active pharmaceutical ingredients. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of 2 thermal characterization techniques, differential scanning calorimetry and freeze-dry microscopy, and to identify an optimal cosolvent system. Binary mixtures of a cosolvent (tert-butanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,4-dioxane, acetone, or ethanol) and water were investigated. Ternary mixtures of frequently used excipients (50 mg/g mannitol, sucrose, glycine, or polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP]) and a solvent-water system were then analyzed for their thermal properties. PVP presented a particularly high glass transition temperature (Tg') in 70% tert-butanol at -17.9°C. Large needle-shaped crystals that have been shown to be associated with improved processability were observed with mannitol and PVP in 40% 1,4-dioxane. A heterogeneous sublimation rate of the solvent and water whose impact on product stability remained unclear was observed with PVP in 40% 1,4-dioxane. Freeze-dry microscopy analysis demonstrated a possible extension of the process time for PVP in 99% dimethyl sulfoxide due to a slowly moving sublimation front. Conceivable negative consequences and the need for special treatment for low-melting cosolvents, such as ethanol and acetone, were predicted and discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Broadband white light emission from Ce:AlN ceramics: High thermal conductivity down-converters for LED and laser-driven solid state lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Wieg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN as a transparent ceramic host for Ce3+, a well-known active ion dopant. We show that the Ce:AlN ceramics have overlapping photoluminescent (PL emission peaks that cover almost the entire visible range resulting in a white appearance under 375 nm excitation without the need for color mixing. The PL is due to a combination of intrinsic AlN defect complexes and Ce3+ electronic transitions. Importantly, the peak intensities can be tuned by varying the Ce concentration and processing parameters, causing different shades of white light without the need for multiple phosphors or light sources. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage coordinates calculated from the measured spectra confirm white light emission. In addition, we demonstrate the viability of laser driven white light emission by coupling the Ce:AlN to a readily available frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser emitting at 355 nm. The high thermal conductivity of these ceramic down-converters holds significant promise for producing higher power white light sources than those available today.

  7. Automatic Detection of Dominance and Expected Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Pujol, Oriol; Radeva, Petia; Vitrià, Jordi; Anguera, M. Teresa

    2010-12-01

    Social Signal Processing is an emergent area of research that focuses on the analysis of social constructs. Dominance and interest are two of these social constructs. Dominance refers to the level of influence a person has in a conversation. Interest, when referred in terms of group interactions, can be defined as the degree of engagement that the members of a group collectively display during their interaction. In this paper, we argue that only using behavioral motion information, we are able to predict the interest of observers when looking at face-to-face interactions as well as the dominant people. First, we propose a simple set of movement-based features from body, face, and mouth activity in order to define a higher set of interaction indicators. The considered indicators are manually annotated by observers. Based on the opinions obtained, we define an automatic binary dominance detection problem and a multiclass interest quantification problem. Error-Correcting Output Codes framework is used to learn to rank the perceived observer's interest in face-to-face interactions meanwhile Adaboost is used to solve the dominant detection problem. The automatic system shows good correlation between the automatic categorization results and the manual ranking made by the observers in both dominance and interest detection problems.

  8. Thermal transport in cuprates, cobaltates, and manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggold, K.

    2006-09-15

    magnetic polaron formation. In the doped compounds La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} with 0{<=}x{<=}0.25, a large thermopower, a low thermal conductivity, and a considerable large thermoelectric figure of merit is found. Here, {kappa} is strongly suppressed by the Sr-induced magnetic polarons, whereas the large thermopower arises from a large entropy contribution due to the different spin states of Co{sup 3+} and Co{sup 4+}. In the orthorhombic manganites NdMnO{sub 3} and TbMnO{sub 3} complex temperature and field dependencies of {kappa} are observed. In combination with magnetic-field dependent thermal expansion measurements it is shown that the dominating effect determining {kappa} is resonant phonon scattering by the 4f orbitals of the R{sup 3+} ions. The complicated magnetic structure of TbMnO{sub 3} at low temperature as well as the ferroelectricity has only a minor influence on the thermal conductivity. (orig.)

  9. Thermal Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Gateway Technologies, Inc. is marketing and developing textile insulation technology originally developed by Triangle Research and Development Corporation. The enhanced thermal insulation stems from Small Business Innovation Research contracts from NASA's Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Air Force. The effectiveness of the insulation comes from the microencapsulated phase-change materials originally made to keep astronauts gloved hands warm. The applications for the product range from outer wear, housing insulation, and blankets to protective firefighting gear and scuba diving suits. Gateway has developed and begun marketing thermal regulating products under the trademark, OUTLAST. Products made from OUTLAST are already on the market, including boot and shoe liners, winter headgear, hats and caps for hunting and other outdoor sports, and a variety of men's and women's ski gloves.

  10. Turbulent Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Micha, Raphael; Micha, Raphael; Tkachev, Igor I.

    2004-01-01

    We study, analytically and with lattice simulations, the decay of coherent field oscillations and the subsequent thermalization of the resulting stochastic classical wave-field. The problem of reheating of the Universe after inflation constitutes our prime motivation and application of the results. We identify three different stages of these processes. During the initial stage of ``parametric resonance'', only a small fraction of the initial inflaton energy is transferred to fluctuations in the physically relevant case of sufficiently large couplings. A major fraction is transfered in the prompt regime of driven turbulence. The subsequent long stage of thermalization classifies as free turbulence. During the turbulent stages, the evolution of particle distribution functions is self-similar. We show that wave kinetic theory successfully describes the late stages of our lattice calculation. Our analytical results are general and give estimates of reheating time and temperature in terms of coupling constants and...

  11. Mood effects on dominated choices: Positive mood induces departures from logical rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M. de; Holland, R.W.; Corneille, O.; Rondeel, E.W.M.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated the role of mood states in dominated behavioral choices. Past research has shown that mood effects on judgment and decision-making can be pervasive. Yet, the role of mood in dominated choices has so far been neglected. The present research represents a first empirical

  12. Personality Dominant Values in Graphic Design Students in Their Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, René Pedroza

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study the personality dominant values in Graphic Design students from the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico. A scale developed by Allport, Vernon and Lindsey called: "Study of values. A scale for the measuring of personality dominant interests" was used. The sample was applied to 124 students,…

  13. Transient thermal analysis of a titanium multiwall thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The application of the SPAR thermal analyzer to the thermal analysis of a thermal protection system concept is discussed. The titanium multiwall thermal protection system concept consists of alternate flat and dimpled sheets which are joined together at the crests of the dimples and formed into 30 cm by 30 cm (12 in. by 12 in.) tiles. The tiles are mechanically attached to the structure. The complex tile geometry complicates thermal analysis. Three modes of heat transfer were considered: conduction through the gas inside the tile, conduction through the metal, and radiation between the various layers. The voids between the dimpled and flat sheets were designed to be small enough so that natural convection is insignificant (e.g., Grashof number 1000). A two step approach was used in the thermal analysis of the multiwall thermal protection system. First, an effective normal (through-the-thickness) thermal conductivity was obtained from a steady state analysis using a detailed SPAR finite element model of a small symmetric section of the multiwall tile. This effective conductivity was then used in simple one dimensional finite element models for preliminary analysis of several transient heat transfer problems.

  14. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  15. The comparison of scapular upward rotation and scapulohumeral rhythm between dominant and non-dominant shoulder in male overhead athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Hossein; Anbarian, Mehrdad; Norasteh, Ali Asghar; Fardmal, Javad; Khosravi, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have stated that the scapulohumeral rhythm dysfunction can make person prone to glenohumeral joint pathologies. The purpose of this study was to compare scapular upward rotation and scapulohumeral rhythm between dominant and non-dominant shoulder in male overhead athletes and non-athletes. Seventeen overhead athletes and seventeen non-athletes volunteered for this study. Two inclinometers were used to measure humeral abduction and scapular upward rotation in rest position, 45°, 90° and 135° humeral abduction in frontal plane. Findings indicated there was no significant asymmetry in scapular upward rotation and scapulohumeral rhythm in different abduction angles between dominant and non-dominant shoulder in non-athletes. In contrast, overhead athletes' dominant shoulders have more downward rotation in scapular rest position and more upward rotation in 90° and 135° shoulder abduction than non-dominant shoulders. Also, overhead athletes presented scapulohumeral rhythm asymmetry between dominant and non-dominant shoulder in 90° and 135° humeral abduction as dominant shoulders have less scapulohumeral rhythm ratio than non-dominant shoulders. Furthermore, overhead athletes dominant shoulders have more scapular downward rotation in scapular rest position, more scapular upward rotation in 90° and 135° humeral abduction and less scapulohumeral rhythm ratio in 45°, 90° and 135° humeral abduction than non-athletes in dominant shoulders. We suggest that clinicians should be aware that some scapular asymmetry may be common in some athletes. It should not be considered as a pathological sign but rather an adaptation to extensive use of upper limb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-01

    With the push to reduce component volumes, lower costs, and reduce weight without sacrificing performance or reliability, the challenges associated with thermal management increase for power electronics and electric motors. Thermal management for electric motors will become more important as the automotive industry continues the transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. The transition to more electrically dominant propulsion systems leads to higher-power duty cycles for electric drive systems. Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform, and as thermal management improves, there will be a direct trade-off between motor performance, efficiency, cost, and the sizing of electric motors to operate within the thermal constraints. The goal of this research project is to support broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management. Work in FY15 focused on two areas related to motor thermal management: passive thermal performance and active convective cooling. Passive thermal performance emphasized the thermal impact of materials and thermal interfaces among materials within an assembled motor. The research tasks supported the publication of test methods and data for thermal contact resistances and direction-dependent thermal conductivity within an electric motor. Active convective cooling focused on measuring convective heat-transfer coefficients using automatic transmission fluid (ATF). Data for average convective heat transfer coefficients for direct impingement of ATF jets was published. Also, experimental hardware for mapping local-scale and stator-scale convective heat transfer coefficients for ATF jet impingement were developed.

  17. Combining thermal comfort models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigit, A.

    1999-07-01

    Two models commonly used in thermal comfort studies were combined to develop a two-dimensional computer model that estimates the resistance to dry and evaporative heat transfer for a clothing system from fabric resistance data, fabric thickness data, and information concerning the amount of body surface area covered by different fabric layers and the amount of air trapped between fabric layers. Five different clothing ensembles with different total thermal insulation and very different distributions of the insulation on the body were simulated with 16 sedentary subjects. This paper first evaluates total thermal insulation predictions from the Fanger steady-state model and then uses these data in the Gagge two-compartment (or two-node) model. The combined model uses the transient heat balance of each segment and the whole body. It estimates total insulation value and then uses this value to calculate transient temperature and wettedness. By application of the combined model, predictions of human responses to a wide range of thermal conditions are compared with the responses of human subjects as described in reports of laboratory experiments. Possible reasons for discrepancies between the observed data and predictions of the model are briefly discussed.

  18. Thermal analysis and FTIR spectral curve-fitting investigation of formation mechanism and stability of indomethacin-saccharin cocrystals via solid-state grinding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang-Chun; Lin, Hong-Liang; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2012-07-01

    The cocrystal formation of indomethacin (IMC) and saccharin (SAC) by mechanical cogrinding or thermal treatment was investigated. The formation mechanism and stability of IMC-SAC cocrystal prepared by cogrinding process were explored. Typical IMC-SAC cocrystal was also prepared by solvent evaporation method. All the samples were identified and characterized by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis. The physical stability of different IMC-SAC ground mixtures before and after storage for 7 months was examined. The results demonstrate that the stepwise measurements were carried out at specific intervals over a continuous cogrinding process showing a continuous growth in the cocrystal formation between IMC and SAC. The main IR spectral shifts from 3371 to 3,347 cm(-1) and 1693 to 1682 cm(-1) for IMC, as well as from 3094 to 3136 cm(-1) and 1718 to 1735 cm(-1) for SAC suggested that the OH and NH groups in both chemical structures were taken part in a hydrogen bonding, leading to the formation of IMC-SAC cocrystal. A melting at 184 °C for the 30-min IMC-SAC ground mixture was almost the same as the melting at 184 °C for the solvent-evaporated IMC-SAC cocrystal. The 30-min IMC-SAC ground mixture was also confirmed to have similar components and contents to that of the solvent-evaporated IMC-SAC cocrystal by using a curve-fitting analysis from IR spectra. The thermal-induced IMC-SAC cocrystal formation was also found to be dependent on the temperature treated. Different IMC-SAC ground mixtures after storage at 25 °C/40% RH condition for 7 months had an improved tendency of IMC-SAC cocrystallization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation Of Thermal Properties Of Naturally Seasoned Dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steady-state thermal conductivity measurements of naturally seasoned African thorn tree (Macaranga barteri) timer boards were carried out. Other thermal and physical properties such as specific heat capacity, thermal resistivity, density, thermal absorptivity and diffusivity as well as percentage of dead air space (v/v) were ...

  20. Thermal simulation and validation of 8W LED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Formánek, J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Bolt, P.J.; Kulha, P.

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with thermal simulation and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) LED Lamp in order to get precise 3D thermal models for further lamp thermal optimization. Simulations are performed with ANSYS-CFX and CoventorWare software tools. The simulated thermal distribution has been

  1. Impacts of microtopographic snow redistribution and lateral subsurface processes on hydrologic and thermal states in an Arctic polygonal ground ecosystem: a case study using ELM-3D v1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Gautam; Riley, William J.; Wainwright, Haruko M.; Dafflon, Baptiste; Yuan, Fengming; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.

    2018-01-01

    Microtopographic features, such as polygonal ground, are characteristic sources of landscape heterogeneity in the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain. Here, we analyze the effects of snow redistribution (SR) and lateral subsurface processes on hydrologic and thermal states at a polygonal tundra site near Barrow, Alaska. We extended the land model integrated in the E3SM to redistribute incoming snow by accounting for microtopography and incorporated subsurface lateral transport of water and energy (ELM-3D v1.0). Multiple 10-year-long simulations were performed for a transect across a polygonal tundra landscape at the Barrow Environmental Observatory in Alaska to isolate the impact of SR and subsurface process representation. When SR was included, model predictions better agreed (higher R2, lower bias and RMSE) with observed differences in snow depth between polygonal rims and centers. The model was also able to accurately reproduce observed soil temperature vertical profiles in the polygon rims and centers (overall bias, RMSE, and R2 of 0.59 °C, 1.82 °C, and 0.99, respectively). The spatial heterogeneity of snow depth during the winter due to SR generated surface soil temperature heterogeneity that propagated in depth and time and led to ˜ 10 cm shallower and ˜ 5 cm deeper maximum annual thaw depths under the polygon rims and centers, respectively. Additionally, SR led to spatial heterogeneity in surface energy fluxes and soil moisture during the summer. Excluding lateral subsurface hydrologic and thermal processes led to small effects on mean states but an overestimation of spatial variability in soil moisture and soil temperature as subsurface liquid pressure and thermal gradients were artificially prevented from spatially dissipating over time. The effect of lateral subsurface processes on maximum thaw depths was modest, with mean absolute differences of ˜ 3 cm. Our integration of three-dimensional subsurface hydrologic and thermal subsurface dynamics in the E3SM

  2. Impacts of microtopographic snow redistribution and lateral subsurface processes on hydrologic and thermal states in an Arctic polygonal ground ecosystem: a case study using ELM-3D v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bisht

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtopographic features, such as polygonal ground, are characteristic sources of landscape heterogeneity in the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain. Here, we analyze the effects of snow redistribution (SR and lateral subsurface processes on hydrologic and thermal states at a polygonal tundra site near Barrow, Alaska. We extended the land model integrated in the E3SM to redistribute incoming snow by accounting for microtopography and incorporated subsurface lateral transport of water and energy (ELM-3D v1.0. Multiple 10-year-long simulations were performed for a transect across a polygonal tundra landscape at the Barrow Environmental Observatory in Alaska to isolate the impact of SR and subsurface process representation. When SR was included, model predictions better agreed (higher R2, lower bias and RMSE with observed differences in snow depth between polygonal rims and centers. The model was also able to accurately reproduce observed soil temperature vertical profiles in the polygon rims and centers (overall bias, RMSE, and R2 of 0.59 °C, 1.82 °C, and 0.99, respectively. The spatial heterogeneity of snow depth during the winter due to SR generated surface soil temperature heterogeneity that propagated in depth and time and led to ∼ 10 cm shallower and  ∼ 5 cm deeper maximum annual thaw depths under the polygon rims and centers, respectively. Additionally, SR led to spatial heterogeneity in surface energy fluxes and soil moisture during the summer. Excluding lateral subsurface hydrologic and thermal processes led to small effects on mean states but an overestimation of spatial variability in soil moisture and soil temperature as subsurface liquid pressure and thermal gradients were artificially prevented from spatially dissipating over time. The effect of lateral subsurface processes on maximum thaw depths was modest, with mean absolute differences of ∼ 3 cm. Our integration of three-dimensional subsurface hydrologic and

  3. Effect of Dominant Versus Non-dominant Vision in Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rae-Young; Kee, Hoi-Sung; Kang, Jung-Ho; Lee, Su-Jin; Yoon, Soe-Ra; Jung, Kwang-Ik

    2011-06-01

    To assess the effect of dominant and non-dominant vision in controlling posture in quiet stance. Twenty-five healthy elderly subjects aged over 60 years old and twenty-five young subjects aged under 30 years old were assessed by computerized dynamic posturography. Postural stability was measured in two conditions; dominant eye open and non-dominant eye open. We used the sensory organization test (SOT) for evaluating sensory impairment. A SOT assessed the subject's ability to use and integrate somatosensory input, vision, and vestibular cues effectively to maintain balance. The SOT was conducted 3 times, and the average value of the 3 trials was used for data analysis. Equilibrium scores reflected the subject's anteroposterior sway. The highest possible score was 100, which indicated that the subject did not sway at all, and a score of 0 indicated a fall from the footplate. Determination of ocular dominance was performed by a hole-in-the card test. For the twenty-five young subjects in this study, equilibrium score in two conditions did not differ. However, for elderly subjects over 60 years, the equilibrium score in dominant vision was higher than in nondominant vision (p<0.05). In young subjects, there were no significant differences in postural control between dominant vision and non-dominant vision. However, in elderly subjects, postural control in non-dominant vision was significantly impaired. Therefore, the evaluation of a dominant eye should be considered in rehabilitation programs for elderly people.

  4. Signed Total Roman Edge Domination In Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgharsharghi Leila

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Let G = (V,E be a simple graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A signed total Roman edge dominating function of G is a function f : Ʃ → {−1, 1, 2} satisfying the conditions that (i Ʃe′∈N(e f(e′ ≥ 1 for each e ∈ E, where N(e is the open neighborhood of e, and (ii every edge e for which f(e = −1 is adjacent to at least one edge e′ for which f(e′ = 2. The weight of a signed total Roman edge dominating function f is !(f = Ʃe∈E f(e. The signed total Roman edge domination number y′stR(G of G is the minimum weight of a signed total Roman edge dominating function of G. In this paper, we first prove that for every tree T of order n ≥ 4, y′stR(T ≥ 17−2n/5 and we characterize all extreme trees, and then we present some sharp bounds for the signed total Roman edge domination number. We also determine this parameter for some classes of graphs.

  5. Autosomal-dominant osteopetrosis: An incidental finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajathi Maria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis is a descriptive term that refers to a group of rare, heritable disorders of the skeleton. Osteopetrotic conditions vary greatly in their presentation and severity, from just as an incidental finding on radiographs to causing life-threatening complications such as bone marrow suppression. It is caused by failure of osteoclast development and function. Osteopetrosis can be inherited as autosomal-recessive, autosomal-dominant or as X-linked traits, with the most severe forms being the autosomal-recessive ones. The severity of the disease is mild to moderate in the autosomal-dominant forms, with normal life expectancy. Diagnosis is largely based on clinical and radiographic evaluation. The present paper reports a case of autosomal-dominant osteopetrosis complicated by osteomyelitis with a short review of the condition.

  6. Independent set dominating sets in bipartite graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Zelinka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper continues the study of independent set dominating sets in graphs which was started by E. Sampathkumar. A subset \\(D\\ of the vertex set \\(V(G\\ of a graph \\(G\\ is called a set dominating set (shortly sd-set in \\(G\\, if for each set \\(X \\subseteq V(G-D\\ there exists a set \\(Y \\subseteq D\\ such that the subgraph \\(\\langle X \\cup Y\\rangle\\ of \\(G\\ induced by \\(X \\cup Y\\ is connected. The minimum number of vertices of an sd-set in \\(G\\ is called the set domination number \\(\\gamma_s(G\\ of \\(G\\. An sd-set \\(D\\ in \\(G\\ such that \\(|D|=\\gamma_s(G\\ is called a \\(\\gamma_s\\-set in \\(G\\. In this paper we study sd-sets in bipartite graphs which are simultaneously independent. We apply the theory of hypergraphs.

  7. Stochastic Dominance under the Nonlinear Expected Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinling Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1947, von Neumann and Morgenstern introduced the well-known expected utility and the related axiomatic system (see von Neumann and Morgenstern (1953. It is widely used in economics, for example, financial economics. But the well-known Allais paradox (see Allais (1979 shows that the linear expected utility has some limitations sometimes. Because of this, Peng proposed a concept of nonlinear expected utility (see Peng (2005. In this paper we propose a concept of stochastic dominance under the nonlinear expected utilities. We give sufficient conditions on which a random choice X stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the nonlinear expected utilities. We also provide sufficient conditions on which a random choice X strictly stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the sublinear expected utilities.

  8. Stochastic dominance theory for location-scale family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Keung Wong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Meyer (1987 extended the theory of mean-variance criterion to include the comparison among distributions that differ only by location and scale parameters and to include general utility functions with only convexity or concavity restrictions. In this paper, we make some comments on Meyer's paper and extend the results from Tobin (1958 that the indifference curve is convex upwards for risk averters, concave downwards for risk lovers, and horizontal for risk neutral investors to include the general conditions stated by Meyer (1987. We also provide an alternative proof for the theorem. Levy (1989 extended Meyer's results by introducing some inequality relationships between the stochastic-dominance and the mean-variance efficient sets. In this paper, we comment on Levy's findings and show that these relationships do not hold in certain situations. We further develop some properties among the first- and second-degree stochastic dominance efficient sets and the mean-variance efficient set.

  9. Thermal insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R.; Asada, Y.; Matsuo, Y.; Mikoda, M.

    1985-07-16

    A thermal insulator comprises an expanded resin body having embedded therein an evacuated powder insulation portion which consists of fine powder and a container of film-like plastics or a film-like composite of plastics and metal for enclosing the powder. The resin body has been expanded by a Freon gas as a blowing agent. Since a Freon gas has a larger molecular diameter than the constituent gases of air, it is less likely to permeate through the container than air. Thus present invention provides a novel composite insulator which fully utilizes the benefits of vacuum insulation without necessitating a strong and costly material for a vacuum container.

  10. Avoiding Boltzmann Brain domination in holographic dark energy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, R.

    2015-11-01

    In a spatially infinite and eternal universe approaching ultimately a de Sitter (or quasi-de Sitter) regime, structure can form by thermal fluctuations as such a space is thermal. The models of Dark Energy invoking holographic principle fit naturally into such a category, and spontaneous formation of isolated brains in otherwise empty space seems the most perplexing, creating the paradox of Boltzmann Brains (BB). It is thus appropriate to ask if such models can be made free from domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here we consider only the simplest model, but adopt both the local and the global viewpoint in the description of the Universe. In the former case, we find that if a dimensionless model parameter c, which modulates the Dark Energy density, lies outside the exponentially narrow strip around the most natural c = 1 line, the theory is rendered BB-safe. In the latter case, the bound on c is exponentially stronger, and seemingly at odds with those bounds on c obtained from various observational tests.

  11. Explosive X-point collapse in relativistic magnetically dominated plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Sironi, Lorenzo; Komissarov, Serguei S.; Porth, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    The extreme properties of the gamma-ray flares in the Crab nebula present a clear challenge to our ideas on the nature of particle acceleration in relativistic astrophysical plasma. It seems highly unlikely that standard mechanisms of stochastic type are at work here and hence the attention of theorists has switched to linear acceleration in magnetic reconnection events. In this series of papers, we attempt to develop a theory of explosive magnetic reconnection in highly magnetized relativistic plasma which can explain the extreme parameters of the Crab flares. In the first paper, we focus on the properties of the X-point collapse. Using analytical and numerical methods (fluid and particle-in-cell simulations) we extend Syrovatsky's classical model of such collapse to the relativistic regime. We find that the collapse can lead to the reconnection rate approaching the speed of light on macroscopic scales. During the collapse, the plasma particles are accelerated by charge-starved electric fields, which can reach (and even exceed) values of the local magnetic field. The explosive stage of reconnection produces non-thermal power-law tails with slopes that depend on the average magnetization . For sufficiently high magnetizations and vanishing guide field, the non-thermal particle spectrum consists of two components: a low-energy population with soft spectrum that dominates the number census; and a high-energy population with hard spectrum that possesses all the properties needed to explain the Crab flares.

  12. Avoiding Boltzmann Brain domination in holographic dark energy models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Horvat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In a spatially infinite and eternal universe approaching ultimately a de Sitter (or quasi-de Sitter regime, structure can form by thermal fluctuations as such a space is thermal. The models of Dark Energy invoking holographic principle fit naturally into such a category, and spontaneous formation of isolated brains in otherwise empty space seems the most perplexing, creating the paradox of Boltzmann Brains (BB. It is thus appropriate to ask if such models can be made free from domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here we consider only the simplest model, but adopt both the local and the global viewpoint in the description of the Universe. In the former case, we find that if a dimensionless model parameter c, which modulates the Dark Energy density, lies outside the exponentially narrow strip around the most natural c=1 line, the theory is rendered BB-safe. In the latter case, the bound on c is exponentially stronger, and seemingly at odds with those bounds on c obtained from various observational tests.

  13. Post-Surgical Language Reorganization Occurs in Tumors of the Dominant and Non-Dominant Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramescu-Murphy, M; Hattingen, E; Forster, M-T; Oszvald, A; Anti, S; Frisch, S; Russ, M O; Jurcoane, A

    2017-09-01

    Surgical resection of brain tumors may shift the location of cortical language areas. Studies of language reorganization primarily investigated left-hemispheric tumors irrespective of hemispheric language dominance. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how tumors influence post-surgical language reorganization in relation to the dominant language areas. A total of, 17 patients with brain tumors (16 gliomas, one metastasis) in the frontotemporal and lower parietal lobes planned for awake surgery underwent pre-surgical and post-surgical language fMRI. Language activation post-to-pre surgery was evaluated visually and quantitatively on the statistically thresholded images on patient-by-patient basis. Results were qualitatively compared between three patient groups: temporal, with tumors in the dominant temporal lobe, frontal, with tumors in the dominant frontal lobe and remote, with tumors in the non-dominant hemisphere. Post-to-pre-surgical distributions of activated voxels changed in all except the one patient with metastasis. Changes were more pronounced in the dominant hemisphere for all three groups, showing increased number of activated voxels and also new activation areas. Tumor resection in the dominant hemisphere (frontal and temporal) shifted the activation from frontal towards temporal, whereas tumor resection in the non-dominant hemisphere shifted the activation from temporal towards frontal dominant areas. Resection of gliomas in the dominant and in the non-dominant hemisphere induces postsurgical shifts and increase in language activation, indicating that infiltrating gliomas have a widespread influence on the language network. The dominant hemisphere gained most of the language activation irrespective of tumor localization, possibly reflecting recovery of pre-surgical tumor-induced suppression of these activations.

  14. Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....

  15. Initial thermal state of the Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico, geothermal field; Estado termico inicial del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: aggarcia@iie.org.mx

    2009-01-15

    The initial temperatures field is presented for 40 wells in the Los Humeros geothermal reservoir, along with an elevation curve based on the formation temperature or the most probable reservoir temperature. Stabilized temperatures were estimated using the Radial Spherical Heat Flow method, chosen over the Horner method based on the numerical simulation of the circulation and stop processes of well H-26. In this well, the last temperature log series was reproduced, considering circulation losses. The temperatures were used to produce isothermal curves over three geological sections of the field, which represent the initial distribution of temperatures in the reservoir and show the thermal characteristics and the relationships among thermal anomalies and faults in the reservoir. The elevation curve plotted against the initial temperature of the formation was generated based on detection of the main feed zones at each well, which in turn was developed using detailed analyses of diverse information, such as temperature logs, circulation losses, lithology, well completion, and heat velocities. Based on the results, two groups of wells may be distinguished: one between 1000 and 1600 masl with temperatures from 290 to 330 degrees Celsius, and one between 900 and 0 masl with temperatures from 300 to 400 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el campo de temperatura inicial del yacimiento geotermico de Los Humeros y una curva de elevacion contra la temperatura de formacion o temperatura mas probable del yacimiento, obtenida para 40 pozos del campo. Las temperaturas estabilizadas se estimaron mediante el metodo de Flujo de Calor Esferico Radial, y su eleccion sobre las temperaturas del metodo de Horner se soporta con simulacion numerica de los procesos de circulacion y paro del pozo H-26, en la cual la ultima serie de registros se reprodujo considerando perdidas de circulacion. Con estas temperaturas se generaron curvas isotermicas para tres secciones

  16. État des connaissances sur le traitement thermique des produits lourds State of the Art of the Thermal Treatment of Heavy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blouri B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après rappel du traitement thermique des hydrocarbures comme un moyen de viscoréduction des charges lourdes, craquage en oléfines gazeuses, ou pyrolyse totale en gaz de synthèse, le mécanisme réactionnel de vapocraquage des produits lourds constitue la première partie de l'article. Le craquage des huiles lourdes s'effectue selon un mécanisme radicalaire, tandis que les dépôts de carbone sont formés par des réactions de cycloadditions et polycondensations à des températures moyennes et par l'intermédiaire des radicaux à haute température. L'étude expérimentale du craquage thermique du n-tétracosane, du méthyl-6 eicosane et du dodécylbenzène constitue la deuxième partie de l'article et elle met en évidence, grâce à un mécanisme réactionnel du type moléculaire, la possibilité de craquage contrôlé d'une isoparaffine ou d'un hydrocarbure aromatique lourd en hydrocarbure liquide plus léger. After reviewing the thermal treatment of hydrocarbons as a way of visbreaking heavy feedstock, cracking them into gaseous olefins, or totally pyrolyzing them into synthetic gas, the first part of this article describes the reac-tion mechanism of the steam cracking of heavy products. Heavy oils are cracked by a radical mechanism, while carbon deposits are formed by cycloaddition and polycondensation reactions at mean temperatures and by the intermediary of radicals at high temperature. An experimental investigation of the thermal cracking of n-tetracosane, 6-methyleicosane and dodecylbenzene makes up the second part of the article. A reaction mechanism of the molecular type is used to describe the possibility of the controlled cracking of an isoparaffin or of a heavy aromatic hydrocarbon into a lighter liquid hydrocarbon.

  17. Fotointerpretation and geological integration of San Diego-El Naranjo thermal zone in the Nayarit State, Mexico; Fotointerpretacion e integracion geologica de la zona termal de San Diego-El Naranjo, Nayarit, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo H, Daniel [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-01-01

    The lithological, structural and thermal characteristics of a zone located in the State of Nayarit, Mexico between the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) and the Llanura Costera del Pacifico (PCP) are presented. The SMO is constituted by both extrusive and intrusive rocks of Oligo-Miocene age whereas the PCP is formed by conglomerates and erosional products derived from the disintegration of these rocks. Nine thermal superficial manifestations were observed at the site, with temperatures ranging from 35 degrees celsius to 80 degrees celsius. The chemical nature of these geothermal fluids is sodium-sulfate with estimated deep temperatures of 185 degrees celsius. From the structural view point, the zone is affected by faults and fractures aligned NE-SW and NW-SE; these structural trends control the thermalism. On the other hand, a 20 x 20 km ring-shaped geologic feature was identified within the area, which may be associated with the SMO. [Espanol] Se presentan las caracteristicas litologicas, estructurales y termales de una zona del Estado de Nayarit, comprendida entre las Provincias de la Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) y la Llanura Costera del Pacifico (PCP). La primera comprende rocas igneas, intrusivas y extrusivas, de edad oligomiocenica. La segunda agrupa productos erosivos y conglomeraticos producidos por la desintegracion de las rocas; su edad se considera del Cuaternario. En la zona existen nueve localidades termales con un intervalo de temperatura de 35 grados celsius a 80 grados celsius, y un caracter quimico sulfatado-sodico. Por geotermometria se obtuvo una temperatura de 185 grados celsius. Estructuralmente dominan las fallas y fracturas NE-SW y NW-SE, que afectan a todas las rocas expuestas y controlan tambien al termalismo. Dentro del area se identifico una geoforma circular de 20 x 20 km, que se considera asociada y controlada geneticamente por la SMO.

  18. Progress towards experimental realization of extreme-velocity flow-dominated magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T. E.; Adams, C. S.; Welch, D. R.; Kagan, G.; Bean, I. A.; Henderson, B. R.; Klim, A. J.

    2017-10-01

    Interactions of flow-dominated plasmas with other plasmas, neutral gases, magnetic fields, solids etc., take place with sufficient velocity that kinetic energy dominates the dynamics of the interaction (as opposed to magnetic or thermal energy, which dominates in most laboratory plasma experiments). Building upon progress made by the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at LANL, we are developing the experimental and modeling capability to increase our ultimate attainable plasma velocities well in excess of 1000 km/s. Ongoing work includes designing new pulsed power switches, triggering, and inductive adder topologies; development of novel high-speed optical diagnostics; and exploration of new numerical techniques to specifically model the unique physics of translating/stagnating flow-dominated plasmas. Furthering our understanding of the physical mechanisms of energy conversion from kinetic to other forms, such as thermal energy, non-thermal tails/accelerated populations, enhanced magnetic fields, and radiation (both continuum and line), has wide-ranging significance in basic plasma science, astrophysics, and plasma technology applications such as inertial confinement fusion and intense radiation sources. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration. LA-UR-17-25786.

  19. Thermal performance of evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Nandy; Kristian, M. R.; David, R.; Haliansyah, K.; Ariantara, Bambang

    2016-06-01

    The high fossil energy consumption not only causes the scarcity of energy but also raises problems of global warming. Increasing needs of fossil fuel could be reduced through the utilization of solar energy by using solar collectors. Indonesia has the abundant potential for solar energy, but non-renewable energy sources still dominate energy consumption. With heat pipe as passive heat transfer device, evacuated tube solar collector is expected to heat up water for industrial and home usage without external power supply needed to circulate water inside the solar collector. This research was conducted to determine the performance of heat pipe-based evacuated tube solar collector as solar water heater experimentally. The experiments were carried out using stainless steel screen mesh as a wick material, and water and Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid as working fluid, and applying inclination angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. To analyze the heat absorbed and transferred by the prototype, water at 30°C was circulated through the condenser. A 150 Watt halogen lamp was used as sun simulator, and the prototype was covered by an insulation box to obtain a steady state condition with a minimum affection of ambient changes. Experimental results show that the usage of Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid at 30° inclination angle provides the highest thermal performance, which gives efficiency as high as 0.196 and thermal resistance as low as 5.32 °C/W. The use of nanofluid as working fluid enhances thermal performance due to high thermal conductivity of the working fluid. The increase of the inclination angle plays a role in the drainage of the condensate to the evaporator that leads to higher thermal performance until the optimal inclination angle is reached.

  20. Iterative methods for stationary convection-dominated transport problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bova, S.W.; Carey, G.F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    It is well known that many iterative methods fail when applied to nonlinear systems of convection-dominated transport equations. Most successful methods for obtaining steady-state solutions to such systems rely on time-stepping through an artificial transient, combined with careful construction of artificial dissipation operators. These operators provide control over spurious oscillations which pollute the steady state solutions, and, in the nonlinear case, may become amplified and lead to instability. In the present study, we investigate Taylor Galerkin and SUPG-type methods and compare results for steady-state solutions to the Euler equations of gas dynamics. In particular, we consider the efficiency of different iterative strategies and present results for representative two-dimensional calculations.

  1. Overview of thermal conductivity models of anisotropic thermal insulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurikhin, A. V.; Kostanovsky, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Currently, the most of existing materials and substances under elaboration are anisotropic. It makes certain difficulties in the study of heat transfer process. Thermal conductivity of the materials can be characterized by tensor of the second order. Also, the parallelism between the temperature gradient vector and the density of heat flow vector is violated in anisotropic thermal insulation materials (TIM). One of the most famous TIM is a family of integrated thermal insulation refractory material («ITIRM»). The main component ensuring its properties is the «inflated» vermiculite. Natural mineral vermiculite is ground into powder state, fired by gas burner for dehydration, and its precipitate is then compressed. The key feature of thus treated batch of vermiculite is a package structure. The properties of the material lead to a slow heating of manufactured products due to low absorption and high radiation reflection. The maximum of reflection function is referred to infrared spectral region. A review of current models of heat propagation in anisotropic thermal insulation materials is carried out, as well as analysis of their thermal and optical properties. A theoretical model, which allows to determine the heat conductivity «ITIRM», can be useful in the study of thermal characteristics such as specific heat capacity, temperature conductivity, and others. Materials as «ITIRM» can be used in the metallurgy industry, thermal energy and nuclear power-engineering.

  2. Edge Cover Domination in Mangoldt Graph

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    It was during 1850's, a study of dominating sets in graphs started purely as a problem in the game of chess. Chess enthusiasts in Europe considered the problem of determing the minimum number of queens that can be placed on a chess board so that all the squares are either attacked by a queen or occupied by a queen.

  3. Cleidocranial Dysplasia with Autosomal Dominant Inheritance Pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant disease with a wide range of expression, characterized by clavicular hypoplasia, retarded cranial ossification, delayed bone and teeth development, supernumerary teeth, stomatognathic, craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. This paper presents a case of CCD in ...

  4. MRI of autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K; Nielsen, J E; Fallentin, E

    1997-01-01

    We examined 16 patients with autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia (HSP) and 15 normal controls matched for age and sex using MRI of the brain and spinal cord. Images were assessed qualitatively by two independent radiologists, blinded to the clinical diagnosis. Areas of the brain and corpus...

  5. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease, incidental finding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Pre-existing renal lesions predispose kidneys to effects of otherwise insignificant blunt trauma, and may uncommonly present as an incidental finding in the workup of a suspected renal injury. Observation: This is a case report of a 28-year-old male diagnosed incidentally with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic ...

  6. Core Dominance Parameter for -Ray Loud Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, we compiled 572 blazars that have known core dominance parameter (log ), out of which 121 blazars are -ray loud blazars. We compared log between 121 blazars and the rest with non -ray detections, and found that -ray loud blazars showed a different distribution, and their average ...

  7. Can massless neutrinos dominate the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1980-11-19

    The restrictions from cosmological considerations on masses and lifetimes of neutral, weakly interacting fermions are reviewed. In particular, the possibility that the massless decay products of a heavy neutrino dominate the energy density of the present universe is discussed in detail. 4 figures.

  8. On dominating and spanning circuits in graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    An eulerian subgraph of a graph is called a circuit. As shown by Harary and Nash-Williams, the existence of a Hamilton cycle in the line graph L(G) of a graph G is equivalent to the existence of a dominating circuit in G, i.e., a circuit such that every edge of G is incident with a vertex of the

  9. Nonconformal Fluctuations in Radiation Dominated Anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    the non-conformal quantum fluctuations (of expansion and shear) and axisymmetric singularity case in radiation dominated anisotropic cosmology. We show that near the classical singularity the quantum fluctuations tend to diverge. Key words. Quantum Cosmology—Anisotropic universes. 1. Introduction. It has been ...

  10. Graviton dominance in ultra-high scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1987-01-01

    The scattering process of two pointlike particles at CM energies in the order of Planck units or beyond, is very well calculable using known laws of physics, because graviton exchange dominates over all other interaction processes. At energies much higher than the Planck mass black hole production

  11. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Technology, Gdansk, Poland. 3Department of Mathematics, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran. 4Department of Mathematics .... We have the following relation between the outer-2-independent domination number of a graph and the 2-independence number of the graph obtained from it by removing all leaves and ...

  12. Hemispheric Dominance of Native American Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellern, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines language and spatial lateralization of 49 elementary American Indian students using a cognitive-manual dual task model and psychoeducational assessment techniques. All students were found to be left-hemisphere dominant for language and some were lateralized to the left hemisphere for spatial function. Contradicts evidence of right-brain…

  13. Personality, Hemispheric Dominance, and Cognitive Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Jaime; Hartman, Steve E.

    1997-01-01

    Shows that 154 medical students and 526 undergraduates (samples treated separately) who were judged left- or right-hemisphere dominant (by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator) were found to have very different personalities (as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator). Considers some of the practical ramifications of the psychometric overlap of…

  14. Excessive prices as abuse of dominance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth; Møllgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    firm abused its position by charging excessive prices. We also test whether tightening of the Danish competition act has altered the pricing behaviour on the market. We discuss our results in the light of a Danish competition case against the dominant cement producer that was abandoned by the authority...

  15. Breaking Male Dominance in Old Democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlerup, D.; Leyenaar, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Has male dominance in political life been broken? Will gender balance in elected assemblies soon be reached? This book analyses the longitudinal development of women’s political representation in eight old democracies, in which women were enfranchised before and around World War I: Denmark, Iceland,

  16. Epigenetics of dominance for enzyme activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Acid phosphatase; dominance; Drosophila malerkotliana; epigenetics; heterodimeric allozymes; subunit interaction. J. Biosci. | Vol. 27 | No ...... determined enzyme activity directly after preparing crude extracts in relation to pH, an important component of the in vivo environment. Moreover, the pH range used almost certainly ...

  17. Co-Roman domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. Co-Roman domination in graphs. S ARUMUGAM1,2,3,∗, KARAM EBADI1 and MARTÍN MANRIQUE1. 1National Centre for Advanced Research in Discrete Mathematics (n-CARDMATH),. Kalasalingam University, Anand Nagar, Krishnankoil 626 126, India. 2Department of Computer Science, ...

  18. Non-domination and democratic legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2015-01-01

    While many regard equality as the moral foundation of democracy, republican theory grounds democracy in freedom as non-domination. The grounding of democracy in freedom has been criticized for relying on either an Aristotelian perfectionism or a Rousseauian equation of the people in their collect...... explanation of democratic procedures....

  19. Copious Volcanism on a Compression-dominated Planet? Insights into Magma Ascent and Mountain Building on Io from Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick J.; Kirchoff, M. R.

    2012-10-01

    Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system. However, the largest mountains on Io are not massive shield volcanoes, but rather tabular features with a characteristic tilted-block morphology created by compressional faulting. A global bias towards compression may be produced by a vertical “conveyor belt” of repeated burial and subsidence of volcanic units, but this hypothesis begs the question of how the magma ascends to the surface in apparent violation of the long-standing principle that compression inhibits eruption. Here we explore the twin paradoxes of “copious volcanism on a compression-dominated planet” and “dominance of compression-built mountains on a volcanic planet” via quantitative modeling of the evolution of stresses in and deformation of Io’s lithosphere. Consideration of the pressure balance on a vertical magma conduit (dike) reveals that the vertical stress gradient associated with the conveyor belt stress state (compression decreasing upward) actually provides a driving force for magma ascent. Unfortunately, the components of the conveyor belt stress state (thermal, Poisson, and subsidence stresses) add together to produce horizontal compression in the lower lithosphere. This is inconsistent with vertical conduits, instead favoring horizontal ones (sills). However, the combined flexural (bending) and membrane (stretching) responses to loading produce stress changes beneath and surrounding large loads that can alter the principal stress orientations, re-enabling magma ascent. The particle-based Distinct Element Method (DEM) provides another way to model the response of Io’s lithosphere to the conveyor belt stress state. We model the lithosphere as a gravitationally loaded and bonded assemblage of particles, subject to horizontal displacements that increase with depth. The resulting deformation produces intact triangular blocks with tilted margins that resemble Ionian mountains. This work is sponsored by

  20. Solid-state transformation of the pseudopolymorphic forms of codeine phosphate hemihydrate and codeine phosphate sesquihydrate monitored by vibrational spectroscopy and thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruševski, Gjorgji; Ugarkovic, Sonja; Makreski, Petre

    2011-05-01

    The results from the first study on the pseudopolymorphism and solid-state transformations of codeine phosphate hemihydrate and codeine phosphate sesquihydrate are presented. The vibrational (infrared and Raman) spectra for both studied forms have revealed differences indicating that vibrational spectroscopy could discriminate between pseudopolymorphic forms of these compounds. Coupling the obtained spectroscopic data and the results from the thermoanalytical techniques (TGA/DSC) afforded interpretation of the undergoing solid-state transformations that occur when the compounds are being exposed at increased humidity and/or temperature. It was observed that, at room temperature, the hemihydrate and the sesquihydrate forms are the only sufficiently stable pseudopolymorphs of codeine phosphate explaining their intense pharmaceutical application.

  1. Solid-state, ambient-operation thermally activated delayed fluorescence from flexible, non-toxic gold-nanocluster thin films: towards the development of biocompatible light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talite, M. J. A.; Lin, H. T.; Jiang, Z. C.; Lin, T. N.; Huang, H. Y.; Heredia, E.; Flores, A.; Chao, Y. C.; Shen, J. L.; Lin, C. A. J.; Yuan, C. T.

    2016-08-01

    Luminescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with good biocompatibility have gained much attention in bio-photonics. In addition, they also exhibit a unique photo-physical property, namely thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF), by which both singlet and triplet excitons can be harvested. The combination of their non-toxic material property and unique TADF behavior makes AuNCs biocompatible nano-emitters for bio-related light-emitting devices. Unfortunately, the TADF emission is quenched when colloidal AuNCs are transferred to solid states under ambient environment. Here, a facile, low-cost and effective method was used to generate efficient and stable TADF emissions from solid AuNCs under ambient environment using polyvinyl alcohol as a solid matrix. To unravel the underlying mechanism, temperature-dependent static and transient photoluminescence measurements were performed and we found that two factors are crucial for solid TADF emission: small energy splitting between singlet and triplet states and the stabilization of the triplet states. Solid TADF films were also deposited on the flexible plastic substrate with patterned structures, thus mitigating the waveguide-mode losses. In addition, we also demonstrated that warm white light can be generated based on a co-doped single emissive layer, consisting of non-toxic, solution-processed TADF AuNCs and fluorescent carbon dots under UV excitation.

  2. Why large cells dominate estuarine phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.

    2018-01-01

    Surveys across the world oceans have shown that phytoplankton biomass and production are dominated by small cells (picoplankton) where nutrient concentrations are low, but large cells (microplankton) dominate when nutrient-rich deep water is mixed to the surface. I analyzed phytoplankton size structure in samples collected over 25 yr in San Francisco Bay, a nutrient-rich estuary. Biomass was dominated by large cells because their biomass selectively grew during blooms. Large-cell dominance appears to be a characteristic of ecosystems at the land–sea interface, and these places may therefore function as analogs to oceanic upwelling systems. Simulations with a size-structured NPZ model showed that runs of positive net growth rate persisted long enough for biomass of large, but not small, cells to accumulate. Model experiments showed that small cells would dominate in the absence of grazing, at lower nutrient concentrations, and at elevated (+5°C) temperatures. Underlying these results are two fundamental scaling laws: (1) large cells are grazed more slowly than small cells, and (2) grazing rate increases with temperature faster than growth rate. The model experiments suggest testable hypotheses about phytoplankton size structure at the land–sea interface: (1) anthropogenic nutrient enrichment increases cell size; (2) this response varies with temperature and only occurs at mid-high latitudes; (3) large-cell blooms can only develop when temperature is below a critical value, around 15°C; (4) cell size diminishes along temperature gradients from high to low latitudes; and (5) large-cell blooms will diminish or disappear where planetary warming increases temperature beyond their critical threshold.

  3. Thermal front propagation in variable aperture fracture–matrix ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Thermal front; variable aperture; rock-matrix; geothermal reservoir; numerical model, liquid dominated. Abstract. A numerical study on the effect of complex fracture aperture geometry on propagation of thermal front in a coupled single fracture-matrix system has been carried out. Sinusoidal and logarithmic ...

  4. Thermal conductivity of US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrin, J.M.; Deming, D. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    1996-11-10

    Coal samples in the form of randomly oriented aggregates were obtained from the Pennsylvania State University Coal Bank for the purpose of thermal conductivity measurements. Samples represented 55 locations from throughout the United States and included 6 lignites, 10 subbituminous coals, 36 bituminous coals, and 3 anthracite samples. Matrix thermal conductivities measured at 22{degree}C in the laboratory ranged from 0.22 to 0.55 W/m degree K, with an arithmetic mean of 0.33 W/m degrees K and a standard deviation of 0.07 W/m degrees K. The thermal conductivity of lignites, subbituminous, and bituminous coals is controlled by composition and can be predicted by a three-component (Moisture, ash, and carbon + volatiles) geometric mean model with a rns residual of 6.1%. The thermal conductivity of bituminous and anthracite samples was found to be positively correlated with matrix density. With the exception of three anthracite samples, rank was not correlated with thermal conductivity nor was the ratio of carbon to volatiles. The relatively high thermal conductivity of three anthracite samples (mean of 0.49 W/m degrees K) may have been related to graphitization.

  5. Bioinspired engineering of thermal materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Song, Chengyi; Shen, Qingchen; Zhang, Fangyu; Luo, Zhen; Yi, Nan; Zhang, Di; Deng, Tao

    2015-01-21

    In the development of next-generation materials with enhanced thermal properties, biological systems in nature provide many examples that have exceptional structural designs and unparalleled performance in their thermal or nonthermal functions. Bioinspired engineering thus offers great promise in the synthesis and fabrication of thermal materials that are difficult to engineer through conventional approaches. In this review, recent progress in the emerging area of bioinspired advanced materials for thermal science and technology is summarized. State-of-the-art developments of bioinspired thermal-management materials, including materials for efficient thermal insulation and heat transfer, and bioinspired materials for thermal/infrared detection, are highlighted. The dynamic balance of bioinspiration and practical engineering, the correlation of inspiration approaches with the targeted applications, and the coexistence of molecule-based inspiration and structure-based inspiration are discussed in the overview of the development. The long-term outlook and short-term focus of this critical area of advanced materials engineering are also presented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Thermal Performance Benchmarking: Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilbert

    2016-04-08

    The goal for this project is to thoroughly characterize the performance of state-of-the-art (SOA) automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Information obtained from these studies will be used to: Evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management strategies; establish baseline metrics for the thermal management systems; identify methods of improvement to advance the SOA; increase the publicly available information related to automotive traction-drive thermal management systems; help guide future electric drive technologies (EDT) research and development (R&D) efforts. The performance results combined with component efficiency and heat generation information obtained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) may then be used to determine the operating temperatures for the EDT components under drive-cycle conditions. In FY15, the 2012 Nissan LEAF power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems were benchmarked. Testing of the 2014 Honda Accord Hybrid power electronics thermal management system started in FY15; however, due to time constraints it was not possible to include results for this system in this report. The focus of this project is to benchmark the thermal aspects of the systems. ORNL's benchmarking of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technology reports provide detailed descriptions of the electrical and packaging aspects of these automotive systems.

  7. Men's sex-dominance inhibition: do men automatically refrain from sexually dominant behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Amy K; Sanchez, Diana T

    2007-12-01

    Men receive conflicting messages about their sexual roles in heterosexual relationships. Men are socialized to initiate and direct sexual activities with women; yet societal norms also proscribe the sexual domination and coercion of women. The authors test these competing hypotheses by assessing whether men inhibit the link between sex and dominance. In Studies 1a and b, using a subliminal priming procedure embedded in a lexical decision task, the authors demonstrate that men automatically suppress the concept of dominance following exposure to subliminal sex primes relative to neutral primes. In Studies 2 and 3, the authors show that men who are less likely to perceive sexual assertiveness as necessary, to refrain from dominant sexual behavior, and who do not invest in masculine gender ideals are more likely to inhibit dominant thoughts following sex primes. Implications for theories of automatic cognitive networks and gender-based sexual roles are discussed.

  8. The socialization of dominance: peer group contextual effects on homophobic and dominance attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Espelage, Dorothy L; Green, Harold D

    2007-06-01

    Using the framework of social dominance theory, the current investigation tested for the contextual effects of adolescent peer groups on individuals' homophobic and social dominance attitudes. Results from multilevel models indicated that significant differences existed across peer groups on homophobic attitudes. In addition, these differences were accounted for on the basis of the hierarchy-enhancing or -attenuating climate of the group. A group socialization effect on individuals' social dominance attitudes over time was also observed. Furthermore, the social climate of the peer group moderated the stability of individuals' social dominance attitudes. Findings support the need to examine more proximal and informal group affiliations and earlier developmental periods in efforts to build more comprehensive theoretical models explaining when and how prejudiced and dominance attitudes are formed and the way in which they are perpetuated. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Thermally Driven Elastic Micromachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Yuto; Yasuda, Kento; Sou, Isamu; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Komura, Shigeyuki

    2017-11-01

    We discuss the directional motion of an elastic three-sphere micromachine in which the spheres are in equilibrium with independent heat baths having different temperatures. Even in the absence of prescribed motion of springs, such a micromachine can gain net motion purely because of thermal fluctuations. A relation connecting the average velocity and the temperatures of the spheres is analytically obtained. This velocity can also be expressed in terms of the average heat flows in the steady state. Our model suggests a new mechanism for the locomotion of micromachines in nonequilibrium biological systems.

  10. The thermal and dynamical state of the Antarctic mesopause region during winter/summer transition and the role of stratosphere/mesosphere coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebken, F. J.; Höffner, J.; Viehl, T. P.; Latteck, R.; Becker, E.; Kaifler, B.; Murphy, D. J.; Morris, R.

    2015-12-01

    The transition of stratospheric circulation at Antarctic latitudes from winter to summer conditions is highly variably from year to year. As has been realized recently, this also affects the winter/summer transition at mesopause altitudes. The Antarctic middle atmosphere therefore offers the unique possibility to study the physical processes involved in the vertical coupling between the stratosphere and the mesosphereduring winter/summer transition, in particular the role of gravity waves. We present new results from the mobile scanning iron lidar of the Leibniz Institute of Atmospheric Physics in Kühlungsborn (IAP) which was in operation at Davis, Antarctica, from December 15, 2010, until December 31, 2012. It measured temperatures in the iron layer (~80-100 km). The lidar can operate under daylight conditions. At Davis, the lidar has achieved at total of 2900 hours of temperature measurements which is presumably the largest nearly continuous data set in Antarctica. In this presentation we concentrate on the winter/summer transition and compare with circulation changes in the stratosphere derived from MERRA. We also compare with the northern hemisphere (NH). The thermal structure around the mesopause at Davis is closely coupled to the general circulation in the stratosphere, more precisely to the transition from winter to summer conditions. In contrast to theoretical expectations we occasionally find the mesopause significantly higher and colder(!) compared to the NH. The mesopause altitudechanges by several kilometers throughout the summer season, which is significantly different from the summer in the northern hemispheric. Depending on altitude, temperatures can be warmer or colder compared to the NH summer. We studied the seasonal variation of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). PMSE are strong radar echoes related to ice particles and therefore require very low atmospheric temperatures. The VHF radar frequently detected PMSE. We compare the seasonal

  11. Thermal instability in the interstellar medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghanbari

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available   This study demonstrates how thermal structures in the interstellar medium can emerge as a result of thermal instability. For a two-dimensional case, the steady state thermal structures was investigeted and it was shown that a large class of solutions exist. For a one –dimensional case the conductivity was found to be negligible. The effects of to cal cooling on the thermal instability were explored in some depth. In this case analytical results for time-dependent cooling function were presented, too. We studied nonlinear wave phenomena in thermal fluid systems, with a particular emphasis on presenting analytical results. When conductivity is proportional to temperature, the beliavior of thermal waves is soliton like. For slow thermal waves, approximate analytical results were presented. Extensions of this work are discussed briefly, together with possible astrophysical applications.

  12. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, Gregory [DuPont; Wong, Arnold [DuPont; Meth, Jeffery [DuPont

    2018-02-12

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees C to 125 degrees C. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  13. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, Douglas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, Gregory S. [DuPont Experimental Station; Wong, Arnold [DuPont Experimental Station; Meth, Jeffery S. [DuPont Experimental Station

    2017-07-27

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees Celcius to 125 degrees Celcius. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  14. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, Douglas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, G. S. [DuPont Experimental Station; Wong, A. [DuPont Experimental Station; Meth, J. S. [DuPont Experimental Station

    2017-08-03

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees Celcius to 125 degrees Celcius. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  15. Spectroscopic studies of non-thermal plasma jet at atmospheric pressure formed in low-current nonsteady-state plasmatron for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkin, V. P.; Melnichuk, S. V.; Demkin, O. V. [National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin 36, 634050 Tomsk, The Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Kingma, H.; Van de Berg, R. [National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin 36, 634050 Tomsk, The Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Minderbroedersberg 4-6, 6211 LK Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    The optical and electrophysical characteristics of the nonequilibrium low-temperature plasma formed by a low-current nonsteady-state plasmatron are experimentally investigated in the present work. It is demonstrated that experimental data on the optical diagnostics of the plasma jet can provide a basis for the construction of a self-consistent physical and mathematical plasma model and for the creation of plasma sources with controllable electrophysical parameters intended for the generation of the required concentration of active particles. Results of spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma of the low-current nonsteady-state plasmatron confirm that the given source is efficient for the generation of charged particles and short-wavelength radiation—important plasma components for biomedical problems of an increase in the efficiency of treatment of biological tissues by charged particles. Measurement of the spatial distribution of the plasma jet potential by the probe method has demonstrated that a negative space charge is formed in the plasma jet possibly due to the formation of electronegative oxygen ions.

  16. Multiscale thermal transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2004-02-01

    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  17. Total domination in graphs with diameter 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desormeaux, Wyatt J.; Haynes, Teresa W.; Henning, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The total domination number γt(G) of a graph G is the minimum cardinality of a set S of vertices, so that every vertex of G is adjacent to a vertex in S. In this article, we determine an optimal upper bound on the total domination number of a graph with diameter 2. We show that for every graph G ...... on n vertices with diameter 2, γt(G)≤1+nln(n). This bound is optimal in the sense that given any ε>0, there exist graphs G with diameter 2 of all sufficiently large even orders n such that γt(G)>(14+ε)nln(n)....

  18. Connectivity editing for quad-dominant meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan

    2013-08-01

    We propose a connectivity editing framework for quad-dominant meshes. In our framework, the user can edit the mesh connectivity to control the location, type, and number of irregular vertices (with more or fewer than four neighbors) and irregular faces (non-quads). We provide a theoretical analysis of the problem, discuss what edits are possible and impossible, and describe how to implement an editing framework that realizes all possible editing operations. In the results, we show example edits and illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies for quad-dominant mesh design. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mean Field Games with a Dominating Player

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensoussan, A., E-mail: axb046100@utdallas.edu [The University of Texas at Dallas, International Center for Decision and Risk Analysis, Jindal School of Management (United States); Chau, M. H. M., E-mail: michaelchaumanho@gmail.com; Yam, S. C. P., E-mail: scpyam@sta.cuhk.edu.hk [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Statistics (Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China) (China)

    2016-08-15

    In this article, we consider mean field games between a dominating player and a group of representative agents, each of which acts similarly and also interacts with each other through a mean field term being substantially influenced by the dominating player. We first provide the general theory and discuss the necessary condition for the optimal controls and equilibrium condition by adopting adjoint equation approach. We then present a special case in the context of linear-quadratic framework, in which a necessary and sufficient condition can be asserted by stochastic maximum principle; we finally establish the sufficient condition that guarantees the unique existence of the equilibrium control. The proof of the convergence result of finite player game to mean field counterpart is provided in Appendix.

  20. Domination Edge Lift Critical Trees | Desormeaux | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stract. Let uxv be an induced path with center x in a graph G. The edge lifting of uv off x is defined as the action of removing edges ux and vx from the edge set of G, while adding the edge uv to the edge set of G. We study trees for which every possible edge lift changes the domination number. We show that there are no ...