Sample records for thermal analysis study


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    KEY WORDS: Lead, Tin, Schiff base, Infrared spectra, Thermal analysis. INTRODUCTION ... elemental analysis, infrared spectra as well as by their thermal analysis (DTA and TG). Analysis results are reported in Table 1. The percentage of lead and tin metals were determined using ..... PbO + 5C + 10C2H2 + N2 + CO.

  2. Thermal Management Tools for Propulsion System Trade Studies and Analysis (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin; Hodge, Ernie


    Energy-related subsystems in modern aircraft are more tightly coupled with less design margin. These subsystems include thermal management subsystems, vehicle electric power generation and distribution, aircraft engines, and flight control. Tighter coupling, lower design margins, and higher system complexity all make preliminary trade studies difficult. A suite of thermal management analysis tools has been developed to facilitate trade studies during preliminary design of air-vehicle propulsion systems. Simulink blocksets (from MathWorks) for developing quasi-steady-state and transient system models of aircraft thermal management systems and related energy systems have been developed. These blocksets extend the Simulink modeling environment in the thermal sciences and aircraft systems disciplines. The blocksets include blocks for modeling aircraft system heat loads, heat exchangers, pumps, reservoirs, fuel tanks, and other components at varying levels of model fidelity. The blocksets have been applied in a first-principles, physics-based modeling and simulation architecture for rapid prototyping of aircraft thermal management and related systems. They have been applied in representative modern aircraft thermal management system studies. The modeling and simulation architecture has also been used to conduct trade studies in a vehicle level model that incorporates coupling effects among the aircraft mission, engine cycle, fuel, and multi-phase heat-transfer materials.

  3. a Study on the Thermal Vibration Analysis of the Graphite Disk Under Thermal Shock (United States)

    Lee, Young-Shin; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Duck-Hoi; Ku, Seong-Hoi; Moon, Soon-Il

    Graphite is applied to structural material of the high temperature reactor and nozzle of high energy rocket engine. The excessive vibration and stress field can be occurred for this material due to the severe thermal condition. In this study, the thermal stress and vibration characteristics of ATJ graphite under high temperature condition are investigated by finite element analysis (FEA). The specimen is designed as a disk shape in order to simulate the rocket nozzle combustion condition. The experiment of thermal heat is also conducted using by CO2 laser.

  4. Inverse thermal analysis method to study solidification in cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dioszegi, Atilla; Hattel, Jesper


    Solidification modelling of cast metals is widely used to predict final properties in cast components. Accurate models necessitate good knowledge of the solidification behaviour. The present study includes a re-examination of the Fourier thermal analysis method. This involves an inverse numerical...... solution of a 1-dimensional heat transfer problem connected to solidification of cast alloys. In the analysis, the relation between the thermal state and the fraction solid of the metal is evaluated by a numerical method. This method contains an iteration algorithm controlled by an under relaxation term...... was developed in order to investigate the thermal behaviour of the solidifying metal. Three cylindrically shaped cast samples surrounded by different cooling materials were introduced in the same mould allowing a common metallurgical background for samples solidifying at different cooling rates. The proposed...

  5. Thermal analysis studies of poly(etheretherketone)/hydroxyapatite biocomposite mixtures. (United States)

    Meenan, B J; McClorey, C; Akay, M


    Biocomposite formulations which have the potential to combine the proven mechanical performance of poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) with the inherent bioactivity of hydroxyapatite (HA), may have a utility as load-bearing materials in a medical implant context. The effect of thermal processing on the relevant properties of the PEEK and/or HA components in any fabricated composite structure is, however, an important consideration for their effective exploitation. This paper reports the results of a detailed thermal characterization study of a series of PEEK/HA mixtures using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). The TGA analyses show minimal weight loss for all of the mixtures and for a pure PEEK sample up to approximately 530 degrees C. Above this point there is a sharp on-set of decomposition for the PEEK component in each case. The temperature at which this feature occurs varies for each mixture in the approximate range 539-556 degrees C. This observation is supported by the presence of exotherms in the corresponding DSC scans, in the same temperature region, which are also assigned to PEEK decomposition. The temperature at which the degradation on-set occurs is found to decrease with increasing HA contribution. The use of the modulated DSC technique allows a number of important thermal events, not easily identifiable from the data obtained by the conventional method, to be clearly observed. In particular, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer can now be accurately determined. Using these thermal analysis data, calculations of the % crystallinity of PEEK in the mixtures have been made and compared with that of a 100% polymer sample. From these studies it is evident that the presence of HA does not adversely affect the degree of crystallinity of the PEEK component in the mixtures of interest over the thermal range studied. Copyright 2000 Kluwer Academic

  6. Kinetic study of Mongolian coals by thermal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jargalmaa S


    Full Text Available Thermal analysis was used for the thermal characterization of the coal samples. The experiments were performed to study the pyrolysis and gasification kinetics of typical Mongolian brown coals. Low rank coals from Shivee ovoo, Ulaan ovoo, Aduun chuluun and Baganuur deposits have been investigated. Coal samples were heated in the thermogravimetric apparatus under argon at a temperature ranges of 25-1020ºC with heating rates of 10, 20, 30 and 40ºC/min. Thermogravimetry (TG and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG were performed to measure weight changes and rates of weight losses used for calculating the kinetic parameters. The activation energy (Ea was calculated from the experimental results by using an Arrhenius type kinetic model.

  7. Solar thermal plant impact analysis and requirements definition study (United States)


    The technology and economics of solar thermal electric systems (STES) for electric power production is discussed. The impacts of and requirements for solar thermal electric power systems were evaluated.

  8. Study of Selected Composites Copper Concentrate-Plastic Waste Using Thermal Analysis (United States)

    Szyszka, Danuta


    The paper presents thermal analysis of selected composites (copper concentrate, plastic waste) in two stages. The first stage consisted in thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis on the applied plastic waste and copper concentrate, and subsequently, a comparative study has been carried out on products obtained, constituting composites of those materials. As a result of analyses, it was found that up to ca. 400 °C composites show high thermal stability, whereas above that temperature, a thermal decomposition of the composite occurs, resulting in emissions of organic compounds, i.e. hydrocarbon compounds and organic oxygenate derivatives.

  9. Surface Response of Brominated Carbon Media on Laser and Thermal Excitation: Optical and Thermal Analysis Study


    Volodymyr V. Multian; Kinzerskyi, Fillip E.; Anna V. Vakaliuk; Grishchenko, Liudmyla M.; Diyuk, Vitaliy E.; Boldyrieva, Olga Yu; Kozhanov, Vadim O.; Oleksandr V. Mischanchuk; Vladyslav V. Lisnyak; Gayvoronsky, Volodymyr Ya.


    The present study is objected to develop an analytical remote optical diagnostics of the functionalized carbons surface. Carbon composites with up to 1 mmol g?1 of irreversibly adsorbed bromine were produced by the room temperature plasma treatment of an activated carbon fabric (ACF) derived from polyacrylonitrile textile. The brominated ACF (BrACF) was studied by elastic optical scattering indicatrix analysis at wavelength 532 nm. The obtained data were interpreted within results of the ther...

  10. Optimum element density studies for finite-element thermal analysis of hypersonic aircraft structures (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Olona, Timothy; Muramoto, Kyle M.


    Different finite element models previously set up for thermal analysis of the space shuttle orbiter structure are discussed and their shortcomings identified. Element density criteria are established for the finite element thermal modelings of space shuttle orbiter-type large, hypersonic aircraft structures. These criteria are based on rigorous studies on solution accuracies using different finite element models having different element densities set up for one cell of the orbiter wing. Also, a method for optimization of the transient thermal analysis computer central processing unit (CPU) time is discussed. Based on the newly established element density criteria, the orbiter wing midspan segment was modeled for the examination of thermal analysis solution accuracies and the extent of computation CPU time requirements. The results showed that the distributions of the structural temperatures and the thermal stresses obtained from this wing segment model were satisfactory and the computation CPU time was at the acceptable level. The studies offered the hope that modeling the large, hypersonic aircraft structures using high-density elements for transient thermal analysis is possible if a CPU optimization technique was used.

  11. Surface Response of Brominated Carbon Media on Laser and Thermal Excitation: Optical and Thermal Analysis Study. (United States)

    Multian, Volodymyr V; Kinzerskyi, Fillip E; Vakaliuk, Anna V; Grishchenko, Liudmyla M; Diyuk, Vitaliy E; Boldyrieva, Olga Yu; Kozhanov, Vadim O; Mischanchuk, Oleksandr V; Lisnyak, Vladyslav V; Gayvoronsky, Volodymyr Ya


    The present study is objected to develop an analytical remote optical diagnostics of the functionalized carbons surface. Carbon composites with up to 1 mmol g-1 of irreversibly adsorbed bromine were produced by the room temperature plasma treatment of an activated carbon fabric (ACF) derived from polyacrylonitrile textile. The brominated ACF (BrACF) was studied by elastic optical scattering indicatrix analysis at wavelength 532 nm. The obtained data were interpreted within results of the thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry. The bromination dramatically reduces the microporosity producing practically non-porous material, while the incorporated into the micropores bromine induces the dielectric and structural impact on surface polarizability and conductivity due to the charging effect. We have found that the elastic optical scattering in proper solid angles in the forward and the backward hemispheres is sensitive to the kind of the bromine bonding, e.g., physical adsorption or chemisorption, and the bromination level, respectively, that can be utilized for the express remote fabrication control of the nanoscale carbons with given interfaces.

  12. A study on the differential thermal analysis of clays and clay minerals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, P.L.


    Differential thermal analysis (DTA) as a method of analysing properties of chemical compounds, more especially of clay minerals, developed rapidly, but lack of quantitative interpretations left many problems to be studied. A historical review was presented, showing the purpose of the study.

  13. Investigating the provenance of thermal groundwater using compositional multivariate statistical analysis: a hydrogeochemical study from Ireland (United States)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Murray, John; Flood, Rory; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker


    The geothermal energy of thermal groundwater is currently being exploited for district-scale heating in many locations world-wide. The chemical compositions of these thermal waters reflect the provenance and hydrothermal circulation patterns of the groundwater, which are controlled by recharge, rock type and geological structure. Exploring the provenance of these waters using multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) techniques increases our understanding of the hydrothermal circulation systems, and provides a reliable tool for assessing these resources. Hydrochemical data from thermal springs situated in the Carboniferous Dublin Basin in east-central Ireland were explored using MSA, including hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the source aquifers of the thermal groundwaters. To take into account the compositional nature of the hydrochemical data, compositional data analysis (CoDa) techniques were used to process the data prior to the MSA. The results of the MSA were examined alongside detailed time-lapse temperature measurements from several of the springs, and indicate the influence of three important hydrogeological processes on the hydrochemistry of the thermal waters: 1) increased salinity due to evaporite dissolution and increased water-rock-interaction; 2) dissolution of carbonates; and 3) dissolution of metal sulfides and oxides associated with mineral deposits. The use of MSA within the CoDa framework identified subtle temporal variations in the hydrochemistry of the thermal springs, which could not be identified with more traditional graphing methods (e.g., Piper diagrams), or with a standard statistical approach. The MSA was successful in distinguishing different geological settings and different annual behaviours within the group of springs. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the application of MSA within the CoDa framework in order to better understand the underlying controlling processes

  14. Thermal microactuator dimension analysis (United States)

    Azman, N. D.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.


    The focus of this study was to analyse the stress and thermal flow of thermal microactuator with different type of materials and parameter using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Simulations were conducted on the existing thermal actuator and integrated it to be more efficient, low cost and low power consumption. In this simulation, the U-shaped actuator was designed and five different materials of the microactuator were studied. The result showed that Si Polycrystalline was the most suitable material used to produce thermal actuator for commercialization.

  15. Electrical-thermal interaction study of electrical busway using finite element analysis (United States)

    Ruazani, Arief Husaini; Saad, Abdullah Aziz; Ripin, Zaidi Mohd; Ali, Wan Mohd Amri Wan Mamat; Yusof, Mohamad Yusri; Samsuddin, Muhamad Syazwan; Ong, Heng Pin; Abdullah, Muhammad Khalil


    This paper presents an approach for determining temperature distribution on a 2200A busway model. Solidwork software was used in order to create 3D modeling of busway model. This paper proposes a simulation model developed by coupling the multiphysics between electrical analysis and thermal analysis. The coupling was done by using ANSYS Workbench and ANSYS Maxwell. Basically, the electrical analysis is performed onwards busway model in order to get the value of ohmic loss which is heat loss from the conductors in the busway. The ohmic loss results will be imported to thermal analysis in order to get the temperature result as well as temperature distribution. First, the direct current loading of the busbar, which neglect the alternating current effects, was considered. Second, the alternating current loading of busbar was used instead of direct current loading. The model of the second approach gives much more accurate result in term of temperature difference. The presented model was validated against temperature measurement on real size busway under electrical loading. The obtained results show that a very good agreement between computed and experimental data. Once the verification of the model is done, the busway configurations setup behavior is studied. Increasing number of feeder affects thermal stress concentration on busway joint.

  16. Study of the free volume fraction in polylactic acid (PLA) by thermal analysis (United States)

    Abdallah, A.; Benrekaa, N.


    The poly (lactic acid) or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer with high modulus, strength and thermoplastic properties. In this work, the evolution of various properties of PLA is studied, such as glass transition temperature, mechanical modules and elongation percentage with the aim of investigating the free volume fraction. To do so, two thermal techniques have been used: the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and dilatometry. The results obtained by these techniques are combined to go back to the structural properties of the studied material.

  17. Thermal Analysis, Structural Studies and Morphology of Spider Silk-like Block Copolymers (United States)

    Huang, Wenwen

    Spider silk is a remarkable natural block copolymer, which offers a unique combination of low density, excellent mechanical properties, and thermal stability over a wide range of temperature, along with biocompatibility and biodegrability. The dragline silk of Nephila clavipes, is one of the most well understood and the best characterized spider silk, in which alanine-rich hydrophobic blocks and glycine-rich hydrophilic blocks are linked together generating a functional block copolymer with potential uses in biomedical applications such as guided tissue repair and drug delivery. To provide further insight into the relationships among peptide amino acid sequence, block length, and physical properties, in this thesis, we studied synthetic proteins inspired by the genetic sequences found in spider dragline silks, and used these bioengineered spider silk block copolymers to study thermal, structural and morphological features. To obtain a fuller understanding of the thermal dynamic properties of these novel materials, we use a model to calculate the heat capacity of spider silk block copolymer in the solid or liquid state, below or above the glass transition temperature, respectively. We characterize the thermal phase transitions by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). We also determined the crystallinity by TMDSC and compared the result with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). To understand the protein-water interactions with respect to the protein amino acid sequence, we also modeled the specific reversing heat capacity of the protein-water system, Cp(T), based on the vibrational, rotational and translational motions of protein amino acid residues and water molecules. Advanced thermal analysis methods using TMDSC and TGA show two glass transitions were observed in all samples during heating. The low temperature glass transition, Tg(1), is related to

  18. Application of chemical and thermal analysis methods for studying cellulose ester plastics. (United States)

    Schilling, Michael; Bouchard, Michel; Khanjian, Herant; Learner, Tom; Phenix, Alan; Rivenc, Rachel


    Cellulose acetate, developed about 100 years ago as a versatile, semisynthetic plastic material, is used in a variety of applications and is perhaps best known as the basis of photographic film stock. Objects made wholly or partly from cellulose acetate are an important part of modern and contemporary cultural heritage, particularly in museum collections. Given the potential instability of the material, however, it is imperative to understand the aging mechanisms and deterioration pathways of cellulose ester plastics to mitigate decomposition and formulate guidelines for storage, exhibition, and conservation. One important aspect of this process is the ability to fully characterize the plastic, because variations in composition affect its aging properties and ultimate stability. In this Account, we assess the potential of a range of analytical techniques for plastics made from cellulose acetate, cellulose propionate, and cellulose butyrate. Comprehensive characterization of cellulose ester plastics is best achieved by applying several complementary analytical techniques. Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy provide rapid means for basic characterization of plastic objects, which can be useful for quick, noninvasive screening of museum collections with portable instruments. Pyrolysis GC/MS is capable of differentiating the main types of cellulose ester polymers but also permits a richly detailed compositional analysis of additives. Thermal analysis techniques provide a wealth of compositional information and thermal behavior. Thermogravimetry (TG) allows for quantitative analysis of thermally stable volatile additives, and weight-difference curves offer a novel means for assessing oxidative stability. The mechanical response to temperature, such as the glass transition, can be measured with dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), but results from other thermal analysis techniques such as TG, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic load

  19. Ultrasonic analysis of acute thermal and radiation injury - A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goans, R.E. [MJW Corporation, Amherst, NY 14228 (United States); Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)], E-mail:; Goans, R.H. [Department of Mathematics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Goans, R.E. [Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Christensen, D.M. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)


    Medical injury from a terrorist event (IND, RDD) is likely to involve both radiation damage and thermal trauma (combined injury). A high-frequency ultrasound technique has previously been developed to function as a clinical tool to distinguish partial-thickness from full-thickness thermal burns in a porcine model and the method was later extended for use in clinical burn units. In a traditional clinical setting, the technique has shown sufficient sensitivity to quantitate extension of a partial-thickness burn to a full-thickness burn through cutaneous infection. The ultrasound method has been extended in a pilot study to analyze radiation-induced cutaneous injury. Analysis of radiation-induced skin injury is more difficult than for thermal injury. However, further development of the method has shown a time-dependent response curve for the scattered ultrasound signal after irradiation of Wistar rat tails to 40 Gy with a 120 KeV X-ray spectrum. Statistically significant changes (p<0.05) in the magnitude of the reflected ultrasound spectrum have been noted less than 6 h-post-irradiation. The scattered intensity response curve peaks near the appearance of the first clinical sign (erythema) at 12 days post-irradiation. The mechanism of ultrasound sensitivity appears to involve changes in the tissue acoustic impedance post-irradiation possibly due to hyperemia, vascular damage and leakage. Because of the penetrating power and resolution of recent ultrasound equipment, this technique is expected to be extendable to analysis of irradiated deep organs, of large- and medium-size blood vessels, and to possible analysis of combined injury.

  20. Analysis Thermal Comfort Condition in Complex Residential Building, Case Study: Chiangmai, Thailand (United States)

    Juangjandee, Warangkana


    Due to the increasing need for complex residential buildings, it appears that people migrate into the high-density urban areas because the infrastructural facilities can be easily found in the modern metropolitan areas. Such rapid growth of urbanization creates congested residential buildings obstructing solar radiation and wind flow, whereas most urban residents spend 80-90% of their time indoor. Furthermore, the buildings were mostly built with average materials and construction detail. This causes high humidity condition for tenants that could promote mould growth. This study aims to analyse thermal comfort condition in complex residential building, Thailand for finding the passive solution to improve indoor air quality and respond to local conditions. The research methodology will be in two folds: 1) surveying on case study 2) analysis for finding the passive solution of reducing humidity indoor air The result of the survey indicated that the building need to find passive solution for solving humidity problem, that can be divided into two ways which raising ventilation and indoor temperature including increasing wind-flow ventilation and adjusting thermal temperature, for example; improving building design and stack driven ventilation. For raising indoor temperature or increasing mean radiant temperature, daylight can be passive solution for complex residential design for reducing humidity and enhance illumination indoor space simultaneous.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, spectral, thermal analysis and computational studies of thiamine complexes (United States)

    Masoud, Mamdouh S.; Ghareeb, Doaa A.; Ahmed, Shahenda Sh.


    Thiamine metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectra, magnetic susceptibility, ESR spectra of Cu(II) complex and EDX for structural investigation of the complexes to know their geometries and mode of bonding. All the manganese, iron, copper, zinc, tungsten and mercury complexes are with octahedral geometry, while cobalt and nickel complexes are with tetrahedral geometry. The selenium and palladium complexes are with square planner geometry, while vanadium complex with stoichiometry (2:1) is with square pyramidal geometry. The thermal properties of the complexes were examined. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters were estimated from the TGA and DTA curves. Molecular modeling of the ligand and its complexes was performed using PC computer to give extra spot lights on the bonding properties of these compounds. Some theoretical studies were carried out to obtain the charges, bond lengths, bond angles and dihedral angles, energies of highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO), energies of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO), the separation energy (ΔE), chemical potential, electronegativity, hardness, softness, ionization potential and electron affinity of the studied ligand and its complexes. Correlation analysis was done to explore the relationships between some different parameters of the studied complexes.

  2. Thermal gradient analysis of solidifying casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suchoń


    Full Text Available For description of casting solidification and crystallization process the thermal derivative analysis (TDA is commonly used. Besides the process kinetics considered in TDA method to describe the solidification process, the thermal gradient analysis can be also used for this purpose [1, 2]. In conducted studies analysis of thermal gradient distribution inside the solidifying wedge casting was shown which enabled determination of heat flow intensity on casting section.

  3. Studies on thermal neutron perturbation factor needed for bulk sample activation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Csikai, J; Sanami, T; Michikawa, T


    The spatial distribution of thermal neutrons produced by an Am-Be source in a graphite pile was measured via the activation foil method. The results obtained agree well with calculated data using the MCNP-4B code. A previous method used for the determination of the average neutron flux within thin absorbing samples has been improved and extended for a graphite moderator. A procedure developed for the determination of the flux perturbation factor renders the thermal neutron activation analysis of bulky samples of unknown composition possible both in hydrogenous and graphite moderators.

  4. The thermal analysis study of 3D bare chip laminated packaging structure (United States)

    Huang, Bangze; Wu, Zhaohua


    In three dimensions bare chip encapsulation structure with three cascading layer, using ANSYS to establish three-dimensional finite element model of naked chip laminated packaging of the wire bonding, flip, wire bonding and flip chip form mixing, TSV, and carry on the thermal simulation analysis, the different ways of 3d bare chip laminated packaging of interconnection for the influence of thermal resistance Raj and TSV model between the filling material of different coefficient of thermal conductivity for the influence of heat conduction. Simulation results reflect: (1) the lead bonding, flip, the hybrid model, TSV for chip junction temperature respectively are Tj1=75.4843°C, Tj2=74.8014°C, Tj3=74.8014°C, Tj4=72.5233°C. The highest temperature difference is 2.961°C, showing that the interconnection to three layers of highest chip junction temperature effect of bare chip laminated packaging structure is not obvious;(2) by the calculation, the four kinds of the thermal resistance of interconnection simulation model respectively are R1ja=50.4843°C/W, R2ja=49.8014°C/W, R3ja=49.2115°C/W, R4ja=47.5233°C/W, illustrating that three-dimensional naked chip laminated packaging of different interconnection is not the same. Because different internal thermal channel causes the discrepancy of thermal resistance, the highest chip junction temperature is various.

  5. Thermal Characteristic Analysis and Experimental Study of a Spindle-Bearing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu


    Full Text Available In this paper, a thermo-mechanical coupling analysis model of the spindle-bearing system based on Hertz’s contact theory and a point contact non-Newtonian thermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL theory are developed. In this model, the effect of preload, centrifugal force, the gyroscopic moment, and the lubrication state of the spindle-bearing system are considered. According to the heat transfer theory, the mathematical model for the temperature field of the spindle system is developed and the effect of the spindle cooling system on the spindle temperature distribution is analyzed. The theoretical simulations and the experimental results indicate that the bearing preload has great effect on the frictional heat generation; the cooling fluid has great effect on the heat balance of the spindle system. If a steady-state heat balance between the friction heat generation and the cooling system cannot be reached, thermally-induced preload will lead to a further increase of the frictional heat generation and then cause the thermal failure of the spindle.

  6. Time series analysis to identify thermal precursors and develop forecasting algorithms: case studies from Bezymianny, Shiveluch, Kliuchevskoi and Karymsky (United States)

    van Manen, S. M.; Dehn, J.; Blake, S.


    Volcanic ash injected into aircraft routes poses a severe risk to both life and cargo, and can have a severe economic impact as exemplified by the recent Eyjafjallajokull eruption, which cost the airline industry approximately $200 million per day. Here we present detailed quantitative analyses of AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) thermal data from 1993-2008 from Bezymianny, Shiveluch, Kliuchevskoi and Karymsky (Russia). Quantitative analysis of long-term time series of thermal satellite data is an effective tool to monitor volcanic activity and identify potential thermal precursory signals. Bezymianny and Shiveluch have many outwardly similar characteristics, both erupt intermediate composition magma, have exploded in the past century with a lateral blast, and now having similar dome volumes of approximately 0.3-0.4 km3. Both also have an almost continuous thermal presence, but their thermal signatures indicate highly different behaviour. At Bezymianny, a successful algorithm has been developed based on the trends observed prior to known explosions. It uses contextual, temporal and fixed threshold approaches to analyze slope and intercept values of straight lines fitted through 30-day moving windows of AVHRR thermal data. However, this approach was not successful at Shiveluch. We suggest that the difference is due to the physical properties of their specific magmas, magma supply rates and subsurface structure. The greater extrusion rate observed at Shiveluch could inhibit gas exsolution, therefore resulting in more, but less well-defined, explosive activity than is observed at Bezymianny. Consistent thermal precursors were not observed at Kliuchevskoi or Karymsky. At Kliuchevskoi fast magma ascent rates and relatively low magma viscosity are thought to prevent the generation of thermal precursors. Karymsky on the other hand shows a lot of thermal activity and has the highest long-term magma discharge rate of the four volcanoes, but the AVHRR data do

  7. Parametric Analysis to Study the Influence of Aerogel-Based Renders’ Components on Thermal and Mechanical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Ximenes


    Full Text Available Statistical models using multiple linear regression are some of the most widely used methods to study the influence of independent variables in a given phenomenon. This study’s objective is to understand the influence of the various components of aerogel-based renders on their thermal and mechanical performance, namely cement (three types, fly ash, aerial lime, silica sand, expanded clay, type of aerogel, expanded cork granules, expanded perlite, air entrainers, resins (two types, and rheological agent. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, based on 85 mortar mixes produced in the laboratory and on their values of thermal conductivity and compressive strength obtained using tests in small-scale samples. The results showed that aerial lime assumes the main role in improving the thermal conductivity of the mortars. Aerogel type, fly ash, expanded perlite and air entrainers are also relevant components for a good thermal conductivity. Expanded clay can improve the mechanical behavior and aerogel has the opposite effect.

  8. Thermal analysis and experimental study of end-pumped Nd: YLF laser at 1053 nm (United States)

    El-Agmy, R. M.; Al-Hosiny, N.


    We have numerically analyzed the thermal effects in Nd: YLF laser rod. The calculations of temperature and stress distributions in the Nd: YLF laser rod was performed with finite element (FE) simulations. The calculations showed that the laser rod could be pumped up to a power of 40 W without fracture caused by thermal stress. The calculated thermal lens power of thermally induced lens in Nd: YLF (σ-polarization) laser rod was analyzed and validated experimentally with two independent techniques. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer were used for direct measurements of focal thermal lens at different pump powers. The obtained measurements were coinciding with the FE simulations.

  9. Thermal analysis of underground power cable system (United States)

    Rerak, Monika; Ocłoń, Paweł


    The paper presents the application of Finite Element Method in thermal analysis of underground power cable system. The computations were performed for power cables buried in-line in the ground at a depth of 2 meters. The developed mathematical model allows determining the two-dimensional temperature distribution in the soil, thermal backfill and power cables. The simulations studied the effect of soil and cable backfill thermal conductivity on the maximum temperature of the cable conductor. Also, the effect of cable diameter on the temperature of cable core was studied. Numerical analyses were performed based on a program written in MATLAB.

  10. Dual Heat Pulse, Dual Layer Thermal Protection System Sizing Analysis and Trade Studies for Human Mars Entry Descent and Landing (United States)

    McGuire, Mary Kathleen


    NASA has been recently updating design reference missions for the human exploration of Mars and evaluating the technology investments required to do so. The first of these started in January 2007 and developed the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA5). As part of DRA5, Thermal Protection System (TPS) sizing analysis was performed on a mid L/D rigid aeroshell undergoing a dual heat pulse (aerocapture and atmospheric entry) trajectory. The DRA5 TPS subteam determined that using traditional monolithic ablator systems would be mass expensive. They proposed a new dual-layer TPS concept utilizing an ablator atop a low thermal conductivity insulative substrate to address the issue. Using existing thermal response models for an ablator and insulative tile, preliminary hand analysis of the dual layer concept at a few key heating points indicated that the concept showed potential to reduce TPS masses and warranted further study. In FY09, the followon Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) project continued by focusing on Exploration-class cargo or crewed missions requiring 10 to 50 metric tons of landed payload. The TPS subteam advanced the preliminary dual-layer TPS analysis by developing a new process and updated TPS sizing code to rapidly evaluate mass-optimized, full body sizing for a dual layer TPS that is capable of dual heat pulse performance. This paper describes the process and presents the results of the EDL-SA FY09 dual-layer TPS analyses on the rigid mid L/D aeroshell. Additionally, several trade studies were conducted with the sizing code to evaluate the impact of various design factors, assumptions and margins.

  11. Thermal Analysis of a TREAT Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, Dionissios [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wright, Arthur E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The objective of this study was to explore options as to reduce peak cladding temperatures despite an increase in peak fuel temperatures. A 3D thermal-hydraulic model for a single TREAT fuel assembly was benchmarked to reproduce results obtained with previous thermal models developed for a TREAT HEU fuel assembly. In exercising this model, and variants thereof depending on the scope of analysis, various options were explored to reduce the peak cladding temperatures.

  12. Thermal strain analysis of optic fiber sensors. (United States)

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Huang, Chih-Ying


    An optical fiber sensor surface bonded onto a host structure and subjected to a temperature change is analytically studied in this work. The analysis is developed in order to assess the thermal behavior of an optical fiber sensor designed for measuring the strain in the host structure. For a surface bonded optical fiber sensor, the measuring sensitivity is strongly dependent on the bonding characteristics which include the protective coating, adhesive layer and the bonding length. Thermal stresses can be generated due to a mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure. The optical fiber thermal strain induced by the host structure is transferred via the adhesive layer and protective coating. In this investigation, an analytical expression of the thermal strain and stress in the optical fiber is presented. The theoretical predictions are validated using the finite element method. Numerical results show that the thermal strain and stress are linearly dependent on the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure and independent of the thermal expansion coefficients of the adhesive and coating.

  13. Thermal Strain Analysis of Optic Fiber Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ying Huang


    Full Text Available An optical fiber sensor surface bonded onto a host structure and subjected to a temperature change is analytically studied in this work. The analysis is developed in order to assess the thermal behavior of an optical fiber sensor designed for measuring the strain in the host structure. For a surface bonded optical fiber sensor, the measuring sensitivity is strongly dependent on the bonding characteristics which include the protective coating, adhesive layer and the bonding length. Thermal stresses can be generated due to a mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure. The optical fiber thermal strain induced by the host structure is transferred via the adhesive layer and protective coating. In this investigation, an analytical expression of the thermal strain and stress in the optical fiber is presented. The theoretical predictions are validated using the finite element method. Numerical results show that the thermal strain and stress are linearly dependent on the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the optical fiber and host structure and independent of the thermal expansion coefficients of the adhesive and coating.

  14. Study of weather and thermal comfort influence on sport performance: prognostic analysis applied to Rio de Janeiro's city marathon (United States)

    Pallotta, M.; Herdies, D. L.; Gonçalves, L. G.


    There is nowadays a growing interest in the influence and impacts of weather and climate in human life. The weather conditions analysis shows the utility of this type of tool when applied in sports. These conditions act as a differential in strategy and training, especially for outdoor sports. This study had as aim objective develop weather forecast and thermal comfort evaluation targeted to sports, and hoped that the results can be used to the development of products and weather service in the Olympic Games 2016 in Rio de Janeiro City. The use of weather forecast applied to the sport showed to be efficient for the case of Rio de Janeiro City Marathon, especially due to the high spatial resolution. The WRF simulations for the three marathons studied showed good results for temperature, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity. On the other hand, the forecast of the wind showed a pattern of overestimation of the real situation in all cases. It was concluded that the WRF model provides, in general, more representative simulations from 36 hours in advance, and with 18 hours of integration they were even better, describing efficiently the synoptic situation that would be found. A review of weather conditions and thermal comfort at specific points of the marathon route showed that there are significant differences between the stages of the marathon, which makes possible to plan the competition strategy under the thermal comfort. It was concluded that a relationship between a situation more thermally comfortable (uncomfortable) and the best (worst) time in Rio de Janeiro City Marathon

  15. Finite element analysis study on the thermomechanical stability of thermal compression bonding (TCB) joints in tubular sodium sulfur cells (United States)

    Jung, Keeyoung; Lee, Solki; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Kim, Chang-Soo


    A typical large capacity sodium sulfur (NaS) battery is operated at 300-350 °C with 20-50 °C thermal fluctuations during its charging and discharging. In addition, for maintenance purposes, the cell experiences larger temperature changes down to the intermediate or room temperatures. Such temperature changes can cause mechanical failure of heterogeneous joints such as thermal compression bonding (TCB) joints, which is one of the most critical issues in developing NaS batteries. The present study seeks to build a computational finite element analysis (FEA) model to predict the thermomechanical responses of NaS batteries to the attack induced by the temperature changes. Specifically, the thermomechanical stress accumulation at TCB joints of a tubular cell has been explored during its booting-and-shutdown cycles. Static temperature profiles and simplified friction conditions in the cathode wall were assumed for the model. Using the developed model, the stress components that dominantly contribute the stress accumulation at the joint were identified, and the effects of TCB geometries and container material types on the thermal stress accumulation at the TCB joints were carefully examined. It turns out that the stress accumulation at the bonding interface would be critical for the failure at the TCB joints.

  16. A study of thermal, structural and shielding safety analysis for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. H. [Kyungpook Nationl Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    As a replaced method for MRS, the dry storage has been intensively developed by the advanced countries of nuclear power technology. Currently, the domestic technology for the dry storage is also under development. In the present study, the developed technical standards for USNRC and its operation are summarized. Futhermore, the SAR for VECTRA's NUHOMES satisfied with DOE and NRC's requirements is inversely analyzed and combined with both USNRC's regulatory guide and LLNL's SARS. In the safety analysis of a dry storage, the principal design criteria which identifies the structural and mechanical safety criteria is investigated. Based on the design criteria, hypothetical accident analysis as well as off-normal operation analysis are investigated.



    Rosencwaig, A.


    Nonspectroscopic applications of thermal-wave physics, in particular those involving materials analysis through thermal-wave imaging, and quantitative thin-film thickness measurements, are described for the study of semiconductor materials and devices.

  18. LHC beam dump design study; part 2, thermal analysis; implications for abort repetition and cooling system

    CERN Document Server

    Péraire, S


    This second part of the LHC beam dump design study is devoted to transient and steady state nonlinear heat transfer analysis. Heat generation loads are imported from Part - I: simulation of energy deposition in the graphite by particle cascades induced by the LHC primary protons, and superposition of identical energy distribution from each bunch along positions defined by the beam sweep profile on the upstream face of the core. A parametric finite element model of the dump including graphite core, aluminium frame, base plate with cooling channels, and shielding blocks, is elaborated and resolved by means of the ANSYS Engineering System, providing the transient evolution of internal temperature fields. Steady state analysis is then performed, by means of numerical approximations using a limited number of ANSYS results as an interpolation -- extrapolation base. Only periodic aborts are considered. The first conclusion is that the dump requires several hours of cooling after each beam abort. Influence of natural...

  19. Autonomous Aerobraking: Thermal Analysis and Response Surface Development (United States)

    Dec, John A.; Thornblom, Mark N.


    A high-fidelity thermal model of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was developed for use in an autonomous aerobraking simulation study. Response surface equations were derived from the high-fidelity thermal model and integrated into the autonomous aerobraking simulation software. The high-fidelity thermal model was developed using the Thermal Desktop software and used in all phases of the analysis. The use of Thermal Desktop exclusively, represented a change from previously developed aerobraking thermal analysis methodologies. Comparisons were made between the Thermal Desktop solutions and those developed for the previous aerobraking thermal analyses performed on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter during aerobraking operations. A variable sensitivity screening study was performed to reduce the number of variables carried in the response surface equations. Thermal analysis and response surface equation development were performed for autonomous aerobraking missions at Mars and Venus.

  20. Synthetic hydroxyapatites doped with Zn(II) studied by X-ray diffraction, infrared, Raman and thermal analysis (United States)

    Guerra-López, José R.; Echeverría, Gustavo A.; Güida, Jorge A.; Viña, Raúl; Punte, Graciela


    Calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHap) formation when different amounts of Zn(II) are present in the mother solution has been investigated by atomic absorption, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis (DTA and TG). The studied samples have been synthesized at T=95 °C and pH 9 in air. The analysis of the results have shown that the pure CaHap sample crystallizes in the monoclinic form P21/b. Concentrations up to 20% of Zn(II) in the mother solution, equivalent to smaller concentrations in solid (up to 9.1% in wt), favor the formation of the hexagonal apatite, P63/m, while Zn(II) concentrations higher than 20% in solution help an amorphous phase development where vibrational spectra indicated coexistence of two phases: an apatite and ZnNH4PO4·H2O. Infrared data of thermal treated samples endorse that HPO42- ion had not been incorporated in Zn(II) doped samples during the synthesis process. Present results also allow to conclude that Zn(II) cation exhibits a preference to occupy the Ca2 site of the apatite structure and induces water adsorption and a small quantity of CO32- cation incorporation, leading to formation of a less crystalline Ca deficient apatite.

  1. Study of the aluminothermic reduction of niobium pentoxide through thermal analysis experiments and high energy milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Parra De Lazzari


    Full Text Available Aluminothermic reduction of niobium pentoxide was studied through thermal analysis techniques such as differential thermal analysis (DTA and thermogravimetry (TG as well as through high energy milling processing. Reactants mixtures were composed by powders of Nb2O5 and Al. In the case of DTA-TG experiments, different molar ratios Nb2O5:Al were heated in a dynamic atmosphere of synthetic air under controlled conditions. The high energy milling runs were carried out via SPEX vibratory mill under argon atmosphere and with milling power equal to 7:1 (ratio of mass of balls to mass of mixture with 10 pct excess of Al over the stoichiometric mass of aluminum necessary. In both kinds of experiments, X ray diffraction was used in order to identify the products of reaction. From DTA-TG experiments, it was possible to determine the experimental value of the enthalpy change (-595.9 kJ.mol-1, which is near to the theoretical one. From the milling experiments, it was possible to verify the possibility of the occurance of aluminothermic reducion of niobium pentoxide via this kind of processing.

  2. Thermal Analysis of Filler Reinforced Polymeric Composites (United States)

    Ghadge, Mahesh Devidas

    Improving heat dissipating property of composite materials is becoming increasingly important in domains ranging from the automotive industry, electronic devices to aeronautical industry. Effective heat dissipation is required especially in aircraft and racing tires to guarantee high performance and good service life [1]. The present study is focused on improving the thermal conductivity of Emulsion-styrene butadiene rubber (ESBR) which is a cheap alternative to other rubber composites. The disadvantages of ESBR are low thermal conductivity and high heat generation. Adding fillers with high thermal conductivity to ESBR is proposed as a technique for improving the thermal conductivity of ESBR. The purpose of the research is to predict the thermal conductivity of ESBR when filled with fillers of much higher thermal conductivity and also to find out to what extent the filler properties affect the heat transfer capabilities of the composite matrix. The influence of different filler shapes i.e. spherical, cylindrical and platelets on the overall thermal capability of composite matrix is studied, the finite element modelings are conducted using Abaqus. Three-dimensional and two-dimensional models are created in Abaqus to simulate the microstructure of the composite matrix filled with fillers. Results indicate that the overall thermal conductivity increases with increasing filler loading i.e. for a filler volume fraction of 0.27, the conductivity increased by around 50%. Filler shapes, orientation angle, and aspect ratio of the fillers significantly influences the thermal conductivity. Conductivity increases with increasing aspect ratio (length/diameter) of the cylindrical fillers since longer conductive chains are able to form at the same volume percentage as compared to spherical fillers. The composite matrix reaches maximum thermal conductivity when the cylindrical fillers are oriented in the direction of heat flow. The heat conductivity predicted by FEM for ESBR is

  3. Transient thermal analysis of a titanium multiwall thermal protection system (United States)

    Blosser, M. L.


    The application of the SPAR thermal analyzer to the thermal analysis of a thermal protection system concept is discussed. The titanium multiwall thermal protection system concept consists of alternate flat and dimpled sheets which are joined together at the crests of the dimples and formed into 30 cm by 30 cm (12 in. by 12 in.) tiles. The tiles are mechanically attached to the structure. The complex tile geometry complicates thermal analysis. Three modes of heat transfer were considered: conduction through the gas inside the tile, conduction through the metal, and radiation between the various layers. The voids between the dimpled and flat sheets were designed to be small enough so that natural convection is insignificant (e.g., Grashof number 1000). A two step approach was used in the thermal analysis of the multiwall thermal protection system. First, an effective normal (through-the-thickness) thermal conductivity was obtained from a steady state analysis using a detailed SPAR finite element model of a small symmetric section of the multiwall tile. This effective conductivity was then used in simple one dimensional finite element models for preliminary analysis of several transient heat transfer problems.

  4. Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis

    CERN Document Server


    The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan.   Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on  thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: ·         selection of critical equipment and components, ·         defini...

  5. The micro thermal analysis of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Grandy, D B


    This study is concerned with the development of micro-thermal analysis as a technique for characterising heterogeneous polymers. It is divided into two main parts. In the first part, the use of miniature Wollaston wire near-field thermal probes mounted in an atomic force microscope (AFM) to carry out highly localised thermal analysis (L-TA) of amorphous and semi-crystalline polymers is investigated. Here, the temperature of the probe sensor or tip is scanned over a pre-selected temperature range while in contact with the surface of a sample. It is thereby used to heat a volume of material of the order of several cubic micrometres. The effect of the glass transition, cold crystallisation, melting and degree of crystallinity on L-TA measurements is investigated. The materials used are poly(ethylene terephthalate), polystyrene and fluorocarbon-coated poly(butylene terephthalate). The primary measurements are the micro- or localised analogues of thermomechanical analysis (L-TMA) and differential thermal analysis ...

  6. Parallel thermal analysis technology using an infrared camera for high-throughput evaluation of active pharmaceutical ingredients: a case study of melting point determination. (United States)

    Kawakami, Kohsaku


    Various techniques for physical characterization of active pharmaceutical ingredients, including X-ray powder diffraction, birefringence observation, Raman spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography, can be conducted using 96-well plates. The only exception among the important characterization items is the thermal analysis, which can be a limiting step in many cases, notably when screening the crystal/salt form. In this study, infrared thermal camera technology was applied for thermal characterization of pharmaceutical compounds. The melting temperature of model compounds was determined typically within 5 min, and the obtained melting temperature values agreed well with those from differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Since many compounds can be investigated simultaneously in this infrared technology, it should be promising for high-throughput thermal analysis in the pharmaceutical developmental process.

  7. Synthesis of Lithium-Manganese-Oxide Spinels: A Study by Thermal Analysis (United States)

    Thackeray, M. M.; Rossouw, M. H.


    The synthesis of lithium-manganese-oxide spinels by reaction of Li2CO3 and MnCO3 in air and under nitrogen to Tmax = 600°C has been investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. When the reaction is conducted in air, the stoichiometric spinel LiMn2O4 is produced via a series of intermediate "oxygen-rich," defect spinel compounds Li1-xMn2-2xO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.11), whereas under nitrogen the reaction proceeds more directly to LiMn2O4.

  8. Application of thermal analysis methods on the study of PE thermal degradation and the influence of Mg (OH) sub 2 as fire retardant

    CERN Document Server

    Zarringhalam-Moghaddam, A


    Fire retardation effects of Mg(OH) sub 2 on PE was studied utilizing DTA, TGA and DSC methods. Reductions on reaction peak area and mass loss rate with the addition of Mg(OH) sub 2 were observed as indication of retardation effects of Mg(OH) sub 2 on PE. Cone calorimeter tests were performed on samples to verify the thermo analytical results. It was concluded that when Mg(OH) sub 2 is present it effectively modified the degradation behavior of PE and the thermal analyses are useful and rapid methods to study the retardation effects.

  9. HANARO thermal hydraulic accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Heon Il; Lee, Bo Yook; Lee, Sang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    For the safety assessment of HANARO, accident analyses for the anticipated operational transients, accident scenarios and limiting accident scenarios were conducted. To do this, the commercial nuclear reactor system code. RELAP5/MOD2 was modified to RELAP5/KMRR; the thermal hydraulic correlations and the heat exchanger model was changed to incorporate HANARO characteristics. This report summarizes the RELAP/KMRR calculation results and the subchannel analyses results based on the RELAP/KMRR results. During the calculation, major concern was placed on the integrity of the fuel. For all the scenarios, the important accident analysis parameters, i.e., fuel centerline temperatures and the minimum critical heat flux ratio(MCHFR), satisfied safe design limits. It was verified, therefore, that the HANARO was safely designed. 21 tabs., 89 figs., 39 refs. (Author) .new.

  10. Synthesis of lithium-manganese-oxide spinels: A study by thermal analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thackeray, MM


    Full Text Available the reaction parameters, for example, temperature and time, to produce a spinel compound with a predetermined stoichiometry. The study has, however, illustrated that the stoichiometric spinel LiMn2O4 can be produced at a moderately low temperature (less than...

  11. Study on Transport Packages Used for Food Freshness Preservation based on ANSYS Thermal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ying


    Full Text Available In recent years, as the Chinese consumption level increases, the consumption quantity of high-value fruits, vegetables and seafood products have been increasing year by year. As a consequence, the traffic volume of refrigerated products also increases yearly and the popularization degree of the cold-chain transportation enhances. A low-temperature environment should be guaranteed during transportation, thus there is about 40% of diesel oil should be consumed by the refrigerating system and the cold-chain transportation becomes very costly. This study aimed to explore a method that could reduce the cost of transport packages of refrigerated products. On the basis of the heat transfer theory and the fluid mechanics theory, the heat exchange through corrugated cases during the operation of refrigerating system was analyzed, the heat transfer process of corrugated cases and refrigerator van was theoretically analyzed and the heat balance equation of corrugated cases was constructed. Besides, this study simulated the temperature field of the corrugated box during transportation. The temperature of the goods was changed through different cooling temperature to calculate the minimum energy consumption, so as to achieve the best refrigeration transport packaging program.

  12. Study on transport packages used for food freshness preservation based on thermal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ying


    Full Text Available In recent time, as the Chinese consumption level increases, the consumption quantity of high-value fruits, vegetables and seafood products have been increasing year by year. As a consequence, the traffic volume of refrigerated products also increases yearly and the popularization degree of the cold-chain transportation enhances. A low-temperature environment should be guaranteed during transportation, thus there is about 40% of diesel oil should be consumed by the refrigerating system and the cold-chain transportation becomes very costly. This study aimed to explore methods that could reduce the cost of transport packages of refrigerated products. On the basis of the heat transfer theory and the fluid mechanics theory, the heat exchanging process of corrugated cases during the operation of refrigerating system was analyzed, the heat transfer process of corrugated cases and refrigerator van was theoretically analyzed and the heat balance equation of corrugated cases was constructed.

  13. Study on transport packages used for food freshness preservation based on thermal analysis (United States)

    Yu, Ying


    In recent time, as the Chinese consumption level increases, the consumption quantity of high-value fruits, vegetables and seafood products have been increasing year by year. As a consequence, the traffic volume of refrigerated products also increases yearly and the popularization degree of the cold-chain transportation enhances. A low-temperature environment should be guaranteed during transportation, thus there is about 40% of diesel oil should be consumed by the refrigerating system and the cold-chain transportation becomes very costly. This study aimed to explore methods that could reduce the cost of transport packages of refrigerated products. On the basis of the heat transfer theory and the fluid mechanics theory, the heat exchanging process of corrugated cases during the operation of refrigerating system was analyzed, the heat transfer process of corrugated cases and refrigerator van was theoretically analyzed and the heat balance equation of corrugated cases was constructed.

  14. Clotrimazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier hydrogels: thermal analysis and in vitro studies. (United States)

    Ravani, Laura; Esposito, Elisabetta; Bories, Christian; Moal, Vanessa Lievin-Le; Loiseau, Philippe M; Djabourov, Madeleine; Cortesi, Rita; Bouchemal, Kawthar


    The aim of the present work is to design a new formulation containing clotrimazole (CTZ) loaded into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for the treatment of fungal vaginal infections. In order to obtain formulations with suitable viscosity for mucosal application, NLC containing CTZ produced by the ultrasonication method were viscosized by the addition of poloxamer P407 in the NLC dispersion (CTZ-NLC-gel). These systems exhibit well-known thermogelling properties. The rheological characterization of the CTZ-NLC hydrogel using a controlled stress rheometer evidenced that the presence of NLC or CTZ did not affect gelling temperature (Tgel). Dilution with simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) increased the Tgel from 17.4 to 29.6°C. For these thermogelling systems, micro-calorimetric assays conducted by a Micro-DSC III confirmed that the hydrogel-containing CTZ-NLC was able to change its structure with a rapid passage from non-crystalline (liquid) to crystalline (semi-solid) form. Furthermore, when a local application is considered, no drug should pass through the vaginal mucosa, limiting thus the systemic diffusion and toxicity. For this purpose, Franz cell has been employed to investigate the ex vivo permeation of CTZ through pig vaginal mucosa. The results showed no CTZ diffusion. The toxicological experiments performed on HeLa cells after a 24h incubation time confirmed that CTZ-NLC-gel at a concentration of 1mg/mL showed a low toxicity profile resulting in a cell vitality of 77.2%. Interestingly, anti-candida activity studies demonstrated that CTZ-NLC gel was 4-fold more active than Fungizone(®) against Candida albicans. These encouraging results suggest that the hydrogel containing CTZ-NLC could be proposed as an innovative system to administer CTZ to treat vaginal infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Parameter Uncertainty for Repository Thermal Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Greenberg, Harris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dupont, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This report is one follow-on to a study of reference geologic disposal design concepts (Hardin et al. 2011a). Based on an analysis of maximum temperatures, that study concluded that certain disposal concepts would require extended decay storage prior to emplacement, or the use of small waste packages, or both. The study used nominal values for thermal properties of host geologic media and engineered materials, demonstrating the need for uncertainty analysis to support the conclusions. This report is a first step that identifies the input parameters of the maximum temperature calculation, surveys published data on measured values, uses an analytical approach to determine which parameters are most important, and performs an example sensitivity analysis. Using results from this first step, temperature calculations planned for FY12 can focus on only the important parameters, and can use the uncertainty ranges reported here. The survey of published information on thermal properties of geologic media and engineered materials, is intended to be sufficient for use in generic calculations to evaluate the feasibility of reference disposal concepts. A full compendium of literature data is beyond the scope of this report. The term “uncertainty” is used here to represent both measurement uncertainty and spatial variability, or variability across host geologic units. For the most important parameters (e.g., buffer thermal conductivity) the extent of literature data surveyed samples these different forms of uncertainty and variability. Finally, this report is intended to be one chapter or section of a larger FY12 deliverable summarizing all the work on design concepts and thermal load management for geologic disposal (M3FT-12SN0804032, due 15Aug2012).

  16. Location Study of Solar Thermal Power Plant in the State of Pernambuco Using Geoprocessing Technologies and Multiple-Criteria Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Wilma B. Azevêdo


    Full Text Available Solar Thermal Technology for the generation of electricity in large scale has been a reality in the world since the 1980s, when the first large-sized solar plants in the United States were introduced. Brazil presents great potential for the development of large-scale projects, although it is noted that the main barriers for the insertion of this technology in Brazilian market are the lack of incentives and goals and associated costs. In a way to contribute to the insertion of solar thermal technology in Brazil, this paper presents a macro-spatial approach, based on the use of Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis and Geoprocessing, for the location of solar thermal power plants. The applied methodology for Pernambuco, located in the Northeast Region of Brazil, considered the implantation of parabolic trough solar power plant of 80 MW, operating only in solar mode, without heat storage. Based on performed analysis, it was confirmed that Pernambuco presents great potential for the installation of solar power plants, especially in the backlands of Pernambuco. Performed validations in the model demonstrate that the methodology attended the objective once the consistence between the assigned weights to the thematic layers, individually, and the final Map of site suitability were evidenced.

  17. Study of thermal behavior of phytic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Máximo Daneluti


    Full Text Available Phytic acid is a natural compound widely used as depigmenting agent in galenic cosmetic emulsions. However, we have observed experimentally that phytic acid, when heated to 150 ºC for around one hour, shows evidence of thermal decomposition. Few studies investigating this substance alone with regard to its stability are available in the literature. This fact prompted the present study to characterize this species and its thermal behavior using thermal analysis (TG/DTG and DSC and to associate the results of these techniques with those obtained by elemental analysis (EA and absorption spectroscopy in the infrared region. The TG/DTG and DSC curves allowed evaluation of the thermal behavior of the sample of phytic acid and enabled use of the non-isothermal thermogravimetric method to study the kinetics of the three main mass-loss events: dehydration I, dehydration II and thermal decomposition. The combination of infrared absorption spectroscopy and elemental analysis techniques allowed evaluation of the intermediate products of the thermal decomposition of phytic acid. The infrared spectra of samples taken during the heating process revealed a reduction in the intensity of the absorption band related to O-H stretching as a result of the dehydration process. Furthermore, elemental analysis results showed an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen content at temperatures of 95, 150, 263 and 380 °C. Visually, darkening of the material was observed at 150 °C, indicating that the thermal decomposition of the material started at this temperature. At a temperature of 380 °C, thermal decomposition progressed, leading to a decrease in carbon and hydrogen. The results of thermogravimetry coupled with those of elemental analysis allow us to conclude that there was agreement between the percentages of phytic acid found in aqueous solution. The kinetic study by the non-isothermal thermogravimetric method showed that the dehydration

  18. Synthesis, spectral characterization and study of thermal behavior kinetics by thermogravimetric analysis of metal complexes derived from salicylaldehyde and alkylamine (United States)

    Bouzerafa, Brahim; Aggoun, Djouhra; Ouennoughi, Yasmina; Ourari, Ali; Ruiz-Rosas, Ramiro; Morallon, Emilia; Mubarak, Mohammad S.


    Cobalt(III)- and copper(II)-Schiff base complexes have been prepared by reaction of the bidentate Schiff base ligand (HL: 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-iminosalicylidenethane) with cobalt(II) and copper(II) chlorides. Structures of the synthesized complexes have been characterized by various physicochemical techniques, such as IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG), and by elemental analysis. Additionally, the redox behavior of the cobalt(III) and copper(II) complexes has been examined by cyclic voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode in DMF solutions. Thermogravimetric analysis has been employed to evaluate the thermal stability of the prepared complexes CoIII(L)3·1/2H2O, CuII(L)2, in addition to the previously synthesized HL and NiII(L)2. Furthermore, activation energies of the thermal decomposition were calculated using Kissinger, Ozawa and Coats-Redfern methods. The calculated activation energies were also useful to evaluate kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the ligand and the corresponding metal complexes including ΔS, ΔH and ΔG. Calculated activation energies follow the order: Ea(NiII(L)2) > Ea(CuII(L)2) > Ea(CoIII(L)3·1/2H2O).

  19. Encapsulation of paclitaxel into a bio-nanocomposite. A study combining inelastic neutron scattering to thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Martins, Murillo L.; Orecchini, Andrea; Aguilera, Luis; Eckert, Juergen; Embs, Jan; Matic, Aleksander; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.


    The anticancer drug paclitaxel was encapsulated into a bio-nanocomposite formed by magnetic nanoparticles, chitosan and apatite. The aim of this drug carrier is to provide a new perspective against breast cancer. The dynamics of the pure and encapsulated drug were investigated in order to verify possible molecular changes caused by the encapsulation, as well as to follow which interactions may occur between paclitaxel and the composite. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, inelastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments were performed. These very preliminary results suggest the successful encapsulation of the drug.

  20. Thermal energy systems design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Penoncello, Steven G


    IntroductionThermal Energy Systems Design and AnalysisSoftwareThermal Energy System TopicsUnits and Unit SystemsThermophysical PropertiesEngineering DesignEngineering EconomicsIntroductionCommon Engineering Economics NomenclatureEconomic Analysis Tool: The Cash Flow DiagramTime Value of MoneyTime Value of Money ExamplesUsing Software to Calculate Interest FactorsEconomic Decision MakingDepreciation and TaxesProblemsAnalysis of Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionNomenclatureThermophysical Properties of SubstancesSuggested Thermal Energy Systems Analysis ProcedureConserved and Balanced QuantitiesConservation of MassConservation of Energy (The First Law of Thermodynamics)Entropy Balance (The Second Law of Thermodynamics)Exergy Balance: The Combined LawEnergy and Exergy Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesDetailed Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesProblemsFluid Transport in Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionPiping and Tubing StandardsFluid Flow FundamentalsValves and FittingsDesign and Analysis of Pipe NetworksEconomi...

  1. Kinetic Study of anti-HIV drugs by Thermal Decomposition Analysis: A Multilayer Artificial Neural Network Propose

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, B D L; Sebastião, R C O; Yoshida, M I; Mussel, W N; Fialho, S L; Barbosa, J


    Kinetic study by thermal decomposition of antiretroviral drugs, Efavirenz (EFV) and Lamivudine (3TC), usually present in the HIV cocktail, can be done by individual adjustment of the solid decomposition models. However, in some cases unacceptable errors are found using this methodology. To circumvent this problem, here is proposed to use a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP), with an appropriate algorithm, which constitutes a linearization of the network by setting weights between the input layer and the intermediate one and the use of Kinetic models as activation functions of neurons in the hidden layer. The interconnection weights between that intermediate layer and output layer determines the contribution of each model in the overall fit of the experimental data. Thus, the decomposition is assumed to be a phenomenon that can occur following different kinetic processes. In the investigated data, the kinetic thermal decomposition process was best described by R1 and D4 model for all temperatures to EF...

  2. International benchmark study of advanced thermal hydraulic safety analysis codes against measurements on IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hainoun, A., E-mail: [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Nuclear Engineering Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Doval, A. [Nuclear Engineering Department, Av. Cmdt. Luis Piedrabuena 4950, C.P. 8400 S.C de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Umbehaun, P. [Centro de Engenharia Nuclear – CEN, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242-Cidade Universitaria, CEP-05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chatzidakis, S. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Ghazi, N. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Nuclear Engineering Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Park, S. [Research Reactor Design and Engineering Division, Basic Science Project Operation Dept., Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Mladin, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului Street No. 1, P.O. Box 78, 115400 Mioveni, Arges (Romania); Shokr, A. [Division of Nuclear Installation Safety, Research Reactor Safety Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)


    Highlights: • A set of advanced system thermal hydraulic codes are benchmarked against IFA of IEA-R1. • Comparative safety analysis of IEA-R1 reactor during LOFA by 7 working teams. • This work covers both experimental and calculation effort and presents new out findings on TH of RR that have not been reported before. • LOFA results discrepancies from 7% to 20% for coolant and peak clad temperatures are predicted conservatively. - Abstract: In the framework of the IAEA Coordination Research Project on “Innovative methods in research reactor analysis: Benchmark against experimental data on neutronics and thermal hydraulic computational methods and tools for operation and safety analysis of research reactors” the Brazilian research reactor IEA-R1 has been selected as reference facility to perform benchmark calculations for a set of thermal hydraulic codes being widely used by international teams in the field of research reactor (RR) deterministic safety analysis. The goal of the conducted benchmark is to demonstrate the application of innovative reactor analysis tools in the research reactor community, validation of the applied codes and application of the validated codes to perform comprehensive safety analysis of RR. The IEA-R1 is equipped with an Instrumented Fuel Assembly (IFA) which provided measurements for normal operation and loss of flow transient. The measurements comprised coolant and cladding temperatures, reactor power and flow rate. Temperatures are measured at three different radial and axial positions of IFA summing up to 12 measuring points in addition to the coolant inlet and outlet temperatures. The considered benchmark deals with the loss of reactor flow and the subsequent flow reversal from downward forced to upward natural circulation and presents therefore relevant phenomena for the RR safety analysis. The benchmark calculations were performed independently by the participating teams using different thermal hydraulic and safety

  3. Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For spacecraft design and development teams concerned with cost and schedule, the Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool (QuickSTAT) is an innovative software suite...

  4. Thermal analysis of LED lamps for optimal driver integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perpiñà, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Vellvehi, M.; Jakovenko, J.; Jordà, X.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.


    This paper studies the thermal influence of a light-emitting diode (LED) driver on a retrofit LED lamp, also reporting on a procedure for its thermal characterization and multiscale modeling. In this analysis, temperature is measured by infrared thermography and monitoring specific locations with

  5. Exergy analysis of thermal comfort


    Prek, Matjaž


    Traditional methods of human thermal comfort are based on the first law of thermodynamics. These methods use an energy balance of the human body to determine heat transfer between the body and its environment. By contrast, thesecond law of thermodynamics introduces the concept of exergy. It enables the determination of exergy consumption within the human body dependent on personal and environmental factors. We show that the existing methods of comfort assessment could be further expanded by t...

  6. Thermal Analysis of TRIO-CINEMA Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegun Yoo


    Full Text Available Thermal analysis and control design are prerequisite essential to design the satellite. In the space environment, it makes satellite survive from extreme hot and cold conditions. In recent years CubeSat mission is developed for many kinds of purpose. Triplet Ionospheric Observatory (TRIO–CubeSat for Ion, Neutral, Electron, MAgnetic fields (CINEMA is required to weigh less than 3 kg and operate on minimal 3 W power. In this paper we describe the thermal analysis and control design for TRIO-CINEMA mission. For this thermal analysis, we made a thermal model of the CubeSat with finite element method and NX6.0 TMG software is used to simulate this analysis model. Based on this result, passive thermal control method has been applied to thermal design of CINEMA. In order to get the better conduction between solar panel and chassis, we choose aluminum 6061-T6 for the material property of standoff. We can increase the average temperature of top and bottom solar panels from -70°C to -40°C and decrease the average temperature of the magnetometer from +93°C to -4°C using black paint on the surface of the chassis, inside of top & bottom solar panels, and magnetometer.

  7. Thermal Analysis of AC Contactor Using Thermal Network Finite Difference Analysis Method (United States)

    Niu, Chunping; Chen, Degui; Li, Xingwen; Geng, Yingsan

    To predict the thermal behavior of switchgear quickly, the Thermal Network Finite Difference Analysis method (TNFDA) is adopted in thermal analysis of AC contactor in the paper. The thermal network model is built with nodes, thermal resistors and heat generators, and it is solved using finite difference method (FDM). The main circuit and the control system are connected by thermal resistors network, which solves the problem of multi-sources interaction in the application of TNFDA. The temperature of conducting wires is calculated according to the heat transfer process and the fundamental equations of thermal conduction. It provides a method to solve the problem of boundary conditions in applying the TNFDA. The comparison between the results of TNFDA and measurements shows the feasibility and practicability of the method.

  8. A Multi-scale Approach to Urban Thermal Analysis (United States)

    Gluch, Renne; Quattrochi, Dale A.


    An environmental consequence of urbanization is the urban heat island effect, a situation where urban areas are warmer than surrounding rural areas. The urban heat island phenomenon results from the replacement of natural landscapes with impervious surfaces such as concrete and asphalt and is linked to adverse economic and environmental impacts. In order to better understand the urban microclimate, a greater understanding of the urban thermal pattern (UTP), including an analysis of the thermal properties of individual land covers, is needed. This study examines the UTP by means of thermal land cover response for the Salt Lake City, Utah, study area at two scales: 1) the community level, and 2) the regional or valleywide level. Airborne ATLAS (Advanced Thermal Land Applications Sensor) data, a high spatial resolution (10-meter) dataset appropriate for an environment containing a concentration of diverse land covers, are used for both land cover and thermal analysis at the community level. The ATLAS data consist of 15 channels covering the visible, near-IR, mid-IR and thermal-IR wavelengths. At the regional level Landsat TM data are used for land cover analysis while the ATLAS channel 13 data are used for the thermal analysis. Results show that a heat island is evident at both the community and the valleywide level where there is an abundance of impervious surfaces. ATLAS data perform well in community level studies in terms of land cover and thermal exchanges, but other, more coarse-resolution data sets are more appropriate for large-area thermal studies. Thermal response per land cover is consistent at both levels, which suggests potential for urban climate modeling at multiple scales.

  9. Characterization of Nanocomposites by Thermal Analysis (United States)

    Corcione, Carola Esposito; Frigione, Mariaenrica


    In materials research, the development of polymer nanocomposites (PN) is rapidly emerging as a multidisciplinary research field with results that could broaden the applications of polymers to many different industries. PN are polymer matrices (thermoplastics, thermosets or elastomers) that have been reinforced with small quantities of nano-sized particles, preferably characterized by high aspect ratios, such as layered silicates and carbon nanotubes. Thermal analysis (TA) is a useful tool to investigate a wide variety of properties of polymers and it can be also applied to PN in order to gain further insight into their structure. This review illustrates the versatile applications of TA methods in the emerging field of polymer nanomaterial research, presenting some examples of applications of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and thermal mechanical analysis (TMA) for the characterization of nanocomposite materials.

  10. Root cause analysis of thermal sleeve separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, J. C.; Jhung, M. J.; Yu, S. O.; Kim, H. J.; Yune, Y. K.; Park, J. Y


    Thermal sleeves in the shape of thin wall cylinder seated inside the nozzle part of each Safety Injection (SI) line at Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) have such functions as prevention and relief of potential excessive transient thermal stress in the wall of SI line nozzle part which is initially heated up with hot water flowing in the primary coolant piping system when cold water is injected into the system through the SI nozzles during the SI operation mode. Recently, mechanical failures that the sleeves were separated from the SI branch pipe and fell into the connected cold leg main pipe occurred in sequence at some typical PWR plants in Korea. To find out the root cause of thermal sleeve breakaway failures, the flow situation in the junction of primary coolant main pipe and SI branch pipe, and the vibration modal characteristics of the thermal sleeve are investigated in detail by using both Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code and structure analysis finite element code. As the results, the transient response in fluid force exerting on the local part of thermal sleeve wall surface to the primary coolant flow through the pipe junction area during the normal reactor operation mode shows oscillatory characteristics with frequencies ranging from 17 to 18, which coincide with one of the lower mode natural frequencies of thermal sleeve having a pinned support condition on the circumferential prominence on the outer surface of thermal sleeve which is put into the circumferential groove on the inner surface of SI nozzle at the mid-height of the thermal sleeve. In addition, the variation of force on the thermal sleeve surface yields alternating torques in the directions of two rectangular axes which are perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of cylindrical thermal sleeve, which cause rolling, pitching and rotating motions of the thermal sleeve. Consequently, it is seen that this flow situation surrounding the thermal sleeve during the normal reactor operation can

  11. Analysis of thermal process of pozzolan production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía De Gutiérrez, R.


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluated the effect of heat treatment parameters on the pozzolanic activity of natural kaolin clays. The experimental design included three factors: kaolin type, temperature and time. Five types of Colombian kaolin clays were thermally treated from 400 to 1000 °C by 1, 2, and 3 hours. The raw materials and the products obtained were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Differential Thermal / Thermo gravimetric Analysis (DTAJ TGA. The pozzolanic activity of thermally treated samples according to chemical and mechanical tests was investigated.

    El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar las variables de producción de un metacaolín de alta reactividad puzolánica. El diseño experimental utilizó un modelo factorial que consideró tres factores: tipo de caolín (C, temperatura y tiempo. A partir del conocimiento de las fuentes de caolín y el contacto con proveedores y distribuidores del producto a nivel nacional, se seleccionaron cinco muestras representativas de arcillas caoliníticas, las cuales se sometieron a un tratamiento térmico entre 400 y 1.000 ºC (seis niveles de temperatura y tres tiempos de exposición, 1, 2 y 3 horas. Los caolines de origen y los productos obtenidos de cada proceso térmico fueron evaluados mediante técnicas de tipo físico y químico, difracción de rayos X, infrarrojo FTIR, y análisis térmico diferencial (OTA, TGA. Complementariamente se evalúa la actividad puzolánica, tanto química como mecánica, del producto obtenido a diferentes temperaturas de estudio.

  12. Method of thermal derivative gradient analysis (TDGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa


    Full Text Available In this work a concept of thermal analysis was shown, using for crystallization kinetics description the temperature derivatives after time and direction. Method of thermal derivative gradient analysis (TDGA is assigned for alloys and metals investigation as well as cast composites in range of solidification. The construction and operation characteristics were presented for the test stand including processing modules and probes together with thermocouples location. Authors presented examples of results interpretation for AlSi11 alloy castings with diversified wall thickness and at different pouring temperature.

  13. Thermal analysis of kieselguhr sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov


    Full Text Available It’s currently necessary to clarify the mechanisms of thermodynamic and mass transfer processes in capillary porous media. In this paper we obtain the thermogravimetric curves of evaporation drying kieselguhr sludge. It is also an analysis of the curves, allowing to choose the optimum conditions of drying.

  14. System-Level Heat Transfer Analysis, Thermal- Mechanical Cyclic Stress Analysis, and Environmental Fatigue Modeling of a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor. A Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in April 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In this report, updates are discussed related to a system level preliminary finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR). Based on this model, system-level heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis were performed for typical design-basis thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles. The in-air fatigue lives of components, such as the hot and cold legs, were estimated on the basis of stress analysis results, ASME in-air fatigue life estimation criteria, and fatigue design curves. Furthermore, environmental correction factors and associated PWR environment fatigue lives for the hot and cold legs were estimated by using estimated stress and strain histories and the approach described in NUREG-6909. The discussed models and results are very preliminary. Further advancement of the discussed model is required for more accurate life prediction of reactor components. This report only presents the work related to finite element modelling activities. However, in between multiple tensile and fatigue tests were conducted. The related experimental results will be presented in the year-end report.

  15. Micro-thermal analysis of polyester coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.


    The application and suitability of micro-thermal analysis to detect changes in the chemical and physical properties of coating due to ageing and especially photo-degradation is demonstrated using a model polyester coating based on neopentyl glycol isophthalic acid. The changes in chemical structure


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Różyło


    Full Text Available The study involved performing a numerical thermal analysis of selected components in a car braking system. The primary goal of the study was to determine the regions which are the most susceptible to variations in temperature, and to determine the degree of thermal impact upon them. The analysis was performed using the Abaqus environment. The examined components of the braking system were made of materials reflecting the mechanical properties of the real subassemblies. The FEM analysis enabled determination of the distribution of temperature in the system with respect to the properties of the investigated materials and applied boundary conditions.

  17. Modelling Phase Change in a 3D Thermal Transient Analysis


    Haque, EEU; Hampson, PR


    A 3D thermal transient analysis of a gap profiling technique which utilises phase change material (plasticine) is conducted in ANSYS. Phase change is modelled by assigning enthalpy of fusion over a wide temperature range based on Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results. Temperature dependent convection is approximated using Nusselt number correlations. A parametric study is conducted on the thermal contact conductance value between the profiling device (polymer) and adjacent (metal) s...

  18. Thermal and IR studies on copper doped polyvinyl alcohol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5 mol% PVA : mol% Cu2+ polymer films were prepared by casting process. Thermal transitions and thermal degradation of samples with respect to copper concentration were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. Increase in glass transition temperature as ...

  19. Long term energy performance analysis of Egbin thermal power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at providing an energy performance analysis of Egbin thermal power plant. The plant operates on Regenerative Rankine cycle with steam as its working fluid .The model equations were formulated based on some performance parameters used in power plant analysis. The considered criteria were plant ...

  20. Development of thermal models of footwear using finite element analysis. (United States)

    Covill, D; Guan, Z W; Bailey, M; Raval, H


    Thermal comfort is increasingly becoming a crucial factor to be considered in footwear design. The climate inside a shoe is controlled by thermal and moisture conditions and is crucial to attain comfort. Research undertaken has shown that thermal conditions play a dominant role in shoe climate. Development of thermal models that are capable of predicting in-shoe temperature distributions is an effective way forward to undertake extensive parametric studies to assist optimized design. In this paper, two-dimensional and three-dimensional thermal models of in-shoe climate were developed using finite element analysis through commercial code Abaqus. The thermal material properties of the upper shoe, sole, and air were considered. Dry heat flux from the foot was calculated on the basis of typical blood flow in the arteries on the foot. Using the thermal models developed, in-shoe temperatures were predicted to cover various locations for controlled ambient temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 degrees C respectively. The predicted temperatures were compared with multipoint measured temperatures through microsensor technology. Reasonably good correlation was obtained, with averaged errors of 6, 2, and 1.5 per cent, based on the averaged in-shoe temperature for the above three ambient temperatures. The models can be further used to help design shoes with optimized thermal comfort.

  1. Prediction of the biochar carbon stability by thermal analysis (United States)

    Méndez, Ana; Cely, Paola; Plaza, César; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Gascó, Gabriel


    Thermal analysis (DTA, DSC, TG and dTG) has been used for decades to characterize carbonaceous materials used as fuels (oil, coal). Our research group has used these techniques for the characterisation of different biochars in order to assess proportions of labile and recalcitrant organic matter and to study the evolution of soil organic matter in soils amended with biochar. Thermal analysis could be used to determine the proximate analysis, i.e., the percentage of humidity, volatile matter and fixed carbon or to calculate the thermostability index, previously identified as a reliable parameter for evaluating the level of stability of organic matter in organic wastes and biochar. Relationship between the stability of biochar, the raw material and the pyrolysis conditions could be established by thermal analysis techniques.

  2. Thermal analysis applied to irradiated propolis (United States)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi; Machado, Luci Brocardo; del Mastro, Nélida Lucia


    Propolis is a resinous hive product, collected by bees. Raw propolis requires a decontamination procedure and irradiation appears as a promising technique for this purpose. The valuable properties of propolis for food and pharmaceutical industries have led to increasing interest in its technological behavior. Thermal analysis is a chemical analysis that gives information about changes on heating of great importance for technological applications. Ground propolis samples were 60Co gamma irradiated with 0 and 10 kGy. Thermogravimetry curves shown a similar multi-stage decomposition pattern for both irradiated and unirradiated samples up to 600°C. Similarly, through differential scanning calorimetry , a coincidence of melting point of irradiated and unirradiated samples was found. The results suggest that the irradiation process do not interfere on the thermal properties of propolis when irradiated up to 10 kGy.

  3. Thermal analysis applied to irradiated propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi; Machado, Luci Brocardo; Mastro, N.L. del E-mail:


    Propolis is a resinous hive product, collected by bees. Raw propolis requires a decontamination procedure and irradiation appears as a promising technique for this purpose. The valuable properties of propolis for food and pharmaceutical industries have led to increasing interest in its technological behavior. Thermal analysis is a chemical analysis that gives information about changes on heating of great importance for technological applications. Ground propolis samples were {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated with 0 and 10 kGy. Thermogravimetry curves shown a similar multi-stage decomposition pattern for both irradiated and unirradiated samples up to 600 deg. C. Similarly, through differential scanning calorimetry , a coincidence of melting point of irradiated and unirradiated samples was found. The results suggest that the irradiation process do not interfere on the thermal properties of propolis when irradiated up to 10 kGy.

  4. Thermoreflectance spectroscopy—Analysis of thermal processes in semiconductor lasers (United States)

    Pierścińska, D.


    This review focuses on theoretical foundations, experimental implementation and an overview of experimental results of the thermoreflectance spectroscopy as a powerful technique for temperature monitoring and analysis of thermal processes in semiconductor lasers. This is an optical, non-contact, high spatial resolution technique providing high temperature resolution and mapping capabilities. Thermoreflectance is a thermometric technique based on measuring of relative change of reflectivity of the surface of laser facet, which provides thermal images useful in hot spot detection and reliability studies. In this paper, principles and experimental implementation of the technique as a thermography tool is discussed. Some exemplary applications of TR to various types of lasers are presented, proving that thermoreflectance technique provides new insight into heat management problems in semiconductor lasers and in particular, that it allows studying thermal degradation processes occurring at laser facets. Additionally, thermal processes and basic mechanisms of degradation of the semiconductor laser are discussed.

  5. Spectroscopic, thermal and biological studies of coordination ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , thermal and biological studies of coordination compounds of sulfasalazine drug: Mn(II), Hg(II), Cr(III), ZrO(II), VO(II) and Y(III) transition metal complexes. M G Abd El-Wahed M S Refat S M El-Megharbel. Thermal Studies Volume 32 Issue 2 ...

  6. Thermodynamical analysis of human thermal comfort


    Prek, Matjaž


    Traditional methods of human thermal comfort analysis are based on the first law of thermodynamics. These methods use an energy balance of the human body to determine heat transfer between the body and its environment. By contrast, the second law of thermodynamics introduces the useful concept of exergy. It enables the determination of the exergy consumption within the human body dependent on human and environmental factors. Human body exergy consumption varies with the combination of environ...

  7. Spectroscopic, morphological, thermal and dielectrical analysis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sep 27, 2017 ... thesis of composite is evident from FTIR, XRD and SEM characterization techniques. The composite shows improved thermal stability as compared with pure PTh, which opens the gate for the material to be used for high-temperature appli- cation purposes. Dielectric study shows that the presence of.

  8. Nano-Localized Thermal Analysis and Mapping of Surface and Sub-Surface Thermal Properties Using Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM). (United States)

    Pereira, Maria J; Amaral, Joao S; Silva, Nuno J O; Amaral, Vitor S


    Determining and acting on thermo-physical properties at the nanoscale is essential for understanding/managing heat distribution in micro/nanostructured materials and miniaturized devices. Adequate thermal nano-characterization techniques are required to address thermal issues compromising device performance. Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) is a probing and acting technique based on atomic force microscopy using a nano-probe designed to act as a thermometer and resistive heater, achieving high spatial resolution. Enabling direct observation and mapping of thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, SThM is becoming a powerful tool with a critical role in several fields, from material science to device thermal management. We present an overview of the different thermal probes, followed by the contribution of SThM in three currently significant research topics. First, in thermal conductivity contrast studies of graphene monolayers deposited on different substrates, SThM proves itself a reliable technique to clarify the intriguing thermal properties of graphene, which is considered an important contributor to improve the performance of downscaled devices and materials. Second, SThM's ability to perform sub-surface imaging is highlighted by thermal conductivity contrast analysis of polymeric composites. Finally, an approach to induce and study local structural transitions in ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni-Mn-Ga thin films using localized nano-thermal analysis is presented.

  9. MR scanning, tattoo inks, and risk of thermal burn: An experimental study of iron oxide and organic pigments: Effect on temperature and magnetic behavior referenced to chemical analysis. (United States)

    Alsing, K K; Johannesen, H H; Hvass Hansen, R; Dirks, M; Olsen, O; Serup, J


    Tattooed persons examined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can develop burning sensation suggested in the literature to be thermal burn from the procedure. MRI-induced thermal effect and magnetic behavior of known tattoo pigments were examined ex vivo. Magnetic resonance imaging effects on 3 commonly used commercial ink stock products marketed for cosmetic tattooing was studied. A main study tested 22 formulations based on 11 pigment raw materials, for example, one line of 11 called pastes and another called dispersions. Samples were spread in petri dishes and tested with a 0.97 T neodymium solid magnet to observe visual magnetic behavior. Before MRI, the surface temperature of the ink was measured using an infrared probe. Samples were placed in a clinical 3T scanner. Two scans were performed, that is, one in the isocenter and one 30 cm away from the center. After scanning, the surface temperature was measured again. Chemical analysis of samples was performed by mass spectroscopy. Mean temperature increase measured in the isocenter ranged between 0.14 and 0.26°C (P tattoo pigments after MRI. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Performance analysis of single stage libr-water absorption machine operated by waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine: Case study (United States)

    Sharif, Hafiz Zafar; Leman, A. M.; Muthuraman, S.; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Zakaria, Supaat


    Combined heating, cooling, and power is also known as Tri-generation. Tri-generation system can provide power, hot water, space heating and air -conditioning from single source of energy. The objective of this study is to propose a method to evaluate the characteristic and performance of a single stage lithium bromide-water (LiBr-H2O) absorption machine operated with waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine which is integral part of trigeneration system. Correlations for computer sensitivity analysis are developed in data fit software for (P-T-X), (H-T-X), saturated liquid (water), saturated vapor, saturation pressure and crystallization temperature curve of LiBr-H2O Solution. Number of equations were developed with data fit software and exported into excel work sheet for the evaluation of number of parameter concerned with the performance of vapor absorption machine such as co-efficient of performance, concentration of solution, mass flow rate, size of heat exchangers of the unit in relation to the generator, condenser, absorber and evaporator temperatures. Size of vapor absorption machine within its crystallization limits for cooling and heating by waste energy recovered from exhaust gas, and jacket water of internal combustion engine also presented in this study to save the time and cost for the facilities managers who are interested to utilize the waste thermal energy of their buildings or premises for heating and air conditioning applications.

  11. Thermal CFD Analysis of Tubular Light Guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Šikula


    Full Text Available Tubular light guides are applicable for daylighting of windowless areas in buildings. Despite their many positive indoor climate aspects they can also present some problems with heat losses and condensation. A computer CFD model focused on the evaluation of temperature distribution and air flow inside tubular light guides of different dimensions was studied. The physical model of the tested light guides of lengths more than 0.60 m proves shows that Rayleigh numbers are adequate for a turbulent air flow. The turbulent model was applied despite the small heat flux differences between the turbulent and laminar model. The CFD simulations resulted into conclusions that the growing ratio of length/diameter increases the heat transmission loss/linear transmittance as much as by 50 percent. Tubular light guides of smaller diameters have lower heat transmission losses compared to the wider ones of the same lengths with the same outdoor temperature being taken into account. The simulation results confirmed the thermal bridge effect of the tubular light guide tube inside the insulated flat roof details. The thermal transmittance of the studied light guides in the whole roof area was substituted with the point thermal bridges. This substitution gives possibility for simple thermal evaluation of the tubular light pipes in roof constructions.

  12. Saturn Ring Data Analysis and Thermal Modeling (United States)

    Dobson, Coleman


    CIRS, VIMS, UVIS, and ISS (Cassini's Composite Infrared Specrtometer, Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, Ultra Violet Imaging Spectrometer and Imaging Science Subsystem, respectively), have each operated in a multidimensional observation space and have acquired scans of the lit and unlit rings at multiple phase angles. To better understand physical and dynamical ring particle parametric dependence, we co-registered profiles from these three instruments, taken at a wide range of wavelengths, from ultraviolet through the thermal infrared, to associate changes in ring particle temperature with changes in observed brightness, specifically with albedos inferred by ISS, UVIS and VIMS. We work in a parameter space where the solar elevation range is constrained to 12 deg - 14 deg and the chosen radial region is the B3 region of the B ring; this region is the most optically thick region in Saturn's rings. From this compilation of multiple wavelength data, we construct and fit phase curves and color ratios using independent dynamical thermal models for ring structure and overplot Saturn, Saturn ring, and Solar spectra. Analysis of phase curve construction and color ratios reveals thermal emission to fall within the extrema of the ISS bandwidth and a geometrical dependence of reddening on phase angle, respectively. Analysis of spectra reveals Cassini CIRS Saturn spectra dominate Cassini CIRS B3 Ring Spectra from 19 to 1000 microns, while Earth-based B Ring Spectrum dominates Earth-based Saturn Spectrum from 0.4 to 4 microns. From our fits we test out dynamical thermal models; from the phase curves we derive ring albedos and non-lambertian properties of the ring particle surfaces; and from the color ratios we examine multiple scattering within the regolith of ring particles.

  13. Finite element analysis of thermal stress distribution in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Cervical lesions are restored with class V preparation. The aim of this study was to use a three-dimensional finite element method to carry out a thermal analysis of the temperature and stress distributions of three different restorative materials used for class V cavities of maxillary molar teeth. Materials and Methods: ...

  14. A multiway chemometric and kinetic study for evaluating the thermal stability of edible oils by ¹H NMR analysis: comparison of methods. (United States)

    Cordella, C B Y; Tekye, T; Rutledge, D N; Leardi, R


    The degradation process of edible oils of different nature, submitted to heating at 170°C, 190°C and 210°C with aeration, was studied by means of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). In this study, secondary products such as aldehydes were detected and monitored over time. Two complementary analytical approaches were adopted to characterize the kinetics of the appearance of aldehydes in the heated oils. This first was a classical kinetic approach based on the assumption that the overall degradation reaction to form aldehydes follows a rate law of order 1. This approach allowed us to calculate a thermal stability criterion for classifying the oils according to their heat stability. A second approach was to use the spectral fingerprint corresponding to aldehydes in a multivariate data analysis procedure in order to give the major trend in the studied phenomena, taking into account the multiway nature of recorded data. The application of different 3-way and 4-way Tucker3 models led to a better understanding of the chemical stability of the oils studied and was used to determine the order of stability of these oils. This multiway approach provides additional information that 2-way processing (PCA) does not provide clearly, such as the overall contribution of the heating time factor on the chemical evolution of oils. In conclusion, this work shows that a fully chemometric study of NMR spectra allows to order the oils according to their thermal stability and to achieve a result in good agreement with existing analytical and kinetic studies in the literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal image analysis for detecting facemask leakage (United States)

    Dowdall, Jonathan B.; Pavlidis, Ioannis T.; Levine, James


    Due to the modern advent of near ubiquitous accessibility to rapid international transportation the epidemiologic trends of highly communicable diseases can be devastating. With the recent emergence of diseases matching this pattern, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), an area of overt concern has been the transmission of infection through respiratory droplets. Approved facemasks are typically effective physical barriers for preventing the spread of viruses through droplets, but breaches in a mask"s integrity can lead to an elevated risk of exposure and subsequent infection. Quality control mechanisms in place during the manufacturing process insure that masks are defect free when leaving the factory, but there remains little to detect damage caused by transportation or during usage. A system that could monitor masks in real-time while they were in use would facilitate a more secure environment for treatment and screening. To fulfill this necessity, we have devised a touchless method to detect mask breaches in real-time by utilizing the emissive properties of the mask in the thermal infrared spectrum. Specifically, we use a specialized thermal imaging system to detect minute air leakage in masks based on the principles of heat transfer and thermodynamics. The advantage of this passive modality is that thermal imaging does not require contact with the subject and can provide instant visualization and analysis. These capabilities can prove invaluable for protecting personnel in scenarios with elevated levels of transmission risk such as hospital clinics, border check points, and airports.

  16. Thermal annealing dynamics of carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles studied by in-situ analysis (United States)

    Krumeich, Frank; Waser, Oliver; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.


    The thermal behavior of core-shell carbon-coated lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4-C) nanoparticles made by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) during annealing was investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in-situ X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) as well as ex-situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Crystallization of the initially glassy LiFePO4-C nanoparticles starts at quite low temperatures (T=400 °C), forming single crystals inside the confinement of the carbon shell. Upon increasing the temperature to T≥700 °C, LiFePO4 starts to diffuse through the carbon shell resulting in cavities inside the mostly intact carbon shell. By increasing the temperature further to T≥800 °C, the initial core-shell morphology converts into open carbon shells (flakes and cenospheres) and bulky LiFePO4 particles (diameter in the range 300-400 nm), in agreement with ex-situ experiments.

  17. Thermal analysis of nanofluids in microfluidics using an infrared camera. (United States)

    Yi, Pyshar; Kayani, Aminuddin A; Chrimes, Adam F; Ghorbani, Kamran; Nahavandi, Saeid; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar


    We present the thermal analysis of liquid containing Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles in a microfluidic platform using an infrared camera. The small dimensions of the microchannel along with the low flow rates (less than 120 μl min(-1)) provide very low Reynolds numbers of less than 17.5, reflecting practical parameters for a microfluidic cooling platform. The heat analysis of nanofluids has never been investigated in such a regime, due to the deficiencies of conventional thermal measurement systems. The infrared camera allows non-contact, three dimensional and high resolution capability for temperature profiling. The system was studied at different w/w concentrations of thermally conductive Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles and the experiments were in excellent agreement with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations.

  18. Finite element analysis for dental implants subjected to thermal loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Khalili


    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Dental implants have been studied for replacement of missing teeth for many years. Productivity of implants is extremely related to the stability and resistance under applied loads and the minimum stress in jaw bone. The purpose of this study was to study numerically the 3D model of implant under thermal loads.   Materials and Methods: Bone and the ITI implant were modeled in “Solidworks” software. To obtain the exact model, the bone was assumed as a linear orthotropic material. The implant system, including implant, abutment, framework and crown were modeled and located in the bone. After importing the model in Abaqus software, the material properties and boundary conditions and loads were applied and after meshing, the model was analyzed. In this analysis, the loads were applied in two steps. In the first step, the mechanical load was applied as tightening torque to the abutment and the abutment was tightened in the implant with 35 torque. In the second step, the thermal load originated from drinking cold and hot water was applied as thermal flux on the ceramic crown surface in this model.   Results: Thermal analysis results showed that the thermal gradient in the bone was about 5.5 and 4.9 degrees of centigrade in the case of drinking cold and hot water respectively , although the maximum gradient of the whole system was reduced to 14 degrees, which occurred, in the crown by drinking cold water.   Conclusion Thermal stresses were so small and it was because of the low thermal gradient. Maximum stresses occurred in the abutment were due to the tension preloads which were originated from the tightening torque.

  19. Analysis of thermally loaded transmissive optical elements (United States)

    Michels, Gregory J.; Genberg, Victor L.


    The performance metrics of many optical systems are affected by temperature changes in the system through different physical phenomena. Temperature changes cause materials to expand and contract causing deformations of optical components. The resulting stress states in transmissive optics can cause refractive changes that can affect optical performance. In addition, the temperature changes themselves can cause changes in the refractive properties of transmissive optics. Complex distributions of refractive indices that relate to the thermal profile, the thermo-optic refractive index profile, within the optical media can be predicted by the finite element method. One current technique for representing such refractive index profiles is through the generation of optical path difference (OPD) maps by integration along integration paths. While computationally efficient, this method has limitations in its ability to represent the effect of the index changes for rays associated with multiple field points and multiple wavelengths. A more complete representation of the thermo-optic refractive index profile may be passed to the optical analysis software through the use of a user defined gradient index material. The interface consists of a dynamic link library (DLL) which supplies indices of refraction to a user defined gradient index lens as ray tracing calculations are being performed. The DLL obtains its refractive index description from a database derived from the thermal analysis of the optics. This process allows optical analysis software to perform accurate ray tracing for an arbitrary refractive index profile induced by changes in temperature.

  20. SPS extraction kicker magnet thermal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Timmins, M


    As the SPS accelerator will be used for the CNGS project and as LHC injector, the proton beams passing through its extraction kickers will have a much higher intensity than in the past. The image currents generated by this beam may provoke a temperature increase in the magnet's ferrite core to temperatures above the Curie temperature, unless the heat produced is effectively removed. A further complication arises from the fact that a high voltage is applied to the ferrites. The solution adopted consists in transferring the heat via Aluminium Nitride insulators to a water cooling circuit. The heat transfer analysis and the calculated thermal distribution of the magnet are presented.

  1. Parametric study of closed wet cooling tower thermal performance (United States)

    Qasim, S. M.; Hayder, M. J.


    The present study involves experimental and theoretical analysis to evaluate the thermal performance of modified Closed Wet Cooling Tower (CWCT). The experimental study includes: design, manufacture and testing prototype of a modified counter flow forced draft CWCT. The modification based on addition packing to the conventional CWCT. A series of experiments was carried out at different operational parameters. In view of energy analysis, the thermal performance parameters of the tower are: cooling range, tower approach, cooling capacity, thermal efficiency, heat and mass transfer coefficients. The theoretical study included develops Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models to predicting various thermal performance parameters of the tower. Utilizing experimental data for training and testing, the models simulated by multi-layer back propagation algorithm for varying all operational parameters stated in experimental test.

  2. Shuttle TPS thermal performance and analysis methodology (United States)

    Neuenschwander, W. E.; Mcbride, D. U.; Armour, G. A.


    Thermal performance of the thermal protection system was approximately as predicted. The only extensive anomalies were filler bar scorching and over-predictions in the high Delta p gap heating regions of the orbiter. A technique to predict filler bar scorching has been developed that can aid in defining a solution. Improvement in high Delta p gap heating methodology is still under study. Minor anomalies were also examined for improvements in modeling techniques and prediction capabilities. These include improved definition of low Delta p gap heating, an analytical model for inner mode line convection heat transfer, better modeling of structure, and inclusion of sneak heating. The limited number of problems related to penetration items that presented themselves during orbital flight tests were resolved expeditiously, and designs were changed and proved successful within the time frame of that program.

  3. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2B: Payload interface analysis (power/thermal/electromagnetic compatibility) (United States)

    Hammel, R. L. (Editor); Smith, A. G. (Editor)


    As a part of the task of performing preliminary engineering analysis of modular payload subelement/host vehicle interfaces, a subsystem interface analysis was performed to establish the integrity of the modular approach to the equipment design and integration. Salient areas that were selected for analysis were power and power conditioning, heat rejection and electromagnetic capability (EMC). The equipment and load profiles for twelve representative experiments were identified. Two of the twelve experiments were chosen as being representative of the group and have been described in greater detail to illustrate the evaluations used in the analysis. The shuttle orbiter will provide electrical power from its three fuel cells in support of the orbiter and the Spacelab operations. One of the three shuttle orbiter fuel cells will be dedicated to the Spacelab electrical power requirements during normal shuttle operation. This power supplies the Spacelab subsystems and the excess will be available to the payload. The current Spacelab sybsystem requirements result in a payload allocation of 4.0 to 4.8 kW average (24 hour/day) and 9.0 kW peak for 15 minutes.

  4. Differential thermal analysis microsystem for explosive detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Kenneth; Greve, Anders; Senesac, L.


    A micro differential thermal analysis (DTA) system is used for detection of trace explosive particles. The DTA system consists of two silicon micro chips with integrated heaters and temperature sensors. One chip is used for reference and one for the measurement sample. The sensor is constructed a...... of the Xsense project at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) which combines four independent sensing techniques, these micro DNT sensors will be included in handheld explosives detectors with applications in homeland security and landmine clearance.......A micro differential thermal analysis (DTA) system is used for detection of trace explosive particles. The DTA system consists of two silicon micro chips with integrated heaters and temperature sensors. One chip is used for reference and one for the measurement sample. The sensor is constructed...... as a small silicon nitride membrane incorporating heater elements and a temperature measurement resistor. In this manuscript the DTA system is described and tested by measuring calorimetric response of 3 different kinds of explosives (TNT, RDX and PETN). This project is carried out under the framework...

  5. Haar Wavelet Collocation Method for Thermal Analysis of Porous Fin with Temperature-dependent Thermal Conductivity and Internal Heat Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George OGUNTALA


    Full Text Available In this study, the thermal performance analysis of porous fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and internal heat generation is carried out using Haar wavelet collocation method. The effects of various parameters on the thermal characteristics of the porous fin are investigated. It is found that as the porosity increases, the rate of heat transfer from the fin increases and the thermal performance of the porous fin increases. The numerical solutions by the Haar wavelet collocation method are in good agreement with the standard numerical solutions.

  6. Modelling Phase Change in a 3D Thermal Transient Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Haque


    Full Text Available A 3D thermal transient analysis of a gap profiling technique which utilises phase change material (plasticine is conducted in ANSYS. Phase change is modelled by assigning enthalpy of fusion over a wide temperature range based on Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC results. Temperature dependent convection is approximated using Nusselt number correlations. A parametric study is conducted on the thermal contact conductance value between the profiling device (polymer and adjacent (metal surfaces. Initial temperatures are established using a liner extrapolation based on experimental data. Results yield good correlation with experimental data.

  7. Thermal Analysis of Cryogenic Hydrogen Liquid Separator (United States)

    Congiardo, Jared F.; Fortier, Craig R. (Editor)


    During launch for the new Space Launch System (SLS) liquid hydrogen is bleed through the engines during replenish, pre-press, and extended pre-press to condition the engines prior to launch. The predicted bleed flow rates are larger than for the shuttle program. A consequence of the increased flow rates is having liquif hydrogen in the vent system, which the facilities was never designed to handle. To remedy the problem a liquid separator is being designed in the system to accumulated the liquid propellant and protect the facility flare stack (which can only handle gas). The attached document is a presentation of the current thermalfluid analysis performed for the separator and will be presented at the Thermal and Fluid Analysis Workshop (NASA workshop) next week in Cleveland, Ohio.

  8. Thermal analysis of superconducting undulator cryomodules (United States)

    Shiroyanagi, Y.; Doose, C.; Fuerst, J.; Harkay, K.; Hasse, Q.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Kasa, M.


    A cryocooler-cooled superconducting undulator (SCU0) has been operating in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring since January of 2013. Based on lessons learned from the construction and operation of SCU0, a second superconducting undulator (SCU1) has been built and cold tested stand-alone. An excess cooling capacity measurement and static heat load analysis show a large improvement of cryogenic performance of SCU1 compared with SCU0. ANSYS-based thermal analysis of these cryomodules incorporating all the cooling circuits was completed. Comparisons between measured and calculated temperatures at the three operating conditions of the cryomodule (static, beam heat only, beam heat and magnet current) will be presented.

  9. The Analysis of Thermal Comfort in Kitchen (United States)

    Ilma Rahmillah, Fety; Hotma Uli Tumanggor, Agustina; Dila Sari, Amarria


    Human also has a thermoreceptor which is a non-specialized sensory receptor that has relative changes in temperature. Thermal comfort is a very important element for human body. Kitchen as an important part of a home is often forgotten. Cooking in the kitchen is a routine activity which is done from the morning until the evening; begin with preparing breakfast, lunch and dinner. The problem in this study was the occurance of heat when cooking in the kitchen without air conditioning in tropical countries. This research analyzes thermal comfort while doing cooking activities in conventional kitchen with gas stoves in tropical dry season. Two residential kitchens are observed by measuring the temperature and humidity as well as analyze other possible factors. Psychometric chart is used to assess the comfort zone in the kitchen. This research is using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) Index and Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) Index. By using online psychometric chart, the sensation is in warm condition with the range value of PMV between 1.73 up to 2.36 and PPD 63% untill 90%. However, 71% respondents perceived morning kitchen thermal as comfortable.

  10. Thermal-Signature-Based Sleep Analysis Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Seba


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of a new technique in the sleep analysis domain. Sleep is defined as a periodic physiological state during which vigilance is suspended and reactivity to external stimulations diminished. We sleep on average between six and nine hours per night and our sleep is composed of four to six cycles of about 90 min each. Each of these cycles is composed of a succession of several stages of sleep that vary in depth. Analysis of sleep is usually done via polysomnography. This examination consists of recording, among other things, electrical cerebral activity by electroencephalography (EEG, ocular movements by electrooculography (EOG, and chin muscle tone by electromyography (EMG. Recordings are made mostly in a hospital, more specifically in a service for monitoring the pathologies related to sleep. The readings are then interpreted manually by an expert to generate a hypnogram, a curve showing the succession of sleep stages during the night in 30s epochs. The proposed method is based on the follow-up of the thermal signature that makes it possible to classify the activity into three classes: “awakening,” “calm sleep,” and “restless sleep”. The contribution of this non-invasive method is part of the screening of sleep disorders, to be validated by a more complete analysis of the sleep. The measure provided by this new system, based on temperature monitoring (patient and ambient, aims to be integrated into the tele-medicine platform developed within the framework of the Smart-EEG project by the SYEL–SYstèmes ELectroniques team. Analysis of the data collected during the first surveys carried out with this method showed a correlation between thermal signature and activity during sleep. The advantage of this method lies in its simplicity and the possibility of carrying out measurements of activity during sleep and without direct contact with the patient at home or hospitals.

  11. Urban area thermal monitoring: Liepaja case study using satellite and aerial thermal data (United States)

    Gulbe, Linda; Caune, Vairis; Korats, Gundars


    The aim of this study is to explore large (60 m/pixel) and small scale (individual building level) temperature distribution patterns from thermal remote sensing data and to conclude what kind of information could be extracted from thermal remote sensing on regular basis. Landsat program provides frequent large scale thermal images useful for analysis of city temperature patterns. During the study correlation between temperature patterns and vegetation content based on NDVI and building coverage based on OpenStreetMap data was studied. Landsat based temperature patterns were independent from the season, negatively correlated with vegetation content and positively correlated with building coverage. Small scale analysis included spatial and raster descriptor analysis for polygons corresponding to roofs of individual buildings for evaluating insulation of roofs. Remote sensing and spatial descriptors are poorly related to heat consumption data, however, thermal aerial data median and entropy can help to identify poorly insulated roofs. Automated quantitative roof analysis has high potential for acquiring city wide information about roof insulation, but quality is limited by reference data quality and information on building types, and roof materials would be crucial for further studies.

  12. Majorana Demonstrator Bolted Joint Mechanical and Thermal Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.


    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is designed to probe for neutrinoless double-beta decay, an extremely rare process with a half-life in the order of 1026 years. The experiment uses an ultra-low background, high-purity germanium detector array. The germanium crystals are both the source and the detector in this experiment. Operating these crystals as ionizing radiation detectors requires having them under cryogenic conditions (below 90 K). A liquid nitrogen thermosyphon is used to extract the heat from the detectors. The detector channels are arranged in strings and thermally coupled to the thermosyphon through a cold plate. The cold plate is joined to the thermosyphon by a bolted joint. This circular plate is housed inside the cryostat can. This document provides a detailed study of the bolted joint that connects the cold plate and the thermosyphon. An analysis of the mechanical and thermal properties of this bolted joint is presented. The force applied to the joint is derived from the torque applied to each one of the six bolts that form the joint. The thermal conductivity of the joint is measured as a function of applied force. The required heat conductivity for a successful experiment is the combination of the thermal conductivity of the detector string and this joint. The thermal behavior of the joint is experimentally implemented and analyzed in this study.

  13. Horizontal steam generator PGV-1000 thermal-hydraulic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubra, O. [Skoda Company, Prague (Switzerland); Doubek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Switzerland)


    A computer program for the steady state thermal-hydraulic analysis of horizontal steam generator PGV-1000 is presented. The program provides the capability to analyze steam generator PGV-1000 primary side flow and temperature distribution, primary side pressure drops, heat transfer between the primary and secondary sides and multidimensional heat flux distribution. A special attention is paid to the thermal-hydraulics of the secondary side. The code predicts 3-D distribution of the void fraction at the secondary side, mass redistribution under the submerged perforated sheet and the steam generator level profile. By means of developed computer program a detailed thermal-hydraulic study of the PGV-1000 has been carried out. A wide range of calculations has been performed and a set of important steam generator characteristics has been obtained. Some of them are presented in the paper. (orig.). 5 refs.

  14. Infrared thermal facial image sequence registration analysis and verification (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Jian, Bo-Lin


    To study the emotional responses of subjects to the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), infrared thermal facial image sequence is preprocessed for registration before further analysis such that the variance caused by minor and irregular subject movements is reduced. Without affecting the comfort level and inducing minimal harm, this study proposes an infrared thermal facial image sequence registration process that will reduce the deviations caused by the unconscious head shaking of the subjects. A fixed image for registration is produced through the localization of the centroid of the eye region as well as image translation and rotation processes. Thermal image sequencing will then be automatically registered using the two-stage genetic algorithm proposed. The deviation before and after image registration will be demonstrated by image quality indices. The results show that the infrared thermal image sequence registration process proposed in this study is effective in localizing facial images accurately, which will be beneficial to the correlation analysis of psychological information related to the facial area.

  15. Thermal analysis on motorcycle disc brake geometry (United States)

    W. M. Zurin W., S.; Talib, R. J.; Ismail, N. I.


    Braking is a phase of slowing and stop the movement of motorcycle. During braking, the frictional heat was generated and the energy was ideally should be faster dissipated to surrounding to prevent the built up of the excessive temperature which may lead to brake fluid vaporization, thermoelastic deformation at the contact surface, material degradation and failure. In this paper, solid and ventilated type of motorcycle disc brake are being analyse using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. The main focus of the analysis is the thermal behaviour during braking for solid and ventilated disc brake. A comparison between both geometries is being discussed to determine the better braking performance in term of temperature distribution. It is found that ventilated disc brake is having better braking performance in terms of heat transfer compare to solid disc.

  16. Solidification of AM and AZ magnesium alloys characterized by heat-transfer modeled thermal and calorimetric analysis and microsegregation study of directionally solidified microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, Djordje


    The micro-scale solidification of commercial Mg alloys of the AZ and AM series is in the focus of the present thesis. Two approaches of investigating solidification are implemented, complementary regarding temperature gradient and solidification rate, and also with respect to the generated microstructure. The first approach considers solidification under a negligible spatial temperature gradient. Here the solidification curves, i.e. fraction solid versus temperature, were determined by developing an improved heat-transfer modeling applicable on both differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) signals. The correlation between solidification enthalpy and fraction solid during solidification was tested in detail. A better evaluation of the measured DTA and DSC signals is attained through an independent measurement of the time constant as function of temperature for the applied equipment. A further improvement is achieved through a more impartial interpretation of the measured curves. Both improvements enable a better desmearing of measured signals and reduce the error induced by the operator. The novel tantalum encapsulation enabled appropriate handling of challenging Mg-alloys. The viability and limitations of thermal analysis in general to determine start and end of solidification of AZ magnesium alloys was also studied. The second approach is based on directional solidification in a high temperature gradient and at constant solidification rate, achieved by the Bridgman technique. The resulting dendritic microstructure and inherent microsegregation are studied in this work. The solute profiles, i.e. solute content versus solid phase fraction during solidification, are determined by an advanced treatment of the EPMA data. Problems that are demonstrated in this work are Al-loss and melt pollution due to reaction with typical sample container material made of unprotected steel. The development of an optimized boron nitride (BN

  17. Study on durability for thermal cycle of planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Motoo; Nakata, Kei-ichi; Wakayama, Sin-ichi [Tonen Corp., Saitama (Japan)] [and others


    TONEN CORPORATION has developed planar type SOFC since 1986. We demonstrated the output of 1.3 kW in 1991 and 5.1 kW in 1995. Simultaneously we have studied how to raise electric efficiency and reliability utilizing hydrogen and propane as fuel. Durability for thermal cycle is one of the most important problems of planar SOFC to make it more practical. The planar type SOFC is made up of separator, zirconia electrolyte and glass sealant. The thermal expansion of these components are expected to be the same value, however, they still possess small differences. In this situation, a thermal cycle causes a thermal stress due to the difference of the cell components and is often followed by a rupture in cell components, therefore, the analysis of the thermal stress should give us much useful information. The thermal cycle process consists of a heating up and cooling down procedure. Zirconia electrolyte is not bonded to the separator under the condition of the initial heating up procedure, and glass sealant becomes soft or melts and glass seals spaces between the zirconia and separator. The glass sealant becomes harder with the cooling down procedure. Moreover, zirconia is tightly bonded with separator below a temperature which is defined as a constraint temperature and thermal stress also occurs. This indicates that the heating up process relaxes the thermal stress and the cooling down increases it. In this paper, we simulated dependence of the stress on the sealing configuration, thermal expansion of sealant and constraint temperature of sealant glass. Furthermore, we presented SOFC electrical properties after a thermal cycle.

  18. Thermal analysis of spent nuclear fuels repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, F.; Salome, J.; Cardoso, F.; Velasquez, C.E.; Pereira, C. [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear - Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte MG, CEP 31270-901 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores - CNPq, Asa Norte, Brazilia (Brazil); Viana, C. [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear - Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte MG, CEP 31270-901 (Brazil); Barros, G.P. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear-CNEN, Rua Gal Severiano, n 90 - Botafogo, 22290-901, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In the first part, Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), Very High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Reactor System (ADS) spent fuels (SF) were evaluated to the thermal of the spent fuel pool (SFP) without an external cooling system. The goal is to compare the water boiling time of the pool storing different types of spent nuclear fuels. This study used the software ANSYS Workbench 16.2 - student version. For the VHTR, two types of fuel were analyzed: (Th,TRU)O{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}. This part of the studies were performed for wet storage condition using a single type of SF and decay heat values at times t=0 and t=10 years after the reactor discharge. The ANSYS CFX module was used and the results show that the time that water takes to reach the boiling point varies from 2.4 minutes for the case of VHTR-(Th,TRU)O{sub 2} SF at time t=0 year after reactor discharge until 32.4 hours for the case of PWR SF at time t=10 years after the discharge reactor. The second part of this work consists of modeling a geological repository. Firstly, the temperature evaluation of the spent fuel from a PWR was analyzed. A PWR canister was simulated using the ANSYS transient thermal module. Then the temperature of canister could be computed during the time spent on a portion of a geological repository. The mean temperature on the canister surface increased during the first nine years, reaching a plateau at 35.5 C. degrees between the tenth and twentieth years after the geological disposal. The idea is to extend this study for the other systems analyzed in the first part. The idea is to include in the study, the spent fuels from VHTR and ADS and to compare the canister behavior using different spent fuels. (authors)

  19. Thermal transient analysis of steel hollow sections exposed to fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Lausova


    Full Text Available The paper describes a study of non-uniform temperature distribution across the section of steel structures where elevated temperature causes additive internal forces due to restrained conditions. The work provides comparison of a heat field at the time of fire in the non-protected steel hollow cross-sections of different sizes. The study compares simplified calculations according to valid standard and numerical simulations in finite element analysis of steel structures exposed to fire loading from three sides. Numerical thermal analysis is also compared with results obtained from the fire testing in VSB-Technical University of Ostrava.

  20. Thermal analysis of cement pastes with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Lukosiute, Irena


    Thermal analysis of cement systems is very helpful in the understanding of many different properties of cementitious compounds, both for the original reacting compounds, and also for the resulting hydration products. Superabsorbent polymers can be added to cement systems with many different reasons......, so it is relevant that fundamental knowledge of this new compound on the development of hydration is well understood [1-3]. This paper reports research on thermal analysis of cement pastes with superabsorbent polymers. We have studied several parameters: the concentration of SAP in the system......, the effect of particle size distribution, and their influence on the hydration process with focus on cement-silica systems. This is done at different thermodynamic conditions, so the energy of activation in the different systems can be accessed. This paper provides information relevant to hydration modelling...

  1. Thermal analysis of high temperature phase transformations of steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gryc


    Full Text Available The series of thermal analysis measurements of high temperature phase transformations of real grain oriented electrical steel grade under conditions of two analytical devices (Netzsch STA 449 F3 Jupiter; Setaram SETSYS 18TM were carried out. Two thermo analytical methods were used (DTA and Direct thermal analysis. The different weight of samples was used (200 mg, 23 g. The stability/reproducibility of results obtained by used methodologies was verified. The liquidus and solidus temperatures for close to equilibrium conditions and during cooling (20 °C/min; 80 °C/min were determined. It has been shown that the higher cooling rate lead to lower temperatures for start and end of solidification process of studied steel grade.

  2. Thermal analysis of wood-steel hybrid construction


    Fonseca, E.M.M.; Ramos, H.M.E.; Silva, H.J.G.; Ferreira, Débora


    The main objective of this work is to provide the thermal analysis in wood-steel hybrid elements for building constructions under fire conditions. A transient thermal analysis with nonlinear material behaviour will be solved with ANSYS program. The use of wood-steel hybrid models has major advantages as increased fire resistance, and improved high strength. Wood is a lightweight material, easy to assemble, great architectural features, thermal and acoustic characteristics. However, the high v...

  3. Fluid-structure interaction analysis for pressurizer surge line subjected to thermal stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Gu [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jhung, Myung Jo, E-mail: [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Research highlights: Temperature of surge line due to stratified flow is defined using CFD analysis. Fluid-structure interaction analysis is performed to investigate the response characteristics due to thermal stress. Fatigue usage factors due to thermal stratification are relatively low. Simplifying temperature distribution in surge line is not always conservative. - Abstract: Serious mechanical damages such as cracks and plastic deformations due to excessive thermal stress caused by thermal stratification have been experienced in several nuclear power plants. In particular, the thermal stratification in the pressurizer surge line has been addressed as one of the significant safety and technical issues. In this study, a detailed unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis involving conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed to obtain the transient temperature distributions in the wall of the pressurizer surge line subjected to stratified internal flows either during out-surge or in-surge operation. The thermal loads from CFD calculations are transferred to the structural analysis code which is employed for the thermal stress analysis to investigate the response characteristics, and the fatigue analysis is ultimately performed. In addition, the thermal stress and fatigue analysis results obtained by applying the realistic temperature distributions from CFD calculations are compared with those by assuming the simplified temperature distributions to identify some requirements for a realistic and conservative thermal stress analysis from a safety point of view.

  4. Preparation, spectral and thermal studies of pyrazinecarboxylic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    carboxylic acid) have been prepared by neutralization of aqueous hydrazine hydrate with the respective acids in appropriate molar ratios. The free acids and their hydrazinium salts have been characterized by analytical, IR spectroscopic and thermal studies. IR spectra of all the salts show N–N stretching frequencies of the ...

  5. imide, crystal structure, thermal and dielectric studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IR and Raman spectroscopies and its crystal structure is confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The X-ray studies on ... Di-cationic ionic liquids; crystal structure; dielectric; thermal properties. 1. Introduction. The chemistry of ionic ... exposed in various emerging areas as solvents of high tem- perature organic ...

  6. Quantitative analysis of thermal insulation coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren


    This work concerns the development of simulation tools for mapping of insulation properties of thermal insulation coatings based on selected functional filler materials. A mathematical model, which includes the underlying physics (i.e. thermal conductivity of a heterogeneous two-component coating...

  7. Analysis of thermally-degrading, confined HMX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, M.L.; Schmitt, R.G.; Renlund, A.M.


    The response of a thermally-degrading, confined HMX pellet is analyzed using a Reactive Elastic-Plastic (REP) constitutive model which is founded on the collapse and growth of internal inclusions resulting from physical and chemical processes such as forced displacement, thermal expansion, and/or decomposition. Axial stress predictions compare adequately to data. Deficiencies in the model and future directions are discussed.

  8. An Integrated Approach to Thermal Analysis of Pharmaceutical Solids (United States)

    Riley, Shelley R. Rabel


    A three-tiered experiment for undergraduate Instrumental Analysis students is presented in which students characterize the solid-state thermal behavior of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (acetaminophen) and excipient (a-lactose hydrate) using differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and thermal microscopy. Students are…

  9. Environmental/Thermal Barrier Coatings for Ceramic Matrix Composites: Thermal Tradeoff Studies (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. M.; Brewer, David; Shah, Ashwin R.


    Recent interest in environmental/thermal barrier coatings (EBC/TBCs) has prompted research to develop life-prediction methodologies for the coating systems of advanced high-temperature ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Heat-transfer analysis of EBC/TBCs for CMCs is an essential part of the effort. It helps establish the resulting thermal profile through the thickness of the CMC that is protected by the EBC/TBC system. This report documents the results of a one-dimensional analysis of an advanced high-temperature CMC system protected with an EBC/TBC system. The one-dimensional analysis was used for tradeoff studies involving parametric variation of the conductivity; the thickness of the EBC/TBCs, bond coat, and CMC substrate; and the cooling requirements. The insight gained from the results will be used to configure a viable EBC/TBC system for CMC liners that meet the desired hot surface, cold surface, and substrate temperature requirements.

  10. Thermal and Alignment Analysis of the Instrument-Level ATLAS Thermal Vacuum Test (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather


    This paper describes the thermal analysis and test design performed in preparation for the ATLAS thermal vacuum test. NASA's Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) will be flown as the sole instrument aboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2). It will be used to take measurements of topography and ice thickness for Arctic and Antarctic regions, providing crucial data used to predict future changes in worldwide sea levels. Due to the precise measurements ATLAS is taking, the laser altimeter has very tight pointing requirements. Therefore, the instrument is very sensitive to temperature-induced thermal distortions. For this reason, it is necessary to perform a Structural, Thermal, Optical Performance (STOP) analysis not only for flight, but also to ensure performance requirements can be operationally met during instrument-level thermal vacuum testing. This paper describes the thermal model created for the chamber setup, which was used to generate inputs for the environmental STOP analysis. This paper also presents the results of the STOP analysis, which indicate that the test predictions adequately replicate the thermal distortions predicted for flight. This is a new application of an existing process, as STOP analyses are generally performed to predict flight behavior only. Another novel aspect of this test is that it presents the opportunity to verify pointing results of a STOP model, which is not generally done. It is possible in this case, however, because the actual pointing will be measured using flight hardware during thermal vacuum testing and can be compared to STOP predictions.


    Carbonaceous particulate typically represents a large fraction of PM2.5 (20 - 40%). Two primary techniques presently used for the analysis of particulate carbon are Thermal Optical Transmission (TOT - NIOSH Method 5040) and Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR). These two methods b...

  12. Fluid and thermal performance analysis of PMSM used for driving (United States)

    Ding, Shuye; Cui, Guanghui; Li, Zhongyu; Guan, Tianyu


    The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is widely used in ships under frequency conversion control system. The fluid flow performance and temperature distribution of the PMSM are difficult to clarify due to its complex structure and variable frequency control condition. Therefore, in order to investigate the fluid and thermal characteristics of the PMSM, a 50 kW PMSM was taken as an example in this study, and a 3-D coupling analysis model of fluid and thermal was established. The fluid and temperature fields were calculated by using finite volume method. The cooling medium's properties, such a velocity, streamlines, and temperature, were then analyzed. The correctness of the proposed model, and the rationality of the solution method, were verified by a temperature test of the PMSM. In this study, the changing rheology on the performance of the cooling medium and the working temperature of the PMSM were revealed, which could be helpful for designing the PMSM.

  13. Thermal Analysis of Sintered Silver Nanoparticles Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Keikhaie


    Full Text Available Thin bonded films have many applications in antireflection and reflection coating, insulating and conducting films and semiconductor industries. Thermal conductivity is one of the most important parameter for power packaging since the thermal resistance of the interconnections is directly related to the heat removal capability and thermal management of the power package. The defects in materials play very important role on the effective thermal conductivity. In this paper, finite element method (FEM was utilized to simulate the effect of pores on the effective thermal conductivity of sintered silver nanoparticles film. The simulation results indicate that the effective thermal conductivity of film is different at different directions and would be enhanced when the pore angle is 90. The simulation results will help us to further understand the heat transfer process across highly porous structures and will provide us a powerful guide to design coating with high thermal insulation or conductor property. Because of there is no similar experimental data for this simulation results, this paper is a comparative work among three different models.

  14. Thermal loading study for FY 1996. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The primary objective of this study was to provide recommendations for Mined Geologic Disposal System requirements affected by thermal loading that will provide sufficient definition to facilitate development of design concepts and support life cycle cost determinations. The study reevaluated and/or redefined selected thermal goals used for design and are currently contained in the requirements documents or the Controlled Design Assumption Document. The study provided recommendations as to what, if any, actions (such as edge loading and limiting of the heat variability between waste packages) are needed and must be accommodated in the design. Additionally, the study provided recommendations as to what alternative thermal loads should be maintained for continued flexibility. Section 1 provides the study objective, background, scope, and organization of the report. Section 2 documents the requirements and standards to include quality assurance (QA) requirements, any requirements used or evaluated, and the inputs and assumptions considered. Section 3 provides the analysis and recommendations for the thermal goals reevaluation. Section 4 discusses the evaluation of edge loading and provides conclusions. Section 5 provides the analyses done to establish recommendations as to what requirements need to be implemented to either limit or manage the amount of heat output variability that may occur. Section 6 discusses alternate thermal loadings; Section 7 provides the study conclusions and recommendations; Section 8 provides the references, standards, and regulations; and Section 9 contains the acronym list.

  15. Various startup system designs of HPLWR and their thermal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Qi [School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Cai, Jiejin, E-mail: [School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Sino-French Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)


    Highlights: • An axial one-dimensional (1D) single channel model is developed for the HPLWR core. • Various startup systems for HPLWR have been investigated and found feasible. • Characteristics of the component required for HPLWR startup designs are studied. -- Abstract: This paper summarizes the results of various startup system designs and their thermal analysis of the high performance light water reactor (HPLWR) which is the European version of the various supercritical water cooled reactor proposals. In order to study the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the HPLWR core, a simplified axial one-dimensional (1D) single channel model is developed, which consists of fuel, cladding, coolant and moderator. The model is verified by the related results of Seppälä (2008). Both constant pressure startup systems and sliding pressure startup systems of HPLWR are presented. In constant pressure startup system, the reactor starts at supercritical pressure. It appears that compared with other SCWR designs, the weight of the component required for constant pressure startup of HPLWR is medium and reasonable. Constant pressure startup systems are found feasible from thermal analysis. And for sliding pressure startup, the reactor starts at subcritical pressure. The adequate core power of 25% with 28% flow rate and a feedwater temperature of 280 °C are determined during pressurization phase. The thermal analysis results show that the sliding pressure startup systems for HPLWR are also feasible. Considering the same flow rate as the supercritical-pressure light water-cooled fast reactor (SCFR), the component weight required is reduced in HPLWR.

  16. Thermal analysis and design of passive solar buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Athienitis, AK


    Passive solar design techniques are becoming increasingly important in building design. This design reference book takes the building engineer or physicist step-by-step through the thermal analysis and design of passive solar buildings. In particular it emphasises two important topics: the maximum utilization of available solar energy and thermal storage, and the sizing of an appropriate auxiliary heating/cooling system in conjunction with good thermal control.Thermal Analysis and Design of Passive Solar Buildings is an important contribution towards the optimization of buildings as systems th

  17. On the thermal stability of a radiating plasma subject to nonlocal thermal conduction. I - Linear analysis (United States)

    Chun, E.; Rosner, R.


    We study the linear stability of an optically thin uniform radiating plasma subject to nonlocal heat transport. We derive the dispersion relation appropriate to this problem, and the marginal wavenumbers for instability. Our analysis indicates that nonlocal heat transport acts to reduce the stabilizing influence of thermal conduction, and that there are critical values for the electron mean free path such that the plasma is always unstable. Our results may be applied to a number of astrophysical plasmas, one such example being the halos of clusters of galaxies.

  18. Thermal transpiration: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T, Joe Francis [Computational Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kozhikode (India); Sathian, Sarith P. [Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)


    Thermal transpiration is a phenomenon where fluid molecules move from the cold end towards the hot end of a channel under the influence of longitudinal temperature gradient alone. Although the phenomenon of thermal transpiration is observed at rarefied gas conditions in macro systems, the phenomenon can occur at atmospheric pressure if the characteristic dimensions of the channel is less than 100 nm. The flow through these nanosized channels is characterized by the free molecular flow regimes and continuum theory is inadequate to describe the flow. Thus a non-continuum method like molecular dynamics (MD) is necessary to study such phenomenon. In the present work, MD simulations were carried out to investigate the occurance of thermal transpiration in copper and platinum nanochannels at atmospheric pressure conditions. The mean pressure of argon gas confined inside the nano channels was maintained around 1 bar. The channel height is maintained at 2nm. The argon atoms interact with each other and with the wall atoms through the Lennard-Jones potential. The wall atoms are modelled using an EAM potential. Further, separate simulations were carried out where a Harmonic potential is used for the atom-atom interaction in the platinum channel. A thermally insulating wall was introduced between the low and high temperature regions and those wall atoms interact with fluid atoms through a repulsive potential. A reduced cut off radius were used to achieve this. Thermal creep is induced by applying a temperature gradient along the channel wall. It was found that flow developed in the direction of the increasing temperature gradient of the wall. An increase in the volumetric flux was observed as the length of the cold and the hot regions of the wall were increased. The effect of temperature gradient and the wall-fluid interaction strength on the flow parameters have been studied to understand the phenomenon better.

  19. Thermal analysis of a hypersonic wing test structure (United States)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Swanson, Neil J., Jr.


    The three-dimensional finite element modeling techniques developed for the thermal analysis of a hypersonic wing test structure (HWTS) are described. The computed results are compared to measured test data. In addition, the results of a NASA two-dimensional parameter finite difference local thermal model and the results of a contractor two-dimensional lumped parameter finite difference local thermal model will be presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Raza


    Full Text Available Nickel based superalloys are commonly used materials in the aero industry and more specifically in the hot section of aero engines. These nickel and nickel iron based superalloys are precipitation strengthened alloys with a face centered cubic gamma matrix. Alloy 718, Allvac 718Plus and Waspaloy have been of great interest in the present study. Alloy 718 is a precipitation strengthened nickel-iron based alloy having gamma double prime phase (Ni3Nb as a main strengthening phase up to 650 °C. Waspaloy, another precipitation strengthened nickel base superalloy, has a very good strength at temperatures up to ~750 °C whereas Allvac 718Plus is a newly developed nickel based precipitation strengthened superalloy which retains good mechanical properties at up to ~700 °C. These three alloys were investigated in terms of how their respective solidification process reveals upon cooling.Latent heat of soloidification has been estimated for all three alloys. Differential thermal analyses (DTA have been used to approach the task. It was seen that Waspaloy has the smallest solidification range whereas Allvac 718Plus has the largest solidification interval in comparison. 

  1. Thermal-Hydraulics analysis of pressurized water reactor core by using single heated channel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akbari


    Full Text Available Thermal hydraulics of nuclear reactor as a basis of reactor safety has a very important role in reactor design and control. The thermal-hydraulic analysis provides input data to the reactor-physics analysis, whereas the latter gives information about the distribution of heat sources, which is needed to perform the thermal-hydraulic analysis. In this study single heated channel model as a very fast model for predicting thermal hydraulics behavior of pressurized water reactor core has been developed. For verifying the results of this model, we used RELAP5 code as US nuclear regulatory approved thermal hydraulics code. The results of developed single heated channel model have been checked with RELAP5 results for WWER-1000. This comparison shows the capability of single heated channel model for predicting thermal hydraulics behavior of reactor core.

  2. Analysis of Thermal Performance in a Bidirectional Thermocycler by Including Thermal Contact Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh Jian Chen


    Full Text Available This paper illustrates an application of a technique for predicting the thermal characteristics of a bidirectional thermocycling device for polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The micromilling chamber is oscillated by a servo motor and contacted with different isothermal heating blocks to successfully amplify the DNA templates. Because a comprehensive database of contact resistance factors does not exist, it causes researchers to not take thermal contact resistance into consideration at all. We are motivated to accurately determine the thermal characteristics of the reaction chamber with thermal contact effects existing between the heater surface and the chamber surface. Numerical results show that the thermal contact effects between the heating blocks and the reaction chamber dominate the temperature variations and the ramping rates inside the PCR chamber. However, the influences of various temperatures of the ambient conditions on the sample temperature during three PCR steps can be negligible. The experimental temperature profiles are compared well with the numerical simulations by considering the thermal contact conductance coefficient which is empirical by the experimental fitting. To take thermal contact conductance coefficients into consideration in the thermal simulation is recommended to predict a reasonable temperature profile of the reaction chamber during various thermal cycling processes. Finally, the PCR experiments present that Hygromycin B DNA templates are amplified successfully. Furthermore, our group is the first group to introduce the thermal contact effect into theoretical study that has been applied to the design of a PCR device, and to perform the PCR process in a bidirectional thermocycler.

  3. Study of variation of thermal diffusivity of advanced composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Modified Angstrom method is applied to study the variation of thermal diffusivity of plain woven fabric composite in closed ... Keywords. Thermal diffusivity; composite material; cryogenic temperature; phase difference; modified Ang- strom method. .... where D is the thermal diffusivity, k the heat conductivity and ρ the thermal ...

  4. Performance analysis of photovoltaic thermal air heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopian, K.; Yigit, K.S.; Liu, H.T.; Kakac, S.; Veziroglu, T.N. [Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    The performance of single-pass and double-pass combined photovoltaic thermal collectors are analyzed with steady-state models. The working fluid is air and the models are based on energy conservation at various nodes of the collector. Closed form solutions have been obtained for the differential equations of both the single-pass and double-pass collectors. Comparisons are made between the performances of the two types of combined photovoltaic thermal collectors. The results show that the new design, the double-pass photovoltaic thermal collector, has superior performance. Important parameters for both types of collector are identified, and their effects on the performances of the two types of collectors are presented in detail. (author)

  5. Lumped thermal capacitance analysis of transient heat conduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermal energy transferred by unsteady flow of the coolant to the vessel was determined as internal energy change. Numerical algorithms for Matlab Code were implemented to generate data for transient analysis and simulation. The simulations indicated that the temperature variations and the the-rmal stresses were ...

  6. Thermal analysis of cold vacuum drying of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepho, M.G.


    The thermal analysis examined transient thermal and chemical behavior of the Multi canister Overpack (MCO) container for a broad range of cases that represent the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) processes. The cases were defined to consider both normal and off-normal operations at the CVD Facility for an MCO with Mark IV N, Reactor spent fuel in four fuel baskets and one scrap basket. This analysis provides the basis for the MCO thermal behavior at the CVD Facility for its Phase 2 Safety Analysis Report (revision 4).

  7. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  8. Contact Thermal Analysis and Wear Simulation of a Brake Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor Békési


    Full Text Available The present paper describes an experimental test and a coupled contact-thermal-wear analysis of a railway wheel/brake block system through the braking process. During the test, the friction, the generated heat, and the wear were evaluated. It was found that the contact between the brake block and the wheel occurs in relatively small and slowly moving hot spots, caused by the wear and the thermal effects. A coupled simulation method was developed including numerical frictional contact, transient thermal and incremental wear calculations. In the 3D simulation, the effects of the friction, the thermal expansion, the wear, and the temperature-dependent material properties were also considered. A good agreement was found between the results of the test and the calculations, both for the thermal and wear results. The proposed method is suitable for modelling the slowly oscillating wear caused by the thermal expansions in the contact area.

  9. Infrared thermal imaging in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Sanchis-Sánchez, Enrique; Vergara-Hernández, Carlos; Cibrián, Rosa M; Salvador, Rosario; Sanchis, Enrique; Codoñer-Franch, Pilar


    Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently. Diagnostic tests using ionizing radiation can lead to problems for patients, and infrared thermal imaging could be useful when diagnosing these injuries. A systematic review was performed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of infrared thermal imaging in patients with musculoskeletal injuries. A meta-analysis of three studies evaluating stress fractures was performed and found a lack of support for the usefulness of infrared thermal imaging in musculoskeletal injuries diagnosis.

  10. Thermal-mechanical coupled analysis of a brake disk rotor (United States)

    Belhocine, Ali; Bouchetara, Mostefa


    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the thermomechanical behavior of the dry contact between the brake disk and pads during the braking phase. The simulation strategy is based on computer code ANSYS11. The modeling of transient temperature in the disk is actually used to identify the factor of geometric design of the disk to install the ventilation system in vehicles The thermal-structural analysis is then used with coupling to determine the deformation and the Von Mises stress established in the disk, the contact pressure distribution in pads. The results are satisfactory when compared to those of the specialized literature.

  11. Thermal states of the Kitaev honeycomb model: Bures metric analysis (United States)

    Abasto, Damian F.; Zanardi, Paolo


    We analyze the Bures metric over the canonical thermal states for the Kitaev honeycomb mode. In this way the effects of finite temperature on topological phase transitions can be studied. Different regions in the parameter space of the model can be clearly identified in terms of different temperature scaling behavior of the Bures metric tensor. Furthermore, we show a simple relation between the metric elements and the crossover temperature between the quasicritical and the quasiclassical regions. These results extend the analysis of Zhao and Zhou [e-print arXiv:/0803.0814v1] and Yang [Phys. Rev. A 78, 012304 (2008)] to finite temperatures.

  12. Investigation on unidirectional growth of 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method and its characterization of lifetime, thermal analysis, hardness and etching studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durairaj, N., E-mail: [Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore, Tamilnadu 632 014 (India); Kalainathan, S., E-mail: [Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore, Tamilnadu 632 014 (India); Krishnaiah, M.V. [Chemistry Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603 102 (India)


    An organic single crystal of 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene (3PB) has been grown from solution by unidirectional Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method within a period of 72 days. The size of grown crystal was 40 mm length and 30 mm diameter. The solubility of 3PB material was determined in five various solvents with different temperatures and tetrahydrofuran (THF) was used as a suitable solvent for bulk crystallization. Metastable zone width of the solution was determined to optimize the growth period. Cell parameters of the grown 3PB crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction and it belongs to orthorhombic crystal system. The density of the grown 3PB crystal was found to be 1.240 g/cm{sup 3} by floatation method. Optical studies reflect the transmittance ability of crystal in entire visible and NIR region. The refractive index of the grown 3PB crystal was found to be 1.618. Fluorescence emission spectrum was recorded and emission peak observed at 360 nm. Prompt and delayed fluorescence lifetime of 3PB single crystal has been calculated at 12 ns and 30 ns respectively. Thermogravimetric/Differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) measurement was performed to the grown crystal and it was stable up to 164 °C. Vicker’s microhardness value (H{sub v}) was calculated with varying load ranging from 25 to 100 g and the Mayer’s index was found to be 4.5, showing that the grown crystal belongs to a soft material category. Growth pattern and the surface defect were examined by the optical microscope. The microstructure of the crystal surface shows the regular shapes of etch pits which are in triangular shape. - Highlights: • The solubility of 3PB material was determined by five different solvents. THF has high solubility compare to other solvents. • Unidirectional 〈100〉 plane of 3PB single crystal was grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method. • Fluorescence lifetime was analyzed, prompt and delayed lifetime was obtained at 12 ns and 30

  13. Integration of Design, Thermal, Structural, and Optical Analysis, Including Thermal Animation (United States)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.


    In many industries there has recently been a concerted movement toward 'quality management' and the issue of how to accomplish work more efficiently. Part of this effort is focused on concurrent engineering; the idea of integrating the design and analysis processes so that they are not separate, sequential processes (often involving design rework due to analytical findings) but instead form an integrated system with smooth transfers of information. Presented herein are several specific examples of concurrent engineering methods being carried out at Langley Research Center (LaRC): integration of thermal, structural and optical analyses to predict changes in optical performance based on thermal and structural effects; integration of the CAD design process with thermal and structural analyses; and integration of analysis and presentation by animating the thermal response of a system as an active color map -- a highly effective visual indication of heat flow.

  14. Transient Thermal Testing and Analysis of a Thermally Insulating Structural Sandwich Panel (United States)

    Blosser, Max L.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Bird, Richard K.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.


    A core configuration was devised for a thermally insulating structural sandwich panel. Two titanium prototype panels were constructed to illustrate the proposed sandwich panel geometry. The core of one of the titanium panels was filled with Saffil(trademark) alumina fibrous insulation and the panel was tested in a series of transient thermal tests. Finite element analysis was used to predict the thermal response of the panel using one- and two-dimensional models. Excellent agreement was obtained between predicted and measured temperature histories.

  15. Assessing swine thermal comfort by image analysis of postural behaviors. (United States)

    Xin, H


    Postural behavior is an integral response of animals to complex environmental factors. Huddling, nearly contacting one another on the side, and spreading are common postural behaviors of group-housed animals undergoing cold, comfortable, and warm/hot sensations, respectively. These postural patterns have been routinely used by animal caretakers to assess thermal comfort of the animals and to make according adjustment on the environmental settings or management schemes. This manual adjustment approach, however, has the inherent limitations of daily discontinuity and inconsistency between caretakers in interpretation of the animal comfort behavior. The goal of this project was to explore a novel, automated image analysis system that would assess the thermal comfort of swine and make proper environmental adjustments to enhance animal wellbeing and production efficiency. This paper describes the progress and on-going work toward the achievement of our proposed goal. The feasibility of classifying the thermal comfort state of young pigs by neural network (NN) analysis of their postural images was first examined. It included exploration of using certain feature selections of the postural behavioral images as the input to a three-layer NN that was trained to classify the corresponding thermal comfort state as being cold, comfortable, or warm. The image feature selections, a critical step for the classification, examined in this study included Fourier coefficient (FC), moment (M), perimeter and area (P&A), and combination of M and P&A of the processed binary postural images. The result was positive, with the combination of M and P&A as the input feature to the NN yielding the highest correct classification rate. Subsequent work included the development of hardware and computational algorithms that enable automatic image segmentation, motion detection, and the selection of the behavioral images suitable for use in the classification. Work is in progress to quantify the

  16. Dynamic thermal analysis of machines in running state

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lihui


    With the increasing complexity and dynamism in today’s machine design and development, more precise, robust and practical approaches and systems are needed to support machine design. Existing design methods treat the targeted machine as stationery. Analysis and simulation are mostly performed at the component level. Although there are some computer-aided engineering tools capable of motion analysis and vibration simulation etc., the machine itself is in the dry-run state. For effective machine design, understanding its thermal behaviours is crucial in achieving the desired performance in real situation. Dynamic Thermal Analysis of Machines in Running State presents a set of innovative solutions to dynamic thermal analysis of machines when they are put under actual working conditions. The objective is to better understand the thermal behaviours of a machine in real situation while at the design stage. The book has two major sections, with the first section presenting a broad-based review of the key areas of ...

  17. Thermal analysis of the airflow around ATLAS muon end cap

    CERN Document Server

    Gasser, D


    A thermal analysis of the airflow inside the UX15 cavern and through the ATLAS detector is presented. This study is done using a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model. This model includes a simplified geometry of the detector and the experimental cavern, the ventilation flow rate and the released heat dissipation figures are taken into account. This analysis aims at estimate the temperature gradients that develop in the muons end cap area. Indeed, light rays seen by CCD camera will be used in this area in order to align the muon chambers. The rays should not be too much distorted by temperature difference, which would hinder the chamber alignment. The simulation results show that a light ray projected through the whole end cap area should not encounter a gradient higher than 5 K. Nevertheless, the results of this analysis are valid if and only if the spaces represented as empty in the model are allowed to remain empty in ATLAS.

  18. Analysis of the structural organization and thermal stability of two spermadhesins. Calorimetric, circular dichroic and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic studies. (United States)

    Menéndez, M; Gasset, M; Laynez, J; López-Zumel, C; Usobiaga, P; Töpfer-Petersen, E; Calvete, J J


    The CUB domain is a widespread 110-amino-acid module found in functionally diverse, often developmentally regulated proteins, for which an antiparallel beta-barrel topology similar to that in immunoglobulin V domains has been predicted. Spermadhesins have been proposed as a subgroup of this protein family built up by a single CUB domain architecture. To test the proposed structural model, we have analyzed the structural organization of two members of the spermadhesin protein family, porcine seminal plasma proteins I/II (PSP-I/PSP-II) heterodimer and bovine acidic seminal fluid protein (aSFP) homodimer, using differential scanning calorimetry, far-ultraviolet circular dichroism and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermal unfolding of PSP-I/PSP-II and aSFP were irreversible and followed a one-step process with transition temperatures (Tm) of 60.5 degrees C and 78.6 degrees C, respectively. The calorimetric enthalpy changes (delta Hcat) of thermal denaturation were 439 kJ/mol for PSP-I/PSP-II and 660 kJ/mol for aSFP dimer. Analysis of the calorimetric curves of PSP-I/PSP-II showed that the entire dimer constituted the cooperative unfolding unit. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and deconvolution of circular dichroic spectra using a convex constraint analysis indicated that beta-structure and turns are the major structural element of both PSP-I/PSP-II (53% of beta-sheet, 21% of turns) and aSFP (44% of beta-sheet, 36% of turns), and that the porcine and the bovine proteins contain little, if any, alpha-helical structure. Taken together, our results indicate that the porcine and the bovine spermadhesin molecules are probably all-beta-structure proteins, and would support a beta-barrel topology like that predicted for the CUB domain. Other beta-structure folds, such as the Greek-key pattern characteristic of many carbohydrate-binding protein domains cannot be eliminated. Finally, the same combination of biophysical techniques was used to characterize the

  19. Laser pulse heating of surfaces and thermal stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir S; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser; Al-Qahtani, Hussain M


    This book introduces laser pulse heating and thermal stress analysis in materials surface. Analytical temperature treatments and stress developed in the surface region are also explored. The book will help the reader analyze the laser induced stress in the irradiated region and presents solutions for the stress field. Detailed thermal stress analysis in different laser pulse heating situations and different boundary conditions are also presented. Written for surface engineers.

  20. Solar thermal electric power information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.


    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar thermal electric power are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from five solar thermal electric power groups of respondents are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  1. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman


    This text covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems and the application of these principles to nuclear reactor power plant systems. It is not a traditional general thermodynamics text, per se, but a practical thermodynamics volume intended to explain the fundamentals and apply them to the challenges facing actual nuclear power plants systems, where thermal hydraulics comes to play.  Written in a lucid, straight-forward style while retaining scientific rigor, the content is accessible to upper division undergraduate students and aimed at practicing engineers in nuclear power facilities and engineering scientists and technicians in industry, academic research groups, and national laboratories. The book is also a valuable resource for students and faculty in various engineering programs concerned with nuclear reactors. This book also: Provides extensive coverage of thermal hydraulics with thermodynamics in nuclear reactors, beginning with fundamental ...

  2. Thermal design and analysis of high power star sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jiang


    Full Text Available The requirement for the temperature stability is very high in the star sensors as the high precision needs for the altitude information. Thermal design and analysis thus is important for the high power star sensors and their supporters. CCD, normally with Peltier thermoelectric cooler (PTC, is the most important sensor component in the star sensors, which is also the main heat source in the star sensors suite. The major objective for the thermal design in this paper is to design a radiator to optimize the heat diffusion for CCD and PTC. The structural configuration of star sensors, the heat sources and orbit parameters were firstly introduced in this paper. The influences of the geometrical parameters and coating material characteristics of radiators on the heat diffusion were investigated by heat flux analysis. Carbon–carbon composites were then chosen to improve the thermal conductivity for the sensor supporters by studying the heat transfer path. The design is validated by simulation analysis and experiments on orbit. The satellite data show that the temperatures of three star sensors are from 17.8 °C to 19.6 °C, while the simulation results are from 18.1 °C to 20.1 °C. The temperatures of radiator are from 16.1 °C to 16.8 °C and the corresponding simulation results are from 16.0 °C to 16.5 °C. The temperature variety of each star sensor is less than 2 °C, which satisfies the design objectives.

  3. Window design : visual and thermal consequences : analysis of the thermal and daylighting performance of windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergem-Jansen, P.M. van; Soeleman, R.S.


    Selected results of an analysis for the thermal and lighting requirements associated with windows in utility buildings are presented. This analysis concerns the effects of r¡indow size and shape, orientation and of different ways of supplementing the daylight by artifieial light for a typical office

  4. Thermal degradation kinetics and antimicrobial studies of terpolymer resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul R. Burkanudeen


    Full Text Available The terpolymer (ASF was synthesized by condensation of anthranilic acid and salicylic acid with formaldehyde in the presence of glacial acetic acid as a catalyst at 140 ± 2 °C for 6 h with varying proportions of reactants. The terpolymer ASF-I was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The thermal decomposition behavior of ASF-I, II and III terpolymers was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA in a static nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 20 °C/min. Freeman–Carroll, Sharp–Wentworth and Phadnis–Deshpande methods were used to calculate the thermal activation energy (Ea the order of reaction (n, entropy change (ΔS, free energy change (ΔF, apparent entropy (S∗ and frequency factor (Z. Phadnis–Deshpande method was used to propose the thermal degradation model for the decomposition pattern of ASF-I terpolymer resin. The order of the decomposition reaction was found to be 0.901. The thermal activation energy determined with the help of these methods was in good agreement with each other. The ASF-I, II and III resins were tested for their inhibitory action against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The resins show potent inhibitory action against bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungi viz. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Mucor sp.

  5. Simultaneous thermal analysis and thermodilatometry of hybrid fiber reinforced UHPC (United States)

    Scheinherrová, Lenka; Fořt, Jan; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert


    Development of concrete technology and the availability of variety of materials such as silica fume, mineral microfillers and high-range water-reducing admixtures make possible to produce Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) with compressive strength higher than 160 MPa. However, UHPC is prone to spall under high temperatures what limits its use for special applications only, such as offshore and marine structures, industrial floors, security barriers etc. The spalling is caused by the thermal stresses due to the temperature gradient during heating, and by the splitting force owing to the release of water vapour. Hybrid fibre reinforcement based on combination of steel and polymer fibres is generally accepted by concrete community as a functional solution preventing spalling. In this way, Ultra-High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) is produced possessing high mechanical strength, durability and resistance to water and salt ingress. Since UHPFRC find use in construction industry in tunnel linings, precast tunnel segments, and high-rise buildings, its behaviour during the high-temperature exposure and its residual parameters are of the particular importance. On this account, Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and Thermodilatometry Analysis (TDA) were done in the paper to identify the structural and chemical changes in UHPFRC during its high-temperature load. Based on the experimental results, several physical and chemical processes that studied material underwent at high-temperatures were recognized. The obtained data revealed changes in the composition of the studied material and allowed identification of critical temperatures for material damage.

  6. Transmutation technology development; thermal hydraulic power analysis and structure analysis of the HYPER target beam window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. H.; Ju, E. S.; Song, M. K.; Jeon, Y. Z. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea)


    A thermal hydraulic power analysis, a structure analysis and optimization computation for some design factor for the design of spallation target suitable for HYPER with 1000 MW thermal power in this study was performed. Heat generation formula was used which was evaluated recently based on the LAHET code, mainly to find the maximum beam current under given computation conditions. Thermal hydraulic power of HYPER target system was calculated using FLUENT code, structure conducted by inputting the data into ANSYS. On the temp of beam windows and the pressure distribution calculated using FLUENT. Data transformation program was composed apply the data calculated using FLUENT being commercial CFD code and ANSYS being FEM code for CFX structure analysis. A basic study was conducted on various singular target to obtain fundamental data on the shape for optimum target design. A thermal hydraulic power analysis and structure analysis were conducted on the shapes of parabolic, uniform, scanning beams to choose the optimum shape of beam current analysis was done according to some turbulent model to simulate the real flow. To evaluate the reliability of numerical analysis result, benchmarking of FLUENT code reformed at SNU and Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and it was compared to CFX in the possession of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and evaluated. Reliable deviation was observed in the results calculated using FLUENT code, but temperature deviation of about 200 .deg. C was observed in the result from CFX analysis at optimum design condition. Several benchmarking were performed on the basis of numerical analysis concerning conventional HYPER. It was possible to allow a beam arrests of 17.3 mA in the case of the {phi} 350 mm parabolic beam suggested to the optimum in nuclear transmutation when stress equivalent to VON-MISES was calculated to be 140 MPa. 29 refs., 109 figs. (Author)

  7. Thermal stress analysis of space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and thermal protection system (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jenkins, Jerald M.


    Preflight thermal stress analysis of the space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and the thermal protection system (TPS) was performed. The heated skin panel analyzed was rectangular in shape and contained a small square cool region at its center. The wing skin immediately outside the cool region was found to be close to the state of elastic instability in the chordwise direction based on the conservative temperature distribution. The wing skin was found to be quite stable in the spanwise direction. The potential wing skin thermal instability was not severe enough to tear apart the strain isolation pad (SIP) layer. Also, the preflight thermal stress analysis was performed on the TPS tile under the most severe temperature gradient during the simulated reentry heating. The tensile thermal stress induced in the TPS tile was found to be much lower than the tensile strength of the TPS material. The thermal bending of the TPS tile was not severe enough to cause tearing of the SIP layer.

  8. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  9. The analysis of thermally stimulated processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, R; Pamplin, Brian


    Thermally stimulated processes include a number of phenomena - either physical or chemical in nature - in which a certain property of a substance is measured during controlled heating from a 'low' temperature. Workers and graduate students in a wide spectrum of fields require an introduction to methods of extracting information from such measurements. This book gives an interdisciplinary approach to various methods which may be applied to analytical chemistry including radiation dosimetry and determination of archaeological and geological ages. In addition, recent advances are included, such

  10. Analysis of a Radioisotope Thermal Rocket Engine (United States)

    Machado-Rodriguez, Jonathan P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.


    The Triton Hopper is a concept for a vehicle to explore the surface of Neptunes moon Triton, which uses a radioisotope heated rocket engine and in-situ propellant acquisition. The initial Triton Hopper conceptual design stores pressurized Nitrogen in a spherical tank to be used as the propellant. The aim of the research was to investigate the benefits of storing propellant at ambient temperature and heating it through a thermal block during engine operation, as opposed to storing gas at a high temperature.

  11. Determining in-situ thermal conductivity of coarse textured materials through numerical analysis of thermal (United States)

    Saito, H.; Hamamoto, S.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.


    Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems use ground or groundwater as a heat/cooling source, typically by circulating anti-freezing solution inside a vertically installed closed-loop tube known as a U-tube to transfer heat to/from the ground. Since GSHP systems are based on renewable energy and can achieve much higher coefficient of performance (COP) than conventional air source heat pump systems, use of GSHP systems has been rapidly increasing worldwide. However, environmental impacts by GSHP systems including thermal effects on subsurface physical-chemical and microbiological properties have not been fully investigated. To rigorously assess GSHP impact on the subsurface environment, ground thermal properties including thermal conductivity and heat capacity need to be accurately characterized. Ground thermal properties were investigated at two experimental sites at Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TAT) and Saitama University (SA), both located in the Kanto area of Japan. Thermal properties were evaluated both by thermal probe measurements on boring core samples and by performing in-situ Thermal Response Tests (TRT) in 50-80 m deep U-tubes. At both TAT and SU sites, heat-pulse probe measurements gave unrealistic low thermal conductivities for coarse textured materials (dominated by particles > 75 micrometers). Such underestimation can be partly due to poor contact between probe and porous material and partly to markedly decreasing sample water content during drilling, carrying, and storing sandy/gravelly samples. A more reliable approach for estimating in-situ thermal conductivity of coarse textured materials is therefore needed, and may be based on the commonly used TRT test. However, analyses of TRT data is typically based on Kelvin's line source model and provides an average (effective) thermal property for the whole soil profile around the U-tube but not for each geological layer. The main objective of this study was therefore to develop a method

  12. A comparative scanning electron microscopy study between hand instrument, ultrasonic scaling and erbium doped:Yttirum aluminum garnet laser on root surface: A morphological and thermal analysis (United States)

    Mishra, Mitul Kumar; Prakash, Shobha


    Background and Objectives: Scaling and root planing is one of the most commonly used procedures for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Removal of calculus using conventional hand instruments is incomplete and rather time consuming. In search of more efficient and less difficult instrumentation, investigators have proposed lasers as an alternative or as adjuncts to scaling and root planing. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of erbium doped: Yttirum aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser scaling and root planing alone or as an adjunct to hand and ultrasonic instrumentation. Subjects and Methods: A total of 75 freshly extracted periodontally involved single rooted teeth were collected. Teeth were randomly divided into five treatment groups having 15 teeth each: Hand scaling only, ultrasonic scaling only, Er:YAG laser scaling only, hand scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling and ultrasonic scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling. Specimens were subjected to scanning electron microscopy and photographs were evaluated by three examiners who were blinded to the study. Parameters included were remaining calculus index, loss of tooth substance index, roughness loss of tooth substance index, presence or absence of smear layer, thermal damage and any other morphological damage. Results: Er:YAG laser treated specimens showed similar effectiveness in calculus removal to the other test groups whereas tooth substance loss and tooth surface roughness was more on comparison with other groups. Ultrasonic treated specimens showed better results as compared to other groups with different parameters. However, smear layer presence was seen more with hand and ultrasonic groups. Very few laser treated specimens showed thermal damage and morphological change. Interpretation and Conclusion: In our study, ultrasonic scaling specimen have shown root surface clean and practically unaltered. On the other hand, hand instrument have produced a plane surface, but removed more

  13. A comparative scanning electron microscopy study between hand instrument, ultrasonic scaling and erbium doped:Yttirum aluminum garnet laser on root surface: A morphological and thermal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitul Kumar Mishra


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Scaling and root planing is one of the most commonly used procedures for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Removal of calculus using conventional hand instruments is incomplete and rather time consuming. In search of more efficient and less difficult instrumentation, investigators have proposed lasers as an alternative or as adjuncts to scaling and root planing. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of erbium doped: Yttirum aluminum garnet (Er:YAG laser scaling and root planing alone or as an adjunct to hand and ultrasonic instrumentation. Subjects and Methods: A total of 75 freshly extracted periodontally involved single rooted teeth were collected. Teeth were randomly divided into five treatment groups having 15 teeth each: Hand scaling only, ultrasonic scaling only, Er:YAG laser scaling only, hand scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling and ultrasonic scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling. Specimens were subjected to scanning electron microscopy and photographs were evaluated by three examiners who were blinded to the study. Parameters included were remaining calculus index, loss of tooth substance index, roughness loss of tooth substance index, presence or absence of smear layer, thermal damage and any other morphological damage. Results: Er:YAG laser treated specimens showed similar effectiveness in calculus removal to the other test groups whereas tooth substance loss and tooth surface roughness was more on comparison with other groups. Ultrasonic treated specimens showed better results as compared to other groups with different parameters. However, smear layer presence was seen more with hand and ultrasonic groups. Very few laser treated specimens showed thermal damage and morphological change. Interpretation and Conclusion: In our study, ultrasonic scaling specimen have shown root surface clean and practically unaltered. On the other hand, hand instrument have produced a plane surface

  14. Thermal mechanical analysis of applications with internal heat generation (United States)

    Govindarajan, Srisharan Garg

    control blade, spatial variations in temperature within the control blade occur from the non-uniform heat generation within the BORAL as a result of the non-uniform thermal neutron flux along the longitudinal direction when the control blade is partially withdrawn. There is also variation in the heating profile through the thickness and about the circumferential width of the control blade. Mathematical curve-fits are generated for the non-uniform volumetric heat generation profile caused by the thermal neutron absorption and the functions are applied as heating conditions within a finite element model of the control blade built using the commercial finite element code Abaqus FEA. The finite element model is solved as a fully coupled thermal mechanical problem as in the case of the annular target. The resulting deflection is compared with the channel gap to determine if there is a significant risk of the control blade binding during reactor operation. Hence, this dissertation will consist of two sections. The first section will seek to present the thermal and structural safety analyses of the annular targets for the production of molybdenum-99. Since there hasn't been any detailed, documented, study on these annular targets in the past, the work complied in this dissertation will help to understand the thermal-mechanical behavior and failure margins of the target during in-vessel irradiation. As the work presented in this dissertation provides a general performance analysis envelope for the annular target, the tools developed in the process can also be used as useful references for future analyses that are specific to any reactor. The numerical analysis approach adopted and the analytical models developed, can also be applied to other applications, outside the Mo-99 project domain, where internal heat generation exists such as in electronic components and nuclear reactor control blades. The second section will focus on estimating the thermally induced deflection and hence

  15. Dielectric and thermal studies on gel grown strontium tartrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/boms/033/04/0377-0382. Keywords. Permittivity; polarization effects; strontium tartrate; thermal properties; dielectric properties. Abstract. Results of dielectric and thermal studies on strontium tartrate pentahydrate crystals are described.

  16. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Using GIS on Application of HTR to Thermal Recovery of Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangping Zhou


    Full Text Available At present, large water demand and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions have emerged as challenges of steam injection for oil thermal recovery. This paper proposed a strategy of superheated steam injection by the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR for thermal recovery of heavy oil, which has less demand of water and emission of CO2. The paper outlines the problems of conventional steam injection and addresses the advantages of superheated steam injection by HTR from the aspects of technology, economy, and environment. A Geographic Information System (GIS embedded with a thermal hydraulic analysis function is designed and developed to analyze the strategy, which can make the analysis work more practical and credible. Thermal hydraulic analysis using this GIS is carried out by applying this strategy to a reference heavy oil field. Two kinds of injection are considered and compared: wet steam injection by conventional boilers and superheated steam injection by HTR. The heat loss, pressure drop, and possible phase transformation are calculated and analyzed when the steam flows through the pipeline and well tube and is finally injected into the oil reservoir. The result shows that the superheated steam injection from HTR is applicable and promising for thermal recovery of heavy oil reservoirs.

  17. A Study on thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the coolant materials for the transmutation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang [Seoul National University, Taejon (Korea)


    The objective of this study is to provide the direction of transmutation reactor design in terms of thermal hydraulics especially through the analysis of thermal hydraulic characteristics of various candidate materials for the transmutation reactor coolant. In this study, the characteristics of coolant materials used in current nuclear power plants and candidate materials for transmutation reactor are analyzed and compared. To evaluate the thermal hydraulic characteristics, the preliminary thermal-hydraulic calculation is performed for the candidate coolant materials of transmutation reactor. An analysis of thermal-hydraulic characteristics of transmutation reactor. An analysis of thermal-hydraulic characteristics of Sodium, Lead, Lead-Bismuth, and Lead-Lithium among the liquid metals considered as the coolant of transmutation reactor is performed by using computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT, and SIMPLER algorithm. (author). 50 refs., 40 figs., 30 tabs.

  18. ISS-CREAM Thermal and Fluid System Design and Analysis (United States)

    Thorpe, Rosemary S.


    Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS), Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. The ISS-CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass for the International Space Station) payload is being developed by an international team and will provide significant cosmic ray characterization over a long time frame. Cold fluid provided by the ISS Exposed Facility (EF) is the primary means of cooling for 5 science instruments and over 7 electronics boxes. Thermal fluid integrated design and analysis was performed for CREAM using a Thermal Desktop model. This presentation will provide some specific design and modeling examples from the fluid cooling system, complex SCD (Silicon Charge Detector) and calorimeter hardware, and integrated payload and ISS level modeling. Features of Thermal Desktop such as CAD simplification, meshing of complex hardware, External References (Xrefs), and FloCAD modeling will be discussed.

  19. Analysis of Thermal Comfort in an Intelligent Building (United States)

    Majewski, Grzegorz; Telejko, Marek; Orman, Łukasz J.


    Analysis of thermal comfort in the ENERGIS Building, an intelligent building in the campus of the Kielce University of Technology, Poland is the focus of this paper. For this purpose, air temperature, air relative humidity, air flow rate and carbon dioxide concentration were measured and the mean radiant temperature was determined. Thermal sensations of the students occupying the rooms of the building were evaluated with the use of a questionnaire. The students used a seven-point scale of thermal comfort. The microclimate measurement results were used to determine the Predicted Mean Vote and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied indices.

  20. Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry Techniques for Catalytic Investigations (United States)

    Le Parlouër, Pierre

    The use of thermal analysis and calorimetry techniques is quite an old and known field of applications for the catalytic investigations and many publications have been published on the various topics including analysis of catalysts, investigation of the processes during the preparation of catalysts, desactivation of catalysts and interaction of reactants or catalytic poisons with the catalysts. Differential thermal analysis, calorimetry and thermogravimetry are also used to characterize the catalysts, especially in the field of gas-solid and gas-liquid interactions. Since the last years, many technical improvements have appeared in the design and the use of thermal analyzers and calorimeters, particularly for the characterization of catalysts. This chapter gives a detailed overview of the uptodate thermal techniques covering various techniques including Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), the calorimetric techniques (including Isothermal Calorimetry, Titration Calorimetry), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), the combined techniques (including TG-DTA and TG-DSC), the Evolved Gas Analysis (including TG-MS, TG-FTIR). Some examples of applications are given to illustrate the catalyst characterizations.

  1. Probing the heat sources during thermal runaway process by thermal analysis of different battery chemistries (United States)

    Zheng, Siqi; Wang, Li; Feng, Xuning; He, Xiangming


    Safety issue is very important for the lithium ion battery used in electric vehicle or other applications. This paper probes the heat sources in the thermal runaway processes of lithium ion batteries composed of different chemistries using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The adiabatic thermal runaway features for the 4 types of commercial lithium ion batteries are tested using ARC, whereas the reaction characteristics of the component materials, including the cathode, the anode and the separator, inside the 4 types of batteries are measured using DSC. The peaks and valleys of the critical component reactions measured by DSC can match the fluctuations in the temperature rise rate measured by ARC, therefore the relevance between the DSC curves and the ARC curves is utilized to probe the heat source in the thermal runaway process and reveal the thermal runaway mechanisms. The results and analysis indicate that internal short circuit is not the only way to thermal runaway, but can lead to extra electrical heat, which is comparable with the heat released by chemical reactions. The analytical approach of the thermal runaway mechanisms in this paper can guide the safety design of commercial lithium ion batteries.

  2. Current research on shear buckling and thermal loads with PASCO - Panel analysis and sizing code (United States)

    Stroud, W. J.; Greene, W. H.; Anderson, M. S.


    The stiffened composite structural panel analysis and sizing code designated 'PASCO' encompasses both the generality required for the exploitation of composite materials' design flexibility and an accurate buckling analysis for the detection of complex buckling modes. PASCO can accordingly design for buckling, frequency, material strength, and panel stiffness requirements. Attention is given to an additional thermal loading design capability. Design studies illustrate the importance of the multiple load condition capability when thermal loads are present.

  3. Study on Thermal Insulation Zeolite by Coal Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiping Song


    Full Text Available This paper takes the coal fly ash as the material and makes zeolite with low thermal conductivity under a two-step synthesis for the purpose of thermal insulation. It studies main factors affecting zeolite such as the different concentration of NaOH, the solid-liquid ratio, the silica-alumina ratio, and the crystallization temperature. The optimal conditions were obtained that the NaOH concentration was 3 mol/L, the solid-liquid ratio was 10 : 1, the silica-alumina ratio was 2, and the crystallization temperature was 12°C. Zeolites have multiple pores and skeletal structures under SEM observation. The mean particle size was 2.78 um of concentrated distribution. The pore volume was 0.148 m3/g measured by BET analysis, the specific surface was 118.6 m2/g, and the thermal conductivity was 0.153 W/(m·K. Zeolite was proved to be a qualified insulation material which can be used in thermal insulation coating as a new material of energy conservation.

  4. Thermal analysis of disc brakes using finite element method (United States)

    Jaenudin, Jamari, J.; Tauviqirrahman, M.


    Disc brakes are components of a vehicle that serve to slow or stop the rotation of the wheel. This paper discusses the phenomenon of heat distribution on the brake disc during braking. Heat distribution on the brake disc is caused by kinetic energy changing into mechanical energy. Energy changes occur during the braking process due to friction between the surface of the disc and a disc pad. The temperature resulting from this friction rises high. This thermal analysis on brake discs is aimed to evaluate the performance of an electric car in the braking process. The aim of this study is to analyze the thermal behavior of the brake discs using the Finite Element Method (FEM) through examining the heat distribution on the brake disc using 3-D modeling. Results obtained from the FEM reflect the effects of high heat due to the friction between the disc pad with the disc rotor. Results of the simulation study are used to identify the effect of the heat distribution that occurred during the braking process.

  5. Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.E.


    This document reports results from an ion exchange column heat transfer analysis requested by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades.

  6. Analysis on energy consumption index system of thermal power plant (United States)

    Qian, J. B.; Zhang, N.; Li, H. F.


    Currently, the increasingly tense situation in the context of resources, energy conservation is a realistic choice to ease the energy constraint contradictions, reduce energy consumption thermal power plants has become an inevitable development direction. And combined with computer network technology to build thermal power “small index” to monitor and optimize the management system, the power plant is the application of information technology and to meet the power requirements of the product market competition. This paper, first described the research status of thermal power saving theory, then attempted to establish the small index system and build “small index” monitoring and optimization management system in thermal power plant. Finally elaborated key issues in the field of small thermal power plant technical and economic indicators to be further studied and resolved.

  7. Coupled thermal, structural and vibrational analysis of a hypersonic engine for flight test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sook-Ying, Ho [Defence Science and Technology Organisation, SA (Australia); Paull, A. [Queensland Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Australia)


    This paper describes a relatively simple and quick method for implementing aerodynamic heating models into a finite element code for non-linear transient thermal-structural and thermal-structural-vibrational analyses of a Mach 10 generic HyShot scram-jet engine. The thermal-structural-vibrational response of the engine was studied for the descent trajectory from 60 to 26 km. Aerodynamic heating fluxes, as a function of spatial position and time for varying trajectory points, were implemented in the transient heat analysis. Additionally, the combined effect of varying dynamic pressure and thermal loads with altitude was considered. This aero-thermal-structural analysis capability was used to assess the temperature distribution, engine geometry distortion and yielding of the structural material due to aerodynamic heating during the descent trajectory, and for optimising the wall thickness, nose radius of leading edge, etc. of the engine intake. A structural vibration analysis was also performed following the aero-thermal-structural analysis to determine the changes in natural frequencies of the structural vibration modes that occur at the various temperatures associated with the descent trajectory. This analysis provides a unique and relatively simple design strategy for predicting and mitigating the thermal-structural-vibrational response of hypersonic engines. (authors)

  8. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the ARES Atmospheric Flight Vehicle Thermal Control System (United States)

    Gasbarre, J. F.; Dillman, R. A.


    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a proposed 2007 Mars Scout Mission that will be the first mission to deploy an atmospheric flight vehicle (AFV) on another planet. This paper will describe the preliminary design and analysis of the AFV thermal control system for its flight through the Martian atmosphere and also present other analyses broadening the scope of that design to include other phases of the ARES mission. Initial analyses are discussed and results of trade studies are presented which detail the design process for AFV thermal control. Finally, results of the most recent AFV thermal analysis are shown and the plans for future work are discussed.

  9. Some selected quantitative methods of thermal image analysis in Matlab. (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert


    The paper presents a new algorithm based on some selected automatic quantitative methods for analysing thermal images. It shows the practical implementation of these image analysis methods in Matlab. It enables to perform fully automated and reproducible measurements of selected parameters in thermal images. The paper also shows two examples of the use of the proposed image analysis methods for the area of ​​the skin of a human foot and face. The full source code of the developed application is also provided as an attachment. The main window of the program during dynamic analysis of the foot thermal image. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Thermal analysis of RFETS SS and C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.S.


    In support of the gas generation test program (GGTP) for the 9975 shipping container, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted. The objective of this activity was to determine the moisture content as an input to the gas generation model.

  11. CFD Analysis of Thermal Control System Using NX Thermal and Flow (United States)

    Fortier, C. R.; Harris, M. F. (Editor); McConnell, S. (Editor)


    The Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) is a key part of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) for the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this subsystem is to provide thermal control, mainly cooling, to the other APH subsystems. One of these subsystems, the Environmental Control Subsystem (ECS), controls the temperature and humidity of the growth chamber (GC) air to optimize the growth of plants in the habitat. The TCS provides thermal control to the ECS with three cold plates, which use Thermoelectric Coolers (TECs) to heat or cool water as needed to control the air temperature in the ECS system. In order to optimize the TCS design, pressure drop and heat transfer analyses were needed. The analysis for this system was performed in Siemens NX Thermal/Flow software (Version 8.5). NX Thermal/Flow has the ability to perform 1D or 3D flow solutions. The 1D flow solver can be used to represent simple geometries, such as pipes and tubes. The 1D flow method also has the ability to simulate either fluid only or fluid and wall regions. The 3D flow solver is similar to other Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. TCS performance was analyzed using both the 1D and 3D solvers. Each method produced different results, which will be evaluated and discussed.

  12. Thermal Sensor Arrays for The Combinatorial Analysis of Thin Films (United States)

    McCluskey, Patrick James


    Membrane-based thermal sensor arrays were developed for the high-throughput analysis of the thermophysical properties of thin films. The continuous growth of integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems, as well as the development of functional materials and the optimization of materials properties, have produced the need for instruments capable of fast materials screening and analysis at reduced length scales. Two instruments were developed based on a similar architecture, one to measure thermal transport properties and the other to perform calorimetry measurements. Both have the capability to accelerate the pace of materials development and understanding using combinatorial measurement methods. The shared architecture of the instruments consists of a silicon-based micromachined array of thermal sensors. Each sensor consists of a SiN X membrane and a W heating element that also serves as a temperature gauge. The array design allows the simultaneous creation of a library of thin film samples by various deposition techniques while systematically varying a parameter of interest across the device. The membrane-based sensors have little thermal mass making them extremely sensitive to changes in thermal energy. The nano-thermal transport array has an array of sensors optimized for sensitivity to heat loss. The heat loss is determined from the temperature response of the sensor to an applied current. An analytical model is used with a linear regression analysis to fit the thermal properties of the samples to the temperature response. The assumptions of the analytical model are validated with a finite element model. Measured thermal properties include specific heat, thermal effusivity, thermal conductivity, and emissivity. The technique is demonstrated by measuring the thermal transport properties of sputter deposited Cu multilayers with a total film thickness from 15 to 470 nm. The experimental results compare well to a theory based on electronic thermal

  13. Thermal Stress Awareness, Self-Study #18649

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Thermal stresses can expose individuals to a variety of health hazards at work, home, and play. Every year thermal stresses cause severe injuries and death to a large range of people, from elderly people in cities during summer heat waves to young people engaged in winter mountaineering. Awareness is the key to preventing the health hazards associated with thermal stresses. This course is designed for personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It addresses both heat and cold stresses and discusses their factors, signs and symptoms, treatments, and controls.

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure, thermal analysis and dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In both the materials, the crystal structure has been determined by X-ray single crystal analysis at room temperature (293 K). The compound structures consist of K + (or NH 4 + ) cations and double chains of CdCl 6 octahedra sharing one edge extending along b -axis. The mixture of KA + /NH 4 + cations are located ...

  15. Thermal conductivity of penta-graphene from molecular dynamics study. (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen


    Using classical equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and applying the original Tersoff interatomic potential, we study the thermal transport property of the latest two dimensional carbon allotrope, penta-graphene. It is predicted that its room-temperature thermal conductivity is about 167 W/mK, which is much lower than that of graphene. With normal mode decomposition, the accumulated thermal conductivity with respect to phonon frequency and mean free path is analyzed. It is found that the acoustic phonons make a contribution of about 90% to the thermal conductivity, and phonons with mean free paths larger than 100 nm make a contribution over 50%. We demonstrate that the remarkably lower thermal conductivity of penta-graphene compared with graphene results from the lower phonon group velocities and fewer collective phonon excitations. Our study highlights the importance of structure-property relationship and provides better understanding of thermal transport property and valuable insight into thermal management of penta-graphene.

  16. Finite element thermal analysis of convectively-cooled aircraft structures (United States)

    Wieting, A. R.; Thornton, E. A.


    The design complexity and size of convectively-cooled engine and airframe structures for hypersonic transports necessitate the use of large general purpose computer programs for both thermal and structural analyses. Generally thermal analyses are based on the lumped-parameter finite difference technique, and structural analyses are based on the finite element technique. Differences in these techniques make it difficult to achieve an efficient interface. It appears, therefore, desirable to conduct an integrated analysis based on a common technique. A summary is provided of efforts by NASA concerned with the development of an integrated thermal structural analysis capability using the finite element method. Particular attention is given to the development of conduction/forced-convection finite element methodology and applications which illustrate the capabilities of the developed concepts.

  17. Multidisciplinary Analysis of a Microsystem Device for Thermal Control (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.


    A microelectromechanical (MEMS) device is under development that uses the Stirling cycle to provide cooling or heating directly to a thermally loaded surface. This MEMS cooler can be used strictly in the cooling mode, or switched between cooling and heating modes in milliseconds for precise temporal and spatial temperature control. Potential applications include cooling and thermal control of: microsystems, electronics, sensors, biomedical devices, and spacecraft components. A primary challenge for further development is the multidisciplinary analysis required to characterize and optimize its performance. This paper describes the first-order thermodynamic analysis performed on the MEMS cooler and the resulting ideal performance curves generated. The basis for additional coupled analyses such as fluid/gas dynamics, thermal, electrostatic, structural, dynamic, material, and processing is addressed. Scaling issues relevant to the device and the breakdown of continuum theory in the micro-domain is also examined.

  18. Determination of Polymers Thermal Degradation by Color Change Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González


    Full Text Available Context: It has been observed that thermal degradation of thermoplastic polymers, when they are reprocessed by injection, extrusion and extrusion / injection, undergo color changes in the product, although it not has been established as this change occurs. Method: It analyzed the effect on thermal degradation caused by polymer type, processing type, polymer grade, rotation speed of the extrusion screw and number of reprocessing, which is quantified by the color change using an empirical equation, with experimental data obtained by analysis through a microcolor colorimeter. Results: It was found that the color change analysis provides information about progress of the thermal degradation and stability of thermoplastic polymers, which are undergoing to multiple reprocessing events and processes. Conclusions: It was established that this technique can be implemented as a simple and efficient measure of thermoplastic products quality control, according to their color change.

  19. Morphological, structural and thermal studies of gallium nitride ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indrakanti, Rajani [Department of Physics, VNRVJIET, Hyderabad, Telangana (India); Rao, V. Brahmaji [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, School of Biotechnology, DSRF, Hyderabad, Telangana (India); Kiran, C. Udaya [Department of Mechanical Engineering, JBIET, Hyderabad, Telangana (India)


    We report the synthesis and Characterization of III-V doped Nano ferrite Ga{sub (2x+2)}N Fe{sub 2(49-x)}O{sub 3} for x=1 and x=5 by Sol-Gel method. The Morphological, structural and Thermal characterisation studies are done by using Transmission Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis, Selected Area Electron Diffraction, Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Thermal Analysis. Using the Sci-Finder software we could not trace any reports related to GaNFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the literature. It has been observed from our studies that the particles are in the Cylindrical and the Globular structure. The particle diameter values from the Histograms are in good agreement with the XRD values that were communicated by us earlier. The SAED and the EDAX studies reveal the confirmation of the composition and also that the synthesized Ferrite exhibits crystalline nature. The TG-DTA results show that the compound indicates constant sample weight.

  20. Scientific Ballooning Technologies Workshop STO-2 Thermal Design and Analysis (United States)

    Ferguson, Doug


    The heritage thermal model for the full STO-2 (Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory II), vehicle has been updated to model the CSBF (Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility) SIP-14 (Scientific Instrument Package) in detail. Analysis of this model has been performed for the Antarctica FY2017 launch season. Model temperature predictions are compared to previous results from STO-2 review documents.

  1. Heat transfer and thermal stress analysis in grooved tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heat transfer and thermal stresses, induced by temperature differencesin the internally grooved tubes of heat transfer equipment, have been analysed numerically. The analysis has been conducted for four different kinds of internally grooved tubes and three different mean inlet water velocities. Constant temperature was ...

  2. ICTAC nomenclature of thermal analysis (IUPAC Recommendations 2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lever, T.; Haines, P.; Rouquerol, J.; Charsley, E.L.; Ekeren, P.J. van; Burlett, D.J.


    The widespread use of thermal analysis (TA) by scientists as a laboratory technique carries with it a working vocabulary. This document is intended to provide those working in the field with a consistent set of definitions to permit clear and precise communication as well as understanding. Included

  3. Measuring energy expenditure in sports by thermal video analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Larsen, Ryan Godsk; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    Estimation of human energy expenditure in sports and exercise contributes to performance analyses and tracking of physical activity levels. The focus of this work is to develop a video-based method for estimation of energy expenditure in athletes. We propose a method using thermal video analysis ...

  4. Generic repository design concepts and thermal analysis (FY11).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Robert (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Dupont, Mark (Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC); Blink, James A. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Fratoni, Massimiliano (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Greenberg, Harris (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Carter, Joe (Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC); Hardin, Ernest L.; Sutton, Mark A. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA)


    Reference concepts for geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the U.S. are developed, including geologic settings and engineered barriers. Repository thermal analysis is demonstrated for a range of waste types from projected future, advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The results show significant differences among geologic media considered (clay/shale, crystalline rock, salt), and also that waste package size and waste loading must be limited to meet targeted maximum temperature values. In this study, the UFD R&D Campaign has developed a set of reference geologic disposal concepts for a range of waste types that could potentially be generated in advanced nuclear FCs. A disposal concept consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. Mature repository concepts have been developed in other countries for disposal of spent LWR fuel and HLW from reprocessing UNF, and these serve as starting points for developing this set. Additional design details and EBS concepts will be considered as the reference disposal concepts evolve. The waste inventory considered in this study includes: (1) direct disposal of SNF from the LWR fleet, including Gen III+ advanced LWRs being developed through the Nuclear Power 2010 Program, operating in a once-through cycle; (2) waste generated from reprocessing of LWR UOX UNF to recover U and Pu, and subsequent direct disposal of used Pu-MOX fuel (also used in LWRs) in a modified-open cycle; and (3) waste generated by continuous recycling of metal fuel from fast reactors operating in a TRU burner configuration, with additional TRU material input supplied from reprocessing of LWR UOX fuel. The geologic setting provides the natural barriers, and establishes the boundary conditions for performance of engineered barriers. The composition and physical properties of the host medium dictate design and construction approaches, and determine hydrologic and thermal responses of the

  5. CFD analysis of aircraft fuel tanks thermal behaviour (United States)

    Zilio, C.; Longo, G. A.; Pernigotto, G.; Chiacchio, F.; Borrelli, P.; D’Errico, E.


    This work is carried out within the FP7 European research project TOICA (Thermal Overall Integrated Conception of Aircraft, One of the tasks foreseen for the TOICA project is the analysis of fuel tanks as possible heat sinks for future aircrafts. In particular, in the present paper, commercial regional aircraft is considered as case study and CFD analysis with the commercial code STAR-CCM+ is performed in order to identify the potential capability to use fuel stored in the tanks as a heat sink for waste heat dissipated by other systems. The complex physical phenomena that characterize the heat transfer inside liquid fuel, at the fuel-ullage interface and inside the ullage are outlined. Boundary conditions, including the effect of different ground and flight conditions, are implemented in the numerical simulation approach. The analysis is implemented for a portion of aluminium wing fuel tank, including the leading edge effects. Effect of liquid fuel transfer among different tank compartments and the air flow in the ullage is included. According to Fuel Tank Flammability Assessment Method (FTFAM) proposed by the Federal Aviation Administration, the results are exploited in terms of exponential time constants and fuel temperature difference to the ambient for the different cases investigated.

  6. Thermal Analysis of Bending Under Tension Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels


    sometimes can cause lubricant film breakdown and galling. In order to replicate the production conditions in bending under tension testing it is thus important to control the tool/workpiece interface temperature. This can be done by pre-heating the tool, but it is essential that the interface temperature......The tribological conditions in deep drawing can be simulated in the Bending Under Tension test to evaluate the performance of new lubricants, tool materials, etc. Deep drawing production with automatic handling runs normally at high rate. This implies considerable heating of the tools, which...... during testing is similar to the one in the production tool. A universal sheet tribo-tester has been developed, which can run multiple tests automatically from coil. This allows emulating the temperature increase as in production. The present work performs finite element analysis of the evolution...

  7. Concrete containment analysis including thermal effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.; Marchertas, A.H.


    Pretest predictions were made by the staff of the Engineering Mechanics Program at ANL for the response of the 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model that was tested to failure by liner tearing and leakage at the Sandia National Laboratories. Questions have been raised in regard to possible effects of temperature in combination with internal pressure on the behavior of the model. Specifically, if the containment had been subjected to elevated temperature as well as internal pressure, what differences in pressure capacity, failure mechanism and location would have been predicted when compared to the analysis of internal pressure alone. The purpose of this paper is to address these questions. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Two-Dimensional Finite Element Ablative Thermal Response Analysis of an Arcjet Stagnation Test (United States)

    Dec, John A.; Laub, Bernard; Braun, Robert D.


    The finite element ablation and thermal response (FEAtR, hence forth called FEAR) design and analysis program simulates the one, two, or three-dimensional ablation, internal heat conduction, thermal decomposition, and pyrolysis gas flow of thermal protection system materials. As part of a code validation study, two-dimensional axisymmetric results from FEAR are compared to thermal response data obtained from an arc-jet stagnation test in this paper. The results from FEAR are also compared to the two-dimensional axisymmetric computations from the two-dimensional implicit thermal response and ablation program under the same arcjet conditions. The ablating material being used in this arcjet test is phenolic impregnated carbon ablator with an LI-2200 insulator as backup material. The test is performed at the NASA, Ames Research Center Interaction Heating Facility. Spatially distributed computational fluid dynamics solutions for the flow field around the test article are used for the surface boundary conditions.

  9. Variation in heat sink shape for thermal analysis (United States)

    Wong, C. M.; Aziz, M. H. B. A.; Ong, N. R.; Alcain, J. B.; Sauli, Z.


    The concern about the thermal performance of microelectronics is on the increase due to recent over-heating induced failures which have led to product recalls. Removal of excess heat from microelectronic systems with the use of heat sinks could improve thermal efficiency of the system. The shape of the heat sink model with difference fin configuration has significant influence on cooling performances. This paper investigates the effect of change in heat sink geometry on an electronic package through COMSOL Multiphysics software as well as the thermal performance of difference heat sink geometry corresponding to various air inlet velocities. Based on this study, plate fin heat sink has better thermal performance than strip pin fin and circular pin fin heat sink due to less obstruction of the heat sink design.

  10. Analysis and Experimental on Aircraft Insulation Thermal Bridge Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIA Tian


    Full Text Available Two kinds of typical aircraft insulation structures were designed for the heat bridge in the metal ribs of aircraft insulation structures. In order to study the influence of heat bridge effect on thermal insulation performance, each configuration was analyzed by the transient heat transfer FEA, check point temperature was obtained in the hot surface temperature of 100 ℃, 200 ℃, 300 ℃, 424 ℃ respectively, and the validity of FEA was proved by insulation performance experiment. The result showed that the thermal bridge has a great influence to the insulation performance of insulation structure, and the thermal bridge influence should be considered adequately when the insulation structure designed. Additionally, the blocking method for thermal bridge is also put forward.

  11. Thermal Damage Analysis in Biological Tissues Under Optical Irradiation: Application to the Skin (United States)

    Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Solana-Quirós, José Ramón; Arce-Diego, José Luis


    The use of optical sources in medical praxis is increasing nowadays. In this study, different approaches using thermo-optical principles that allow us to predict thermal damage in irradiated tissues are analyzed. Optical propagation is studied by means of the radiation transport theory (RTT) equation, solved via a Monte Carlo analysis. Data obtained are included in a bio-heat equation, solved via a numerical finite difference approach. Optothermal properties are considered for the model to be accurate and reliable. Thermal distribution is calculated as a function of optical source parameters, mainly optical irradiance, wavelength and exposition time. Two thermal damage models, the cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM) 43 °C approach and the Arrhenius analysis, are used. The former is appropriate when dealing with dosimetry considerations at constant temperature. The latter is adequate to predict thermal damage with arbitrary temperature time dependence. Both models are applied and compared for the particular application of skin thermotherapy irradiation.

  12. Thermal Degradation Studies of Polyurethane/POSS Nanohybrid Elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicki, J P; Pielichowski, K; TremblotDeLaCroix, P; Janowski, B; Todd, D; Liggat, J J


    Reported here is the synthesis of a series of Polyurethane/POSS nanohybrid elastomers, the characterization of their thermal stability and degradation behavior at elevated temperatures using a combination of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Thermal Volatilization Analysis (TVA). A series of PU elastomers systems have been formulated incorporating varying levels of 1,2-propanediol-heptaisobutyl-POSS (PHIPOSS) as a chain extender unit, replacing butane diol. The bulk thermal stability of the nanohybrid systems has been characterized using TGA. Results indicate that covalent incorporation of POSS into the PU elastomer network increase the non-oxidative thermal stability of the systems. TVA analysis of the thermal degradation of the POSS/PU hybrid elastomers have demonstrated that the hybrid systems are indeed more thermally stable when compared to the unmodified PU matrix; evolving significantly reduced levels of volatile degradation products and exhibiting a {approx}30 C increase in onset degradation temperature. Furthermore, characterization of the distribution of degradation products from both unmodified and hybrid systems indicate that the inclusion of POSS in the PU network is directly influencing the degradation pathways of both the soft and hard block components of the elastomers: The POSS/PU hybrid systems show reduced levels of CO, CO2, water and increased levels of THF as products of thermal degradation.

  13. Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis for Pressurizer Surge Line subjected to Thermal Stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Jhung, Myung Jo; Yang, Chae Yong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Fluid-Structure Interactions (FSIs) occurring inevitably in operating reactor component systems can cause excessive force or stress to the structures resulting in mechanical damages that may eventually threaten the structural integrity of components. To solve FSI problems, results from one field (fluid-thermal) analysis are applied as loads in other fields (structural) analysis. If two media with different densities flow inside a pipe, thermal stratification can occur. Warm water is lighter than cool water and therefore tends to float on top of the cooler and heavier water, resulting in the upper portion of the pipe being hotter than the lower portion. Under these conditions, differential thermal expansion of the pipe metal can cause the pipe to deflect significantly. Unexpected piping movements are highly undesirable because of potential high piping stress that may exceed design limits for fatigue and stress. In PWRs, there are great possibilities of occurrence of thermal stratification at the feed water lines of the steam generator, at the pressurizer surge line and at the injection pipes of the emergency core cooling systems. The most affected pipe by the thermal stratification is reported to be the pressurizer surge line. Therefore in this study, a thermal-stress simulation is performed using ANSYS FSI. For the pressurizer surge line, thermal loads are transferred from ANSYS CFX to ANSYS Multiphysics in order to determine the heat transfer between the fluid and the solid body. From this information, stresses are determined and ultimately a fatigue analysis is performed

  14. Thermal analysis and two-directional air flow thermal management for lithium-ion battery pack (United States)

    Yu, Kuahai; Yang, Xi; Cheng, Yongzhou; Li, Changhao


    Thermal management is a routine but crucial strategy to ensure thermal stability and long-term durability of the lithium-ion batteries. An air-flow-integrated thermal management system is designed in the present study to dissipate heat generation and uniformize the distribution of temperature in the lithium-ion batteries. The system contains of two types of air ducts with independent intake channels and fans. One is to cool the batteries through the regular channel, and the other minimizes the heat accumulations in the middle pack of batteries through jet cooling. A three-dimensional anisotropic heat transfer model is developed to describe the thermal behavior of the lithium-ion batteries with the integration of heat generation theory, and validated through both simulations and experiments. Moreover, the simulations and experiments show that the maximum temperature can be decreased to 33.1 °C through the new thermal management system in comparison with 42.3 °C through the traditional ones, and temperature uniformity of the lithium-ion battery packs is enhanced, significantly.

  15. Vibrational and thermal study of l-methionine nitrate polycrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor, F.M.S.; Ribeiro, L.H.L.; Facanha Filho, P.F.; Santos, C.A.S.; Soares, R.A.; Abreu, D.C.; Sousa, J.C.F.; Carvalho, J.O.; Santos, A.O. dos [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), MA (Brazil)


    Full text: Intensified in studies of nonlinear optical materials has been observed over the past two decades for its wide application in telecommunications, optical modulation and optical signal processing. The goal of this work is the thermal and vibrational study of L-methionine nitrate polycrystalline. The polycrystals were obtained by the method of slow evaporation of solvent at ambient temperature of 25 ° C. The X-ray diffraction was performed to confirm the structure of the material, which has monoclinic structure (space group P21) with four molecules per unit cell structure. Refinement by Rietveld method has been optimized and good quality parameters Rwp = 7.97% , Rp = 5.74 and S = 1.92%. The thermal stability of the material was verified from Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The measures showed a possible phase transition event at about 107°C before the melting point of the material, which took place at about 127°C. Thermogravimetric analysis showed two mass loss events of 61.5% and 30.4%. The vibrational modes of the L-methionine nitrate molecule were identified by Raman spectroscopy in the spectral range between 35cm-1 and 3500 cm-1, the scattering measurements were made from room temperature up to the melting temperature of the material (140 ° C ) in which the disappearance of bands was found in the region of normal modes at 130 ° C, thus demonstrating a irreversible structural phase transition, because the spectrum obtained after returning the sample to ambient temperature is typical of amorphous material. (author)

  16. Applications of sample-controlled thermal analysis (SCTA) to kinetic analysis and synthesis of materials


    Pérez-Maqueda, Luis A.; Criado Luque, J.M.; Sánchez-Jiménez, P.E.; Diánez, M. J.


    The advantages of the sample-controlled thermal analysis (SCTA) for both the kinetic analysis of solid-state reactions and the synthesis of materials are reviewed. This method implies an intelligent control of the temperature by the solid-state reaction under study in such a way that the reaction rate as a function of the time fits a profile previously defined by the user. It has been shown that SCTA has important advantages for discriminating the kinetic model of solid-state reactions as com...

  17. Modeling and analysis of AGS thermal shock experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Kim, S.H.; Haines, J.R.


    An overview is provided on modeling and analysis of thermal shock experiments conducted with high-energy, short-pulse energy deposition in a mercury filled container in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The simulation framework utilized along with results of simulations for pressure and strain profiles are presented. While the magnitude of peak strain predictions versus data are in reasonable agreement, the temporal variations were found to differ significantly in selected cases, indicating lack of modeling of certain physical phenomena or due to uncertainties in the experimental data gathering techniques. Key thermal-shock related issues and uncertainties are highlighted.

  18. An empirical analysis of thermal protective performance of fabrics used in protective clothing. (United States)

    Mandal, Sumit; Song, Guowen


    Fabric-based protective clothing is widely used for occupational safety of firefighters/industrial workers. The aim of this paper is to study thermal protective performance provided by fabric systems and to propose an effective model for predicting the thermal protective performance under various thermal exposures. Different fabric systems that are commonly used to manufacture thermal protective clothing were selected. Laboratory simulations of the various thermal exposures were created to evaluate the protective performance of the selected fabric systems in terms of time required to generate second-degree burns. Through the characterization of selected fabric systems in a particular thermal exposure, various factors affecting the performances were statistically analyzed. The key factors for a particular thermal exposure were recognized based on the t-test analysis. Using these key factors, the performance predictive multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) models were developed and compared. The identified best-fit ANN models provide a basic tool to study thermal protective performance of a fabric. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  19. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer (United States)

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei


    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  20. Electrical and Thermal Performance Analysis for a Highly Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xu


    Full Text Available A 30 kW highly concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (HCPV/T system has been constructed and tested outdoors. The HCPV/T system consists of 32 modules, each of which consists of point-focus Fresnel lens and triple-junction solar cells with a geometric concentrating ratio of 1090x. The modules are connected to produce both electrical and thermal energy. Performance analysis has been conducted from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. The experimental results show that highest photovoltaic efficiency of 30% and instantaneous thermal efficiency of 30% can be achieved at the same time, which means the total solar energy conversion efficiency of the HCPV/T system is higher than 60%. The photovoltaic efficiency increases with direct irradiance when the direct irradiance is below 580 W/m2, but it remains nearly unchanged when the direct irradiation is higher than 580 W/m2. The instantaneous thermal efficiency decreases during water heating process. However, the electrical performance of the system is not affected obviously by water temperature. Highest exergetic efficiency of 35.4% can be produced by the HCPV/T system. The exergetic efficiency is mainly affected by irradiation level, which is similar to the characteristics of photovoltaic performance.

  1. Synthesis, crystal structure, thermal analysis and dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    providing information about the complete crystal structure at room temperature of the new compounds. These materi- ... Data collection instrument. Kappa-APEX II. Kappa-APEX II. Radiation, graphite ..... graphic method of the mixed compounds K0.57(NH4)0.43CdCl3 and K0.25(NH4)0.75CdCl3. This study is restricted to ...

  2. Studies on thermal processing of Tuna-A comparative study in tin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tin-free steel can is an ideal alternative to open top sanitary tin cans (OTS) for thermal processing of little tuna (Ethynnus affinis) in curry used as filling media. Effect of heat penetration on physical, biochemical and sensory characteristics of canned tuna product were studied. The chemical analysis of raw tuna fish showed a ...

  3. Thermal Analysis of Implant-Defined Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Array (United States)

    Xun, Meng; Xu, Chen; Xie, Yi-Yang; Deng, Jun; Xu, Kun; Chen, Hong-Da


    A three-dimensional electrical-thermal coupling model based on the finite element method is applied to study thermal properties of implant-defined vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays. Several parameters including inter-element spacing, scales, injected current density and substrate temperature are considered. The actual temperatures obtained through experiment are in excellent agreement with the calculated results, which proves the accuracy of the model. Due to the serious thermal problem, it is essential to design arrays of low self-heating. The analysis can provide a foundation for designing VCSEL arrays in the future.

  4. Advaced Spatio-Temporal Thermal Analysis of Electronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Hrianka


    Full Text Available The article gives a brief review the of diagnostics and analysis possibilities by a spatio-temporal approach into electronic system in infrared bandwidth. The two dimensional image grabbed by the thermo vision camera provides information about the surface temperature distribution of an electronic system. The main idea is based on the analysis of the object which consists of a temporal sequence of a spatial thermal images. Advanced analysis is achieved by morphological image gradient spatio-temporal model: The mentioned method provides a total temperature system evaluation as well as it allows separate analysis in the chosen determined temperature area.

  5. Thermal Analysis of an Industrial Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Filipponi


    Full Text Available Industries, which are mainly responsible for high energy consumption, need to invest in research projects in order to develop new managing systems for rational energy use, and to tackle the devastating effects of climate change caused by human behavior. The study described in this paper concerns the forging industry, where the production processes generally start with the heating of steel in furnaces, and continue with other processes, such as heat treatments and different forms of machining. One of the most critical operations, in terms of energy loss, is the opening of the furnace doors for insertion and extraction operations. During this time, the temperature of the furnaces decreases by hundreds of degrees in a few minutes. Because the dispersed heat needs to be supplied again through the combustion of fuel, increasing the consumption of energy and the pollutant emissions, the evaluation of the amount of lost energy is crucial for the development of systems which can contain this loss. To perform this study, CFD simulation software was used. Results show that when the door opens, because of temperature and pressure differences between the furnace and the ambient air, turbulence is created. Results also show that the amount of energy lost for an opening of 10 min for radiation, convection and conduction is equal to 5606 MJ where convection is the main contributor, with 5020 MJ. The model created, after being validated, has been applied to perform other simulations, in order to improve the energy performance of the furnace. Results show that reducing the opening time of the door saves energy and limits pollutant emissions.

  6. Risk analysis of the thermal sterilization process. Analysis of factors affecting the thermal resistance of microorganisms. (United States)

    Akterian, S G; Fernandez, P S; Hendrickx, M E; Tobback, P P; Periago, P M; Martinez, A


    A risk analysis was applied to experimental heat resistance data. This analysis is an approach for processing experimental thermobacteriological data in order to study the variability of D and z values of target microorganisms depending on the deviations range of environmental factors, to determine the critical factors and to specify their critical tolerance. This analysis is based on sets of sensitivity functions applied to a specific case of experimental data related to the thermoresistance of Clostridium sporogenes and Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. The effect of the following factors was analyzed: the type of target microorganism; nature of the heating substrate; pH, temperature; type of acid employed and NaCl concentration. The type of target microorganism to be inactivated, the nature of the substrate (reference or real food) and the heating temperature were identified as critical factors, determining about 90% of the alteration of the microbiological risk. The effect of the type of acid used for the acidification of products and the concentration of NaCl can be assumed to be negligible factors for the purposes of engineering calculations. The critical non-uniformity in temperature during thermobacteriological studies was set as 0.5% and the critical tolerances of pH value and NaCl concentration were 5%. These results are related to a specific case study, for that reason their direct generalization is not correct.

  7. Is Rock-Eval 6 thermal analysis a good indicator of soil organic carbon lability? – A method comparison study in forest soils


    Cécillon, Lauric; Chenu, Claire; Baudin, François; Nicolas, Manuel; Girardin, Cyril; Barré, Pierre


    Soil respiration tests and particulate organic matter (POM) obtained by different fractionation schemes are considered as classical indicators of the labile soil organic carbon (SOC) pool. However, there is still no widely accepted standard method to assess SOC lability and the pertinence of these two time-consuming methods to characterize SOC turnover can be questioned. Alternate ways of determining the labile SOC component are thus well-needed. Thermal analyses, in particular Ro...

  8. TG-MS analysis and kinetic study for thermal decomposition of six representative components of municipal solid waste under steam atmosphere. (United States)

    Zhang, Jinzhi; Chen, Tianju; Wu, Jingli; Wu, Jinhu


    Thermal decomposition of six representative components of municipal solid waste (MSW, including lignin, printing paper, cotton, rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cabbage) was investigated by thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) under steam atmosphere. Compared with TG and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves under N2 atmosphere, thermal decomposition of MSW components under steam atmosphere was divided into pyrolysis and gasification stages. In the pyrolysis stage, the shapes of TG and DTG curves under steam atmosphere were almost the same with those under N2 atmosphere. In the gasification stage, the presence of steam led to a greater mass loss because of the steam partial oxidation of char residue. The evolution profiles of H2, CH4, CO and CO2 were well consistent with DTG curves in terms of appearance of peaks and relevant stages in the whole temperature range, and the steam partial oxidation of char residue promoted the generation of more gas products in high temperature range. The multi-Gaussian distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was proved plausible to describe thermal decomposition behaviours of MSW components under steam atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Studies of the thermal dissolution process of the Suzuki phase of the Eu{sup 2+} ion in KBr single crystals by analysis of photoacoustic signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MejIa-Uriarte, E V [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Laboratorio de FotofIsica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-186, CP 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Castaneda-Guzman, R [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Laboratorio de FotofIsica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-186, CP 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Villagran-Muniz, M [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Laboratorio de FotofIsica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-186, CP 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Camarillo, E [Instituto de FIsica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, CP 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); A, J Hernandez [Instituto de FIsica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, CP 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); S, H Murrieta [Instituto de FIsica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, CP 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Navarrete, M [Instituto de IngenierIa, Coordinacion de IngenierIa Mecanica Termica y Fluidos, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-543, Mexico, DF (Mexico)


    An experimental investigation of the thermal behaviour of the dissolution process of the Suzuki phase (SP) by continuous heating (1 deg. C min{sup -1}) of KBr:Eu{sup 2+} crystals is reported in this work. The thermal profiles were determined by the correlation functions between subsequent photoacoustic (PA) signals registered during the dissolution process. The behaviour of the thermal profile is directly related to the absorption coefficient of the Eu{sup 2+} ion in precipitated states that are present in the crystal. The PA signal is detected as a consequence of the non-radiative processes that take place after the excitation of the low-energy band of the Eu{sup 2+} ion by means of a focused laser pulse at 355 nm. The results obtained by this method are compared with those simultaneously obtained by the photoluminescence (PL) technique. The samples were heated from room temperature to 205 deg. C. The PA signal and PL spectrum were obtained every 6 deg. C. The temperature range of the SP dissolution process was from 77 to 115 deg. C. These results are in agreement with those obtained by the PL technique and with the data reported in the literature.

  10. Spectroscopic, thermal and biological studies of coordination ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    (Cl)(H2O)3]⋅xH2O (M = Cr(III) and Y(III), x = 5 and 6, respectively) were obtained and characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. The IR spectra of the complexes suggest that the sulfasalazine behaves as a monoanionic bidentate ligand. The thermal decomposition of the complexes as well as ...

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopy, thermal studies and supramolecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chains thus formed are further cross-linked with the aid of H-donor bonds from both the free as well as the coordinated Im. Both 1 and 2 exhibit - stacking interactions. Complex 1 is thermally more stable as compared to 2, and both complexes can be dehydrated to the corresponding anhydrous complexes by heating ...

  12. Thermally stimulated luminescence studies in combustion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Photoluminescence; thermoluminescence; gamma irradiation; colour centres. 1. Introduction. Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL), also called thermoluminescence (TL), is extensively used as a techni- que in dosimetry. The energy absorbed by a phosphor on being exposed to some ionizing radiation is released as.

  13. Synthesis, Photophysical, Electrochemical and Thermal Studies of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    solutions in toluene, CH2Cl2 and CHCl3 in a 1 cm path length quartz cuvette as well as thermally deposited thin solid films, on SHIMADZU UV–2401PC at room temperature. The excitation and emission spec- tra were recorded on a Perkin Elmer LS 55 Fluores- cence spectrophotometer. Fluorescence quantum yield.

  14. Tribological Studies of Dynamic Thermal Seal Materials (United States)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Taylor, Shawn C.


    Thermal seals are required on high-speed vehicles in many dynamic applications such as variable inlets in propulsion systems and control surfaces. These seals, often referred to as dynamic thermal seals, must not only mitigate inboard heat transfer, but must also exhibit sufficient durability when scrubbed against mating surfaces. For high-temperature high-speed vehicle applications, the mating surfaces are often made from thermal protection system (TPS) materials, which are typically rougher and more abrasive than TPS materials used at lower temperatures. The high-temperature TPS materials used can include non-ablative (e.g., lightweight porous oxides, ceramic matrix composites) andor ablative systems (e.g., phenolic systems). Due to the increased need for durable high-temperature dynamic seals, researchers working with the NASA Glenn Research Center embarked on an effort to (a) characterize the tribological performance of state-of-the-art thermal seal materials against a variety of TPS materials and (b) develop approaches for improved wear resistance. Tests were conducted using a recently upgraded high-temperature tribometer to assess wear resistance for a variety of tribopairs under multiple conditions. This data will begin to frame the challenges of using these materials and eventually permit an improved ability to design and implement these critical TPS components.

  15. A Study of Solar Thermal Propulsion System Enhancement via Thermal Storage and Thermal-electric Conversion (United States)


    material. Molybdenum has a thermal conductivity of 138 W/mK, while rheniums is much lower at 39.6 W/mK 2 . Zirconium Boride (ZrB2) and Hafnium Boride ...14,000 Iridium 77 2739 213 147 $42,000 Niobium 41 2750 323 53.7 $170 Molybdenum 42 2896 390 138 $100 The materials listed in Table 1 do not...this paper, several materials with melting points above 3000 K are boride compounds and several of those that are not borides contain elements which

  16. Numerical analysis of thermal decomposition for RDX, TNT, and Composition B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Hyuk; Nyande, Baggie W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanbat National University, 125 Dongseo-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoun Soo; Park, Jung Su [Agency for Defence Development, 462 Jochiwon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-150 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Jin [Hanwha corporation, 117 Yeosusandan 3-ro, Yeosu-si, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Min, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanbat National University, 125 Dongseo-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Reaction mechanism of thermal decomposition of military explosives is investigated. • Mathematical modeling of thermal decomposition are executed. • Commercial scale reactor is employed for demilitarization of waste explosives. • Dynamic response of thermal decomposition is examined in a reactor. - Abstract: Demilitarization of waste explosives on a commercial scale has become an important issue in many countries, and this has created a need for research in this area. TNT, RDX and Composition B have been used as military explosives, and they are very sensitive to thermal shock. For the safe waste treatment of these high-energy and highly sensitive explosives, the most plausible candidate suggested has been thermal decomposition in a rotary kiln. This research examines the safe treatment of waste TNT, RDX and Composition B in a rotary kiln type incinerator with regard to suitable operating conditions. Thermal decomposition in this study includes melting, 3 condensed phase reactions in the liquid phase and 263 gas phase reactions. Rigorous mathematical modeling and dynamic simulation for thermal decomposition were carried out for analysis of dynamic behavior in the reactor. The results showed time transient changes of the temperature, components and mass of the explosives and comparisons were made for the 3 explosives. It was concluded that waste explosives subject to heat supplied by hot air at 523.15 K were incinerated safely without any thermal detonation.

  17. Validation Database Based Thermal Analysis of an Advanced RPS Concept (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Emis, Nickolas D.


    Advanced RPS concepts can be conceived, designed and assessed using high-end computational analysis tools. These predictions may provide an initial insight into the potential performance of these models, but verification and validation are necessary and required steps to gain confidence in the numerical analysis results. This paper discusses the findings from a numerical validation exercise for a small advanced RPS concept, based on a thermal analysis methodology developed at JPL and on a validation database obtained from experiments performed at Oregon State University. Both the numerical and experimental configurations utilized a single GPHS module enabled design, resembling a Mod-RTG concept. The analysis focused on operating and environmental conditions during the storage phase only. This validation exercise helped to refine key thermal analysis and modeling parameters, such as heat transfer coefficients, and conductivity and radiation heat transfer values. Improved understanding of the Mod-RTG concept through validation of the thermal model allows for future improvements to this power system concept.

  18. Revised Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J


    This document updates a previous calculation of the temperature distributions in a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ion exchange column.1 LANL operates two laboratory-scale anion exchange columns, in series, to extract Pu-238 from nitric acid solutions. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has requested an updated analysis to calculate maximum temperatures for higher resin loading capacities obtained with a new formulation of the Reillex HPQ anion exchange resin. The increased resin loading capacity will not exceed 118 g plutonium per L of resin bed. Calculations were requested for normal operation of the resin bed at the minimum allowable solution feed rate of 30 mL/min and after an interruption of flow at the end of the feed stage, when one of the columns is fully loaded. The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades. At low temperatures, resin bed temperatures increase primarily due to decay heat. At {approx}70 C a Low Temperature Exotherm (LTE) resulting from the reaction between 8-12 M HNO{sub 3} and the resin has been observed. The LTE has been attributed to an irreversible oxidation of pendant ethyl benzene groups at the termini of the resin polymer chains by nitric acid. The ethyl benzene groups are converted to benzoic acid moities. The resin can be treated to permanently remove the LTE by heating a resin suspension in 8M HNO{sub 3} for 30-45 minutes. No degradation of the resin performance is observed after the LTE removal treatment. In fact, heating the resin in boiling ({approx}115-120 C) 12 M HNO{sub 3} for 3 hr displays thermal stability analogous to resin that has been treated to remove the LTE. The analysis is based on a previous study of the SRS Frames Waste Recovery (FWR) column, performed in support of the Pu-238 production campaign for NASA's Cassini mission. In that study, temperature transients

  19. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joint-4 Thermal Analysis (United States)

    Clayton, J. Louie


    This study provides for development and test verification of a thermal model used for prediction of joint heating environments, structural temperatures and seal erosions in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Nozzle Joint-4. The heating environments are a result of rapid pressurization of the joint free volume assuming a leak path has occurred in the filler material used for assembly gap close out. Combustion gases flow along the leak path from nozzle environment to joint O-ring gland resulting in local heating to the metal housing and erosion of seal materials. Analysis of this condition was based on usage of the NASA Joint Pressurization Routine (JPR) for environment determination and the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) for structural temperature prediction. Model generated temperatures, pressures and seal erosions are compared to hot fire test data for several different leak path situations. Investigated in the hot fire test program were nozzle joint-4 O-ring erosion sensitivities to leak path width in both open and confined joint geometries. Model predictions were in generally good agreement with the test data for the confined leak path cases. Worst case flight predictions are provided using the test-calibrated model. Analysis issues are discussed based on model calibration procedures.

  20. Physico-Geometrical Kinetics of Solid-State Reactions in an Undergraduate Thermal Analysis Laboratory (United States)

    Koga, Nobuyoshi; Goshi, Yuri; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki


    An undergraduate kinetic experiment of the thermal decomposition of solids by microscopic observation and thermal analysis was developed by investigating a suitable reaction, applicable techniques of thermal analysis and microscopic observation, and a reliable kinetic calculation method. The thermal decomposition of sodium hydrogen carbonate is…

  1. A thermal study of an encapsulated electrical transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A. [Unidad Geotermia, Temixco (Mexico). Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas; Espinosa-Paredes, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Vicentina (Mexico). Dpto. de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica; Hernandez, I. [Centro de Sistemas de Manufactura, Nuevo Leon (Mexico). Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey


    A thermal study of a 45 KVA-prototype encapsulated transformer is described. Casting resin systems were used as insulating systems for encapsulated electric transformers. Normal transformer operation is at full load and, thus the conductor and insulating system becomes hot owing to current circulation through the winding. To determine the various temperature distributions throughout the transformer, the thermal properties of the insulating system and boundary conditions must be known, so that hot spots are located via numerical modelling and maximum permissible temperatures are not attained. Results presented herein include thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat capacity. Thermal conductivity was obtained experimentally by means of the line-source technique at various temperatures, between room temperature and 155{sup o}C which is the thermal limit of class F insulators. The thermal diffusivity was obtained by parameter estimation by fitting an approximate analytical model to the temperature-time data of the thermal conductivity experiment. Specific heat capacity was obtained from the definition of thermal diffusivity and the insulating-system density. In order to improve the electrical performance of the transformer criteria, a numerical simulation of the different dielectric structures was made using computer program. The boundary conditions for the thermal simulation stage were also determined experimentally from temperature test runs. Finally, in order to obtain data for thermal design, a numerical simulation of the high tension winding was carried out. The thermal simulation stage was performed at different current densities in the conductor with and without electrostatic shields to determine the temperature field and maximum attainable temperatures. Maximum transformer temperature were found to be 15-20{sup o}C below its thermal limit and a correlation of maximum temperature as function of circulating current was developed for design

  2. Hemp Thermal Insulation Concrete with Alternative Binders, Analysis of their Thermal and Mechanical Properties (United States)

    Sinka, M.; Sahmenko, G.; Korjakins, A.; Radina, L.; Bajare, D.


    One of the main challenges that construction industry faces today is how to address the demands for more sustainable, environmentally friendly and carbon neutral construction materials and building upkeep processes. One of the answers to these demands is lime-hemp concrete (LHC) building materials - carbon negative materials that have sufficient thermal insulation capabilities to be used as thermal insulation materials for new as well as for existing buildings. But one problem needs to be overcome before these materials can be used on a large scale - current manufacturing technology allows these materials to be used only as self-bearing thermal insulation material with large labour intensity in the manufacturing process. In order to lower the labour intensity and allow the material to be used in wider applications, a LHC block and board production is necessary, which in turn calls for the binders different from the classically used ones, as they show insufficient mechanical strength for this new use. The particular study focuses on alternative binders produced using gypsum-cement compositions ensuring they are usable in outdoor applications together with hemp shives. Physical, mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of hemp concrete with various binders are addressed in the current study.

  3. Quantitative subsurface analysis using frequency modulated thermal wave imaging (United States)

    Subhani, S. K.; Suresh, B.; Ghali, V. S.


    Quantitative depth analysis of the anomaly with an enhanced depth resolution is a challenging task towards the estimation of depth of the subsurface anomaly using thermography. Frequency modulated thermal wave imaging introduced earlier provides a complete depth scanning of the object by stimulating it with a suitable band of frequencies and further analyzing the subsequent thermal response using a suitable post processing approach to resolve subsurface details. But conventional Fourier transform based methods used for post processing unscramble the frequencies with a limited frequency resolution and contribute for a finite depth resolution. Spectral zooming provided by chirp z transform facilitates enhanced frequency resolution which can further improves the depth resolution to axially explore finest subsurface features. Quantitative depth analysis with this augmented depth resolution is proposed to provide a closest estimate to the actual depth of subsurface anomaly. This manuscript experimentally validates this enhanced depth resolution using non stationary thermal wave imaging and offers an ever first and unique solution for quantitative depth estimation in frequency modulated thermal wave imaging.

  4. Thermal conductivity and thermal rectification in graphene nanoribbons: a molecular dynamics study. (United States)

    Hu, Jiuning; Ruan, Xiulin; Chen, Yong P


    We have used molecular dynamics to calculate the thermal conductivity of symmetric and asymmetric graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) of several nanometers in size (up to approximately 4 nm wide and approximately 10 nm long). For symmetric nanoribbons, the calculated thermal conductivity (e.g., approximately 2000 W/m-K at 400 K for a 1.5 nm x 5.7 nm zigzag GNR) is on the similar order of magnitude of the experimentally measured value for graphene. We have investigated the effects of edge chirality and found that nanoribbons with zigzag edges have appreciably larger thermal conductivity than nanoribbons with armchair edges. For asymmetric nanoribbons, we have found significant thermal rectification. Among various triangularly shaped GNRs we investigated, the GNR with armchair bottom edge and a vertex angle of 30 degrees gives the maximal thermal rectification. We also studied the effect of defects and found that vacancies and edge roughness in the nanoribbons can significantly decrease the thermal conductivity. However, substantial thermal rectification is observed even in the presence of edge roughness.

  5. Nanostructural analysis of water distribution in hydrated multicomponent gels using thermal analysis and NMR relaxometry. (United States)

    Codoni, Doroty; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng


    Highly complex, multicomponent gels and water-containing soft materials have varied applications in biomedical, pharmaceutical, and food sciences, but the characterization of these nanostructured materials is extremely challenging. The aim of this study was to use stearoyl macrogol-32 glycerides (Gelucire 50/13) gels containing seven different species of glycerides, PEG, and PEG-esters, as model, complex, multicomponent gels, to investigate the effect of water content on the micro- and nanoarchitecture of the gel interior. Thermal analysis and NMR relaxometry were used to probe the thermal and diffusional behavior of water molecules within the gel network. For the highly concentrated gels (low water content), the water activity was significantly lowered due to entrapment in the dense gel network. For the gels with intermediate water content, multiple populations of water molecules with different thermal responses and diffusion behavior were detected, indicating the presence of water in different microenvironments. This correlated with the network architecture of the freeze-dried gels observed using SEM. For the gels with high water content, increased quantities of water with similar diffusion characteristics as free water could be detected, indicating the presence of large water pockets in these gels. The results of this study provide new insights into structure of Gelucire gels, which have not been reported before because of the complexity of the material. They also demonstrate that the combination of thermal analysis and NMR relaxometry offers insights into the structure of soft materials not available by the use of each technique alone. However, we also note that in some instances the results of these measurements are overinterpreted and we suggest limitations of the methods that must be considered when using them.

  6. Heat Transfer Analysis of Thermal Protection Structures for Hypersonic Vehicles (United States)

    Zhou, Chen; Wang, Zhijin; Hou, Tianjiao


    This research aims to develop an analytical approach to study the heat transfer problem of thermal protection systems (TPS) for hypersonic vehicles. Laplace transform and integral method are used to describe the temperature distribution through the TPS subject to aerodynamic heating during flight. Time-dependent incident heat flux is also taken into account. Two different cases with heat flux and radiation boundary conditions are studied and discussed. The results are compared with those obtained by finite element analyses and show a good agreement. Although temperature profiles of such problems can be readily accessed via numerical simulations, analytical solutions give a greater insight into the physical essence of the heat transfer problem. Furthermore, with the analytical approach, rapid thermal analyses and even thermal optimization can be achieved during the preliminary TPS design.

  7. Analysis of tracer and thermal transients during reinjection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocabas, I.


    This work studied tracer and thermal transients during reinjection in geothermal reserviors and developed a new technique which combines the results from interwell tracer tests and thermal injection-backflow tests to estimate the thermal breakthrough times. Tracer tests are essential to determine the degree of connectivity between the injection wells and the producing wells. To analyze the tracer return profiles quantitatively, we employed three mathematical models namely, the convection-dispersion (CD) model, matrix diffusion (MD) model, and the Avodnin (AD) model, which were developed to study tracer and heat transport in a single vertical fracture. We considered three types of tracer tests namely, interwell tracer tests without recirculation, interwell tracer tests with recirculation, and injection-backflow tracer tests. To estimate the model parameters, we used a nonlinear regression program to match tracer return profiles to the solutions.

  8. The fate of Fe{sup 3+} ions in the system {l_brace}AlO(OH)-xerogel/Fe-compounds{r_brace} after mechanical activation and different thermal treatments studied by Moessbauer, ESR spectroscopy and thermal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoesser, R. [Humboldt University, Institute of Chemistry (Germany); Menzel, M., E-mail: [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) (Germany); Feist, M. [Humboldt University, Institute of Chemistry (Germany)


    Co-milling of AlO(OH) xerogels with various iron(III) compounds such as {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or K{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] has been used for mechanochemical activation leading to Fe/Al oxide phases in coexistence with the activated main component. The results obtained allow a deeper insight into the chemical processes occurring during activation, doping, and thermal treatment in atmospheres of different chemical activity (H{sub 2}O; N{sub 2}; O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}; H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}). Evidence will be given for Fe{sup 3+} species being able to form suitable crystallization germs and to lower the crystallization temperature. One can distinguish between the incorporation of Fe{sup 3+} ions into the alumina matrix at the crystallite growth (e.g. on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-like seeds) and the incorporation of Fe{sup 3+} ions during the last steps of crystallization. These last-mentioned Fe{sup 3+} ions are provided by coexisting Fe/Al oxide phases. In contrast to alumina matrices equilibrated at high temperatures (e.g. at 1,200-1,500{sup o}C), the matrices formed in situ are able to incorporate Fe{sup 3+} ions by diffusion at temperatures of {approx}900-1,100 deg. C in a short time regime.

  9. Thermal Analysis of Nanofluids Using Modeling and Molecular Dynamics Simulation (United States)

    Namboori, P. K. Krishnan; Vasavi, C. S.; Gopal, K. Varun; Gopakumar, Deepa; Ramachandran, K. I.; Narayanan, B. Sabarish


    Nanofluids are nanotechnology-based heat transfer fluids obtained by suspending nanometer-sized particles in conventional heat transfer fluids in a stable manner. In many of the physical phenomena such as boiling and properties such as latent heat, thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient, there is significant change on addition of nanoparticles. These exceptional qualities of Nanofluids mainly depend on the atomic level mechanisms, which in turn govern all mechanical properties like strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, compressibility etc. Control over the fundamental thermo physical properties of the working medium will help to understand these unique phenomena of nanofluids to a great extent. Macroscopic modeling approaches, which are based on conventional relations of thermodynamics, have been proved to be incompetent to explain this difference. Atomistic `modeling and simulation' has been emerged out as an efficient alternative for this. The enhancement of thermal conductivity of water by suspending nanoparticle inclusions has been experimented and proved to be an effective method of enhancing convective heat dissipation. This work mainly deals with characterization of the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. Nano particle sized aluminium oxide; copper oxide and titanium dioxide have been taken in this work for the analysis of thermal conductivity. The effect of thermal conductivity on parameters like volume concentration of the fluid, nature of particle material and size of the particle has been computationally formulated. It has been found that there is an increase in effective thermal conductivity of the fluid by the addition of nanomaterials ascertaining an improvement in the heat transfer behavior of nanofluids. This facilitates the reduction in size of such heat transfer systems (radiators) and lead to increased energy and fuel efficiency, lower pollution and improved reliability.

  10. Study of thermal destruction of lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reti, M.; Hojnos, J.


    Using thermofractography, infra- and mass-spectrometry and other techniques thermal destruction of lignin was investigated at a temp. range of 200 to 500/sup 0/C. At temp. from 225 to 330/sup 0/C first of all splitting of ..beta..-aryil- and benzyl-ether binds between principal phenylpropane links of lignin, thus forming derivative phenols, vinyl guaiacol, coinferyl alcohol and aldehyde and respective syringic derivatives. At temp. of 350/sup 0/C splitting of C-C connections occurs in the lateral chain, forming guaiacol, 2,6-dimetoxiphenol and their saturated 4-alkyl derivatives. With a speeded up pyrolysis process, thermal destruction of lignin occurs at temp. of greater than or equal to 400/sup 0/C, with 62% of overall quantity derived at 500-550/sup 0/C with an overall tar release of about 30.

  11. A study on improvement of electric motor thermal performance using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Pan Seok; Lee, Ho Jun; Jung, Won Bong [Hyosung Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    As motor performance enhancement by improving electric design has reached its limit and downsizing issue has risen, the importance of thermal design is increasing. In this study, the flow and temperature distribution were reviewed with the help of CFD analysis and this result was compared with the experimental results. Furthermore, parametric analysis with thermal design structure showed that axial duct width but fan capacity is a critical factor to lower the hot spot temperature in electric motor.

  12. The thermal analysis and derivative bronzes cast to plaster moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pisarek


    Full Text Available It plaster moulds gets casted the alloys of following metals: Al, Cu, Ag, Au in precise and artistic founding. The investigation of the crys-tallization of bronzes in hot plaster moulds the method of the thermal analysis and derivative (TDA was not realized out so far. Probe TDAg and tripod enabling the execution of measurements on inductive casting machine INDUTHERM-VC 500D were designed for this technology especially. It was confirmed that one the method TDA can identify the crystallization process of the bronze in hot plaster moulds. The investigations of the superficial distribution of the concentration of elements in the microstructure of the studied grades of the bronze on X-ray microanalizer were conducted. It results that they be subject to in bronze CuSn10-C (B10 and the CuSn5Zn5Pb5-C (B555 of strong microsegregation from conducted investigations: Pb, Sn and Sb. The single separates of intermetallic phase κ was identified in the bronze B10 rich first of all in Zn, Sn, Sb and Fe, and two intermetallic phase, one rich were identified in the bronze B555 first of all in Zn, Sb, (Nor, Fe and second rich in Sn, Sb, (Nor, Fe. The most homogeneous microstructure from the bronze CuAl10Fe5Ni5-C (BA1055 is characterizes among the studied grades of the bronze in the cast state.

  13. Development of Thermal Performance Analysis Computer Program on Turbine Cycle of Yoggwang 3,4 Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.Y.; Choi, K.H.; Jee, M.H.; Chung, S.I. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    The objective of the study ''Development of Thermal Performance Analysis Computer Program on Turbine Cycle of Yonggwang 3,4 Units'' is to utilize computerized program to the performance test of the turbine cycle or the analysis of the operational status of the thermal plants. In addition, the result can be applicable to the analysis of the thermal output at the abnormal status and be a powerful tool to find out the main problems for such cases. As a results, the output of this study can supply the way to confirm the technical capability to operate the plants efficiently and to obtain the economic gains remarkably. (author). 27 refs., 73 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Thermal Stabilization study of polyacrylonitrile fiber obtained by extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fleming Ribeiro


    Full Text Available A low cost and environmental friendly extrusion process of the Polyacrylonitrile (PAN polymer was viabilized by using the 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol as a plasticizer. The characterization of the fibers obtained by this process was the object of study in the present work. The PAN fibers were heat treated in the range of 200 °C to 300 °C, which is the temperature range related to the stabilization/oxidation step. This is a limiting phase during the carbon fiber processing. The characterization of the fibers was made using infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and microscopy. TGA revealed that the degradation of the extruded PAN co-VA fibers between 250 °C and 350 °C, corresponded to a 9% weight loss to samples analyzed under oxidizing atmosphere and 18% when the samples were analyzed under inert atmosphere. DSC showed that the exothermic reactions on the extruded PAN co-VA fibers under oxidizing synthetic air was broader and the cyclization started at a lower temperature compared under inert atmosphere. Furthermore, FT-IR analysis correlated with thermal anlysis showed that the stabilization/oxidation process of the extruded PAN fiber were coherent with other works that used PAN fibers obtained by other spinning processes.

  15. Comparative study of thermal insulation boards from leaf and bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of insulation boards made from leave and bark fibres of Pilios tigma thonningii terms of density, water absorption, apparent thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity. The leave and the bark fibres were prepared in form of squared boards of 200 mm x ...

  16. Thermal Decompositon Studies Of Pre-Irradiated Nickel (II) Azides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pre-irradiation on the thermal decomposition of three samples of nickel (II) azide was studied. It was found that the rates of thermal decomposition of Ni(OH)N3 increased substantially with increase in pre-irradiation dosage. The initial reaction rates change from time-dependant nucleation law for the unirradiated ...

  17. CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed Ground Test Article Thermal Analysis (United States)

    Piryk, David; Schallhorn, Paul; Walls, Laurie; Stopnitzky, Benny; Rhys, Noah; Wollen, Mark


    The purpose of this study was to anchor thermal and fluid system models to CRYOTE ground test data. The CRYOTE ground test artide was jointly developed by Innovative Engineering Solutions, United Launch Alliance and NASA KSC. The test article was constructed out of a titanium alloy tank, Sapphire 77 composite skin (similar to G10), an external secondary payload adapter ring, thermal vent system, multi layer insulation and various data acquisition instrumentation. In efforts to understand heat loads throughout this system, the GTA (filled with liquid nitrogen for safety purposes) was subjected to a series of tests in a vacuum chamber at Marshall Space Flight Center. By anchoring analytical models against test data, higher fidelity thermal environment predictions can be made for future flight articles which would eventually demonstrate critical cryogenic fluid management technologies such as system chilldown, transfer, pressure control and long term storage. Significant factors that influenced heat loads included radiative environments, multi-layer insulation performance, tank fill levels and pressures and even contact conductance coefficients. This report demonstrates how analytical thermal/fluid networks were established and includes supporting rationale for specific thermal responses.

  18. Preliminary hazards analysis of thermal scrap stabilization system. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W.S.


    This preliminary analysis examined the HA-21I glovebox and its supporting systems for potential process hazards. Upon further analysis, the thermal stabilization system has been installed in gloveboxes HC-21A and HC-21C. The use of HC-21C and HC-21A simplified the initial safety analysis. In addition, these gloveboxes were cleaner and required less modification for operation than glovebox HA-21I. While this document refers to glovebox HA-21I for the hazards analysis performed, glovebox HC-21C is sufficiently similar that the following analysis is also valid for HC-21C. This hazards analysis document is being re-released as revision 1 to include the updated flowsheet document (Appendix C) and the updated design basis (Appendix D). The revised Process Flow Schematic has also been included (Appendix E). This Current revision incorporates the recommendations provided from the original hazards analysis as well. The System Design Description (SDD) has also been appended (Appendix H) to document the bases for Safety Classification of thermal stabilization equipment.

  19. Thermal stress analysis of reusable surface insulation for shuttle (United States)

    Ojalvo, I. U.; Levy, A.; Austin, F.


    An iterative procedure for accurately determining tile stresses associated with static mechanical and thermally induced internal loads is presented. The necessary conditions for convergence of the method are derived. An user-oriented computer program based upon the present method of analysis was developed. The program is capable of analyzing multi-tiled panels and determining the associated stresses. Typical numerical results from this computer program are presented.

  20. Thermal Analysis of Iodine Satellite (iSAT) (United States)

    Mauro, Stephanie


    This paper presents the progress of the thermal analysis and design of the Iodine Satellite (iSAT). The purpose of the iSAT spacecraft (SC) is to demonstrate the ability of the iodine Hall Thruster propulsion system throughout a one year mission in an effort to mature the system for use on future satellites. The benefit of this propulsion system is that it uses a propellant, iodine, that is easy to store and provides a high thrust-to-mass ratio. The spacecraft will also act as a bus for an earth observation payload, the Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Camera. Four phases of the mission, determined to either be critical to achieving requirements or phases of thermal concern, are modeled. The phases are the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN) Change, Altitude Reduction, De-Orbit, and Science Phases. Each phase was modeled in a worst case hot environment and the coldest phase, the Science Phase, was also modeled in a worst case cold environment. The thermal environments of the spacecraft are especially important to model because iSAT has a very high power density. The satellite is the size of a 12 unit cubesat, and dissipates slightly more than 75 Watts of power as heat at times. The maximum temperatures for several components are above their maximum operational limit for one or more cases. The analysis done for the first Design and Analysis Cycle (DAC1) showed that many components were above or within 5 degrees Centigrade of their maximum operation limit. The battery is a component of concern because although it is not over its operational temperature limit, efficiency greatly decreases if it operates at the currently predicted temperatures. In the second Design and Analysis Cycle (DAC2), many steps were taken to mitigate the overheating of components, including isolating several high temperature components, removal of components, and rearrangement of systems. These changes have greatly increased the thermal margin available.

  1. ICTAC Nomenclature of Thermal Analysis (IUPAC Recommendations 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan J. (translator


    Full Text Available The widespread use of thermal analysis (TA by scientists as a laboratory technique carries with it a working vocabulary. This document is intended to provide those working in the field with a consistent set of definitions to permit clear and precise communication as well as understanding. Included in the document are the definitions of 13 techniques, 54 terms within the glossary, as well as symbols and units.

  2. A numerical study of transient, thermally-conductive solar wind (United States)

    Han, S. M.; Wu, S. T.; Dryer, M.


    A numerical analysis of transient solar wind starting at the solar surface and arriving at 1 AU is performed by an implicit numerical method. The model hydrodynamic equations include thermal conduction terms for both steady and unsteady simulations. Simulation results show significant influence of thermal conduction on both steady and time-dependent solar wind. Higher thermal conduction results in higher solar wind speed, higher temperature, but lower plasma density at 1 AU. Higher base temperature at the solar surface gives lower plasma speed, lower temperature, but higher density at 1 AU. Higher base density, on the other hand, gives lower velocity, lower temperature, but higher density at 1 AU.

  3. Effective Ventilation Parameters and Thermal Comfort Study of Air-conditioned Offices


    Roonak Daghigh; Kamaruzzaman Sopian


    The study presents objective and subjective studies of thermal comfort levels and ventilation characteristics of two air-conditioned postgraduate study offices. The observations were performed at the offices of Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, in University Putra Malaysia. Thermal comfort variables were measured while the students answered a survey on their sensation of the indoor climate. Concurrently, tracer gas analysis, based on concentration decay method, is employed ...

  4. Analytical transient analysis of Peltier device for laser thermal tuning (United States)

    Sheikhnejad, Yahya; Vujicic, Zoran; Almeida, Álvaro J.; Bastos, Ricardo; Shahpari, Ali; Teixeira, António L.


    Recently, industrial trends strongly favor the concepts of high density, low power consumption and low cost applications of Datacom and Telecom pluggable transceiver modules. Hence, thermal management plays an important role, especially in the design of high-performance compact optical transceivers. Extensive care should be taken on wavelength drift for thermal tuning lasers using thermoelectric cooler and indeed, accurate expression is needed to describe transient characteristics of the Peltier device to achieve maximum controllability. In this study, the exact solution of governing equation is presented, considering Joule heating, heat conduction, heat flux of laser diode and thermoelectric effect in one dimension.

  5. Thermal analysis and combustion kinetic of heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, R.G. [Centre for Petroleum Studies, State University of Campinas(Brazil); Vargas, J.A.V.; Trevisan, O.V. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, State University of Campinas (Brazil)


    In the oilfield sector, a thermal method named in-situ combustion (ISC) is used as an enhanced recovery method. ISC consists of the injection of gas into the reservoir, a combustion front is created producing heat which reduces the oil viscosity. For this method to be successful, understanding of the thermal and kinetic parameters involved is required; the aim of this paper is to evaluate those parameters for different crude oils. Experiments were conducted using accelerating rate calorimetry on Brazilian heavy oil samples under a heat-wait-seek-mode. Results showed that accelerating rate calorimetry is efficient in resolving the three main regions of reaction of the oil and that between 200 degree C and 300 degree C oxygen addition reactions are dominant while bond scission reactions dominate from 350 degree C. This study demonstrated that accelerating rate calorimetry is an efficient method to determine thermal and kinetic parameters of oxidation reaction of heavy oil.

  6. Comparative study of hygrothermal properties of five thermal insulation materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Ducoulombier


    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to carry out a comparative study of the main hygrothermal properties of five thermal insulation materials for buildings. These properties are necessary for a correct prediction of heat and moisture transfers through the walls and the selection of the most appropriate materials according to the specific buildings. The studied materials were glass wool, rock wool, expanded polystyrene, wood fiberboard and polyester fiberfill. The article is divided into three parts. The first part presents the phenomena of hygrothermal transfers in walls in order to understand the need for determining specific properties of the insulating materials. The second part describes in details the five studied insulating materials and the methods used for the characterization and identification of their main properties. Finally, the last part presents the experimental results and makes comparisons between materials. The differences between the insulating materials are brought out, such as the strong dependence of the thermal conductivity of polystyrene on temperature, or the good permeability of fibrous insulating materials to water vapor. A detailed analysis of the obtained results is presented.

  7. A scaling analysis for thermal fragmentation on small airless bodies (United States)

    El Mir, Charles; Hazeli, Kavan; Ramesh, KT; Delbo, Marco


    The presence of regolith on airless bodies has typically been attributed to impact ejecta re-accumulation and gradual breakdown of boulders by micrometeoritic impacts. However, ejecta velocities for small kilometer-sized asteroids often exceed the gravitational escape velocity, limiting to a great extent the amount of retained debris following a high-velocity impact event. Close-surface images of small (sub-km) asteroid surfaces have shown the presence of a coarse-grained regolith layer on these bodies, suggesting that a different mechanism could be involved in the regolith generation process.Recently, the existence of regolith on sufficiently small planetary bodies has also been attributed to cyclic stresses that develop within boulders due to the large diurnal temperature variation, which eventually lead to fracture by thermal fatigue. It was demonstrated that thermal fatigue can be orders of magnitude faster than fragmentation by classical impact mechanisms, in terms of breaking down cm-sized rocks on small airless bodies. Larger (10 cm-size) rocks were shown to potentially break up faster than smaller (cm) rocks, an observation that is in contrast to the predictions of mechanical disruption models. This observation is justified by the existence of higher internal thermal stresses resulting from the larger temperature gradient in bigger rocks, but it is not clear that this conclusion can be extrapolated or scaled for meter-sized boulders.In the current study, we present a computational and analytical approach that examines thermally driven crack growth within asteroidal rocks over a large range of lengthscales. We first examine the main length and timescales involved in the thermally-driven fatigue crack growth, and identify a critical lengthscale comparable to the thermal skin depth, after which thermal fatigue becomes slower, providing bounds on the thermal fragmentation mechanism. We also develop a simple scaling method to estimate the time required for

  8. Systems Analysis for Thermal Infrared ` THz Torch' Applications (United States)

    Hu, Fangjing; Sun, Jingye; Brindley, Helen E.; Liang, Xiaoxin; Lucyszyn, Stepan


    The ` THz Torch' concept was recently introduced by the authors for providing secure wireless communications over short distances within the thermal infrared (10-100 THz). Unlike conventional systems, thermal infrared can exploit front-end thermodynamics with engineered blackbody radiation. For the first time, a detailed power link budget analysis is given for this new form of wireless link. The mathematical modeling of a short end-to-end link is provided, which integrates thermodynamics into conventional signal and noise power analysis. As expected from the Friis formula for noise, it is found that the noise contribution from the pyroelectric detector dominates intrinsic noise. From output signal and noise voltage measurements, experimental values for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are obtained and compared with calculated predictions. As with conventional communications systems, it is shown for the first time that the measured SNR and measured bit error rate found with this thermodynamics-based system resembles classical empirical models. Our system analysis can serve as an invaluable tool for the development of thermal infrared systems, accurately characterizing each individual channel and, thus, enables the performance of multi-channel ` THz Torch' systems to be optimized.

  9. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis Tasks for ANAV NPPs in Support of Plant Operation and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Batet


    Full Text Available Thermal-hydraulic analysis tasks aimed at supporting plant operation and control of nuclear power plants are an important issue for the Asociación Nuclear Ascó-Vandellòs (ANAV. ANAV is the consortium that runs the Ascó power plants (2 units and the Vandellòs-II power plant. The reactors are Westinghouse-design, 3-loop PWRs with an approximate electrical power of 1000 MW. The Technical University of Catalonia (UPC thermal-hydraulic analysis team has jointly worked together with ANAV engineers at different levels in the analysis and improvement of these reactors. This article is an illustration of the usefulness of computational analysis for operational support. The contents presented were operational between 1985 and 2001 and subsequently changed slightly following various organizational adjustments. The paper has two different parts. In the first part, it describes the specific aspects of thermal-hydraulic analysis tasks related to operation and control and, in the second part, it briefly presents the results of three examples of analyses that were performed. All the presented examples are related to actual situations in which the scenarios were studied by analysts using thermal-hydraulic codes and prepared nodalizations. The paper also includes a qualitative evaluation of the benefits obtained by ANAV through thermal-hydraulic analyses aimed at supporting operation and plant control.

  10. Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design (United States)

    Wurster, Kathryn E.; Riley, Christopher J.; Zoby, E. Vincent


    Design of the thermal protection system for any hypersonic flight vehicle requires determination of both the peak temperatures over the surface and the heating-rate history along the flight profile. In this paper, the process used to generate the aerothermal environments required for the X-34 Testbed Technology Demonstrator thermal protection system design is described as it has evolved from a relatively simplistic approach based on engineering methods applied to critical areas to one of detailed analyses over the entire vehicle. A brief description of the trajectory development leading to the selection of the thermal protection system design trajectory is included. Comparisons of engineering heating predictions with wind-tunnel test data and with results obtained using a Navier-Stokes flowfield code and an inviscid/boundary layer method are shown. Good agreement is demonstrated among all these methods for both the ground-test condition and the peak heating flight condition. Finally, the detailed analysis using engineering methods to interpolate the surface-heating-rate results from the inviscid/boundary layer method to predict the required thermal environments is described and results presented.

  11. Isoconversional Kinetic Study Of The Thermal Decomposition Of Sugarcane Straw For Thermal Conversion Processes.


    Rueda-Ordóñez, Yesid Javier; Tannous, Katia


    The aim of this work was investigate the kinetics of the thermal decomposition reaction of sugarcane straw. The thermal decomposition experiments were conducted at four heating rates (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 degrees C/min) in a thermogravimetric analyzer using nitrogen as inert atmosphere. The kinetic analysis was carried out applying the isoconversional method of Friedman, and the activation energies obtained varied from 154.1 kJ/mol to 177.8 kJ/mol. The reaction model was determined through mas...

  12. Thermal analysis of line-defect photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Ottaviano, Luisa; Chen, Yaohui


    We report a systematic study of thermal effects in photonic crystal membrane lasers based on line-defect cavities. Two material platforms, InGaAsP and InP, are investigated experimentally and numerically. Lasers with quantum dot layers embedded in an InP membrane exhibit lasing at room temperature...

  13. Thermal comfort analysis of hostels in National Institute of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermal comfort study was carried out in the hostels of National Institute of Technology Calicut,Kerala, which is located in a warm humid climatic zone of India. Measurements of ambient temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and illuminance were carried out in eight hostels, and in parallel a ...

  14. Seasonal differences in the subjective assessment of outdoor thermal conditions and the impact of analysis techniques on the obtained results (United States)

    Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Takács, Ágnes


    Wide research attention has been paid in the last two decades to the thermal comfort conditions of different outdoor and semi-outdoor urban spaces. Field studies were conducted in a wide range of geographical regions in order to investigate the relationship between the thermal sensation of people and thermal comfort indices. Researchers found that the original threshold values of these indices did not describe precisely the actual thermal sensation patterns of subjects, and they reported neutral temperatures that vary among nations and with time of the year. For that reason, thresholds of some objective indices were rescaled and new thermal comfort categories were defined. This research investigates the outdoor thermal perception patterns of Hungarians regarding the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature ( PET) index, based on more than 5800 questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the city of Szeged on 78 days in spring, summer, and autumn. Various, frequently applied analysis approaches (simple descriptive technique, regression analysis, and probit models) were adopted to reveal seasonal differences in the thermal assessment of people. Thermal sensitivity and neutral temperatures were found to be significantly different, especially between summer and the two transient seasons. Challenges of international comparison are also emphasized, since the results prove that neutral temperatures obtained through different analysis techniques may be considerably different. The outcomes of this study underline the importance of the development of standard measurement and analysis methodologies in order to make future studies comprehensible, hereby facilitating the broadening of the common scientific knowledge about outdoor thermal comfort.

  15. Warping-based co-registration of thermal infrared images: Study of factors influencing its applicability (United States)

    Cardone, D.; Pinti, P.; Di Donato, L.; Merla, A.


    A relevant issue for processing biomedical thermal imaging data is the availability of tools for objective and quantitative comparison of images across different conditions or subjects. To this goal, a solution can be offered by projecting the thermal distribution data onto a fictitious template to obtain a common reference for comparison across cases or subjects. In this preliminary study, we tested the feasibility of applying a warping procedure on infrared thermal images. Fifteen thermal images of checkerboard were recorded at three different distances and five different angles in order to evaluate which factor mostly influences the warping accuracy. The accuracy of three different warping transformation models (local weighted mean (LWM), polynomial, affine) was tested by comparing the positioning error between users' selected fiduciary points on each thermal image and their corresponding reference position assigned on the template image. Fifteen users, divided into three groups upon on their experience in thermal imaging processing, participated in this study in order to evaluate the effect of experience in applying a warping procedure to the analysis of thermal infrared images. The most relevant factor influencing the positioning and thermal errors is the acquisition distance, while the users' level of experience and the inclination angle do not seem to play the same importance. Comparing the three transformations, the LWM seems to be the best in terms of minimizing the two categories of errors. This preliminary work helps to understand the limits and the possibilities of applying warping techniques for objective, quantitative and automatic thermal image comparisons.

  16. Energy Consumption of Insulated Material Using Thermal Effect Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzil M. A.


    Full Text Available Wall is one of the structures elements that resist direct heat from the atmosphere. Modification on several structures is relevance to reduce filtrate thermal movement on wall. Insulation material seems to be suitable to be implemented since its purpose meets the heat resistance requirement. Insulation material applied as to generate positive impact in energy saving through reduction in total building energy consumption. Fiberglass is one of the insulation materials that can be used to insulate a space from heat and sound. Fiberglass is flammable insulation material with R Value rated of R-2.9 to R-3.8 which meets the requirement in minimizing heat transfer. Finite element software, ABAQUS v6.13 employed for analyze non insulated wall and other insulated wall with different wall thicknesses. The several calculations related to overall heat movement, total energy consumption per unit area of wall, life cycle cost analysis and determination of optimal insulation thickness is calculated due to show the potential of the implementation in minimize heat transfer and generate potential energy saving in building operation. It is hoped that the study can contribute to better understanding on the potential building wall retrofitting works in increasing building serviceability and creating potential benefits for building owner.

  17. Thermal Analysis of Solid Fuels in an Inert Atmosphere (United States)

    Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; Szumera, Magdalena; Środa, Katarzyna


    The paper takes the analysis of thermal studies of different types of fuels. It allowed diversification of fuels depending on their composition and origin. Consideration of coal, biomass and waste (coal mule, sewage sludge) as fuel is nowadays an important aspect of energy in our country. It should be emphasized that Poland power engineering is based up to 95% on coal - the primary fuel. Mining industry, forced to deliver power engineering more and better fuel, must however, use a deeper cleaning of coal. This results in a continuous increase waste in the form of mule flotation. The best method of disposing these mule is combustion and co-combustion with other fuels. On the other hand, commonly increasing awareness state of the environment and the need to reduce CO2 emissions energy industry have committed to implement alternative solutions in order to gain power, through, i.a.: development technologies use of biomass, which is one of the most promising renewable energy sources in Poland. The paper presents the results of research TG-DTA fuels made in an inert atmosphere.

  18. A Study on an Evaluation of PWR Piping Thermal Stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.; Kim, B.N.; Lee, S.K.; Jeong, I.S.; Chjung, B.S.; Lee, S.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This report presents the determination of thermal stratification phenomenon of pressurizer surge line for Kori unit No.4. With this regards, the integrity of related piping was evaluated by both various stress analysis and fatigue analysis. (author). 23 refs., 61 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Deformation analysis considering thermal expansion of injection mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hyung; Yi, Dae Eun; Jang, Jeong Hui; Lee, Min Seok [Samsung Electronics Co., LTD., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In the design of injection molds, the temperature distribution and deformation of the mold is one of the most important parameters that affect the flow characteristics, flash generation, and surface appearance, etc. Plastic injection analyses have been carried out to predict the temperature distribution of the mold and the pressure distribution on the cavity surface. As the input loads, we transfer the temperature and pressure results to the structural analysis. We compare the structural analysis results with the thermal expansion effect using the actual flash and step size of a smartphone cover part. To reduce the flash problem, we proposed a new mold design, and verified the results by performing simulations.

  20. Analysis of non-thermal velocities in the solar corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Contesse


    Full Text Available We describe new ground-based spectroscopic observations made using a 40-cm aperture coronagraph over a whole range of radial distances (up to heights of 12' above the limb and along four different heliocentric directions N, E, S and W. The analysis is limited to the study of the brightest forbidden emission line of Fe XIV at 530.3nm, in order to reach the best possible signal-to-noise ratio. To make the results statistically more significant, the extracted parameters are averaged over the whole length of the slit, and measurements are repeated fives times at each position; the corresponding dispersions in the results obtained along the slit are given. Central line profile intensities and full line widths (FWHM are plotted and compared to measurements published by other authors closer to the limb. We found widths and turbulent (non-thermal velocities of significantly higher values above the polar regions, especially when a coronal hole is present along the line of sight. We do not see a definitely decreasing behaviour of widths and turbulent velocities in equatorial directions for larger radial distances, as reported in the literature, although lower values are measured compared to the values in polar regions. The variation in the high corona is rather flat and a correlation diagram indicates that it is different for different regions and different radial distances. This seems to be the first analysis of the profiles of this coronal line, up to large heights above the limb for both equatorial and polar regions.

  1. Analysis on the effect of hypersonic vehicle's optical window on infrared thermal imaging system (United States)

    Dong, Liquan; Han, Ying; Kong, Lingqin; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin; Zhang, Li; Li, Yanhong; Tian, Yi; Sa, Renna


    According to the aero-thermal effects and aero-thermal radiation effects of the optical window, the thermo-optic effect, the elasto-optical effect and the thermal deformation of the optical window are analyzed using finite element analysis method. Also, the peak value and its location of the point spread function, which is caused by the thermo-optic effect and the dome thermal deformation, are calculated with the variance of time. Furthermore, the temperature gradient influence to the transmission of optical window, the variation trend of transmission as well as optical window radiation with time are studied based on temperature distribution analysis. The simulations results show that: When the incident light is perpendicular to the optical window, image shift is mainly caused by its thermal deformation, and the value of image shift is very small. Image shift is determined only by the angle of the incident light. With a certain incident angle, image shift is not affected by the gradient refractive index change. The optical window transmission is mainly affected by temperature gradient and thus not neglectable to image quality. Therefore, the selection of window cooling methods, needs not only consider the window temperature but try to eliminate the temperature gradient. When calculating the thermal radiation, the optical window should be regarded as volume radiation source instead of surface radiator. The results provide the basis for the optical window design, material selection and the later image processing.

  2. Thermal and Electrical Analysis of Mars Rover RTGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Skrabek, Emanuel A


    The RTG designs described in the preceding paper in these proceedings were analyzed for their thermal and electrical performance. Each analysis consisted of coupled thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analyses, using Fairchild-generated specialized computer codes. These were supplemented with preliminary structural and mass analyses. For each design, various cases representing different operating conditions (water-cooled/radiation-cooled, BOM/EOM, summer/winter, day/night) and different thermoelectric performance assumptions (from conservative to optimistic) were analyzed; and for every case, the heat flow rates, temperatures and electrical performance of each layer of thermoelectric elements and of the overall RTG were determined. The analyses were performed in great detail, to obtain accurate answers permitting meaningful comparisons between different designs. The results presented show the RTG performance achievable with current technology, and the performance improvements that would be achievable with various technology developments.

  3. Application of thermal analysis techniques in activated carbon production (United States)

    Donnals, G.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.; Brady, T.A.


    Thermal analysis techniques have been used at the ISGS as an aid in the development and characterization of carbon adsorbents. Promising adsorbents from fly ash, tires, and Illinois coals have been produced for various applications. Process conditions determined in the preparation of gram quantities of carbons were used as guides in the preparation of larger samples. TG techniques developed to characterize the carbon adsorbents included the measurement of the kinetics of SO2 adsorption, the performance of rapid proximate analyses, and the determination of equilibrium methane adsorption capacities. Thermal regeneration of carbons was assessed by TG to predict the life cycle of carbon adsorbents in different applications. TPD was used to determine the nature of surface functional groups and their effect on a carbon's adsorption properties.

  4. Optothermal Raman Studies of Thermal Properties of Graphene Based Films (United States)

    Malekpour, Hoda

    Efficient thermal management is becoming a critical issue for development of the next generation of electronics. As the size of electronic devices shrinks, the dissipated power density increases, demanding a better heat removal. The discovery of graphene's unique electrical and thermal properties stimulated interest of electronic industry to development of graphene based technologies. In this dissertation, I report the results of my investigation of thermal properties of graphene derivatives and their applications in thermal management. The dissertation consists of three parts. In the first part, I investigated thermal conductivity of graphene laminate films deposited on thermally insulating polyethylene terephthalate substrates. Graphene laminate is made of chemically derived graphene and few layer graphene flakes packed in overlapping structure. Two types of graphene laminate were studied: as deposited and compressed. The thermal conductivity of the laminate was found to be in the range from 40 W/mK to 90 W/mK at room temperature. It was established that the average size and the alignment of graphene flakes are parameters dominating the heat conduction. In the second part of this dissertation, I investigated thermal conductivity of chemically reduced freestanding graphene oxide films. It was found that the in-plane thermal conductivity of graphene oxide can be increased significantly using chemical reduction and temperature treatment. Finally, I studied the effect of defects on thermal conductivity of suspended graphene. The knowledge of the thermal conductivity dependence on the concentration of defects can shed light on the strength of the phonon - point defect scattering in two-dimensional materials. The defects were introduced to graphene in a controllable way using the low-energy electron beam irradiation. It was determined that as the defect density increases the thermal conductivity decreases down to about 400 W/mK, and then reveal saturation type behavior

  5. Analysis of Energy Consumption and Possibilities of Thermal-Modernization in Residential Buildings in Poland Case Study: The Town of Zielona Góra (United States)

    Alsabry, A.; Truszkiewicz, P.; Szymański, K.; Łaskawiec, K.; Rojek, Ł.


    The article presents an analysis of buildings belonging the Department of Public Utilities and Housing in Zielona Góra. The research was based on a set of questions for building operators. The questionnaires consisted of 30 questions concerning general and detailed information about the buildings. In order to clearly present the results, this article includes data only about residential and residential-commercial buildings. Forty building built in different periods were selected for analysis.

  6. Integrated Software Environment for Pressurized Thermal Shock Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Araneo


    Full Text Available The present paper describes the main features and an application to a real Nuclear Power Plant (NPP of an Integrated Software Environment (in the following referred to as “platform” developed at University of Pisa (UNIPI to perform Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS analysis. The platform is written in Java for the portability and it implements all the steps foreseen in the methodology developed at UNIPI for the deterministic analysis of PTS scenarios. The methodology starts with the thermal hydraulic analysis of the NPP with a system code (such as Relap5-3D and Cathare2, during a selected transient scenario. The results so obtained are then processed to provide boundary conditions for the next step, that is, a CFD calculation. Once the system pressure and the RPV wall temperature are known, the stresses inside the RPV wall can be calculated by mean a Finite Element (FE code. The last step of the methodology is the Fracture Mechanics (FM analysis, using weight functions, aimed at evaluating the stress intensity factor (KI at crack tip to be compared with the critical stress intensity factor KIc. The platform automates all these steps foreseen in the methodology once the user specifies a number of boundary conditions at the beginning of the simulation.

  7. Thermal Performance Analysis of a Geologic Borehole Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagin, Lauren [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The Brazilian Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) proposed a design for the disposal of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) based on the IAEA Borehole Disposal of Sealed Radioactive Sources (BOSS) design that would allow the entirety of Brazil’s inventory of DSRS to be disposed in a single borehole. The proposed IPEN design allows for 170 waste packages (WPs) containing DSRS (such as Co-60 and Cs-137) to be stacked on top of each other inside the borehole. The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the thermal performance of a conservative approach to the IPEN proposal with the equivalent of two WPs and two different inside configurations using Co-60 as the radioactive heat source. The current WP configuration (heterogeneous) for the IPEN proposal has 60% of the WP volume being occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source and the remaining 40% as vacant space. The second configuration (homogeneous) considered for this project was a homogeneous case where 100% of the WP volume was occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source. The computational models for the thermal analyses of the WP configurations with the Co-60 heat source considered three different cooling mechanisms (conduction, radiation, and convection) and the effect of mesh size on the results from the thermal analysis. The results of the analyses yielded maximum temperatures inside the WPs for both of the WP configurations and various mesh sizes. The heterogeneous WP considered the cooling mechanisms of conduction, convection, and radiation. The temperature results from the heterogeneous WP analysis suggest that the model is cooled predominantly by conduction with effect of radiation and natural convection on cooling being negligible. From the thermal analysis comparing the two WP configurations, the results suggest that either WP configuration could be used for the design. The mesh sensitivity results verify the meshes used, and results obtained from the thermal analyses were close to

  8. Thermal Comfort Studies in Naturally Ventilated Buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia


    Karyono, Tri; Sri, Elita; Sulistiawan, Jevi; Triswanti, Yenny


    Many thermal comfort studies have been conducted in offices, classrooms and dwellings, but few in public buildings such as cathedrals, museums and markets. A recent thermal comfort study has been conducted in three naturally ventilated (NV) buildings, a cathedral, a museum and a market, in Jakarta, between March and April 2014. There is a curiosity as to whether people doing slightly different activities with slightly different clothing insulation values, in different building types, might ha...

  9. Growth, spectral and thermal studies of ibuprofen crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramukutty, S.; Ramachandran, E. [Department of Physics, Thiruvalluvar College, Papanasam (India)


    RS -Ibuprofen was crystallized for the first time in silica gel under suitable pH conditions by reduction of solubility method. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and density measurement. The functional groups present in the crystal were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Optical bandgap energy of ibuprofen was estimated as 3.19(3) eV from UV-Vis spectrum. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that ibuprofen is thermally stable upto 102.9 C and the initial loss of mass was due to evaporation only. Morphological study showed that the growth is prominent along b-axis and the prominent face is {l_brace}100{r_brace}. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Thermal stress analysis method considering geometric effect of risers in sand mold casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Kwak


    Full Text Available Solidification and fluid flow analysis using computer simulation is a current common practice. There is also a high demand for thermal stress analysis in the casting process because casting engineers want to control the defects related to thermal stresses, such as large deformation and crack generation during casting. The riser system is an essential part of preventing the shrinkage defects in the casting process, and it has a great influence on thermal phenomena. The analysis domain is dramatically expanded by attaching the riser system to a casting product due to its large volume, and it makes FEM mesh generation difficult. However, it is difficult to study and solve the above proposed problem caused by riser system using traditional analysis methods which use single numerical method such as FEM or FDM. In this paper, some research information is presented on the effects of the riser system on thermal stress analysis using a FDM/FEM hybrid method in the casting process simulation. The results show the optimal conditions for stress analysis of the riser model in order to save computation time and memory resources.

  11. Thermal Fluid-Dynamic Study for the thermal control of the new ALICE Central Detectors

    CERN Document Server


    The Inner Tracking System Detector of the ALICE Experiment at CERN laboratory will be replaced in 2020 with a new Detector. It will have to provide, among others, higher spatial resolution, higher tracking precision and faster data read-out. These goals will be attained thanks to new pixel sensors chips and new electronic components, which will have a high impact in terms of dissipated heat. Therefore, one of the critical aspects for the success of the Upgrade project is the design of the Detector cooling system. This thesis work has been developed at CERN in Geneva in close contact with the group responsible for the Mechanics and Cooling of the Detector. The aim of the thermal fluid dynamic study devised is to deliver to the group a reliable and accurate description of the air flow inside the New Inner Tracking System Detector. After a first part of problem definition and design study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has been developed with the ANSYS Fluent software. The CFD model built in this ...

  12. Vacuum Insulation Panels: Analysis of the Thermal Performance of Both Single Panel and Multilayer Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Capozzoli


    Full Text Available The requirements for improvement in the energy efficiency of buildings, mandatory in many EU countries, entail a high level of thermal insulation of the building envelope. In recent years, super-insulation materials with very low thermal conductivity have been developed. These materials provide satisfactory thermal insulation, but allow the total thickness of the envelope components to be kept below a certain thickness. Nevertheless, in order to penetrate the building construction market, some barriers have to be overcome. One of the main issues is that testing procedures and useful data that are able to give a reliable picture of their performance when applied to real buildings have to be provided. Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIPs are one of the most promising high performing technologies. The overall, effective, performance of a panel under actual working conditions is influenced by thermal bridging, due to the edge of the panel envelope and to the type of joint. In this paper, a study on the critical issues related to the laboratory measurement of the equivalent thermal conductivity of VIPs and their performance degradation due to vacuum loss has been carried out utilizing guarded heat flux meter apparatus. A numerical analysis has also been developed to study thermal bridging effect when VIP panels are adopted to create multilayer boards for building applications.

  13. Analysis of the variation of range parameters of thermal cameras (United States)

    Bareła, Jarosław; Kastek, Mariusz; Firmanty, Krzysztof; Krupiński, Michał


    Measured range characteristics may vary considerably (up to several dozen percent) between different samples of the same camera type. The question is whether the manufacturing process somehow lacks repeatability or the commonly used measurement procedures themselves need improvement. The presented paper attempts to deal with the aforementioned question. The measurement method has been thoroughly analyzed as well as the measurement test bed. Camera components (such as detector and optics) have also been analyzed and their key parameters have been measured, including noise figures of the entire system. Laboratory measurements are the most precise method used to determine range parameters of a thermal camera. However, in order to obtain reliable results several important conditions have to be fulfilled. One must have the test equipment capable of measurement accuracy (uncertainty) significantly better than the magnitudes of measured quantities. The measurements must be performed in a controlled environment thus excluding the influence of varying environmental conditions. The personnel must be well-trained, experienced in testing the thermal imaging devices and familiar with the applied measurement procedures. The measurement data recorded for several dozen of cooled thermal cameras (from one of leading camera manufacturers) have been the basis of the presented analysis. The measurements were conducted in the accredited research laboratory of Institute of Optoelectronics (Military University of Technology).

  14. Study of thermal degradation of vanadium and titanium acetylacetonate derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyagileva, L.M.; Tsyganova, E.I.; Mar' in, V.P.; Aleksandrov, Yu.A. (Gor' kovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Khimii)


    Kinetics and products of vanadium (+3), vanadyl (+3) and titanium (+3) acetylacetonates thermal degradation have been studied in vapor phase in the closed system at 300-470 deg C. Gaseous composition of pyrolysis has been determined at different levels of decomposition. It is supposed that vanadium and metal vanadium mixed oxides become vanadium (+3) pyrolysis products. It is shown that metal oxidation level does not affect the thermal degradation rate. Central atom substitution leads to the change in thermal stability. Titanium (+3) acetylacetate derivatives are less stable than vanadium (+3) ones.

  15. Synthesis, Spectroscopy, Thermal Analysis, Magnetic Properties and Biological Activity Studies of Cu(II and Co(II Complexes with Schiff Base Dye Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Amani


    Full Text Available Three azo group-containing Schiff base ligands, namely 1-{3-[(3-hydroxy-propyliminomethyl]-4-hydroxyphenylazo}-4-nitrobenzene (2a, 1-{3-[(3-hydroxypropyl-iminomethyl]-4-hydroxyphenylazo}-2-chloro-4-nitrobenzene (2b and 1-{3-[(3-hydroxy-propyliminomethyl]-4-hydroxyphenylazo}-4-chloro-3-nitrobenzene (2c were prepared. The ligands were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, 13C- and 1H-NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Next the corresponding copper(II and cobalt(II metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by the physicochemical and spectroscopic methods of elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, magnetic moment measurements, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and (DSC. The room temperature effective magnetic moments of complexes are 1.45, 1.56, 1.62, 2.16, 2.26 and 2.80 B.M. for complexes 3a, 3b, 3c, 4a 4b, and 4c, respectively, indicating that the complexes are paramagnetic with considerable electronic communication between the two metal centers.

  16. Analysis of convective longitudinal fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and internal heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Sobamowo


    Full Text Available In this study, analysis of heat transfer in a longitudinal rectangular fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and internal heat generation was carried out using finite difference method. The developed systems of non-linear equations that resulted from the discretization using finite difference scheme were solved with the aid of MATLAB using fsolve. The numerical solution was validated with the exact solution for the linear problem. The developed heat transfer models were used to investigate the effects of thermo-geometric parameters, coefficient of heat transfer and thermal conductivity (non-linear parameters on the temperature distribution, heat transfer and thermal performance of the longitudinal rectangular fin. From the results, it shows that the fin temperature distribution, the total heat transfer, and the fin efficiency are significantly affected by the thermo-geometric parameters of the fin. Also, for the solution to be thermally stable, the fin thermo-geometric parameter must not exceed a specific value. However, it was established that the increase in temperature-dependent properties and internal heat generation values increases the thermal stability range of the thermo-geometric parameter. The results obtained in this analysis serve as basis for comparison of any other method of analysis of the problem.

  17. Analysis of the thermal properties of nanomodified epoxy composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOMIN Nikolay Egorovich


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research of epoxy composites modified by nanoparticles. The results were obtained by the method of thermogravimetric analysis. The dependences between the intensity of the processes of thermal degradation in the air and technological factors and content of nanoparticles have been determined. The optimal concentration of 5 types of nanomodifiers besed on carbon nanoclusters adducts, which are functionalized carbon compounds has been revealed. The obvious advantage of these modifiers is their high solubility in polar solvents, that makes the use of these modifiers easier and allows disusing the additional sonication. Investigation of thermooxidation processes of modified epoxy resins was performed in a dynamic mode using TGA/SDTA851e module of STARe System in the temperature range 25÷800⁰C in air atmosphere with simultaneous removal of the gaseous decomposition products. Aluminum oxide (Al₂O₃ was used as the etalon, the temperature speed set was 10 deg./min. It was found out that the process of thermal degradation consists of two stages. The first step is characterized by the main oxidative degradation of polymer and the loss of up to 80% of the original sample weight, the second step is accompanied by the further oxidative decomposition of epoxy composite related to the carbon skeleton destruction. It was proved experimentally that injection of modifiers changes thermal-oxidative decomposition processes and also changes specific energy of epoxy composite according to the type and concentration of nanomodifier. It was shown that the injection of optimal amounts of modifier allows increase of the thermal and energy characteristics, and as a result, the durability of epoxy coatings exposed to aggressive climatic factors.

  18. Experimental and Transient Thermal Analysis of Heat Sink Fin for CPU processor for better performance (United States)

    Ravikumar, S.; Subash Chandra, Parisaboina; Harish, Remella; Sivaji, Tallapaneni


    The advancement of the digital computer and its utilization day by day is rapidly increasing. But the reliability of electronic components is critically affected by the temperature at which the junction operates. The designers are forced to shorten the overall system dimensions, in extracting the heat and controlling the temperature which focus the studies of electronic cooling. In this project Thermal analysis is carried out with a commercial package provided by ANSYS. The geometric variables and design of heat sink for improving the thermal performance is experimented. This project utilizes thermal analysis to identify a cooling solution for a desktop computer, which uses a 5 W CPU. The design is able to cool the chassis with heat sink joined to the CPU is adequate to cool the whole system. This work considers the circular cylindrical pin fins and rectangular plate heat sink fins design with aluminium base plate and the control of CPU heat sink processes.

  19. Thermal Analysis of Ball screw Systems by Explicit Finite Difference Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Bog Ki [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chun Hong; Chung, Sung Chong [KIMM, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Friction generated from balls and grooves incurs temperature rise in the ball screw system. Thermal deformation due to the heat degrades positioning accuracy of the feed drive system. To compensate for the thermal error, accurate prediction of the temperature distribution is required first. In this paper, to predict the temperature distribution according to the rotational speed, solid and hollow cylinders are applied for analysis of the ball screw shaft and nut, respectively. Boundary conditions such as the convective heat transfer coefficient, friction torque, and thermal contact conductance (TCC) between balls and grooves are formulated according to operating and fabrication conditions of the ball screw. Explicit FDM (finite difference method) is studied for development of a temperature prediction simulator. Its effectiveness is verified through numerical analysis.

  20. A Study of Thermal Analyses and Fundamental Combustion Characteristics for Thermal Utility with Biomass Volatile Matter (United States)

    Ida, Tamio; Namba, Kunihiko; Sano, Hiroshi

    Based on un-use biomass utilities, Carbonized technology is noticed as material utilities and solid fuel. Therefore, this technology is tackling by national project as large-scale utilities. But, this technology is dehydrated volatiles matter during carbonized from biomass. Especially, Woody tar into one of volatile matter has vicious handling to get into trouble in carbonized equipment. In this study, we propose to get fundamental knowledge for effective thermal utility through thermal decompositions and fundamental combustion properties on experimental results. Woody tar has high caloric value (approximately 30MJ/kg) and high carbon ration. On the other hand, a woody vinegar liquid has thermal decomposition property close to water property with heat absorption as evaporation latent heat of water. In fundamental combustion experimental result, a woody tar has fl ammable combustion and surface combustion. Especially, a total combustion and ignition time properties has hyperbola relation to environment temperatures in furnace.

  1. Structural analysis of a thermal insulation retainer assembly (United States)

    Greene, William H.; Gray, Carl E., Jr.


    In January 1989 an accident occurred in the National Transonic Facility wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center that was believed to be caused by the failure of a thermal insulation retainer. A structural analysis of this retainer assembly was performed in order to understand the possible failure mechanisms. Two loading conditions are important and were considered in the analysis. The first is the centrifugal force due to the fact that this retainer is located on the fan drive shaft. The second loading is a differential temperature between the retainer assembly and the underlying shaft. Geometrically nonlinear analysis is required to predict the stiffness of this component and to account for varying contact regions between various components in the assembly. High, local stresses develop in the band part of the assembly near discontinuities under both the centrifugal and thermal loadings. The presence of an aluminum ring during a portion of the part's operating life was found to increase the stresses in other regions of the band. Under the centrifugal load, high bending stresses develop near the intersection of the band with joints in the assembly. These high bending stresses are believed to be the most likely cause for failure of the assembly.

  2. Exergetic analysis of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Ruperez, B.; San Miguel, G.


    A very important component to achieve sustainable development in the energy sector is the improvement of energy efficiency of widely applied thermodynamic processes. Evaluation and optimization methods of energy processes play a crucial role in fulfilling this goal. A suitable method for the evaluation and optimization of energy conversion systems has been proven to be the exergetic analysis. In this work, two parabolic trough solar thermal power plants are simulated in detail using commercial software, and they are further analysed and compared using an exergetic analysis. The first plant uses a thermal fluid to produce the steam required in a steam generator, while the second one produces the steam directly in the solar field. The analysis involves the evaluation of the individual components of the power plants, as well as the performance evaluation of the overall structures. The main goal is to detect thermodynamic inefficiencies of the two different configurations and propose measures to minimize those. We find that the two examined plants have similar main sources of exergy destruction: the solar field (parabolic trough solar collectors), followed by the steam generator. This reveals the importance of an optimal design of these particular components, which could reduce inefficiencies present in the system. The differences in the exergy destruction and exergetic efficiencies of individual components of the two plants are analyzed in detail based on comparable operational conditions.

  3. Forensic analysis methodology for thermal and chemical characterization of homemade explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarian, Ashot; Presser, Cary, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Identification of homemade explosives (HME) is critical for determining the origin of explosive precursor materials. • A novel laser-heating technique was used to obtain the thermal/chemical signatures of HME precursor materials. • Liquid-fuel saturation of the pores of a solid porous oxidizer affected the total specific heat release. • Material thermal signatures were dependent on sample mass and heating rate. • This laser-heating technique can be a useful diagnostic tool for characterizing the thermochemical behavior of HMEs. - Abstract: Forensic identification of homemade explosives is critical for determining the origin of the explosive materials and precursors, and formulation procedures. Normally, the forensic examination of the pre- and post-blast physical evidence lacks specificity for homemade-explosive identification. The focus of this investigation was to use a novel measurement technique, referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor, to obtain the thermal/chemical signatures of homemade-explosive precursor materials. Specifically, nitromethane and ammonium nitrate were studied under a variety of operating conditions and protocols. Results indicated that liquid-fuel saturation of the internal pores of a solid particle oxidizer appear to be a limiting parameter for the total specific heat release during exothermic processes. Results also indicated that the thermal signatures of these materials are dependent on sample mass and heating rate, for which this dependency may not be detectable by other commercially available thermal analysis techniques. This study has demonstrated that the laser-driven thermal reactor can be a useful diagnostic tool for characterizing the thermal and chemical behavior of trace amounts of homemade-explosive materials.

  4. Thermal and spectroscopic studies on solid ibuprofen complexes of lighter trivalent lanthanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gálico, D.A.; Holanda, B.B.C.; Guerra, R.B.; Legendre, A.O.; Rinaldo, D. [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Ciências, Departamento de Química, São Paulo CEP 17033-260 (Brazil); Treu-Filho, O. [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Química, São Paulo CEP 14800-900 (Brazil); Bannach, G., E-mail: [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Ciências, Departamento de Química, São Paulo CEP 17033-260 (Brazil)


    Highlights: • Lighter trivalent lanthanide complexes of ibuprofen have been synthesized. • The TG-FTIR allowed the identification of propane as the gas evolved during the thermal decomposition of the neodymium compound. • The thermal analysis provided information about the composition, dehydration, thermal behavior and thermal decomposition of the samples. • The theoretical and experimental spectroscopic studies suggest that the carboxylate group of ibuprofen is coordinated to the metals by a bidentate bond. - Abstract: Solid-state compounds of general formula Ln(L){sub 3}, in which L is ibuprofen and Ln stands for trivalent La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Eu, have been synthesized. Simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray powder diffractometry (DRX), complexometry, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry coupled to Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) were used to characterize these compounds. The results provided information concerning the chemical composition, dehydration, coordination modes of the ligands, crystallinity of the samples, thermal behavior and thermal decomposition of the compounds. The theoretical and experimental spectroscopic studies suggest that ibuprofen coordinates through the carboxylate group as a chelating ligand.

  5. Identification and analysis of factors affecting thermal shock resistance of ceramic materials in solar receivers (United States)

    Hasselman, D. P. H.; Singh, J. P.; Satyamurthy, K.


    An analysis was conducted of the possible modes of thermal stress failure of brittle ceramics for potential use in point-focussing solar receivers. The pertinent materials properties which control thermal stress resistance were identified for conditions of steady-state and transient heat flow, convective and radiative heat transfer, thermal buckling and thermal fatigue as well as catastrophic crack propagation. Selection rules for materials with optimum thermal stress resistance for a particular thermal environment were identified. Recommendations for materials for particular components were made. The general requirements for a thermal shock testing program quantitatively meaningful for point-focussing solar receivers were outlined. Recommendations for follow-on theoretical analyses were made.

  6. Early detection of metabolic and energy disorders by thermal time series stochastic complexity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutaif, N.A. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Palazzo, R. Jr [Departamento de Telemática, Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e Computação, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gontijo, J.A.R. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    Maintenance of thermal homeostasis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes in their thermal balance. The thermodynamic relationship between heat dissipation and energy storage is altered by the ingestion of high-energy diet content. Observation of thermal registers of core temperature behavior, in humans and rodents, permits identification of some characteristics of time series, such as autoreference and stationarity that fit adequately to a stochastic analysis. To identify this change, we used, for the first time, a stochastic autoregressive model, the concepts of which match those associated with physiological systems involved and applied in male HFD rats compared with their appropriate standard food intake age-matched male controls (n=7 per group). By analyzing a recorded temperature time series, we were able to identify when thermal homeostasis would be affected by a new diet. The autoregressive time series model (AR model) was used to predict the occurrence of thermal homeostasis, and this model proved to be very effective in distinguishing such a physiological disorder. Thus, we infer from the results of our study that maximum entropy distribution as a means for stochastic characterization of temperature time series registers may be established as an important and early tool to aid in the diagnosis and prevention of metabolic diseases due to their ability to detect small variations in thermal profile.

  7. Heat transfer and thermal stress analysis in grooved tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The maximum thermal stress ratio positions inside the tube have been indicated as MX for all investigated cases. In the light of the thermal stress values, various designs can be applied to reduce thermal stress in grooved tubes. Keywords. Heat transfer; thermal stress; grooved tubes. 1. Introduction. Heat transfer in pipe flow ...

  8. A theoretical analysis of local thermal equilibrium in fibrous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Mingwei


    Full Text Available The internal heat exchange between each phase and the Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE scenarios in multi-phase fibrous materials are considered in this paper. Based on the two-phase heat transfer model, a criterion is proposed to evaluate the LTE condition, using derived characteristic parameters. Furthermore, the LTE situations in isothermal/adiabatic boundary cases with two different heat sources (constant heat flux and constant temperature are assessed as special transient cases to test the proposed criterion system, and the influence of such different cases on their LTE status are elucidated. In addition, it is demonstrated that even the convective boundary problems can be generally estimated using this approach. Finally, effects on LTE of the material properties (thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity of each phase, sample porosity and pore hydraulic radius are investigated, illustrated and discussed in our study.

  9. Thermal studies to determine the accelerated ageing of flares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Krabbendam-La Haye, E.L.M.; Berger, B.; Brechbuhl, H.; Popescu, C.


    Thermal analysis is an interesting technique to determine kinetic parameters of separate components, and also of a complete system to receive adequate information on the ageing process of pyrotechnic compositions. The investigated tracer is a tracking tracer of a Swiss missile. It is attached to a

  10. Experimental and numerical analysis of thermal striping in automotive brake discs


    Augustins, L; Hild, Francois; Billardon, R; Boudevin, S


    International audience; In the present study, thermal striping development on friction bands of brake discs is investigated through an experimental and numerical analysis. A test consisting of a series of several hundred severe brakings was carried out on a specific bench at PSA Peugeot Citroën. The experimental observations of the crack network evolution and a numerical analysis of a brake disc with a single crack helped to propose a macroscopic criterion capable of predicting the criticalit...

  11. Thermal Response Analysis of Phospholipid Bilayers Using Ellipsometric Techniques (United States)

    González-Henríquez, Carmen M.; Villegas-Opazo, Vanessa A.; Sagredo-Oyarce, Dallits H.; Sarabia-Vallejos, Mauricio A.; Terraza, Claudio A.


    Biomimetic planar artificial membranes have been widely studied due to their multiple applications in several research fields. Their humectation and thermal response are crucial for reaching stability; these characteristics are related to the molecular organization inside the bilayer, which is affected by the aliphatic chain length, saturations, and molecule polarity, among others. Bilayer stability becomes a fundamental factor when technological devices are developed—like biosensors—based on those systems. Thermal studies were performed for different types of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules: two pure PC bilayers and four binary PC mixtures. These analyses were carried out through the detection of slight changes in their optical and structural parameters via Ellipsometry and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) techniques. Phospholipid bilayers were prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett technique and deposited over a hydrophilic silicon wafer. Their molecular inclination degree, mobility, and stability of the different phases were detected and analyzed through bilayer thickness changes and their optical phase-amplitude response. Results show that certain binary lipid mixtures—with differences in its aliphatic chain length—present a co-existence of two thermal responses due to non-ideal mixing. PMID:28820461

  12. A Thermal Test System for Helmet Cooling Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Fitzgerald


    Full Text Available One of the primary causes of discomfort to both irregular and elite cyclists is heat entrapment by a helmet resulting in overheating and excessive sweating of the head. To accurately assess the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets, a heated plastic thermal headform has been developed. The construction consists of a 3D-printed headform of low thermal conductivity with an internal layer of high thermal mass that is heated to a constant uniform temperature by an electrical heating element. Testing is conducted in a wind tunnel where the heater power remains constant and the resulting surface temperature distribution is directly measured by 36 K-type thermocouples embedded within the surface of the head in conjunction with a thermal imaging camera. Using this new test system, four bicycle helmets were studied in order to measure their cooling abilities and to identify ‘hot spots’ where cooling performance is poor.

  13. THERMIT2. BWR & PWR Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimi, M.S.; Kao, S.P.; Kelly, J.E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    THERMIT2, the most recent release of THERMIT, is intended for thermal-hydraulic analysis of both boiling and pressurized water reactor cores. It solves the three-dimensional, two-fluid equations describing the two-phase flow and heat transfer dynamics in rectangular coordinates. The two-fluid model uses separate partial differential equations expressing conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for each fluid. By expressing the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between the fluids with physically-based mathematical models, the relative motion and thermal non-equilibrium between the fluids can exist. THERMIT2 offers the choice of either pressure or velocity boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the core. THERMIT2 includes a two-phase turbulent mixing model which provides subchannel analysis capability. THERMIT2 also solves the radial heat conduction equations for fuel pin temperatures, and calculates the heat flux from fuel pin to coolant with appropriate heat transfer models described by a boiling curve.

  14. Thermal analysis of two-dimensional structures in fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pierin

    Full Text Available The structural materials, as reinforced concrete, steel, wood and aluminum, when heated have their mechanical proprieties degraded. In fire, the structures are subject to elevated temperatures and consequently the load capacity of the structural elements is reduced. The Brazilian and European standards show the minimal dimensions for the structural elements had an adequate bearing capacity in fire. However, several structural checks are not contemplated in methods provided by the standards. In these situations, the knowledge of the temperature distributions inside of structural elements as function of time of exposition is required. The aim of this paper is present software developed by the authors called ATERM. The software performs the thermal transient analysis of two-dimensional structures. The structure may be formed of any material and heating is provided by means of a curve of temperature versus time. The data input and the visualization of the results is performed thought the GiD software. Several examples are compared with software Super TempCalc and ANSYS. Some conclusions and recommendations about the thermal analysis are presented

  15. Evaluation of antioxidants stability by thermal analysis and its protective effect in heated edible vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seme Youssef Reda


    Full Text Available In this work, through the use of thermal analysis techniques, the thermal stabilities of some antioxidants were investigated, in order to evaluate their resistance to thermal oxidation in oils, by heating canola vegetable oil, and to suggest that antioxidants would be more appropriate to increase the resistance of vegetable oils in the thermal degradation process in frying. The techniques used were: Thermal Gravimetric (TG and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC analyses, as well as an allusion to a possible protective action of the vegetable oils, based on the thermal oxidation of canola vegetable oil in the laboratory under constant heating at 180 ºC/8 hours for 10 days. The studied antioxidants were: ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, citric acid, sodium erythorbate, BHT (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, BHA (2, 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol, TBHQ (tertiary butyl hydroquinone, PG (propyl gallate - described as antioxidants by ANVISA and the FDA; and also the phytic acid antioxidant and the SAIB (sucrose acetate isobutyrate additive, which is used in the food industry, in order to test its behavior as an antioxidant in vegetable oil. The following antioxidants: citric acid, sodium erythorbate, BHA, BHT, TBHQ and sorbic acid decompose at temperatures below 180 ºC, and therefore, have little protective action in vegetable oils undergoing frying processes. The antioxidants below: phytic acid, ascorbic acid and PG, are the most resistant and begin their decomposition processes at temperatures between 180 and 200 ºC. The thermal analytical techniques have also shown that the SAIB antioxidant is the most resistant to oxidative action, and it can be a useful choice in the thermal decomposition prevention of edible oils, improving stability regarding oxidative processes.

  16. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.


    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  17. Current research on shear buckling and thermal loads with PASCO: Panel Analysis and Sizing Code (United States)

    Stroud, W. J.; Greene, W. H.; Anderson, M. S.


    The PASCO computer program to obtain the detailed dimensions of optimum stiffened composite structural panels is described. Design requirements in terms of inequality constraints can be placed on buckling loads or vibration frequencies, lamina stresses and strains, and overall panel stiffness for each of many load conditions. General panel cross sections can be treated. An analysis procedure involving a smeared orthotropic solution was investigated. The conservatism in the VIPASA solution and the danger in a smeared orthotropic solution is explored. PASCO's capability to design for thermal loadings is also described. It is emphasized that design studies illustrate the importance of the multiple load condition capability when thermal loads are present.

  18. DOE-Managed HLW and SNF Research: FY15 EBS and Thermal Analysis Work Package Status.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteo, Edward N. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report examines the technical elements necessary to evaluate EBS concepts and perform thermal analysis of DOE-Managed SNF and HLW in the disposal settings of primary interest – argillite, crystalline, salt, and deep borehole. As the disposal design concept is composed of waste inventory, geologic setting, and engineered concept of operation, the engineered barrier system (EBS) falls into the last component of engineered concept of operation. The waste inventory for DOE-Managed HLW and SNF is closely examined, with specific attention to the number of waste packages, the size of waste packages, and the thermal output per package. As expected, the DOE-Managed HLW and SNF inventory has a much smaller volume, and hence smaller number of canisters, as well a lower thermal output, relative to a waste inventory that would include commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). A survey of available data and methods from previous studies of thermal analysis indicates that, in some cases, thermo-hydrologic modeling will be necessary to appropriately address the problem. This report also outlines scope for FY16 work -- a key challenge identified is developing a methodology to effectively and efficiently evaluate EBS performance in each disposal setting on the basis of thermal analyses results.

  19. Thermal analysis of the ambient air around a particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gasser, D


    The ATLAS particle detector will be in operation at CERN in a few years. The so-called "end cap muon chambers", which form a sub-system of this detector, need to be aligned accurately by means of light rays. Despite the significant amount of heat released in the air by the detector, the rays must not be too much distorted by temperature difference. In order to predict ambient temperature gradient, a thermal analysis is done using a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model. Because of the complexity of ATLAS geometry, relevant assumptions need to be made in order to get a suitable model for numerical analysis and which give reliable results at the same time.

  20. Thermal stress analysis of the fuel storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.W.


    This paper presents the results of a nonlinear finite-element analysis to determine the structural integrity of the walls of the nuclear fuel storage room in the Radio Isotope Power System Facility of the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) Project. The analysis was performed to assess the effects of thermal loading on the walls that would result from a loss-of-cooling accident. The results obtained from using the same three-dimensional finite-element model with different types of elements, the eight-node brick element and the nonlinear concrete element, and the calculated results using the analytical solutions, are compared. The concrete responses in terms of octahedral normal and shearing stresses are described. The crack and crush states of the concrete were determined on the basis of multiaxial failure criteria.

  1. Thermal design, analysis and comparison on three concepts of space solar power satellite (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Hou, Xinbin; Wang, Li


    Space solar power satellites (SSPS) have been widely studied as systems for collecting solar energy in space and transmitting it wirelessly to earth. A previously designed planar SSPS concept collects solar power in two huge arrays and then transmits it through one side of the power-conduction joint to the antenna. However, the system's one group of power-conduction joints may induce a single point of failure. As an SSPS concept, the module symmetrical concentrator (MSC) architecture has many advantages. This architecture can help avoid the need for a large, potentially failure-prone conductive rotating joint and limit wiring mass. However, the thermal control system has severely restricted the rapid development of MSC, especially in the sandwich module. Because of the synchronous existence of five suns concentration and solar external heat flux, the sandwich module will have a very high temperature, which will surpass the permissible temperature of the solar cells. Recently, an alternate multi-rotary joints (MR) SSPS concept was designed by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). This system has multiple joints to avoid the problem of a single point of failure. Meanwhile, this concept has another advantage for reducing the high power and heat removal in joints. It is well known to us that, because of the huge external flux in SSPS, the thermal management sub-system is an important component that cannot be neglected. Based on the three SSPS concepts, this study investigated the thermal design and analysis of a 1-km, gigawatt-level transmitting antenna in SSPS. This study compares the thermal management sub-systems of power-conduction joints in planar and MR SSPS. Moreover, the study considers three classic thermal control architectures of the MSC's sandwich module: tile, step, and separation. The study also presents an elaborate parameter design, analysis and discussion of step architecture. Finally, the results show the thermal characteristics of each SSPS

  2. Novel thermal imaging analysis technique for detecting inflammation in thyroid eye disease. (United States)

    Di Maria, Costanzo; Allen, John; Dickinson, Jane; Neoh, Christopher; Perros, Petros


    The disease phase in thyroid eye disease (TED) is commonly assessed by clinical investigation of cardinal signs of inflammation and using the clinical activity score (CAS). Although CAS is the current gold standard, the clinical assessment would benefit if a more objective tool were available. The aim of this work was to explore the clinical value of a novel thermal imaging analysis technique to objectively quantify the thermal characteristics of the eye and peri-orbital region and determine the disease phase in TED. This was a cross-sectional study comparing consecutive patients with active TED (CAS ≥ 3/7) attending a tertiary center, with a group of consecutive patients with inactive TED (CAS <3). Thermal images were acquired from 30 TED patients, 17 with active disease and 13 with inactive disease. Patients underwent standard ophthalmological clinical assessments and thermal imaging. Five novel thermal eye parameters (TEP) were developed to quantify the thermal characteristics of the eyes in terms of the highest level of inflammation (TEP1), overall level of inflammation (TEP2), right-left asymmetry in the level of inflammation (TEP3), maximum temperature variability across the eyes (TEP4), and right-left asymmetry in the temperature variability (TEP5). All five TEP were increased in active TED. TEP1 gave the largest accuracy (77%) at separating the two groups, with 65% sensitivity and 92% specificity. A statistical model combining all five parameters increased the overall accuracy, compared to using only one parameter, to 93% (94% sensitivity and 92% specificity). All five of the parameters were also found to be increased in patients with chemosis compared to those without. The potential diagnostic value of this novel thermal imaging analysis technique has been demonstrated. Further investigation on a larger group of patients is necessary to confirm these results.

  3. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of LTS cables for the DEMO TF coil using simplified models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowska Monika


    Full Text Available The conceptual design activities for the DEMOnstration reactor (DEMO – the prototype fusion power plant – are conducted in Europe by the EUROfusion Consortium. In 2015, three design concepts of the DEMO toroidal field (TF coil were proposed by Swiss Plasma Center (EPFL-SPC, PSI Villigen, Italian National Agency for New Technologies (ENEA Frascati, and Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA Cadarache. The proposed conductor designs were subjected to complete mechanical, electromagnetic, and thermal-hydraulic analyses. The present study is focused on the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the candidate conductor designs using simplified models. It includes (a hydraulic analysis, (b heat removal analysis, and (c assessment of the maximum temperature and the maximum pressure in each conductor during quench. The performed analysis, aimed at verification whether the proposed design concepts fulfil the established acceptance criteria, provides the information for further improvements of the coil and conductors design.

  4. Numerical analysis of thermal deformation in laser beam heating of a steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Kim, Yong-Rae; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)


    Line heating is a widely used process for plate forming or thermal straightening. Flame heating and induction heating are the traditional heating processes used by industry for line heating. However, these two heating processes are ineffective when used on small steel plates. Thus, the laser beam heating with various power profiles were carried out in this study. A comparison of numerical simulation results and experimental results found a significant difference in the thermal deformation when apply a different power profile of laser beam heating. The one-sinusoid power profile produced largest thermal deformation in this study. The laser beam heating process was simulated by established a combined heat source model, and simulated results were compared with experimental results to confirm the model’s accuracy. The mechanism of thermal deformation was investigated and the effects of model parameters were studied intensively with the finite element method. Thermal deformation was found to have a significant relationship with the amount of central zone plastic deformation. Scientists and engineers could use this study’s verified model to select appropriate parameters in laser beam heating process. Moreover, by using the developed laser beam model, the analysis of welding residual stress or hardness could also be investigated from a power profile point of view.

  5. Concentration, ozone formation potential and source analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a thermal power station centralized area: A study in Shuozhou, China. (United States)

    Yan, Yulong; Peng, Lin; Li, Rumei; Li, Yinghui; Li, Lijuan; Bai, Huiling


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from two sampling sites (HB and XB) in a power station centralized area, in Shuozhou city, China, were sampled by stainless steel canisters and measured by gas chromatography-mass selective detection/flame ionization detection (GC-MSD/FID) in the spring and autumn of 2014. The concentration of VOCs was higher in the autumn (HB, 96.87 μg/m3; XB, 58.94 μg/m3) than in the spring (HB, 41.49 μg/m3; XB, 43.46 μg/m3), as lower wind speed in the autumn could lead to pollutant accumulation, especially at HB, which is a new urban area surrounded by residential areas and a transportation hub. Alkanes were the dominant group at both HB and XB in both sampling periods, but the contribution of aromatic pollutants at HB in the autumn was much higher than that of the other alkanes (11.16-19.55%). Compared to other cities, BTEX pollution in Shuozhou was among the lowest levels in the world. Because of the high levels of aromatic pollutants, the ozone formation potential increased significantly at HB in the autumn. Using the ratio analyses to identify the age of the air masses and analyze the sources, the results showed that the atmospheric VOCs at XB were strongly influenced by the remote sources of coal combustion, while at HB in the spring and autumn were affected by the remote sources of coal combustion and local sources of vehicle emission, respectively. Source analysis conducted using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model at Shuozhou showed that coal combustion and vehicle emissions made the two largest contributions (29.98% and 21.25%, respectively) to atmospheric VOCs. With further economic restructuring, the influence of vehicle emissions on the air quality should become more significant, indicating that controlling vehicle emissions is key to reducing the air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat exchange studies on coconut oil cells as thermal energy storage for room thermal conditioning (United States)

    Sutjahja, I. M.; Putri, Widya A.; Fahmi, Z.; Wonorahardjo, S.; Kurnia, D.


    As reported by many thermal environment experts, room air conditioning might be controlled by thermal mass system. In this paper we discuss the performance of coconut oil cells as room thermal energy storage. The heat exchange mechanism of coconut oil (CO) which is one of potential organic Phase Change Material (PCM) is studied based on the results of temperature measurements in the perimeter and core parts of cells. We found that the heat exchange performance, i.e. heat absorption and heat release processes of CO cells are dominated by heat conduction in the sensible solid from the higher temperature perimeter part to the lower temperature core part and heat convection during the solid-liquid phase transition and sensible liquid phase. The capability of heat absorption as measured by the reduction of air temperature is not influenced by CO cell size. Besides that, the application of CO as the thermal mass has to be accompanied by air circulation to get the cool sensation of the room’s occupants.

  7. Experimental study of influence of inlet geometry on thermal stratification in thermal energy storage during charging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švarc Petr


    Full Text Available Various analyses of charging processes of real single-medium thermal energy storage were applied in this work. Two different inlet geometries of direct intakes into thermal energy storage were investigated for the process of charging in Richardson numbers 0.4 and 15. Temperature distributions for both cases are shown and compared in selected time steps. Several simple methods for assessment of an ability to maintain and support thermal stratification during charging processes were compared with exergy analysis.

  8. Integrated thermal treatment systems study. Internal review panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R. [and others


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies for treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the help of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel to review and comment on the ITTS studies. This Panel was composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994 to review the ITTS studies and to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level wastes and on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies. This report describes the findings and presents the recommendations of the Panel.

  9. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the JMTR improved LEU-core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, Toshio; Nagao, Yoshiharu; Komukai, Bunsaku; Naka, Michihiro; Fujiki, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Takeda, Takashi [Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Technology Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)


    After the investigation of the new core arrangement for the JMTR reactor in order to enhance the fuel burn-up and consequently extend the operation period, the ''improved LEU core'' that utilized 2 additional fuel elements instead of formerly installed reflector elements, was adopted. This report describes the results of the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the improved LEU core as a part of safety analysis for the licensing. The analysis covers steady state, abnormal operational transients and accidents, which were described in the annexes of the licensing documents as design bases events. Calculation conditions for the computer codes were conservatively determined based on the neutronic analysis results and others. The results of the analysis, that revealed the safety criteria were satisfied on the fuel temperature, DNBR and primary coolant temperature, were used in the licensing. The operation license of the JMTR with the improved LEU core was granted in March 2001, and the reactor operation with new core started in November 2001 as 142nd operation cycle. (author)

  10. Thermal analysis, spectral characterization and refractive index studies of lithium doped PbO-ZnO-B2O3 glass (United States)

    Rajaramakrishna, R.; Lakshmikantha, R.; Anavekar, R. V.


    Lithium containing lead zinc borate glasseshave been prepared by melt quenching technique. X-ray diffraction reveals the amorphous nature of the glass. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) study was carried out in the temperature range RT to 600°C temperature and found glass transition temperature of these glasses decreases with increase in inter substitution of Pb and Zn lithium content. PZB glasses are stable, IR spectra of these glasses show characteristics band originating from borate groups namely [BO3] [BO4]and B-O-B stretching vibrations respectively, and found that structure is not affected with effect of lithium content. Refractive index of these glasses are in the range of 1.47 with increasing lithium content refractive index decreases indicating decrease in scattering of light.

  11. Analysis technology in the thick plate free drop impact, heat and thermal stress of the cask for radioactive material transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dew Hey [Korea Institute of Nuclear and Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Shin; Ryu, Chung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Su; Choi, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyung; Na, Jae Yun; Kim, Seong Jong [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, The regulatory condition and analysis condition is analyzed for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis to develop the safety assessment technology. Analysis is performed with finite element method which is one of the many analysis methods of the shipping cask. ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is suitable for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis of the shipping cask. For the analysis model, the KSC-4 that is the shipping cask to transport spent nuclear fuel is investigated. The results of both LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for thick plate free drop and the results of ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for heat and thermal stress analysis is completely corresponded. And the integrity of the shipping cask is verified. Using this study, the reliable safety assessment technology is supplied to the staff. The efficient and reliable regulatory tasks is performed using the standard safety assessment technology.

  12. Reduced order models for thermal analysis : final report : LDRD Project No. 137807.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.


    This LDRD Senior's Council Project is focused on the development, implementation and evaluation of Reduced Order Models (ROM) for application in the thermal analysis of complex engineering problems. Two basic approaches to developing a ROM for combined thermal conduction and enclosure radiation problems are considered. As a prerequisite to a ROM a fully coupled solution method for conduction/radiation models is required; a parallel implementation is explored for this class of problems. High-fidelity models of large, complex systems are now used routinely to verify design and performance. However, there are applications where the high-fidelity model is too large to be used repetitively in a design mode. One such application is the design of a control system that oversees the functioning of the complex, high-fidelity model. Examples include control systems for manufacturing processes such as brazing and annealing furnaces as well as control systems for the thermal management of optical systems. A reduced order model (ROM) seeks to reduce the number of degrees of freedom needed to represent the overall behavior of the large system without a significant loss in accuracy. The reduction in the number of degrees of freedom of the ROM leads to immediate increases in computational efficiency and allows many design parameters and perturbations to be quickly and effectively evaluated. Reduced order models are routinely used in solid mechanics where techniques such as modal analysis have reached a high state of refinement. Similar techniques have recently been applied in standard thermal conduction problems e.g. though the general use of ROM for heat transfer is not yet widespread. One major difficulty with the development of ROM for general thermal analysis is the need to include the very nonlinear effects of enclosure radiation in many applications. Many ROM methods have considered only linear or mildly nonlinear problems. In the present study a reduced order model is

  13. Development of numerical simulation system for thermal-hydraulic analysis in fuel assembly of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Uwaba, Tomoyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (4002 Narita, O-arai, Ibaraki 311-1393, Japan) (Japan); Hashimoto, Akihiko; Imai, Yasutomo [NDD Corporation (1-1-6 Jounan, Mito, Ibaraki 310-0803, Japan) (Japan); Ito, Masahiro [NESI Inc. (4002 Narita, O-arai, Ibaraki 311-1393, Japan) (Japan)


    A numerical simulation system, which consists of a deformation analysis program and three kinds of thermal-hydraulics analysis programs, is being developed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency in order to offer methodologies to clarify thermal-hydraulic phenomena in fuel assemblies of sodium-cooled fast reactors under various operating conditions. This paper gives the outline of the system and its applications to fuel assembly analyses as a validation study.

  14. [Study on the thermal radiation polarization characteristics of ice]. (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Li-Li


    As an important parameter of the global energy balance, climate, hydrological and ecological model, ice directly affects the energy balance of the earth-atmosphere system, weather and climate. It is of great significance to use the thermal infrared polarization technology to study ice thermal radiation. For the ice monitoring and the impact of global climate change on the ice, studies on ice thermal radiation polarization characteristics were conducted based on the wavelength, detection angle and azimuth angle. The results show that the wavelength has an obvious impact on the ice thermal radiation polarization properties. The polarized radiance of four bands shows that L(CH1) > L(CH3) > L(CH4) > L(CH2) while the polarization brightness temperature shows that T(CH4) > T(CH1) > TCH2 > TCH3. It's better to use the brightness temperature of the third channel than the radiance to study the thermal radiation polarization. The detection angle affects the ice thermal radiation polarization characteristics greatly and there are some differences between the polarization angles. The brightness temperature of ice is the lowest in the detection angle of 10 degrees and the polarization angle of 30 degrees, which are non-accidental factors. These was closely related to ice physical and chemical properties. The degree of ice polarization performance shows that P0 thermal radiation polarization characteristics was not significant. And it is affected by the roughness of the surface, organizational structure and other factors which are direct results of ice emitted radiation at different azimuth angles.

  15. Nanoscale studies of thermal transport: R-matrix theory and thermal transport in strained graphene nanoribbons (United States)

    Gunawardana, K. G. S. H.

    The rapid development of nanotechnology has enabled the fabrication of structures much smaller than the mean free path of electrons and phonons. In modern electronics, miniaturization is desired to increase the transistor density and the clock speed. Electronic transport on the nanoscale has been studied for over three decades and fascinating quantum effects have been observed. Phonon transport on this scale is of significant interest because of the increased power dissipation in nanoelectronics, which undermines the correct functionality of devices and limits their lifetime. Apart from the effort to minimize heat generation, an efficient heat management scheme is necessary. Historically, thermal transport in bulk materials was described by the Fourier's law, in which the thermal conductivity is an intrinsic property of the material. Later a more descriptive model, the Boltzmann approach for thermal transport, was developed and could explain the thermal conductivity down to a 100 nm length scale at high temperatures. At low temperatures and in structures smaller than roughly 100 nm, thermal transport is described by the fully quantum mechanical Landauer- Butticker formalism. In this context, accurate calculation of phonon transmission probabilities is very important. In this dissertation, I develop a continuum model to calculate phonon transmission probabilities between media, which have high contrast in the elastic properties. In this work, we include an interface transition layer between the two media and look for interface properties that improve thermal transport. Secondly, I develop a new theoretical tool based on the R-Matrix theory to calculate phonon transmission probabilities on the atomic scale. R-matrix theory is a well developed theoretical approach commonly used in nuclear and atomic physics to solve scattering problems. Recently, this approach has been successfully developed to calculate electronic scattering in mesoscopic quantum devices. The key

  16. Thermal Adaptation Methods of Urban Plaza Users in Asia's Hot-Humid Regions: A Taiwan Case Study. (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Fa; Hsieh, Yen-Fen; Ou, Sheng-Jung


    Thermal adaptation studies provide researchers great insight to help understand how people respond to thermal discomfort. This research aims to assess outdoor urban plaza conditions in hot and humid regions of Asia by conducting an evaluation of thermal adaptation. We also propose that questionnaire items are appropriate for determining thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users. A literature review was conducted and first hand data collected by field observations and interviews used to collect information on thermal adaptation strategies. Item analysis--Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)--were applied to refine the questionnaire items and determine the reliability of the questionnaire evaluation procedure. The reliability and validity of items and constructing process were also analyzed. Then, researchers facilitated an evaluation procedure for assessing the thermal adaptation strategies of urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia and formulated a questionnaire survey that was distributed in Taichung's Municipal Plaza in Taiwan. Results showed that most users responded with behavioral adaptation when experiencing thermal discomfort. However, if the thermal discomfort could not be alleviated, they then adopted psychological strategies. In conclusion, the evaluation procedure for assessing thermal adaptation strategies and the questionnaire developed in this study can be applied to future research on thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia.

  17. Transient analysis and improvement of indoor thermal comfort for an air-conditioned room with thermal insulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prakash


    Full Text Available Thermal insulations over the building envelop reduce the heat gain due to solar radiation and may enhance good and uniform indoor thermal comfort for the occupants. In this paper, the insulation layer-wood wool is laid over the roof and exposed wall of an air-conditioned room and its performance on indoor thermal comfort is studied by computational fluid dynamics (CFD technique. From this study, 3% of indoor thermal comfort index-predicted mean vote (PMV is improved by providing wood wool layer. In addition, the optimum supply air temperature of air-conditioning unit for good thermal comfort is predicted as in the range of 299–300 K (26–27 °C.

  18. Supramolecular spectroscopic and thermal studies of azodye complexes (United States)

    El-Sonbati, A. Z.; Diab, M. A.; El-Bindary, A. A.; Morgan, Sh. M.


    A series of heterocyclic ligand of copper(II) complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of copper(II) acetate with 5-(4‧-derivatives phenylazo)-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one (HLn) yields 1:1 and 1:2 (M:L) complexes depending on the reaction conditions. The elemental analysis, spectral (IR and ESR), conductance, magnetic measurements, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) are used to characterize the isolated complexes. It is found that the change of substituent affects the thermal properties of azodye rhodanine derivatives and their Cu(II) complexes. The molecular and electronic structures of the investigated compounds (HLn) were also studied using quantum chemical calculations. According to intramolecular hydrogen bond leads to increasing of the complexes stability. The data revealed that the coordination geometry around Cu(II) in all complexes (1-4) exhibit a trans square planar by NO monobasic bidentate and the two monobasic bidentate in octahedral complexes (5-7). Electronic, magnetic data and ESR spectra proposed the square planar structure for all complexes (1-4) under investigation. The value of covalency factor ( and orbital reduction factor K accounts for the covalent nature of the complexes. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as activation energy (Ea), enthalpy (ΔH*), entropy (ΔS*), and Gibbs free energy change of the decomposition (ΔG*) are calculated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods.

  19. Multivariate analysis of progressive thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III


    that this multivariate analysis will enable superior differentiation capabilities. In addition, noise and system artifacts challenge the analysis of GC-MS data collected on lower cost equipment, ubiquitous in commercial laboratories. This research has the potential to affect many areas of analytical chemistry including materials analysis, medical testing, and environmental surveillance. It could also provide a method to measure adsorption parameters for chemical interactions on various surfaces by measuring desorption as a function of temperature for mixtures. We have presented results of a novel method for examining offgas products of a common PDMS material. Our method involves utilizing a stepped TD/GC-MS data acquisition scheme that may be almost totally automated, coupled with multivariate analysis schemes. This method of data generation and analysis can be applied to a number of materials aging and thermal degradation studies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov


    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  1. Modeling and Analysis of AGS (1998) Thermal Shock Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, J.R.; Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.


    An overview is provided on modeling and analysis of thermal shock experiments conducted during 1998 with high-energy, short-pulse energy deposition in a mercury filled container in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The simulation framework utilized along with the results of simulations for pressure and strain profiles are presented. While the magnitude of penk strain predictions versus data are in reasonable agreement, the temporal variations were found to differ significantly in selected cases, indicating lack of modeling of certain physical phenomena or due to uncertainties in the experimental data gathering techniques. Key thermal-shock related issues and uncertainties are highlighted. Specific experiments conducted at BNL's AGS facility during 1998 (the subject of this paper) involved high-energy (24 GeV) proton energy deposition in the mercury target over a time frame of - 0.1s. The target consisted of an - 1 m. long cylindrical stainless steel shell with a hemispherical dome at the leading edge. It was filled with mercury at room temperature and pressure. Several optical strain gages were attached to the surface of the steel target. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the test vessel along with the main dimensions and positions of three optical strain gages at which meaningful data were obtained. As

  2. FFTF horizontal sodium storage tank preliminary thermal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.J.


    In the FFTF Shutdown Program, sodium from the primary and secondary heat transport loops, Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to four large storage tanks for temporary storage. Three of the drain tanks will be cylindrical vertical tanks having a diameter of 28 feet, height of 22 feet and fabricated from carbon steel. The vertical tanks were the subject of a previous report and are not the subject of this report. The fourth tank is a horizontal cylindrical tank 18 feet in diameter, having an overall length of 31 feet and fabricated from carbon steel. The purpose of this work is to document the thermal analyses that were performed to ensure that the FFTF horizontal sodium storage tank design is feasible from a thermal standpoint. The key criterion for this analysis is the time to heat up the storage tank containing frozen sodium at ambient temperature to 400 F. Normal operating conditions include an ambient temperature range of 32 F to 120 F. A key parameter in the evaluation of the sodium drain tank is the type of insulation. The baseline case assumed four inches of calcium silicate insulation. An alternate case assumed refractory fiber (Cerablanket) insulation also with a thickness of four inches. Both cases assumed a total electrical trace heat load of 60 kW, evenly distributed on the tank heads and on the tank side wall (cylinder).

  3. FFTF vertical sodium storage tank preliminary thermal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.J.


    In the FFTF Shutdown Program, sodium from the primary and secondary heat transport loops, Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to four large storage tanks for temporary storage. Three of the storage tanks will be cylindrical vertical tanks having a diameter of 28 feet, height of 22 feet and fabricated from carbon steel. The fourth tank is a horizontal cylindrical tank but is not the subject of this report. The storage tanks will be located near the FFTF in the 400 Area and rest on a steel-lined concrete slab in an enclosed building. The purpose of this work is to document the thermal analyses that were performed to ensure that the vertical FFTF sodium storage tank design is feasible from a thermal standpoint. The key criterion for this analysis is the time to heat up the storage tank containing frozen sodium at ambient temperature to 400 F. Normal operating conditions include an ambient temperature range of 32 F to 120 F. A key parameter in the evaluation of the sodium storage tank is the type of insulation. The baseline case assumed six inches of calcium silicate insulation. An alternate case assumed refractory fiber (Cerablanket) insulation also with a thickness of six inches. Both cases assumed a total electrical trace heat load of 60 kW, with 24 kW evenly distributed on the bottom head and 36 kW evenly distributed on the tank side wall.

  4. Finite-element analysis of elastic sound-proof coupling thermal state (United States)

    Tsyss, V. G.; Strokov, I. M.; Sergaeva, M. Yu


    The aim is in calculated determining of the elastic rubber-metal element thermal state of soundproof coupling ship shafting under variable influence during loads in time. Thermal coupling calculation is performed with finite element method using NX Simens software with Nastran solver. As a result of studies, the following results were obtained: - a volumetric picture of the temperature distribution over the array of the deformed coupling body is obtained; - time to reach steady-state thermal coupling mode has been determined; - dependences of maximum temperature and time to reach state on the established operation mode on rotation frequency and ambient temperature are determined. The findings prove the conclusion that usage of finite element analysis modern software can significantly speed up problem solving.

  5. Technical Training on High-Order Spectral Analysis and Thermal Anemometry Applications (United States)

    Maslov, A. A.; Shiplyuk, A. N.; Sidirenko, A. A.; Bountin, D. A.


    The topics of thermal anemometry and high-order spectral analyses were the subject of the technical training. Specifically, the objective of the technical training was to study: (i) the recently introduced constant voltage anemometer (CVA) for high-speed boundary layer; and (ii) newly developed high-order spectral analysis techniques (HOSA). Both CVA and HOSA are relevant tools for studies of boundary layer transition and stability.

  6. Prediction of ignition delay of ADN-based ionic liquid propellants using thermal analysis


    早田, 葵; 塩田, 謙人; 伊里, 友一朗; 松永, 浩貴; 羽生, 宏人; 三宅, 淳巳; Hayata, Mamoru; Shiota, Kento; Izato, Yuichiro; Matsunaga, Hiroki; Habu, Hiroto; Miyake, Atsumi


    Ammonium dinitramide based ionic liquid propellants have been studied as monopropellant in terms of high specific impulse, low melting point and low toxicity. The purpose of this study is construction prediction method of ignition delay and combustion temperature against heating rate of propellants for establishment of combustion control technique. The prediction method of ignition delay and combustion temperature is constructed by combination of thermal analysis method and combustion simulat...

  7. Quasiparticles in leptogenesis. A hard-thermal-loop study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessig, Clemens Paul


    We analyse the effects of thermal quasiparticles in leptogenesis using hard-thermal-loop-resummed propagators in the imaginary time formalism of thermal field theory. We perform our analysis in a leptogenesis toy model with three right-handed heavy neutrinos N{sub 1}, N{sub 2} and N{sub 3}. We consider decays and inverse decays and work in the hierarchical limit where the mass of N{sub 2} is assumed to be much larger than the mass of N{sub 1}, that is M{sub 2} >> M{sub 1}. We neglect flavour effects and assume that the temperatures are much smaller than M{sub 2} and M{sub 3}. We pay special attention to the influence of fermionic quasiparticles. We allow for the leptons to be either decoupled from each other, except for the interactions with neutrinos, or to be in chemical equilibrium by some strong interaction, for example via gauge bosons. In two additional cases, we approximate the full hard-thermal-loop lepton propagators with zero-temperature propagators, where we replace the zero-temperature mass by the thermal mass of the leptons m{sub l}(T) in one case and the asymptotic mass of the positive-helicity mode {radical}(2)m{sub l}(T) in the other case. We calculate all relevant decay rates and CP-asymmetries and solve the corresponding Boltzmann equations we derived. We compare the final lepton asymmetry of the four thermal cases and the vacuum case for three different initial neutrino abundances; zero, thermal and dominant abundance. The final asymmetries of the thermal cases differ considerably from the vacuum case and from each other in the weak washout regime for zero abundance and in the intermediate regime for dominant abundance. In the strong washout regime, where no influences from thermal corrections are commonly expected, the final lepton asymmetry can be enhanced by a factor of two by hiding part of the lepton asymmetry in the quasi-sterile minus-mode in the case of strongly interacting lepton modes. (orig.)

  8. Quantification of LOCA core damage frequency based on thermal-hydraulics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jaehyun, E-mail:; Park, Jin Hee; Kim, Dong-San; Lim, Ho-Gon


    Highlights: • We quantified the LOCA core damage frequency based on the best-estimated success criteria analysis. • The thermal-hydraulic analysis using MARS code has been applied to Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants. • Five new event trees with new break size boundaries and new success criteria were developed. • The core damage frequency is 5.80E−07 (/y), which is 12% less than the conventional PSA event trees. - Abstract: A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has always been significantly considered one of the most important initiating events. However, most probabilistic safety assessment models, up to now, have undoubtedly adopted the three groups of LOCA, and even an exact break size boundary that used in WASH-1400 reports was published in 1975. With an awareness of the importance of a realistic PSA for a risk-informed application, several studies have tried to find the realistic thermal-hydraulic behavior of a LOCA, and improve the PSA model. The purpose of this research is to obtain realistic results of the LOCA core damage frequency based on a success criteria analysis using the best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code. To do so, the Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) was selected for this study. The MARS code was used for a thermal hydraulics analysis and the AIMS code was used for the core damage quantification. One of the major findings in the thermal hydraulics analysis was that the decay power is well removed by only a normal secondary cooling in LOCAs of below 1.4 in and by only a high pressure safety injection in LOCAs of 0.8–9.4 in. Based on the thermal hydraulics results regarding new break size boundaries and new success criteria, five new event trees (ETs) were developed. The core damage frequency of new LOCA ETs is 5.80E−07 (/y), which is 12% less than the conventional PSA ETs. In this research, we obtained not only thermal-hydraulics characteristics for the entire break size of a LOCA in view of the deterministic safety

  9. Thermal Analysis of a Solar Powered Absorption Cooling System with Fully Mixed Thermal Storage at Startup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Stanciu


    Full Text Available A simple effect one stage ammonia-water absorption cooling system fueled by solar energy is analyzed. The considered system is composed by a parabolic trough collector concentrating solar energy into a tubular receiver for heating water. This is stored in a fully mixed thermal storage tank and used in the vapor generator of the absorption cooling system. Time dependent cooling load is considered for the air conditioning of a residential two-storey house. A parametric study is performed to analyze the operation stability of the cooling system with respect to solar collector and storage tank dimensions. The results emphasized that there is a specific storage tank dimension associated to a specific solar collector dimension that could ensure the longest continuous startup operation of the cooling system when constant mass flow rates inside the system are assumed.

  10. Analysis of thermal performance of penetrated multi-layer insulation (United States)

    Foster, Winfred A., Jr.; Jenkins, Rhonald M.; Yoo, Chai H.; Barrett, William E.


    Results of research performed for the purpose of studying the sensitivity of multi-layer insulation blanket performance caused by penetrations through the blanket are presented. The work described in this paper presents the experimental data obtained from thermal vacuum tests of various penetration geometries similar to those present on the Hubble Space Telescope. The data obtained from these tests is presented in terms of electrical power required sensitivity factors referenced to a multi-layer blanket without a penetration. The results of these experiments indicate that a significant increase in electrical power is required to overcome the radiation heat losses in the vicinity of the penetrations.

  11. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a method to predict thermal runaway in Li-ion cells (United States)

    Shah, Krishna; Chalise, Divya; Jain, Ankur


    Thermal runaway is a well-known safety concern in Li-ion cells. Methods to predict and prevent thermal runaway are critically needed for enhanced safety and performance. While much work has been done on understanding the kinetics of various heat generation processes during thermal runaway, relatively lesser work exists on understanding how heat removal from the cell influences thermal runaway. Through a unified analysis of heat generation and heat removal, this paper derives and experimentally validates a non-dimensional parameter whose value governs whether or not thermal runaway will occur in a Li-ion cell. This parameter is named the Thermal Runaway Number (TRN), and comprises contributions from thermal transport within and outside the cell, as well as the temperature dependence of heat generation rate. Experimental data using a 26650 thermal test cell are in good agreement with the model, and demonstrate the dependence of thermal runaway on various thermal transport and heat generation parameters. This parameter is used to predict the thermal design space in which the cell will or will not experience thermal runaway. By combining all thermal processes contributing to thermal runaway in a single parameter, this work contributes towards a unified understanding of thermal runaway, and provides the fundamental basis for design tools for safe, high-performance Li-ion batteries.

  12. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, H.A.; Schmidt, L.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Sondreal, E.A.; Erjavec, J.; Steadman, E.N.; Fabrycky, W.J.; Wilson, J.S.; Musich, M.A.


    This report analyzes three systems engineering (SE) studies performed on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTSs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech (VT). The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions taken in the studies might bias the resulting economic evaluations of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to produce sound SE applications.

  13. Occupancy Analysis of Sports Arenas Using Thermal Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anders; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    . Reflections due to shiny surfaces are eliminated by analysing symmetric patterns. Occlusions are dealt with through a concavity anal- ysis of the binary regions. The system is tested in five different sports arenas, for more than three full weeks altogether. These tests showed that after a short......This paper presents a system for automatic analysis of the occupancy of sports arenas. By using a thermal camera for image capturing the number of persons and their location on the court are found without violating any privacy issues. The images are binarised with an automatic threshold method...... initialisation routine the system operates independent of the different environments. The system can very precisely distinguish between zero, some or many persons on the court and give a good indication of which parts of the court that has been used....

  14. Thermal analysis of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from esparto grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trache D.


    Full Text Available Alfa fibres are extracted from the plant Stippa tenacissima, or esparto grass (alfa is the Arab name for esparto, and grows in the dry regions of North Africa. It belongs to the graminacies family and grows to a height of about 1 m. These fibres are mostly used in the production of paper. Recently, they have been used as reinforcement in the production of biodegradable composites. The aim of the present work was to prepare microcrystalline cellulose from esparto grass using the hydrolysis process. The products obtained are characterized with thermogravimetric analysis. As a result, the thermal decomposing patterns of the cellulosic preparations, obtained by hydrochloric hydrolysis gave additional evidence to the relatively higher stability of the more crystalline cellulosic preparations. In the main decomposition stage, the cleavage of the glycosidic linkages of cellulose reduces the polymerization degree leading to the formation of CO2, H2O and other hydrocarbon derivatives.

  15. Thermal-decomposition studies of HMX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, J.R.; Garza, R.G.


    We have investigated the rates of decomposition as functions of time and temperature on a combined thermogravimetric analyzer-residual gas analyzer (TGA-RGA). This technique also allows us to identify decomposition products generated as the original HMX begins to decompose. The temperature range studied was 50 to 200/sup 0/C. The decomposition process and the nature of decomposition products as functions of HMX polymorphs and conformations of the organic ring systems and possible reactive intermediates are discussed. 7 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Thermal-structural combined loads design criteria study (United States)

    Deriugin, V.; Brogren, E. W.; Jaeck, C. L.; Brown, A. L.; Clingan, B. E.


    A study was conducted to determine methodology for combining thermal structural loads and assessing the effects of the combined loads on the design of a thermal protection system and a hot structure of a high cross range delta wing space shuttle orbiter vehicle. The study presents guidelines for establishing a basis for predicting thermal and pressure environments and for determining limit and ultimate design loads on the vehicle during reentry. Limit trajectories were determined by using dispersions on a representative nominal mission and system parameters expected during the life of the vehicle. Nine chosen locations on the vehicle surface having TPS or hot structures were examined, and weight sensitivity analyses were performed for each location.

  17. A study of partial layout of adhesive on the thermal drift of MEMS capacitive accelerometers (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Zhou, Wu; Yu, Huijun; Hao, Qu; Peng, Bei; He, Xiaoping


    The die attachment adhesive is commonly fully deposited on the substrate to connect the chips and the package shell in the packaging of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices. The packaging stress and deformation will be changed under temperature variation and further impact the thermal stability of devices. This paper describes a partial layout of die attachment adhesive used in a comb MEMS capacitive accelerometer, which can attenuate the thermal deformation and reduce the thermal drift of the sensor. The accelerometers with the bonded area designed from the global portion to nonsensitive portion of the sensor die are modeled by using finite element analysis (FEA) to study the deformation of the sensitive component induced by temperature change, and the corresponding thermal drift is obtained by simulation and theoretical methods. Both the results indicate that the thermal drift will decrease when the length of the unbonded area is larger than about 700 μm, and when the adhesive bonds only in the area of the nonsensitive portion of the sensor, the thermal drift will reduce about 19% relative to the global attachment. The partial layout of die attachment adhesive is therefore a useful method to improve the thermal stability for stress-sensitive MEMS devices.

  18. Study of the Thermal Properties of Raffia Bamboo Vinifera L. Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Foadieng


    Full Text Available Raffia is a kind of fast-growing palm tree, from the family of Arecaceae, encountered in marshy areas and along rivers. In this study, the “Raffia Bamboo” is the stalk of a palm, made of a fragile marrow inside a thin shell, smooth and hard to protect the latter. In our region, this material is widely used to build all the low-cost traditional houses and furniture, to make granaries storage of dry products, to build chicken coops, to make decoration. Thus, various jobs are organized around this material, with the fight against poverty. To our knowledge, information on its thermal properties is almost nonexistent. The experimental determination of the transverse thermal properties of the dry shell, the dry marrow, and the whole dry bamboo helped to find, for each, a specific heat, a thermal diffusivity, a thermal conductivity, and finally a thermal effusivity. From the analysis of results, we deduce that the thermal properties of raffia bamboo vinifera L. Arecacea make it a very good thermal insulator.

  19. Impact of vacancies on the thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliha Noshin


    Full Text Available Equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation using 2nd generation Reactive Bond Order interatomic potential has been performed to model the thermal transport of nanometer sized zigzag defected graphene nanoribbons (GNRs containing several types of vacancies. We have investigated the thermal conductivity of defected GNRs as a function of vacancy concentration within a range of 0.5% to 5% and temperature ranging from 300K to 600K, along with a comparative analysis of those for pristine GNRs. We find that, a vacancy concentration of 0.5% leads to over 90% reduction in the thermal conductivity of GNRs. At low defect concentration, the decay rate is faster but ceases gradually at higher defect concentration. With the increasing temperature, thermal conductivity of defected GNRs decreases but shows less variation in comparison with that of pristine GNRs at higher temperatures. Such comprehensive study on several vacancy type defects in GNRs can provide further insight to tune up the thermal transport characteristics of low dimensional carbon nanostructures. This eventually would encourage the characterization of more stable thermal properties in thermal devices at an elevated temperature as well as the potential applicability of GNRs as thermoelectrics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Farhanj


    Full Text Available Land surface temperature image is an important product in many lithosphere and atmosphere applications. This image is retrieved from the thermal infrared bands. These bands have lower spatial resolution than the visible and near infrared data. Therefore, the details of temperature variation can't be clearly identified in land surface temperature images. The aim of this study is to enhance spatial information in thermal infrared bands. Image fusion is one of the efficient methods that are employed to enhance spatial resolution of the thermal bands by fusing these data with high spatial resolution visible bands. Multi-resolution analysis is an effective pixel level image fusion approach. In this paper, we use contourlet, non-subsampled contourlet and sharp frequency localization contourlet transform in fusion due to their advantages, high directionality and anisotropy. The absolute average difference and RMSE values show that with small distortion in the thermal content, the spatial information of the thermal infrared and the land surface temperature images is enhanced.

  1. Fusion of - 8 Thermal Infrared and Visible Bands with Multi-Resolution Analysis Contourlet Methods (United States)

    Farhanj, F.; Akhoondzadeh, M.


    Land surface temperature image is an important product in many lithosphere and atmosphere applications. This image is retrieved from the thermal infrared bands. These bands have lower spatial resolution than the visible and near infrared data. Therefore, the details of temperature variation can't be clearly identified in land surface temperature images. The aim of this study is to enhance spatial information in thermal infrared bands. Image fusion is one of the efficient methods that are employed to enhance spatial resolution of the thermal bands by fusing these data with high spatial resolution visible bands. Multi-resolution analysis is an effective pixel level image fusion approach. In this paper, we use contourlet, non-subsampled contourlet and sharp frequency localization contourlet transform in fusion due to their advantages, high directionality and anisotropy. The absolute average difference and RMSE values show that with small distortion in the thermal content, the spatial information of the thermal infrared and the land surface temperature images is enhanced.

  2. Fabrication of thermal-resistant gratings for high-temperature measurements using geometric phase analysis. (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Liu, Z; Xie, H; Ma, K; Wu, L


    Grating fabrication techniques are crucial to the success of grating-based deformation measurement methods because the quality of the grating will directly affect the measurement results. Deformation measurements at high temperatures entail heating and, perhaps, oxidize the grating. The contrast of the grating lines may change during the heating process. Thus, the thermal-resistant capability of the grating becomes a point of great concern before taking measurements. This study proposes a method that combines a laser-engraving technique with the processes of particle spraying and sintering for fabricating thermal-resistant gratings. The grating fabrication technique is introduced and discussed in detail. A numerical simulation with a geometric phase analysis (GPA) is performed for a homogeneous deformation case. Then, the selection scheme of the grating pitch is suggested. The validity of the proposed technique is verified by fabricating a thermal-resistant grating on a ZrO2 specimen and measuring its thermal strain at high temperatures (up to 1300 °C). Images of the grating before and after deformation are used to obtain the thermal-strain field by GPA and to compare the results with well-established reference data. The experimental results indicate that this proposed technique is feasible and will offer good prospects for further applications.

  3. Thermal hydrodynamic analysis of a countercurrent gas centrifuge; Analise termo hidrodinamica de uma centrifuga a contracorrente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Delvonei Alves de


    The influence of the thermal countercurrent on the separative performance of countercurrent centrifuges is treated in this work. The methodology used consists in modeling the gas flow inside the rotor under thermal boundary conditions supplied by the structural thermal model. The gas flow model, also called hydrodynamical model, is based on the Finite Volume Method for cylindrical geometry with azimuthal symmetry. The structural thermal model is based on the Nodal Method and take into account simultaneously, the conduction convection and radiation phenomena. The procedure adopted for this study consisted in the definition of the operational and geometric conditions of a centrifuge which was used as a pattern to the accomplished analysis. This configuration, called 'Standard Centrifuge', was used for the accomplishment of several simulations where the importance of the realistic boundary thermal conditions for the numerical evaluation of the centrifuge separative capacity was evidenced. A selective alteration for the optical properties based on simple engineering procedures was proposed. An improvement of 5% was obtained with this alteration. (author)

  4. Numerical Analysis of a Paraffin/Metal Foam Composite for Thermal Storage (United States)

    Di Giorgio, P.; Iasiello, M.; Viglione, A.; Mameli, M.; Filippeschi, S.; Di Marco, P.; Andreozzi, A.; Bianco, N.


    In the last decade, the use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) as passive thermal energy storage has been widely studied both analytically and experimentally. Among the PCMs, paraffins show many advantages, such as having a high latent heat, a low vapour pressure, being chemically inert, stable and non-toxic. But, their thermal conductivity is very low with a high volume change during the melting process. An efficient way to increase their poor thermal conductivity is to couple them with open cells metallic foams. This paper deals with a theoretical analysis of paraffin melting process inside an aluminum foam. A mathematical model is developed by using the volume-averaged governing equations for the porous domain, made up by the PCM embedded into the metal foam. Non-Darcian and buoyancy effects are considered in the momentum equation, while the energy equations are modelled with the Local Thermal Non-Equilibrium (LTNE) approach. The PCM liquefaction is treated with the apparent heat capacity method and the governing equations are solved with a finite-element scheme by COMSOL Multiphysics®. A new method to calculate the coupling coefficients needed for the thermal model has been developed and the results obtained have been validated comparing them to experimental data in literature.

  5. Fabrication of thermal-resistant gratings for high-temperature measurements using geometric phase analysis (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Liu, Z.; Xie, H.; Ma, K.; Wu, L.


    Grating fabrication techniques are crucial to the success of grating-based deformation measurement methods because the quality of the grating will directly affect the measurement results. Deformation measurements at high temperatures entail heating and, perhaps, oxidize the grating. The contrast of the grating lines may change during the heating process. Thus, the thermal-resistant capability of the grating becomes a point of great concern before taking measurements. This study proposes a method that combines a laser-engraving technique with the processes of particle spraying and sintering for fabricating thermal-resistant gratings. The grating fabrication technique is introduced and discussed in detail. A numerical simulation with a geometric phase analysis (GPA) is performed for a homogeneous deformation case. Then, the selection scheme of the grating pitch is suggested. The validity of the proposed technique is verified by fabricating a thermal-resistant grating on a ZrO2 specimen and measuring its thermal strain at high temperatures (up to 1300 °C). Images of the grating before and after deformation are used to obtain the thermal-strain field by GPA and to compare the results with well-established reference data. The experimental results indicate that this proposed technique is feasible and will offer good prospects for further applications.

  6. Thermal Protection System design studies for lunar crew module (United States)

    Williams, S. D.; Curry, Donald M.; Bouslog, Stanley A.; Rochelle, William C.


    The results of a study to predict aeroheating and Thermal Protection System (TPS) requirements for manned entry vehicles returning to Earth from the moon are presented. The effects of vehicle size and lunar-return strategies on the aerothermodynamic environment and TPS design were assessed. Study guidelines were based on an Apollo Command Module (CM) configuration and lunar return strategies included direct entry and aerocapture followed by Low Earth Orbit entry (LEO). Convective heating was obtained by the boundary layer integral matrix procedure (BLIMP) code, and radiative heating was computed with the QRAD program. The AESOP-STAB code and the AESOP-THERM code were used for TPS analysis for ablating materials and nonablating materials respectively. Results indicated that there was an optimum size for minimum heating and that direct entry had higher heating rates than aerocapture. Aerocapture resulted in higher heat loads and TPS weight. The TPS weight factor was 6-8 percent for all lunar return strategies, with the TPS weight being about 50 percent less than that of the original Apollo CM vehicle.

  7. Kinetic analysis of overlapping multistep thermal decomposition comprising exothermic and endothermic processes: thermolysis of ammonium dinitramide. (United States)

    Muravyev, Nikita V; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Meerov, Dmitry B; Pivkina, Alla N


    This study focused on kinetic modeling of a specific type of multistep heterogeneous reaction comprising exothermic and endothermic reaction steps, as exemplified by the practical kinetic analysis of the experimental kinetic curves for the thermal decomposition of molten ammonium dinitramide (ADN). It is known that the thermal decomposition of ADN occurs as a consecutive two step mass-loss process comprising the decomposition of ADN and subsequent evaporation/decomposition of in situ generated ammonium nitrate. These reaction steps provide exothermic and endothermic contributions, respectively, to the overall thermal effect. The overall reaction process was deconvoluted into two reaction steps using simultaneously recorded thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) curves by considering the different physical meanings of the kinetic data derived from TG and DSC by P value analysis. The kinetic data thus separated into exothermic and endothermic reaction steps were kinetically characterized using kinetic computation methods including isoconversional method, combined kinetic analysis, and master plot method. The overall kinetic behavior was reproduced as the sum of the kinetic equations for each reaction step considering the contributions to the rate data derived from TG and DSC. During reproduction of the kinetic behavior, the kinetic parameters and contributions of each reaction step were optimized using kinetic deconvolution analysis. As a result, the thermal decomposition of ADN was successfully modeled as partially overlapping exothermic and endothermic reaction steps. The logic of the kinetic modeling was critically examined, and the practical usefulness of phenomenological modeling for the thermal decomposition of ADN was illustrated to demonstrate the validity of the methodology and its applicability to similar complex reaction processes.

  8. Exergy Analysis of Operating Lignite Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Murugesan


    Full Text Available The energy assessment must be made through the energy quantity as well as the quality. But the usual energy analysisevaluates the energy generally on its quantity only. However, the exergy analysis assesses the energy on quantity as well asthe quality. The aim of the exergy analysis is to identify the magnitudes and the locations of real energy losses, in order toimprove the existing systems, processes or components. The present paper deals with an exergy analysis performed on anoperating 50MWe unit of lignite fired steam power plant at Thermal Power Station-I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited,Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India. The exergy losses occurred in the various subsystems of the plant and their components havebeen calculated using the mass, energy and exergy balance equations. The distribution of the exergy losses in several plantcomponents during the real time plant running conditions has been assessed to locate the process irreversibility. The Firstlaw efficiency (energy efficiency and the Second law efficiency (exergy efficiency of the plant have also been calculated.The comparison between the energy losses and the exergy losses of the individual components of the plant shows that themaximum energy losses of 39% occur in the condenser, whereas the maximum exergy losses of 42.73% occur in the combustor.The real losses of energy which has a scope for the improvement are given as maximum exergy losses that occurredin the combustor.

  9. Thermal analysis of wood of the main tree species of Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Loskutov


    Full Text Available Thermal decomposition of wood from coniferous and deciduous species of Siberia has been studied using thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The tree species were larch Larix sibirica Ledeb., Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L., spruce Picea obovata Ledeb., fir Abies sibirica Ledeb., Siberian pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour., birch Betula pendula Roth., and aspen Populus tremula L. Thermal analysis of wood samples was carried out under oxidative (air and inert (argon atmospheres from 25 to 700 °С at heating rates 10, 20, 40 °С • min–1 (TG/DTG and from 25 to 590 °С at heating rates 10, 40 °С • min–1 (DSC. The stages of thermal decomposition, the temperature intervals, the mass loss, the mass loss rate, the temperature of DTG/DSC peaks, and heating effects were determined for each tree species. The kinetic thermal degradation parameters of wood were obtained by the Broido and Ozawa–Flynn–Wall models. The wood of coniferous and deciduous species of Siberia was characterized on the base of analysis of activation energy values at various stages of thermal decomposition and the relations of activation energy on conversion level of wood substance of different tree species, and also the comparison of mass loss at the same stages of thermal destruction, heating effects, residual mass and other parameters of TG/DTG, DSC. In our opinion, the results of this work present interest for researchers and specialists in the field of forest pyrology, wood science, dendrochemistry.

  10. Thermal Adaptation Methods of Urban Plaza Users in Asia’s Hot-Humid Regions: A Taiwan Case Study (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Fa; Hsieh, Yen-Fen; Ou, Sheng-Jung


    Thermal adaptation studies provide researchers great insight to help understand how people respond to thermal discomfort. This research aims to assess outdoor urban plaza conditions in hot and humid regions of Asia by conducting an evaluation of thermal adaptation. We also propose that questionnaire items are appropriate for determining thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users. A literature review was conducted and first hand data collected by field observations and interviews used to collect information on thermal adaptation strategies. Item analysis—Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)—were applied to refine the questionnaire items and determine the reliability of the questionnaire evaluation procedure. The reliability and validity of items and constructing process were also analyzed. Then, researchers facilitated an evaluation procedure for assessing the thermal adaptation strategies of urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia and formulated a questionnaire survey that was distributed in Taichung’s Municipal Plaza in Taiwan. Results showed that most users responded with behavioral adaptation when experiencing thermal discomfort. However, if the thermal discomfort could not be alleviated, they then adopted psychological strategies. In conclusion, the evaluation procedure for assessing thermal adaptation strategies and the questionnaire developed in this study can be applied to future research on thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia. PMID:26516881

  11. Thermal Adaptation Methods of Urban Plaza Users in Asia’s Hot-Humid Regions: A Taiwan Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Fa Wu


    Full Text Available Thermal adaptation studies provide researchers great insight to help understand how people respond to thermal discomfort. This research aims to assess outdoor urban plaza conditions in hot and humid regions of Asia by conducting an evaluation of thermal adaptation. We also propose that questionnaire items are appropriate for determining thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users. A literature review was conducted and first hand data collected by field observations and interviews used to collect information on thermal adaptation strategies. Item analysis—Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA—were applied to refine the questionnaire items and determine the reliability of the questionnaire evaluation procedure. The reliability and validity of items and constructing process were also analyzed. Then, researchers facilitated an evaluation procedure for assessing the thermal adaptation strategies of urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia and formulated a questionnaire survey that was distributed in Taichung’s Municipal Plaza in Taiwan. Results showed that most users responded with behavioral adaptation when experiencing thermal discomfort. However, if the thermal discomfort could not be alleviated, they then adopted psychological strategies. In conclusion, the evaluation procedure for assessing thermal adaptation strategies and the questionnaire developed in this study can be applied to future research on thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia.

  12. Study on Thermal Insulation Zeolite by Coal Fly Ash


    Huiping Song; Nan Zheng; Fangbin Xue; Fangqin Cheng


    This paper takes the coal fly ash as the material and makes zeolite with low thermal conductivity under a two-step synthesis for the purpose of thermal insulation. It studies main factors affecting zeolite such as the different concentration of NaOH, the solid-liquid ratio, the silica-alumina ratio, and the crystallization temperature. The optimal conditions were obtained that the NaOH concentration was 3 mol/L, the solid-liquid ratio was 10 : 1, the silica-alumina ratio was 2, and the crysta...

  13. Positron annihilation studies on reactor irradiated and thermal annealed ferrocene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Netto, A. [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia de Aniquilacao de Positrons-LEAP, Depto. de Quimica, ICEX, Univ. Federal de Minas Gerais-UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Carvalho, R.S. [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia de Aniquilacao de Positrons-LEAP, Depto. de Quimica, ICEX, Univ. Federal de Minas Gerais-UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Magalhaes, W.F. [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia de Aniquilacao de Positrons-LEAP, Depto. de Quimica, ICEX, Univ. Federal de Minas Gerais-UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sinisterra, R.D. [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia de Aniquilacao de Positrons-LEAP, Depto. de Quimica, ICEX, Univ. Federal de Minas Gerais-UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Retention and thermal annealing following (n, {gamma}) reaction in solid ferrocene, Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}, were studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PAL). Positronium (Ps) formation was observed in the non-irradiated compound with a probability or intensity (I{sub 3}) of 30%. Upon irradiation of the compound with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor, I{sub 3} decreases with increasing irradiation time. Thermal treatment again increases I{sub 3} values from 16% to 25%, revealing an important proportion of molecular reformation without variation of the ortho-positronium lifetime ({tau}{sub 3}). These results point out the major influence of the electronic structure as determining the Ps yields in the pure complex. In the irradiated and non irradiated complexes the results are satisfactorily explained on the basis of the spur model. (orig.)

  14. Transition metal complexes with oxygen donor ligands: a synthesis, spectral, thermal and antimicrobial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Transition metal complexes of chalcones derived from the conden¬sation of 3-acetyl-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2,4(3H-dione (dehydroacetic acid and p-methoxybenzaldehyde (HL1 or p-nitrobenzaldehyde (HL2 were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductometry, thermal analysis, magnetic measurements, IR, 1H-NMR, UV–Vis spectroscopy and a microbial study. From the analytical and thermal data, the stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. The molar conductance data revealed that all the metal chelates were non-electrolytes. The thermal stability of the complexes was studied by thermogravimetry and the decomposition schemes of the complexes are given. The ligands and their metal complexes were screened for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and fungicidal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Curvularia lunata and Penicillium notatum.

  15. Comparative study of the thermal performance and emission levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study of the thermal performance and emission levels of an existing and modified coal/biomass burning stove. ... The stove was charged with jive (5) selected wood species and a number of parameters, such as temperature projile amI flue gas composition were measured. Experimental evidence points to an ...

  16. Thermally stimulated discharge conductivity study of zinc oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present work deals with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) study of inorganic metal oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and its thermoelectrets. The thermoelectrets were prepared by applying different electric ...

  17. Preparation and studies of some thermal, mechanical and optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Preparation and studies of some thermal, mechanical and optical properties of xAl2O3(1 – x)NaPO3 glass system. K V SHAH, V SUDARSAN†, M GOSWAMI, A SARKAR, S MANIKANDAN,. RAKESH KUMAR, B I SHARMA, V K SHRIKHANDE and G P KOTHIYAL*. Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, ...

  18. Crack propagation studies and bond coat properties in thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ceramic based thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are currently considered as a candidate material for advanced stationary gas turbine components. Crack propagation studies under bending are described that were performed on plasma sprayed ZrO2, bonded by MCrAlY layer to Ni base superalloy. The crack propagation ...

  19. Study of thermally coupled distillation systems for energy-efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Study of thermally coupled distillation systems for energy-efficient distillation. NEHA SAXENA1, NILESH MALI2,* and SATCHIDANAND SATPUTE3. 1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University College of Engineering,. Pune 411046, India. 2 Chemical Engineering and Process ...

  20. Study of variation of thermal diffusivity of advanced composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 32; Issue 1. Study of variation of thermal diffusivity of advanced composite materials of E-glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) in temperature range 5–300 K. Kalobaran Das S M Kamaruzzaman Tapas Ranjan Middya Siddhartha Datta. Ceramics and Glasses Volume 32 ...

  1. External Tank (ET) Foam Thermal/Structural Analysis Project (United States)

    Moore, David F.; Ungar, Eugene K.; Chang, Li C.; Malroy, Eric T.; Stephan, Ryan A.


    An independent study was performed to assess the pre-launch thermally induced stresses in the Space Shuttle External Tank Bipod closeout and Ice/Frost ramps (IFRs). Finite element models with various levels of detail were built that included the three types of foam (BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL 1034) and the underlying structure and bracketry. Temperature profiles generated by the thermal analyses were input to the structural models to calculate the stress levels. An area of high stress in the Bipod closeout was found along the aluminum tank wall near the phenolic insulator and along the phenolic insulator itself. This area of high stress might be prone to cracking and possible delamination. There is a small region of slightly increased stress in the NCFI 24-124 foam near its joint with the Bipod closeout BX-265 foam. The calculated stresses in the NCFI 24-124 acreage foam are highest at the NCFI 24-124/PDL 1034/tank wall interface under the LO2 and LH2 IFRs. The highest calculated stresses in the LH2 NCFI 24-124 foam are higher than in similar locations in the LO2 IFR. This finding is consistent with the dissection results of IFRs on ET-120.

  2. A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney transition section in the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. The specific system costs are between 2000 Eur/kW and 5000 Eur/kW depending on the system size, system concept and storage size. Hence, a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant will cost 100-250 Eur million. At very good sites, today’s solar thermal power plants can generate electricity in the range of 0.15 Eur/kWh, and series production could soon bring down these costs below 0.10 Eur /kWh.

  3. Detection of thermal bridges from thermographic images for the analysis of buildings energy performance


    Asdrubali, Francesco; Baldinelli, Giorgio; Bianchi, Francesco; Costarelli, Danilo; Rotili, Antonella; Seracini, Marco; Vinti, Gianluca


    In this paper, we develop a procedure for the detection of the contours of thermal bridges from thermographic images, in order to study the energetic performance of buildings. Two main steps of the above method are: the enhancement of the thermographic images by an optimized version of the mathematical algorithm for digital image processing based on the theory of sampling Kantorovich operators, and the application of a suitable thresholding based on the analysis of the histogram of the enhanc...

  4. Comparative analysis of green actions to improve outdoor thermal comfort inside typical urban street canyons


    Lobaccaro, Gabriele; Acero, Juan A.


    Urban microclimate analyses are being used more and more to address the planning decision process to create livable and healthy public spaces. The study, conducted in collaboration with the municipality of Bilbao (Basque Country, Spain), presents a comparative analysis of green actions to improve outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The evaluation was performed in three typical urban street canyons characterized by different geometric proportions and five urban greenery scenario...

  5. Sensitivity analysis of a community solar system using annual cycle thermal energy storage (United States)

    Baylin, F.; Monte, R.; Sillman, S.

    The objective of this research is to assess the sensitivity of design parameters for a community solar heating system having annual thermal energy storage to factors including climate, building type, community size and collector type and inclination. The system under consideration uses a large, water-filled, concrete-constructed tank for providing space heating and domestic hot water (DHW). This presentation outlines results and conclusions about system sizing; a system design study and economic analysis are underway.

  6. Exact Thermal Analysis of Functionally Graded Cylindrical and Spherical Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vebil Yıldırım


    Full Text Available Thermal analyses of radially functionally graded (FG thick-walled a spherical vessel and an infinite cylindrical vessel or a circular annulus are conducted analytically by the steady-state 1-D Fourier heat conduction theory under Dirichlet’s boundary conditions. By employing simple-power material grading pattern the differential equations are obtained in the form of Euler-Cauchy types. Analytical solution of the differential equations gives the temperature field and the heat flux distribution in the radial direction in a closed form. Three different physical metal-ceramic pairs first considered to study the effect of the aspect ratio, which is defined as the inner radius to the outer radius of the structure, on the temperature and heat flux variation along the radial coordinate. Then a parametric study is performed with hypothetic inhomogeneity indexes for varying aspect ratios.

  7. A Co-Citation Analysis on Thermal Comfort and Productivity Aspects in Production and Office Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariantonietta Tarantini


    Full Text Available In this work, the literature about the relationship between thermal comfort and productivity in workplaces is reviewed and explored by means of a co-citation analysis—i.e., a factor analysis applied to the mutual citations of the most relevant contributions. A structure of three main clusters of papers describing the relationships between workers’ thermal comfort and productivity were identified according to the factor analysis and then confirmed with a multidimensional scaling. Results indicate that comfortable indoor thermal conditions can have beneficial impacts on workers’ well-being and productivity, such as higher operational rates, lower production losses, fewer sick leaves, and reduced health related costs. Some authors proposed analytical and empirical expressions for the quantification of the impact of thermal comfort on productivity; nevertheless, due to the broad spectrum of activities and their applicability, the literature is still far from reaching a general consensus on the potential impact of comfort/discomfort on productivity and proposed models can vary significantly in the different studies.

  8. Thermal territories of the abdomen after caesarean section birth: infrared thermography and analysis. (United States)

    Childs, C; Siraj, M R; Fair, F J; Selvan, A N; Soltani, H; Wilmott, J; Farrell, T


    To develop and refine qualitative mapping and quantitative analysis techniques to define 'thermal territories' of the post-partum abdomen, the caesarean section site and the infected surgical wound. In addition, to explore women's perspectives on thermal imaging and acceptability as a method for infection screening. Prospective feasibility study undertaken at a large University teaching hospital, Sheffield UK. Infrared thermal imaging of the abdomen was undertaken at the bedside on the first two days after elective caesarean section. Target recruitment: six women in each of three body mass index (BMI) categories (normal, 18.5-24.9 kg/m²; overweight 25-29.9 kg/m²; obese ≥30 kg/m²). Additionally, women presenting to the ward with wound infection were eligible for inclusion in the study. Perspectives on the use of thermal imaging and its practicality were also explored via semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic content analysis. We recruited 20 women who had all undergone caesarean section. From the booking BMI, eight women were obese (including two women with infected wounds), seven women were overweight and five women had a normal BMI. Temperature (ºC) profiling and pixel clustering segmentation (hierarchical clustering-based segmentation, HCS) revealed characteristic features of thermal territories between scar and adjacent regions. Differences in scar thermal intensity profiles exist between healthy scars and infected wounds; features that have potential for wound surveillance. The maximum temperature differences (∆T) between healthy skin and the wound site exceed 2º C in women with established wound infection. At day two, two women had a scar thermogram with features observed in the 'infected' wound thermogram. Thermal imaging at early and later times after caesarean birth is feasible and acceptable. Women reported potential benefits of the technique for future wound infection screening. Thermal intensity profiling and HCS for pixel

  9. Influence of thermalization on thermal conduction through molecular junctions: Computational study of PEG oligomers (United States)

    Pandey, Hari Datt; Leitner, David M.


    Thermalization in molecular junctions and the extent to which it mediates thermal transport through the junction are explored and illustrated with computational modeling of polyethylene glycol (PEG) oligomer junctions. We calculate rates of thermalization in the PEG oligomers from 100 K to 600 K and thermal conduction through PEG oligomer interfaces between gold and other materials, including water, motivated in part by photothermal applications of gold nanoparticles capped by PEG oligomers in aqueous and cellular environments. Variation of thermalization rates over a range of oligomer lengths and temperatures reveals striking effects of thermalization on thermal conduction through the junction. The calculated thermalization rates help clarify the scope of applicability of approaches that can be used to predict thermal conduction, e.g., where Fourier's law breaks down and where a Landauer approach is suitable. The rates and nature of vibrational energy transport computed for PEG oligomers are compared with available experimental results.

  10. Some results from a study of carbon minerals by the thermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otakuziyev, E.; Kasymov, A.K.; Miralimova, N.M.


    Using the optimum technique of thermal analysis in carbon-containing shales and hornfels of ancient deposits of the Kyzylkum and Zirabulak-Ziaetdinsk mountains, four groups are revealed of mineral form of carbon, corresponding to the kerite-oxykeriteanthraxolite-shungite-graphite series. Interpretation of the thermograms obtained shows the varying degree of metamorphism of the carbon-containing rock of the areas studied.

  11. A comparative evaluation and power generation potential analysis of Mediterranean solar thermal power plants. Preliminary study. Materials vol. 3. Availability of areas and sites. Systemvergleich und Potential von solaerthermischen Anlagen im Mittelmeerraum. Vorstudie. Materialband 3. Verfuegbare Flaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J.; Klaiss, H.; Schiel, W.; Sigler, M.; Meyer, J.; Staiss, F.


    This comprehensive study determines power generation potential of Mediterranean solar thermal power plants. The technical potential depends on insolation, the availability of areas and sites, and on power demands. Volume III compiles the results of the site selection studies. In the northern Mediterranean countries areas which are suited for larger power plant arrays are scarce, whereas extensive areas are found in the southern countries. Weak infrastructures may account for short- to medium-term restrictions. (BWI).

  12. Thermal buckling comparative analysis using Different FE (Finite Element) tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasiak, Waldemar; Labouriau, Pedro [INTECSEA do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Burnett, Christopher [INTECSEA UK, Surrey (United Kingdom); Falepin, Hendrik [Fugro Engineers SA/NV, Brussels (Belgium)


    High operational temperature and pressure in offshore pipelines may lead to unexpected lateral movements, sometimes call lateral buckling, which can have serious consequences for the integrity of the pipeline. The phenomenon of lateral buckling in offshore pipelines needs to be analysed in the design phase using FEM. The analysis should take into account many parameters, including operational temperature and pressure, fluid characteristic, seabed profile, soil parameters, coatings of the pipe, free spans etc. The buckling initiation force is sensitive to small changes of any initial geometric out-of-straightness, thus the modeling of the as-laid state of the pipeline is an important part of the design process. Recently some dedicated finite elements programs have been created making modeling of the offshore environment more convenient that has been the case with the use of general purpose finite element software. The present paper aims to compare thermal buckling analysis of sub sea pipeline performed using different finite elements tools, i.e. general purpose programs (ANSYS, ABAQUS) and dedicated software (SAGE Profile 3D) for a single pipeline resting on an the seabed. The analyses considered the pipeline resting on a flat seabed with a small levels of out-of straightness initiating the lateral buckling. The results show the quite good agreement of results of buckling in elastic range and in the conclusions next comparative analyses with sensitivity cases are recommended. (author)

  13. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, David Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The actinide engineering and science group (MET-1) have completed simultaneous thermal analysis and offgas analysis by mass spectrometry (STA-MS) of remediated nitrate salt (RNS) surrogates formulated by the high explosives science and technology group (M-7). The 1.0 to 1.5g surrogate samples were first analyzed as received, then a new set was analyzed with 100-200mL 10M HNO3 +0.3 MHF added, and a third set was analyzed after 200 mL of a concentrated Pu-AM spike (in 10M HNO3 +0.3 MHF) was added. The acid and spike solutions were formulated by the actinide analytical chemistry group (C-AAC) using reagent-grade HNO3 and HF, which was also used to dissolve a small quantity of mixed, high-fired PuO2/ AmO2 oxide.

  14. An Electro-Thermal Analysis of a Variable-Speed Doubly-Fed Induction Generator in a Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingning Qiu


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the electro-thermal analysis of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG in a wind turbine (WT with gear transmission configuration. The study of the thermal mechanism plays an important role in the development of cost-effective fault diagnostic techniques, design for reliability and premature failure prevention. Starting from an analysis of the DFIG system control and its power losses mechanism, a model that synthesizes the thermal mechanism of the DFIG and a WT system principle is developed to study the thermodynamics of generator stator winding. The transient-state and steady-state temperature characteristics of stator winding under constant and step-cycle patterns of wind speed are studied to show an intrinsic thermal process within a variable-speed WT generator. Thermal behaviors of two failure modes, i.e., generator ventilation system failure and generator stator winding under electric voltage unbalance, are examined in details and validated by both simulation and data analysis. The effective approach presented in this paper for generator fault diagnosis using the acquired SCADA data shows the importance of simulation models in providing guidance for post-data analysis and interpretation. WT generator winding lifetime is finally estimated based on a thermal ageing model to investigate the impacts of wind speed and failure mode.

  15. Effects of osmolytes on Pelodiscus sinensis creatine kinase: a study on thermal denaturation and aggregation. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lee, Jinhyuk; Jin, Qin-Xin; Fang, Nai-Yun; Si, Yue-Xiu; Yin, Shang-Jun; Qian, Guo-Ying; Park, Yong-Doo


    The protective effect of osmolytes on the thermal denaturation and aggregation of Pelodiscus sinensis muscle creatine kinase (PSCK) was investigated by a combination of spectroscopic methods and thermodynamic analysis. Our results demonstrated that the addition of osmolytes, such as glycine and proline, could prevent thermal denaturation and aggregation of PSCK in a concentration-dependent manner. When the concentration of glycine and proline increased in the denatured system, the relative activation was significantly enhanced; meanwhile, the aggregation of PSCK during thermal denaturation was decreased. Spectrofluorometer results showed that glycine and proline significantly decreased the tertiary structural changes of PSCK and that thermal denaturation directly induced PSCK aggregation. In addition, we also built the 3D structure of PSCK and osmolytes by homology models. The results of computational docking simulations showed that the docking energy was relatively low and that the clustering groups were spread to the surface of PSCK, indicating that osmolytes directly protect the surface of the protein. P. sinensis are poikilothermic and quite sensitive to the change of ambient temperature; however, there were few studies on the thermal denaturation of reptile CK. Our study provides important insight into the protective effects of osmolytes on thermal denaturation and aggregation of PSCK. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal stress analysis of STS VOD ladle according to the reinforcement of back filler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. W.; Bae, S. I.; Song, J. I. [Changwon National Univ., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Ham, K. C. [Inha Technical College, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    We analyzed thermal stress of the STS VOD ladle by the variation of material property of refractory, and determined the location of back filler using FE analysis. Thermal distribution of refractory of ladle between hot face and back face were decreased by the increasing the thermal conductivity, and thermal stress of refractory were decreased about 2 to 4 times with the decreasing the young's modulus coefficients. Back filler, which is constructed to absorb the thermal expansion of dolomite refractory, has relatively low thermal conductivity. Inner side of refractory of ladle maintained high temperature, but temperature of outer side of ladle decreased low. Consequently, inner expansion and outer contraction were appeared, and thermal stress were increased, so thermal stress by the construction of back filler were increased.

  17. Suitable classification of mortars from ancient Roman and Renaissance frescoes using thermal analysis and chemometrics. (United States)

    Tomassetti, Mauro; Marini, Federico; Campanella, Luigi; Positano, Matteo; Marinucci, Francesco


    Literature on mortars has mainly focused on the identification and characterization of their components in order to assign them to a specific historical period, after accurate classification. For this purpose, different analytical techniques have been proposed. Aim of the present study was to verify whether the combination of thermal analysis and chemometric methods could be used to obtain a fast but correct classification of ancient mortar samples of different ages (Roman era and Renaissance). Ancient Roman frescoes from Museo Nazionale Romano (Terme di Diocleziano, Rome, Italy) and Renaissance frescoes from Sistine Chapel and Old Vatican Rooms (Vatican City) were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Principal Component analysis (PCA) on the main thermal data evidenced the presence of two clusters, ascribable to the two different ages. Inspection of the loadings allowed to interpret the observed differences in terms of the experimental variables. PCA allowed differentiating the two kinds of mortars (Roman and Renaissance frescoes), and evidenced how the ancient Roman samples are richer in binder (calcium carbonate) and contain less filler (aggregate) than the Renaissance ones. It was also demonstrated how the coupling of thermoanalytical techniques and chemometric processing proves to be particularly advantageous when a rapid and correct differentiation and classification of cultural heritage samples of various kinds or ages has to be carried out. Graphical abstractPCA analysis of TG data allows differentiating mortar samples from different ages (Roman era and Renaissance).

  18. Experimental Study on Thermal Conductivity of Self-Compacting Concrete with Recycled Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fenollera


    Full Text Available The research focuses on the use of recycled aggregate (RA, from waste pieces generated during production in precast plants for self-compacting concrete (SCC manufactured with a double sustainable goal: recycle manufacturing waste (consumption and improvement of the thermal properties of the manufactured product (energy efficiency. For this purpose, a mechanical study to ensure technical feasibility of the concrete obtained has been conducted, as well as a thermal analysis of recycled SCC specimens of 50 N/mm2 resistance, with different RA doses (0%, 20%, 50% and 100%. The main parameters that characterize a SCC in both states, fresh (slump-flow and hard (compressive strength, have been tested; also, a qualitative analysis of the thermal conductivity using infrared thermography (IRT and quantitative analysis with heat flow meter at three temperatures 20 °C, 25 °C and 30 °C have been performed. The results suggest the existence of two different thermal behaviors: concretes with 0% and 20% of RA, and on the other hand concretes with 50% and 100% of RA. It has also demonstrated the validity of the IRT as sampling technique in estimating the thermal behavior of materials having reduced range of variation in parameters.

  19. Solar thermal plant impact analysis and requirements definition (United States)

    Gupta, Y. P.


    Progress on a continuing study comprising of ten tasks directed at defining impact and requirements for solar thermal power systems (SPS), 1 to 10 MWe each in capacity, installed during 1985 through year 2000 in a utility or a nonutility load in the United States is summarized. The point focus distributed receiver (PFDR) solar power systems are emphasized. Tasks 1 through 4, completed to date, include the development of a comprehensive data base on SPS configurations, their performance, cost, availability, and potential applications; user loads, regional characteristics, and an analytic methodology that incorporates the generally accepted utility financial planning methods and several unique modifications to treat the significant and specific characteristics of solar power systems deployed in either central or distributed power generation modes, are discussed.

  20. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis of fission molybdenum-99 production at Tehran Research Reactor using LEU plate targets. (United States)

    Abedi, Ebrahim; Ebrahimkhani, Marzieh; Davari, Amin; Mirvakili, Seyed Mohammad; Tabasi, Mohsen; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi


    Efficient and safe production of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) radiopharmaceutical at Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) via fission of LEU targets is studied. Neutronic calculations are performed to evaluate produced 99 Mo activity, core neutronic safety parameters and also the power deposition values in target plates during a 7 days irradiation interval. Thermal-hydraulic analysis has been also carried out to obtain thermal behavior of these plates. Using Thermal-hydraulic analysis, it can be concluded that the safety parameters are satisfied in the current study. Consequently, the present neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations show efficient 99 Mo production is accessible at significant activity values in TRR current core configuration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Harmonic scalpel versus flexible CO2 laser for tongue resection: A histopathological analysis of thermal damage in human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tamir


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monopolar cautery is the most commonly used surgical cutting and hemostatic tool for head and neck surgery. There are newer technologies that are being utilized with the goal of precise cutting, decreasing blood loss, reducing thermal damage, and allowing faster wound healing. Our study compares thermal damage caused by Harmonic scalpel and CO2 laser to cadaveric tongue. Methods Two fresh human cadaver heads were enrolled for the study. Oral tongue was exposed and incisions were made in the tongue akin to a tongue tumor resection using the harmonic scalpel and flexible C02 laser fiber at various settings recommended for surgery. The margins of resection were sampled, labeled, and sent for pathological analysis to assess depth of thermal damage calculated in millimeters. The pathologist was blinded to the surgical tool used. Control tongue tissue was also sent for comparison as a baseline for comparison. Results Three tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by harmonic scalpel. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.69 (range, 0.51 - 0.82. Five tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by CO2 laser. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.3 (range, 0.22 to 0.43. As expected, control samples showed 0 mm of thermal damage. There was a statistically significant difference between the depth of thermal injury to tongue resection margins by harmonic scalpel as compared to CO2 laser, (p = 0.003. Conclusion In a cadaveric model, flexible CO2 laser fiber causes less depth of thermal damage when compared with harmonic scalpel at settings utilized in our study. However, the relevance of this information in terms of wound healing, hemostasis, safety, cost-effectiveness, and surgical outcomes needs to be further studied in clinical settings.

  2. Synthesis and Thermal Analysis of Vertically Aligned CNTS Grown on Copper Substrates (POSTPRINT) (United States)


    AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2017-0158 SYNTHESIS AND THERMAL ANALYSIS OF VERTICALLY ALIGNED CNTS GROWN ON COPPER SUBSTRATES (POSTPRINT) Levi Elston...AND SUBTITLE SYNTHESIS AND THERMAL ANALYSIS OF VERTICALLY ALIGNED CNTS GROWN ON COPPER SUBSTRATES (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b...thermal interface material beyond synthesis . This effort extends prior work on carbon nanotube growth, by concentrating on ways to evaluate/measure CNT

  3. The Modeling and Simulation of Thermal Analysis at Hydro Generator Stator Winding Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Raduca


    Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling and simulation of thermal analysis at hydro generator stator winding. The winding stator is supplied at high voltage of 11 kV for high power hydro generator. To present the thermal analysis for stator winding is presented at supply of coil by 11 kV, when coil is heat and thermal transfer in insulation at ambient temperature.

  4. Using wavelet analysis to derive seepage rates from thermal records (United States)

    Banzhaf, S.; Onderka, M.; Krein, A.; Scheytt, T.


    The use of thermal records to detect loosing and gaining reaches of streams and also to determine water fluxes between surface water and groundwater has attracted researchers in hydrological sciences worldwide. This method is attractive due to the high resolution and quality of the temperature data and the relatively low costs of the equipment needed to collect the data in the streambed and therefore is widely applied. Stream water temperature fluctuates on different time scales, with strong diurnal and seasonal fluctuations. When the temperature signal propagates into the aquifer, it is attenuated and shifted in time, where the degree of signal attenuation and its shift are determined by the fluid flow velocity, thermal properties of the sediment matrix, and the frequency of the temperature signal. High-frequency signals (diurnal or smaller) are damped more than low-frequency signals (seasonal or annual). Vertical fluxes can be estimated from the amplitude ratios of temperature oscillations measured between two depths in the stream bed by using the one-dimensional heat transport equation by STALLMAN (1965) when the sediment properties between this two depths are assumed to be homogeneous. However, before this calculations can be performed a time-frequency analysis has to be performed. In contrast to the Fourier transform, which is most common, the use of wavelets allows also to capture non steady-state frequency responses. This, of course, is a huge advantage of the wavelet analysis for hydrological applications as most environmental signals are non steady-state. Wavelet transform decomposes a signal into a time-frequency space and therefore localized intermittent periodicities in the signal can be detected. The wavelet power spectrum that is yielded then allows to separate these different periods, e.g. daily cycles and seasonal signals. To test this method, temperature data that was recorded for a period of 2 years in a stream and its riverbank at a field site in

  5. Influence of solder joint length to the mechanical aspect during the thermal stress analysis (United States)

    Tan, J. S.; Khor, C. Y.; Rahim, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Abd; Ishak, Muhammad Ikman; Rosli, M. U.; Jamalludin, Mohd Riduan; Zakaria, M. S.; Nawi, M. A. M.; Aziz, M. S. Abdul; Ani, F. Che


    Solder joint is an important interconnector in surface mount technology (SMT) assembly process. The real time stress, strain and displacement of the solder joint is difficult to observe and assess the experiment. To tackle these problems, simulation analysis was employed to study the von Mises stress, strain and displacement in the thermal stress analysis by using Finite element based software. In this study, a model of leadless electronic package was considered. The thermal stress analysis was performed to investigate the effect of the solder length to those mechanical aspects. The simulation results revealed that solder length gives significant effect to the maximum von Mises stress to the solder joint. Besides, changes in solder length also influence the displacement of the solder joint in the thermal environment. The increment of the solder length significantly reduces the von Mises stress and strain on the solder joint. Thus, the understanding of the physical parameter for solder joint is important for engineer prior to designing the solder joint of the electronic component.

  6. Bisphenol A and alternatives in thermal paper receipts - a German market analysis from 2015 to 2017. (United States)

    Eckardt, Martin; Simat, Thomas J


    Bisphenol A (BPA) was commonly used as color developer for thermal paper such as cash register receipts, labels or tickets. Therefore, thermal paper was considered by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as the main source of human exposure to BPA beside epoxy based food contact materials. In this study, a German market analysis on the use of BPA and alternative color developers in thermal paper receipts is provided for the years 2015, 2016 and 2017.114 (2015), 98 (2016) and 99 (2017) samples were randomly collected and analyzed by HPLC-DAD. In summary, BPA was still the most frequently found color developer (48.2% in 2015, 46.9% in 2016 and 52.5% in 2017). The most commonly used alternative was the phenol-free substance Pergafast® 201 (34.2%, 33.7%, 40.4%). The bisphenol analogs bisphenol S (BPS; 11.4%, 9.2%, 6.1%) and D8 (6.1%, 7.1%, 1.0%) were less common. Another phenol-free substituent, a urea urethane compound (UU), was also detected (3.1% in 2016). Concentrations of color developers in thermal paper ranged from 1.4 to 32.4 mg/g (median values between 2.5 and 15.9 mg/g). Concentrations of BPA were found to be highest followed by BPS, UU, Pergafast® 201 and D8. In addition, two pharmacologically active substances, dapsone (6.0 mg/g) and tolbutamide (5.5 mg/g), were detected in a non-marketed thermal paper, that was supposed to use ascorbic acid as initial color developer. Different release experiments of the detected color developers were performed. Sensitizers 1,2-diphenoxy-ethane, 1-phenylmethoxy-naphthalene and diphenylsulfone, used frequently in the thermal paper processes, were quantified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of effective thermal conductivity for mineral cast material structures with varying epoxy content using TPS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selvakumar


    Full Text Available Conventionally, cast iron is the material used for high speed machine tool structures. As an alternate material to improve the structural properties, composite materials are being used, which are known to exhibit excellent thermal and mechanical properties. While selecting an alternate material, thermal conductivity is an important thermo physical property of the material that should be studied. A resin composite material has a lesser thermal conductivity and its thermal properties vary with the composition of the mixture. A material with lower thermal conductivity will have higher heat concentration within the structure, which may result in structural deformation. In this analysis, epoxy granite, a material which is tested to exhibit excellent mechanical properties has been selected to study its thermal properties. Tests are carried out using Transient Plane Source (TPS method, on eight samples with varying volume fraction of epoxy content in the range 10-24%. It is observed that, the effective thermal conductivity decreases with an increase in epoxy resin content in the mixture because the resin content increases interfacial resistance between particles. Hence, lower epoxy content in the mixture that maximizes the effective thermal conductivity while maintaining good mechanical properties is to be selected.

  8. Analysis of effective thermal conductivity for mineral cast material structures with varying epoxy content using TPS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selvakumar


    Full Text Available Conventionally, cast iron is the material used for high speed machine tool structures. As an alternate material to improve the structural properties, composite materials are being used, which are known to exhibit excellent thermal and mechanical properties. While selecting an alternate material, thermal conductivity is an important thermo physical property of the material that should be studied. A resin composite material has a lesser thermal conductivity and its thermal properties vary with the composition of the mixture. A material with lower thermal conductivity will have higher heat concentration within the structure, which may result in structural deformation. In this analysis, epoxy granite, a material which is tested to exhibit excellent mechanical properties has been selected to study its thermal properties. Tests are carried out using Transient Plane Source (TPS method, on eight samples with varying volume fraction of epoxy content in the range 10-24%. It is observed that, the effective thermal conductivity decreases with an increase in epoxy resin content in the mixture because the resin content increases interfacial resistance between particles. Hence, lower epoxy content in the mixture that maximizes the effective thermal conductivity while maintaining good mechanical properties is to be selected.

  9. Analysis Methods of HTLS Conductors in Terms of Mechanical and Thermal Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kubek


    Full Text Available A thermal modernization allows increasing the thermal rating of the existing lines. This especially concerns the older overhead lines designed for the +40°C temperature conductor limit. This paper presents reconductoring as the attractive method of existing line thermal modernization. The article provides an overview of issues related to the selection of the HTLS conductor for thermal uprating of existing overhead transmission lines. Some aspects related to the extension of the thermal, electrical and mechanical models used so far for analysis of HTLS conductors are presented in the paper.

  10. Studies of planetary boundary layer by infrared thermal imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albina, Bogdan; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe, E-mail:; Gurlui, Silviu Octavian, E-mail: [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi (Romania); Cazacu, Marius Mihai [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and Department of Physics, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, 59A Mangeron Blvd., 700 (Romania); Timofte, Adrian [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and National Meteorological Administration, Regional Forecast Center Bacau, 1 Cuza Voda Str., 60 (Romania)


    The IR camera is a relatively novel device for remote sensing of atmospheric thermal processes from the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) based on measurements of the infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is energy radiated by the motion of atoms and molecules on the surface of aerosols, when their temperature is more than absolute zero. The IR camera measures directly the intensity of radiation emitted by aerosols which is converted by an imaging sensor into an electric signal, resulting a thermal image. Every image pixel that corresponds to a specific radiance is pre-processed to identify the brightness temperature. The thermal infrared imaging radiometer used in this study, NicAir, is a precision radiometer developed by Prata et al. The device was calibrated for the temperature range of 270–320 K and using a calibration table along with image processing software, important information about variations in temperature can be extracted from acquired IR images. The PBL is the lowest layer of the troposphere where the atmosphere interacts with the ground surfaces. The importance of PBL lies in the fact that it provides a finite but varying volume in which pollutants can disperse. The aim of this paper is to analyze the PBL altitude and thickness variations over Iasi region using the IR imaging camera as well as its behavior from day to night and thermal processes occurring in PBL.

  11. Study of the thermal degradation of citrus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Montoya, V. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico); Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Montes-Moran, M.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Elizalde-Gonzalez, M.P. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-55, Puebla 72570, Pue (Mexico)


    The citrus seeds are one of the principal residues in the juice industry and their utilization can decrease significantly the problems of their final disposal. In this work the thermal degradation of three Mexican citrus seeds: orange (Citrus sinensis), lemon (Citrus Limon) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) was studied in nitrogen atmosphere. The two components (embryo and husk) of the seeds were characterized separately. The results showed that the thermal effects are very similar between the three embryos and the three husks. The embryos show higher degradability, superior content of nitrogen and higher heating value than the husks. The thermal degradation of the components of the three seeds is completed at 600 C and it is considered to be a global process derived from the decomposition of their principal components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). The results suggest that mixing the three entire seeds will not lead to a severe deviation from their individual thermal behavior and that the industry could apply them for carbonization purposes. (author)

  12. Statistical analysis of thermal conductivity of nanofluid containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    fraction, particle size and shape of nanoparticles also influence the thermal conductivity enhancement of nano- fluids. Zhang et al (2007) investigated the heat transfer per- formance of TiO2/water nanofluid for various volume fractions and temperatures. They observed that the effec- tive thermal conductivities of nanofluids ...

  13. Analysis of thermal comfort in Lagos, Nigeria | Komolafe | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports a thermal comfort survey conducted in three locations in Lagos between July 1996 and June 1997 in which 50 fully acclimatized subjects cast over 6,000 individual votes of their subjective assessments of the thermal environments. The survey covered only residential buildings constructed of sandcrete ...

  14. Reflectance and thermal properties of the urban fabric studied with aerial spectral imaging (United States)

    Burud, Ingunn; Thiis, Thomas; Gaitani, Niki


    The properties of materials used in the urban fabric play an essential role to the microclimate. Their thermal performance, one of the main impacting factors to urban heat island effects, is mainly determined by the physical characteristics, optical and thermal. The present research approach aims at analyzing the relation between material properties and their thermal behavior using airborne multispectral imaging in VIS/NIR and IR with sensors mounted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), at a survey in Athens. The images have been combined to form maps of surface temperature distribution and of material properties. Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps were computed from the VIS/NIR images and were used to classify the surface material. Calibration of the temperatures was obtained by applying correct emissivity for different materials from the classified surface material map. Maps of estimated albedo and of apparent thermal inertia were derived from the VIS/NIR images and the temperature images. Combining the surface temperature maps with maps of NDVI, albedo and apparent thermal inertia makes it is possible to identify reflectance characteristics of a variety materials utilized in the urban setting in Athens and to relate these to their thermal properties. The applied multisensory technique demonstrates how novel advances in sensor development combined with advanced data analysis provide new and unique tools for urban climate studies. The results give new perspectives of urban features for revealing the complex mechanisms that lead to microclimatic modifications and to quantify their relative contribution.

  15. Monte Carlo analysis: error of extrapolated thermal conductivity from molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andersson, Anders David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    In this short report, we give an analysis of the extrapolated thermal conductivity of UO2 from earlier molecular dynamics (MD) simulations [1]. Because almost all material properties are functions of temperature, e.g. fission gas release, the fuel thermal conductivity is the most important parameter from a model sensitivity perspective [2]. Thus, it is useful to perform such analysis.

  16. Analysis of Thermal Stability of Different Counter on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Daizy; Yadav, Amit; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar


    In this paper we are presenting the power analysis for thermal awareness of different counters. The technique we are using to do the analysis is based on 28 nm FPGA tech-nique. In this work during implementation on FPGA, we are going to analyze thermal stability of different counters in temperature...

  17. Analysis of Thermal Radiation Effects on Temperatures in Turbine Engine Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Siegel, Robert; Spuckler, Charles M.


    Thermal barrier coatings are important, and in some instances a necessity, for high temperature applications such as combustor liners, and turbine vanes and rotating blades for current and advanced turbine engines. Some of the insulating materials used for coatings, such as zirconia that currently has widespread use, are partially transparent to thermal radiation. A translucent coating permits energy to be transported internally by radiation, thereby increasing the total energy transfer and acting like an increase in thermal conductivity. This degrades the insulating ability of the coating. Because of the strong dependence of radiant emission on temperature, internal radiative transfer effects are increased as temperatures are raised. Hence evaluating the significance of internal radiation is of importance as temperatures are increased to obtain higher efficiencies in advanced engines.

  18. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis--Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various


    The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.

  19. Thermal hydraulic-Mechanic Integrated Simulation for Advanced Cladding Thermal Shock Fracture Analysis during Reflood Phase in LBLOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seong Min; Lee, You Ho; Cho, Jae Wan; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This study suggested thermal hydraulic-mechanical integrated stress based methodology for analyzing the behavior of ATF type claddings by SiC-Duplex cladding LBLOCA simulation. Also, this paper showed that this methodology could predict real experimental result well. That concept for enhanced safety of LWR called Advanced Accident-Tolerance Fuel Cladding (ATF cladding, ATF) is researched actively. However, current nuclear fuel cladding design criteria for zircaloy cannot be apply to ATF directly because those criteria are mainly based on limiting their oxidation. So, the new methodology for ATF design criteria is necessary. In this study, stress based analysis methodology for ATF cladding design criteria is suggested. By simulating LBLOCA scenario of SiC cladding which is the one of the most promising candidate of ATF. Also we'll confirm our result briefly through comparing some facts from other experiments. This result is validating now. Some of results show good performance with 1-D failure analysis code for SiC fuel cladding that already developed and validated by Lee et al,. It will present in meeting. Furthermore, this simulation presented the possibility of understanding the behavior of cladding deeper. If designer can predict the dangerous region and the time precisely, it may be helpful for designing nuclear fuel cladding geometry and set safety criteria.

  20. Theoretical analysis of three methods for calculating thermal insulation of clothing from thermal manikin. (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua


    There are three methods for calculating thermal insulation of clothing measured with a thermal manikin, i.e. the global method, the serial method, and the parallel method. Under the condition of homogeneous clothing insulation, these three methods yield the same insulation values. If the local heat flux is uniform over the manikin body, the global and serial methods provide the same insulation value. In most cases, the serial method gives a higher insulation value than the global method. There is a possibility that the insulation value from the serial method is lower than the value from the global method. The serial method always gives higher insulation value than the parallel method. The insulation value from the parallel method is higher or lower than the value from the global method, depending on the relationship between the heat loss distribution and the surface temperatures. Under the circumstance of uniform surface temperature distribution over the manikin body, the global and parallel methods give the same insulation value. If the constant surface temperature mode is used in the manikin test, the parallel method can be used to calculate the thermal insulation of clothing. If the constant heat flux mode is used in the manikin test, the serial method can be used to calculate the thermal insulation of clothing. The global method should be used for calculating thermal insulation of clothing for all manikin control modes, especially for thermal comfort regulation mode. The global method should be chosen by clothing manufacturers for labelling their products. The serial and parallel methods provide more information with respect to the different parts of clothing.

  1. Stress analysis in curved composites due to thermal loading (United States)

    Polk, Jared Cornelius

    Many structures in aircraft, cars, trucks, ships, machines, tools, bridges, and buildings, consist of curved sections. These sections vary from straight line segments that have curvature at either one or both ends, segments with compound curvatures, segments with two mutually perpendicular curvatures or Gaussian curvatures, and segments with a simple curvature. With the advancements made in multi-purpose composites over the past 60 years, composites slowly but steadily have been appearing in these various vehicles, compound structures, and buildings. These composite sections provide added benefits over isotropic, polymeric, and ceramic materials by generally having a higher specific strength, higher specific stiffnesses, longer fatigue life, lower density, possibilities in reduction of life cycle and/or acquisition cost, and greater adaptability to intended function of structure via material composition and geometry. To be able to design and manufacture a safe composite laminate or structure, it is imperative that the stress distributions, their causes, and effects are thoroughly understood in order to successfully accomplish mission objectives and manufacture a safe and reliable composite. The objective of the thesis work is to expand upon the knowledge of simply curved composite structures by exploring and ascertaining all pertinent parameters, phenomenon, and trends in stress variations in curved laminates due to thermal loading. The simply curved composites consist of composites with one radius of curvature throughout the span of the specimen about only one axis. Analytical beam theory, classical lamination theory, and finite element analysis were used to ascertain stress variations in a flat, isotropic beam. An analytical method was developed to ascertain the stress variations in an isotropic, simply curved beam under thermal loading that is under both free-free and fixed-fixed constraint conditions. This is the first such solution to Author's best knowledge

  2. Quantitative measurement of carbon nanotubes released from their composites by thermal carbon analysis (United States)

    Ogura, I.; Kotake, M.; Ata, S.; Honda, K.


    The release of free carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and CNTs partly embedded in matrix debris into the air may occur during mechanical and abrasion processes involving CNT composites. Since the harmful effects of CNT-matrix mixtures have not yet been fully evaluated, it is considered that any exposure to CNTs, including CNT-matrix mixtures, should be measured and controlled. Thermal carbon analysis, such as Method 5040 of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, is one of the most reliable quantitative methods for measuring CNTs in the air. However, when CNTs are released together with polymer matrices, this technique may be inapplicable. In this study, we evaluated the potential for using thermal carbon analysis to determine CNTs in the presence of polymer matrices. Our results showed that thermal carbon analysis was potentially capable of determining CNTs in distinction from polyamide 12, polybutylene terephthalate, polypropylene, and polyoxymethylene. However, it was difficult to determine CNTs in the presence of polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate, polyetheretherketone, or polyamide 6.

  3. Characterisation of dissolved organic matter fluorescence properties by PARAFAC analysis and thermal quenching. (United States)

    Carstea, Elfrida M; Baker, Andy; Bieroza, Magdalena; Reynolds, Darren M; Bridgeman, John


    The fluorescence intensity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aqueous samples is known to be highly influenced by temperature. Although several studies have demonstrated the effect of thermal quenching on the fluorescence of DOM, no research has been undertaken to assess the effects of temperature by combining fluorescence excitation - emission matrices (EEM) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) modelling. This study further extends previous research on thermal quenching by evaluating the impact of temperature on the fluorescence of DOM from a wide range of environmental samples, in the range 20 °C - 0 °C. Fluorescence intensity increased linearly with respect to temperature decrease at all temperatures down to 0 °C. Results showed that temperature affected the PARAFAC components associated with humic-like and tryptophan-like components of DOM differently, depending on the water type. The terrestrial humic-like components, C1 and C2 presented the highest thermal quenching in rural water samples and the lowest in urban water samples, while C3, the tryptophan-like component, and C4, a reprocessed humic-like component, showed opposite results. These results were attributed to the availability and abundance of the components or to the degree of exposure to the heat source. The variable thermal quenching of the humic-like components also indicated that although the PARAFAC model generated the same components across sites, the DOM composition of each component differed between them. This study has shown that thermal quenching can provide additional information on the characteristics and composition of DOM and highlighted the importance of correcting fluorescence data collected in situ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coupled thermal-fluid-mechanics analysis of twin roll casting of A7075 aluminum alloy (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Soo; Kim, Hyoung-Wook; Cho, Jae-Hyung; Chun, Se-Hwan


    Better understanding of temperature distribution and roll separation force during twin roll casting of aluminum alloys is critical to successfully fabricate good quality of aluminum strips. Therefore, the simulation techniques are widely applied to understand the twin roll casting process in a comprehensive way and to reduce the experimental time and cost of trial and error. However, most of the conventional approaches are considered thermally coupled flow, or thermally coupled mechanical behaviors. In this study, a fully coupled thermal-fluid-mechanical analysis of twin roll casting of A7075 aluminum strips was carried out using the finite element method. Temperature profile, liquid fraction and metal flow of aluminum strips with different thickness were predicted. Roll separation force and roll temperatures were experimentally obtained from a pilot-scale twin roll caster, and those results were compared with model predictions. Coupling the fluid of the liquid melt to the thermal and mechanical modeling reasonably predicted roll temperature distribution and roll separation force during twin roll casting.

  5. Development of the thermal hydraulic analysis code for a copper bonded steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W. K.; Wei, M. H.; Yeo, J. H.; Kim, S. O. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Back, B. J. [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)


    An one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code was developed for the thermal sizing of copper bonded steam generator. It was assumed that the conduction heat transfer of copper region between hot side and cold side tube is one-dimensional and its thermal resistance of the function of a tube pitch was derived. The flow regions of water/steam side were devided into four regions, which are sub-cooled, saturated, film boiling, and super-heated regions. The numbers of tube were selected from 250 to 3500 for the parameter study calculation. The pitch over tube diameter ratios were 1.4, 1.6 and 1.8. The calculation results showed that when the number of tube was 2500, the length of heating tube was about 10 m and the diameter was about 3 m. If P/D ratio increases, the thermal resistance of copper component also increases, however the length of heating tube is not increasing so much.

  6. Development of best estimate auditing code for CANDU thermal hydraulic safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B. D.; Lee, W. J.; Lim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    The main purpose of this study is to develop a thermal hydraulic auditing code for the CANDU reactor, modifying the model of existing PWR auditing tool, i.e. RELAP5/MOD3. This scope of project is first step of the whole project, thus focus to the establishment of improvement area. The study was performed by reconsideration of the previous code assessment works and investigation of AECL design analysis tools. In order to identify the thermal hydraulic phenomena for events, the whole system of CANDU plant was divided into main functional systems and subcomponents. Each phenomena was addressed to the each subcomponent. Finally improvement areas of model development for auditing tool were established based on the identified phenomena. 8 refs., 21 figs., 19 tabs. (Author)

  7. Development of best estimate auditing code for CANDU thermal hydraulic safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B. D.; Lee, W. J.; Lim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The main purpose of this study is to develop a thermal hydraulic auditing code for the CANDU reactor, modifying the model of existing PWR auditing tool, i.e. RELAP5/MOD3. This scope of project is first step of the whole project, thus focus to the establishment of improvement area. The study was performed by reconsideration of the previous code assessment works and investigation of AECL design analysis tools. In order to identify the thermal hydraulic phenomena for events, the whole system of CANDU plant was divided into main functional systems and subcomponents. Each phenomena was addressed to the each subcomponent. FinaIly improvement areas of model development for auditing tool were established based on the identified phenomena.

  8. High Temperature Exposure of HPC – Experimental Analysis of Residual Properties and Thermal Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlík Zbyšek


    Full Text Available The effect of high temperature exposure on properties of a newly designed High Performance Concrete (HPC is studied in the paper. The HPC samples are exposed to the temperatures of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C respectively. Among the basic physical properties, bulk density, matrix density and total open porosity are measured. The mechanical resistivity against disruptive temperature action is characterised by compressive strength, flexural strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity. To study the chemical and physical processes in HPC during its high-temperature exposure, Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA is performed. Linear thermal expansion coefficient is determined as function of temperature using thermodilatometry (TDA. In order to describe the changes in microstructure of HPC induced by high temperature loading, MIP measurement of pore size distribution is done. Increase of the total open porosity and connected decrease of the mechanical parameters for temperatures higher than 200 °C were identified.

  9. Experimental analysis on physical and mechanical properties of thermal shock damage of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiao


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the changes of mechanical and physical properties of granite under different thermal loading effects. Uniaxial compression experiments studying the rules of the influence of temperature load on mechanical properties of granite were carried out. After high-temperature heating at above 600 °C, granite tended to have stronger ductility and plasticity as well as declined peak stress and compressive strength. Thermogravimetry - differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC analysis results showed that, thermal load at different temperatures induced reactions such as water loss, oxidation and crystallization in the microstructure of granite, which led to physical changes of granite. Hence it is concluded that, heating can significantly weaken the mechanical performance of granite, which provides an important support for the optimization of heating assisted processing of granite. It also reveals that, heating assisted cutting technique can effectively lower energy consumption and improve processing efficiency.

  10. The study of 'microsurfaces' using thermal desorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Thomas, M. E.; Poppa, H.; Pound, G. M.


    The use of a newly combined ultrahigh vacuum technique for studying continuous and particulate evaporated thin films using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and transmission electron diffraction (TED) is discussed. It is shown that (1) CO thermal desorption energies of epitaxially deposited (111) Ni and (111) Pd surfaces agree perfectly with previously published data on bulk (111) single crystal, (2) contamination and surface structural differences can be detected using TDS as a surface probe and TEM as a complementary technique, and (3) CO desorption signals from deposited metal coverages of one-thousandth of a monolayer should be detectable. These results indicate that the chemisorption properties of supported 'microsurfaces' of metals can now be investigated with very high sensitivity. The combined use of TDS and TEM-TED experimental methods is a very powerful technique for fundamental studies in basic thin film physics and in catalysis.

  11. Thermal degradation and morphological studies on raw and reinforced polyacrylic rubbers (United States)

    Sasikala, A.; Kala, A.


    Poly acrylate rubbers (ACM) of today are saturated copolymers of monomeric acrylic esters and reactive cure site monomers. ACM elastomer have also found use in vibration damping due to its excellent resilience. Other applications include textiles, adhesives, and coatings. Two state of Poly acrylic raw and reinforced Rubber are analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy, Optical Microscopy, DSC and TGA measurements. With the objective of determined the mechanical strength, Thermal analysis on TGA and DSC studies show that, the thermal degradation temperature Tg of the sample material is obtained and activation energy is also calaulated by Broido, Horowitz - Metzger, Piloyan-Novikova and Coats Redfern methods which are found.

  12. Thermal, dielectric and mechanical study of poly(vinyl chloride/olive pomace composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Composites from PVC and chemically treated olive pomace have been prepared. The effect of the incorporation of virgin and benzylated olive pomace in the poly(vinyl chloride matrix on dielectric, mechanical and thermal stability properties, of /olive pomace composites was studied. The mechanical properties of the benzylated composites were improved. Furthermore, the thermal characterization of the different samples carried out by thermogravimetric analysis revealed an increase in the onset temperatures of decomposition for the treated composites. The dielectric investigation indicated that the samples containing olive pomace treated with the benzyl chloride can be used in electrical applications as insulators.

  13. Thermal Degradation Study of Decabromodiphenyl Ether. Translating Thermo-Analytical Results into Optimal Chromatographic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitras Mihai


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the thermal degradation behavior of decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE 209, a flame retardant (FR which accounts for more than 90% of the total polybrominated diphenyl ethers reported for indoor dust samples collected from Eastern Romania. Simultaneous TG/DTA was applied under various heating rate and atmospheres. The results of this study showed that BDE 209 undergoes thermal degradation in a single step, regardless of the heating rate or atmosphere, with an initial degradation temperature between 297 and 330 °C, depending on the heating rate, and a partial overlapping of melting and thermal degradation in the initial stages which might suggest that the common degradation noticed for the higher brominated FRs analysis might also occur during sample preparation or during injection of the extracts in the GC systems and not necessarily during column elution. The main findings of this research were aimed at designing proper GC analytical methods for the selected halogenated contaminants.

  14. Thermal Hydraulics Design and Analysis Methodology for a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Chen, Yen-Sen; Cheng, Gary; Ito, Yasushi


    Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions. This chapter describes a thermal hydraulics design and analysis methodology developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in support of the nuclear thermal propulsion development effort. The objective of this campaign is to bridge the design methods in the Rover/NERVA era, with a modern computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer methodology, to predict thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments of a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine the Small Engine, designed in the 1960s. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based, all speeds, chemically reacting, computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer platform, while formulations of flow and heat transfer through porous and solid media were implemented to describe those of hydrogen flow channels inside the solid24 core. Design analyses of a single flow element and the entire solid-core thrust chamber of the Small Engine were performed and the results are presented herein

  15. Thermal study of the unilluminated surface of the waning moon (United States)

    Raine, W. L.; Segewitz, M. W.; Fountain, W. F.; Fountain, J. A.; White, M. K.; Van Swearingen, J.


    A program of lunar infrared radiometry which uses large-area scanning is described. Procedures for atmospheric-attenuation correction and data reduction to temperature by relative radiometry are outlined. The scan data of the waning moon taken during ten evenings in the 10- to 12-micron window are presented as isothermal contour maps of the lunar disk. More than 160 areas of anomalous thermal emission have been found in the lunar dark-side data. These are tabulated and are also shown on an accompanying map. An error analysis, derived from accuracy estimates of the independent parameters, is included.

  16. Model-based analysis of thermal insulation coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren


    conducted exploring the effects of the following parameters: pigment (hollow spheres) volume concentration (PVC), average sphere size or sphere size distribution, thermal conductivities of binder and sphere wall material, and sphere wall thickness. All the parameters affected the thermal conductivity...... of an epoxy coating, but simulations revealed that the most important parameters are the PVC, the sphere wall thickness, and the sphere wall material. The model can be used, qualitatively, to get an indication of the effect of important model parameters on the thermal conductivity of an HS-based coating...

  17. Ablative Thermal Response Analysis Using the Finite Element Method (United States)

    Dec John A.; Braun, Robert D.


    A review of the classic techniques used to solve ablative thermal response problems is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of both the finite element and finite difference methods are described. As a first step in developing a three dimensional finite element based ablative thermal response capability, a one dimensional computer tool has been developed. The finite element method is used to discretize the governing differential equations and Galerkin's method of weighted residuals is used to derive the element equations. A code to code comparison between the current 1-D tool and the 1-D Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Response Program (FIAT) has been performed.

  18. Mars Phoenix Scout Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) Database: Thermal Database Development and Analysis (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Archer, D.; Niles, P. B.; Stein, T. C.; Hamara, D.; Boynton, W. V.; Ming, D. W.


    The Mars Phoenix Scout Lander mission in 2008 examined the history of water, searched for organics, and evaluated the potential for past/present microbial habitability in a martian arctic ice-rich soil [1]. The Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument measured the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 and detected volatile bearing mineralogy (perchlorate, carbonate, hydrated mineral phases) in the martian soil [2-7]. The TEGA data are archived at the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node but are reported in forms that require further processing to be of use to the non-TEGA expert. The soil and blank TEGA thermal data are reported as duty cycle and must be converted to differential power (mW) to allow for enthalpy calculations of exothermic/endothermic transitions. The exothermic/endothermic temperatures are also used to determine what phases (inorganic/organic) are present in the sample. The objectives of this work are to: 1) Describe how interpretable thermal data can be created from TEGA data sets on the PDS and 2) Provide additional thermal data interpretation of two Phoenix soils (Baby Bear, Wicked Witch) and include interpretations from three unreported soils (Rosy Red 1, 2, and Burning Coals).

  19. Dynamic response analysis of an aircraft structure under thermal-acoustic loads (United States)

    Cheng, H.; Li, H. B.; Zhang, W.; Wu, Z. Q.; Liu, B. R.


    Future hypersonic aircraft will be exposed to extreme combined environments includes large magnitude thermal and acoustic loads. It presents a significant challenge for the integrity of these vehicles. Thermal-acoustic test is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to combined loads. In this research, the numerical simulation process for the thermal acoustic test is presented, and the effects of thermal loads on vibro-acoustic response are investigated. To simulate the radiation heating system, Monte Carlo theory and thermal network theory was used to calculate the temperature distribution. Considering the thermal stress, the high temperature modal parameters are obtained with structural finite element methods. Based on acoustic finite element, modal-based vibro-acoustic analysis is carried out to compute structural responses. These researches are very vital to optimum thermal-acoustic test and structure designs for future hypersonic vehicles structure

  20. Rate process analysis of thermal damage in cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Sergio H; Nelson, J Stuart; Wong, Brian J F [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)


    Cartilage laser thermoforming (CLT) is a new surgical procedure that allows in situ treatment of deformities in the head and neck with less morbidity than traditional approaches. While some animal and human studies have shown promising results, the clinical feasibility of CLT depends on preservation of chondrocyte viability, which has not been extensively studied. The present paper characterizes cellular damage due to heat in rabbit nasal cartilage. Damage was modelled as a first order rate process for which two experimentally derived coefficients, A=1.2x10{sup 70} s{sup -1} and E{sub a}=4.5x10{sup 5} J mole{sup -1}, were determined by quantifying the decrease in concentration of healthy chondrocytes in tissue samples as a function of exposure time to constant-temperature water baths. After immersion, chondrocytes were enzymatically isolated from the matrix and stained with a two-component fluorescent dye. The dye binds nuclear DNA differentially depending upon chondrocyte viability. A flow cytometer was used to detect differential cell fluorescence to determine the percentage of live and dead cells in each sample. As a result, a damage kinetic model was obtained that can be used to predict the onset, extent and severity of cellular injury to thermal exposure.

  1. Analysis of regenerative thermal storage geometries for solar gas turbines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klein, P


    Full Text Available Ceramic heat regenerators are suited to providing thermal storage for concentrating solar power stations based on a recuperated gas turbine cycle. Randomly packed beds of spheres and saddles; honeycombs and checker bricks were identified...

  2. Quantitative analysis of silica aerogel-based thermal insulation coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren


    A mathematical heat transfer model for a silica aerogel-based thermal insulation coating was developed. The model can estimate the thermal conductivity of a two-component (binder-aerogel) coating with potential binder intrusion into the nano-porous aerogel structure. The latter is modelled using......, to get an indication of the effect of important model parameters on the thermal conductivity of an insulation coating. With relevant data available for service life exposure conditions and raw material costs, the model can also be used as an optimization algorithm....... and experimental data with shell thickness and/or thermal conductivity of the shell as adjustable parameters. However, the experimental data was not sufficiently detailed to allow a separation of the effects of the two parameters. In the ideal case of no aerogel binder intrusion, a comparison with a coating...

  3. Recent advances on thermal analysis of stretchable electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhang Li


    Full Text Available Stretchable electronics, which offers the performance of conventional wafer-based devices and mechanical properties of a rubber band, enables many novel applications that are not possible through conventional electronics due to its brittle nature. One effective strategy to realize stretchable electronics is to design the inorganic semiconductor material in a stretchable format on a compliant elastomeric substrate. Engineering thermal management is essential for the development of stretchable electronics to avoid adverse thermal effects on its performance as well as in applications involving human body and biological tissues where even 1–2 °C temperature increase is not allowed. This article reviews the recent advances in thermal management of stretchable inorganic electronics with focuses on the thermal models and their comparisons to experiments and finite element simulations.

  4. PCB-level Electro thermal Coupling Simulation Analysis (United States)

    Zhou, Runjing; Shao, Xuchen


    Power transmission network needs to transmit more current with the increase of the power density. The problem of temperature rise and the reliability is becoming more and more serious. In order to accurately design the power supply system, we must consider the influence of the power supply system including Joule heat, air convection and other factors. Therefore, this paper analyzes the relationship between the electric circuit and the thermal circuit on the basis of the theory of electric circuit and thermal circuit.

  5. Analysis of thermal water utilization in the northeastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rman


    Full Text Available The presented research aims at identification of thermal water users in NE Slovenia, at finding type and amountof the produced thermal water as well as its utilization practice. The energetic overview has been upgradedby a description of current observational monitoring practice and thermal waste water management, but technologicalproblems of thermal water use and their mitigation are discussed also. We have ascertained that 14 of 26active geothermalwells tap the Mura Formation aquifer in which the only reinjection well is perforated also. Totalthermal water abstraction summed to 3.29 million m3 in 2011. Cascade use of thermal water is abundant, whereindividual space and sanitary water heating is followed by heating of spa infrastructure and balneology. Greenhouseheating systems and district heating were also identified. Operational monitoring of these geothermal wellsis generally insufficient, and geothermal aquifers are overexploited due to decades of historical water abstraction.All these facts indicate the need for applying appropriate measures which will improve their natural conditions aswell as simultaneously enable further and even higher thermal water utilization in the future.

  6. Thermal comfort study of plastics manufacturing industry in converting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiono Sugiono


    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is one of ergonomics factors that can create a significant impact to workers performance. For a better thermal comfort, several environment factors (air temperature, wind speed and relative humidity should be considered in this research. The object of the study is a building for converting process of plastics manufacturing industry located in Malang, Indonesia. The maximum air temperature inside the building can reach as high as 36°C. The result of this study shows that heat stress is dominantly caused by heat source from machine and wall building. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation is used to show the air characteristic through inside the building. By using the CFD simulation, some scenarios of solution are successfully presented. Employees thermal comfort was investigated based on predicted mean vote model (PMV and predicted percentage of dissatisfied model (PPD. Existing condition gives PMV in range from 1.83 to 2.82 and PPD in range from 68.9 to 98%. Meanwhile, modification of ventilation and replacing ceiling material from clear glass into reflective clear glass gave significant impact to reduce PMV into range from 1.63 to 2.18 and PPD into range from 58.2 to 84.2%. In sort, new design converting building process has more comfortable for workers.

  7. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  8. Fourier domain target transformation analysis in the thermal infrared (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.


    Remote sensing uses of principal component analysis (PCA) of multispectral images include band selection and optimal color selection for display of information content. PCA has also been used for quantitative determination of mineral types and abundances given end member spectra. The preliminary results of the investigation of target transformation PCA (TTPCA) in the fourier domain to both identify end member spectra in an unknown spectrum, and to then calculate the relative concentrations of these selected end members are presented. Identification of endmember spectra in an unknown sample has previously been performed through bandmatching, expert systems, and binary classifiers. Both bandmatching and expert system techniques require the analyst to select bands or combinations of bands unique to each endmember. Thermal infrared mineral spectra have broad spectral features which vary subtly with composition. This makes identification of unique features difficult. Alternatively, whole spectra can be used in the classification process, in which case there is not need for an expert to identify unique spectra. Use of binary classifiers on whole spectra to identify endmember components has met with some success. These techniques can be used, along with a least squares fit approach on the endmembers identified, to derive compositional information. An alternative to the approach outlined above usese target transformation in conjunction with PCA to both identify and quantify the composition of unknown spectra. Preprocessing of the library and unknown spectra into the fourier domain, and using only a specific number of the components, allows for significant data volume reduction while maintaining a linear relationship in a Beer's Law sense. The approach taken here is to iteratively calculate concentrations, reducing the number of endmember components until only non-negative concentrations remain.

  9. Thermal analysis of optical reference cavities for low sensitivity to environmental temperature fluctuations. (United States)

    Dai, Xiaojiao; Jiang, Yanyi; Hang, Chao; Bi, Zhiyi; Ma, Longsheng


    The temperature stability of optical reference cavities is significant in state-of-the-art ultra-stable narrow-linewidth laser systems. In this paper, the thermal time constant and thermal sensitivity of reference cavities are analyzed when reference cavities respond to environmental perturbations via heat transfer of thermal conduction and thermal radiation separately. The analysis as well as simulation results indicate that a reference cavity enclosed in multiple layers of thermal shields with larger mass, higher thermal capacity and lower emissivity is found to have a larger thermal time constant and thus a smaller sensitivity to environmental temperature perturbations. The design of thermal shields for reference cavities may vary according to experimentally achievable temperature stability and the coefficient of thermal expansion of reference cavities. A temperature fluctuation-induced length instability of reference cavities as low as 6 × 10(-16) on a day timescale can be achieved if a two-layer thermal shield is inserted between a cavity with the coefficient of thermal expansion of 1 × 10(-10) /K and an outer vacuum chamber with temperature fluctuation amplitude of 1 mK and period of 24 hours.

  10. Summary of comparative results integrated nonthermal treatment and integrated thermal treatment systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In July 1994, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under a contract from U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment Management Office of Science and Technology (OST, EM-50) published a report entitled {open_quotes}Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study - Phase 1 Results{close_quotes} (EGG-MS-11211). This report was the culmination of over a year of analysis involving scientists and engineers within the DOE complex and from private industry. The purpose of that study was {open_quotes}to conduct a systematic engineering evaluation of a variety of mixed low level waste (MLLW) treatment system alternatives.{close_quotes} The study also {open_quotes}identified the research and development, demonstrations, and testing and evaluation needed to assure unit operability in the most promising alternative system.{close_quotes} This study evaluated ten primary thermal treatment technologies, organized into complete {open_quotes}cradle-to-grave{close_quotes} systems (including complete engineering flow sheets), to treat DOE MLLW and calculated mass balances and 20-year total life cycle costs (TLCC) for all systems. The waste input used was a representative heterogenous mixture of typical DOE MLLW. An additional study was conducted, and then, based on response to these studies, additional work was started to investigate and evaluate non-thermal treatment options on a footing comparable to the effort devoted to thermal options. This report attempts to present a summary overview of the thermal and non-thermal treatment technologies which were examined in detail in the process of the above mentioned reviews.

  11. Heat transfer analysis of skin during thermal therapy using thermal wave equation. (United States)

    Kashcooli, Meisam; Salimpour, Mohammad Reza; Shirani, Ebrahim


    Specifying exact geometry of vessel network and its effect on temperature distribution in living tissues is one of the most complicated problems of the bioheat field. In this paper, the effects of blood vessels on temperature distribution in a skin tissue subjected to various thermal therapy conditions are investigated. Present model consists of counter-current multilevel vessel network embedded in a three-dimensional triple-layered skin structure. Branching angles of vessels are calculated using the physiological principle of minimum work. Length and diameter ratios are specified using length doubling rule and Cube law, respectively. By solving continuity, momentum and energy equations for blood flow and Pennes and modified Pennes bioheat equations for the tissue, temperature distributions in the tissue are measured. Effects of considering modified Pennes bioheat equation are investigated, comprehensively. It is also observed that blood has an impressive role in temperature distribution of the tissue, especially at high temperatures. The effects of different parameters such as boundary conditions, relaxation time, thermal properties of skin, metabolism and pulse heat flux on temperature distribution are investigated. Tremendous effect of boundary condition type at the lower boundary is noted. It seems that neither insulation nor constant temperature at this boundary can completely describe the real physical phenomena. It is expected that real temperature at the lower levels is somewhat between two predicted values. The effect of temperature on the thermal properties of skin tissue is considered. It is shown that considering temperature dependent values for thermal conductivity is important in the temperature distribution estimation of skin tissue; however, the effect of temperature dependent values for specific heat capacity is negligible. It is seen that considering modified Pennes equation in processes with high heat flux during low times is significant





    This article concerns the study of the thermal cracking as undesirable phenomenon in the vacuum distillation of atmospheric residue of crude oil. In this point, we have sought to identify and characterize the effect of the increase in the temperature of vacuum distillation on the separation and the modification of the constituents of atmospheric residue of crude oil whose origin is Arabian Light. This study has been carried out by several techniques of analysis such as the density (ASTM D4052...

  13. Micromechanical thermal analysis of interphase region in a titanium aluminide MMC (United States)

    Naik, R. A.; Johnson, W. S.; Dicus, D. L.


    The high reactivity between the fiber and matrix in silicon carbide/titanium aluminide MMCs leads to the formation of brittle reaction products at the fiber/matrix (F/M) interface. Also, the high thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the fiber and matrix leads to high tensile residual stresses at the F/M interface, and this can lead to premature cracking during cooldown. One solution to these problems is the use of a metallic fiber coating like Ta which acts as an F/M diffusion barrier and reacts with the matrix to form a beta stabilized compliant layer. A finite element micromechanics analysis was performed to study the effects of Ta and beta interphase layers on the thermal residual stresses during consolidation. A 5-micron-thick beta layer reduced cool-down stresses by 8 percent compared to a 2 percent reduction computed for a Ta layer of the same thickness. Plastic yielding in the Ta was not effective in reducing cool-down stresses. Compliant alpha-2 particles next to the stiffer gamma particles reduced stresses in the gamma particles by less than 2 percent. A simple closed form analysis was developed to calculate thermal residual stresses in a fiber/interphase/matrix system. A 2-micron-thick Ag interphase layer was found to reduce residual stresses by about 11 percent.

  14. Biomimetic Bacterial Identification Platform Based on Thermal Wave Transport Analysis (TWTA) through Surface-Imprinted Polymers. (United States)

    Steen Redeker, Erik; Eersels, Kasper; Akkermans, Onno; Royakkers, Jeroen; Dyson, Simba; Nurekeyeva, Kunya; Ferrando, Beniamino; Cornelis, Peter; Peeters, Marloes; Wagner, Patrick; Diliën, Hanne; van Grinsven, Bart; Cleij, Thomas Jan


    This paper introduces a novel bacterial identification assay based on thermal wave analysis through surface-imprinted polymers (SIPs). Aluminum chips are coated with SIPs, serving as synthetic cell receptors that have been combined previously with the heat-transfer method (HTM) for the selective detection of bacteria. In this work, the concept of bacterial identification is extended toward the detection of nine different bacterial species. In addition, a novel sensing approach, thermal wave transport analysis (TWTA), is introduced, which analyzes the propagation of a thermal wave through a functional interface. The results presented here demonstrate that bacterial rebinding to the SIP layer resulted in a measurable phase shift in the propagated wave, which is most pronounced at a frequency of 0.03 Hz. In this way, the sensor is able to selectively distinguish between the different bacterial species used in this study. Furthermore, a dose-response curve was constructed to determine a limit of detection of 1 × 104 CFU mL-1, indicating that TWTA is advantageous over HTM in terms of sensitivity and response time. Additionally, the limit of selectivity of the sensor was tested in a mixed bacterial solution, containing the target species in the presence of a 99-fold excess of competitor species. Finally, a first application for the sensor in terms of infection diagnosis is presented, revealing that the platform is able to detect bacteria in clinically relevant concentrations as low as 3 × 104 CFU mL-1 in spiked urine samples.

  15. Analysis of the thermal profiles and the charcoal gravimetric yield in three variations of rectangular brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rogerio Lima Mota de; Alves Junior, Edson; Mulina, Bruno Henrique Oliveira; Borges, Valerio Luiz; Carvalho, Solidonio Rodrigues de [Federal University of Uberlandia - UFU, MG (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering - FEMEC], e-mails:,,,


    Charcoal assumes a major role in Brazilian economic scenario. The procedure for obtaining charcoal consists in carbonization of wood at certain specific temperatures in kilns. This ancient process has a few joined technologies and the kilns for such practice do not have any control instruments, in their great majority, becoming dependent on the ability of its operators. However, in recent decades several studies have been developed to improve the practice as well as the equipment that involve and control the stages of charcoal production. In this sense, this work proposes the analysis of the thermal profiles and the gravimetric yield in three variations of a rectangular brick kiln called RAC220: traditional (without any type of instrumentation), instrumented with thermal sensors (RTD PT100) and adapted with gasifier. The goal is to correlate temperature, gravimetric yield and quality of the produced charcoal. Immediate analyses were performed to determine the amount of fixed carbon, volatile gases and ashes contents in charcoal. Through such measurement procedures, together with statistical analysis, the aim is to identify an important tool to reduce the time of charcoal production and also contributes to minimize losses and to increase the thermal efficiency of the production process. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov


    Full Text Available Summary. The thermal analysis heat- and mass-exchange of processes has been carried out at heat-moisture of handling of fruits for manufacture of fruit chips. Is suggested resource-saving the technological scheme of a line of processing of fruit and manufactures of fruit chips on the basis of convection and the microwave-drying. The technique is made and results of calculation of thermal expenses for various schemes of manufacture of apple chips are resulted. Thermal expenses for base and offered variants on the basis of balance parities of technological processes and the developed hardware-technological scheme of a line of manufacture of fruit chips with the closed cycle of use of the heat-carrier and the combined convection-microwave-drying of fruit-and-vegetable raw material are certain. Are used recirculation a contour, the heating of the initial raw material fulfilled after drying of pairs and a condensate in the closed contour for creation energy-saving of the "know-how" of a ready product. Comparative thermal efficiency of control surfaces of a line of manufacture of apple chips for the offered technological scheme is shown. Directions of perfection of technological schemes of manufacture of apple chips are certain. Improve the thermal efficiency of the proposed technology facilitates the use of coolant recycling, and the use of heat vapor at various stages of the process, as well as heat exchangers with a capacitor for on-stage heating drained coolant. Useful expenses include heat expended on heating and conversion product. By total losses attributed unused waste heat of coolant, as well as costs due to leaks and mode of working chambers. In order to reduce energy consumption are analyzed and studied heat loss ways to reduce them. It was found that the losses can be reduced through the use of waste after drying coolant heating the dried drying agent and syrup.

  17. Thermal, structural and electrical studies of bismuth zinc borate glasses (United States)

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.


    Bismuth Zinc Borate glasses with compositions xBi2O3-30ZnO-(70 - x)B2O3 (where x = 30, 35, 40 and 45 mol %) have been prepared by melt quenching method. These glasses were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and Broad Band Dielectric Spectrometer (BDS). DTA and FTIR analysis reveals that Non-Bridging Oxygens (NBOs) increase with increase of bismuth content in the glass. Electrical data have been analyzed in the framework of impedance and modulus formalisms. The activation energy for dc conductivity decreases with increase of bismuth concentration. The imaginary part of modulus spectra has been fitted to non-exponential Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) function and the value of the stretched exponent (β) is found to be almost independent of temperature but slightly dependent on composition.

  18. Thermal stress analysis of the NASA Dryden hypersonic wing test structure (United States)

    Morris, Glenn


    Present interest in hypersonic vehicles has resulted in a renewed interest in thermal stress analysis of airframe structures. While there are numerous texts and papers on thermal stress analysis, practical examples and experience on light gage aircraft structures are fairly limited. A research program has been undertaken at General Dynamics to demonstrate the present state of the art, verify methods of analysis, gain experience in their use, and develop engineering judgement in thermal stress analysis. The approach for this project has been to conduct a series of analyses of this sample problem and compare analysis results with test data. This comparison will give an idea of how to use our present methods of thermal stress analysis, and how accurate we can expect them to be.

  19. Thermal analysis and structural characterization of chitinous exoskeleton from two marine invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez-de la Rosa, B.A., E-mail: [Laboratory of Natural Polymers, CIAD – Coordinación Guaymas, Carretera al Varadero Nacional km. 6.6, Col. Las Playitas, 85480 Guaymas, Sonora (Mexico); Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Mérida, Carretera antigua a Progreso, km. 6. Apdo, Postal 73, Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatan (Mexico); May-Crespo, J.; Quintana-Owen, P.; Gónzalez-Gómez, W.S. [Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Mérida, Carretera antigua a Progreso, km. 6. Apdo, Postal 73, Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatan (Mexico); Yañez-Limón, J.M. [Materials and Engineering Science, CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro (Mexico); Alvarado-Gil, J.J., E-mail: [Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Mérida, Carretera antigua a Progreso, km. 6. Apdo, Postal 73, Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatan (Mexico)


    Highlights: • Thermal analysis of exoskeletons: Antipathes caribbeana and Limulus polyphemus. • DMTA revealed Limulus has a stronger structure with a stepper glass transition. • DSC measurements exhibited a much larger water holding capacity in Antipathes. • X-ray diffraction analysis shows a higher crystallinity index in Limulus • FTIR showed α-chitin structures and high temperature C–N groups prevalence. - ABSTRACT: Thermomechanical and structural properties of two marine species exoskeletons, Antipathes caribbeana (black coral) and Limulus polyphemus (xiphosure), were studied using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). DMTA curves indicate the viscoelastic behavior and glass transition around 255 °C, black coral presented a second transition (175 °C) associated to the acetamide group attached to the α-chitin chain. DSC measurements showed a endothermic peak around 100 °C, with enthalpies of 4.02 and 118.04 J/g, indicating strong differences between exoskeletons respect to their water holding capacity and strength water–polymer interaction. A comparative analysis involving DSC and X-ray diffraction showed that lower values ΔH in xiphosure correspond to a material with a higher crystallinity (30), in contrast black coral exhibits higher values ΔH and a lower crystallinity (19). FTIR confirmed α-chitin based structure, at higher temperature diminishes the amide bands and a new one appears, related to C–N groups.

  20. Structural changes of wood during hydro-thermal and thermal treatments evaluated through NIR spectroscopy and principal component analysis (United States)

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Navi, Parviz; Placencia Peña, María Inés; Popescu, Maria-Cristina


    Spruce wood samples were subjected to different conditions of thermal and hydro-thermal treatment by varying the temperature, relative humidity and period of exposure. The obtained treated samples were evaluated using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) in order to evidence the structural changes which may occur during the applied treatment conditions. Following this, modification in all wood components were observed, modifications which were dependent on the temperature, amount of relative humidity and also the treatment time. Therefore, higher variations were evidenced for samples treated at higher temperatures and for longer periods. At the same time, the increase in the amount of water vapours in the medium induced a reduced rate of side chains and condensation reactions occurring in the wood structure. Further, by PCA and HCA was possible to discriminate the modifications in the wood samples according to treatment time and amount of relative humidity.

  1. Case-Study Inverse Thermal Analyses of Al2139 and Al2198 Electron Beam Welds (United States)

    Zervaki, A. D.; Stergiou, V.; Lambrakos, S. G.


    Case study inverse thermal analyses of A12139 and Al2198 electron beam welds are presented. These analyses represent a continuation of previous studies using laser beam welds, but provide accessibility to different regions of the parameter space for temperature histories than achievable using laser beams. For these analyses, a numerical methodology is employed, which is in terms of analytic functions for inverse thermal analysis of steady-state energy deposition in plate structures. The results of the case studies presented provide parametric representations of weld temperature histories, which can be adopted as input data to various types of computational procedures, such as those for prediction of solid-state phase transformations and their associated software implementations. In addition, these weld temperature histories can be used for construction of numerical basis functions that can be adopted for inverse analysis of welds corresponding to other process parameters or welding processes process conditions of which are within similar regimes.

  2. Literature review of market studies of thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattrup, M.P.


    This report presents the results of a review of market studies of thermal energy storage (TES). This project was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). PNL staff reviewed and consolidated the findings of existing TES market studies conducted in the industrial, commercial, and residential sectors. The purpose of this project was to review and assess previous work and to use the information obtained to help provide direction for future technology transfer planning activities and to identify additional economic research needed within those three sectors. 37 refs.

  3. Finite Element Analysis of PVC window profile &aluminium window profile with and without thermal break


    ENG. Mohammad Buhemdi


    Examine a thermal analysis .Numerous analogies exist between thermal and structuralanalysis for PVC window profile &aluminium window profile with and without thermalbreak ,Finite Element Analysis, commonly called FEA, is a method of numerical analysis. FEA isused for solving problems in many engineering disciplines such as machine design,acoustics, electromagnetism, soil mechanics, fluid dynamics, and many others. Inmathematical terms, FEA is a numerical technique used for solving...

  4. Thermal analysis method of high capacity communications satellite with heat pipes (United States)

    Tsunoda, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Katsuhiko; Miyasaka, Akihiro

    Thermal analysis method for heat pipe embedded communications equipment panel is treated in this paper. The main problem of the thermal analysis is how to construct the mathematical model under the limitation of computer CPU memory size. The mathematical model for the heat pipe embedded panel is first established based on the experiments. The essence of this method is to divide panel area into several small regions and perform thermal analysis independently using the fact of low thermal conductivity of honeycomb sandwich panel. To check the correctness of this method, the experiment using the test panel which thermally simulates the north communications equipment panel of two-ton class high capacity communications satellite has been conducted. The experiment shows the method works well.

  5. Automotive Underhood Thermal Management Analysis Using 3-D Coupled Thermal-Hydrodynamic Computer Models: Thermal Radiation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannala, S; D' Azevedo, E; Zacharia, T


    The goal of the radiation modeling effort was to develop and implement a radiation algorithm that is fast and accurate for the underhood environment. As part of this CRADA, a net-radiation model was chosen to simulate radiative heat transfer in an underhood of a car. The assumptions (diffuse-gray and uniform radiative properties in each element) reduce the problem tremendously and all the view factors for radiation thermal calculations can be calculated once and for all at the beginning of the simulation. The cost for online integration of heat exchanges due to radiation is found to be less than 15% of the baseline CHAD code and thus very manageable. The off-line view factor calculation is constructed to be very modular and has been completely integrated to read CHAD grid files and the output from this code can be read into the latest version of CHAD. Further integration has to be performed to accomplish the same with STAR-CD. The main outcome of this effort is to obtain a highly scalable and portable simulation capability to model view factors for underhood environment (for e.g. a view factor calculation which took 14 hours on a single processor only took 14 minutes on 64 processors). The code has also been validated using a simple test case where analytical solutions are available. This simulation capability gives underhood designers in the automotive companies the ability to account for thermal radiation - which usually is critical in the underhood environment and also turns out to be one of the most computationally expensive components of underhood simulations. This report starts off with the original work plan as elucidated in the proposal in section B. This is followed by Technical work plan to accomplish the goals of the project in section C. In section D, background to the current work is provided with references to the previous efforts this project leverages on. The results are discussed in section 1E. This report ends with conclusions and future scope of

  6. How to measure thermal effects of personal cooling systems : Human, thermal manikin and human simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, N.; Psikuta, A.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Rossi, R.M.


    Thermal effects, such as cooling power and thermophysiological responses initiated upon application of a personal cooling system, can be assessed with (i) humans, (ii) a thermal manikin and (iii) a thermophysiological human simulator. In order to compare these methods, a cooling shirt (mild cooling)

  7. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung


    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value genes were found to be differentially expressed on days 1, 2, and 3 out of which 343, 261 and 256 genes were upregulated and 159, 133, and 120 genes were downregulated. Only 356 genes out of these were expressed on all 3 days, and only they were considered as significantly differentially expressed. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that ten pathways were significantly enriched; the top two among them were protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  8. Analyzing Thermal Characteristics of Urban Streets Using a Thermal Imaging Camera: A Case Study on Commercial Streets in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugie Lee


    Full Text Available Due to continuing city growth and global warming over the past decades, urban heat island (UHI effects, referring to the phenomena wherein the ambient air temperatures in cities are higher than those in rural areas, have become a serious threat to urban populations. Impervious surfaces, buildings with low-albedo materials, and a lack of vegetated areas are the major causes of poor urban thermal environments, particularly during the summer. Previous research has focused primarily on the thermal characteristics of individual building units. Few studies consider the impact of the street-scale thermal environments on the surface temperature, which affects pedestrian thermal comfort. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal characteristics of various physical elements on urban streets using thermal imaging cameras, and present policy implications for improving pedestrian thermal comfort. This study examines street-scale thermal environments of three major commercial streets: Garosu road, Serosu road, and Narosu road, in Seoul, Korea. This study conducted field measurements both during the day and the night in June 2017 in order to investigate changes in the urban surface temperatures across time. The results show that street trees are the most effective mitigation element for reducing surface temperatures. With regard to building use types, the highest surface temperatures are typically measured near restaurant buildings. Building façades that are dark-colored or partially covered with a metal contribute to high surface temperatures. Similarly, the temperatures of artificial turf or wooden decks on urban streets are also significantly high during the daytime. The thermal characteristics of various urban street elements should be considered to reduce the surface temperature and mitigate the urban heat island effect.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert FANTOZZI


    Full Text Available Comparatively to the as received soda lime glass samples, the strength distribution after thermal shocks showed the appearance of a second branch in the Weibull curves. This branch is observed for temperature differences (ΔT equal or higher than the critical temperature difference (ΔTc for both water and motor oil cooling baths. The dispersion is more spread out in these two baths in comparison with the olive oil bath probably because of more pronounced slow crack growth effect. The Weibull modulus varies according to the used cooling bath and the considered temperature difference. In the case of thermal shock caused by air blast cooling at T = 20°C, a bimodal distribution is observed for only the critical state. The initial cracking time, obtained by acoustic emission, corresponds to the unstable propagation of the most critical defect. The number of cracks induced by thermal shock is proportional to the number of acoustic events.

  10. Thermal performance analysis of a solar heating plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Huang, Junpeng; Andersen, Ola Lie

    Detailed measurements were carried out on a large scale solar heating plant located in southern Denmark in order to evaluate thermal performances of the plant. Based on the measurements, energy flows of the plant were evaluated. A modified Trnsys model of the Marstal solar heating plant...... was developed to calculate thermal performances of the plant. In the Trnsys model, three solar collector fields with a total solar collector area of 33,300 m2, a seasonal water pit heat storage of 75,000 m3, a simplified CO2 HP, a simplified ORC unit and a simplified wood chip boiler were included. The energy...... consumption of the district heating net was modeled by volume flow rate and given forward and return temperatures of the district heating net. Weather data from a weather station at the site of the plant were used in the calculations. The Trnsys calculated yearly thermal performance of the solar heating plant...

  11. Thermal analysis of a reflective baffle designed for space applications (United States)

    Beck, T.; Lüthi, B. S.; Messina, G.; Piazza, D.; Seiferlin, K.; Thomas, N.


    The implementation and results from thermal mathematical modelling of a Stavroudis-type reflective baffle for the BepiColombo laser altimeter (BELA) are presented. BELA and other instruments on board the European Space Agency's Mercury Planetary Orbiter are exposed to a harsh environment in Mercury orbit. This environment is briefly discussed and the detailed design solution for the baffle is presented. Special attention has been paid to the implementation of the thermal model because specific approximations were required. The results of the thermal mathematical models show the temperature behaviour in orbit and the feasibility of the solution. The work has applications to future missions which will go inside the orbit of Venus (e.g. ESA's Solar Orbiter).

  12. Targets for bulk hydrogen analysis using thermal neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Csikai, J; Buczko, C M


    The reflection property of substances can be characterized by the reflection cross-section of thermal neutrons, sigma subbeta. A combination of the targets with thin polyethylene foils allowed an estimation of the flux depression of thermal neutrons caused by a bulk sample containing highly absorbing elements or compounds. Some new and more accurate sigma subbeta values were determined by using the combined target arrangement. For the ratio, R of the reflection and the elastic scattering cross-sections of thermal neutrons, R=sigma subbeta/sigma sub E sub L a value of 0.60+-0.02 was found on the basis of the data obtained for a number of elements from H to Pb. Using this correlation factor, and the sigma sub E sub L values, the unknown sigma subbeta data can be deduced. The equivalent thicknesses, to polyethylene or hydrogen, of the different target materials were determined from the sigma subbeta values.

  13. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  14. A novel microfluidic system for the rapid analysis of protein thermal stability. (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Liu, Jia; Xie, Ye Lei; Wang, Yang; Ying, Hong; Wu, Qiong; Huang, Wei; Jenkins, Gareth


    We describe a simple microfluidic device for the rapid analysis of protein thermal stability using a novel imaging method. The change in UV absorption upon thermal denaturation or aggregation of proteins is used to get a spatial image of proteins' folding or aggregation state along a linear temperature gradient.

  15. Negative thermal expansion properties in tetragonal NbPO5 from the first principles studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li


    Full Text Available By using the first-principles calculations based on density functional theory combined with quasi-harmonic approximation, we have studied the geometric structural, thermal properties, and the negative thermal expansion (NTE properties of tetrahedral NbPO5. The variations of cell parameter and cell volume of tetrahedral NbPO5 with temperature show that it displays NTE behavior in the range of 473-800 K along a-axis and the corresponding average coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE is approximately -0.766 ×10−6 K−1, while the c cell parameter and the cell volume display positive thermal expansion behaviors. These results are in consistent well with the experiment observations. Further vibrational modes analysis, together with Grüneisen parameters calculations, revealed that the transverse vibration of O corner atoms accompanying the rocking motions of corner-shared NbO6 octahedron and PO4 tetrahedron dominate the negative thermal properties of tetrahedral NbPO5. Our findings will provide an understanding for the underlying mechanisms of the NTE in oxides materials.

  16. Spectroscopic, Elemental and Thermal Analysis, and Positron Annihilation Studies on Ca(II), Sr(II), Ba(II), Pb(II), and Fe(III) Penicillin G Potassium Complexes (United States)

    Refat, M. S.; Sharshara, T.


    The [Pb(Pin)2] · 3H2O, [M(Pin)(H2O)2(Cl)] · nH2O (M = SrII, CaII or BaII; n = 0-1), and [Fe(Pin)2(Cl)(H2O)] · H2O penicillin G potassium (Pin) complexes were synthesized and characterized using elemental analyses, molar conductivity, thermal analysis and electronic spectroscopy techniques. The positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) and Doppler broadening (DB) techniques have been employed to probe the defects and structural changes of Pin ligand and its complexes. The PAL and DB line-shape parameters were discussed in terms of the structure, molecular weight, ligand-metal molar ratio, and other properties of the Pin complexes.

  17. Interring Gas Dynamic Analysis of Piston in a Diesel Engine considering the Thermal Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyou Li


    Full Text Available Understanding the interaction between ring dynamics and gas transport in ring pack systems is crucial and needs to be imperatively studied. The present work features detailed interring gas dynamics of piston ring pack behavior in internal combustion engines. The model is developed for a ring pack with four rings. The dynamics of ring pack are simulated. Due to the fact that small changes in geometry of the grooves and lands would have a significant impact on the interring gas dynamics, the thermal deformation of piston has been considered during the ring pack motion analysis in this study. In order to get the temperature distribution of piston head more quickly and accurately, an efficient method utilizing the concept of inverse heat conduction is presented. Moreover, a sensitive analysis based on the analysis of partial regression coefficients is presented to investigate the effect of groove parameters on blowby.

  18. Homotopy analysis method for variable thermal conductivity heat flux gage with edge contact resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Abdul [Gonzaga Univ., Spokane, WA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Khani, Farzad [Bakhtar Institute of Higher Education, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mathematics; Darvishi, Mohammad Taghi [Razi Univ., Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mathematics


    The homotopy analysis method (HAM) has been used to develop an analytical solution for the thermal performance of a circular-thin-foil heat flux gage with temperature dependent thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance between the edge of the foil and the heat sink. Temperature distributions in the foil are presented illustrating the effect of incident heat flux, radiation emission from the foil, variable thermal conductivity, and contact resistance between the foil and the heat sink. The HAM results agree up to four places of decimal with the numerical solutions generated using the symbolic algebra package Maple. This close comparison vouches for the high accuracy and stability of the analytic solution. (orig.)

  19. Thermal degradation study of silicon carbide threads developed for advanced flexible thermal protection systems (United States)

    Tran, Huy Kim; Sawko, Paul M.


    Silicon carbide (SiC) fiber is a material that may be used in advanced thermal protection systems (TPS) for future aerospace vehicles. SiC fiber's mechanical properties depend greatly on the presence or absence of sizing and its microstructure. In this research, silicon dioxide is found to be present on the surface of the fiber. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) show that a thin oxide layer (SiO2) exists on the as-received fibers, and the oxide thickness increases when the fibers are exposed to high temperature. ESCA also reveals no evidence of Si-C bonding on the fiber surface on both as-received and heat treated fibers. The silicon oxide layer is thought to signal the decomposition of SiC bonds and may be partially responsible for the degradation in the breaking strength observed at temperatures above 400 C. The variation in electrical resistivity of the fibers with increasing temperature indicates a transition to a higher band gap material at 350 to 600 C. This is consistent with a decomposition of SiC involving silicon oxide formation.

  20. Investigation and analysis of human body thermal comfort in classroom (United States)

    Zhai, Xue


    In this survey, we selected the 11th building of North China Electric Power University as the research object. Data were measured and distributed on each floor. We record the temperature of the classroom, humidity, wind speed, average radiation temperature and other environmental parameters. And we used spare time to create a questionnaire survey of the subjective feeling of the survey, to get everyone in the classroom TSV (hot feeling vote value) and TCV (thermal comfort vote). We analyzed the test data and survey data. What's more we discuss and reflect on the thermal comfort of the human body in different indoor temperature atmospheres.

  1. Analysis of in-cavity thermal and pressure characteristics in aluminum alloy die casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatasamy, Vasanth Kumar [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    The lack of effective control of the die casting process is the primary reason for the occurrence of defective die cast products. A reliable process control system must be capable of measuring the process variables, comparing them to the standard or ideal values and making suitable alterations in the process to eliminate any deviation from the ideal. This study attempted to facilitate the development of such a process control system. A two pronged approach was used to achieve this objective. The experimental approach addressed some of the problems in the measurement of process variables. The analytical approach addressed some of the problems in the design of the process and subsequent identification of the ideal process variable values. The experimental approach concentrated on the measurement of in-cavity pressure and thermal characteristics of the die casting process. Kistler direct pressure sensors were evaluated and utilized for cavity pressure measurement during the die casting campaign. Thermal probes using staggered thermocouples were developed and utilized for the simultaneous measurement of die surface temperatures and heat flow rate through the die. The measured thermal and pressure characteristics were related to the injection characteristics measured using the shot control equipment of the Buhler H-250SC die casting machine used in the campaign. The analytical approach concentrated on the verification of the predictions of a computer numerical solidification analysis by comparison with the experimental data obtained as an output of the die casting campaign. Particular attention was paid to the predictions of thermal characteristics like freezing time and die surface temperature. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to determine the effect of changes in individual variables on the predictions of BINORM.

  2. Thermal expansion and magnetostriction studies on iron pnictides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liran


    In this work, a 3-terminal capacitance dilatometer was set up and used for measurements of the thermal expansion and magnetostriction of novel superconducting iron pinictides and related materials. In particular, RFeAsO with R = La, Ce, Pr, Sm, Gd, LaFeASO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} and Ca(F{sub 1-c}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} have been investigated. The data on polycrystalline LaFeAsO{sub 1-x} are the first published thermal expansion data on this material. The lattice effects at the structural and the magnetic phase transition have been investigated and the phase diagram upon F-doping has been studied. A main result is the observation of a previously unknown fluctuation regime for the doping level x ≤ 0.04 over a large T range above the structural transition temperature T{sub S}. The absence of any structural anomalies in the normal state of the superconducting LaFeAlO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} samples with x ≥ 0.05 corroborates the discontinuous character of the phase boundary not only for the magnetism but also for the structural degrees of freedom. Similarly, the presence of high-temperature fluctuations is found for all RFeAsO undoped materials under study. The discussion of the probable origin of the fluctuations as well as the definition of the structural transition temperature T{sub S} are done. The low temperature features shown by the thermal expansion data for RFeAsO are caused by the onset of long range magnetic order of the 4f-moments and their different configurations. In particular, PrFeAsO, which has a very pronounced anomaly associated with Pr-ordering exhibits a large magnetostriction at low temperatures. By discussing this effect along with the magnetization, resistivity and other measurements, it is found that this large magneto-elastic effect may originate from the correlations between the momentum from Fe{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+}. Last, the thermal expansion of Ca(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} 122 single crystals is investigated. Ca(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x

  3. Thermal distortion analysis method for TMCP steel structures using shell element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsok Ha


    Full Text Available As ships become larger, thicker and higher tensile steel plate are used in shipyard. Though special chemical compositions are required for high-tensile steels, recently they are made by the TMCP (Thermo-Mechanical control process methodology. The increased Yield / Tensile strength of TMCP steels compared to the normalized steel of same composition are induced by suppressing the formation of Ferrite and Pearlite in favor of strong and tough Bainite while being transformed from Austenite. But this Bainite phase could be vanished by another additional thermal cycle like welding and heating. As thermal deformations are deeply related by yield stress of material, the study for prediction of plate deformation by heating should reflect the principle of TMCP steels. The present study is related to the development of an algorithm which could calculate inherent strain. In this algorithm, not only the mechanical principles of thermal deformations, but also the initial portion of Bainite is considered when calculating inherent strain. Distortion analysis results by these values showed good agreements with experimental results for normalized steels and TMCP steels during welding and heating. This algorithm has also been used to create an inherent strain database of steels in Class rule.

  4. XRD, TEM, and thermal analysis of Arizona Ca-montmorillonites modified with didodecyldimethylammonium bromide. (United States)

    Sun, Zhiming; Park, Yuri; Zheng, Shuilin; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L


    An Arizona SAz-2 calcium montmorillonite was modified by a typical dialkyl cationic surfactant (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide, abbreviated to DDDMA) through direct ion exchange. The obtained organoclays were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), high-resolution thermogravimetric analysis (HR-TG), and infrared emission spectroscopy (IES). The intercalation of surfactants greatly increased the basal spacing of the interlayers and the conformation arrangement of the loaded surfactant were assessed based on the XRD and TEM measurements. This work shows that the dialkyl surfactant can be directly intercalated into the montmorillonite without first undergoing Na(+) exchange. Moreover, the thermal stability of organoclays and the different arrangements of the surfactant molecules intercalated in the SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonite were determined by a combination of TG and IES techniques. The detailed conformational ordering of different intercalated surfactants under different conditions was also studied. The surfactant molecule DDDMA has proved to be thermally stable even at 400°C which indicates that the prepared organoclay is stable to significantly high temperatures. This study offers new insights into the structure and thermal stabilities of SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonite modified with DDDMA. The experimental results also confirm the potential applications of organic SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonites as adsorbents and polymer-clay nanocomposites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Design, Construction, and Performance Analysis of a Wood Thermal Conductivity Measurement Device using Flat Plate Heat Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasouli Moien


    Full Text Available In this paper, the design, construction, and performance analysis of a wood thermal conductivity measurement device using flat plate heat pipes has been experimentally studied. The device was designed to measure the thermal conductivity of wood in various ranges of temperature. Thermal conductivity of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus has been measured at various temperatures between 40-80 ºC and a relationship has been recommended for the sample. The results show that the thermal conductivity of this species increases linearly with temperature. Also, it has been concluded that flat plate heat pipes distribute heat flux on the surface of the wood uniformly leading to a faster steady state condition, which can reduce time of the test and result in energy saving and more accurate results.

  6. Dynamic Analysis of the Titanium Alloy Plate under Thermal-acoustic Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Xuefeng


    Full Text Available Hypersonic vehicles structures suffer complex combined loadings generally. For the thin-walled structures and thermal protection systems of the aircraft, high temperature and intensity acoustic loadings are the significant factors that leading to their break. The object of this paper is typical simply supported titanium alloy plate, the finite element method was adopted to calculate the critical thermal buckling temperature the ordinal coupling method and Newmark method were adopted to calculate the thermal-acoustic dynamic response. Based on the FEM analysis, the power spectrum densities (PSD of center point was presented. Research results show that the thermal buckling of the typical simply supported titanium alloy plate occurs easily because of the low critical thermal buckling temperature, dynamic response of the thermal buckled plate suffering acoustic loads performs strong nonlinear characteristics and complex forms of exercise.

  7. Analysis of Solar-Heated Thermal Wadis to Support Extended-Duration Lunar Exploration (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Wegeng, R. S.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Suzuki, N. H.; Sacksteder, K. R.


    The realization of the renewed exploration of the Moon presents many technical challenges; among them is the survival of lunar surface assets during periods of darkness when the lunar environment is very cold. Thermal wadis are engineered sources of stored solar energy using modified lunar regolith as a thermal storage mass that can enable the operation of lightweight robotic rovers or other assets in cold, dark environments without incurring potential mass, cost, and risk penalties associated with various onboard sources of thermal energy. Thermal wadi-assisted lunar rovers can conduct a variety of long-duration missions including exploration site surveys; teleoperated, crew-directed, or autonomous scientific expeditions; and logistics support for crewed exploration. This paper describes a thermal analysis of thermal wadi performance based on the known solar illumination of the moon and estimates of producible thermal properties of modified lunar regolith. Analysis was performed for the lunar equatorial region and for a potential Outpost location near the lunar south pole. The results are presented in some detail in the paper and indicate that thermal wadis can provide the desired thermal energy reserve, with significant margin, for the survival of rovers or other equipment during periods of darkness.

  8. Experimental Study of the Micro-Arc Oxide Coating Effect on Thermal Properties of an Aluminium Alloy Piston Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Dudareva


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of differently sized microarc oxidation coatings, applied to the bottom of pistons made with an Al-12Si-Mg-Cu-Ni alloy, on its thermal properties by simulating the operation of a real engine. This study is based on the premise that the alumina coating thickness affects the heat transfer and temperature distribution in the piston. The analysis of thermal properties of pistons and suggestions for the optimal thermal barrier coating thickness are presented.

  9. Studies on Enhancing Transverse Thermal Conductivity Carbon/Carbon Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manocha, Lalit M; Manocha, Satish M; Roy, Ajit


    The structure derived potential properties of Graphite such as high stiffness coupled with high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion have been better achieved in Carbon fibers...

  10. Thermal degradation analysis of pongamia pinnata oil as alternative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper the feasibility of non-edible pongamia pinnata oil (PPO) as an alternative liquid dielectric which can be used in distribution transformers is examined. Hence, electrical, physical and chemical properties have been measured for thermally aged (with and without catalytic added) pongamia pinnata oil (PPO) and ...

  11. Microstructural analysis of thermal fatigue damage in 316L pipes


    Gonzalez Sanchez, Sergio; Ruiz, Ana; Nilsson, Karl-Fredrik


    This report summarizes the data and main conclusions derived from microstructural characterisation of 316L pipes subjected to thermal fatigue with a peak temperature of 550°C. TOFD measurements are compared with measured crack depths from cut segments, and fracture mode and corrosion have been assessed by SEM and EDX, respectively.

  12. Analysis Of Electrical – Thermal Coupling Of Induction Machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interaction of the Electrical and mechanical parts of Electrical machines gives rise to the heating of the machine's constituent parts. This consequently leads to an increase in temperature which if not properly monitored may lead to the breakdown of the machine. This paper therefore presents the Electrical and thermal ...

  13. Analysis of Nigeria research reactor-1 thermal power calibration methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbo, Sunday Arome; Ahmed, Yusuf Aminu; Ewa, Ita Okon; Jibrin, Yahaya [Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)


    This paper analyzes the accuracy of the methods used in calibrating the thermal power of Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1), a low-power miniature neutron source reactor located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The calibration was performed at three different power levels: low power (3.6 kW), half power (15 kW), and full power (30 kW). Two methods were used in the calibration, namely, slope and heat balance methods. The thermal power obtained by the heat balance method at low power, half power, and full power was 3.7 ± 0.2 kW, 15.2 ± 1.2 kW, and 30.7 ± 2.5 kW, respectively. The thermal power obtained by the slope method at half power and full power was 15.8 ± 0.7 kW and 30.2 ± 1.5 kW, respectively. It was observed that the slope method is more accurate with deviations of 4% and 5% for calibrations at half and full power, respectively, although the linear fit (slope method) on average temperature-rising rates during the thermal power calibration procedure at low power (3.6 kW) is not fitting. As such, the slope method of power calibration is not suitable at lower power for NIRR-1.

  14. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis of potassium bicarbonate contaminated cellulose (United States)

    A. Broido


    When samples undergo a complicated set of simultaneous and sequential reactions, as cellulose does on heating, results of thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses are difficult to interpret. Nevertheless, careful comparison of pure and contaminated samples, pyrolyzed under identical conditions, can yield useful information. In these experiments TGA and DTA...

  15. Statistical analysis of thermal conductivity of nanofluid containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TEM image confirmed that the ends of MWCNTs were opened during their oxidation of them in HNO3 and TiO2 nanoparticles successfully attach to the outer surface of oxidized MWCNTs. Thermal conductivity measurements of nanofluids were analysed via two-factor completely randomized design and comparison of data ...

  16. Thermal degradation analysis of pongamia pinnata oil as alternative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Mariprasath

    Abstract. In this paper the feasibility of non-edible pongamia pinnata oil (PPO) as an alternative liquid dielectric which can be used in distribution transformers is examined. Hence, electrical, physical and chemical properties have been measured for thermally aged (with and without catalytic added) pongamia pinnata oil.

  17. Life cycle analysis of underground thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomasetta, Camilla; van Ree, Derk; Griffioen, Jasper


    Underground Thermal Energy Storage (UTES) systems are used to buffer the seasonal difference between heat and cold supply and demand and, therefore, represent an interesting option to conserve energy. Even though UTES are considered environmental friendly solutions they are not completely free of

  18. Analysis of Non-contact Acousto Thermal Signature Data (Postprint) (United States)


    experimental setup to quantify the thermal response consisted of an ultrasonic horn operating at 20 kHz, an IR camera, a flat specimen, and a servo...μm. To increase the emissivity , the specimen was painted black in the region of interest on the side of the specimen facing the IR camera. Data

  19. ANSYS workbench tutorial release 14 structural & thermal analysis using the ANSYS workbench release 14 environment

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Kent L


    The exercises in ANSYS Workbench Tutorial Release 14 introduce you to effective engineering problem solving through the use of this powerful modeling, simulation and optimization software suite. Topics that are covered include solid modeling, stress analysis, conduction/convection heat transfer, thermal stress, vibration, elastic buckling and geometric/material nonlinearities. It is designed for practicing and student engineers alike and is suitable for use with an organized course of instruction or for self-study. The compact presentation includes just over 100 end-of-chapter problems covering all aspects of the tutorials.

  20. Thermal conductivity analysis of SiC ceramics and fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeon-Geun, E-mail: [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daejong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jae [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel, 242, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon-Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Thermal conductivity of SiC ceramics and FCM pellets was measured and discussed. • Thermal conductivity of FCM pellets was analyzed by the Maxwell-Eucken equation. • Effective thermal conductivity of TRISO particles applied in this study was assumed. - Abstract: The thermal conductivity of SiC ceramics and FCM fuel composites, consisting of a SiC matrix and TRISO coated particles, was measured and analyzed. SiC ceramics and FCM pellets were fabricated by hot press sintering with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sintering additives. Several factors that influence thermal conductivity, specifically the content of sintering additives for SiC ceramics and the volume fraction of TRISO particles and the matrix thermal conductivity of FCM pellets, were investigated. The thermal conductivity values of samples were analyzed on the basis of their microstructure and the arrangement of TRISO particles. The thermal conductivity of the FCM pellets was compared to that predicted by the Maxwell-Eucken equation and the thermal conductivity of TRISO coated particles was calculated. The thermal conductivity of FCM pellets in various sintering conditions was in close agreement to that predicted by the Maxwell-Eucken equation with the fitted thermal conductivity value of TRISO particles.