WorldWideScience

Sample records for therapy potential problems

  1. Music technology in music therapy - A study of the possibilities, potential and problems around the use of music technologies in music therapy with youths and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Misje, René

    2013-01-01

    Music technology in music therapy - A study of the possibilities, potential and problems around the use of music technologies in music therapy with youths and adolescents. This qualitative study explores the usefulness of music technology in music therapeutic practice with youth and adolescents. Four music therapist`s reflections on their use of music technologies and on the possibilities, potential and problems of this use are explored through semi-structured intervi...

  2. Is it time to act? The potential of acceptance and commitment therapy for psychological problems following acquired brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Maria; McDonald, Skye

    2011-01-01

    Behaviour therapies have a well-established, useful tradition in psychological treatments and have undergone several major revisions. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and mindfulness-based approaches are considered a third wave of behavioural therapies. Emerging evidence for ACT has demonstrated that this paradigm has promising effectiveness in improving functionality and well-being in a variety of populations that have psychological disturbances and/or medical problems. In this review we first evaluate traditional cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions used to manage psychological problems in distressed individuals who have sustained an acquired brain injury (ABI). We provide an overview of the ACT paradigm and the existent evidence base for this intervention. A rationale is outlined for why ACT-based interventions may have potential utility in assisting distressed individuals who have sustained a mild to moderate ABI to move forward with their lives. We also review emerging evidence that lends preliminary support to the implementation of acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions in the rehabilitation of ABI patient groups. On the basis of existent literature, we recommend that it is an opportune time for forthcoming research to rigorously test the efficacy of ACT-based interventions in facilitating ABI patient groups to re-engage in living a valued and meaningful life, in spite of their neurocognitive and physical limitations. The promising utility of testing the efficacy of the ACT paradigm in the context of multimodal rehabilitation programmes for ABI populations is also addressed. PMID:21246445

  3. Inverse logarithmic potential problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cherednichenko, V G

    1996-01-01

    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  4. Potential Theory Surveys and Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    The volume comprises eleven survey papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference in Prague in July 1987, which covered various facets of potential theory, including its applications in other areas. The survey papers deal with both classical and abstract potential theory and its relations to partial differential equations, stochastic processes and other branches such as numerical analysis and topology. A collection of problems from potential theory, compiled on the occasion of the conference, is included, with additional commentaries, in the second part of this volume.

  5. Evaluation of drug therapy problems among renal patients receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Drug therapy problems among renal patients were high. Inappropriate drug selection and drug interactions were the commonest drug therapy problems. The acceptance of pharmacists' interventions by prescribers was appreciable. Keywords: Drug therapy problems, Renal patients, Therapy, Intervention, ...

  6. Can nanotechnology potentiate photodynamic therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K; Dai, Tianhong; Chung, Hoon; Yaroslavsky, Anastasia; Garcia-Diaz, Maria; Chang, Julie; Chiang, Long Y; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses the combination of non-toxic dyes and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species that can kill cancer cells and infectious microorganisms. Due to the tendency of most photosensitizers (PS) to be poorly soluble and to form nonphotoactive aggregates, drug-delivery vehicles have become of high importance. The nanotechnology revolution has provided many examples of nanoscale drug-delivery platforms that have been applied to PDT. These include liposomes, lipoplexes, nanoemulsions, micelles, polymer nanoparticles (degradable and nondegradable), and silica nanoparticles. In some cases (fullerenes and quantum dots), the actual nanoparticle itself is the PS. Targeting ligands such as antibodies and peptides can be used to increase specificity. Gold and silver nanoparticles can provide plasmonic enhancement of PDT. Two-photon excitation or optical upconversion can be used instead of one-photon excitation to increase tissue penetration at longer wavelengths. Finally, after sections on in vivo studies and nanotoxicology, we attempt to answer the title question, "can nano-technology potentiate PDT?"

  7. Couples' Reports of Relationship Problems in a Naturalistic Therapy Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Marie-Michele; Wright, John; Tremblay, Nadine; McDuff, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Understanding couples' relationship problems is fundamental to couple therapy. Although research has documented common relationship problems, no study has used open-ended questions to explore problems in couples seeking therapy in naturalistic settings. The present study used a reliable coding system to explore the relationship problems reported…

  8. Canonical problems in scattering and potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vinogradov, SS; Vinogradova, ED

    2002-01-01

    Although the analysis of scattering for closed bodies of simple geometric shape is well developed, structures with edges, cavities, or inclusions have seemed, until now, intractable to analytical methods. This two-volume set describes a breakthrough in analytical techniques for accurately determining diffraction from classes of canonical scatterers with comprising edges and other complex cavity features. It is an authoritative account of mathematical developments over the last two decades that provides benchmarks against which solutions obtained by numerical methods can be verified.The first volume, Canonical Structures in Potential Theory, develops the mathematics, solving mixed boundary potential problems for structures with cavities and edges. The second volume, Acoustic and Electromagnetic Diffraction by Canonical Structures, examines the diffraction of acoustic and electromagnetic waves from several classes of open structures with edges or cavities. Together these volumes present an authoritative and uni...

  9. Canonical problems in scattering and potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vinogradov, SS; Vinogradova, ED

    2001-01-01

    Although the analysis of scattering for closed bodies of simple geometric shape is well developed, structures with edges, cavities, or inclusions have seemed, until now, intractable to analytical methods. This two-volume set describes a breakthrough in analytical techniques for accurately determining diffraction from classes of canonical scatterers with comprising edges and other complex cavity features. It is an authoritative account of mathematical developments over the last two decades that provides benchmarks against which solutions obtained by numerical methods can be verified.The first volume, Canonical Structures in Potential Theory, develops the mathematics, solving mixed boundary potential problems for structures with cavities and edges. The second volume, Acoustic and Electromagnetic Diffraction by Canonical Structures, examines the diffraction of acoustic and electromagnetic waves from several classes of open structures with edges or cavities. Together these volumes present an authoritative and uni...

  10. Potential Therapeutic Modalities in Cancer Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithvi Sinha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In spite of huge concerted efforts, the treatment of cancer, a disease frequently associated with genetic alterations caused due to hereditary or environmental factors, remains a challenge. The last few years have witnessed emergence of several innovative and effective modalities for the treatment of solid tumours and hematological malignancies. Gene therapy has shown enormous potential for cancer treatment, especially for metastatic cancers which unlike localized solid tumours, may not be amenable to surgery or other treatment options. Gene therapy aims to introduce a correct copy of the malfunctioning gene in the tumour environment by using viral or non-viral methods to impede or inhibit its growth. This review provides an overview of three main approaches for cancer gene therapy namely immunotherapy, oncolytic therapy and gene transfer therapy. Immunotherapy augments the host immune system in order to destroy cancer cells while oncolytic therapy uses genetically engineered viruses such as to effectively kill cancer cells. Clinical studies so far have shown that cells can be engineered to express gene products that can specifically target cancer cells and prevents their growth and metastasis. Though gene therapy for cancer is yet to see extensive clinical use, it is likely that in combination with other treatment modalities, it will help in controlling and possibly curing cancer in the near future.

  11. Drug Therapy Problems in Patients on Antihypertensives and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug therapy problems (DTPs), with the associated risks inherent in antihypertensive and antidiabetic therapy require utmost attention. This present study was aimed at assessing the DTPs observed in the management of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) in two tertiary health facilities in Niger Delta region. In this ...

  12. Interactive Drawing Therapy and Chinese Migrants with Gambling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Everts, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic Chinese migrants in a country like New Zealand face a range of well-documented challenges. A proportion of such migrants find that recreational gambling turns into a pernicious gambling problem. This issue is addressed through illustrated case studies of Interactive Drawing Therapy, a drawing-based modality of therapy that facilitates…

  13. Ambition-Limited, Problem-Focused Brief Marital Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Presents atheoretical short-term marital therapy model in which treatment is limited to six to eight sessions and focuses on special problems raised by couple and on couple's capacity to react positively to clinical suggestions. Describes highlights of therapy model: homework assignments, negotiation of conflict issues, communication training, and…

  14. Problem Solving and Behavior Therapy Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezu, Arthur M.

    2004-01-01

    Over three decades ago, D'Zurilla and Goldfried (1971) published a seminal article delineating a model of problem-solving training geared to enhance social competence and decrease psychological distress. Since that time, a substantial amount of research has been conducted to test various hypotheses that this model has engendered. Much of this…

  15. Comparing Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Problem Solving Therapy, and Treatment as Usual in a High Risk Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Carment D.; Quinn, Andrea; Plever, Sally; Emmerson, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), problem-solving therapy (PST), or treatment as usual (TAU) were compared in the management of suicide attempters. Participants completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Social Problem-Solving Inventory, and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire at pre- and posttreatment. Both CBT and PST…

  16. Problems with and pitfalls of photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, G A; Kazi, A A; Unal, M; Khoobehi, B; Yoneya, S; Mori, K; Moshfeghi, D M

    2000-01-01

    To delineate the various factors that may influence the outcome of photodynamic therapy of the retina and choroid. Experimental animal study. Pigmented and nonpigmented rabbits; rhesus monkeys. The hydrophilic photosensitizer, mono-L-aspartyl chlorin e6, which is maximally activated at 664 nm, was studied after intravenous injection into pigmented and nonpigmented rabbits and rhesus monkeys. Laser light was supplied by a red diode laser coupled to a modified slit-lamp biomicroscope and delivered to the ocular fundus after passing through a standard fundus contact lens. Standard photodynamic parameters were used. The effects of fundus pigmentation, intraocular pressure, spot focus and defocus, region of fundus treated, equivalent fluence, and retreatment were observed in the different animal species. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography, light and transmission electron microscopy. Fundus pigmentation appeared to be a factor only at the lowest fluence level tested, where only 4 of 12 lesions attempted in pigmented fundi were noted on fluorescein angiography, compared with 12 of 12 lesions in albino rabbits. At normal intraocular pressures and a given fluence, 10 of 10 lesions were fully manifested on fluorescein angiography, compared with 4 of 10 at 30 mmHg and 0 of 10 at pressures sufficient to blanch the optic nerve (>60 mmHg). For laser spots either focused or defocused, there were 6 of 6 lesions that were fully manifested on fluorescein angiography for each of the parameters. Lesions treated in the fovea resulted in larger spots on fluorescein angiography. The fluence of 5 mW for 10 seconds resulted in a larger lesion on angiography than the equivalent fluence of 10 mW for 5 seconds. Areas of retreatment in rabbits demonstrated more thinning of the neurosensory retina and loss of photoreceptor outer segments and nuclei than corresponding areas receiving one treatment. Photodynamic therapy results varied, depending on intraocular pressure, region of

  17. Food irradiation: current problems and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilcast, D. [Food Research Association, Leatherhead (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Food irradiation is one of a set of processing technologies that can be used to increase the microbiological safety and shelf-life of a wide range of foods. Ionizing radiation is used to generate highly active chemical species within the food, which react with DNA. Under normal usage conditions, the food receives a pasteurizing treatment that gives a valuable reduction in common food-spoilage organisms and food pathogens. This review describes how the process is used in practice, including the benefits and limitations. The nature of changes to food components are outlined, together with the development of practical detection methods that utilize these changes. The legislative position of food irradiation is outlined, with the specific example of the introduction of the technology within the UK. The reasons for the slow uptake in the use of the technology are discussed, and the problem of consumer acceptance is addressed. (author).

  18. Potential problems will drillstring safety valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    In the paper titled ``New generation drill string safety valves,`` presented at the IADC Well Control Conference for Europe, Aberdeen, May 22--24, 1996, documented limitations of presently available drillstring safety valves commonly used as kelly valves and stabbing valves were presented, and industry efforts to develop solutions to these problems were described. Authors of the paper are B.A. Tarr and R.A. Sukup (Mobil E and P Technology Center, Dallas), Dr. R. Luy (ITE, Clausthal, Germany), G. Rabby (Hi-Kalibre, Edmonton, Alberta) and J. Mertsch (ITAG, Celle, Germany). In 1995, the Task Group developed a draft of a new spec, and a DSSV testing program was initiated as a joint industry project, with the Gas Research Institute (GRI) as the major sponsor. Two manufacturers, Hi-Kalibre and ITAG, agreed to build new valves for the testing program. Hi-Kalibre, Edmonton, Alberta, supplied an already-commercial twin floating ball valve for November 1995 testing. This product is being used by Tesco in its portable top drive system. ITAG of Germany supplied a radically improved DSSV design, which was tested in December, and was to be retested in May following modifications.

  19. Cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosomatic problems in dental settings

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Chiba, Itsuo; Sakano, Yuji; Toyofuku, Akira; Abiko, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been applied for various problems, including psychiatric diseases such as depression and anxiety, and for physical symptoms such as pain. It has also been applied for dental problems. Although the effect of CBTs on temporomandibular disorders and dental anxiety are well documented, its effectiveness on other types of oral symptoms remain unclear. Little information comparing the different types of CBTs in the dental setting is currently available. Becaus...

  20. Evaluation of drug therapy problems among renal patients receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of drug therapy problems (DTPs), identify the types of DTPs and assess outcomes of DTP interventions among renal patients receiving care in three Nigerian tertiary hospitals. Methods: This prospective descriptive study was conducted in nephrology units of three tertiary hospitals in ...

  1. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Problem Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifert, Georg H.; Forsyth, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to familiarize clinicians with the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for problem anger by describing the application of ACT to a case of a 45-year-old man struggling with anger. ACT is an approach and set of intervention technologies that support acceptance and mindfulness processes linked with commitment and…

  2. Pancreatic cancer vaccine: a unique potential therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappello P

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paola Cappello, Moitza Principe, Francesco Novelli Department of Molecular Biotechnologies and Health Sciences, Center for Experimental Research and Medical Studies, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA is a lethal disease and is one of the cancers that is most resistant to traditional therapies. Historically, neither chemotherapy nor radiotherapy has provided any significant increase in the survival of patients with PDA. Despite intensive efforts, any attempts to improve the survival in the past 15 years have failed. This holds true even after the introduction of molecularly targeted agents, chosen on the basis of their involvement in pathways that are considered to be important in PDA development and progression. Recently, however, FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin treatment has provided a limited survival advantage in patients with advanced PDA. Therefore, effective therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve the survival rate of patients with PDA. Results from the last 10 years of research in the field of PDA have helped to identify new immunological targets and develop new vaccines that are capable of stimulating an immune response. In addition, the information obtained about the role of the tumor microenvironment in suppressing the immune response and the possibility of targeting PDA microenvironment to limit immune suppression and enhance the response of effector T-cells has opened new avenues for treating this incurable disease. The time is ripe for developing new therapeutic approaches that are able to effectively counteract the progression and spreading of PDA. This review discusses the potential prospects in the care of patients with pancreatic cancer through vaccination and its combination therapy with surgery, chemotherapy, targeting of the tumor microenvironment, and inhibition of immunological

  3. Characteristics of Problem Drinkers in E-therapy versus Face-to-Face Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postel, M.G.; Haan, H.A. de; Huurne, E.D. ter; Becker, E.S.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    Background: The availability of online treatment programs offers the potential to reach more problem drinkers. This study compared the client populations of an e-therapy program (asynchronous client–therapist communication via the Internet) and a face-to-face treatment program. Objective: To

  4. Characteristics of problem drinkers in e-therapy versus face-to-face treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postel, M.G.; Haan, H.A. de; Huurne, E.D. Ter; Becker, E.S.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of online treatment programs offers the potential to reach more problem drinkers. This study compared the client populations of an e-therapy program (asynchronous client-therapist communication via the Internet) and a face-to-face treatment program. OBJECTIVE: To

  5. Potential for heavy particle radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.; Phillips, T.L.

    1977-03-01

    Radiation therapy remains one of the major forms of cancer treatment. When x rays are used in radiotherapy, there are large variations in radiation sensitivity among tumors because of the possible differences in the presence of hypoxic but viable tumor cells, differences in reoxygenation during treatment, differences in distribution of the tumor cells in their cell cycle, and differences in repair of sublethal damage. When high-LET particles are used, depending upon the LET distribution, these differences are reduced considerably. Because of these differences between x rays and high-LET particle effects, the high-LET particles may be more effective on tumor cells for a given effect on normal cells. Heavy particles have potential application in improving radiotherapy because of improved dose localization and possible advantages of high-LET particles due to their radiobiological characteristics. Protons, because of their defined range, Bragg peak, and small effects of scattering, have good dose localization characteristics. The use of protons in radiotherapy minimizes the morbidity of radiotherapy treatment and is very effective in treating deep tumors located near vital structures. Fast neutrons have no physical advantages over /sup 60/Co gamma rays but, because of their high-LET component, could be very effective in treating tumors that are resistant to conventional radiations. Negative pions and heavy ions combine some of the advantages of protons and fast neutrons.

  6. 10. Utilization of Narrative Approach in Art Therapy in Children with Behavioural Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutyrová Miluše

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the possibilities of applying narrative approach in art therapy context and focuses on the situation of problems in social and cultural contexts, the development of alternative stories, and externalization as one of the basic techniques of narrative therapy. Along with looking for dominant, alternative and preferred stories, externalization develops potential for therapeutic and education intervention in individuals of various target groups. The article focuses, in particular, on children exhibiting problematic behaviour and disordered behaviour. The objective is to find the points interconnecting narrative therapy and art therapy in the creative potential and artistic anchorage, which, along with expression, embody a challenge of new opportunities to find new ways, methods and approaches.

  7. Cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosomatic problems in dental settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Chiba, Itsuo; Sakano, Yuji; Toyofuku, Akira; Abiko, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been applied for various problems, including psychiatric diseases such as depression and anxiety, and for physical symptoms such as pain. It has also been applied for dental problems. Although the effect of CBTs on temporomandibular disorders and dental anxiety are well documented, its effectiveness on other types of oral symptoms remain unclear. Little information comparing the different types of CBTs in the dental setting is currently available. Because dental professionals are often expected to conduct CBTs in the dental setting, it is important to develop proper training programs for dental professionals. In this review article, we demonstrate and discuss the application of CBTs for psychosomatic problems, including temporomandibular disorders, dental anxiety, burning mouth syndrome, and other oral complaints in dental settings.

  8. Electrolyte imbalance and sleep problems during anti-retroviral therapy: an under-recognized problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Dilshad Manzar

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and the anti-retroviral therapy (ART associated complications necessitate that the medical care system keeps evolving for proper management of this group of patients. Electrolyte imbalance and sleep problems are common in patients on ART. Both of these conditions are associated with increased morbidity (such as acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, low CD4 count, non-adherence and depression and mortality. Therefore, screening for both sleep problems and electrolytes imbalance may help to decrease the risk of complications in patients on ART.

  9. Electrolyte imbalance and sleep problems during anti-retroviral therapy: an under-recognized problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzar, Md Dilshad; Sony, Peter; Salahuddin, Mohammed; Kumalo, Abera; Geneto, Mathewos; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Moscovitch, Adam; BaHammam, Ahmed S

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) associated complications necessitate that the medical care system keeps evolving for proper management of this group of patients. Electrolyte imbalance and sleep problems are common in patients on ART. Both of these conditions are associated with increased morbidity (such as acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, low CD4 count, non-adherence and depression) and mortality. Therefore, screening for both sleep problems and electrolytes imbalance may help to decrease the risk of complications in patients on ART.

  10. Stability analysis of the inverse transmembrane potential problem in electrocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martin; Mardal, Kent-André; Nielsen, Bjørn Fredrik

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we study some mathematical properties of an inverse problem arising in connection with electrocardiograms (ECGs). More specifically, we analyze the possibility for recovering the transmembrane potential in the heart from ECG recordings, a challenge currently investigated by a growing number of groups. Our approach is based on the bidomain model for the electrical activity in the myocardium, and leads to a parameter identification problem for elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). It turns out that this challenge can be split into two subproblems: the task of recovering the potential at the heart surface from body surface recordings; the problem of computing the transmembrane potential inside the heart from the potential determined at the heart surface. Problem (1), which can be formulated as the Cauchy problem for an elliptic PDE, has been extensively studied and is well known to be severely ill-posed. The main purpose of this paper is to prove that problem (2) is stable and well posed if a suitable prior is available. Moreover, our theoretical findings are illuminated by a series of numerical experiments. Finally, we discuss some aspects of uniqueness related to the anisotropy in the heart.

  11. Bioactive glasses potential biomaterials for future therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Gurbinder

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the history, origin and basic characteristics of bioactive materials. It includes a chapter dedicated to hydroxyapatite mineral, its formation and its bioactive properties. The authors address how cytotoxicity is a determining step for bioactivity. Applications of bioactive materials in the contexts of tissue regeneration, bone regeneration and cancer therapy are also covered. Silicate, metallic and mesoporous glasses are described, as well as the challenges and future prospects of research in this field.

  12. Students' Conceptual Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics: Potential Well Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Ozgur; Didis, Nilufer; Tasar, Mehmet Fatih

    2009-01-01

    In this study, students' conceptual difficulties about some basic concepts in quantum mechanics like one-dimensional potential well problems and probability density of tunneling particles were identified. For this aim, a multiple choice instrument named Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Test has been developed by one of the researchers of this study…

  13. Source localization in electromyography using the inverse potential problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Doel, Kees; Ascher, Uri M.; Pai, Dinesh K.

    2011-02-01

    We describe an efficient method for reconstructing the activity in human muscles from an array of voltage sensors on the skin surface. MRI is used to obtain morphometric data which are segmented into muscle tissue, fat, bone and skin, from which a finite element model for volume conduction is constructed. The inverse problem of finding the current sources in the muscles is solved using a careful regularization technique which adds a priori information, yielding physically reasonable solutions from among those that satisfy the basic potential problem. Several regularization functionals are considered and numerical experiments on a 2D test model are performed to determine which performs best. The resulting scheme leads to numerical difficulties when applied to large-scale 3D problems. We clarify the nature of these difficulties and provide a method to overcome them, which is shown to perform well in the large-scale problem setting.

  14. Living With Prophylactic ICD Therapy and the Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death: How Patients Negotiate Solutions and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grew, Julie Christina

    2017-12-01

    Prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy treats potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmias in patients who have not previously experienced such but are at considerable risk due to underlying heart disease. Most patients are unaware of their risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) until the ICD is introduced to them. Thus, the problem of risk of death and the solution of ICD therapy are presented simultaneously. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Danish hospitals, this article illustrates how clinicians narrate prophylactic ICD therapy as a benign therapy preventing risk of death and providing the good life. However, risk of SCD is not the most pressing problem for the patients. The article argues that the solution of ICD therapy ignores patients' experience of living with severe heart disease and introduces the risk of shock therapy. For patients, a good life does not equal absence of risk of death but a life without heart disease.

  15. Photodynamic therapy potentiates the paracrine endothelial stimulation by colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, María Julia; Florencia Pansa, María; Emanuel Vera, Renzo; Belén Rumie Vittar, Natalia; Rivarola, Viviana Alicia

    2014-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Recurrence is a major problem and is often the ultimate cause of death. In this context, the tumor microenvironment influences tumor progression and is considered as a new essential feature that clearly impacts on treatment outcome, and must therefore be taken into consideration. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), oxygen, light and drug-dependent, is a novel treatment modality when CRC patients are inoperable. Tumor vasculature and parenchyma cells are both potential targets of PDT damage modulating tumor-stroma interactions. In biological activity assessment in photodynamic research, three-dimensional (3D) cultures are essential to integrate biomechanical, biochemical, and biophysical properties that better predict the outcome of oxygen- and drug-dependent medical therapies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect of methyl 5-aminolevulinic acid-PDT using a light emitting diode for the treatment of CRC cells in a scenario that mimics targeted tissue complexity, providing a potential bridge for the gap between 2D cultures and animal models. Since photodynamic intervention of the tumor microenvironment can effectively modulate the tumor-stroma interaction, it was proposed to characterize the endothelial response to CRC paracrine communication, if one of these two populations is photosensitized. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the dialogue between endothelial and tumor populations when subjected to lethal PDT conditions induces an increase in angiogenic phenotype, and we think that it should be carefully considered for the development of PDT therapeutic protocols.

  16. Potential of Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany E. Marei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is one of the major health problems worldwide. The only FDA approved anti-thrombotic drug for acute ischemic stroke is the tissue plasminogen activator. Several studies have been devoted to assessing the therapeutic potential of different types of stem cells such as neural stem cells (NSCs, mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived NSCs as treatments for ischemic stroke. The results of these studies are intriguing but many of them have presented conflicting results. Additionally, the mechanism(s by which engrafted stem/progenitor cells exert their actions are to a large extent unknown. In this review, we will provide a synopsis of different preclinical and clinical studies related to the use of stem cell-based stroke therapy, and explore possible beneficial/detrimental outcomes associated with the use of different types of stem cells. Due to limited/short time window implemented in most of the recorded clinical trials about the use of stem cells as potential therapeutic intervention for stroke, further clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of the intervention in a longer time window after cellular engraftments are still needed.

  17. Potential Use of Ayahuasca in Grief Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Débora; Carvalho, María; Cantillo, Jordi; Aixalá, Marc; Farré, Magí

    2017-01-01

    The death of a loved one is ultimately a universal experience. However, conventional interventions employed for people suffering with uncomplicated grief have gathered little empirical support. The present study aimed to explore the potential effects of ayahuasca on grief. We compared 30 people who had taken ayahuasca with 30 people who had attended peer-support groups, measuring level of grief and experiential avoidance. We also examined themes in participant responses to an open-ended question regarding their experiences with ayahuasca. The ayahuasca group presented a lower level of grief in the Present Feelings Scale of Texas Revised Inventory of Grief, showing benefits in some psychological and interpersonal dimensions. Qualitative responses described experiences of emotional release, biographical memories, and experiences of contact with the deceased. Additionally, some benefits were identified regarding the ayahuasca experiences. These results provide preliminary data about the potential of ayahuasca as a therapeutic tool in treatments for grief.

  18. Evaluating potentialities and constrains of Problem Based Learning curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Aida

    2013-01-01

    encloses three methodological approaches to investigate three interrelated research questions. Phase one, a literature review; aims develop a theoretical and analytical framework. The second phase aims to investigate examples of practices that combine PBL and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD......This paper presents a research design to evaluate Problem Based Learning (PBL) curriculum potentialities and constrains for future changes. PBL literature lacks examples of how to evaluate and analyse established PBL learning environments to address new challenges posed. The research design...

  19. How wilderness therapy works: an examination of the wilderness therapy process to treat adolescents with behavioral problems and addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith C. Russell; John C. Hendee; Dianne Phillips-Miller

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes findings from a detailed study of the processes employed by four leading wilderness therapy programs focusing on how wilderness therapy works, the kinds of behavioral problems to which it is commonly applied, expected outcomes and the role of wilderness in the intervention and treatment process (Russell, 1999). Wilderness therapy is an emerging...

  20. Alcohol use potentiates marijuana problem severity in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael D; Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    Most young adult women who smoke marijuana also drink alcohol. Marijuana-related problems are associated with marijuana use frequency. We hypothesized that increased alcohol use frequency potentiates the association between frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problem severity. We recruited women aged 18 to 24 who smoked marijuana at least monthly and were not treatment seeking. Marijuana and alcohol use were measured using the timeline follow-back method. Problems associated with marijuana use were assessed using the Marijuana Problems Scale. Participants (n = 332) averaged 20.5 ± 1.8 years of age, were 66.7% non-Hispanic White, and reported using marijuana on 51.5 ± 30.6 and alcohol on 18.9 ± 16.8 of the 90 previous days. Controlling for education, ethnicity, years of marijuana use, and other drug use, frequency of marijuana use (b = .22; p < .01) and frequency of alcohol use (b = 0.13; p < .05) had significant, positive effects on marijuana problem severity. In a separate multivariate model, the linear by linear interaction of marijuana by alcohol use frequency was significant (b = 0.18; p < .01), consistent with the hypothesis. Concurrent alcohol use impacts the experience of negative consequences from marijuana use in a community sample of young women. Discussions of marijuana use in young adults should consider the possible potentiating effects of alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of light therapy on sleep problems : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, A.; Meijer, A.M.; van der Heijden, K.B.; Oort, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Although bright light therapy seems a promising treatment for sleep problems, research shows inconclusive results. This meta-analysis is the first to systematically review the effect of light therapy on sleep problems in general and on specific types of sleep problems in particular (circadian rhythm

  2. Randomized Controlled Trial of Problem-Solving Therapy for Minor Depression in Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, Zvi D.; McGinty, Jean; Tierney, Lynda; Jordan, Cindy; Burton, Jean; Misener, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Data are presented from a pilot research program initiated to develop, refine, and test the outcomes of problem-solving therapy that targets the needs of older adults with minor depression in home care settings. Method: A pilot randomized clinical trial compares the impact of problem-solving therapy for home care to treatment as usual…

  3. High Density Electroencephalography in Sleep Research: Potential, Problems, Future Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Huber, Reto

    2012-01-01

    High density EEG (hdEEG) during sleep combines the superior temporal resolution of EEG recordings with high spatial resolution. Thus, this method allows a topographical analysis of sleep EEG activity and thereby fosters the shift from a global view of sleep to a local one. HdEEG allowed to investigate sleep rhythms in terms of their characteristic behavior (e.g., the traveling of slow waves) and in terms of their relationship to cortical functioning (e.g., consciousness and cognitive abilities). Moreover, recent studies successfully demonstrated that hdEEG can be used to study brain functioning in neurological and neuro-developmental disorders, and to evaluate therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the potential, the problems, and future perspective of hdEEG in sleep research. PMID:22593753

  4. Digital image processing of bone - Problems and potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, E. R.; Wronski, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a digital image processing system for bone histomorphometry and fluorescent marker monitoring is discussed. The system in question is capable of making measurements of UV or light microscope features on a video screen with either video or computer-generated images, and comprises a microscope, low-light-level video camera, video digitizer and display terminal, color monitor, and PDP 11/34 computer. Capabilities demonstrated in the analysis of an undecalcified rat tibia include the measurement of perimeter and total bone area, and the generation of microscope images, false color images, digitized images and contoured images for further analysis. Software development will be based on an existing software library, specifically the mini-VICAR system developed at JPL. It is noted that the potentials of the system in terms of speed and reliability far exceed any problems associated with hardware and software development.

  5. A Novel Adaptive Algorithm Addresses Potential Problems of Blind Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid algorithm called constant modulus least mean square (CMLMS algorithm is proposed in order to address the potential problems existing with constant modulus algorithm (CMA about its convergence. It is a two-stage adaptive filtering algorithm and based on least mean square (LMS algorithm followed by CMA. A hybrid algorithm is theoretically developed and the same is verified through MatLab Software. Theoretical model is verified through simulation and its performance is evaluated in smart antenna in presence of a cochannel interfering signal and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN of zero mean. This is also tested in Rayleigh fading channel using digital modulation technique for Bit Error Rate (BER. Finally, a few computer simulations are presented in order to substantiate the theoretical findings with respect to proposed model. Corresponding results obtained with the use of only CMA and LMS algorithms are also presented for further comparison.

  6. Breakthrough therapies: Cystic fibrosis (CF) potentiators and correctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, George M; Marshall, Susan G; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Rowe, Steven M

    2015-10-01

    Cystic Fibrosis is caused by mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene resulting in abnormal protein function. Recent advances of targeted molecular therapies and high throughput screening have resulted in multiple drug therapies that target many important mutations in the CFTR protein. In this review, we provide the latest results and current progress of CFTR modulators for the treatment of cystic fibrosis, focusing on potentiators of CFTR channel gating and Phe508del processing correctors for the Phe508del CFTR mutation. Special emphasis is placed on the molecular basis underlying these new therapies and emerging results from the latest clinical trials. The future directions for augmenting the rescue of Phe508del with CFTR modulators are also emphasized. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Nanotechnology and stem cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases: potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Francesca, Saverio

    2012-01-01

    The use of stem cell therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases has generated significant interest in recent years. Limitations to the clinical application of this therapy center on issues of stem cell delivery, engraftment, and fate. Nanotechnology-based cell labeling and imaging techniques facilitate stem cell tracking and engraftment studies. Nanotechnology also brings exciting new opportunities to translational stem cell research as it enables the controlled engineering of nanoparticles and nanomaterials that can properly relate to the physical scale of cell-cell and cell-niche interactions. This review summarizes the most relevant potential applications of nanoscale technologies to the field of stem cell therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Potentials and problems in space applications of smart structures technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D. C.; Bashford, D. P.

    1994-09-01

    The well known addage 'don't run before you can walk emerging materials. It typically takes ten years before a material is sufficiently well characterized for commercial aerospace application. Much has to be learnt not only about the material properties and their susceptibility to the effects of their working environment but also about the manufacturing process and the most effective configuration related application. No project will accept a product which has no proven reliability and attractive cost effectiveness in its application. The writers firmly believe that smart structures and their related technologies must follow a similar development pattern. Indeed, faced with a range of interdisciplinary problems it seems likely that 'partially smart' techniques may well be the first applications. These will place emphasis on the more readily realizable features for any structural application. Prior use may well have been achieved in other engineering sectors. Because ground based applications are more readily accessible to check and maintain, these are generally the front runners of smart technology usage. Nevertheless, there is a strong potential for the use of smart techniques in space applications if their capabilities can be advantageously introduced when compared with traditional solutions. This paper endeavors to give a critical appraisal of the possibilities and the accompanying problems. A sample overview of related developing space technology is included. The reader is also referred to chapters 90 to 94 in ESA's Structural Materials Handbook (ESA PSS 03 203, issue 1.). It is envisaged that future space applications may include the realization and maintenance of large deployable reflector profiles, the dimensional stability of optical payloads, active noise and vibration control and in orbit health monitoring and control for largely unmanned spacecraft. The possibility of monitoring the health of items such as large cryogenic fuel tanks is a typical longer

  9. Gene therapy and editing: Novel potential treatments for neuronal channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, R C; Lignani, G

    2017-05-28

    Pharmaceutical treatment can be inadequate, non-effective, or intolerable for many people suffering from a neuronal channelopathy. Development of novel treatment options, particularly those with the potential to be curative is warranted. Gene therapy approaches can permit cell-specific modification of neuronal and circuit excitability and have been investigated experimentally as a therapy for numerous neurological disorders, with clinical trials for several neurodegenerative diseases ongoing. Channelopathies can arise from a wide array of gene mutations; however they usually result in periods of aberrant network excitability. Therefore gene therapy strategies based on up or downregulation of genes that modulate neuronal excitability may be effective therapy for a wide range of neuronal channelopathies. As many channelopathies are paroxysmal in nature, optogenetic or chemogenetic approaches may be well suited to treat the symptoms of these diseases. Recent advances in gene-editing technologies such as the CRISPR-Cas9 system could in the future result in entirely novel treatment for a channelopathy by repairing disease-causing channel mutations at the germline level. As the brain may develop and wire abnormally as a consequence of an inherited or de novo channelopathy, the choice of optimal gene therapy or gene editing strategy will depend on the time of intervention (germline, neonatal or adult). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Salmonella-mediated cancer therapy: Roles and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Vu Hong [Dept. of Experimental TherapeuticsBeckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte (United States); Min, Jung Joon [Dept. of Nuclear MedicineChonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The use of bacteria for cancer therapy, which was proposed many years ago, was not recognized as a potential therapeutic strategy until recently. Technological advances and updated knowledge have enabled the genetic engineering of bacteria for their safe and effective application in the treatment of cancer. The efficacy of radiotherapy depends mainly on tissue oxygen levels, and low oxygen concentrations in necrotic and hypoxic regions are a common cause of treatment failure. In addition, the distribution of a drug is important for the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy, and the poor vasculature in tumors impairs drug delivery, limiting the efficacy of a drug, especially in necrotic and hypoxic regions. Bacteria-mediated cancer therapy (BMCT) relies on facultative anaerobes that can survive in well or poorly oxygenated regions, and it therefore improves the therapeutic efficacy drug distribution throughout the tumor mass. Since the mid-1990s, the number of published bacterial therapy papers has increased rapidly, with a doubling time of 2.5 years in which the use of Salmonella increased significantly. BMCT is being reevaluated to overcome some of the drawbacks of conventional therapies. This review focuses on Salmonella-mediated cancer therapy as the most widely used type of BMCT.{sub 2}.

  11. Liposomal photosensitizers: potential platforms for anticancer photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Muehlmann

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy is a well-established and clinically approved treatment for several types of cancer. Antineoplastic photodynamic therapy is based on photosensitizers, i.e., drugs that absorb photons translating light energy into a chemical potential that damages tumor tissues. Despite the encouraging clinical results with the approved photosensitizers available today, the prolonged skin phototoxicity, poor selectivity for diseased tissues, hydrophobic nature, and extended retention in the host organism shown by these drugs have stimulated researchers to develop new formulations for photodynamic therapy. In this context, due to their amphiphilic characteristic (compatibility with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances, liposomes have proven to be suitable carriers for photosensitizers, improving the photophysical properties of the photosensitizers. Moreover, as nanostructured drug delivery systems, liposomes improve the efficiency and safety of antineoplastic photodynamic therapy, mainly by the classical phenomenon of extended permeation and retention. Therefore, the association of photosensitizers with liposomes has been extensively studied. In this review, both current knowledge and future perspectives on liposomal carriers for antineoplastic photodynamic therapy are critically discussed.

  12. Potentially Harmful Therapy and Multicultural Counseling: Bridging Two Disciplinary Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Dennis C.; Gone, Joseph P.; Nagata, Donna K.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years psychologists have been increasingly concerned about potentially harmful therapy, yet this recent discourse has not addressed issues that have long been voiced by the multicultural counseling and psychotherapy movement. We aim to begin to bring these seemingly disparate discourses of harm into greater conversation with one another, in the service of placing the discipline on a firmer foothold in its considerations of potentially harmful therapy. After reviewing the two discourses and exploring reasons for their divergence, we argue that they operate according to differing assumptions pertaining to the sources, objects, and scope of harm. We then argue that these differences reveal the discipline’s need to better appreciate that harm is a social construct, that psychotherapy may be inherently ethnocentric, and that strategies for collecting evidence of harm should be integrated with a social justice agenda. PMID:26339075

  13. Potential Mental Health Problems of South East Asian Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Maryann

    1980-01-01

    Reports on the findings of a workshop conducted to study the mental health problems of Southeast Asian refugees and to project possible future problems. Findings show the refugees' preconceived notions of America, their inability to communicate, and their feelings of alienation and homesickness underlie most of the emotional problems. (PJM)

  14. The Effectiveness of Art Therapy in Reducing Internalizing and Externalizing Problems of Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargan, Yasaman; Pakdaman, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    The internalizing and externalizing problems relating to childhood and adolescent have always been significant. Because there is special considerations in establishing communication with them and hence, the therapeutic methods for these problems must take into account these considerations. As establishing a therapeutic relationship is an important component of effective counseling, it seems that art therapy may help alleviate these problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of art therapy in reducing internalizing and externalizing problems of adolescent girls (14 - 18 years old). This is a semi-experimental study carried out in the form of a pre-test/post-test design with control group. The population of this study includes female students of Gole Laleh School of Art in district 3 of Tehran, Iran, out of which 30 students with internalizing problems and 30 individuals with externalizing problems were selected through targeted sampling. Students were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Experimental groups participated in 6 painting sessions designed based on Art therapy theories and previous studies. The material used for diagnosis of the problems in posttest and pretest was an Achenbach self-assessment form. Data were analyzed using a mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA). Our results showed that Art therapy significantly reduced internalizing problems (F = 17.61, P Art therapy as a practical therapeutic method can be used to improve internalizing problems. To reduce externalizing problems, more sessions may be needed. Thus, future studies are required to insure these findings.

  15. Pattern of drug therapy problems and interventions in ambulatory patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojeh VB

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We describe the frequency and types of drug therapy problems (DTPs, and interventions carried out to resolve them, among a cohort of HIV- infected patients on ART in Jos, Nigeria. Methods: A prospective pharmacists’ intervention study was conducted between January and August 2012 at the outpatient HIV clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH. Pharmacists identified DTPs and made recommendations to resolve them. The main outcome measures were number of DTPs encountered, interventions proposed and acceptance rate of recommendations. Results: A total of 42,416 prescriptions were dispensed to 9339 patients during the eight months study. A total of 420 interventions (Intervention rate of 1 per 100 prescriptions were made to resolve DTPs in 401 (4.3% patients with a mean age of 41 (SD=10 years, and made up of 73% females. DTPs encountered were drug omission (n=89, 21.2%, unnecessary drug (n=55, 13.1% and wrong drug indication (n=55, 13.1%. Recommendations offered included; Addition of another drug to the therapy (n=87, 20.7%, rectification of incomplete prescriptions (n=85, 20.2%, change of drug or dosage (n=67, 16.0%, and discontinuation of the offending drug (n=59, 14.0%. A total of 389 (93% out of 420 of the recommendations were accepted. In all, 50.4% (212 of the problematic prescriptions were changed and dispensed, 22.2% (89 were clarified and dispensed, while wrong identities were corrected in 11.7% (49. However, 7.5% (30 prescriptions were dispensed as prescribed, 5.2% (21 were not dispensed, and 3% (12 were unresolved. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that pharmacists-initiated interventions can ameliorate DTPs in patients receiving ART given the high intervention acceptance rate recorded. The implication of this finding is that pharmacists with requisite training in HIV pharmacotherapy are an excellent resource in detecting and minimizing the effect of antiretroviral drug-related errors.

  16. [Telematics in geriatrics--potentials, problems and application experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, S; Borchelt, M; Nieczaj, R; Trilhof, G; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E

    2000-06-01

    Modern telecommunication technology (telematics) has the potential to improve the quality of life for elders with physical and mental impairments as well as for their care giving relatives. Videophones, internet resources, and multimedia computers can be used for networking them together with social workers, nurse practitioners, physicians and therapeutic staff in service-centers. This can be viewed as a unique opportunity to establish and maintain instant and personalized access to various medical services in a situation where increasing needs are opposed to decreasing resources. However, it is not yet clear whether telematics is adequate, efficient, and effective in supporting care for geriatric patients. Some studies already showed its applicability and feasibility, but there are still no larger trials showing that maintenance or enhancement of autonomy can be achieved effectively by using new technologies. This article reviews the literature on telematics in geriatrics and presents data of a tele-rehabilitation project ("TeleReha", conducted at the Berlin Geriatric Center) which comprised mobility-impaired patients (N = 13, mean age 72 yrs), care giving relatives (N = 8), and geriatric professionals. Networking was established using ISDN technology with videophones or PC-based videoconferencing systems. Results showed that participants regard telecommunication devices as a valuable resource for their informational and communicational needs. Use of telecommunication systems was inversely related to physical mobility. Having access to professional service and counselling was rated highly important but also the opportunity to establish reliable contacts with non-professionals (relatives, other participants). Despite experienced technical problems, use of telecommunication systems was evaluated more positively in the post-test as compared to the pre-test. In summary, current experience suggests that telematics can be used efficiently by geriatric patients and by

  17. Complications of otitis media - a potentially lethal problem still present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penido, Norma de Oliveira; Chandrasekhar, Sujana Sreedevi; Borin, Andrei; Maranhão, André Souza de Albuquerque; Gurgel Testa, José Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    It is an erroneous but commonly held belief that intracranial complications (ICCs) of chronic and acute otitis media (COM and AOM) are past diseases or from developing countries. These problems remain, despite improvements in antibiotic care. This paper analyzes the occurrence and clinical characteristics and course of the main ICCs of otitis media (OM). Retrospective cohort study of 51 patients with ICCs from OM, drawn from all patients presenting with OM to the emergency room of a large inner-city tertiary care hospital over a 22-year period. 80% of cases were secondary to COM of which the incidence of ICC was 0.8%; 20% were due to AOM. The death occurrence was 7.8%, hearing loss in 90%, and permanent neurological sequelae in 29%. Patients were 61% male. In the majority, onset of ear disease had occurred during childhood. Delay of diagnosis of both the initial infection as well as the secondary ICC was significant. ICCs included brain abscess and meningitis in 78%, and lateral sinus thrombosis, empyema and otitic hydrocephalus in 13%, 8% and 1% of cases, respectively. Twenty-seven neurosurgical procedures and 43 otologic surgery procedures were performed. Two patients were too ill for surgical intervention. ICCs of OM, although uncommon, still occur. These cases require expensive, complex and long-term inpatient treatment and frequently result in hearing loss, neurological sequelae and mortality. It is important to be aware of this potentiality in children with COM, especially, and maintain a high index of suspicion in order to refer for otologic specialty care before such complications occur. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Complications of otitis media - a potentially lethal problem still present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma de Oliveira Penido

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: It is an erroneous but commonly held belief that intracranial complications (ICCs of chronic and acute otitis media (COM and AOM are past diseases or from developing countries. These problems remain, despite improvements in antibiotic care. OBJECTIVE: This paper analyzes the occurrence and clinical characteristics and course of the main ICCs of otitis media (OM. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 51 patients with ICCs from OM, drawn from all patients presenting with OM to the emergency room of a large inner-city tertiary care hospital over a 22-year period. RESULTS: 80% of cases were secondary to COM of which the incidence of ICC was 0.8%; 20% were due to AOM. The death occurrence was 7.8%, hearing loss in 90%, and permanent neurological sequelae in 29%. Patients were 61% male. In the majority, onset of ear disease had occurred during childhood. Delay of diagnosis of both the initial infection as well as the secondary ICC was significant. ICCs included brain abscess and meningitis in 78%, and lateral sinus thrombosis, empyema and otitic hydrocephalus in 13%, 8% and 1% of cases, respectively. Twenty-seven neurosurgical procedures and 43 otologic surgery procedures were performed. Two patients were too ill for surgical intervention. CONCLUSION: ICCs of OM, although uncommon, still occur. These cases require expensive, complex and long-term inpatient treatment and frequently result in hearing loss, neurological sequelae and mortality. It is important to be aware of this potentiality in children with COM, especially, and maintain a high index of suspicion in order to refer for otologic specialty care before such complications occur.

  19. Psycho-social approach of the couple. Approaches from the communication therapy and the problem-soving therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Wainstein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Couple therapy is a specific practice within interpersonal relationship Psychology. Although limitations of its results must be admitted, it has demonstrated its effectiveness on an empiric way. In this article there is a short description of the concept of couple and the common problems they have. We present the couple as a social institution, in which a particular diadic relationship is established with regard to the exchange of thoughts, affection and things such as assets, the body of its members, their power relationships, their ideas about reality, their interpersonal communication, love and the capacity to problem solving, as a way out of conflicts that can emerge in their living together. We describe the contributions of communication theory and problem-solving therapy to couple therapy

  20. Parent-Child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle E; Junger, Marianne; Chavannes, E. Lidewei; Coelman, Frederique J. G; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L

    2012-01-01

    ... and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems...

  1. Parent-child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle; Junger, Marianne; Chavannes, E.L; Coelman, F.J.G; de Boer, F; Lindauer, R.J

    2012-01-01

    ... and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems...

  2. Parent-child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle E; Junger, Marianne; Chavannes, E Lidewei; Coelman, Frederique J G; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2012-01-01

    ... and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems...

  3. Potential of Epigenetic Therapies in Non-cancerous Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eYung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been an explosion of knowledge in the epigenetics field in the past 20 years. The first epigenetic therapies have arrived in the clinic for cancer treatments. In contrast, much of the promise of epigenetic therapies for non-cancerous conditions remains in the laboratories. The current review will focus on the recent progress that has been made in understanding the pathogenic role of epigenetics in immune and inflammatory conditions, and how the knowledge may provide much needed new therapeutic targets for many autoimmune diseases. Dietary factors are increasingly recognized as potential modifiers of epigenetic marks that can influence health and diseases across generations. The current epigenomics revolution will almost certainly complement the explosion of personal genetics medicine to help guide treatment decisions and disease risk stratification.

  4. Circulating DNA as Potential Biomarker for Cancer Individualized Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorong Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer individualized therapy often requires for gene mutation analysis of tumor tissue. However, tumor tissue is not always available in clinical practice, particularly from patients with refractory and recurrence disease. Even if patients have sufficient tumor tissue for detection, as development of cancer, the gene status and drug sensitivity of tumor tissues could also change. Hence, screening mutations from primary tumor tissues becomes useless, it’s necessary to find a surrogate tumor tissue for individualized gene screening. Circulating DNA is digested rapidly from blood, which could provide real-time information of the released fragment and make the real-time detection possible. Therefore, it’s expected that circulating DNA could be a potential tumor biomarker for cancer individualized therapy. This review focuses on the biology and clinical utility of circulating DNA mainly on gene mutation detection. Besides, its current status and possible direction in this research area is summarized and discussed objectively.

  5. Changes in problem-solving appraisal after cognitive therapy for the prevention of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanlou-Holloway, M; Bhar, S S; Brown, G K; Olsen, C; Beck, A T

    2012-06-01

    Cognitive therapy has been found to be effective in decreasing the recurrence of suicide attempts. A theoretical aim of cognitive therapy is to improve problem-solving skills so that suicide no longer remains the only available option. This study examined the differential rate of change in problem-solving appraisal following suicide attempts among individuals who participated in a randomized controlled trial for the prevention of suicide. Changes in problem-solving appraisal from pre- to 6-months post-treatment in individuals with a recent suicide attempt, randomized to either cognitive therapy (n = 60) or a control condition (n = 60), were assessed by using the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised, Short Form. Improvements in problem-solving appraisal were similarly observed for both groups within the 6-month follow-up. However, during this period, individuals assigned to the cognitive therapy condition demonstrated a significantly faster rate of improvement in negative problem orientation and impulsivity/carelessness. More specifically, individuals receiving cognitive therapy were significantly less likely to report a negative view toward life problems and impulsive/carelessness problem-solving style. Cognitive therapy for the prevention of suicide provides rapid changes within 6 months on negative problem orientation and impulsivity/carelessness problem-solving style. Given that individuals are at the greatest risk for suicide within 6 months of their last suicide attempt, the current study demonstrates that a brief cognitive intervention produces a rapid rate of improvement in two important domains of problem-solving appraisal during this sensitive period.

  6. Identification of Drug Therapy Problems among Elderly in-patients of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of drug related problems among elderly in-patients and to identify those at risk of DTPs. ... major Polypharmacy 60 (66.7%), unnecessary drug therapy 29 (32.2%), adverse drug reactions 28 (31.1%), need for additional therapy 27 (30%) and non compliance 13 (14.4%).

  7. Separating the Problem and the Person: Insights from Narrative Therapy with People Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Fiona; O'Dwyer, Mary; Leahy, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Stuttering is a complex disorder of speech that encompasses motor speech and emotional and cognitive factors. The use of narrative therapy is described here, focusing on the stories that clients tell about the problems associated with stuttering that they have encountered in their lives. Narrative therapy uses these stories to understand, analyze,…

  8. Strategies to potentiate immune response after photodynamic therapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as a cancer therapy for forty years but has not yet advanced to a mainstream cancer treatment. Although PDT has been shown to be an efficient photochemical way to destroy local tumors by a combination of non-toxic dyes and harmless visible light, it is its additional effects in mediating the stimulation of the host immune system that gives PDT a great potential to become more widely used. Although the stimulation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-cells that can destroy distant tumor deposits after PDT has been reported in some animal models, it remains the exception rather than the rule. This realization has prompted several investigators to test various combination approaches that could potentiate the immune recognition of tumor antigens that have been released after PDT. Some of these combination approaches use immunostimulants including various microbial preparations that activate Toll-like receptors and other receptors for pathogen associated molecular patterns. Other approaches use cytokines and growth factors whether directly administered or genetically encoded. A promising approach targets regulatory T-cells. We believe that by understanding the methods employed by tumors to evade immune response and neutralizing them, more precise ways of potentiating PDT-induced immunity can be devised.

  9. Healthy Air: Signs of Potential Problems in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... areas of the workplace? Has kitchen or food garbage been removed? Are there outside sources of odors ... IAQ) problems. This IAQ Building Education and Assessment Model, or I-BEAM, is available online. Go to ...

  10. Cannabinoids and cancer: potential for colorectal cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsos, H A; Hicks, D J; Greenhough, A; Williams, A C; Paraskeva, C

    2005-08-01

    Despite extensive research into the biology of CRC (colorectal cancer), and recent advances in surgical techniques and chemotherapy, CRC continues to be a major cause of death throughout the world. Therefore it is important to develop novel chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agents for CRC. Cannabinoids are a class of compounds that are currently used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and in the stimulation of appetite. However, there is accumulating evidence that they could also be useful for the inhibition of tumour cell growth by modulating key survival signalling pathways. The chemotherapeutic potential for plant-derived and endogenous cannabinoids in CRC therapy is reviewed.

  11. Parent–child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahamse Mariëlle E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. Methods This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI, obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5% dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59. Results The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively, which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an

  12. Parent–child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. Methods This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5%) dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59). Results The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively), which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an effective intervention

  13. Parent-child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle E; Junger, Marianne; Chavannes, E Lidewei; Coelman, Frederique J G; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2012-06-13

    Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5%) dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59). The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively), which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an effective intervention strategy for young children and their

  14. The evidence-base for couple therapy, family therapy and systemic interventions for adult-focused problems

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This review updates similar articles published in JFT in 2000 and 2009. It presents evidence from meta-analyses, systematic literature reviews and controlled trials for the effectiveness of couple and family therapy for adults with various relationship and mental health problems. The evidence supports the effectiveness of systemic interventions, either alone or as part of multi-modal programmes, for relationship distress, psychosexual problems, intimate partner violence, anxiety disorders, mo...

  15. PROBLEMS AND POTENTIALS IN THE CREATION OF NEW OBJECTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Joakim; Gylling, Martin

    2011-01-01

    theories we will argue the importance of problems in change-making processes. We will emphasize on how processes of creative thinking and innovation is done in steps, and how the end result reflects what these steps have brought in terms of problem perception and new knowledge. Inspired by concepts from......In this paper we will based on two case studies, explore the creation of new objects in two very different contexts, being the art of painting and the fluid-mechanical engineering. From an empirical point of view we will treat creativity through actor-context relations, which enclose perceptions...... of problems. This kind of context is capturing a duality as both being a stabilizing structure, difficult to escape from, but also serving as the condition upon which to create something. This duality appears to be a critical and necessary condition for the creation of something new. Through different social...

  16. Problems and Potentials in the Creation of New Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gylling, Martin; Juhl, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    theories we will argue the importance of problems in change-making processes. We will emphasize on how processes of creative thinking and innovation is done in steps, and how the end result reflects what these steps have brought in terms of problem perception and new knowledge. Inspired by concepts from......In this paper we will based on two case studies, explore the creation of new objects in two very different contexts, being the art of painting and the fluid-mechanical engineering. From an empirical point of view we will treat creativity through actor-context relations, which enclose perceptions...... of problems. This kind of context is capturing a duality as both being a stabilizing structure, difficult to escape from, but also serving as the condition upon which to create something. This duality appears to be a critical and necessary condition for the creation of something new. Through different social...

  17. Depression in homebound older adults: problem-solving therapy and personal and social resourcefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Marti, C Nathan; Bruce, Martha L; Hegel, Mark T

    2013-09-01

    The goal of problem-solving therapy is to teach patients systematic coping skills. For many homebound older adults, coping skills must also include both personal and social (help-seeking) resourcefulness. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived resourcefulness and depressive symptoms at postintervention and potential mediating effect of the resourcefulness among 121 low-income homebound older adults who participated in a pilot randomized controlled trial testing feasibility and preliminary efficacy of telehealth-PST. Resourcefulness Scale for Older Adults was used to measure personal and social resourcefulness. Only personal resourcefulness scores were significantly associated with depression outcomes at postintervention, and neither resourcefulness scores were significantly associated with group assignment. Analysis found no mediation effect of resourcefulness. The findings call for further research on potential mediators for the potentially effective depression treatment that could be sustained in the real world for low-income homebound older adults who have limited access to psychotherapy as a treatment modality. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Burgers' turbulence problem with linear or quadratic external potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Leonenko, N.N.

    2005-01-01

    We consider solutions of Burgers' equation with linear or quadratic external potential and stationary random initial conditions of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type. We study a class of limit laws that correspond to a scale renormalization of the solutions.......We consider solutions of Burgers' equation with linear or quadratic external potential and stationary random initial conditions of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type. We study a class of limit laws that correspond to a scale renormalization of the solutions....

  19. The relationship between interpersonal problems, negative cognitions, and outcomes from cognitive behavioral group therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Nathan, Paula

    2013-09-05

    Interpersonal functioning is a key determinant of psychological well-being, and interpersonal problems (IPs) are common among individuals with psychiatric disorders. However, IPs are rarely formally assessed in clinical practice or within cognitive behavior therapy research trials as predictors of treatment attrition and outcome. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IPs, depressogenic cognitions, and treatment outcome in a large clinical sample receiving cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for depression in a community clinic. Patients (N=144) referred for treatment completed measures of IPs, negative cognitions, depression symptoms, and quality of life (QoL) before and at the completion of a 12-week manualized CBGT protocol. Two IPs at pre-treatment, 'finding it hard to be supportive of others' and 'not being open about problems,' were associated with higher attrition. Pre-treatment IPs also predicted higher post-treatment depression symptoms (but not QoL) after controlling for pre-treatment symptoms, negative cognitions, demographics, and comorbidity. In particular, 'difficulty being assertive' and a 'tendency to subjugate one's needs' were associated with higher post-treatment depression symptoms. Changes in IPs did not predict post-treatment depression symptoms or QoL when controlling for changes in negative cognitions, pre-treatment symptoms, demographics, and comorbidity. In contrast, changes in negative cognitions predicted both post-treatment depression and QoL, even after controlling for changes in IPs and the other covariates. Correlational design, potential attrition bias, generalizability to other disorders and treatments needs to be evaluated. Pre-treatment IPs may increase risk of dropout and predict poorer outcomes, but changes in negative cognitions during treatment were most strongly associated with improvement in symptoms and QoL during CBGT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dental problems delaying the initiation of interferon therapy for HCV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagao Yumiko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been little discussion about the importance of oral management and interferon (IFN therapy, although management of the side effects of therapy for chronic hepatitis C has been documented. This study determined whether dental problems delayed the initiation of IFN therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected patients. Results We analyzed 570 HCV-infected patients who were admitted to our hospital from December 2003 to June 2010 for treatment consisting of pegylated IFN (Peg-IFN monotherapy or Peg-IFN/ribavirin combination therapy. The group comprised 274 men and 296 women with a mean age 57.2 years. Of the 570 patients, six could not commence Peg-IFN therapy, despite their admission, because of dental problems such as periodontitis, pupitis, and pericoronitis. The ages of six whose dental problems delayed the initiation of Peg-IFN ranged from 25 to 67 years, with a mean age of 47.3 ± 15.2 years. IFN therapy was deferred for 61.3 ± 47.7 days. Among the six subjects for whom IFN treatment was delayed, only one had a salivary flow that was lower than the normal value. Conclusions Treatment of dental infections is required before IFN therapy for HCV infection can be started. To increase the depth of understanding of oral health care, it is hoped that dentists and medical specialists in all areas will hold discussions to generate cooperation.

  1. Dental problems delaying the initiation of interferon therapy for HCV-infected patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been little discussion about the importance of oral management and interferon (IFN) therapy, although management of the side effects of therapy for chronic hepatitis C has been documented. This study determined whether dental problems delayed the initiation of IFN therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Results We analyzed 570 HCV-infected patients who were admitted to our hospital from December 2003 to June 2010 for treatment consisting of pegylated IFN (Peg-IFN) monotherapy or Peg-IFN/ribavirin combination therapy. The group comprised 274 men and 296 women with a mean age 57.2 years. Of the 570 patients, six could not commence Peg-IFN therapy, despite their admission, because of dental problems such as periodontitis, pupitis, and pericoronitis. The ages of six whose dental problems delayed the initiation of Peg-IFN ranged from 25 to 67 years, with a mean age of 47.3 ± 15.2 years. IFN therapy was deferred for 61.3 ± 47.7 days. Among the six subjects for whom IFN treatment was delayed, only one had a salivary flow that was lower than the normal value. Conclusions Treatment of dental infections is required before IFN therapy for HCV infection can be started. To increase the depth of understanding of oral health care, it is hoped that dentists and medical specialists in all areas will hold discussions to generate cooperation. PMID:20712912

  2. [Horizons and perspectives on the problem of non--responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carità, Patrizia; Corrado, Egle; Pontone, Gianluca; Curnis, Antonio; Nogara, Angela; Mignano, Antonino; Verdecchia, Massimo; Ciaramitaro, Gianfranco; Novo, Salvatore; Coppola, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown as a successful strategy in the treatment of patients with heart failure and electrical dyssincrony. However, a significant proportion of implanted patients fails to respond sufficiently or in a predictable manner. Consequently, non response to CRT remains a valuable problem in clinical practice. In order to improve CRT response and long-term clinical benefits, the proper evaluation of patient's global frialty, the technology improvement, the multimodality imaging approach and the use of simple and low cost electrographic parameters (to verify effective biventricular capture and QRS narrowing) could play a important role. Therefore, the integration of various medical expertises (clinical cardiology, cardiac advanced imaging, electrophysiology) is a crucial element in order to achive the maximal benefits from this promising tecnique. In the multistep process (from patients evaluation to results verification) the follow-up even from the earliest post implantation phase, should be managed with great attention having the potential for impact the prognosis. This brief review focus the problem of non responder to CRT, giving particular attention to the different variables that may play a role (comorbilities, improvement in the tecnology of device implantation, role of multimodality imaging and electrocardiographic parameters).

  3. Using nanotechnology to design potential therapies for CNS regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Behnke, R G; Teather, L A; Schneider, G E; So, K-F

    2007-01-01

    The nanodelivery of therapeutics into the brain will require a step-change in thinking; overcoming the blood brain barrier is one of the major challenges to any neural therapy. The promise of nanotechnology is that the selective delivery of therapeutics can be delivered through to the brain without causing secondary damage. There are several formidable barriers that must be overcome in order to achieve axonal regeneration after injury in the CNS. The development of new biological materials, in particular biologically compatible scaffolds that can serve as permissive substrates for cell growth, differentiation and biological function is a key area for advancing medical technology. This review focuses on four areas: First, the barriers of delivering therapies to the central nervous system and how nanotechnology can potentially solve them; second, current research in neuro nanomedicine featuring brain repair, brain imaging, nanomachines, protein misfolding diseases, nanosurgery, implanted devices and nanotechnologies for crossing the blood brain barrier; third, health and safety issues and fourth, the future of neuro nanomedicine as it relates to the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Potential drug interactions in patients given antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Wendel Mombaque Dos; Secoli, Silvia Regina; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello

    2016-11-21

    to investigate potential drug-drug interactions (PDDI) in patients with HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy. a cross-sectional study was conducted on 161 adults with HIV infection. Clinical, socio demographic, and antiretroviral treatment data were collected. To analyze the potential drug interactions, we used the software Micromedex(r). Statistical analysis was performed by binary logistic regression, with a p-value of ≤0.05 considered statistically significant. of the participants, 52.2% were exposed to potential drug-drug interactions. In total, there were 218 potential drug-drug interactions, of which 79.8% occurred between drugs used for antiretroviral therapy. There was an association between the use of five or more medications and potential drug-drug interactions (p = 0.000) and between the time period of antiretroviral therapy being over six years and potential drug-drug interactions (p terapia de antirretroviral. um estudo de corte transversal foi conduzido em 161 pessoas infectadas com o HIV. Dados de tratamentos clínicos, sociodemográficos e antirretrovirais foram coletados. Para analisar a possível interação medicamentosa, nós usamos o software Micromedex(r). A análise estatística foi feita por regressão logística binária, com um valor P de ≤0.05, considerado estatisticamente significativo. dos participantes, 52.2% foram expostos a potenciais interações droga-droga. No total, houve 218 interações droga-droga, das quais 79.8% ocorreram entre drogas usadas para a terapia antirretroviral. Houve uma associação entre o uso de cinco ou mais medicamentos e possíveis interações droga-droga (p = 0.000), e entre o período de tempo de terapia antirretroviral acima de seis anos e possíveis interações droga-droga (p terapia antirretroviral. un estudio transversal se llevó a cabo en 161 adultos con infección por VIH. Se recogieron datos clínicos, socio demográficos, y de tratamiento antirretroviral. Para analizar las posibles

  5. Seasonal Admission Rates of Geriatric Patients with Musculoskeletal Problems to Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Zubeyir; Yurdalan, Saadet Ufuk; Polat, Mine Gulden; Ozgul, Bahar; Kanberoglu, Ayfer; Onel, Selma

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variations in the admission rates of geriatric patients with musculoskeletal problems to physical therapy and rehabilitation clinics were examined in this study. Totally 2257 patients (1802, 79.84% female; 455, 20.16% male) over the age of 65 years (mean age 72.32±5.67years) who were admitted to Duygu Private Hospital and Burcu Private Physical Therapy Branch Center in Istanbul were included. Monthly admissions and seasonal distribution were retrospectively calculated for 2 years. Ad...

  6. [Music therapy and "brain music": state of the art, problems and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature on the problem of interaction between music and the brain is reviewed and summarized. Mechanisms and effects of two most popular music therapy applications are picked out, including music listening and music making. Special attention is paid to relatively new line of investigations that is called "music of the brain" and deals with transformation of bioelectric processes of human organism into music. Unresolved questions of music therapy are identified and some promising lines of future investigations are delineated.

  7. The Contribution of Surface Potential to Diverse Problems in Electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horenstein, M.

    2015-10-01

    Electrostatics spans many different subject areas. Some comprise “good electrostatics,” where charge is used for desirable purposes. Such areas include industrial manufacturing, electrophotography, surface modification, precipitators, aerosol control, and MEMS. Other areas comprise “bad electrostatics,” where charge is undesirable. Such areas include hazardous discharges, ESD, health effects, nuisance triboelectrification, particle contamination, and lightning. Conference proceedings such as this one inevitably include papers grouped around these topics. One common thread throughout is the surface potential developed when charge resides on an insulator surface. Often, the charged insulator will be in intimate contact with a ground plane. At other times, the charged insulator will be isolated. In either case, the resulting surface potential is important to such processes as propagating brush discharges, charge along a moving web, electrostatic biasing effects in MEMS, non-contacting voltmeters, field-effect transistor sensors, and the maximum possible charge on a woven fabric.

  8. Concise review: Adult salivary gland stem cells and a potential therapy for xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Sarah; Van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Robert P

    2013-04-01

    The ability to speak, swallow, masticate, taste food, and maintain a healthy oral cavity is heavily reliant on the presence of saliva, the hugely important effect of which on our everyday lives is often unappreciated. Hyposalivation, frequently experienced by people receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancers, results in a plethora of symptoms whose combined effect can drastically reduce quality of life. Although artificial lubricants and drugs stimulating residual function are available to ameliorate the consequences of hyposalivation, their effects are at best transient. Such management techniques do not address the source of the problem: a lack of functional saliva-producing acinar cells, resulting from radiation-induced stem cell sterilization. Post-radiotherapy stimulation of cell proliferation only results in improved saliva secretion when part of the tissue has been spared or when the dose to the salivary gland (SG) remains below a certain level. Therefore, stem cell replacement therapy may be a good option to treat radiation-induced hyposalivation. Substantial progress has been made lately in the understanding of cell turnover in the SG, and the recent identification of stem and progenitor cell populations in the SG provides a basis for studies toward development of a stem cell-based therapy for xerostomia. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of SG stem cells and their potential for use in a cell-based therapy that may provide a more durable cure for hyposalivation. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  9. Can Problem Solving Therapy Solve the Problem of Late Life Depression? A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siofra Petra Peeren

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical depression affects approximately a fifth of older adults. It is important to assess the efficacy of psychological interventions in older adults because extant research indicates that treating depression with medication becomes complicated in later life. The current study evaluates the efficacy and long term effects of problem solving therapy (PST by systematically reviewing randomized trials of PST. A systematic search was undertaken of three computerised databases and six studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies indicated that PST was more effective than control conditions. However, the direct and long term effect of PST on depressive symptoms remains difficult to establish due to methodological issues.

  10. Brief strategic family therapy: engaging drug using/problem behavior adolescents and their families in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapocznik, José; Zarate, Monica; Duff, Johnathan; Muir, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents' problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring about positive outcomes for families. Research evidence for efficacy and effectiveness is also presented.

  11. Potentials of Stem Cell Therapy-Curiosities Ignited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The potentials of Stem cell therapy are being harnessed to the fullest by the Stem Cell Biologists all over the world who are working towards the unanimous goal of finding a cure to many untreatable diseases through cellular replacement or tissue engineering .Keeping this view in mind, both basic and translational research are being promoted by various institutions & hospitals throughout the world Umbilical Cord blood, a rich source of Hematopoietic stem cells holds great potential for use in hematological malignancies and Umbilical Cord Blood Storage has spread its roots around the world. The post thaw viability of the Cryopreserved Umbilical cord blood stem cells is an issue of concern. In this regard Dr.Sachdeva in his article has explored the possibilities of using patient’s own serum as cryoprotection for enhancing the cryopreservation viability of umbilical cord blood cells.Amidst the several ongoing studies on the properties of telomerase Dr.Goes et al in their article of this issue have studied the influence of the telomerase in the osteogenic process and their studies support the hypothesis that the telomerase accelerates the osteogenic differentiation besides extending the lifespan of mesenchymal stem cells.This issue also presents a comprehensive record of work being done in the Stem Cell research field presented by leading scientists ,clinicians and researchers in the Annual Symposium & Plenary Session on Regenerative Medicine 2009.These include an array of topics like In vitro production of RBCs from ES, iPS generation and Stem Cell therapy in Japan by Dr.Yukio Nakamura, Stem Cell applications in Burn Injury by Dr.Yerneni, Stem cells in auditory hair cell repair by Dr.Hata , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation status in India by Shripad D. Banavali ,Recent Innovations in ocular Surface reconstruction by Dr.H.N.Madhavan, Ex vivo expansion of Primate CD34+ Cells isolated from Bone Marrow and Human Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells

  12. CONVERGENT (NBIC TECHNOLOGIES: PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFORMATIONAL POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И В Данилин

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern innovation policy is formed under strong influence of disruptive technologies con-cepts, which help mobilize support for Science and Technology (S&T policy, structure international S&T cooperation and system, etc. They are also important for the global processes, promising changes in leading powers cohort. This is why disruptive technology concepts are accented by the emerging economics, especially by BRIC nations. A concept of converging (or nano-bio-info-cognitive, also known as NBIC technologies is very illustrative. Being originally a part of the USA nanotechnology policy and transhumanistic discourse, it gradually evolved globally with focus on “Grand Challenges”. But, despite successes of technology convergence since 2000s, concept itself proved to be not fully operational, being mostly a metaphor for rising interdisciplinarity and discipline convergence. Nonetheless its revolutionary potential was meaningful, but linked not to technological, but institu-tional and socio-cultural dimensions. Among them were human capital development, changing logic of S&T organization, reforming S&T policies, formation of new culture and ethics of research and development, systemic development of national innovation systems. These ideas, implicitly present in the NBIC concept, were of a special importance for the emerging economies as key factors for their enforced growth and rising quality of development processes. But these issues were surprisingly weak articulated in NBIC concept. Partly that was the influence of transhumanist discourse with its escape from solving societal challenges by technological change of human self. Not less important was that NBIC were seen by elites as a mean to bypass deep reforms and buildup of innovation institutions. I.e., concepts of disruptive technologies represent a psychological sub-stitute for a really intense development. Uniqueness of NBIC is that it makes this contradiction very visible. As shown in

  13. Assessing student expertise in introductory physics with isomorphic problems. II. Effect of some potential factors on problem solving and transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Singh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the use of isomorphic problem pairs (IPPs to assess introductory physics students’ ability to solve and successfully transfer problem-solving knowledge from one context to another in mechanics. We call the paired problems “isomorphic” because they require the same physics principle to solve them. We analyze written responses and individual discussions for a range of isomorphic problems. We examine potential factors that may help or hinder transfer of problem-solving skills from one problem in a pair to the other. For some paired isomorphic problems, one context often turned out to be easier for students in that it was more often correctly solved than the other. When quantitative and conceptual questions were paired and given back to back, students who answered both questions in the IPP often performed better on the conceptual questions than those who answered the corresponding conceptual questions only. Although students often took advantage of the quantitative counterpart to answer a conceptual question of an IPP correctly, when only given the conceptual question, students seldom tried to convert it into a quantitative question, solve it, and then reason about the solution conceptually. Even in individual interviews when students who were given only conceptual questions had difficulty and the interviewer explicitly encouraged them to convert the conceptual question into the corresponding quantitative problem by choosing appropriate variables, a majority of students were reluctant and preferred to guess the answer to the conceptual question based upon their gut feeling. Misconceptions associated with friction in some problems were so robust that pairing them with isomorphic problems not involving friction did not help students discern their underlying similarities. Alternatively, from the knowledge-in-pieces perspective, the activation of the knowledge resource related to friction was so strongly and automatically

  14. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on Depression: The Role of Problem-Solving Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Yu; Jordan, Catheleen; Thompson, Sanna

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Many studies have confirmed the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as a treatment for depression. However, the mechanism of CBT for depression reduction is still not well understood. This study explored the mechanism of CBT from the perspective of individuals' problem-solving appraisal. Method: A one-group pretest-posttest…

  15. Students' Perspectives on Problem-Based Learning in a Transitional Doctorate of Physical Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Helene M.; Buccieri, Kathleen M.; Wessel, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Doctor of physical therapy (DPT) graduates are expected to be competent in professional behaviors, communication, critical inquiry, clinical decision making, and evidence-based practice. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the experience of students enrolled in a single, problem-based learning (PBL) course within a conventional…

  16. Problem-Solving Therapy for Depression in Adults: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, Zvi D.; Kenaley, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a systematic review of the evidence on problem-solving therapy (PST) for depressive disorders in noninstitutionalized adults. Method: Intervention studies using randomized controlled designs are included and methodological quality is assessed using a standard set of criteria from the Cochrane Collaborative Review…

  17. Within-Group Effect-Size Benchmarks for Problem-Solving Therapy for Depression in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Allen; Yu, Miao

    2017-01-01

    This article provides benchmark data on within-group effect sizes from published randomized clinical trials that supported the efficacy of problem-solving therapy (PST) for depression among adults. Benchmarks are broken down by type of depression (major or minor), type of outcome measure (interview or self-report scale), whether PST was provided…

  18. Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Depressive Mothers of Children with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hye Ha, Eun

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBT) for depressed mothers of children between 5-12 years old, with behavior problems and to examine the effectiveness of the program. The CBT group met 8 times in total (2-hour weekly sessions for 8 weeks), followed by a booster session 3 months after the program was…

  19. Multisystemic Therapy for Child Non-Externalizing Psychological and Health Problems: A Preliminary Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, Heather T.; White, Rachel S.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors,…

  20. Cost-effectiveness of multisystemic therapy versus usual treatment for young people with antisocial problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Karin M.; Jansen, Daniëlle E.M.C.; Knorth, Erik J.; Buskens, Erik; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioural problems are common among adolescents. The burden on society in social disturbance, health, failures to contribute and costs has triggered innovative community-based interventions such as multisystemic therapy (MST). AIMS: Our aim was to compare the cost-effectiveness of MST

  1. Using Problem-solving Therapy to Improve Problem-solving Orientation, Problem-solving Skills and Quality of Life in Older Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdley-Kass, Shiloh D; Kass, Darrin S; Gellis, Zvi D; Bogner, Hillary A; Berger, Andrea; Perkins, Robert M

    2017-08-24

    To determine the effectiveness of Problem-Solving Therapy (PST) in older hemodialysis (HD) patients by assessing changes in health-related quality of life and problem-solving skills. 33 HD patients in an outpatient hemodialysis center without active medical and psychiatric illness were enrolled. The intervention group (n = 15) received PST from a licensed social worker for 6 weeks, whereas the control group (n = 18) received usual care treatment. In comparison to the control group, patients receiving PST intervention reported improved perceptions of mental health, were more likely to view their problems with a positive orientation and were more likely to use functional problem-solving methods. Furthermore, this group was also more likely to view their overall health, activity limits, social activities and ability to accomplish desired tasks with a more positive mindset. The results demonstrate that PST may positively impact mental health components of quality of life and problem-solving coping among older HD patients. PST is an effective, efficient, and easy to implement intervention that can benefit problem-solving abilities and mental health-related quality of life in older HD patients. In turn, this will help patients manage their daily living activities related to their medical condition and reduce daily stressors.

  2. Re: Engineered Nanoparticles Induce Cell Apoptosis: Potential for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehmi Narter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs have been widely applied in industry, biology and medicine recently (i.e. clothes, sunscreens, cosmetics, foods, diagnostic medicine, imaging and drug delivery. There are many kinds of manufactured nanomaterial products including TiO2, ZnO, CeO2, Fe2O3, and CuO (as metal oxide nanoparticles as well as gold, silver, platinum and palladium (as metal nanoparticles, and other carbon-based ENP’s such as carbon nanotububes and quantum dots. ENPs with their sizes no larger than 100 nm are able to enter the human body and accumulate in organs and cause toxic effects. In many researches, ENP effects on the cancer cells of different organs with related cell apoptosis were noted (AgNP, nano-Cr2O3, Au-Fe2O3 NPs, nano-TiO2, nano-HAP, nano-Se, MoO3 nanoplate, Realgar nanoparticles. ENPs, with their unique properties, such as surface charge, particle size, composition and surface modification with tissue recognition ligands or antibodies, has been increasingly explored as a tool to carry small molecular weight drugs as well as macromolecules for cancer therapy, thus generating the new concept “nanocarrier”. Direct induction of cell apoptosis by ENPs provides an opportunity for cancer treatment. In the century of nanomedicine that depends on development of the nanotechnology, ENPs have a great potential for application in cancer treatment with minimal side effects.

  3. Trifluoromethyl Boron Dipyrromethene Derivatives as Potential Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Yong Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two novel boron dipyrromethene-based photosensitizers (BDP3 and BDP6 substituted with three or six trifluoromethyl groups have been synthesized and characterized with various spectroscopic methods, and their photo-physical, photo-chemical, and photo-biological properties have also been explored. The two photosensitizers are highly soluble and remain nonaggregated in N,N-dimethylformamide as shown by the intense and sharp Q-band absorption. Under red light irradiation (λ = 660 nm, 1.5 J/cm2, both photosensitizers show high and comparable cytotoxicity towards HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma and HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells with IC50 values of 0.42–0.49 μM. The high photocytotoxicity of BDP3 and BDP6 can be due to their high cellular uptake and low aggregation tendency in biological media, which result in a high efficiency to generate reactive oxygen species inside the cells. Confocal laser fluorescence microscopic studies indicate that they have superior selective affinities to the mitochondria and lysosomes of HepG2 and HeLa cells. The results show that these two trifluoromethyl boron dipyrromethene derivatives are potential anticancer agents for photodynamic therapy.

  4. 21 CFR 320.33 - Criteria and evidence to assess actual or potential bioequivalence problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criteria and evidence to assess actual or potential bioequivalence problems. 320.33 Section 320.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Criteria and evidence to assess actual or potential bioequivalence problems. The Commissioner of Food and...

  5. [Brief strategic family therapy: an empirically-validated intervention for reducing adolescent behavior problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Michael S; Horigian, Viviana E; Szapocznik, José

    2008-01-01

    Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) is an empirically-supported treatment for children and adolescents with behavior problems and substance use problems. For three decades, the efficacy and effectiveness of BSFT has been established through the results of rigorous clinical trials studies conducted at the University of Miami's Center for Family Studies. BSFT is based on family systems approaches, most notably the work of Salvador Minuchin and Jay Haley, but has been refined to meet the pressing needs of youth with behavior problems. BSFT theory and interventions cover four broad domains: joining with family members and the family system, assessing problematic family interactions, creating a motivational context for change, and restructuring family interactions.

  6. Creative Problem Solving and Social Cooperation of Effective Physical Therapy Practice: A Pioneer Study and Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Carmeli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Action research (AR has an important role to play in educating physical therapists. Increasing efforts should be encouraged to instigate AR programs in physical therapy practice and clinical education. Such programs commonly require considerable effort and understanding by clinical instructors, and require adoption of new educational methods. AR programs can lead physical therapists and clinicians to be more questioning and reflective in evaluating practical questions regarding patient therapy and education. The purpose of this article is to educate the readers on the importance of AR and to provide a few relevant references on that topic. A specific study is described in this paper in which physical therapy clinical instructors participated in a structured workshop designed to demonstrate the values of AR and how such values can be incorporated in teaching their students. AR can lead to improved therapist-patient interaction and help solve specific practical problems arising during therapy sessions.

  7. Exposure therapy for problem gambling in rural communities: a program model and early outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ben; Smith, David; Oakes, Jane

    2011-06-01

    Rural South Australia contains a higher share of electronic gaming machines and gambling expenditure per capita than metropolitan areas, raising concerns about the risk of problem gambling in these communities. This paper describes the implementation and outcomes of an outreach behavioural psychotherapy (exposure therapy) program for problem gambling in rural South Australia. A retrospective cohort study design was used for 551 adult treatment-seeking problem gamblers who presented to the Statewide Gambling Therapy Service in South Australia. Fifty-one gamblers were from rural areas and participated in the outreach program. Outcomes were compared between gamblers who participated in either the metropolitan-based or rural outreach program. Outcome measures used: South Oaks Gambling Screen, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, and hours gambled the previous month. Sixty-one per cent of clients (n = 551) completed treatment. There was no significant association between service location and number of treatment completers. Significant improvements were recorded across all outcome measures for both groups with small to large effect sizes, and there were no significant differences in outcomes at post-treatment between the groups while controlling for baseline scores. Both metropolitan and rural clients reported significant clinical improvement. Given the risk of problem gambling in rural communities, these early outcomes are encouraging. These findings will inform future treatment planning and service delivery for rural clients, and guide further research into the effectiveness of exposure therapy for problem gambling. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  8. Development and characterization of erythrosine nanoparticles with potential for treating sinusitis using photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapati, Chandrasekhar; Clarke, Brandon; Zadora, Steven; Burney, Charles; Cameron, Brent D; Fournier, Ronald; Baugh, Reginald F; Boddu, Sai H S

    2015-03-01

    Antimicrobial therapy for sinusitis has been shown to reduce or eliminate pathologic bacteria associated with rhinosinusitis and improve the symptoms associated with the disease. However, the continuing rise in antibiotic resistance, the ongoing problem with patient compliance, and the intrinsic difficulty in eradication of biofilms complicates antibiotic therapy. The introduction of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PAT) using erythrosine, a photosensitizer, could eliminate the bacteria without inducing antibiotic resistance or even requiring daily dosing. In the present study, erythrosine nanoparticles were prepared using poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and evaluated for their potential in PAT against Staphylococcus aureus cells. PLGA nanoparticles of erythrosine were prepared by nanoprecipitation technique. Erythrosine nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro release. Qualitative and quantitative uptake studies of erythrosine nanoparticles were carried out in S. aureus cells. Photodynamic inactivation of S. aureus cells in the presence of erythrosine nanoparticles was investigated by colony forming unit assay. Nanoprecipitation technique resulted in nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 385nm and zeta potential of -9.36mV. Erythrosine was slowly released from nanoparticles over a period of 120h. The qualitative study using flow cytometry showed the ability of S. aureus cells to internalize erythrosine nanoparticles. Moreover, erythrosine nanoparticles exhibited a significantly higher uptake and antimicrobial efficacy compared to pure drug in S. aureus cells. In conclusion, erythrosine-loaded PLGA nanoparticles can be a potential long term drug delivery system for PAT and are useful for the eradication of S. aureus cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolomics has the potential to improve drug therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Claus; Jürgens, Gesche; Dalhoff, Kim Peder

    2014-01-01

    Until now drug therapy has primarily been controlled by dose titration on the basis of effects and side effects. However, a lot of people being treated with a drug experience too little effect or too many side effects. Therefore it will be advantageous to improve drug therapy and make it even more...

  10. Anaesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy: An overview with an update on its role in potentiating electroconvulsive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Kumar Kadiyala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT remains a mainstay treatment option in psychiatry since its introduction in 1930s. It can be used primarily in severe illnesses when there is an urgent need for treatment or secondarily after failure or intolerance to pharmacotherapy. The 'unmodified' technique of ECT was practised initially, with a high incidence of musculoskeletal complications. Several modifications including general anaesthesia and muscle relaxation are used to increase the safety and patient acceptability of ECT. Various anaesthetic techniques including medications are considered to provide adequate therapeutic seizure, simultaneously controlling seizure-induced haemodynamic changes and side effects. A brief review of literature on choice of these anaesthetic techniques is discussed. This article is intended to reinforce the knowledge of clinicians, who may have limited exposure to ECT procedure. Importance is given to the recent updates on the role of induction agents in potentiating therapeutic response to ECT in psychiatric disorders.

  11. Autophagy Therapeutic Potential of Garlic in Human Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Lin Chu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases against humans. To tackle this menace, humans have developed several high-technology therapies, such as chemotherapy, tomotherapy, targeted therapy, and antibody therapy. However, all these therapies have their own adverse side effects. Therefore, recent years have seen increased attention being given to the natural food for complementary therapy, which have less side effects. Garlic 大 蒜 Dà Suàn; Allium sativum, is one of most powerful food used in many of the civilizations for both culinary and medicinal purpose. In general, these foods induce cancer cell death by apoptosis, autophagy, or necrosis. Studies have discussed how natural food factors regulate cell survival or death by autophagy in cancer cells. From many literature reviews, garlic could not only induce apoptosis but also autophagy in cancer cells. Autophagy, which is called type-II programmed cell death, provides new strategy in cancer therapy. In conclusion, we wish that garlic could be the pioneer food of complementary therapy in clinical cancer treatment and increase the life quality of cancer patients.

  12. Mirror therapy: A potential intervention for pain management

    OpenAIRE

    Wittkopf, Priscilla G.; Johnson, Mark I.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The consequences of chronic pain and associated disabilities to the patient and to the health care system are well known. Medication is often the first treatment of choice for chronic pain, although side effects and high costs restrict long-term use. Inexpensive, safe and easy to self-administer non-pharmacological therapies, such as mirror therapy, are recommended as adjuncts to pain treatment. The purpose of this review is to describe the principles of use of mirror therapy so it ca...

  13. Success and problems of long-term levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, C D; Parkes, J D

    1977-02-12

    The patient with Parkinson' disease on chronic levodopa therapy, like the diabetic on insulin, is dependent on the drug. Like the diabetic, the patients with Parkinson's disease may run into problems during long-term treatment. Two have emerged as frequent and serious, an insidious and progressive loss of benefit and the appearance of progessively more severe fluctuations in disability. It is concluded that progression of the underlying pathology of the disease is probably responsible. Discovery of the exact causes for loss of benefit may provide a rational basis for new therapy.

  14. SU-E-J-161: Inverse Problems for Optical Parameters in Laser Induced Thermal Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrenholtz, SJ; Stafford, RJ; Fuentes, DT [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); UT Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance-guided laser-induced thermal therapy (MRgLITT) is investigated as a neurosurgical intervention for oncological applications throughout the body by active post market studies. Real-time MR temperature imaging is used to monitor ablative thermal delivery in the clinic. Additionally, brain MRgLITT could improve through effective planning for laser fiber's placement. Mathematical bioheat models have been extensively investigated but require reliable patient specific physical parameter data, e.g. optical parameters. This abstract applies an inverse problem algorithm to characterize optical parameter data obtained from previous MRgLITT interventions. Methods: The implemented inverse problem has three primary components: a parameter-space search algorithm, a physics model, and training data. First, the parameter-space search algorithm uses a gradient-based quasi-Newton method to optimize the effective optical attenuation coefficient, μ-eff. A parameter reduction reduces the amount of optical parameter-space the algorithm must search. Second, the physics model is a simplified bioheat model for homogeneous tissue where closed-form Green's functions represent the exact solution. Third, the training data was temperature imaging data from 23 MRgLITT oncological brain ablations (980 nm wavelength) from seven different patients. Results: To three significant figures, the descriptive statistics for μ-eff were 1470 m{sup −1} mean, 1360 m{sup −1} median, 369 m{sup −1} standard deviation, 933 m{sup −1} minimum and 2260 m{sup −1} maximum. The standard deviation normalized by the mean was 25.0%. The inverse problem took <30 minutes to optimize all 23 datasets. Conclusion: As expected, the inferred average is biased by underlying physics model. However, the standard deviation normalized by the mean is smaller than literature values and indicates an increased precision in the characterization of the optical parameters needed to plan MRg

  15. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnotic relaxation to treat sleep problems in an adolescent with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M; Elkins, Gary R

    2010-11-01

    Inadequate sleep among adolescents frequently contributes to obesity and reduced academic performance, along with symptoms of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and attention deficits. The etiological bases of sleep quality has been associated with both stress and sleep habits. These problems tend to be especially important for adolescents with diabetes as the effects of poor sleep complicate health outcomes. This case example concerns a 14-year-old adolescent girl with a history of type I diabetes and stress-related sleep difficulties. Treatment included cognitive-behavioral methods and hypnotic relaxation therapy. Results of this case example and other controlled research suggest that hypnotic relaxation therapy is well accepted, results in good compliance, and serves as a useful adjunctive to cognitive-behavioral intervention for sleep problems. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Multiplicity of solutions for discrete problems with double-well potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Otta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some multiplicity results for a general class of nonlinear discrete problems with double-well potentials. Variational techniques are used to obtain the existence of saddle-point type critical points. In addition to simple discrete boundary-value problems, partial difference equations as well as problems involving discrete $p$-Laplacian are considered. Also the boundedness of solutions is studied and possible applications, e.g. in image processing, are discussed.

  17. Cross-constrained problems for nonlinear Schrodinger equation with harmonic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runzhang Xu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies a nonlinear Schodinger equation with harmonic potential by constructing different cross-constrained problems. By comparing the different cross-constrained problems, we derive different sharp criterion and different invariant manifolds that separate the global solutions and blowup solutions. Moreover, we conclude that some manifolds are empty due to the essence of the cross-constrained problems. Besides, we compare the three cross-constrained problems and the three depths of the potential wells. In this way, we explain the gaps in [J. Shu and J. Zhang, Nonlinear Shrodinger equation with harmonic potential, Journal of Mathematical Physics, 47, 063503 (2006], which was pointed out in [R. Xu and Y. Liu, Remarks on nonlinear Schrodinger equation with harmonic potential, Journal of Mathematical Physics, 49, 043512 (2008].

  18. Brief Behavioral Activation and Problem-Solving Therapy for Depressed Breast Cancer Patients: Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopko, Derek R.; Armento, Maria E. A.; Robertson, Sarah M. C.; Ryba, Marlena M.; Carvalho, John P.; Colman, Lindsey K.; Mullane, Christen; Gawrysiak, Michael; Bell, John L.; McNulty, James K.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Major depression is the most common psychiatric disorder among breast cancer patients and is associated with substantial impairment. Although some research has explored the utility of psychotherapy with breast cancer patients, only 2 small trials have investigated the potential benefits of behavior therapy among patients with…

  19. Manipulation of biliary lipids by gene therapy: potential consequences for patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.

    2005-01-01

    Gene therapy constitutes a great promise for the treatment of inherited diseases as well as cancer. Although the principle is extremely elegant, reality proves that several important problems remain to be solved before gene therapy becomes a standard application for these conditions. Meanwhile, and

  20. Interpersonal Circumplex Profiles Of Persistent Depression: Goals, Self-Efficacy, Problems, And Effects Of Group Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Kenneth D; Sayegh, Liliane; Penberthy, J Kim; Weber, Charlotte; Haentjens, Katherine; Turecki, Gustavo

    2017-06-01

    We assessed severely and persistently depressed patients' interpersonal self-efficacy, problems, and goals, plus changes in interpersonal functioning and depression during 20 weeks of group therapy. Outpatients (32 female, 26 male, mean age = 45 years) completed interpersonal circumplex measures of goals, efficacy, and problems before completing 20 weeks of manualized group therapy, during which we regularly assessed depression and interpersonal style. Compared to normative samples, patients lacked interpersonal agency, including less self-efficacy for expressive/assertive actions; stronger motives to avoid conflict, scorn, and humiliation; and more problems with being too submissive, inhibited, and accommodating. Behavioral Activation and especially Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy interventions produced improvements in depression and interpersonal agency, with increases in "agentic and communal" efficacy predicting subsequent decreases in depression. While severely and persistently depressed patients were prone to express maladaptive interpersonal dispositions, over the course of group therapy, they showed increasingly agentic and beneficial patterns of cognitions, motives, and behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Perceived Parental Bonding, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Outcome in Schema Therapy of Cluster C Personality Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart Lunding, Synve; Hoffart, Asle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to examine the relationships between perceived parental bonding, Early Maladaptive Schemas (Young et al., 2003), and outcome of schema therapy of Cluster C personality problems and whether the perceptions of parental bonding could be influenced by schema therapy. The sample consisted of 45 patients with panic disorder and/or agoraphobia and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, Cluster C personality traits who participated in an 11-week inpatient programme consisting of two phases; the first was a 5-week panic/agoraphobia-focused cognitive therapy, whereas the second phase was a personality-focused schema therapy. The patients were assessed at pre-treatment, mid-treatment and post-treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Opposite to our hypothesis, lower paternal care at pre-treatment was related to more reduction in Cluster C personality traits from pre-treatment to 1-year follow-up. Maternal protection was related to the schema domains of impaired autonomy and exaggerated standards. Overall schema severity and the schema emotional inhibition at pre-treatment were associated with less change in Cluster C traits. Perceived maternal care was reduced from pre-treatment to 1-year follow-up, and more reduction in maternal care was related to less reduction in Cluster C traits. Parental bonding failed to predict treatment outcome in the expected direction, but maternal protection was related to two of the schema domains. Overall schema severity and the particular schema emotional inhibition predicted outcome. Furthermore, perceived maternal care was reduced from before to after treatment. Future studies should examine these questions in larger samples of Cluster C patients receiving schema therapy of a longer duration. Most schemas within the impaired autonomy domain and the schema self-sacrifice seem to be related to low perceived maternal protection. Overall schema severity and the schema emotional inhibition

  2. On solution of the integral equations for the potential problems of two circular-strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sampath

    1988-01-01

    Dirichlet and Newmann boundary value problems of two equal infinite coaxial circular strips in various branches of potential theory. For illustration, these solutions are applied to solve some boundary value problems in electrostatics, hydrodynamics, and expressions for the physical quantities of interest are derived.

  3. THE REALIZATION PROBLEMS OF SOME SOCIALLY VULNERABLE GROUPS' OF POPULATION POTENTIAL IN THE OUTLYING DISTRICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patimat Alieva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the consideration and analysis of the main problems, concerning the realization of socially vulnerable groups' of the population potential. The problem of women and youth employment development takes on a special acuteness and actualite in the outlying district with a labour redundant labour market.

  4. Tumor-colonizing bacteria: a potential tumor targeting therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Chao; Wang, Jiansheng

    2014-08-01

    In 1813, Vautier published his observation of tumor regression in patients who had suffered from gas gangrene. Since then, many publications have described the use of bacteria as antitumor therapy. For example, Bifidobacterium and Clostridium have been shown to selectively colonize tumors and to reduce tumor size. In addition, recent studies have focused on the use of genetic engineering to induce the expression of pro-drug converting enzymes, cytokines, specific antibodies, or suicide genes in tumor-colonizing bacteria. Moreover, some animal experiments have reported the treatment of tumors with engineered bacteria, and few side effects were observed. Therefore, based on these advances in tumor targeting therapy, bacteria may represent the next generation of cancer therapy.

  5. Flavonoids and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling: Potential Role in Colorectal Cancer Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália G. Amado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is now well documented that natural products have played an important role in anticancer therapy. Many studies focus on the ability of these natural compounds to modulate tumor-related signaling pathways and the relationship of these properties to an anticancer effect. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death among men and women. Therefore, finding strategies to fight against CRC is an emergent health problem. CRC has a strong association with deregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. As some types of natural compounds are capable of modulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, one important question is whether they could counteract CRC. In this review, we discuss the role of flavonoids, a class of natural compounds, on Wnt/β-catenin regulation and its possible potential for therapeutic usage on colorectal cancer.

  6. Bacteriophage therapy: a potential solution for the antibiotic resistance crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Zhabiz; Bagasra, Omar; Pace, Donald Gene

    2014-02-13

    The emergence of multiple drug-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional antimicrobials. One of the possible replacement options for antibiotics is the use of bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents. Phage therapy is an important alternative to antibiotics in the current era of drug-resistant pathogens. Bacteriophages have played an important role in the expansion of molecular biology and have been used as antibacterial agents since 1966. In this review, we describe a brief history of bacteriophages and clinical studies on their use in bacterial disease prophylaxis and therapy. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of bacteriophages as therapeutic agents in this regard.

  7. Telehealth problem-solving therapy for depressed low-income homebound older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Hegel, Mark T; Marti, Nathan; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Sirrianni, Leslie; Bruce, Martha L

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the acceptance and preliminary efficacy of in-home telehealth delivery of problem-solving therapy (tele-PST) among depressed low-income homebound older adults in a pilot randomized control trial designed to test its feasibility and preliminary efficacy. A total of 121 homebound individuals who were age 50+ and scored 15+ on the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) participated in the three-arm randomized control trial, comparing tele-PST with in-person PST and telephone support calls. Six sessions of the PST-primary care were conducted for the PST participants. For tele-PST, sessions 2-6 were conducted via Skype video call. Acceptance of tele-PST or in-person PST was measured with the 11-item, 7-point scale modified Treatment Evaluation Inventory (TEI). A mixed-effect regression analysis was used to examine the effects of treatment group, time, and the interaction term between treatment group and time on the HAMD scores. The TEI score was slightly higher among tele-PST participants than among in-person PST participants. The HAMD scores of tele-PST participants and in-person PST participants at a 12-week follow-up were significantly lower than those of telephone support call participants, and the treatment effects were maintained at a 24-week follow-up. The HAMD scores of tele-PST participants did not differ from those of in-person PST participants. Despite their initial skepticism, almost all participants had extremely positive attitudes toward tele-PST at the 12-week followup. Tele-PST also appears to be an efficacious treatment modality for depressed homebound older adults and to have significant potential to facilitate their access to treatment.

  8. The relationship between interpersonal problems, therapeutic alliance, and outcomes following group and individual cognitive behaviour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Nathan, Paula

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is efficacious, but there remains individual variability in outcomes. Patient's interpersonal problems may affect treatment outcomes, either directly or through a relationship mediated by helping alliance. Interpersonal problems may affect alliance and outcomes differentially in individual and group (CBGT) treatments. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between interpersonal problems, alliance, dropout and outcomes for a clinical sample receiving either individual or group CBT for anxiety or depression in a community clinic. Patients receiving individual CBT (N=84) or CBGT (N=115) completed measures of interpersonal problems, alliance, and disorder specific symptoms at the commencement and completion of CBT. In CBGT higher pre-treatment interpersonal problems were associated with increased risk of dropout and poorer outcomes. This relationship was not mediated by alliance. In individual CBT those who reported higher alliance were more likely to complete treatment, although alliance was not associated with symptom change, and interpersonal problems were not related to attrition or outcome. Allocation to group and individual therapy was non-random, so selection bias may have influenced these results. Some analyses were only powered to detect large effects. Helping alliance ratings were high, so range restriction may have obscured the relationship between helping alliance, attrition and outcomes. Pre-treatment interpersonal problems increase risk of dropout and predict poorer outcomes in CBGT, but not in individual CBT, and this relationship is not mediated by helping alliance. Stronger alliance is associated with treatment completion in individual, but not group CBT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Issues and Ethical Problems of Stem Cell Therapy – Where is Hippocrates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Rousková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells and their therapeutic use present many questions associated with ethical problems in medicine. There is great effort on the part of physicians to help millions of patients while there are ethical problems with the use of new methods and technologies and all of these are affected by economic and political influences. How will the current generation deal with these problems? Medicine, in this begard, is experiencing a stormy evolution of human culture in the relationships between disease, patient and doctor. Philosophy approaches the same juncture of human culture, but seemingly from the other side. Both disciplines are facing a great problem: How to unite the content of current human morality and the desire for health? Both philosophers and physicians perceive this deficit in human culture as it does not provide immediately usable normatives, which the living generation of healthy and ill is waiting for. It may be said that medicine, as many times before, has reached a stage where it cannot rely only on the proved axiologic values from the past, ethical normatives or cultivated moral sense of its subjects. Medicine has no other alternative than to take an active part in resolution of interdisciplinary problems originating from philosophic-biologic or philosophic-medical inquiries of axiologic, ethical, and moral issues. Our paper indicates some ways of the search in forming ethical principles of the stem-cell therapy from the view of biologists and physicians. New ways are recommended in theoretical-methodological interdisciplinary research, especially, in theoretical and experimental biology, and theoretical and clinical medicine, as well as philosophy. In this paper important ethical problems are pointed out in order to find answers to some key problems connected with cell therapy and the use of stem cells.

  10. Extending parent-child interaction therapy for early childhood internalizing problems: new advances for an overlooked population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Aubrey L; Puliafico, Anthony C; Kurtz, Steven M S; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-12-01

    Although efficacious psychological treatments for internalizing disorders are now well established for school-aged children, until recently there have regrettably been limited empirical efforts to clarify indicated psychological intervention methods for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders presenting in early childhood. Young children lack many of the developmental capacities required to effectively participate in established treatments for mood and anxiety problems presenting in older children, making simple downward extensions of these treatments for the management of preschool internalizing problems misguided. In recent years, a number of research groups have successfully adapted and modified parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), originally developed to treat externalizing problems in young children, to treat various early internalizing problems with a set of neighboring protocols. As in traditional PCIT, these extensions target child symptoms by directly reshaping parent-child interaction patterns associated with the maintenance of symptoms. The present review outlines this emerging set of novel PCIT adaptations and modifications for mood and anxiety problems in young children and reviews preliminary evidence supporting their use. Specifically, we cover (a) PCIT for early separation anxiety disorder; (b) the PCIT-CALM (Coaching Approach behavior and Leading by Modeling) Program for the full range of early anxiety disorders; (c) the group Turtle Program for behavioral inhibition; and (d) the PCIT-ED (Emotional Development) Program for preschool depression. In addition, emerging PCIT-related protocols in need of empirical attention--such as the PCIT-SM (selective mutism) Program for young children with SM--are also considered. Implications of these protocols are discussed with regard to their unique potential to address the clinical needs of young children with internalizing problems. Obstacles to broad dissemination are addressed, and we consider

  11. Extending Parent–Child Interaction Therapy for Early Childhood Internalizing Problems: New Advances for an Overlooked Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliafico, Anthony C.; Kurtz, Steven M. S.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Although efficacious psychological treatments for internalizing disorders are now well established for school-aged children, until recently there have regrettably been limited empirical efforts to clarify indicated psychological intervention methods for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders presenting in early childhood. Young children lack many of the developmental capacities required to effectively participate in established treatments for mood and anxiety problems presenting in older children, making simple downward extensions of these treatments for the management of preschool internalizing problems misguided. In recent years, a number of research groups have successfully adapted and modified parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT), originally developed to treat externalizing problems in young children, to treat various early internalizing problems with a set of neighboring protocols. As in traditional PCIT, these extensions target child symptoms by directly reshaping parent–child interaction patterns associated with the maintenance of symptoms. The present review outlines this emerging set of novel PCIT adaptations and modifications for mood and anxiety problems in young children and reviews preliminary evidence supporting their use. Specifically, we cover (a) PCIT for early separation anxiety disorder; (b) the PCIT-CALM (Coaching Approach behavior and Leading by Modeling) Program for the full range of early anxiety disorders; (c) the group Turtle Program for behavioral inhibition; and (d) the PCIT-ED (Emotional Development) Program for preschool depression. In addition, emerging PCIT-related protocols in need of empirical attention—such as the PCIT-SM (selective mutism) Program for young children with SM—are also considered. Implications of these protocols are discussed with regard to their unique potential to address the clinical needs of young children with internalizing problems. Obstacles to broad dissemination are addressed, and we consider

  12. [Conservative therapy of female urinary incontinence--potential and effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcicka, L; Chmel, R; Novácková, M

    2005-01-01

    Non-surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence is not as effective as surgical methods but it is very successful in indicated cases. Rehabilitation of the pelvic floor muscles (Kegel exercises, vaginal cones, and electrostimulation of the pelvic floor muscles), drug treatment (alfa-mimetics, tricyclic antidepressives, estrogens, duloxetin), pessarotherapy and uretral obturator devices represent possibilities of conservative therapy of the stress incontinence. Conservative therapy is the method of choice in the treatment of urge incontinence. The most successful are anticholinergic drugs but they have very frequent serious side effects (dryness of the mucous membranes, accommodation disorders, constipation). Spasmolytics, estrogens and tricyclic antidepressives are the other popular used drugs. Life style modification, bladder training and electrostimulation represent very important parts of the conservative treatment. Effectiveness of the non-surgical treatment of both urge and stress urinary incontinence can not reach 100 percent but it helps very much in the quality of life improvement of incontinent women.

  13. Potential future neuroprotective therapies for neurodegenerative disorders and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarawneh, Rawan; Galvin, James E

    2010-02-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying neuronal loss and neurodegeneration have been an area of interest in the last decade. Although neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and Huntington disease each have distinct clinical symptoms and pathologies, they all share common mechanisms such as protein aggregation, oxidative injury, inflammation, apoptosis, and mitochondrial injury that contribute to neuronal loss. Although cerebrovascular disease has different causes from the neurodegenerative disorders, many of the same common disease mechanisms come into play following a stroke. Novel therapies that target each of these mechanisms may be effective in decreasing the risk of disease, abating symptoms, or slowing down their progression. Although most of these therapies are experimental, and require further investigation, a few seem to offer promise.

  14. Linking ER Stress to Autophagy: Potential Implications for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Verfaillie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different physiological and pathological conditions can perturb protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to a condition known as ER stress. ER stress activates a complex intracellular signal transduction pathway, called unfolded protein response (UPR. The UPR is tailored essentially to reestablish ER homeostasis also through adaptive mechanisms involving the stimulation of autophagy. However, when persistent, ER stress can switch the cytoprotective functions of UPR and autophagy into cell death promoting mechanisms. Recently, a variety of anticancer therapies have been linked to the induction of ER stress in cancer cells, suggesting that strategies devised to stimulate its prodeath function or block its prosurvival function, could be envisaged to improve their tumoricidial action. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that determine the final outcome of UPR and autophagy activation by chemotherapeutic agents, will offer new opportunities to improve existing cancer therapies as well as unravel novel targets for cancer treatment.

  15. Potential for Stem Cell-Based Periodontal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassir, Seyed Hossein; Wisitrasameewong, Wichaya; Raanan, Justin; Ghaffarigarakani, Sasan; Chung, Jamie; Freire, Marcelo; Andrada, Luciano C.; Intini, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and are linked to several systemic diseases. The goal of periodontal treatment is to halt the progression of the disease and regenerate the damaged tissue. However, achieving complete and functional periodontal regeneration is challenging because the periodontium is a complex apparatus composed of different tissues, including bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament. Stem cell-based regenerative therapy may represent an effective therapeutic tool for periodontal regeneration due to their plasticity and ability to differentiate into different cell lineages. This review presents and critically analyzes the available information on stem cell-based therapy for the regeneration of periodontal tissues and suggests new avenues for the development of more effective therapeutic protocols. PMID:26058394

  16. Problems and Solutions in Achieving Uniform Dose Distribution in Superficial Total Body Electron Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P. P.; Henschke, U. K.; Nibhanupudy, J. Rao

    1977-01-01

    In treating mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary syndrome patients with electron beam, the entire thickness and the area of the skin from crown to sole should be irradiated uniformly. To achieve irradiation of the entire thickness of the skin, electron beams of 3 - 4 MeV energy with 80 percent depth dose at 6 mm is sufficient. This unique property of limited penetration of electron beam does not cause any systemic toxicity during or after total body electron therapy. However, this property of limited penetration of electrons poses the problem of self-shielding in the curvaceous human body. The optic lens, which is within the range of penetrability of electron beam energy used for total body electron therapy, is to be shielded artificially. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the problems of self and artificial shielding in the superficial total body electron therapy for MF and Sezary syndrome. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:143541

  17. Occupational Therapy Interventions Effect on Mathematical Problems in Students with Special Learning Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogaieh Mohammadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dyscalculia is specific learning disabilities affecting the acquisition of mathematic skills in an otherwise normal child. The aim of this study was investigation of occupational therapy interventions effect on mathematical problems in students with special learning disorders. Methods: 40 students with dyscalculia (2-5 grades were selected and divided through randomized permuted blocks method into two groups 20 persons as intervention group and the others as the control group. Initially both of groups were administered by the "Iran Key math Test". Then intervention group received occupational therapy interventions for 20 sessions individually and two groups were administered by the Test again. Data was analyzed by using Paired and Independent t-tests. Results: By the paired sample t-test the mean of total marks of Iran Key math Test demonstrated statistically significant difference in both of groups (P<0.05, but the measure of difference in intervention group was more than control group. The mean of marks of Basic Concepts, Operations and Applications demonstrated statistically significant difference at intervention group. Discussion: Occupational therapy interventions had clinical effect on mathematical problems in students with special learning disorders.

  18. ELECTED PROBLEMS RELATED TO ENVIRONMENTAL HEAVY METALS EXPOSURE AND CHELATION THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoczyńska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to heavy metals leads to functional and metabolic disturbances and many of them are included in pathogenesis of common diseases (arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative processes. In this context new therapeutic and prophylactic strategies are necessary. Patients diagnosed with chronic heavy metals intoxication usually require chelation to increase mobilisation of metals from tissues and elimination of them via urine. Acute poisoning with toxic metal may be difficult to diagnosis, especially in case of accidental intoxication or suicidal intention. Patients also require chelation after causative factor is identified. Objectives: To describe some problems connected with toxicity of metals poisoning and to review pharmacologic therapies that could have a role in poisoning with metals. Methods: A review of the literature was carried out and expert opinion expressed. Results/conclusion: Chelation is a common therapy in case of poisoning with toxic metals but it is satisfied only partially. A combined therapy with structurally different chelators or long-term acting chelators could become viable alternatives in the future. A combined therapy with an antioxidant plus chelator may be a good choice in patients chronically poisoned with metals. Exposure to lead should be taken into account during estimation of global cardiovascular risk.

  19. Problem-based learning in occupational therapy: why do health professionals choose to tutor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mary; Tryssenaar, Joyce; Jung, Bonny

    2001-10-01

    For over 20 years the occupational therapy programmes offered by McMaster University and Mohawk College, Hamilton, Ontario have used small-group, problem-based learning tutorials as a major component of their curriculum. These programmes were among the first occupational therapy programmes in the world to use a problem-based tutorial format. The inclusion as tutors of both full-time faculty and clinicians, from all clinical practice areas, was central to the design of the problem-based learning courses. A survey of all tutors from the last 20 years collected information about why health professionals are motivated to tutor and what they see as challenges to maintaining this educational role. Three primary themes emerged from the data: being an educator; being a learner and present and future challenges to continuing with the tutoring role. Within the educator theme there was a secondary theme of professional duty or obligation. In addition, the participants identified suggestions for enhanced support and continuing education for tutors. This article summarizes the findings of the survey.

  20. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  1. The arithmetic problem size effect in children: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen eVan Beek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ≤ 10 and large problem size (sum > 10 and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1 and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component (LPC, which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties.

  2. Purple sweet potato colour--a potential therapy for galactosemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timson, David J

    2014-06-01

    Galactosemia is an inherited metabolic disease in which galactose is not properly metabolised. There are various theories to explain the molecular pathology, and recent experimental evidence strongly suggests that oxidative stress plays a key role. High galactose diets are damaging to experimental animals and oxidative stress also plays a role in this toxicity which can be alleviated by purple sweet potato colour (PSPC). This plant extract is rich in acetylated anthocyanins which have been shown to quench free radical production. The objective of this Commentary is to advance the hypothesis that PSPC, or compounds therefrom, may be a viable basis for a novel therapy for galactosemia.

  3. Potential applications of nanotechnologies to Parkinson's disease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linazasoro, G

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology will play a key role in developing new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Nanotechnologies use engineered materials with the smallest functional organization on the nanometre scale in at least one dimension. Some aspects of the material can be manipulated resulting in new functional properties. Nanotechnology could provide devices to limit and reverse neuropathological disease states, to support and promote functional regeneration of damaged neurons, to provide neuroprotection and to facilitate the delivery of drugs and small molecules across the blood-brain barrier. All of them are relevant to improve current therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD).

  4. Asymmetric salivary gland uptake: Potential pitfall following radioiodide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavin, J.D. Jr.; Mack, J.M.; Spencer, R.P.

    1987-10-01

    A 67-year old woman, with prior radioiodide (/sup 131/I) therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, had a follow-up scan that revealed asymmetric accumulation in the left upper neck and cheek regions. This resembled functioning metastatic tissue. An immediate /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate image demonstrated accumulation in the same areas. This corresponded to activity in the left submandibular gland and parotid. Hence, asymmetric salivary gland uptake was mimicking functional thyroid metastases. Possible causes of the disparate salivary gland function were discussed.

  5. Infection therapy: the problem of drug resistance – and possible solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Brüssow, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Summary The rising antibiotic resistance in major bacterial pathogens together with the breakdown of the antibiotic discovery platform creates a critical situation for infection therapy. Recent developments reviving new antibiotic discovery from defining chemical rules for membrane‐passing compounds to isolation chips for soil bacteria and exploring the human microbiome for antibiotic‐producing bacteria are discussed. The potential of bacteriocins, tailocins, phage lysins, phages, probiotics ...

  6. Elastase inhibitors as potential therapies for ELANE-associated neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaryan, Vahagn; Kelley, Merideth L; Fletcher, Breanna; Bolyard, Audrey Anna; Aprikyan, A Andrew; Dale, David C

    2017-10-01

    Mutations in ELANE, the gene for neutrophil elastase (NE), a protease expressed early in neutrophil development, are the most frequent cause of cyclic (CyN) and severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). We hypothesized that inhibitors of NE, acting either by directly inhibiting enzymatic activity or as chaperones for the mutant protein, might be effective as therapy for CyN and SCN. We investigated β-lactam-based inhibitors of human NE (Merck Research Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ, USA), focusing on 1 inhibitor called MK0339, a potent, orally absorbed agent that had been tested in clinical trials and shown to have a favorable safety profile. Because fresh, primary bone marrow cells are rarely available in sufficient quantities for research studies, we used 3 cellular models: patient-derived, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); HL60 cells transiently expressing mutant NE; and HL60 cells with regulated expression of the mutant enzyme. In all 3 models, the cells expressing the mutant enzyme had reduced survival as measured with annexin V and FACS. Coincubation with the inhibitors, particularly MK0339, promoted cell survival and increased formation of mature neutrophils. These studies suggest that cell-permeable inhibitors of neutrophil elastase show promise as novel therapies for ELANE-associated neutropenia. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  7. Lightweight aircraft engines, the potential and problems for use of automotive fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive fuels as a substitute for aviation grade fuel by piston-type general aviation aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with fuels were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: fuel specification requirements, combustion knock, preignition, vapor lock, spark plug fouling, additives for fuel and oil, and storage stability.

  8. Maximizing the potential of early childhood education to prevent externalizing behavior problems: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, HS; Kholoptseva, J; Oh, SS; Yoshikawa, H.; Duncan, GJ; Magnuson, KA; Shonkoff, JP

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Early childhood education (ECE) programs offer a promising mechanism for preventing early externalizing behavior problems and later antisocial behavior; yet, questions remain about how to best maximize ECE's potential. Using a meta-analytic database of 31 studies, we examined the overall effect of ECE on externalizing behavior problems and the differential effects of 3 levels of practice, each with increasing specificity and intensity aimed a...

  9. Teaching ill-structured problem solving using occupational therapy practice epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Anita Witt

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epistemic and ontological cognition (EOC) have to do with an individual's beliefs about knowledge and knowing. Research has shown that EOC have an influence on learning and achievement. EOC may be discipline-specific with a profession being defined by its practice epistemology. If an individual's EOC is inconsistent with the profession's practice epistemology, the student or practitioner may struggle with effectively solving ill-structured occupational performance problems. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the constructs of EOC, to describe its importance to occupational therapy education and practice, and to provide recommendations for educators and researchers. Specific examples are detailed and recommendations for future research are proposed.

  10. Conservative treatment and rehabilitation of shoulder problems; Konservative Therapie und Rehabilitation von Schulterbeschwerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paternostro-Sluga, T.; Zoech, C. [Klinik fuer Physikalische Medizin und Rehabilitation, Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Medizinischen Universitaet Wien (Austria)

    2004-06-01

    The shoulder joint has an important influence on arm- and handfunction. Therefore, activities of daily living, working and leisure time can be negatively influenced by diseases of the shoulder joint. Problems of the shoulder joint can be induced by muscular dysbalance and poor body posture. There is a strong relationship between shoulder function and body posture. Conservative treatment and rehabilitation of the shoulder joint aims at improving the local dysfunction of the shoulder joint as well as at improving function and social participation. Antiinflammatory and pain medication, exercise, occupational, electro-, ultrasound and shock wave therapy, massage, thermotherapy and pulsed electromagnetic fields are used as conservative treatments. Exercise therapy aims at improving muscular performance, joint mobility and body posture. Occupational therapy aims at improving functional movements for daily living and work. Electrotherapy is primarily used to relieve pain. Shock wave and ultrasound therapy proved to be an effective treatment for patients with calcific tendinitis. The subacromial impingement syndrome can be effectively treated by conservative therapy. (orig.) [German] Aufgrund der zentralen Rolle des Schultergelenks fuer die Arm- und Handfunktion koennen Erkrankungen des Schultergelenks zu einer erheblichen Beeintraechtigung in Alltag, Beruf und Freizeit fuehren. Muskulaere Dysbalancen und Fehlhaltungen sind haeufige Ursachen fuer Schulterbeschwerden. Es besteht eine enge Beziehung zwischen Schulterfunktion und Koerperhaltung. Therapieziele in der konservativen Behandlung und Rehabilitation sind neben der Verbesserung der lokalen Situation das Wiedererlangen der Funktion und sozialen Partizipation. Zu den konservativen Therapiemassnahmen zaehlen medikamentoese, Bewegungs-, Ergo-, Elektro-, Ultraschall- und Stosswellentherapie, Massage, Thermo- und Magnetfeldtherapie. Muskulaere Dysbalancen und Fehlhaltungen sind durch bewegungstherapeutische Massnahmen gut

  11. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore, to combat chloride corrosion problems cofiring of biomass with a fossil fuel has been....... However, the most significant corrosion attack was sulphidation attack at the grain boundaries of 18-8 steel after 3 years exposure. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion rates are compared with biomass firing and coal firing. Potential corrosion problems due to co-firing biomass and fossil fuels...

  12. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore to combat chloride corrosion problems co-firing of biomass with a fossil fuel has been undertaken...... significant corrosion attack was due to sulphidation attack at the grain boundaries of 18-8 steel after 3 years exposure. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion rates are compared with biomass firing and coal firing. Potential corrosion problems due to co-firing biomass and fossil fuels are discussed....

  13. Potential implications of cell therapy for osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyibizi, Christopher; Li, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a brittle-bone disease whose hallmark is bone fragility. Since the disease is genetic, there is currently no available cure. Several pharmacological agents have been tried with not much success, except the recent use of bisphosphonates. Stem cells have been suggested as an alternative OI treatment, but many hurdles remain before this technology can be applied for treating patients with OI. This review summarizes what is known at present regarding the application of stem cells to treat OI using animal models, clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells to treat patients with OI and the knowledge gained from the clinical trials. Application of gene therapy in combination with stem cells is also discussed. The hurdles to be overcome to bring stem cells close to the clinic and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:20490372

  14. Nanoparticles: their potential use in antibacterial photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perni, Stefano; Prokopovich, P; Pratten, Jonathan; Parkin, Ivan P; Wilson, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proposed as a new technique to inactivate microorganisms as it does not lead to the selection of mutant resistant strains; a clear benefit compared to antibiotic treatment. PDT has also attracted the interest of nanotechnology as the effectiveness of the treatment can be greatly enhanced by the use of nanoparticles. In the last decade, different approaches to the combination of nanoparticles and PDT have been investigated in relation to the antimicrobial applications of the technique. One use of the nanoparticles is to improve the delivery of photosensitiser to the bacteria; others use the nanoparticles to improve the inactivation kinetics. A different approach utilises nanoparticles as a photosensitiser. In this review these diverse types of interactions will be described.

  15. Visceral Blood Flow Modulation: Potential Therapy for Morbid Obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Tyler J., E-mail: tjharris@gmail.com [University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Murphy, Timothy P.; Jay, Bryan S. [Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Vascular Disease Research Center (United States); Hampson, Christopher O.; Zafar, Abdul M. [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-06-15

    We present this preliminary investigation into the safety and feasibility of endovascular therapy for morbid obesity in a swine model. A flow-limiting, balloon-expandable covered stent was placed in the superior mesenteric artery of three Yorkshire swine after femoral arterial cutdown. The pigs were monitored for between 15 and 51 days after the procedure and then killed, with weights obtained at 2-week increments. In the two pigs in which the stent was flow limiting, a reduced rate of weight gain (0.42 and 0.53 kg/day) was observed relative to the third pig (0.69 kg/day), associated with temporary food aversion and signs of mesenteric ischemia in one pig.

  16. Reperfusion therapy for ischemic stroke in the Russian Federation: Problems and promises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Shamalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current technologies for treating ischemic stroke (IS within the first 4.5 hours after its onset involve highly effective brain substance reperfusion techniques (thrombolytic therapy (TLT aimed at restoring blood flow in the affected vessel. There has been a substantial increase in the number of systemic TLT procedures after establishing stroke subdivisions as part of regional vascular centers and primary vascular departments in our country. In the past 5 years, the number of IS patients undergoing systemic thrombolysis has virtually risen 10-fold. In 2009–2013, the primary and regional centers of the Russian Federation performed 10,718 systemic TLT procedures mainly in patients with moderate stroke. The further increase in the number of reperfusion procedures in IS patients is hindered by the fact that they seek medical advice too late for acute cerebrovascular attack (ACVA because the population has low medical knowledge (therefore education campaigns are so important for the population to increase its awareness of the signs of ACVA, prehospital delays and problems, poor organization of hospital admission (delays in diagnostic procedures.It is important that the patients should be admitted to specialized ACVA departments as soon as possible. According to the AHA/ASA guidelines, the time between admission and TLT initiation (door-to-needle time should not exceed 60 minutes. The major factors influencing the door-to-needle time are as follows: the time between admission and neurological examination, that between neuroimaging and its results, that of examination of necessary laboratory findings, that between admission and transfer to an intensive care unit after computed tomography. One may identify the following quality indices of the procedures (necessary diagnostic, therapeutic, and other interventions, which negatively affect the safety and efficiency of TLT: errors in determining contraindications to reperfusion, noncompliance with the

  17. ANTIPLATELET THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH HIGH RISK OF THROMBOTIC EVENTS: THE PROBLEM OF EFFICIENCY, SAFETY AND COMPLIANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence based medicine data on ability of antiplatelet, including dual antiplatelet, therapy to improve the life expectancy of patients with high risk of thrombotic complications, especially patients with acute myocardial infarction is presented in brief. The problem of choosing a drug and resistance was overcoming. Modern clinical guidelines on safe antiplatelet therapy are presented.

  18. Potential Use of Biological Proteins for Liver Failure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Taguchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological proteins have unlimited potential for use as pharmaceutical products due to their various biological activities, which include non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Recent scientific advances allow for the development of novel innovative protein-based products that draw on the quality of their innate biological activities. Some of them hold promising potential for novel therapeutic agents/devices for addressing hepatic diseases such as hepatitis, fibrosis, and hepatocarcinomas. This review attempts to provide an overview of the development of protein-based products that take advantage of their biological activity for medication, and discusses possibilities for the therapeutic potential of protein-based products produced through different approaches to specifically target the liver (or hepatic cells: hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and Kupffer cells in the treatment of hepatic diseases.

  19. Behavioral Sleep Problems and their Potential Impact on Developing Executive Function in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Kathryn; Reid, Graham J; Morton, J Bruce

    2013-07-01

    Bedtime resistance and night waking are common sleep problems throughout childhood, especially in the early years. These sleep problems may lead to difficulties in neurobehavioral functioning, but most research into childhood sleep problems has not emphasized the importance of the developmental context in which disruptions in neurobehavioral and daytime functioning occur. We review the development of sleep as well as executive functioning (EF) in childhood and suggest that EF may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of these common childhood sleep problems because of its prolonged course of maturation. Behavioral problems associated with common sleep problems suggest poor self-regulation in the context of sleep loss, and developing EF skills play important roles in self-regulation. A research agenda that considers a developmental approach to sleep and sleep problems in the context of childhood EF performance is outlined to promote future research in this area. Turnbull K; Reid GJ; Morton JB. Behavioral sleep problems and their potential impact on developing executive function in children. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1077-1084.

  20. The Potential of Plant Phenolics in Prevention and Therapy of Skin Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Działo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds constitute a group of secondary metabolites which have important functions in plants. Besides the beneficial effects on the plant host, phenolic metabolites (polyphenols exhibit a series of biological properties that influence the human in a health-promoting manner. Evidence suggests that people can benefit from plant phenolics obtained either by the diet or through skin application, because they can alleviate symptoms and inhibit the development of various skin disorders. Due to their natural origin and low toxicity, phenolic compounds are a promising tool in eliminating the causes and effects of skin aging, skin diseases, and skin damage, including wounds and burns. Polyphenols also act protectively and help prevent or attenuate the progression of certain skin disorders, both embarrassing minor problems (e.g., wrinkles, acne or serious, potentially life-threatening diseases such as cancer. This paper reviews the latest reports on the potential therapy of skin disorders through treatment with phenolic compounds, considering mostly a single specific compound or a combination of compounds in a plant extract.

  1. The Potential of Plant Phenolics in Prevention and Therapy of Skin Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Działo, Magdalena; Mierziak, Justyna; Korzun, Urszula; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-02-18

    Phenolic compounds constitute a group of secondary metabolites which have important functions in plants. Besides the beneficial effects on the plant host, phenolic metabolites (polyphenols) exhibit a series of biological properties that influence the human in a health-promoting manner. Evidence suggests that people can benefit from plant phenolics obtained either by the diet or through skin application, because they can alleviate symptoms and inhibit the development of various skin disorders. Due to their natural origin and low toxicity, phenolic compounds are a promising tool in eliminating the causes and effects of skin aging, skin diseases, and skin damage, including wounds and burns. Polyphenols also act protectively and help prevent or attenuate the progression of certain skin disorders, both embarrassing minor problems (e.g., wrinkles, acne) or serious, potentially life-threatening diseases such as cancer. This paper reviews the latest reports on the potential therapy of skin disorders through treatment with phenolic compounds, considering mostly a single specific compound or a combination of compounds in a plant extract.

  2. The Potential of Plant Phenolics in Prevention and Therapy of Skin Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Działo, Magdalena; Mierziak, Justyna; Korzun, Urszula; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds constitute a group of secondary metabolites which have important functions in plants. Besides the beneficial effects on the plant host, phenolic metabolites (polyphenols) exhibit a series of biological properties that influence the human in a health-promoting manner. Evidence suggests that people can benefit from plant phenolics obtained either by the diet or through skin application, because they can alleviate symptoms and inhibit the development of various skin disorders. Due to their natural origin and low toxicity, phenolic compounds are a promising tool in eliminating the causes and effects of skin aging, skin diseases, and skin damage, including wounds and burns. Polyphenols also act protectively and help prevent or attenuate the progression of certain skin disorders, both embarrassing minor problems (e.g., wrinkles, acne) or serious, potentially life-threatening diseases such as cancer. This paper reviews the latest reports on the potential therapy of skin disorders through treatment with phenolic compounds, considering mostly a single specific compound or a combination of compounds in a plant extract. PMID:26901191

  3. Three-year dynamics and unsolved problems of lipid-lowering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sergeeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the lipid-lowering therapy, the adequacy of its control, as well as the awareness of patients at a high cardiovascular risk of atherosclerosis problems and the dynamics of these parameters in 3 years. Material and methods. Patients with dyslipidemia (113 patients in 2011 and 100 patients in 2014 who were treated in the cardiology clinic were examined. Patient survey on the lipid-lowering therapy and its monitoring was conducted. Medical records of patients were studied also. Results. The number of patients informed on atherosclerosis aspects increased from 52% to 59% (p>0.05 in 3 years. Laboratory control of lipid metabolism remained inadequate. Insufficient lifestyle modification changes (diet, smoking, physical inactivity were present. Lipid-lowering drugs were regularly taken by 26% of the patients in 2011 and 29% in 2014 (p>0.05 and a control of lipid metabolism was absent in 12% and 14% of the patients, respectively (p>0.05. Only 27% of the patients gave the importance of lipid-lowering therapy 10 points on a 10-point scale. Conclusion. Dynamics of patients awareness on atherosclerosis and measures taken to correct and control lipid metabolism disorders were insignificant within 3 years. High costs of medication and the underestimation of treatment importance by the patient play an important role in poor adherence.

  4. Three-year dynamics and unsolved problems of lipid-lowering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sergeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the lipid-lowering therapy, the adequacy of its control, as well as the awareness of patients at a high cardiovascular risk of atherosclerosis problems and the dynamics of these parameters in 3 years. Material and methods. Patients with dyslipidemia (113 patients in 2011 and 100 patients in 2014 who were treated in the cardiology clinic were examined. Patient survey on the lipid-lowering therapy and its monitoring was conducted. Medical records of patients were studied also. Results. The number of patients informed on atherosclerosis aspects increased from 52% to 59% (p>0.05 in 3 years. Laboratory control of lipid metabolism remained inadequate. Insufficient lifestyle modification changes (diet, smoking, physical inactivity were present. Lipid-lowering drugs were regularly taken by 26% of the patients in 2011 and 29% in 2014 (p>0.05 and a control of lipid metabolism was absent in 12% and 14% of the patients, respectively (p>0.05. Only 27% of the patients gave the importance of lipid-lowering therapy 10 points on a 10-point scale. Conclusion. Dynamics of patients awareness on atherosclerosis and measures taken to correct and control lipid metabolism disorders were insignificant within 3 years. High costs of medication and the underestimation of treatment importance by the patient play an important role in poor adherence.

  5. Poschl-Teller potentials based solution to Hilbert's tenth problem Pöschl-Teller potentials based solution to Hilbert's tenth problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ospina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypercomputers compute functions or numbers, or more generally solve problems or carry out tasks, that cannot be computed or solved by a Turing machine. An adaptation of Tien D. Kieu¿s quantum hypercomputational algorithm is carried out for the dynamical algebra su(1, 1 of the Poschl-Teller potentials. The classically incomputable problem that is resolved with this hypercomputational algorithm is Hilbert¿s tenth problem. We indicated that an essential mathematical condition of these algorithms is the existence of infinitedimensional unitary irreducible representations of low dimensional dynamical algebras that allow the construction of coherent states of the Barut-Girardello type. In addition, we presented as a particular case of our hypercomputational algorithm on Poschl-Teller potentials, the hypercomputational algorithm on an infinite square well presented previously by the authors.Los hipercomputadores computan funciones o números, o en general solucionan problemas que no pueden ser computados o solucionados por una máquina de Turing. Se presenta una adaptación del algoritmo cuántico hipercomputacional propuesto por Tien D. Kieu, al álgebra dinámica su(1, 1 realizada en los potenciales Pöschl-Teller. El problema clásicamente incomputable que se resuelve con este algoritmo hipercomputacional es el d´ecimo problema de Hilbert. Se señala que una condición matemática fundamental para estos algoritmos es la existencia de una representación unitaria infinito dimensional irreducible de álgebras de baja dimensión que admitan la construcción de estados coherentes del tipo Barut-Girardello. Adicionalmente se presenta como caso límite del algoritmo propuesto sobre los potenciales Pöschl-Teller, el algoritmo hipercomputacional sobre la caja de potencial infinita construido previamente por los autores.

  6. Decreased Cortisol and Pain in Breast Cancer: Biofield Therapy Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Running

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women of all races. Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer; 75–90% of cancer patients experience pain during their illness and up to 50% of that pain is undertreated. Unrelieved pain leads to increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of bioenergy on fecal cortisol levels for mice injected with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 in two separate pilot studies. Using a multiple experimental group design, six to eight week old female BALB/c mice were injected with tumor and randomly assigned, in groups of 10, to daily treatment, every other day treatment, and no treatment groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, bioenergy interventions were begun for a period of ten consecutive days. Fecal samples were collected for each study and ELISA analysis was conducted at the end of both studies. For both studies, cortisol levels were decreased in the every other day treatment groups but remained high in the no treatment groups. Future studies utilizing bioenergy therapies on cortisol levels in a murine breast cancer model can begin to describe pain outcomes and therapeutic dose.

  7. EGFR transactivation: mechanisms, pathophysiology and potential therapies in cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Steven J.; Kawai, Tatsuo; Elliott, Katherine J.; O’Brien, Shannon; Thomas, Walter; Harris, Raymond C.; Eguchi, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating studies suggest that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation is associated with the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system, and inhibition of EGFR activity is emerging as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat diseases, including hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, renal fibrosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm. The capacity of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, such as angiotensin II (AngII), to promote EGFR signaling is well described – a process termed EGFR “transactivation” – yet delineating the molecular processes and functional relevance of this crosstalk has been challenging. Moreover, these critical findings are dispersed among many different fields. The aim of our review is to highlight the recent advancement of the signaling cascades and downstream consequences of EGFR transactivation within the cardiovascular renal system in vitro and in vivo. We will also focus on linking EGFR transactivation to animal models of the disease as well as the potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26566153

  8. Stem cells: Potential therapy for age-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha

    2006-01-01

    -engineered organs) to restore the functions of damaged or defective tissues and organs and thus to "rejuvenate" the failing aging body. One of the most important sources for cellular medicine is embryonic and adult (somatic) stem cells (SSCs). One example of SCCs with enormous clinical potential is the mesenchymal......Aging is associated with a progressive failing of tissues and organs of the human body leading to a large number of age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is an emerging clinical discipline that aims to employ cellular medicines (normal cells, ex vivo expanded cells, or tissue...... stem cells (MSCs) that are present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into cell types such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial cells, and probably also neuron-like cells. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, MSCs are among the first...

  9. The potential application of the blackboard model of problem solving to multidisciplinary design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James L.

    1989-01-01

    The potential application of the blackboard model of problem solving to multidisciplinary design is discussed. Multidisciplinary design problems are complex, poorly structured, and lack a predetermined decision path from the initial starting point to the final solution. The final solution is achieved using data from different engineering disciplines. Ideally, for the final solution to be the optimum solution, there must be a significant amount of communication among the different disciplines plus intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary optimization. In reality, this is not what happens in today's sequential approach to multidisciplinary design. Therefore it is highly unlikely that the final solution is the true optimum solution from an interdisciplinary optimization standpoint. A multilevel decomposition approach is suggested as a technique to overcome the problems associated with the sequential approach, but no tool currently exists with which to fully implement this technique. A system based on the blackboard model of problem solving appears to be an ideal tool for implementing this technique because it offers an incremental problem solving approach that requires no a priori determined reasoning path. Thus it has the potential of finding a more optimum solution for the multidisciplinary design problems found in today's aerospace industries.

  10. Hendra and Nipah Infection: Pathology, Models and Potential Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigant, Frederic; Lee, Benhur

    2011-01-01

    The Paramyxoviridae family comprises of several genera that contain emerging or re-emerging threats for human and animal health with no real specific effective treatment available. Hendra and Nipah virus are members of a newly identified genus of emerging paramyxoviruses, Henipavirus. Since their discovery in the 1990s, henipaviruses outbreaks have been associated with high economic and public health threat potential. When compared to other paramyxoviruses, henipaviruses appear to have unique characteristics. Henipaviruses are zoonotic paramyxoviruses with a broader tropism than most other paramyxoviruses, and can cause severe acute encephalitis with unique features among viral encephalitides. There are currently no approved effective prophylactic or therapeutic treatments for henipavirus infections. Although ribavirin was empirically used and seemed beneficial during the biggest outbreak caused by one of these viruses, the Nipah virus, its efficacy is disputed in light of its lack of efficacy in several animal models of henipavirus infection. Nevertheless, because of its highly pathogenic nature, much effort has been spent in developing anti-henipavirus therapeutics. In this review we describe the unique features of henipavirus infections and the different strategies and animal models that have been developed so far in order to identify and test potential drugs to prevent or treat henipavirus infections. Some of these components have the potential to be broad-spectrum antivirals as they target effectors of viral pathogenecity common to other viruses. We will focus on small molecules or biologics, rather than vaccine strategies, that have been developed as anti-henipaviral therapeutics. PMID:21488828

  11. The Analysis of the Emotional Intelligence Skills and Potential Problem Areas of Elementary Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufhold, John A.; Johnson, Lori R.

    2005-01-01

    The study's purpose was to examine emotional intelligence skills and potential problem areas of elementary educators. The study provided elementary educators with a self-assessment of emotional intelligence skills to utilize in the workplace and beyond. An improved understanding of personal skills and weaknesses may lessen educator's risk of…

  12. An examination of the potential applications of automatic classification techniques to Georgia management problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, B. Q.

    1975-01-01

    Automatic classification techniques are described in relation to future information and natural resource planning systems with emphasis on application to Georgia resource management problems. The concept, design, and purpose of Georgia's statewide Resource AS Assessment Program is reviewed along with participation in a workshop at the Earth Resources Laboratory. Potential areas of application discussed include: agriculture, forestry, water resources, environmental planning, and geology.

  13. Potential use of FGD gypsum for overcoming environmental problems in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural productivity is constrained by unfavorable soil, climate and management factors in the southeastern USA. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) has the potential for alleviating some of these problems but its effectiveness in southeastern environments needs to be established by addition...

  14. Exploring the antimalarial potential of whole Cymbopogon citratus plant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuocha, Uchechukwu M; Fernández-Rivera, Omar; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2016-12-04

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) has been used in traditional medicine as an herbal infusion to treat fever and malaria. Generally, whole plant extracts possess higher biological activity than purified compounds. However, the antimalarial activity of the whole C. citratus plant has not been experimentally tested. To evaluate the antimalarial activity of an herbal infusion and the whole Cymbopogon citratus plant in two experimental models of malaria. The plant was dried for 10 days at room temperature and was then milled and passed through brass sieves to obtain a powder, which was administered to CBA/Ca mice with a patent Plasmodium chabaudi AS or P. berghei ANKA infection. We analysed the effects of two different doses (1600 and 3200mg/kg) compared with those of the herbal infusion and chloroquine, used as a positive control. We also assessed the prophylactic antimalarial activities of the whole C. citratus plant and the combination of the whole plant and chloroquine. The C. citratus whole plant exhibited prolonged antimalarial activity against both P. chabaudi AS and P. berghei ANKA. The low dose of the whole C. citratus plant displayed higher antimalarial activity than the high dose against P. berghei ANKA. As a prophylactic treatment, the whole plant exhibited higher antimalarial activity than either the herbal infusion or chloroquine. In addition, the combination of the whole C. citratus plant and chloroquine displayed higher activity than chloroquine alone against P. berghei ANKA patent infection. We demonstrated the antimalarial activity of the whole C. citratus plant in two experimental models. The whole C. citratus plant elicited higher anti-malarial activity than the herbal infusion or chloroquine when used as a prophylactic treatment. The antimalarial activity of the whole C. citratus plant supports continued efforts towards developing whole plant therapies for the management of malaria and other infectious diseases prevalent in resource

  15. GPs' use of problem solving therapy for depression: a qualitative study of barriers to and enablers of evidence based care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunn Jane

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a major health concern, predominantly treated by general practitioners (GPs. Problem solving therapy (PST is recognised as an effective treatment for depression that is not widely used by GPs. This research aims to explore barriers and enablers that may influence GPs use of this treatment. Method Qualitative methodology was used including individual and focus group interviews of GPs, PST experts and consumers. Analysis was undertaken using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB as a framework. Results A spectrum of potential influences, on GPs' use of PST emerged. Both barriers and enablers were identified. PST was perceived as being close to current practice approaches and potentially beneficial to both doctor and patient. In addition to a broadly positive attitude to PST, expressed by those with previous experience of its use, potential solutions to perceived barriers emerged. By contrast some GPs expressed fear that the use of PST would result in loss of doctor control of consultations and associated potential adverse patient outcomes. Patient expectations, which emerged as not always coinciding with GPs' perception of those expectations, were identified as a potential influence on GPs' decision concerning adoption of PST. In addition specific factors, including GP skill and confidence, consultation time constraints and technical issues related to PST were noted as potential concerns. Conclusion This research contributes to our knowledge of the factors that may influence GPs' decisions regarding use of PST as a treatment for depression. It recognises both barriers and enablers. It suggests that for many GPs, PST is viewed in a positive light, providing encouragement to those seeking to increase the provision of PST by GPs. In identifying a number of potential barriers, along with associated options to address many of these barriers, it provides insights which may assist in the planning of GP training in PST.

  16. Exploring the potential energy landscape of the Thomson problem via Newton homotopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Dhagash; Chen, Tianran; Morgan, John W. R.; Wales, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Locating the stationary points of a real-valued multivariate potential energy function is an important problem in many areas of science. This task generally amounts to solving simultaneous nonlinear systems of equations. While there are several numerical methods that can find many or all stationary points, they each exhibit characteristic problems. Moreover, traditional methods tend to perform poorly near degenerate stationary points with additional zero Hessian eigenvalues. We propose an efficient and robust implementation of the Newton homotopy method, which is capable of quickly sampling a large number of stationary points of a wide range of indices, as well as degenerate stationary points. We demonstrate our approach by applying it to the Thomson problem. We also briefly discuss a possible connection between the present work and Smale's 7th problem.

  17. Antimicrobial potential of bacteriocins: in therapy, agriculture and food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Varish; Khan, Mohd Sajid; Jamal, Qazi Mohammad Sajid; Alzohairy, Mohammad A; Al Karaawi, Mohammad A; Siddiqui, Mughees Uddin

    2017-01-01

    Due to the appearance of antibiotic resistance and the toxicity associated with currently used antibiotics, peptide antibiotics are the need of the hour. Thus, demand for new antimicrobial agents has brought great interest in new technologies to enhance safety. One such antimicrobial molecule is bacteriocin, synthesised by various micro-organisms. Bacteriocins are widely used in agriculture, veterinary medicine as a therapeutic, and as a food preservative agent to control various infectious and food-borne pathogens. In this review, we highlight the potential therapeutic and food preservative applications of bacteriocin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Play Therapy on Externalizing Behavior Problems Among Street and Working Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Ghodousi

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: It seems that one of the effective ways to lessen externalizing behavior problems among street and working children is cognitive-behavioral play therapy; therefore, coaches and teachers of such children are recommended to make use of this method to lower their behavioral problems

  19. Potential interoperability problems facing multi-site radiation oncology centers in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurleer, J.; Koken, Ph; Wessel, R.

    2014-03-01

    Aim: To identify potential interoperability problems facing multi-site Radiation Oncology (RO) departments in the Netherlands and solutions for unambiguous multi-system workflows. Specific challenges confronting the RO department of VUmc (RO-VUmc), which is soon to open a satellite department, were characterized. Methods: A nationwide questionnaire survey was conducted to identify possible interoperability problems and solutions. Further detailed information was obtained by in-depth interviews at 3 Dutch RO institutes that already operate in more than one site. Results: The survey had a 100% response rate (n=21). Altogether 95 interoperability problems were described. Most reported problems were on a strategic and semantic level. The majority were DICOM(-RT) and HL7 related (n=65), primarily between treatment planning and verification systems or between departmental and hospital systems. Seven were identified as being relevant for RO-VUmc. Departments have overcome interoperability problems with their own, or with tailor-made vendor solutions. There was little knowledge about or utilization of solutions developed by Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO). Conclusions: Although interoperability problems are still common, solutions have been identified. Awareness of IHE-RO needs to be raised. No major new interoperability problems are predicted as RO-VUmc develops into a multi-site department.

  20. Inter-examiner classification reliability of Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy for extremity problems - Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Okuyama, Kousuke; Rosedale, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) is used in the treatment of extremity problems. Classifying clinical problems is one method of providing effective treatment to a target population. Classification reliability is a key factor to determine the precise clinical problem and to direct an appropriate intervention. To explore inter-examiner reliability of the MDT classification for extremity problems in three reliability designs: 1) vignette reliability using surveys with patient vignettes, 2) concurrent reliability, where multiple assessors decide a classification by observing someone's assessment, 3) successive reliability, where multiple assessors independently assess the same patient at different times. Systematic review with data synthesis in a quantitative format. Agreement of MDT subgroups was examined using the Kappa value, with the operational definition of acceptable reliability set at ≥ 0.6. The level of evidence was determined considering the methodological quality of the studies. Six studies were included and all studies met the criteria for high quality. Kappa values for the vignette reliability design (five studies) were ≥ 0.7. There was data from two cohorts in one study for the concurrent reliability design and the Kappa values ranged from 0.45 to 1.0. Kappa values for the successive reliability design (data from three cohorts in one study) were < 0.6. The current review found strong evidence of acceptable inter-examiner reliability of MDT classification for extremity problems in the vignette reliability design, limited evidence of acceptable reliability in the concurrent reliability design and unacceptable reliability in the successive reliability design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Silicon particles as trojan horses for potential cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollosa, Roberto; Garcia-Rico, Eduardo; Alvarez, Susana; Alvarez, Rosana; Yu, Xiang; Rodriguez, Isabel; Carregal-Romero, Susana; Villanueva, Carlos; Garcia-Algar, Manuel; Rivera-Gil, Pilar; de Lera, Angel R; Parak, Wolfgang J; Meseguer, Francisco; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramón A

    2014-09-16

    Porous silicon particles (PSiPs) have been used extensively as drug delivery systems, loaded with chemical species for disease treatment. It is well known from silicon producers that silicon is characterized by a low reduction potential, which in the case of PSiPs promotes explosive oxidation reactions with energy yields exceeding that of trinitrotoluene (TNT). The functionalization of the silica layer with sugars prevents its solubilization, while further functionalization with an appropriate antibody enables increased bioaccumulation inside selected cells. We present here an immunotherapy approach for potential cancer treatment. Our platform comprises the use of engineered silicon particles conjugated with a selective antibody. The conceptual advantage of our system is that after reaction, the particles are degraded into soluble and excretable biocomponents. In our study, we demonstrate in particular, specific targeting and destruction of cancer cells in vitro. The fact that the LD50 value of PSiPs-HER-2 for tumor cells was 15-fold lower than the LD50 value for control cells demonstrates very high in vitro specificity. This is the first important step on a long road towards the design and development of novel chemotherapeutic agents against cancer in general, and breast cancer in particular.

  2. Ozone therapy: clinical and basic evidence of its therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Lamberto; Mawsouf, Mohamed N; Menéndez, Silvia; León, Olga S; Sánchez, Gregorio M; Hernández, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Ozone has recently been subjected to criticism and emphasis in relation to clinical efficacy and toxicity, respectively. Without a doubt, ozone, in common with oxygen itself, is one of the most potent oxidants. Ozone is considered one of the major pollutants in urban areas. Nevertheless, increasingly widespread use lately has highlighted the potential benefits as a therapeutic agent when used according to well-defined and safe protocols. Basic studies conducted following rigorous scientific and ethical criteria have been proposed for scientific discussion. This paper concerns original data on an in vivo model of Parkinson's disease and published data on the effect of low ozone doses with any risk of toxicity excluded with the concentrations commonly used in medical applications.

  3. The efficacy of problem solving therapy to reduce post stroke emotional distress in younger (18-65) stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Charlotte; Leathem, Janet; Bennett, Simon; McNaughton, Harry; Mahawish, Karim

    2017-11-26

    To investigate the efficacy of problem solving therapy for reducing the emotional distress experienced by younger stroke survivors. A non-randomized waitlist controlled design was used to compare outcome measures for the treatment group and a waitlist control group at baseline and post-waitlist/post-therapy. After the waitlist group received problem solving therapy an analysis was completed on the pooled outcome measures at baseline, post-treatment, and three-month follow-up. Changes on outcome measures between baseline and post-treatment (n = 13) were not significantly different between the two groups, treatment (n = 13), and the waitlist control group (n = 16) (between-subject design). The pooled data (n = 28) indicated that receiving problem solving therapy significantly reduced participants levels of depression and anxiety and increased quality of life levels from baseline to follow up (within-subject design), however, methodological limitations, such as the lack of a control group reduce the validity of this finding. The between-subject results suggest that there was no significant difference between those that received problem solving therapy and a waitlist control group between baseline and post-waitlist/post-therapy. The within-subject design suggests that problem solving therapy may be beneficial for younger stroke survivors when they are given some time to learn and implement the skills into their day to day life. However, additional research with a control group is required to investigate this further. This study provides limited evidence for the provision of support groups for younger stroke survivors post stroke, however, it remains unclear about what type of support this should be. Implications for Rehabilitation Problem solving therapy is no more effective for reducing post stroke distress than a wait-list control group. Problem solving therapy may be perceived as helpful and enjoyable by younger stroke survivors. Younger stroke

  4. Psycho-education with problem solving (PEPS) therapy for adults with personality disorder: a pragmatic multi-site community-based randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurran, Mary; Crawford, Mike J; Reilly, Joseph G; McCrone, Paul; Moran, Paul; Williams, Hywel; Adams, Clive E; Duggan, Conor; Delport, Juan; Whitham, Diane; Day, Florence

    2011-08-24

    Impairment in social functioning is a key component of personality disorder. Therefore psycho-education and problem solving (PEPS) therapy may benefit people with this disorder. Psycho-education aims to educate, build rapport, and motivate people for problem solving therapy. Problem solving therapy aims to help clients solve interpersonal problems positively and rationally, thereby improving social functioning and reducing distress. PEPS therapy has been evaluated with community adults with personality disorder in an exploratory trial. At the end of treatment, compared to a wait-list control group, those treated with PEPS therapy showed better social functioning, as measured by the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ). A definitive evaluation is now being conducted to determine whether PEPS therapy is a clinically and cost-effective treatment for people with personality disorder This is a pragmatic, two-arm, multi-centre, parallel, randomised controlled clinical trial. The target population is community-dwelling adults with one or more personality disorder, as identified by the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE). Inclusion criteria are: Living in the community (including residential or supported care settings); presence of one or more personality disorder; aged 18 or over; proficiency in spoken English; capacity to provide informed consent. Exclusion criteria are: Primary diagnosis of a functional psychosis; insufficient degree of literacy, comprehension or attention to be able to engage in trial therapy and assessments; currently engaged in a specific programme of psychological treatment for personality disorder or likely to start such treatment during the trial period; currently enrolled in any other trial. Suitable participants are randomly allocated to PEPS therapy plus treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU only. We aim to recruit 340 men and women. The primary outcome is social functioning as measured by the SFQ. A reduction (i.e., an

  5. Group Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A Randomized Control Trial for the Treatment of Conduct Problems in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Niec, LN; Barnett, ML; Prewett, MS; Chatham, JRS

    2016-01-01

    Although efficacious interventions exist for childhood conduct problems, a majority of families in need of services do not receive them. To address problems of treatment access and adherence, innovative adaptations of current interventions are needed. This randomized control trial investigated the relative efficacy of a novel format of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), a treatment for young children with conduct problems.Eighty-one families with 3- to 6-year-old children (71.6% boys, 8...

  6. Secukinumab for rheumatology: development and its potential place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koenders MI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marije I Koenders, Wim B van den Berg Experimental Rheumatology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Abstract: Rheumatic disease is not a single disorder, but a group of more than 100 diseases that affect joints, connective tissues, and/or internal organs. Although rheumatic diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis (AS differ in their pathogenesis and clinical presentation, the treatment of these inflammatory disorders overlaps. Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are used to reduce pain and inflammation. Additional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs are prescribed to slowdown disease progression, and is in RA more frequently and effectively applied than in AS. Biologicals are a relatively new class of treatments that specifically target cytokines or cells of the immune system, like tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors or B-cell blockers. A new kid on the block is the interleukin-17 (IL-17 inhibitor secukinumab, which has been recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and AS. IL-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine that has an important role in host defense, but its proinflammatory and destructive effects have also been linked to pathogenic processes in autoimmune diseases like RA and psoriasis. Animal models have greatly contributed to further insights in the potential of IL-17 blockade in autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases, and have resulted in the development of various potential drugs targeting the IL-17 pathway. Secukinumab (AIN457 is a fully human monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to IL-17A and recently entered the market under the brand name Cosentyx®. By binding to IL-17A, secukinumab prevents it from binding to its receptor and inhibits its ability to trigger inflammatory responses that play a role in the development of various autoimmune diseases. With secukinumab being

  7. Proton pump inhibitor therapy and potential long-term harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corleto, Vito Domenico; Festa, Stefano; Di Giulio, Emilio; Annibale, Bruno

    2014-02-01

    This review summarizes the recent literature on the potential side-effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and known interactions with the metabolism/absorption of other drugs. Data confirm that PPIs are a very well tolerated drug class. Their high safety, efficacy and wide distribution lead to overuse, inappropriate dosage or excessive duration of treatment. Despite the absorption of micronutrients or other plausible effects on the development of bacterial infections linked to PPI-induced hypochlorhydria, it is difficult to demonstrate an association between PPI and specific symptoms. A possible negative effect of PPIs on bone integrity appears weak, but hypomagnesemia is likely a PPI drug class effect. A higher risk of Clostridium difficile infection and other infectious diseases such as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis remain controversial in PPI users. However, the careful use of PPIs in cirrhotic or otherwise fragile patients is mandatory. Short-term or long-term PPI use may trigger microscopic colitis, and the management of this condition may include PPI withdrawal. The effect of PPIs on stimulating exocrine or endocrine gastric cell proliferation is poorly understood. A diagnostic delay or masking of diseases such as gastrinoma is difficult to evaluate. Short-term standard dose PPI treatment is low risk. Long-term PPI use may complicate health conditions by various mechanisms linked to PPIs and/or to hypochlorhydria.

  8. Microbiota abnormalities in inflammatory airway diseases - Potential for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, Eva S; Marsland, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly the development of novel therapeutic strategies is taking into consideration the contribution of the intestinal microbiota to health and disease. Dysbiosis of the microbial communities colonizing the human intestinal tract has been described for a variety of chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and asthma. In particular, reduction of several so-called probiotic species including Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria that are generally considered to be beneficial, as well as an outgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria is often reported. Thus a tempting therapeutic approach is to shape the constituents of the microbiota in an attempt to restore the microbial balance towards the growth of 'health-promoting' bacterial species. A twist to this scenario is the recent discovery that the respiratory tract also harbors a microbiota under steady-state conditions. Investigators have shown that the microbial composition of the airway flora is different between healthy lungs and those with chronic lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as well as cystic fibrosis. This is an emerging field, and thus far there is very limited data showing a direct contribution of the airway microbiota to the onset and progression of disease. However, should future studies provide such evidence, the airway microbiota might soon join the intestinal microbiota as a target for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we highlight the major advances that have been made describing the microbiota in chronic lung disease and discuss current and future approaches concerning manipulation of the microbiota for the treatment and prevention of disease. © 2013.

  9. Potential Effects of Pomegranate Polyphenols in Cancer Prevention and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, Eleonora; Ferruzzi, Lorenzo; Fimognari, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death and is becoming the leading one in old age. Vegetable and fruit consumption is inversely associated with cancer incidence and mortality. Currently, interest in a number of fruits high in polyphenols has been raised due to their reported chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic potential. Pomegranate has been shown to exert anticancer activity, which is generally attributed to its high content of polyphenols. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of known targets and mechanisms along with a critical evaluation of pomegranate polyphenols as future anticancer agents. Pomegranate evokes antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antimetastatic effects, induces apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 proteins, upregulates p21 and p27, and downregulates cyclin-cdk network. Furthermore, pomegranate blocks the activation of inflammatory pathways including, but not limited to, the NF-κB pathway. The strongest evidence for its anticancer activity comes from studies on prostate cancer. Accordingly, some exploratory clinical studies investigating pomegranate found a trend of efficacy in increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. However, the genotoxicity reported for pomegranate raised certain concerns over its safety and an accurate assessment of the risk/benefit should be performed before suggesting the use of pomegranate or its polyphenols for cancer-related therapeutic purposes.

  10. The Woman's Heart: Insights into New Potential Targeted Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfrilli, Daniele; Pofi, Ricardo; Feola, Tiziana; Lenzi, Andrea; Giannetta, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an increasingly common cause of death in women. There is as yet no consensus on the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors with regard to the specific, personalised treatment of pre- and post-menopausal women. Clinically significant cardioprotective and antiremodelling effects have been observed in animal and human studies exploring chronic inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). The relationship between the heart, estrogens and PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5is) remains unclear. Experimental data suggest potential beneficial effects on cardiac geometry, function, endothelial function and microvascular coronary flow in women. It was recently postulated that the efficacy of PDE5is is estrogen-dependent in female heart disease. A registered randomised, placebo-controlled study, RECOGITO (NCT01803828), aimed at identifying the genderspecific efficacy of long-term PDE5 inhibition in diabetic cardiomyopathy, is currently recruiting patients. Estrogen receptor modulation could be a new promising approach to heart protection via PDE5is. PDE5is could be indicated as a gender-oriented strategy in modulated cardiac dysfunction and remodelling and in cardiac risk factors for selected cardiovascular diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. An update on the pharmacogenomics of metformin: progress, problems and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jennifer N; Florez, Jose C

    2014-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of Type 2 diabetes has emphasized the need to optimize treatment regimens. Metformin, the most widely used oral agent, is recommended as first-line drug therapy by multiple professional organizations. Response to metformin varies significantly at the individual level; this heterogeneity may be explained in part by genetic factors. Understanding these underlying factors may aid with tailoring treatment for individual patients as well as with designing improved Type 2 diabetes therapies. The past 10 years have seen substantial progress in the understanding of the pharmacogenetics of metformin response. The majority of this work has focused on genes involved in the pharmacokinetics of metformin. Owing to the uncertainty surrounding its mechanism of action, studies of pharmacodynamic genetics have been relatively few; genome-wide approaches have the potential to illuminate the molecular details of metformin response. In this review we summarize current knowledge about metformin pharmacogenetics and suggest directions for future investigation.

  12. A brief Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index with less potential for bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earleywine, Mitch; LaBrie, Joseph W; Pedersen, Eric R

    2008-09-01

    The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI), a popular measure of alcohol-related problems in adolescents, varies with many theoretically-relevant measures of individual differences, including sex. The sex differences in RAPI scores fit many models of alcohol problems but could also arise from biased items. In addition, a short form could increase the scale's utility. The current study examined RAPI scores, an additional inventory of problem drinking, and measures of alcohol consumption in over 2000 college student drinkers. Analyses revealed items that functioned differentially for men and women. Dropping these items created a shorter scale with almost identical psychometric properties but less potential for bias. Correlations with drinking habits and drinking problems were the same as those for the full scale, and the size of the effect for the difference between men and women's responses remained essentially the same. These results confirm previous work using different analytic approaches, and suggest that a short form of the RAPI could prove helpful in future research. In addition, these data suggest that analyses of differential item functioning in other scales can reveal important information about the measurement of drug problems.

  13. The effectiveness of problem solving therapy in deprived South African communities: results from a pilot study

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    Marks Isaac

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of South Africans with a DSM-IV diagnosis receive no treatment for their mental health problems. There is a move to simplify treatment for common mental disorders (CMDs in order to ease access. Brief problem solving therapy (PST might fill the treatment gap for CMD's in deprived communities in South Africa. This pilot study evaluates the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of this PST program for CMD's in deprived communities around Cape Town. Methods A Dutch problem solving program was adapted and translated into English, Xhosa and Afrikaans and thereafter implemented in townships around Cape Town. An initial attempt to recruit participants for online PST proved difficult, and so the program was adapted to a booklet format. Volunteers experiencing psychological distress were invited to participate in the either individually or group delivered 5-week during self-help program. To evaluate the effectiveness, psychological distress was administered through self-report questionnaires. After completion of the intervention participants also rated the program on various acceptability aspects. Results Of 103 participants, 73 completed 5 weeks of brief PST in a booklet/workshop format. There were significantly more dropouts in those who used the booklet individually than in the group. Psychological distress measured on the K-10 and SRQ fell significantly and the program was evaluated positively. Conclusions The results suggest that brief problem solving in a booklet/workshop format may be an effective, feasible and acceptable short-term treatment for people with CMD's in deprived communities. In this setting, group delivery of PST had lower drop-out rates than individual delivery, and was more feasible and acceptable. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the effect of brief self-help PST more rigorously.

  14. Plitidepsin: design, development, and potential place in therapy

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    Alonso-Álvarez S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sara Alonso-Álvarez,1 Emilia Pardal,2 Diego Sánchez-Nieto,3 Miguel Navarro,4 Maria Dolores Caballero,1 Maria Victoria Mateos,1 Alejandro Martín1 1Hematology Department, IBSAL-CIC-USAL, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; 2Hematology Department, Hospital Virgen del Puerto, Plasencia, Spain; 3Pharmacy Department, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; 4Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca, IBSAL, Salamanca, Spain Abstract: Plitidepsin is a cyclic depsipeptide that was first isolated from a Mediterranean marine tunicate (Aplidium albicans and, at present, is manufactured by total synthesis and commercialized as Aplidin®. Its antitumor activity, observed in preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies has prompted numerous clinical trials to be conducted over the last 17 years, alone or in combination with other anticancer agents. Single-agent plitidepsin has shown limited antitumor activity and a tolerable safety profile in several malignancies, such as noncutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma, melanoma, and multiple myeloma. In patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, plitidepsin activity seems to be enhanced after addition of dexamethasone while remaining well tolerated, and a Phase III trial comparing plitidepsin plus dexamethasone vs dexamethasone alone is underway. Additional studies are required to better define the role of plitidepsin in combination with other active agents in these indications. Results of plitidepsin activity in other hematological malignancies or solid tumors have been disappointing so far. Further studies analyzing its mechanisms of action and potential biomarkers will help select patients who may benefit most from this drug. In this review, we critically analyze the published studies on plitidepsin in hematological malignancies and solid tumors and discuss its current role and future perspectives in treating these malignancies. We also review its design

  15. Prevention of post-stroke generalized anxiety disorder, using escitalopram or problem-solving therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Katsunaka; Jorge, Ricardo E; Moser, David J; Arndt, Stephan; Jang, Mijin; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Hegel, Mark T; Robinson, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of antidepressant treatment for preventing the onset of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among patients with recent stroke. Of 799 patients assessed, 176 were randomized, and 149 patients without evidence of GAD at the initial visit were included in this double-blind treatment with escitalopram (N=47) or placebo (N=49) or non-blinded problem-solving therapy (PST; 12 total sessions; N=53). Participants given placebo over 12 months were 4.95 times more likely to develop GAD than patients given escitalopram and 4.00 times more likely to develop GAD than patients given PST. Although these results should be considered preliminary, the authors found that both escitalopram and PST were effective in preventing new onset of post-stroke GAD.

  16. Maximizing the potential of early childhood education to prevent externalizing behavior problems: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Holly S; Kholoptseva, Jenya; Oh, Soojin S; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine A; Shonkoff, Jack P

    2015-06-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) programs offer a promising mechanism for preventing early externalizing behavior problems and later antisocial behavior; yet, questions remain about how to best maximize ECE's potential. Using a meta-analytic database of 31 studies, we examined the overall effect of ECE on externalizing behavior problems and the differential effects of 3 levels of practice, each with increasing specificity and intensity aimed at children's social and emotional development. In short, we found that each successive level of programs did a better job than the prior level at reducing externalizing behavior problems. Level 1 programs, or those without a clear focus on social and emotional development, had no significant effects on externalizing behavior problems relative to control groups (ES=.13 SD, p<.10). On the other hand, level 2 programs, or those with a clear but broad focus on social and emotional development, were significantly associated with modest decreases in externalizing behavior problems relative to control groups (ES=-.10 SD, p<.05). Hence, level 2 programs were significantly better at reducing externalizing behavior problems than level 1 programs (ES=-.23 SD, p<.01). Level 3 programs, or those that more intensively targeted children's social and emotional development, were associated with additional significant reductions in externalizing behavior problems relative to level 2 programs (ES=-.26 SD, p<.05). The most promising effects came from level 3 child social skills training programs, which reduced externalizing behavior problems half of a standard deviation more than level 2 programs (ES=-.50 SD, p<.05). Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety of conventional systemic therapies for psoriasis on reproductive potential and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Zenas Z N; Warren, Richard B; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2015-01-01

    The effects of conventional systemic therapies for psoriasis on pregnancy outcomes, lactation, male fertility and mutagenicity are common concerns in the clinical setting. There is relatively little evidence to guide clinician and patient. In this study, we review the safety profile of the commonly used conventional systemic therapies used for psoriasis in individuals of reproductive potential. Safety data are derived from large-scale registries, adverse-event reporting databases, clinical trials and case reports. We assess the effect of each therapy on adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital malformations, and lactation with maternal administration. We also assess the effect of the therapies on male fertility and potential mutagenicity with paternal administration. We provide applicable guidance to inform clinician and patient before and after conception.

  18. Auditory event-related potentials measured in kindergarten predict later reading problems at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Guttorm, Tomi K; Richardson, Ulla; Alku, Paavo; Lyytinen, Heikki; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2013-01-01

    Identifying children at risk for reading problems or dyslexia at kindergarten age could improve support for beginning readers. Brain event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured for temporally complex pseudowords and corresponding non-speech stimuli from 6.5-year-old children who participated in behavioral literacy tests again at 9 years in the second grade. Children who had reading problems at school age had larger N250 responses to speech and non-speech stimuli particularly at the left hemisphere. The brain responses also correlated with reading skills. The results suggest that atypical auditory and speech processing are a neural-level risk factor for future reading problems. [Supplementary material is available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Developmental Neuropsychology for the following free supplemental resources: Sound files used in the experiments. Three speech sounds and corresponding non-speech sounds with short, intermediate, and long gaps].

  19. Coupling Finite Element and Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Methods for Two-Dimensional Potential Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Raju, I. S.

    2002-01-01

    A coupled finite element (FE) method and meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method for analyzing two-dimensional potential problems is presented in this paper. The analysis domain is subdivided into two regions, a finite element (FE) region and a meshless (MM) region. A single weighted residual form is written for the entire domain. Independent trial and test functions are assumed in the FE and MM regions. A transition region is created between the two regions. The transition region blends the trial and test functions of the FE and MM regions. The trial function blending is achieved using a technique similar to the 'Coons patch' method that is widely used in computer-aided geometric design. The test function blending is achieved by using either FE or MM test functions on the nodes in the transition element. The technique was evaluated by applying the coupled method to two potential problems governed by the Poisson equation. The coupled method passed all the patch test problems and gave accurate solutions for the problems studied.

  20. Reconstructing the potential function for indefinite Sturm-Liouville problems using infinite product forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dehghan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider the linear second-order equation of Sturm-Liouville type $$ y''+(lambdaphi^2(t-q(ty=0, quad 0leq tleq 1, $$ where $lambda$ is a real parameter, $q(t$ is the potential function and $phi^2(t$ is the weight function. We use the infinite product representation of the derivative of the solution to the differential equation with Dirichlet-Neumann conditions, and for the system of dual equations which is needed for expressing inverse problem and for retrieving potential. It must be mentioned that the weight function has a zero whose order is an integer called a turning point.

  1. Solution of Axisymmetric Potential Problem in Oblate Spheroid Using the Exodus Method

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    O. D. Momoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of Exodus method for computing potential distribution within a conducting oblate spheroidal system. An explicit finite difference method for solving Laplace’s equation in oblate spheroidal coordinate systems for an axially symmetric geometry was developed. This was used to determine the transition probabilities for the Exodus method. A strategy was developed to overcome the singularity problems encountered in the oblate spheroid pole regions. The potential computation results obtained correlate with those obtained by exact solution and explicit finite difference methods.

  2. Representation and Interpolation of The Disturbing Potential In Gravity Field Modelling and Mixed Boundary Value Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holota, P.

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the relation between the classical methods in the solution of the geodetic boundary value problems and the parameterization of the disturbing potential within the modern concepts. Therefore, a tie is investigated between the integral representation of the disturbing potential and the Hilbert space approach to solution of the respective boundary value problem. Problems are consid- ered that include the use of the global reference field, terrestrial, satellite and airborne data. Integral kernels of various kind and properties, band-limited and non-band lim- ited functions are used in quality of a trial system and a function basis. The concept is interpreted in terms of variational methods with their natural relation to the Dirich- let principle or alternatively to the Lax-Milgram theorem. Subsequently an attention is paid to the linear system for the numerical coefficients in the representation of the disturbing potential and finally an iteration process is constructed to treat the effect of the topography.

  3. Occupation-based family-centered therapy approach for young children with feeding problems in South Korea; a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sun-Joung L

    2014-03-01

    Documenting the effectiveness of an occupation-based family-centered therapy approach, when providing therapy for a young child with feeding problems, is needed in a culture such as Korea, which has a strong medical model of service. A case study was conducted involving a 16-month-old boy with feeding problems. An occupation-based family-centered therapy approach was carried out for 10 weeks. The results indicated that this approach addressed the physical components of the child's feeding problems and also the parent-child bonding, which together improved the overall family dynamics. Although these results may stimulate clinicians to consider an alternative approach to a medical model, further research with a larger sample is needed to provide sufficient evidence for therapists to shift to a new service delivery model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Treatment of obesity as a potential complementary approach to cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Olga; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2013-06-01

    Obesity has long been recognized as a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Recent epidemiological data also associate obesity with cancer risk and progression. For this reason, a combination treatment of obesity along with treatment of the cancer itself may improve patient survival and well-being. As the molecular pathways linking obesity and cancer become better understood, new potential therapy targets are surfacing. In this article, we summarize the mechanisms proposed to account for the obesity-cancer association and discuss approaches to manipulation of adipose tissue as potential interventions aimed at cancer prevention or supplemental therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The potential of methylxanthine-based therapies in pediatric respiratory tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Franco, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are the most known methylxanthines as they are present in coffee, tea and/or chocolate. In the last decades, a huge experimental effort has been devoted to get insight into the variety of actions that these compounds exert in humans. From such knowledge it is known that methylxanthines have a great potential in prevention, therapy and/or management of a variety of diseases. The benefits of methylxanthine-based therapies in the apnea of prematurity and their translational potential in pediatric affections of the respiratory tract are here presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New approaches of the potential field for QPSO algorithm applied to nuclear reactor reload problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, Andressa dos Santos; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: andressa@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Recently quantum-inspired version of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO) was proposed. The QPSO algorithm permits all particles to have a quantum behavior, where some sort of 'quantum motion' is imposed in the search process. When the QPSO is tested against a set of benchmarking functions, it showed superior performances as compared to classical PSO. The QPSO outperforms the classical one most of the time in convergence speed and achieves better levels for the fitness functions. The great advantage of QPSO algorithm is that it uses only one parameter control. The critical step or QPSO algorithm is the choice of suitable attractive potential field that can guarantee bound states for the particles moving in the quantum environment. In this article, one version of QPSO algorithm was tested with two types of potential well: delta-potential well harmonic oscillator. The main goal of this study is to show with of the potential field is the most suitable for use in QPSO in a solution of the Nuclear Reactor Reload Optimization Problem, especially in the cycle 7 of a Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant. All result were compared with the performance of its classical counterpart of the literature and shows that QPSO algorithm are well situated among the best alternatives for dealing with hard optimization problems, such as NRROP. (author)

  7. Alphanumeric paging: a potential source of problems in patient care and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Sasa; Cox, Diane; Kaplan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the use of numeric paging in many medical centers has been largely replaced by 1-way alphanumeric paging. There is currently no research studying the potential for alphanumeric paging to lead to problems in communication. The purpose of this article is to determine whether the use of alphanumeric pagers may lead to potential problems in patient care and/or communication. Alphanumeric pages sent to residents on 3 surgical services at the Medical College of Virginia Hospital were collected over a 3-month period. The pages were classified according to reason for the page, amount of information provided, and follow-up required. A total of 52,384 alphanumeric pages were sent to residents on the surgical services over a 3-month period. There were 1037 pages (2.0% of total) that contained patient laboratory results. 11,844 pages (22.6% of total) contained a callback number with no sender information and 6198 (11.8% of total) contained a callback number and sender information. Trauma pages totaled 10,312 (19.7% of total). There were 2636 pages (5.0% of total) that contained identifying information, potentially violating HIPAA regulations. The authors have observed a significant number of occurrences in which alphanumeric pages lack sufficient information, do not indicate the urgency of the page, and still require immediate callback by residents. This potentially interrupts patient care and educational activities. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. POTENTIALLY GRAVE GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT PROBLEMS IN PREGNANCY - A CHALLENGE TO THE OBSTETRICIAN!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Acute surgical pathology may be overlooked in pregnancy. Despite advances in medical technology, preoperative diagnosis of potentially grave pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT is often delayed due to overlap with symptoms of pregnancy non-specific elevation of some laboratory parameters due to pregnancy and a dilemma for obstetricians and surgeons in ordering radiological imaging modalities given the risk associated with fetal exposure to ionizing radiation and contrast. AIMS The aim of this study is to analyse the cases of gastrointestinal tract problems encountered in pregnancy so that increasing awareness can be created among obstetricians. This is important because early diagnosis and timely intervention can significantly improve maternal and fetal outcome in these cases. SETTINGS AND DESIGN There is a retrospective case study of potentially grave GIT problems encountered at Vanivilas hospital, Bangalore, a tertiary referral institute wherein the clinical presentation was confounded by pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the included cases were analysed for age of the patient, pre-existing gastrointestinal tract disorders, gestational age at diagnosis, maternal and fetal outcome. RESULTS A total of 8 cases of GIT problems in pregnancy were studied. Though acute appendicitis is the most common cause of GIT emergency in pregnancy as quoted in literature 5, we did not encounter any case of acute appendicitis in pregnancy in the study period. Other conditions which were encountered were small bowel obstruction, stomach and bowel perforation and bleeding oesophageal varices. Whilst few of the conditions could be managed conservatively without harm to the pregnancy, others required a laparotomy and reparative procedures. Delay in diagnosis and intervention proved to be fatal in some of these women. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge about potentially grave gastrointestinal tract problems during pregnancy, high index of clinical suspicion

  9. How much gambling is too much? Identifying potential problem gambling among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Tiina A; Lintonen, Tomi P; Raisamo, Susanna U; Konu, Anne I

    2016-01-20

    Using a population-based sample of Finnish 12-17 year olds, this study explored gambling behaviour limits for potential problem gambling [South Oaks Gambling Screen - revised for adolescents (SOGS-RA)]. Data were obtained from the Youth Gambling Survey 2006, which is a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative random sample of 5000 adolescents. Adolescents who participated in gambling at least once a month were selected from the data (n=1827, 25.1% were girls). The limits for gambling behaviour were detected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Logistic regression was used to study associations between these behavioural limits and potential problem gambling. For each of the gambling behaviour indicators plotted, the risk curves showed similar trends among boys and girls. The risk of being a potential problem gambler increased noticeably with increasing gambling intensity. The ROC analysis showed that the optimal behavioural cut-off values among 12-14 year olds for frequency was gambling more than 2-3 times a month, spending more than €2 per week on gambling, spending more than €8 in any 1 day on gambling, and gambling on more than two different games per year. For 15-17 year olds, cut-off values were gambling more than once a week, spending more than €4 per week and spending more than €12 in any 1 day on gambling. Cut-off for number of game types was same as it was for younger adolescents. Of the behavioural indicators those associated with money were the most robust. Behavioural indicators can be used as initial markers of possible problem gambling.

  10. Intracellular delivery of potential therapeutic genes: prospects in cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Athirah; Sayyad, Mustak; Rosli, Rozita; Maruyama, Atsushi; Chowdhury, Ezharul H

    2014-01-01

    Conventional therapies for malignant cancer such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with poor survival rates owing to the development of cellular resistance to cancer drugs and the lack of targetability, resulting in unwanted adverse effects on healthy cells and necessitating the lowering of therapeutic dose with consequential lower efficacy of the treatment. Gene therapy employing different types of viral and non-viral carriers to transport gene(s) of interest and facilitating production of the desirable therapeutic protein(s) has tremendous prospects in cancer treatments due to the high-level of specificity in therapeutic action of the expressed protein(s) with diminished off-target effects, although cancer cell-specific delivery of transgene(s) still poses some challenges to be addressed. Depending on the potential therapeutic target genes, cancer gene therapy could be categorized into tumor suppressor gene replacement therapy, immune gene therapy and enzyme- or prodrug-based therapy. This review would shed light on the current progress of delivery of potentially therapeutic genes into various cancer cells in vitro and animal models utilizing a variety of viral and non-viral vectors.

  11. PROBLEMS AND POTENTIAL OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES OF THE KNOWLEDGE-INTENSIVE BRANCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Yakovlevich Veselovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems of enterprise development high-tech industries, analyzes the factors that complicate the processes of knowledge-intensive production management. It provided a number of problems that make it difficult to increase the economic efficiency of high-tech industry. To solve the above problems need to increase the investment program and the economic attractiveness of high-tech industries that is to be developed, modern management system, carried out the reform of the knowledge-based industry to provide high levels of efficiency of new organizational structures in the current economic conditions compared to the existing, outdated forms. The purpose / goal. The aim of this study is to analyze the causes that affect the development potential of knowledge-based industries and enterprises identify problems that impede improving the economic efficiency of the Russian high-tech industry. Purpose: To identify the problems that are most difficult to improve the economic efficiency of the Russian high-tech industry; consider the high-tech industry; examine the reasons for the reform of the knowledge-based industry; explore the level of innovation activity of organizations of high-tech industries. Methodology. The methodological and theoretical basis of the study are the works, monographs, research papers, studies of Soviet authors on the development of knowledge-intensive industries, materials of State Statistics. We used scientific methods of research, such as the comparative method of analysis, synthesis, analysis and synthesis. Results. Given the concept of the domestic high-tech complex (NEC, defined the environment in which businesses operate NEC. The features of these companies, where there is the presence of a strong innovation potential. The requirements for knowledge-intensive production as the backbone of a new stage of the development lifecycle. A number of problems hampering the development and transformation of enterprise

  12. Potential impact of task-shifting on costs of antiretroviral therapy and physician supply in Uganda

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    Stergachis Andy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower-income countries face severe health worker shortages. Recent evidence suggests that this problem can be mitigated by task-shifting--delegation of aspects of health care to less specialized health workers. We estimated the potential impact of task-shifting on costs of antiretroviral therapy (ART and physician supply in Uganda. The study was performed at the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI clinic, a large urban HIV clinic. Methods We built an aggregate cost-minimization model from societal and Ministry of Health (MOH perspectives. We compared physician-intensive follow-up (PF, the standard of care, with two methods of task-shifting: nurse-intensive follow-up (NF and pharmacy-worker intensive follow-up (PWF. We estimated personnel and patient time use using a time-motion survey. We obtained unit costs from IDI and the literature. We estimated physician personnel impact by calculating full time equivalent (FTE physicians saved. We made national projections for Uganda. Results Annual mean costs of follow-up per patient were $59.88 (societal and $31.68 (medical for PF, $44.58 (societal and $24.58 (medical for NF and $18.66 (societal and $10.5 (medical for PWF. Annual national societal ART follow-up expenditure was $5.92 million using PF, $4.41 million using NF and $1.85 million using PWF, potentially saving $1.51 million annually by using NF and $4.07 million annually by using PWF instead of PF. Annual national MOH expenditure was $3.14 million for PF, $2.43 million for NF and $1.04 for PWF, potentially saving $0.70 million by using NF and $2.10 million by using PWF instead of PF. Projected national physician personnel needs were 108 FTE doctors to implement PF and 18 FTE doctors to implement NF or PWF. Task-shifting from PF to NF or PWF would potentially save 90 FTE physicians, 4.1% of the national physician workforce or 0.3 FTE physicians per 100,000 population. Conclusion Task-shifting results in substantial cost and

  13. Potential impact of task-shifting on costs of antiretroviral therapy and physician supply in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babigumira, Joseph B; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Lamorde, Mohammed; Kambugu, Andrew; Stergachis, Andy; Easterbrook, Philippa; Garrison, Louis P

    2009-10-21

    Lower-income countries face severe health worker shortages. Recent evidence suggests that this problem can be mitigated by task-shifting--delegation of aspects of health care to less specialized health workers. We estimated the potential impact of task-shifting on costs of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and physician supply in Uganda. The study was performed at the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) clinic, a large urban HIV clinic. We built an aggregate cost-minimization model from societal and Ministry of Health (MOH) perspectives. We compared physician-intensive follow-up (PF), the standard of care, with two methods of task-shifting: nurse-intensive follow-up (NF) and pharmacy-worker intensive follow-up (PWF). We estimated personnel and patient time use using a time-motion survey. We obtained unit costs from IDI and the literature. We estimated physician personnel impact by calculating full time equivalent (FTE) physicians saved. We made national projections for Uganda. Annual mean costs of follow-up per patient were $59.88 (societal) and $31.68 (medical) for PF, $44.58 (societal) and $24.58 (medical) for NF and $18.66 (societal) and $10.5 (medical) for PWF. Annual national societal ART follow-up expenditure was $5.92 million using PF, $4.41 million using NF and $1.85 million using PWF, potentially saving $1.51 million annually by using NF and $4.07 million annually by using PWF instead of PF. Annual national MOH expenditure was $3.14 million for PF, $2.43 million for NF and $1.04 for PWF, potentially saving $0.70 million by using NF and $2.10 million by using PWF instead of PF. Projected national physician personnel needs were 108 FTE doctors to implement PF and 18 FTE doctors to implement NF or PWF. Task-shifting from PF to NF or PWF would potentially save 90 FTE physicians, 4.1% of the national physician workforce or 0.3 FTE physicians per 100,000 population. Task-shifting results in substantial cost and physician personnel savings in ART follow-up in Uganda

  14. Assessing Student Expertise in Introductory Physics with Isomorphic Problems, Part II: Effect of Some Potential Factors on Problem Solving and Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    In this companion paper, we explore the use of isomorphic problem pairs (IPPs) to assess introductory physics students' ability to solve and successfully transfer problem-solving knowledge from one context to another in mechanics. We call the paired problems "isomorphic" because they require the same physics principle to solve them. We analyze written responses and individual discussions to a range of isomorphic problems. We examine potential factors that may help or hinder transfer of problem-solving skills from one problem in a pair to the other. For some paired isomorphic problems, one context often turned out to be easier for students in that it was more often correctly solved than the other. When quantitative and conceptual questions were paired and given back to back, students who answered both questions in the IPP often performed better on the conceptual questions than those who answered the corresponding conceptual questions only. Although students often took advantage of the quantitative counterpart ...

  15. Experience with and potential of Cf-252 therapy for other tumors: Lexington clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Clinical observations of tumor response in a variety of sites to Cf-252 (Cf) neutron brachytherapy (NT) are described. Many tumors which are accessible and easily implanted are suitable for Cf-NT, but in advanced stages, must be integrated into a more comprehensive program of local, regional and systemic therapy. With local tumor clearance and control, there should be treatment for regional disease using conventional photon radiotherapy; adjuvant therapies for disseminated disease using systemic therapy is also needed. While potential for therapy exists for Cf-NT treatment of many tumors, additional clinical trials carried out in a variety of global settings are needed where different tumors are common and are available for studies. Tumors suitable for study include e.g. cervix, uterus, vagina, tonsil-oropharynx, anterior oral cavity, prostate, female urethra, nasopharynx, anus and rectum, malignant glioma, parotid, perhaps esophagus, bladder, non-oat cell lung, localized sarcoma and melanoma, etc.

  16. Gene therapy as a potential tool for treating neuroblastoma-a focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M D; Dravid, A; Kumar, A; Sen, D

    2016-05-01

    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor caused by rapid division of undifferentiated neuroblasts, is the most common childhood malignancy affecting children aged genes is restored to normalcy. Gene therapy is a powerful tool with the potential to inhibit the deleterious effects of oncogenes by inserting corrected/normal genes into the genome. Both viral and non-viral vector-based gene therapies have been developed and adopted to deliver the target genes into neuroblastoma cells. These attempts have given hope to bringing in a new regime of treatment against neuroblastoma. A few gene-therapy-based treatment strategies have been tested in limited clinical trials yielding some positive results. This mini review is an attempt to provide an overview of the available options of gene therapy to treat neuroblastoma.

  17. Potential function methods for approximately solving linear programming problems theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Bienstock, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Potential Function Methods For Approximately Solving Linear Programming Problems breaks new ground in linear programming theory. The book draws on the research developments in three broad areas: linear and integer programming, numerical analysis, and the computational architectures which enable speedy, high-level algorithm design. During the last ten years, a new body of research within the field of optimization research has emerged, which seeks to develop good approximation algorithms for classes of linear programming problems. This work both has roots in fundamental areas of mathematical programming and is also framed in the context of the modern theory of algorithms. The result of this work, in which Daniel Bienstock has been very much involved, has been a family of algorithms with solid theoretical foundations and with growing experimental success. This book will examine these algorithms, starting with some of the very earliest examples, and through the latest theoretical and computational developments.

  18. The potential of mesenchymal stromal cells as a novel cellular therapy for multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auletta, Jeffery J; Bartholomew, Amelia M; Maziarz, Richard T; Deans, Robert J; Miller, Robert H; Lazarus, Hillard M; Cohen, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of the CNS for which only partially effective therapies exist. Intense research defining the underlying immune pathophysiology is advancing both the understanding of MS as well as revealing potential targets for disease intervention. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy has the potential to modulate aberrant immune responses causing demyelination and axonal injury associated with MS, as well as to repair and restore damaged CNS tissue and cells. This article reviews the pathophysiology underlying MS, as well as providing a cutting-edge perspective into the field of MSC therapy based upon the experience of authors intrinsically involved in MS and MSC basic and translational science research. PMID:22642335

  19. The Problems of Realizing the Innovative Potential of Science and Mechanisms for their Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianchenko Zinayida B.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is revealing reasons for the low payoff of science in terms of the effectiveness of the research activity and demand for its results in economic spheres, identifying problems in the innovation activity of research institutions and reasons for their arising, searching for fundamental approaches to the development of a strategy and mechanisms for realization of the innovative potential of science to strengthen its position in the real sector. The study used general scientific methods, including: systems approach — to systematize the problems of the innovation activity of research institutions; methods of theoretical generalization — to study the theoretical principles of the scientific and innovation activity; methods of analysis and synthesis — to search for fundamental approaches to the development of mechanisms for realization of the innovative potential of science. The used concepts of scientific activity and innovations are generalized. The author’s definition of the term “innovation” is proposed. The main reasons of the minor impact of science on the economy are systematized, the mechanisms for their elimination are offered. Based on the comprehensive analysis of the reasons for losing by science its impact on the economy, the ways of realizing the innovative potential of science are improved. The results of the research can be used in reforming domestic scientific research institutions.

  20. Image-Guided Radiation Therapy: the potential for imaging science research to improve cancer treatment outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jeffrey

    2008-03-01

    The role of medical imaging in the planning and delivery of radiation therapy (RT) is rapidly expanding. This is being driven by two developments: Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and biological image-based planning (BIBP). IGRT is the systematic use of serial treatment-position imaging to improve geometric targeting accuracy and/or to refine target definition. The enabling technology is the integration of high-performance three-dimensional (3D) imaging systems, e.g., onboard kilovoltage x-ray cone-beam CT, into RT delivery systems. IGRT seeks to adapt the patient's treatment to weekly, daily, or even real-time changes in organ position and shape. BIBP uses non-anatomic imaging (PET, MR spectroscopy, functional MR, etc.) to visualize abnormal tissue biology (angiogenesis, proliferation, metabolism, etc.) leading to more accurate clinical target volume (CTV) delineation and more accurate targeting of high doses to tissue with the highest tumor cell burden. In both cases, the goal is to reduce both systematic and random tissue localization errors (2-5 mm for conventional RT) conformality so that planning target volume (PTV) margins (varying from 8 to 20 mm in conventional RT) used to ensure target volume coverage in the presence of geometric error, can be substantially reduced. Reduced PTV expansion allows more conformal treatment of the target volume, increased avoidance of normal tissue and potential for safe delivery of more aggressive dose regimens. This presentation will focus on the imaging science challenges posed by the IGRT and BIBP. These issues include: Development of robust and accurate nonrigid image-registration (NIR) tools: Extracting locally nonlinear mappings that relate, voxel-by-voxel, one 3D anatomic representation of the patient to differently deformed anatomies acquired at different time points, is essential if IGRT is to move beyond simple translational treatment plan adaptations. NIR is needed to map segmented and labeled anatomy from the

  1. Outcome predictors for problem drinkers treated with combined cognitive behavioral therapy and naltrexone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoristo-Myllys, Salla; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari; Kalska, Hely; Alho, Hannu

    2014-03-01

    The opioid antagonist naltrexone, combined with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), has proven efficacious for patients with alcohol dependence, but studies examining how this treatment works in a naturalistic treatment setting are lacking. This study examined predictors of the outcome of targeted naltrexone and CBT in a real-life outpatient setting. Participants were 315 patients who attended a treatment program providing CBT combined with the targeted use of naltrexone. Mixture models for estimating developmental trajectories were used to examine change in patients' alcohol consumption and symptoms of alcohol craving from treatment entry until the end of the treatment (20 weeks) or dropout. Predictors of treatment outcome were examined with analyses of multinomial logistic regression. Minimal exclusion criteria were applied to enhance the generalizability of the findings. Regular drinking pattern, having no history of previous treatments, and high-risk alcohol consumption level before the treatment were associated with less change in alcohol use during the treatment. The patients with low-risk alcohol consumption level before the treatment had the most rapid reduction in alcohol craving. Patients who drank more alcohol during the treatment had lower adherence with naltrexone. Medication non-adherence is a major barrier to naltrexone's effectiveness in a real-life treatment setting. Patients with more severe alcohol problems may need more intensive treatment for achieving better treatment outcome in real-word treatment settings.

  2. The effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety on sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Jeremy S; Carper, Matthew M; Elkins, R Meredith; Comer, Jonathan S; Pincus, Donna B; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (a) whether sleep related problems (SRPs) improved following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth with anxiety disorders, (b) whether variables that may link anxiety and SRPs (e.g., pre-sleep arousal, family accommodation, sleep hygiene) changed during treatment, and (c) whether such changes predicted SRPs at posttreatment. Youth were diagnosed with anxiety at pretreatment and received weekly CBT that targeted their principal anxiety diagnosis at one of two specialty clinics (N=69 completers, Mage=10.86). Results indicated that parent-reported SRPs improved from pre- to post-treatment and that treatment responders with regard to anxiety yielded greater SRP improvements than nonresponders. Parent report of bedtime resistance and sleep anxiety showed significant improvements. Youth reported lower rates of SRPs compared to their parents and did not demonstrate pre- to post-treatment changes in SRPs. Pre-sleep arousal and family accommodation decreased over treatment but did not predict lower SRPs at posttreatment. Higher accommodation was correlated with greater SRPs. Sleep hygiene evidenced no change and did not mediate links between accommodation and posttreatment SRPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emotion Regulation Enhancement of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for College Student Problem Drinkers: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Grasso, Damion J.; Levine, Joan; Tennen, Howard

    2018-01-01

    This pilot randomized clinical trial tested an emotion regulation enhancement to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with 29 college student problem drinkers with histories of complex trauma and current clinically significant traumatic stress symptoms. Participants received eight face-to-face sessions of manualized Internet-supported CBT for problem…

  4. Family Behavior Therapy for Substance Abuse and Other Associated Problems: A Review of Its Intervention Components and Applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan; Allen, Daniel N.; Romero, Valerie; Hill, Heather H.; Tracy, Kendra; Lapota, Holly; Gorney, Suzanne; Abdel-al, Ruweida; Caldas, Diana; Herdzik, Karen; Bradshaw, Kelsey; Valdez, Robby; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive evidence-based treatment for substance abuse and other associated problems (Family Behavior Therapy) is described, including its application to both adolescents and adults across a wide range of clinical contexts (i.e., criminal justice, child welfare). Relevant to practitioners and applied clinical researchers, topic areas include…

  5. Long-Term Efficacy of Voice Therapy in Patients With Voice Problems After Treatment of Early Glottic Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gogh, Christine D. L.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Kuik, Dirk J.; Mahieu, Hans F.

    Objective. The purpose of the present pilot study is to investigate whether the beneficial short-term effects of voice therapy in patients with voice problems after treatment of early glottic cancer as reported in our earlier study remain present on the long term. Study Design. In this prospective

  6. Long-Term Efficacy of Voice Therapy in Patients With Voice Problems After Treatment of Early Glottic Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gogh, C.D.L.; de Leeuw, I.M.; Langendijk, J.A.; Kuik, D.J.; Mahieu, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present pilot study is to investigate whether the beneficial short-term effects of voice therapy in patients with voice problems after treatment of early glottic cancer as reported in our earlier study remain present on the long term. Study Design: In this prospective

  7. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…

  8. Constructing Potential Energy Surfaces for Polyatomic Systems: Recent Progress and New Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Espinosa-Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different methods of constructing potential energy surfaces in polyatomic systems are reviewed, with the emphasis put on fitting, interpolation, and analytical (defined by functional forms approaches, based on quantum chemistry electronic structure calculations. The different approaches are reviewed first, followed by a comparison using the benchmark H + CH4 and the H + NH3 gas-phase hydrogen abstraction reactions. Different kinetics and dynamics properties are analyzed for these reactions and compared with the available experimental data, which permits one to estimate the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Finally, we analyze different problems with increasing difficulty in the potential energy construction: spin-orbit coupling, molecular size, and more complicated reactions with several maxima and minima, which test the soundness and general applicability of each method. We conclude that, although the field of small systems, typically atom-diatom, is mature, there still remains much work to be done in the field of polyatomic systems.

  9. The Potential for Cellular Therapy Combined with Growth Factors in Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Rosner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Any traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI may cause symptoms ranging from pain to complete loss of motor and sensory functions below the level of the injury. Currently, there are over 2 million SCI patients worldwide. The cost of their necessary continuing care creates a burden for the patient, their families, and society. Presently, few SCI treatments are available and none have facilitated neural regeneration and/or significant functional improvement. Research is being conducted in the following areas: pathophysiology, cellular therapies (Schwann cells, embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, growth factors (BDNF, inhibitory molecules (NG2, myelin protein, and combination therapies (cell grafts and neurotrophins, cotransplantation. Results are often limited because of the inhibitory environment created following the injury and the limited regenerative potential of the central nervous system. Therapies that show promise in small animal models may not transfer to nonhuman primates and humans. None of the research has resulted in remarkable improvement, but many areas show promise. Studies have suggested that a combination of therapies may enhance results and may be more effective than a single therapy. This paper reviews and discusses the most promising new SCI research including combination therapies.

  10. The Real Problem (Humans) and Some Potentially Effective Alternatives and New Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlon, Edward; Capece, John

    2011-01-07

    The presentation offers a wider perspective, where on the example of Everglades’ restoration efforts, the real problem – humans – is exposed. Some potentially effective alternatives and new tools are offered and discussed. Everglades’s problems are primarily caused to human activity, whether these are related to poor water quality, land use changes or cheap short-sighted fixes. Ground rules need to be set in order to have a real discussion and seek real solutions to such problems. The difference between facts and opinions is explained, so is the difference between interests and positions. These terms are often partly coinciding in human minds, thus causing further misunderstandings in pursuing real solutions. Some confounding factors in the Everglades restoration efforts are listed, with one of the main examples being the assignment of a monetary value to all factors. Some of these factors are priceless, but not being valued easily and properly (such as water). The proposed alternative to monetary value is assigning energy as the unit of measurement. The two main methods for such alternate approach are (1) Embodied energy (Emergy) and (2) Life Cycle Analysis. Agriculturally-based ecosystems services are different from natural ecosystems services. Pursuing agriculturally-based ecosystems services (such as e.g. water storage on farms, reducing nutrients in water, using flood-tolerant crops cultivars, etc.) can develop eco-services into agricultural operations and systems, addressing everyone’s interest and benefiting the society.

  11. Feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of dignity therapy for people with motor neurone disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Bentley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor neurone disease (MND practice guidelines suggest developing interventions that will promote hope, meaning, and dignity to alleviate psychological distress, but very little research has been done. This study begins to address this need by exploring the use of dignity therapy with people with MND. Dignity therapy is a brief psychotherapy that promotes hope, meaning and dignity, and enhances the end of life for people with advanced cancer. The aims of this study are to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of dignity therapy for people with MND. METHODS/DESIGN: This cross-sectional feasibility study used a one-group pre-test post-test design with 29 people diagnosed with MND. Study participants completed the following self-report questionnaires: Herth Hope Index, FACIT-sp, Patient Dignity Inventory, ALS Assessment Questionnaire, ALS Cognitive Behavioural Screen, and a demographic and health history questionnaire. Acceptability was measured with a 25-item feedback questionnaire. Feasibility was assessed by examining the length of time taken to complete dignity therapy and how symptoms common in MND affected the intervention. Generalised linear mixed models and reliable change scores were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: There were no significant pre-test post-test changes for hopefulness, spirituality or dignity on the group level, but there were changes in hopefulness on the individual level. The results of the feedback questionnaire indicates dignity therapy is highly acceptable to people with MND, who report benefits similar to those in the international randomised controlled trial on dignity therapy, a population who primarily had end-stage cancer. Benefits include better family relationships, improved sense of self and greater acceptance. Dignity therapy with people with MND is feasible if the therapist can overcome time and communication difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Dignity therapy for people with

  12. Leveraging concept-based approaches to identify potential phyto-therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivekanand; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2013-08-01

    The potential of plant-based remedies has been documented in both traditional and contemporary biomedical literature. Such types of text sources may thus be sources from which one might identify potential plant-based therapies ("phyto-therapies"). Concept-based analytic approaches have been shown to uncover knowledge embedded within biomedical literature. However, to date there has been limited attention towards leveraging such techniques for the identification of potential phyto-therapies. This study presents concept-based analytic approaches for the retrieval and ranking of associations between plants and human diseases. Focusing on identification of phyto-therapies described in MEDLINE, both MeSH descriptors used for indexing and MetaMap inferred UMLS concepts are considered. Furthermore, the identification and ranking consider both direct (i.e., plant concepts directly correlated with disease concepts) and inferred (i.e., plant concepts associated with disease concepts based on shared signs and symptoms) relationships. Based on the two scoring methodologies used in this study, it was found that a Vector Space Model approach outperformed probabilistic reliability based inferences. An evaluation of the approach is provided based on therapeutic interventions catalogued in both ClinicalTrials.gov and NDF-RT. The promising findings from this feasibility study highlight the challenges and applicability of concept-based analytic strategies for distilling phyto-therapeutic knowledge from text based knowledge sources like MEDLINE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The potential of proton beam radiation therapy in lung cancer (including mesothelioma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjelkengren, Goeran [Univ. Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology; Glimelius, Bengt [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology and Pathology; Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology

    2005-12-01

    A Swedish group of oncologists and hospital physicists have estimated the number of patients in Sweden suitable for proton beam therapy. The estimations have been based on current statistics of tumour incidence, number of patients potentially eligible for radiation treatment, scientific support from clinical trials and model dose planning studies and knowledge of the dose-response relations of different tumours and normal tissues. It is estimated that about 350 patients with lung cancer and about 20 patients with mesothelioma annually may benefit from proton beam therapy.

  14. A qualitative study of a blended therapy using problem solving therapy with a customised smartphone app in men who present to hospital with intentional self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Craig; Dunn, Nicole; MacLean, Sarah; Testa, Valerie; Heisel, Marnin; Hatcher, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Blended therapy describes the use of computerised therapy combined with face-to-face therapy to extend the depth, range and nature of the face-to-face therapy. We wanted to develop a treatment manual for a randomised trial of blended therapy combining face-to-face problem solving and a smartphone app in men who present to hospital with self-harm. To develop a treatment manual and to describe the experience of receiving and delivering a blended therapy. After completion of the blended therapy, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with participants to describe their experience of the treatment. Two independent coders analysed the material using a thematic, grounded theory approach. Seven men were enrolled in the study, and six completed the qualitative interviews. The two main themes identified were of trust and connection. Participants attended 85% of their appointments. In the treatment manual, we emphasised the themes of trust and connection by allowing time to discuss the app in the face-to-face to sessions, ensuring that therapists are familiar with the app and know how to respond to technical queries. Identification of trust and connection generates novel questions about the importance of the therapeutic alliance with technology rather than with people. Clinicians and app developers need to pay attention to the therapeutic relationship with technology as trust and good communication can be easily damaged, resulting in disengagement with the app. Blended therapy may result in increased adherence to face-to-face sessions. NCT02718248. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells and prognosis: the potential link between conventional cancer therapy and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochems, Caroline; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have now documented a link between the immune infiltrate in several human carcinoma types and prognosis and response to therapy. The most comprehensive of these studies were in colorectal cancer with similar conclusions by numerous groups. Analyses of immune infiltrate of several other carcinoma types also showed general correlations between immune infiltrate and prognosis, but with some conflicting results. This review will attempt to summarize the current state of this field and point out what factors may be responsible for some of the conflicting findings. Nonetheless, the breadth of reports drawing similar conclusions for some cancer cell types leads one to more seriously consider the link between immune cell infiltrate and tumor prognosis and/or response to therapy, and the potential for combining conventional cancer therapy with active immunotherapy employing therapeutic cancer vaccines. PMID:21486861

  16. Prevention of poststroke apathy using escitalopram or problem-solving therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Katsunaka; Jorge, Ricardo E; Moser, David J; Arndt, Stephan; Jang, Mijin; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Hegel, Mark T; Robinson, Robert G

    2013-09-01

    Apathy occurs frequently following stroke and prior studies have demonstrated the negative effect of apathy on recovery from stroke. This study was a secondary analysis examining the efficacy of escitalopram, problem-solving therapy (PST), or placebo administered for 1 year to prevent the onset of apathy among patients with recent stroke. Patients within 3 months of an index stroke who did not meet DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major or minor depression and who did not have a serious comorbid physical illness were enrolled. Patients were recruited from three sites: University of Iowa, University of Chicago, and Burke Rehabilitation Hospital. One hundred fifty-four patients without evidence of apathy at initial evaluation were included in the randomized controlled trial using escitalopram (10 mg patients ≤65 years; 5 mg patients >65 years) (N = 51) or placebo (N = 47) or non-blinded PST (12 total sessions) (N = 56) over 1 year. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, patients were assessed for diagnosis and severity of apathy using the Apathy Scale. Using a Cox proportional hazards model of time to onset of apathy, participants given placebo were 3.47 times more likely to develop apathy than patients given escitalopram and 1.84 times more likely to develop apathy than patients given PST after controlling for age, sex, cognitive impairment, and diabetes mellitus status (adjusted hazard ratio: 3.47, 95% CI: 1.79-6.73 [escitalopram group]; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.21-2.80 [PST group]). Escitalopram or PST was significantly more effective in preventing new onset of apathy following stroke compared with placebo. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Comparing the effectiveness of the emotionally-focused couple therapy and the problem-centered systems therapy of the family on marital burnout in spouses of recovering addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Naghdi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Marital burnout can be considered both an underlying factor for serious martial problems and a consequence of these problems. The present study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the emotionally-focused couple therapy (EFCT and the problem-centered systems therapy of the family (PCSTF on marital burnout in spouses of recovering addicts. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 27 eligible couples as volunteers. After conducting the pretest using the couple burnout measure, the participants were randomly assigned to three groups of 9, including a control group, an EFCT experimental group and a PCSTF experimental group. The study couples then individually attended 11 couple therapy sessions based on PCSTF and EFCT models. Posttests were ultimately conducted and the data collected were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results: The results obtained indicated significant reductions in marital burnout in both the EFCT and the PCSTF models compared to in the control group, while the effects of the two models were not significantly different. Conclusion: Although these two different therapeutic approaches address different dimensions of married life, both cause reductions in marital burnout. Integrating these treatment methods of marital burnout therefore seems to be effective.

  18. Concise Review: Optimized Strategies for Stem Cell-Based Therapy in Myocardial Repair: Clinical Translatability and Potential Limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongrong; Hu, Xinyang; Wang, Jian'an

    2018-01-13

    Ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) remain major public health problems with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances, current therapeutic approaches are unable to rescue the extensive and irreversible loss of cardiomyocytes caused by severe ischemia. Over the past 16 years, stem cell-based therapy has been recognized as an innovative strategy for cardiac repair/regeneration and functional recovery after IHDs. Although substantial preclinical animal studies using a variety of stem/progenitor cells have shown promising results, there is a tremendous degree of skepticism in the clinical community as many stem cell trials do not confer any beneficial effects. How to accelerate stem cell-based therapy toward successful clinical application attracts considerate attention. However, many important issues need to be fully addressed. In this Review, we have described and compared the effects of different types of stem cells with their dose, delivery routes, and timing that have been routinely tested in recent preclinical and clinical findings. We have also discussed the potential mechanisms of action of stem cells, and explored the role and underlying regulatory components of stem cell-derived secretomes/exosomes in myocardial repair. Furthermore, we have critically reviewed the different strategies for optimizing both donor stem cells and the target cardiac microenvironments to enhance the engraftment and efficacy of stem cells, highlighting their clinical translatability and potential limitation. Stem Cells 2018. © AlphaMed Press 2018.

  19. Potential for Enhanced Therapeutic Activity of Biological Cancer Therapies with Doxycycline Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Sampath, Padma; Yan, Xinmin; Thorne, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant strides made in the clinical translation of adoptive immune cell therapies, it is apparent that many tumors incorporate strategies to avoid recognition by receptors expressed on the immune cells, such as NKG2D. Strategies that stabilize the expression of ligands for these receptors may enhance the therapeutic potential of these and related therapies. Doxycycline inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that act to cleave the extracellular domain of MICA/B, ligands for the NKG2D receptor. Doxycycline treatment blocked shedding of MICA/B from a panel of human tumor cells, but also acted to increase their expression and cell surface translocation, possibly through its action on ATM. This meant that many tumor cells displayed increased MICA/B expression and enhanced susceptibility to CIK cells. Interestingly, doxycycline also selectively enhanced the replication of oncolytic vaccinia in many tumor cell lines, leading to increased sensitivity to these therapies. Combination (CIK-oncolytic vaccinia) therapies used in conjunction with doxycyline led to increased anti-tumor effects. The unexpected and pleiotropic beneficial anti-tumor effects of doxycycline on both immune cell and oncolytic viral therapies make it an excellent candidate for rapid clinical testing. PMID:23282955

  20. Synergistic potentiation of D-fraction with vitamin C as possible alternative approach for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensuke Konno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensuke KonnoDepartment of Urology, New York, Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USAAbstract: Maitake D-fraction or PDF is the bioactive extract of maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa and its active constituent is the protein-bound polysaccharide (proteoglucan, or more specifically known as β-glucan. PDF has been extensively studied and a number of its medicinal potentials/properties have been unveiled and demonstrated. Those include various physiological benefits ranging from immunomodulatory and antitumor activities to treatment for hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, viral infections (hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus, and obesity. Particularly, two major biological activities of PDF, immunomodulatory and antitumor activities, have been the main target for scientific and clinical research. To demonstrate and confirm such biological activities, numerous studies have been performed in vitro and in vivo or in clinical settings. These studies showed that PDF was indeed capable of modulating immunologic and hematologic parameters, inhibiting or regressing the cancer cell growth, and even improving quality of life of cancer patients. Synergistic potentiation of PDF with vitamin C demonstrated in vitro is rather interesting and may have clinical implication, because such combination therapy appears to help improve the efficacy of currently ongoing cancer therapies. Recently, intravenous administration of vitamin C has been often used to increase its physiological concentration and this useful procedure may further make this combination therapy feasible. Therefore, PDF may have great potential, either being used solely or combined with other agents, for cancer therapy. Such relevant and detailed studies will be described and discussed herein with a special focus on the combination of PDF and vitamin C as a viable therapeutic option.Keywords: maitake D-fraction, PDF, vitamin C, synergism, cancer therapy

  1. Prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy and mechanisms of Internet-based self-help problem-solving therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuurmans Josien

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in adolescence, youngsters are not inclined to seek help in regular healthcare. Therapy through the Internet, however, has been found to appeal strongly to young people. The main aim of the present study is to examine the efficacy of preventive Internet-based guided self-help problem-solving therapy with adolescents reporting depressive and anxiety symptoms. A secondary objective is to test potential mediating and moderating variables in order to gain insight into how the intervention works and for whom it works best. Methods/design This study is a randomized controlled trial with an intervention condition group and a wait-list control group. The intervention condition group receives Internet-based self-help problem-solving therapy. Support is provided by a professional and delivered through email. Participants in the wait-list control group receive the intervention four months later. The study population consists of adolescents (12-18-year-olds from the general population who report mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms and are willing to complete a self-help course. Primary outcomes are symptoms of depression and anxiety. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, social anxiety, and cost-effectiveness. The following variables are examined for their moderating role: demographics, motivation, treatment credibility and expectancy, externalizing behaviour, perceived social support from parents and friends, substance use, the experience of important life events, physical activity, the quality of the therapeutic alliance, and satisfaction. Mediator variables include problem-solving skills, worrying, mastery, and self-esteem. Data are collected at baseline and at 3 weeks, 5 weeks, 4 months, 8 months, and 12 months after baseline. Both intention-to-treat and completer analyses will be conducted. Discussion This study evaluates the efficacy and mechanisms of

  2. Potential for Assessing Dynamic Problem-Solving at the Beginning of Higher Education Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benő Csapó

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing demand for assessment instruments which can be used in higher education, which cover a broader area of competencies than the traditional tests for disciplinary knowledge and domain-specific skills, and which measure students' most important general cognitive capabilities. Around the age of the transition from secondary to tertiary education, such assessments may serve several functions, including selecting the best-prepared candidates for certain fields of study. Dynamic problem-solving (DPS is a good candidate for such a role, as tasks that assess it involve knowledge acquisition and knowledge utilization as well. The purpose of this study is to validate an online DPS test and to explore its potential for assessing students' DPS skills at the beginning of their higher education studies. Participants in the study were first-year students at a major Hungarian university (n = 1468. They took five tests that measured knowledge from their previous studies: Hungarian language and literature, mathematics, history, science and English as a Foreign Language (EFL. A further, sixth test based on the MicroDYN approach, assessed students' DPS skills. A brief questionnaire explored learning strategies and collected data on students' background. The testing took place at the beginning of the first semester in three 2-h sessions. Problem-solving showed relatively strong correlations with mathematics (r = 0.492 and science (r = 0.401, and moderate correlations with EFL (r = 0.227, history (r = 0.192, and Hungarian (r = 0.125. Weak but still significant correlations were found with certain learning strategies, positive correlations with elaboration strategies, and a negative correlation with memorization strategies. Significant differences were observed between male and female students; men performed significantly better in DPS than women. Results indicated the dominant role of the first phase of solving dynamic problems, as knowledge

  3. Potential for Assessing Dynamic Problem-Solving at the Beginning of Higher Education Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapó, Benő; Molnár, Gyöngyvér

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing demand for assessment instruments which can be used in higher education, which cover a broader area of competencies than the traditional tests for disciplinary knowledge and domain-specific skills, and which measure students' most important general cognitive capabilities. Around the age of the transition from secondary to tertiary education, such assessments may serve several functions, including selecting the best-prepared candidates for certain fields of study. Dynamic problem-solving (DPS) is a good candidate for such a role, as tasks that assess it involve knowledge acquisition and knowledge utilization as well. The purpose of this study is to validate an online DPS test and to explore its potential for assessing students' DPS skills at the beginning of their higher education studies. Participants in the study were first-year students at a major Hungarian university (n = 1468). They took five tests that measured knowledge from their previous studies: Hungarian language and literature, mathematics, history, science and English as a Foreign Language (EFL). A further, sixth test based on the MicroDYN approach, assessed students' DPS skills. A brief questionnaire explored learning strategies and collected data on students' background. The testing took place at the beginning of the first semester in three 2-h sessions. Problem-solving showed relatively strong correlations with mathematics (r = 0.492) and science (r = 0.401), and moderate correlations with EFL (r = 0.227), history (r = 0.192), and Hungarian (r = 0.125). Weak but still significant correlations were found with certain learning strategies, positive correlations with elaboration strategies, and a negative correlation with memorization strategies. Significant differences were observed between male and female students; men performed significantly better in DPS than women. Results indicated the dominant role of the first phase of solving dynamic problems, as knowledge acquisition

  4. The Heroes' Problems: Exploring the Potentials of Google Glass for Biohazard Handling Professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jack Shen-Kuen; Henry, Michael J.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Love, Oriana J.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2015-06-23

    In “white powder incidents” or other suspicious and risky situations relating to deadly diseases or chemicals (e.g., Ebola investigation), those who handle the potentially hazardous materials are the heroes who spearhead the first responder’s operations. Although well trained, these heroes need to manage complex problems and make life-or-death decisions while handling the unknown and dangerous. We are motivated to explore how Google Glass can facilitate those heroes’ missions. To this end, we conducted contextual inquiry on six biohazard-handling, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)-wearing professionals. With an inductive thematic analysis, we summarized the heroes’ workflow and four groups of “Heroes’ Problems”. A unique “A3 Model” (Awareness, Analysis, Action) was generated to encapsulate our qualitative findings and proposed Glass features. The findings serve as the groundwork for our future development.

  5. Thymoquinone as a Potential Adjuvant Therapy for Cancer Treatment: Evidence from Preclinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.M. Mostofa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thymoquinone (TQ, the main bioactive component of Nigella sativa, has been found to exhibit anticancer effects in numerous preclinical studies. Due to its multitargeting nature, TQ interferes in a wide range of tumorigenic processes and counteracts carcinogenesis, malignant growth, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. Moreover, TQ can specifically sensitize tumor cells toward conventional cancer treatments (e.g., radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy and simultaneously minimize therapy-associated toxic effects in normal cells. In this review, we summarized the adjuvant potential of TQ as observed in various in vitro and in vivo animal models and discussed the pharmacological properties of TQ to rationalize its supplementary role in potentiating the efficacy of standard therapeutic modalities namely surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Altogether, we suggest further comprehensive evaluation of TQ in preclinical and clinical levels to delineate its implied utility as a novel complementary adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment.

  6. Integrating photoluminescence, magnetism and thermal conversion for potential photothermal therapy and dual-modal bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jingting; Liu, Guixia; Song, Yan; Li, Dan; Dong, Xiangting; Wang, Jinxian; Yu, Wensheng

    2018-01-15

    Multifunctional nanocomposites (NCs) incorporating magnetic, luminescent and photothermal conversion properties are endowed with potential application in many fields such as imaging, tumor detection, drug delivery and therapy. Here, multifunctional MWCNTs-NaGdF4:Yb3+, Er3+, Eu3+ NCs, which offer the potential for integrated bioimaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) were fabricated by a facile hydrothermal method. The resulting sample exhibits uniform morphology, bright dual-modal luminescence and intrinsic paramagnetic properties. Under near-infrared laser excitation, NCs have excellent photothermal conversion properties. In addition, the MTT assay in HeLa cells shows that the NCs have good biocompatibility. Moreover, the up-conversion luminescence (UCL) imaging, X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging and PTT in vitro of NCs were investigated. The results indicate that NCs can be used for dual-modal imaging-guided diagnose and PTT of cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical heterogeneity was a common problem in Cochrane reviews of physiotherapy and occupational therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, C.H.M. van den; Steultjens, E.M.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Dekker, J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To identify the strategies used to deal with the clinical heterogeneity of interventions and multiple outcome measures used in Cochrane reviews on physiotherapy and occupational therapy. METHODS: A search for systematic reviews on physiotherapy and occupational therapy in

  8. Phage-Host Interactions in Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the Potential for Phage Therapy in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb

    , the increasing problem with antibiotic resistance has led to increased attention to the use of phages for controlling F. psychrophilum infections in aquaculture. In a synopsis and four scientific papers, this PhD project studies the potential and optimizes the use of phage therapy for treatment and prevention...... temperatures below 15°C and typically with fry mortality rates of 50-60%. Several attempts of vaccine development against RTFS have been made, but according to my knowledge no commercial vaccine is yet available. Bacterial chemotherapy is still the most effective and used treatment of RTFS today. However......, the dispersal and survival of a F. psychrophilum phage in vivo in juvenile rainbow trout after administration by three different methods was examined. Following phage administration by bath and oral intubation into the stomach, phages could be detected in the intestine, spleen, brain and kidney for 24 h before...

  9. Radioiodine therapy of benign non-toxic goitre. Potential role of recombinant human TSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, S; Bonnema, S J; Hegedüs, L

    2011-01-01

    This review provides an update on recombinant human TSH (rh-TSH) augmented radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy and outlines its potential role in the treatment of symptomatic benign multinodular non-toxic goitre. In some countries, ¹³¹I has been used for three decades to reduce the size of nodular goitres......-reduction (equality) strategy is attractive in terms of minimizing post-therapeutic restrictions and in reducing the potential risk of radiation-induced malignancy. Adverse effects like temporary thyroid swelling and thyroid hormone excess are to a large extent dose-dependent and generally 0.1mg rh-TSH or less...

  10. Potential role of radiation therapy in augmenting the activity of immunotherapy for gynecologic cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Christina H; Fleming, Gini F; Moroney, John W

    2017-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have become an area of intense interest in oncology and are actively being studied in a variety of cancer types with a wide range of success. In vitro data suggest mechanisms by which radiation can activate the immune system, and ongoing studies are exploring the potential interaction of checkpoint inhibitors with radiotherapy in both preclinical and clinical settings. Gynecologic malignancies are a heterogeneous group of tumors with varying prognoses, intrinsic immunogenicity, and potential for response to immune-based therapies. In this review, we focus on the rationale for immunotherapy and opportunities for augmentation by photon radiotherapy in cancers of the cervix, endometrium, and ovary. PMID:29184441

  11. Measuring Human Performance on Clustering Problems: Some Potential Objective Criteria and Experimental Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusco, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The study of human performance on discrete optimization problems has a considerable history that spans various disciplines. The two most widely studied problems are the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem and the quadratic assignment problem. The purpose of this paper is to outline a program of study for the measurement of human performance on…

  12. Potential for control of harmful cyanobacterial blooms using biologically derived substances: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jihai; Li, Renhui; Lepo, Joe Eugene; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2013-08-15

    Water blooms of cyanobacteria have posed a worldwide environmental threat and a human health hazard in recent decades. Many biologically derived (but non-antibiotic) bioactive substances are known to inhibit the growth of aquatic bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Some of these biologically derived substances (BDSs) have no or low toxicity to aquatic animals and humans. Most BDSs are easily biodegradable in aquatic environments. These characteristics indicate that they may have potential for control and removal of harmful algae. However, BDSs also have the disadvantages of high cost of preparation, and possible damage to non-target aquatic organisms, and sometimes, low efficiency of algae removal. The ecological risks of most BDSs are still unknown. Here, we review recent research progress relative to the inhibitory effects of BDSs on cyanobacteria, and critically analyze the potential of BDSs as algicides with an emphasis on possible problems during the process of controlling harmful cyanobacteria. We suggest avenues of study to enhance effective use of BDSs in controlling of cyanobacterial blooms; these include guidelines for isolation and characterization of new effective BDSs, exploiting the synergistic effects of BDSs, the merits of controlling harmful cyanobacteria at the early stages of proliferation and evaluation of ecological risks of BDSs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Some free boundary problems in potential flow regime usinga based level set method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, M.; Bobillo-Ares, N.; Sethian, J.A.

    2008-12-09

    Recent advances in the field of fluid mechanics with moving fronts are linked to the use of Level Set Methods, a versatile mathematical technique to follow free boundaries which undergo topological changes. A challenging class of problems in this context are those related to the solution of a partial differential equation posed on a moving domain, in which the boundary condition for the PDE solver has to be obtained from a partial differential equation defined on the front. This is the case of potential flow models with moving boundaries. Moreover the fluid front will possibly be carrying some material substance which will diffuse in the front and be advected by the front velocity, as for example the use of surfactants to lower surface tension. We present a Level Set based methodology to embed this partial differential equations defined on the front in a complete Eulerian framework, fully avoiding the tracking of fluid particles and its known limitations. To show the advantages of this approach in the field of Fluid Mechanics we present in this work one particular application: the numerical approximation of a potential flow model to simulate the evolution and breaking of a solitary wave propagating over a slopping bottom and compare the level set based algorithm with previous front tracking models.

  14. Problems and potentialities of e-Learning for regular undergraduate courses in emergency medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rafaelo Schlinkert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: E-learning techniques are spreading at great speed in medicine, raising concerns about the impact of adopting them. Websites especially designed to host courses are becoming more common. There is a lack of evidence that these systems could enhance student knowledge acquisition. GOAL: To evaluate the impact of using dedicated-website tools over cognition of medical students exposed to a first-aid course. METHODS: Prospective study of 184 medical students exposed to a twenty-hour first-aid course. We generated a dedicated-website with several sections (lectures, additional reading material, video and multiple choice exercises. We constructed variables expressing the student's access to each section. The evaluation was composed of fifty multiple-choice tests, based on clinical problems. We used multiple linear regression to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: There was no association of website intensity of exposure and the outcome - beta-coeficient 0.27 (95%CI - 0.454 - 1.004. These findings were not altered after adjustment for potential confounders - 0.165 (95%CI -0.628 - 0.960. CONCLUSION: A dedicated website with passive and active capabilities for aiding in person learning had not shown association with a better outcome.

  15. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Adolescent Offenders with Mental Health Problems in Custody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Paul; Smedley, Kirsty; Kenning, Cassandra; McKee, Amy; Woods, Debbie; Rennie, Charlotte E.; Bell, Rachel V.; Aryamanesh, Mitra; Dolan, Mairead

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have identified high levels of mental health problems among adolescents in custody and there is increasing evidence that mental health problems in this population are associated with further offending and mental health problems into adulthood. Despite recent improvements in mental health provision within custodial settings there is…

  16. Potential implications of adjuvant endocrine therapy for the oral health of postmenopausal women with breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichman, L. Susan; Havens, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Current adjuvant treatment modalities for breast cancer that express the estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor include adjuvant anti-estrogen therapies, and tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors. Bone, including the jaw, is an endocrine-sensitive organ, as are other oral structures. This review examines the potential links between adjuvant anti-estrogen treatments in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer and oral health. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and the Web of Knowledge was conducted using combinations of key terms “breast,” “cancer,” “neoplasm,” “Tamoxifen,” “Aromatase Inhibitor,” “chemotherapy,” “hormone therapy,” “alveolar bone loss,” “postmenopausal bone loss,” “estrogen,” “SERM,” “hormone replacement therapy,” and “quality of life.” We selected articles published in peer-reviewed journals in the English. The authors found no studies reporting on periodontal diseases, alveolar bone loss, oral health, or oral health-related quality of life in association with anti-estrogen breast cancer treatments in postmenopausal women. Periodontal diseases, alveolar bone density, tooth loss, and conditions of the soft tissues of the mouth have all been associated with menopausal status supporting the hypothesis that the soft tissues and bone of the oral cavity could be negatively affected by anti-estrogen therapy. As a conclusion, the impact of adjuvant endocrine breast cancer therapy on the oral health of postmenopausal women is undefined. The structures of the oral cavity are influenced by estrogen; therefore, anti-estrogen therapies may carry the risk of oral toxicities. Oral health care for breast cancer patients is an important but understudied aspect of cancer survivorship. PMID:22986813

  17. Redox Potential and ROS-Mediated Nanomedicines for Improving Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Sterling B; Gonzalez-Fajardo, Laura; Beringhs, André O'Reilly; Lu, Xiuling

    2017-11-21

    The overabundance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in cancer cells represents a challenge for therapeutic intervention, while also providing an opportunity for the development of new strategies to improve clinical therapeutic outcomes. Recent Advances: Nanotechnology has advanced tremendously in recent decades and now offers many potential opportunities to leverage altered redox status to improve conventional therapies. Highly tunable nanoparticle delivery systems have shown great promise for improving the following: (i) chemotherapy via selective redox-sensitive drug release in tumor cells and limited systemic toxicity; (ii) photodynamic therapy via enhancing photoactivation and/or ROS production; and (iii) radiation therapy via enhancing ROS production. Great progress has also been made regarding novel nanoparticle-mediated therapies to enhance tumor cell death via ROS generation and angiogenic inhibition. Current anticancer therapies are limited by systemic side effects and resistance. The inherent heterogeneity and hypoxic status of solid tumors impose significant barriers for even the most rationally designed nanoparticle systems. In addition, few comprehensive biodistribution and toxicity evaluations exist, and clinical efficacy remains to be established. The practicality of many nanoparticle systems is compromised by variable in vivo responses and scale-up difficulties due to complicated chemistry and prohibitive manufacturing costs. As nanoparticle design continues to advance, improved therapeutic efficacy will likely follow. Actively targeted systems may improve distribution specificity but more positive clinical demonstrations are needed. Further investigation into systemic and intracellular distribution as well as toxicity will improve understanding of how these nanoparticle systems can be applied to improve existing therapies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  18. Government, market and community in urban solid waste management; problems and potentials in the transition to sustainable development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Baud, I.S.A.; Baud, I.S.A.; Furedy, C.; Post, J.

    2004-01-01

    -Post, Johan and Isa Baud (2004) Government, market and community in urban solid waste management; problems and potentials in the transition to sustainable development? in: Baud, Isa., Johan. Post and Christine Furedy (2004) Solid Waste Management and Rec

  19. Potentials And Problems Of Internet As A Source Of Purchasing Information - Experiences And Attitudes Of University Students In Croatia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blazenka Knezevic; Bozidar Jakovic; Ivan Strugar

    2014-01-01

    ...) to assess perceived problems and potential of Internet as a retail information source. The paper is based on a primary research - a survey on attitudes of Croatian students towards Internet and online shopping...

  20. Heterogeneity in primary colorectal cancer and its corresponding metastases: a potential reason of EGFR-targeted therapy failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongqi; Jin, Ketao; Lan, Huanrong; Teng, Lisong

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy represents an important approach in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy. However, a number of CRC patients show intrinsic or acquired resistance to EGFR-targeted therapy. EGFR antibody therapy is established in CRC patients with wild-type KRAS. However, up to half of these patients do not respond to this therapy. This phenomenon implied some potential mechanisms of resistance to EGFR inhibitors might exist. One of the potential reasons to explain this phenomenon is heterogeneity of CRC. The heterogeneity of CRC has been well described at the morphological, molecular and genomic levels. This review discussed the potential relationship of heterogeneity, including intratumor heterogeneity of CRC and heterogeneity in primary CRC and its corresponding metastases, to EGFR-targeted therapy failure.

  1. Web-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Mental Health Problems in College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Michael E.; Haeger, Jack A.; Pierce, Benjamin G.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    There are significant challenges in addressing the mental health needs of college students. The current study tested an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), web-based self-help program to treat a broad range of psychological problems students struggle with. A sample of 79 college students was randomized to web-based ACT or a waitlist condition, with assessments at baseline and posttreatment. Results indicated adequate acceptability and program engagement for the ACT website. Relative to w...

  2. Synergistic potentiation of D-fraction with vitamin C as possible alternative approach for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Sensuke

    2009-07-30

    Maitake D-fraction or PDF is the bioactive extract of maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) and its active constituent is the protein-bound polysaccharide (proteoglucan), or more specifically known as beta-glucan. PDF has been extensively studied and a number of its medicinal potentials/properties have been unveiled and demonstrated. Those include various physiological benefits ranging from immunomodulatory and antitumor activities to treatment for hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, viral infections (hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus), and obesity. Particularly, two major biological activities of PDF, immunomodulatory and antitumor activities, have been the main target for scientific and clinical research. To demonstrate and confirm such biological activities, numerous studies have been performed in vitro and in vivo or in clinical settings. These studies showed that PDF was indeed capable of modulating immunologic and hematologic parameters, inhibiting or regressing the cancer cell growth, and even improving quality of life of cancer patients. Synergistic potentiation of PDF with vitamin C demonstrated in vitro is rather interesting and may have clinical implication, because such combination therapy appears to help improve the efficacy of currently ongoing cancer therapies. Recently, intravenous administration of vitamin C has been often used to increase its physiological concentration and this useful procedure may further make this combination therapy feasible. Therefore, PDF may have great potential, either being used solely or combined with other agents, for cancer therapy. Such relevant and detailed studies will be described and discussed herein with a special focus on the combination of PDF and vitamin C as a viable therapeutic option.

  3. Synergistic potentiation of D-fraction with vitamin C as possible alternative approach for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Sensuke

    2009-01-01

    Maitake D-fraction or PDF is the bioactive extract of maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) and its active constituent is the protein-bound polysaccharide (proteoglucan), or more specifically known as β-glucan. PDF has been extensively studied and a number of its medicinal potentials/properties have been unveiled and demonstrated. Those include various physiological benefits ranging from immunomodulatory and antitumor activities to treatment for hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, viral infections (hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus), and obesity. Particularly, two major biological activities of PDF, immunomodulatory and antitumor activities, have been the main target for scientific and clinical research. To demonstrate and confirm such biological activities, numerous studies have been performed in vitro and in vivo or in clinical settings. These studies showed that PDF was indeed capable of modulating immunologic and hematologic parameters, inhibiting or regressing the cancer cell growth, and even improving quality of life of cancer patients. Synergistic potentiation of PDF with vitamin C demonstrated in vitro is rather interesting and may have clinical implication, because such combination therapy appears to help improve the efficacy of currently ongoing cancer therapies. Recently, intravenous administration of vitamin C has been often used to increase its physiological concentration and this useful procedure may further make this combination therapy feasible. Therefore, PDF may have great potential, either being used solely or combined with other agents, for cancer therapy. Such relevant and detailed studies will be described and discussed herein with a special focus on the combination of PDF and vitamin C as a viable therapeutic option. PMID:20360893

  4. Changes in Sleep Problems and Psychological Flexibility Following Interdisciplinary Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain: An Observational Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling Daly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Cognitive and behavioral treatments (CBT for sleep problems and chronic pain have shown good results, although these results could improve. More recent developments based on the psychological flexibility model, the model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT may offer a useful addition to traditional CBT. The aim of this study was to examine whether an ACT-based treatment for chronic pain is associated with improved sleep. Secondly, we examined the associations between changes on measures of psychological flexibility and sleep-related outcomes.Methods: The study used an observational cohort methodology. Participants were 252 patients (73.8% female attending a four-week, interdisciplinary, pain management program in London, United Kingdom. Participants completed standard self-report measures of pain and functioning, sleep outcomes, and processes of psychological flexibility. Pre- to post-treatment, and pre-treatment to follow-up measures were examined for statistically significant differences using paired samples t-tests. Secondarily, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine change in process measures in relation to change in treatment outcome.Results: Participants showed statistically significant improvements (all p<.001 at post-treatment on measures of insomnia severity (d=.45, sleep interference (d=61, and sleep efficiency (d=.32. Significant improvements in insomnia severity and sleep interference were also observed at nine-month follow up. Small to medium effect sizes were observed across the sleep outcomes. Statistically significant changes were also observed on measures of psychological flexibility, and these improvements were significantly associated with improvements on sleep-related outcomes, independently contributing up to 19% of unique variance. Conclusion: This study supports the potential usefulness of ACT-based treatments for chronic pain for addressing co-occurring sleep difficulties

  5. Telehealth Problem-Solving Therapy for Depressed Low-Income Homebound Older Adults: Acceptance and Preliminary Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G.; Hegel, Mark T.; Nathan Marti, C.; Mary Lynn Marinucci, M.S.S.W.; Leslie Sirrianni, M.S.S.W.; Bruce, Martha L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acceptance and preliminary efficacy of in-home telehealth delivery of problem-solving therapy (tele-PST) among depressed low-income homebound older adults in a pilot randomized control trial (RCT) designed to test its feasibility and preliminary efficacy. Methods 121 homebound individuals who were age 50+ and scored 15+ on the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) participated in the 3-arm RCT, comparing tele-PST to in-person PST and telephone support calls. Six sessions of the PST-PC (primary care) were conducted for the PST participants. For tele-PST, second through sixth sessions were conducted via Skype video call. Acceptance of tele-PST or in-person PST was measured with the 11-item, 7-point scale modified Treatment Evaluation Inventory (TEI). Mixed-effect regression analysis was used to examine the effects of treatment group, time, and the interaction term between treatment group and time on the HAMD scores. Results The TEI score was slightly higher among tele-PST participants than among in-person PST participants. The HAMD scores of tele-PST participants and in-person PST participants at 12-week follow-up were significantly lower than the HAMD scores of telephone support call participants, and the treatment effects were maintained at 24-week follow-up. The HAMD scores of tele-PST participants did not differ from those of in-person PST participants. Conclusions Despite their initial skepticism, almost all participants had extremely positive attitudes toward tele-PST at 12-week follow-up. Tele-PST also appears to be an efficacious treatment modality for depressed homebound older adults and to have significant potential to facilitate their access to treatment. PMID:23567376

  6. The effectiveness of family therapy and systemic interventions for child-focused problems

    OpenAIRE

    CARR, ALAN

    2009-01-01

    This review updates a similar paper published in the Journal of Family Therapy in 2001. It presents evidence from meta-analyses, systematic literature reviews and controlled trials for the effectiveness of systemic interventions for families of children and adolescents with various difficulties. In this context, systemic interventions include both family therapy and other family-based approaches such as parent training. The evidence supports the effectiveness of systemic interventions either ...

  7. The evidence-base for family therapy and systemic interventions for child-focused problems

    OpenAIRE

    CARR, ALAN

    2014-01-01

    This review updates similar articles published in the Journal of Family Therapy in 2001 and 2009. It presents evidence from meta-analyses, systematic literature reviews and controlled trials for the effectiveness of systemic interventions for families of children and adolescents with various difficulties. In this context, systemic interventions include both family therapy and other family-based approaches such as parent training. The evidence supports the effectiveness of systemic interventio...

  8. Effects of Neuropeptide Y on Stem Cells and Their Potential Applications in Disease Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY, a 36-amino acid peptide, is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and other peripheral tissues. It takes part in regulating various biological processes including food intake, circadian rhythm, energy metabolism, and neuroendocrine secretion. Increasing evidence indicates that NPY exerts multiple regulatory effects on stem cells. As a kind of primitive and undifferentiated cells, stem cells have the therapeutic potential to replace damaged cells, secret paracrine molecules, promote angiogenesis, and modulate immunity. Stem cell-based therapy has been demonstrated effective and considered as one of the most promising treatments for specific diseases. However, several limitations still hamper its application, such as poor survival and low differentiation and integration rates of transplanted stem cells. The regulatory effects of NPY on stem cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation may be helpful to overcome these limitations and facilitate the application of stem cell-based therapy. In this review, we summarized the regulatory effects of NPY on stem cells and discussed their potential applications in disease therapy.

  9. Mucoadhesive polyacrylamide nanogel as a potential hydrophobic drug carrier for intravesical bladder cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shengjie; Neoh, Koon Gee; Kang, En-Tang; Mahendran, Ratha; Chiong, Edmund

    2015-05-25

    In this paper, amine-functionalized polyacrylamide nanogels (PAm-NH2) loaded with docetaxel (DTX) were evaluated as a mucoadhesive and sustained intravesical drug delivery (IDD) system for potential bladder cancer therapy. Nanogels have not been applied for such therapy before. The mucoadhesiveness of the PAm-NH2 nanogels, which is a critical factor for IDD application, was investigated using the mucin-particle method and by analyzing the direct attachment of the PAm-NH2 nanogels onto the luminal surface of porcine urinary bladder. DTX, as a model hydrophobic drug, was successfully loaded into hydrophilic PAm-NH2 nanogels with high loading efficiency (>90%), and sustained release of DTX from the nanogels over 9 days in artificial urine was achieved. The nanogels were also taken in by bladder cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The efficiency of the DTX-loaded nanogels in killing UMUC3 and T24 bladder cancer cells was determined to be equivalent to free DTX, and the morphology of the bladder urothelium was not adversely altered by the PAm-NH2 nanogels. These findings indicate that such mucoadhesive nanogels are potentially a promising candidate for intravesical delivery of hydrophobic drugs in bladder cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An Assessment of the Potential Use of BNNTs for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tiago H; Miranda, Marcelo C; Rocha, Zildete; Leal, Alexandre S; Gomes, Dawidson A; Sousa, Edesia M B

    2017-04-12

    Currently, nanostructured compounds have been standing out for their optical, mechanical, and chemical features and for the possibilities of manipulation and regulation of complex biological processes. One of these compounds is boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), which are a nanostructured material analog to carbon nanotubes, but formed of nitrogen and boron atoms. BNNTs present high thermal stability along with high chemical inertia. Among biological applications, its biocompatibility, cellular uptake, and functionalization potential can be highlighted, in addition to its eased utilization due to its nanometric size and tumor cell internalization. When it comes to new forms of therapy, we can draw attention to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), an experimental radiotherapy characterized by a boron-10 isotope carrier inside the target and a thermal neutron beam focused on it. The activation of the boron-10 atom by a neutron generates a lithium atom, a gamma ray, and an alpha particle, which can be used to destroy tumor tissues. The aim of this work was to use BNNTs as a boron-10 carrier for BNCT and to demonstrate its potential. The nanomaterial was characterized through XRD, FTIR, and SEM. The WST-8 assay was performed to confirm the cell viability of BNNTs. The cells treated with BNNTs were irradiated with the neutron beam of a Triga reactor, and the apoptosis caused by the activation of the BNNTs was measured with a calcein AM/propidium iodide test. The results demonstrate that this nanomaterial is a promising candidate for cancer therapy through BNCT.

  11. Association between participant-identified problems and depression severity in problem-solving therapy for low-income homebound older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Hegel, Mark T; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Sirrianni, Leslie; Bruce, Martha L

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the severity of baseline depressive symptoms and the problems that low-income homebound older adults (n = 66) identified in their problem-solving therapy (PST) sessions. Depressive symptoms were measured with the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). Participant-identified problems recorded in the therapists' worksheets were coded into seven categories: living arrangement/housing issues, financial/health care expense issues, family or other relationship issues, hygiene/task issues, social isolation issues, physical/functional health issues, and mental/emotional health issues. T-tests and ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to examine differences in HAMD scores between those who identified any problem in each category and those who did not. Participants who had living arrangement/housing and family or other relationship issues had higher baseline HAMD scores than the rest of the participants. At 2-week posttest, those with living arrangement/housing issues continued to have higher HAMD scores than the others, whereas those with family or other relationship issues did not. The study findings provide insights into the problems that low-income, depressed homebound individuals bring to their PST sessions. It was not clear if family conflict or other relationship issues contributed to their depression or vice versa, but it appears that PST may have contributed to alleviating depressive symptoms associated with these issues. Precarious living/housing situations appeared to have had a serious depressogenic effect and could not be easily resolved within a short time frame of the PST process, as these issues required formal support. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Music in mind, a randomized controlled trial of music therapy for young people with behavioural and emotional problems: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sam; Holmes, Valerie; McLaughlin, Katrina; Lynn, Fiona; Cardwell, Chris; Braiden, Hannah-Jane; Doran, Jackie; Rogan, Sheelagh

    2012-10-01

    This article is a report of a trial protocol to determine if improvizational music therapy leads to clinically significant improvement in communication and interaction skills for young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural problems. Music therapy is often considered an effective intervention for young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural difficulties. However, this assumption lacks empirical evidence. Music in mind is a multi-centred single-blind randomized controlled trial involving 200 young people (aged 8-16 years) and their parents. Eligible participants will have a working diagnosis within the ambit of international classification of disease 10 mental and behavioural disorders and will be recruited over 15 months from six centres within the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services of a large health and social care trust in Northern Ireland. Participants will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive standard care alone or standard care plus 12 weekly music therapy sessions delivered by the Northern Ireland Music Therapy Trust. Baseline data will be collected from young people and their parents using standardized outcome measures for communicative and interaction skills (primary endpoint), self-esteem, social functioning, depression and family functioning. Follow-up data will be collected 1 and 13 weeks after the final music therapy session. A cost-effectiveness analysis will also be carried out. This study will be the largest trial to date examining the effect of music therapy on young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural difficulties and will provide empirical evidence for the use of music therapy among this population. Trial registration. This study is registered in the ISRCTN Register, ISRCTN96352204. Ethical approval was gained in October 2010. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Cognitive-behavior therapy for problem gambling: a critique of current treatments and proposed new unified approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolchard, Barry

    2017-06-01

    There is evidence supporting the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of problem gambling. Despite this, little is known about how CBT works and which particular approach is most effective. This paper aims to synthesize the evidence for current CBT and propose a more unified approach to treatment. A literature review and narrative synthesis of the current research evidence of CBT for the treatment of problem gambling was conducted, focusing on the underlying mechanisms within the treatment approach. Several CBT approaches were critiqued. These can be divided into forms of exposure therapy (including aversion techniques, systematic desensitization and other behavioral experiments) those focusing on cognitive restructuring techniques (such as reinforcement of nongambling activity, use of diaries, motivational enhancement and audio-playback techniques and third wave techniques including mindfulness. Findings, in relation to the treatment actions, from this synthesis are reported. The debate surrounding the treatment of problem gambling has been conducted as an either/or rather than a both/and discourse. This paper proposes a new, unified approach to the treatment of problem gambling that incorporates the best elements of both exposure and cognitive restructuring techniques, alongside the use of techniques borrowed from mindfulness and other CBT approaches.

  14. The potential of proton beam radiation therapy in intracranial and ocular tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, Erik [Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology; Bjelkengren, Goeran [Univ. Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology; Glimelius, Bengt [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology and Pathology; Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology

    2005-12-01

    A group of oncologists and hospital physicists have estimated the number of patients in Sweden suitable for proton beam therapy. The estimations have been based on current statistics of tumour incidence, number of patients potentially eligible for radiation treatment, scientific support from clinical trials and model dose planning studies and knowledge of the dose-response relations of different tumours and normal tissues. In intracranial benign and malignant tumours, it is estimated that between 130 and 180 patients each year are candidates for proton beam therapy. Of these, between 50 and 75 patients have malignant glioma, 30-40 meningeoma, 20-25 arteriovenous malformations, 20-25 skull base tumours and 10-15 pituitary adenoma. In addition, 15 patients with ocular melanoma are candidates.

  15. New strategies in radiation therapy: exploiting the full potential of protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Radhe; Mahajan, Anita; Minsky, Bruce D

    2013-12-01

    Protons provide significant dosimetric advantages compared with photons because of their unique depth-dose distribution characteristics. However, they are more sensitive to the effects of intra- and intertreatment fraction anatomic variations and uncertainties in treatment setup. Furthermore, in the current practice of proton therapy, the biologic effectiveness of protons relative to photons is assumed to have a generic fixed value of 1.1. However, this is a simplification, and it is likely higher in different portions of the proton beam. Current clinical practice and trials have not fully exploited the unique physical and biologic properties of protons. Intensity-modulated proton therapy, with its ability to manipulate energies (in addition to intensities), provides an entirely new dimension, which, with ongoing research, has considerable potential to increase the therapeutic ratio. ©2013 AACR.

  16. A Brief Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index with Less Potential for Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Earleywine, Mitch; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2008-01-01

    The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI), a popular measure of alcohol-related problems in adolescents, varies with many theoretically-relevant measures of individual differences, including sex. The sex differences in RAPI scores fit many models of alcohol problems but could also arise from biased items. In addition, a short form could increase the scale’s utility. The current study examined RAPI scores, an additional inventory of problem drinking, and measures of alcohol consumption in over ...

  17. The Initial Boundary Value Problem for the Boltzmann Equation with Soft Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuangqian; Yang, Xiongfeng

    2017-01-01

    Boundary effects are central to the dynamics of the dilute particles governed by the Boltzmann equation. In this paper, we study both the diffuse reflection and the specular reflection boundary value problems for the Boltzmann equation with a soft potential, in which the collision kernel is ruled by the inverse power law. For the diffuse reflection boundary condition, based on an L 2 argument and its interplay with intricate {L^∞} analysis for the linearized Boltzmann equation, we first establish the global existence and then obtain the exponential decay in {L^∞} space for the nonlinear Boltzmann equation in general classes of bounded domain. It turns out that the zero lower bound of the collision frequency and the singularity of the collision kernel lead to some new difficulties for achieving the a priori {L^∞} estimates and time decay rates of the solution. In the course of the proof, we capture some new properties of the probability integrals along the stochastic cycles and improve the {L^2-L^∞} theory to give a more direct approach to overcome those difficulties. As to the specular reflection condition, our key contribution is to develop a new time-velocity weighted {L^∞} theory so that we could deal with the greater difficulties stemming from the complicated velocity relations among the specular cycles and the zero lower bound of the collision frequency. From this new point, we are also able to prove that the solutions of the linearized Boltzmann equation tend to equilibrium exponentially in {L^∞} space with the aid of the L 2 theory and a bootstrap argument. These methods, in the latter case, can be applied to the Boltzmann equation with soft potential for all other types of boundary condition.

  18. Potential Proinvasive or Metastatic Effects of Preclinical Antiangiogenic Therapy Are Prevented by Concurrent Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez-Ribes, Marta; Man, Shan; Xu, Ping; Kerbel, Robert S

    2015-12-15

    To resolve a controversy involving the therapeutic impact of antiangiogenic drugs and particularly antibodies targeting the VEGF pathway, namely, a body of preclinical mouse therapy studies showing such drugs can promote invasion and/or distant metastasis when used as monotherapies. In contrast, clinical studies have not shown such promalignancy effects. However, most such clinical studies have involved patients also treated with concurrent chemotherapy highlighting the possibility that chemotherapy may prevent any potential promalignancy effect caused by an antiangiogenic drug treatment. The impact of antiangiogenic therapy using DC101, an antibody targeting mouse VEGFR-2 with or without concurrent chemotherapy was assessed in multiple human breast cancer xenograft models, where impact on orthotopic primary tumors was evaluated. Metastasis was also assessed during adjuvant and neoadjuvant plus adjuvant therapy, after surgical resection of primary tumors, with the same combination therapies. Antiangiogenic therapy, while blunting tumor volume growth, was found to increase local invasion in multiple primary tumor models, including a patient-derived xenograft, but this effect was blocked by concurrent chemotherapy. Similarly, the combination of paclitaxel with DC101 caused a marked reduction of micro- or macrometastatic disease in contrast to DC101 monotherapy, which was associated with small increases in metastatic disease. Conventional wisdom is that targeted biologic antiangiogenic agents such as bevacizumab when used with chemotherapy increase the efficacy of the chemotherapy treatment. Our results suggest the reverse may be true as well-chemotherapy may improve the impact of antiangiogenic drug treatment and, as a result, overall efficacy. Clin Cancer Res; 21(24); 5488-98. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Clinical potential of regulatory T cell therapy in liver diseases: An overview and current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Claire Jeffery

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for liver transplantation and the decline in donor organs has highlighted the need for alternative novel therapies to prevent chronic active hepatitis, which eventually leads to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Liver histology of chronic hepatitis is composed of both effector and regulatory lymphocytes. The human liver contains different subsets of effector lymphocytes, that are kept in check by a subpopulation of T cells known as Regulatory T cells (Treg. The balance of effector and regulatory lymphocytes generally determines the outcome of hepatic inflammation: resolution, fulminant hepatitis or chronic active hepatitis. Thus, maintaining and adjusting this balance is crucial in immunological manipulation of liver diseases. One of the options to restore this balance is to enrich Treg in the liver disease patients.Advances in the knowledge of Treg biology and development of clinical grade isolation reagents, cell sorting equipment and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP facilities have paved the way to apply Treg cells as a potential therapy to restore peripheral self-tolerance in autoimmune liver diseases, chronic rejection and post-transplantation. Past and on-going studies have applied Treg in type-1 diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, graft versus host diseases (GVHD and solid organ transplantations. There have not been any new therapies for the autoimmune liver diseases for more than three decades; thus the clinical potential for the application of autologous Treg cell therapy to treat autoimmune liver disease is an attractive and novel option. However, it is fundamental to understand the deep immunology, genetic profiles, biology, homing behavior and microenvironment of Treg before applying the cells to the patients.

  20. Potential and Challenges of Web-based Collective Intelligence to Tackle Societal Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Pitrėnaitė-Žilėnienė

    2014-03-01

    characteristics of diverse web-based projects, which include attributes of CI, and came up with relatively small number of common elements calling them CI genes, and combination of different genes was called genome. The genes were classified using two pairs of questions: who are performing tasks? Why they are doing it? And what is being done? How it is being performed? Responses to these questions gives information on what principles are followed when CI is emerging in a particular web-based project. This information is crucial when systems, which are oriented to emergence and application of CI, are being designed.Different research evidence the potential of CI to contribute to solving of public issues. Specific virtual communication platforms are being designed for this purpose. Exploratory review of Lithuanian virtual community projects demonstrates a growing number of such projects and an increasing number of users joining these platforms. It is important that such projects enable identification of problems, discussion on them, search alternatives for problem solving, evaluate these alternatives and make decisions. The authors analyzed Lithuanian examples conforming to these requirements, such as virtual community projects Aš Lietuvai (I for Lithuania ir Lietuva 2.0. (Lithuania 2.0. These projects encompass all the elements attributed to CI and its application for tackling social issues: the projects can attract geographically dispersed crowds, they have technological solutions allowing identification and discussion of problems, suggesting and voting on possible solutions, and decision making. However, the current research has not revealed if CI emergence in virtual community projects is acceptable and applicable in practice and actually influences policies.Research limitations – case studies, which are presented in this paper, could be evaluated as synoptical and requiring broader and deeper research. In order to have explicit mosaic of web-based CI application for

  1. Narrative Therapy and Non-Suicidal-Self-Injurious Behavior: Externalizing the Problem and Internalizing Personal Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rachel M.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an intervention, the externalization of client problems, which can be used to address non-suicidal-self-injurious behavior. Specific externalization techniques are discussed, including naming the problem, letter writing, and drawing. A case application and implications for practice are presented.

  2. Three-dimensional potentials for a telegrapher's equation and their application to boundary problems of thermal conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical solution is worked out for solving direct and inverse linear boundary problems on thermal conductivity where the heat transfer process is assumed to occur at a finite velocity. Three-dimensional potentials for a simple and binary layers and volume are introduced for the telegrapher's equation. Within the limiting cases of a parabolic and wave equation, they transfer to the corresponding heat and wave potentials. The introduced potentials make it possible to reduce the internal boundary problems of thermal conductivity to second order integral-differential equations. In addition, the potentials of the telegrapher's equation are used to reduce a linear three-dimensional boundary inverse problem on thermal conductivity to a system composed of integral-differential equations of the second order and a certain integral condition for two coordinate and time functions. 9 references.

  3. Cognitive-behavioral versus non-directive therapy for preschoolers with severe nighttime fears and sleep-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Michal; Ronen, Alon; Apter, Alan; Sadeh, Avi

    2017-04-01

    To compare the efficacy of a developmentally appropriate cognitive-behavioral therapy protocol for preschoolers with severe nighttime fears and sleep-related problems, with an active control treatment. Ninety children aged four to six years (63% boys) with severe nighttime fears and their parents were randomized to either cognitive-behavioral therapy including parent involved play (CBT-PIP) or to a structurally equivalent non-directive treatment (TEPT; triadic expressive play therapy). Treatment conditions were also equivalent in parent- and child-rated credibility and expectancy, and in therapist-rated compliance. Children and parents were assessed at baseline, during the first intervention week and four weeks after treatment. Measures included actigraphy, daily sleep logs, structured diagnostic interviews and parent questionnaires. Significant reductions were observed in nighttime fears and objectively and subjectively measured sleep disruptions in both intervention groups following treatment. Parent reports indicated more advantageous outcomes for CBT-PIP compared to TEPT, with greater reductions in sleep problems and co-sleeping as well as higher customer satisfaction in the former group. While CBT-PIP showed no significant advantage compared to the active control in reducing fears or in improving objectively measured sleep, it was significantly more beneficial in reducing the adverse behavioral features of nighttime fears. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-formal Therapy and Learning Potentials through Human Gesture Synchronised to Robotic Gesture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva; Brooks, Tony

    2007-01-01

    for use as a supplement to traditional rehabilitation therapy sessions. The process involves the capturing of gesture data through an intuitive non-intrusive interface. The interface is invisible to the naked eye and offers a direct and immediate association between the child's physical feed......-forward gesture and the physical reaction (feedback) of the robotic device. Results from multiple sessions with four children with severe physical disability suggest that the potential of non-intrusive interaction with a multimedia robotic device that is capable of giving synchronized physical response offers...

  5. An exploration of the potential benefits of pet-facilitated therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, S J; Biley, F C

    1999-07-01

    There is mounting evidence to suggest that those who keep pets are likely to benefit from various improvements in health. Despite founders of nursing such as Florence Nightingale advocating the importance of animals within the care environment, their integration into hospitals and other health care settings has been slow. The literature on animal-induced health benefits is reviewed and the conclusion is drawn that the potential benefits of pet therapy are considerable. It is suggested that nurses can assume an active role in advocating ward pet or pet-visiting schemes.

  6. Progress and problems with the use of suicide genes for targeted cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjoo, Zahra; Chen, Xuguang; Hatefi, Arash

    2016-04-01

    Among various gene therapy methods for cancer, suicide gene therapy attracts a special attention because it allows selective conversion of non-toxic compounds into cytotoxic drugs inside cancer cells. As a result, therapeutic index can be increased significantly by introducing high concentrations of cytotoxic molecules to the tumor environment while minimizing impact on normal tissues. Despite significant success at the preclinical level, no cancer suicide gene therapy protocol has delivered the desirable clinical significance yet. This review gives a critical look at the six main enzyme/prodrug systems that are used in suicide gene therapy of cancer and familiarizes readers with the state-of-the-art research and practices in this field. For each enzyme/prodrug system, the mechanisms of action, protein engineering strategies to enhance enzyme stability/affinity and chemical modification techniques to increase prodrug kinetics and potency are discussed. In each category, major clinical trials that have been performed in the past decade with each enzyme/prodrug system are discussed to highlight the progress to date. Finally, shortcomings are underlined and areas that need improvement in order to produce clinical significance are delineated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A treatment planning study of the potential of geometrical tracking for intensity modulated proton therapy of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Aznar, Marianne; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund

    2010-01-01

    Proton therapy of lung cancer holds the potential for a reduction of the volume of irradiated normal lung tissue. In this work we investigate the robustness of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans to motion, and evaluate a geometrical tumour tracking method to compensate for tumour...

  8. A treatment planning study of the potential of geometrical tracking for intensity modulated proton therapy of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    af Rosenschöld, Per Munck; Aznar, Marianne C; Nygaard, Ditte E

    2010-01-01

    Proton therapy of lung cancer holds the potential for a reduction of the volume of irradiated normal lung tissue. In this work we investigate the robustness of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans to motion, and evaluate a geometrical tumour tracking method to compensate for tumour mot...

  9. [Pattern visual evoked potentials in normal-vision eyes of post-therapy amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Manyi; Wei, Xin; Li, Yunping; Xiong, Wei; Xu, Shuxian

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of pattern visual evoked potential (P-VEP) parameters on amblyopic patients with normal-vision after pleoptic therapy. We investigated 60 amblyopic children (8-12 years old) who gained normal-vision after pleoptic therapy. These patients were assigned to a unilateral amblyopia group (40 patients) and a bilateral amblyopia group (20 patients). Another 20 healthy children served as a control group. All patients underwent a full initial ophthalmologic and orthoptic evaluation. P-VEP test was performed in all. Amplitude and latencies were analyzed and compared among groups. The latencies of P100 waves in the amblyopic eyes were used to generate a multiple linear regression formula from sex, first treatment age, baseline visual acuity, and cycloplegic refraction. There was no significant difference in the mean levels of best-corrected visual acuity among groups (P>0.05). A significant prolongation of the latency and a decrease of amplitude of P100 waves were observed in the unilateral amblyopia group and the bilateral amblyopia group compared with the healthy control group (Pamblyopia group were abnormal compared with the healthy control group (Ptreatment age, baseline visual acuity, and cycloplegic refraction (R(2)= 0.52, Ptreatment age, baseline visual acuity, and cycloplegic refraction. Traditional amblyopic therapy may be not enough for vision function recovery.

  10. STAT1 pathway mediates amplification of metastatic potential and resistance to therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai N Khodarev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditionally IFN/STAT1 signaling is connected with an anti-viral response and pro-apoptotic tumor-suppressor functions. Emerging functions of a constitutively activated IFN/STAT1 pathway suggest an association with an aggressive tumor phenotype. We hypothesized that tumor clones that constitutively overexpress this pathway are preferentially selected by the host microenvironment due to a resistance to STAT1-dependent cytotoxicity and demonstrate increased metastatic ability combined with increased resistance to genotoxic stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that clones of B16F1 tumors grown in the lungs of syngeneic C57BL/6 mice demonstrate variable transcriptional levels of IFN/STAT1 pathway expression. Tumor cells that constitutively overexpress the IFN/STAT1 pathway (STAT1(H genotype are selected by the lung microenvironment. STAT1(H tumor cells also demonstrate resistance to IFN-gamma (IFNgamma, ionizing radiation (IR, and doxorubicin relative to parental B16F1 and low expressors of the IFN/STAT1 pathway (STAT1(L genotype. Stable knockdown of STAT1 reversed the aggressive phenotype and decreased both lung colonization and resistance to genotoxic stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our results identify a pathway activated by tumor-stromal interactions thereby selecting for pro-metastatic and therapy-resistant tumor clones. New therapies targeted against the IFN/STAT1 signaling pathway may provide an effective strategy to treat or sensitize aggressive tumor clones to conventional cancer therapies and potentially prevent distant organ colonization.

  11. Prolactin Pro-Differentiation Pathway in Triple Negative Breast Cancer: Impact on Prognosis and Potential Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ozuna, Vanessa M.; Hachim, Ibrahim Y.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques; Ali, Suhad

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease associated with poor clinical outcome and lack of targeted therapy. Here we show that prolactin (PRL) and its signaling pathway serve as a sub-classifier and predictor of pro-differentiation therapy in TNBC. Using immunohistochemistry and various gene expression in silica analyses we observed that prolactin receptor (PRLR) protein and mRNA levels are down regulated in TNBC cases. In addition, examining correlation of PRLR gene expression with metagenes of TNBC subtypes (580 cases), we found that PRLR gene expression sub-classifies TNBC patients into a new subgroup (TNBC-PRLR) characterized by epithelial-luminal differentiation. Importantly, gene expression of PRL signaling pathway components individually (PRL, PRLR, Jak2 and Stat5a), or as a gene signature is able to predict TNBC patients with significantly better survival outcomes. As PRL hormone is a druggable target we determined the biological role of PRL in TNBC biology. Significantly, restoration/activation of PRL pathway in TNBC cells representative of mesenchymal or TNBC-PRLR subgroups led to induction of epithelial phenotype and suppression of tumorigenesis. Altogether, these results offer potential new modalities for TNBC stratification and development of personalized therapy based on PRL pathway activation. PMID:27480353

  12. Potential of microneedles in enhancing delivery of photosensitising agents for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Mary-Carmel; Brown, Sarah; McCrudden, Maelíosa T C; Brady, Aaron J; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2014-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy can be used in the treatment of pre-malignant and malignant diseases. It offers advantages over other therapies currently used in the treatment of skin lesions including avoidance of damage to surrounding tissue and minimal or no scarring. Unfortunately, systemic delivery of photosensitising agents can result in adverse effects, such as prolonged cutaneous photosensitivity; while topical administration lacks efficacy in the clearance of deeper skin lesions and those with a thick overlying keratotic layer. Therefore, enhancement of conventional photosensitiser delivery is desired. However, the physicochemical properties of photosensitising agents, such as extreme hydrophilicity or lipophilicity and large molecular weights make this challenging. This paper reviews the potential of microneedles as a viable method to overcome these delivery-limiting physicochemical characteristics and discusses the current benefits and limitations of solid, dissolving and hydrogel-forming microneedles. Clinical studies in which microneedles have successfully improved photodynamic therapy are also discussed, along with benefits which microneedles offer, such as precise photosensitiser localisation, painless application and reduction in waiting times between photosensitiser administration and irradiation highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Drug design with Cdc7 kinase: a potential novel cancer therapy target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Sawa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Masaaki Sawa1, Hisao Masai21Carna Biosciences, Inc., Kobe, Japan; 2Genome Dynamics Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Identification of novel molecular targets is critical in development of new and efficient cancer therapies. Kinases are one of the most common drug targets with a potential for cancer therapy. Cell cycle progression is regulated by a number of kinases, some of which are being developed to treat cancer. Cdc7 is a serine-threonine kinase originally discovered in budding yeast, which has been shown to be necessary to initiate the S phase. Inhibition of Cdc7 in cancer cells retards the progression of the S phase, accumulates DNA damage, and induces p53-independent cell death, but the same treatment in normal cells does not significantly affect viability. Low-molecular-weight compounds that inhibit Cdc7 kinase with an IC50 of less than 10 nM have been identified, and shown to be effective in the inhibition of tumor growth in animal models. Thus Cdc7 kinase can be recognized as a novel molecular target for cancer therapy.Keywords: Cdc7 kinase, cell cycle, replication fork, genome stability, DNA damages, ATP-binding pocket, kinase inhibitor

  14. Behavioral Sleep Problems and their Potential Impact on Developing Executive Function in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Kathryn; Graham J Reid; Morton, J. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Bedtime resistance and night waking are common sleep problems throughout childhood, especially in the early years. These sleep problems may lead to difficulties in neurobehavioral functioning, but most research into childhood sleep problems has not emphasized the importance of the developmental context in which disruptions in neurobehavioral and daytime functioning occur. We review the development of sleep as well as executive functioning (EF) in childhood and suggest that EF may be particula...

  15. Potential of used frying oil in paving material: solution to environmental pollution problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Ackbarali, Dimple; Maharaj, Rean; Mohamed, Nazim; Ramjattan-Harry, Vitra

    2017-05-01

    The improper disposal of used frying oil (UFO) presents numerous ecological, environmental and municipal problems. Of great concern is the resultant blockage of municipal drainage systems and water treatment facilities, harm to wildlife when they become coated in it and detriment to aquatic life and ecosystems due to the depletion of the oxygen content in water bodies such as rivers and lakes that have become contaminated. Statistics show that in Trinidad and Tobago, in excess of one million liters of used cooking oil is collected annually from various restaurant chains. This paper investigated the potential of using UFO as a performance enhancing additive for road paving applications utilizing Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA) and Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB) as a mitigation strategy for improper UFO disposal. Modified blends containing various additions of UFO (2-10% wt) were prepared for the TLA and TPB asphaltic binders. Results demonstrated in terms of stiffness, increasing the dosage of UFO in TLA and TPB base binders resulted in a gradual decrease in stiffness (G* value decreased). In terms of elasticity, increasing the dosage of the UFO additive in TLA resulted in a general decrease in the elasticity of the blends indicated by an increase in phase angle or phase lag (δ). Increasing dosages of the UFO additive in TPB resulted in a significant decrease in δ where the most elastic blend was at the 6% UFO level. TLA and UFO-TLA modified blends exhibited significantly lower values of δ and higher values of G* confirming the superiority of the TLA material. Incorporation of the UFO in the blends led to a decrease in the rutting resistance and increase in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G*/sinδ and G*sinδ, respectively). This study highlighted the potential for the reuse of UFO as an asphalt modifier capable of producing customized UFO modified asphaltic blends for special applications and confirms its feasibility as an environmentally attractive

  16. The patents-based pharmaceutical development process: rationale, problems, and potential reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, John H; Emanuel, Ezekiel J

    2005-10-26

    The pharmaceutical industry is facing substantial criticism from many directions, including financial barriers to access to drugs in both developed and developing countries, high profits, spending on advertising and marketing, and other issues. Underlying these criticisms are fundamental questions about the value of the current patent-based drug development system. Six major problems with the patent system are (1) recovery of research costs by patent monopoly reduces access to drugs; (2) market demand rather than health needs determines research priorities; (3) resources between research and marketing are misallocated; (4) the market for drugs has inherent market failures; (5) overall investment in drug research and development is too low, compared with profits; and (6) the existing system discriminates against US patients. Potential solutions fall into 3 categories: change in drug pricing through either price controls or tiered pricing; change in drug industry structure through a "buy-out" pricing system or with the public sector acting as exclusive research funder; and change in development incentives through a disease burden incentive system, orphan drug approaches, or requiring new drugs to demonstrate improvement over existing products prior to US Food and Drug Administration approval. We recommend 4 complementary reforms: (1) having no requirement to test new drug products against existing products prior to approval but requiring rigorous comparative postapproval testing; (2) international tiered pricing and systematic safeguards to prevent flow-back; (3) increased government-funded research and buy-out for select conditions; and (4) targeted experiments using other approaches for health conditions in which there has been little progress and innovation over the last few decades.

  17. Potential serum and urine biomarkers in patients with lupus nephritis and the unsolved problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh SC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Song-Chou Hsieh,1 Chang-Youh Tsai,2 Chia-Li Yu3 1Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 2Section of Allergy, Immunology & Rheumatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Molecular Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: Lupus nephritis (LN is one of the most frequent and serious complications in the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmune-mediated inflammation in both renal glomerular and tubulointerstitial tissues is the major pathological finding of LN. In clinical practice, the elevated anti-dsDNA antibody titer concomitant with reduced complement C3 and C4 levels has become the predictive and disease-activity surrogate biomarkers in LN. However, more and more evidences suggest that autoantibodies other than anti-dsDNA antibodies, such as anti-nucleosome, anti-C1q, anti-C3b, anti-cardiolipin, anti-endothelial cell, anti-ribonuclear proteins, and anti-glomerular matrix (anti-actinin antibodies, may also involve in LN. Researchers have demonstrated that the circulating preformed and in situ-formed immune complexes as well as the direct cytotoxic effects by those cross-reactive autoantibodies mediated kidney damage. On the other hand, many efforts had been made to find useful urine biomarkers for LN activity via measurement of immune-related mediators, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry proteomic signature, and assessment of mRNA and exosomal-derived microRNA from urine sediment cell. Our group had also devoted to this field with some novel findings. In this review, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms of LN and try to figure out the potential serum and urine biomarkers in LN. Finally, some of the unsolved problems in this field are discussed. Keywords: anti-dsDNA antibodies, serum biomarkers, urine biomarkers, THP

  18. NEW POTENTIALITIES OF TOPICAL THERAPY OF SEVERE ATOPIC ECZEMA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Korotkiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing effectiveness of topical exposure in atopic dermatitis in children, as well as search for new safe external facilities is one of the urgent problems of modern dermatology. Data concerning the need for inclusion of topical calciumneurin inhibitors in the scheme of topical treatment of atopic dermatitis as for the relief of acute and for long term monitoring of the further course of the disease are proved. Authors evaluated and showed the high clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of tacrolimus ointment 0.03% in the external treatment of 40 children with atopic dermatitis of moderate and severe degrees in children aged from 2 to 15 years. Key words: atopic eczema, topical therapy, long-term control, tacrolimus ointment, children. (Pediatric pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (6: 96–102.

  19. Nodal Melanoma Metastasis under Infliximab Therapy in a Patient with Nevoid Melanoma First Misdiagnosed as Benign Nevus: A Potentially Dangerous Diagnostic Pitfall in the Era of Biologic Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Safa; Sophie Fromentoux; Laure Darrieux; Jean-Anastase Hogenhuis; Laurent Tisseau

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who developed nodal melanoma metastasis under infliximab therapy 2 years after the removal of a nevoid melanoma, which was initially misdiagnosed as a benign compound nevus. This case illustrates the potential link between tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibition and the reactivation of latent melanoma. Furthermore, this case highlights the need for a complete skin examination before using anti-TNF-α therapy to rule out atypical malignant le...

  20. Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Cognitive Restructuring: Potential Problems and Proposed Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselica, Mark S.; Baker, Stanley B.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews common problems experienced by clients during progressive muscle relaxation training (PMRT) and summarizes pertinent solutions to those problems. Discusses difficulties and solutions related to cognitive restructuring training. Notes that cognitive restructuring is often used to enhance effectiveness of PMRT. Concludes with suggestions for…

  1. Withania somnifera water extract as a potential candidate for differentiation based therapy of human neuroblastomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardeep Kataria

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is an aggressive childhood disease of the sympathetic nervous system. Treatments are often ineffective and have serious side effects. Conventional therapy of neuroblastoma includes the differentiation agents. Unlike chemo-radiotherapy, differentiation therapy shows minimal side effects on normal cells, because normal non-malignant cells are already differentiated. Keeping in view the limited toxicity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, the current study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of Ashwagandha water extract (ASH-WEX for anti-proliferative potential in neuroblastoma and its underlying signalling mechanisms. ASH-WEX significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced cell differentiation as indicated by morphological changes and NF200 expression in human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells. The induction of differentiation was accompanied by HSP70 and mortalin induction as well as pancytoplasmic translocation of the mortalin in ASH-WEX treated cells. Furthermore, the ASH-WEX treatment lead to induction of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM expression and reduction in its polysialylation, thus elucidating its anti-migratory potential, which was also supported by downregulation of MMP 2 and 9 activity. ASH-WEX treatment led to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and increase in early apoptotic population. Modulation of cell cycle marker Cyclin D1, anti-apoptotic marker bcl-xl and Akt-P provide evidence that ASH-WEX may prove to be a promising phytotherapeutic intervention in neuroblatoma related malignancies.

  2. Potentials of Chitosan-Based Delivery Systems in Wound Therapy: Bioadhesion Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hurler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is currently proposed to be one of the most promising polymers in wound dressing development. Our research focuses on its potential as a vehicle for nano-delivery systems destined for burn therapy. One of the most important features of wound dressing is its bioadhesion to the wounded site. We compared the bioadhesive properties of chitosan with those of Carbopol, a synthetic origin polymer. Chitosan-based hydrogels of different molecular weights were first analyzed by texture analysis for gel cohesiveness, adhesiveness and hardness. In vitro release studies showed no difference in release of model antimicrobial drug from the different hydrogel formulations. Bioadhesion tests were performed on pig ear skin and the detachment force, necessary to remove the die from the skin, and the amount of remaining formulation on the skin were determined. Although no significant difference regarding detachment force could be seen between Carbopol-based and chitosan-based formulations, almost double the amount of chitosan formulation remained on the skin as compared to Carbopol formulations. The findings confirmed the great potential of chitosan-based delivery systems in advanced wound therapy. Moreover, results suggest that formulation retention on the ex vivo skin samples could provide deeper insight on formulation bioadhesiveness than the determination of detachment force.

  3. Withania somnifera water extract as a potential candidate for differentiation based therapy of human neuroblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Hardeep; Wadhwa, Renu; Kaul, Sunil C; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an aggressive childhood disease of the sympathetic nervous system. Treatments are often ineffective and have serious side effects. Conventional therapy of neuroblastoma includes the differentiation agents. Unlike chemo-radiotherapy, differentiation therapy shows minimal side effects on normal cells, because normal non-malignant cells are already differentiated. Keeping in view the limited toxicity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), the current study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of Ashwagandha water extract (ASH-WEX) for anti-proliferative potential in neuroblastoma and its underlying signalling mechanisms. ASH-WEX significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced cell differentiation as indicated by morphological changes and NF200 expression in human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells. The induction of differentiation was accompanied by HSP70 and mortalin induction as well as pancytoplasmic translocation of the mortalin in ASH-WEX treated cells. Furthermore, the ASH-WEX treatment lead to induction of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression and reduction in its polysialylation, thus elucidating its anti-migratory potential, which was also supported by downregulation of MMP 2 and 9 activity. ASH-WEX treatment led to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and increase in early apoptotic population. Modulation of cell cycle marker Cyclin D1, anti-apoptotic marker bcl-xl and Akt-P provide evidence that ASH-WEX may prove to be a promising phytotherapeutic intervention in neuroblatoma related malignancies.

  4. Production of recombinant streptokinase from Streptococcus pyogenes isolate and its potential for thrombolytic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assiri, Abdullah S; El-Gamal, Basiouny A; Hafez, Elsayed E; Haidara, Mohamed A

    2014-12-01

    To produce an effective recombinant streptokinase (rSK) from pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes isolate in yeast, and evaluate its potential for thrombolytic therapy. This study was conducted from November 2012 to December 2013 at King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Throat swabs collected from 45 pharyngitis patients in Asser Central Hospital, Abha, KSA were used to isolate Streptococcus pyogenes. The bacterial DNA was used for amplification of the streptokinase gene (1200 bp). The gene was cloned and in vitro transcribed in an eukaryotic expression vector that was transformed into yeast Pichia pastoris SMD1168, and the rSK protein was purified and tested for its thrombolytic activity. The Streptococcus pyogenes strain was isolated and its DNA nucleotide sequence revealed similarity to other Streptococcus pyogenes in the Gene bank. Sequencing of the amplified gene based on DNA nucleotide sequence revealed a SK gene closely related to other SK genes in the Gene bank. However, based on deduced amino acids sequence, the gene formed a separate cluster different from clusters formed by other examined genes, suggesting a new bacterial isolate and accordingly a new gene. The purified protein showed 82% clot lysis compared to a commercial SK (81%) at an enzyme concentration of 2000 U/ml. The present yeast rSK showed similar thrombolytic activity in vitro as that of a commercial SK, suggesting its potential for thrombolytic therapy and large scale production. 

  5. Electroconvulsive therapy in forensic psychiatry--ethical problems in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Joachim; Held, Egbert; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2009-06-01

    There is a widespread similarity between diagnoses in general psychiatry compared with those found in forensic psychiatry. Consequently, forensic psychiatrists face serious cases that need to undergo treatment by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Although it is a well known and valid treatment, ECT is rarely applied to forensic-psychiatric patients or prisoners as well. This might be due to the general assumption that detained individuals, either in forensic psychiatry or in prisons, will not be chosen for a therapy, which is merely looked on as an emergency treatment. Besides, informed consent might be estimated not valid in such persons. However, the use of ECT in forensic psychiatry or prisons cannot be denied anymore because diagnoses and indications for ECT parallel the situation in general psychiatry. With the numbers of schizophrenic and depressive patients considerably increasing in the past years in our forensic unit, we estimate the indication for ECT in forensic psychiatry of approximately 3% and 12.5%, respectively.

  6. Occupational therapy for adults with problems in activities of daily living after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Lynn A; Lewis, Sharon R; Schofield-Robinson, Oliver J; Drummond, Avril; Langhorne, Peter

    2017-07-19

    A stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. Activities of daily living (ADL) are daily home-based activities that people carry out to maintain health and well-being. ADLs include the ability to: eat and drink unassisted, move, go to the toilet, carry out personal hygiene tasks, dress unassisted, and groom. Stroke causes impairment-related functional limitations that may result in difficulties participating in ADLs independent of supervision, direction, or physical assistance.For adults with stroke, the goal of occupational therapy is to improve their ability to carry out activities of daily living. Strategies used by occupational therapists include assessment, treatment, adaptive techniques, assistive technology, and environmental adaptations. This is an update of the Cochrane review first published in 2006. To assess the effects of occupational therapy interventions on the functional ability of adults with stroke in the domain of activities of daily living, compared with no intervention or standard care/practice. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 30 January 2017), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, January 2017), MEDLINE (1946 to 5 January 2017), Embase (1974 to 5 January 2017), CINAHL (1937 to January 2017), PsycINFO (1806 to 2 November 2016), AMED (1985 to 1 November 2016), and Web of Science (1900 to 6 January 2017). We also searched grey literature and clinical trials registers. We identified randomised controlled trials of an occupational therapy intervention (compared with no intervention or standard care/practice) where people with stroke practiced activities of daily living, or where performance in activities of daily living was the focus of the occupational therapy intervention. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data for prespecified outcomes. The primary outcomes were the proportion of

  7. Lévy flights in an infinite potential well as a hypersingular Fredholm problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Elena V; Garbaczewski, Piotr; Stephanovich, Vladimir; Żaba, Mariusz

    2016-05-01

    We study Lévy flights with arbitrary index 0infinite depth. Such a problem appears in many physical systems ranging from stochastic interfaces to fracture dynamics and multifractality in disordered quantum systems. The major technical tool is a transformation of the eigenvalue problem for initial fractional Schrödinger equation into that for Fredholm integral equation with hypersingular kernel. The latter equation is then solved by means of expansion over the complete set of orthogonal functions in the domain D, reducing the problem to the spectrum of a matrix of infinite dimensions. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are then obtained numerically with some analytical results regarding the structure of the spectrum.

  8. Cognitive behaviour therapy and inflammation: A systematic review of its relationship and the potential implications for the treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresti, Adrian L

    2017-06-01

    There is growing evidence confirming increased inflammation in a subset of adults with depression. The impact of this relationship has mostly been considered in biologically based interventions; however, it also has potential implications for psychological therapies. Cognitive behaviour therapy is the most commonly used psychological intervention for the treatment of depression with theories around its efficacy primarily based on psychological mechanisms. However, cognitive behaviour therapy may have an effect on, and its efficacy influenced by, physiological processes associated with depression. Accordingly, the purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between cognitive behaviour therapy and inflammation. Studies examining the anti-inflammatory effects of cognitive behaviour therapy in people with depression and other medical conditions (e.g. cancer, diabetes and heart disease) were examined. In addition, the relationship between change in inflammatory markers and change in depressive symptoms following cognitive behaviour therapy, and the influence of pre-treatment inflammation on cognitive behaviour therapy treatment response were reviewed. A total of 23 studies investigating the anti-inflammatory effects of cognitive behaviour therapy were identified. In 14 of these studies, at least one reduction in an inflammatory marker was reported, increases were identified in three studies and no change was found in six studies. Three studies examined the relationship between change in inflammation and change in depressive symptoms following cognitive behaviour therapy. In two of these studies, change in depressive symptoms was associated with a change in at least one inflammatory marker. Finally, three studies examined the influence of pre-treatment inflammation on treatment outcome from cognitive behaviour therapy, and all indicated a poorer treatment response in people with higher premorbid inflammation. Preliminary evidence suggests

  9. Internet-administered cognitive behavior therapy for health problems: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van A.; Andersson, G.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral interventions are the most extensively researched form of psychological treatment and are increasingly offered through the Internet. Internet-based interventions may save therapist time, reduce waiting-lists, cut traveling time, and reach populations with health problems who can

  10. Parent-child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle; Junger, Marianne; Chavannes, E.L.; Coelman, F.J.G.; de Boer, F.; Lindauer, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or

  11. Multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning for identifying rockslide modifications: potentialities and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnetti, Cristina; Bertacchini, Eleonora; Capra, Alessandro; Rivola, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    approaches. The research focuses on TLS surveys for trying to detect displacements which might be responsible for instability. Four point clouds acquired in the last two years allow to monitor the spatial displacements of the whole slope, especially focusing on the rockslide sector. It is worth to underline an important aspect which contributes to highlight the significance of the work: the mean scanning distance is about 1.3 km. Few examples exist in literature about the use of very long-range TLS for displacements investigation. By sequentially analyzing TLS surfaces, displacement maps have been obtained for the rockslide area. Confirmation have been achieved by comparing results with movements of reflectors sited on the entire slope and continuously measured by total station. Such validation strengthens the idea that TLS has serious potentialities to be successfully used for analyzing instability. Comparing surfaces is not easy at all, thus a discussion about the encountered problems will be taken into account: any significant detail about potentialities and difficulties of the alignment strategy and the processing procedure will be given together with details about the specific algorithm implemented for filtering displacements by taking into account actual geomorphological conditions.

  12. Respiratory therapy: a problem among children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiane dos Santos Feiten

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the level of self-reported adherence to physical therapy recommendations in pediatric patients (6-17 years with cystic fibrosis (CF and to ascertain whether the different levels of adherence correlate with pulmonary function, clinical aspects, and quality of life. Methods : This was a cross-sectional study. The patients and their legal guardians completed a questionnaire regarding adherence to physical therapy recommendations and a CF quality of life questionnaire. We collected demographic, spirometric, and bacteriological data, as well as recording the frequency of hospitalizations and Shwachman-Kulczycki (S-K clinical scores. Results : We included 66 patients in the study. Mean age, FEV1 (% of predicted, and BMI were 12.2 ± 3.2 years, 90 ± 24%, and 18.3 ± 2.5 kg/m2, respectively. The patients were divided into two groups: high-adherence (n = 39 and moderate/poor-adherence (n = 27. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding age, gender, family income, and total S-K clinical scores. There were statistically significant differences between the high-adherence group and the moderate/poor-adherence group, the latter showing lower scores for the "radiological findings" domain of the S-K clinical score (p = 0.030, a greater number of hospitalizations (p = 0.004, and more days of hospitalization in the last year (p = 0.012, as well as lower scores for the quality of life questionnaire domains emotion (p = 0.002, physical (p = 0.019, treatment burden (p < 0.001, health perceptions (p = 0.036, social (p = 0.039, and respiratory (p = 0.048. Conclusions : Low self-reported adherence to physical therapy recommendations was associated with worse radiological findings, a greater number of hospitalizations, and decreased quality of life in pediatric CF patients.

  13. Respiratory therapy: a problem among children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiten, Taiane dos Santos; Flores, Josani Silva; Farias, Bruna Luciano; Rovedder, Paula Maria Eidt; Camargo, Eunice Gus; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth; Ziegler, Bruna

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the level of self-reported adherence to physical therapy recommendations in pediatric patients (6-17 years) with cystic fibrosis (CF) and to ascertain whether the different levels of adherence correlate with pulmonary function, clinical aspects, and quality of life. Methods : This was a cross-sectional study. The patients and their legal guardians completed a questionnaire regarding adherence to physical therapy recommendations and a CF quality of life questionnaire. We collected demographic, spirometric, and bacteriological data, as well as recording the frequency of hospitalizations and Shwachman-Kulczycki (S-K) clinical scores. Results : We included 66 patients in the study. Mean age, FEV1 (% of predicted), and BMI were 12.2 ± 3.2 years, 90 ± 24%, and 18.3 ± 2.5 kg/m2, respectively. The patients were divided into two groups: high-adherence (n = 39) and moderate/poor-adherence (n = 27). No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding age, gender, family income, and total S-K clinical scores. There were statistically significant differences between the high-adherence group and the moderate/poor-adherence group, the latter showing lower scores for the "radiological findings" domain of the S-K clinical score (p = 0.030), a greater number of hospitalizations (p = 0.004), and more days of hospitalization in the last year (p = 0.012), as well as lower scores for the quality of life questionnaire domains emotion (p = 0.002), physical (p = 0.019), treatment burden (p < 0.001), health perceptions (p = 0.036), social (p = 0.039), and respiratory (p = 0.048). Conclusions : Low self-reported adherence to physical therapy recommendations was associated with worse radiological findings, a greater number of hospitalizations, and decreased quality of life in pediatric CF patients. PMID:26982038

  14. Evidence of the efficacy of music therapy for adults diagnosed with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis; Odell-Miller, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Music Therapy has been employed as an intervention in psychiatry since the initial development of the profession in the USA and Europe in the late 1940’s. Compared with the fields of special education, adult developmental disability, neurology and paediatrics, significantly less research has been...... and other journals and publications. A more detailed focus will be made of specific examples of good practice, and a forward view of on-going research to find appropriate and effective treatment strategies will be briefly presented.....

  15. Spa therapy (balneotherapy) relieves mental stress, sleep disorder, and general health problems in sub-healthy people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei; Qin, Qi-zhong; Han, Ling-li; Lin, Jing; Chen, Yu

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the relieving effects of hot spring balneotherapy on mental stress, sleep disorder, general health problems, and women's health problems in sub-healthy people, we recruited 500 volunteers in sub-health in Chongqing, and 362 volunteers completed the project, including 223 in the intervention group and 139 in the control group. The intervention group underwent hot spring balneotherapy for 5 months, while the control group did not. The two groups took questionnaire investigation (general data, mental stress, emotional status, sleep quality, general health problems, as well as some women's health problems) and physical examination (height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipid, blood sugar) 5 months before and after the intervention, respectively. After intervention, sleep disorder (difficulty in falling asleep (P = 0.017); dreaminess, nightmare suffering, and restless sleep (P = 0.013); easy awakening (P = 0.003) and difficulty in falling into sleep again after awakening(P = 0.016); and mental stress (P = 0.031) and problems of general health (head pain (P = 0.026), joint pain(P = 0.009), leg or foot cramps (P = 0.001), blurred vision (P = 0.009)) were relieved significantly in the intervention group, as compared with the control group. While other indicators (fatigue, eye tiredness, limb numbness, constipation, skin allergy) and women's health problems (breast distending pain; dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation) were relieved significantly in the self-comparison of the intervention group before and after intervention (P 0.05). All indications (except bad mood, low mood, and worry or irritability) in the intervention group significantly improved, with effect size from 0.096 to 1.302. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the frequency, length, and location of balneotherapy in the intervention group were the factors influencing emotion, sleep, and health condition (P 0.05). Spa therapy (balneotherapy) relieves mental

  16. Changes in Plasma Prolactin and Growth Hormone Level and Visual Problem after radiation Therapy(RT) of Pituitary Adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sei Chul; Kwon, Hyung Chul; Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Bahk, Yong Whee; Son, Ho Young; Kang, Joon Ki; Song, Jin Un [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-06-15

    Twenty-four cases of pituitary adenoma, 13 males and 11 females with the age ranging from 11 to 65 years, received radiation therapy(RT) on the pituitary area with 6MV linear accelerator during past 25 months at the Division of Radiation Therapy, Kangnam St. Mary Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Of 24 case of RT, 20 were postoperative and 4 primary. To evaluate the effect of RT, we analyzed the alteration of the endocrinological tests, neurologic abnormalities, major clinical symptoms, endocrinological changes and improvement in visual problems after RT. The results were as follows ; 1. Major clinical symptoms were headache, visual defects, diabetes insipidus, hypogonadisms and general weakness in decreasing order of frequency. 2. All but the one with Nelson syndrome showed abnormal neuroradiologic changes in the sella turcica with an invasive tumor mass around supra and para-sellar area. 3. Endocrinological classifications of the patient were 11 prolactinoma, 4 growth hormonesecreting tumors, 3 ACTH-secreting tumors consisting of one Cushing disease and two Nelson syndrome, and 6 nonfunctioning tumors. 4. Eleven of 14 patients, visual problems were improved after treatment but remaining 3 were unchanged. 5. Seven of 11 prolactinomas returned to normal hormonal level after postoperative and primary RT and 3 patients are being treated with bromocriptine (BMCP) but on lost case. 6. Two of 4 growth hormone-secreting tumor returned to normal level after RT but the remaining 2 are being treated with BMCP, as well.

  17. Subtrochanteric stress fractures in patients on oral bisphosphonate therapy: an emerging problem.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Colin G

    2012-01-31

    The emergence of a new variant of subtrochanteric stress fractures of the femur, affecting patients on oral bisphosphonate therapy, has only recently been described. This fracture is often preceded by pain and distinctive radiographic changes (lateral cortical thickening), and associated with a characteristic fracture pattern (transverse fracture line and medial cortical spike). A retrospective review (2007-2009) was carried out for patients who were taking oral bisphosphonates and who sustained a subtrochanteric fracture after a low velocity injury. Eleven fractures were found in 10 patients matching the inclusion criteria outlined. All were females, and taking bisphosphonates for a mean of 43 years. Five of the 10 patients mentioned prodromal symptoms, for an average of 9.4 months before the fracture. Although all fractures were deemed low velocity, 5 of 11 were even atraumatic. Two patients had previously sustained contralateral subtrochanteric fractures. Plain radiographs of two patients showed lateral cortical thickening on the contralateral unfractured femur; the bisphosphonate therapy was stopped and close surveillance was started. Patients taking oral bisphosphonates may be at risk of a new variant of stress fracture of the proximal femur. Awareness of the symptoms is the key to ensure that appropriate investigations are undertaken.

  18. Potential problems of detecting and treating psychosis in the White House. Potential psychosis in the White House.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambill, J

    1980-01-01

    Numerous books and articles have described the emotional difficulties suffered by President Nixon and how they influenced functioning in the White House and other branches of government during his presidency. I am not able to ascertain whether Nixon was temporarily psychotic; but the reported emotional turmoil suggests he may have been at high risk for committing suicide or developing a psychosis. This article analyzes the reactions of numerous people to the questionably irrational behaviour of Richard Nixon. Examples of psychiatric risks in other Presidents, presidential candidates, and public figures are also discussed. The potential difficulties in detecting and treating severe psychiatric illness in Presidents and other public figures should not prevent us from taking action now to minimize future risks. It is recommended that future Presidents appoint a psychiatrist, at least on a part-time basis, as one of their personal physicians in order to increase Presidential access to psychiatric evaluation and treatment.

  19. Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy and Hypnotic Relaxation to Treat Sleep Problems in an Adolescent With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Perfect, Michelle M.; Gary R. Elkins

    2010-01-01

    Inadequate sleep among adolescents frequently contributes to obesity and reduced academic performance, along with symptoms of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and attention deficits. The etiological bases of sleep quality has been associated with both stress and sleep habits. These problems tend to be especially important for adolescents with diabetes as the effects of poor sleep complicate health outcomes. This case example concerns a 14-year-old adolescent girl with a history of type I diabete...

  20. Potential of using boric acid as a boron drug for boron neutron capture therapy for osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, C.F.; Lin, S.Y. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Peir, J.J. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Liao, J.W. [Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Chou, F.I., E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)] [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-15

    Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor commonly found in human and animals. The ability of boric acid (BA) to accumulate in osteosarcoma due to the mechanism of the bone formation of cancer cells would make boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) an alternative therapy for osteosarcoma. This study evaluated the feasibility of using BA as the boron drug for BNCT of bone cancer. The cytotoxicity of BA to L929 cells exceeded that of UMR-106 cells. With 25 {mu}g {sup 10}B/mL medium of BA treatment, the boron concentration in UMR-106 cells was higher than that in L929 cells. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BA in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were studied by administrating 25 mg {sup 10}B/kg body weight to SD rats. Blood boron level decreased rapidly within one hour after BA injection. Boron concentration in the long bone was 4-6 time higher than that of blood. Results of this study suggest that BA may be a potential drug for BNCT for osteosarcoma.

  1. In vitro evaluation of wound healing and antimicrobial potential of ozone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gabriel Álvares; Elias, Silvia Taveira; da Silva, Sandra Márcia Mazutti; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira; Macedo, Sergio Bruzadelli; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva

    2017-03-01

    Although ozone therapy is extensively applied when wound repair and antimicrobial effect are necessary, little is known about cellular mechanisms regarding this process. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate ozone cytotoxicity in fibroblasts (L929) and keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell lines, its effects on cell migration and its antimicrobial activity. Cells were treated with ozonated phosphate-buffered saline (8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 μg/mL ozone), chlorhexidine 0.2% or buffered-solution, and cell viability was determined through MTT assay. The effect of ozone on cell migration was evaluated through scratch wound healing and transwell migration assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus were determined. Ozone showed no cytotoxicity for the cell lines, while chlorhexidine markedly reduced cell viability. Although no significant difference between control and ozone-treated cells was observed in the scratch assay, a considerable increase in fibroblasts migration was noticed on cells treated with 8 μg/mL ozonated solution. Ozone alone did not inhibit growth of microorganisms; however, its association with chlorhexidine resulted in antimicrobial activity. This study confirms the wound healing and antimicrobial potential of ozone therapy and presents the need for studies to elucidate the molecular mechanisms through which it exerts such biological effects. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells: potential for therapy and treatment of chronic non-healing skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfia, Giovanni; Navone, Stefania Elena; Di Vito, Clara; Ughi, Nicola; Tabano, Silvia; Miozzo, Monica; Tremolada, Carlo; Bolla, Gianni; Crotti, Chiara; Ingegnoli, Francesca; Rampini, Paolo; Riboni, Laura; Gualtierotti, Roberta; Campanella, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex physiological process including overlapping phases (hemostatic/inflammatory, proliferating and remodeling phases). Every alteration in this mechanism might lead to pathological conditions of different medical relevance. Treatments for chronic non-healing wounds are expensive because reiterative treatments are needed. Regenerative medicine and in particular mesenchymal stem cells approach is emerging as new potential clinical application in wound healing. In the past decades, advance in the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying wound healing process has led to extensive topical administration of growth factors as part of wound care. Currently, no definitive treatment is available and the research on optimal wound care depends upon the efficacy and cost-benefit of emerging therapies. Here we provide an overview on the novel approaches through stem cell therapy to improve cutaneous wound healing, with a focus on diabetic wounds and Systemic Sclerosis-associated ulcers, which are particularly challenging. Current and future treatment approaches are discussed with an emphasis on recent advances.

  3. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists: a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Busse

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that is a major global burden on both individuals and healthcare systems. Despite guideline-directed treatment, a significant proportion of patients with asthma do not achieve control. This review focuses on the potential use of long-acting anticholinergics as bronchodilators in the treatment of asthma, with results published from clinical trials of glycopyrrolate, umeclidinium and tiotropium. The tiotropium clinical trial programme is the most advanced, with data available from a number of phase II and III studies of tiotropium as an add-on to inhaled corticosteroid maintenance therapy, with or without a long-acting β2-agonist, in patients across asthma severities. Recent studies using the Respimat Soft Mist inhaler have identified 5 µg once daily as the preferred dosing regimen, which has shown promising results in adults, adolescents and children with asthma. Tiotropium Respimat has recently been incorporated into the Global Initiative for Asthma 2015 treatment strategy as a recommended alternative therapy at steps 4 and 5 in adult patients with a history of exacerbations. The increasing availability of evidence from ongoing and future clinical trials will be beneficial in determining where long-acting anticholinergic agents fit in future treatment guidelines across a variety of patient populations and disease severities.

  4. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract as a Potential Complementary Agent in Anticancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vallinas, Margarita; Reglero, Guillermo; Ramírez de Molina, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains an important cause of mortality nowadays and, therefore, new therapeutic approaches are still needed. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been reported to possess antitumor activities both in vitro and in animal studies. Some of these activities were attributed to its major components, such as carnosic acid, carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. Initially, the antitumor effects of rosemary were attributed to its antioxidant activity. However, in recent years, a lack of correlation between antioxidant and antitumor effects exerted by rosemary was reported, and different molecular mechanisms were related to its tumor inhibitory properties. Moreover, supported by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Food and Safety Authority, specific compositions of rosemary extract were demonstrated to be safe for human health and used as antioxidant additive in foods, suggesting the potential easy application of this agent as a complementary approach in cancer therapy. In this review, we aim to summarize the reported anticancer effects of rosemary, the demonstrated molecular mechanisms related to these effects and the interactions between rosemary and currently used anticancer agents. The possibility of using rosemary extract as a complementary agent in cancer therapy in comparison with its isolated components is discussed.

  5. Energy material transport, now through 2000, system characteristics and potential problems. Task 2 final report: coal transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, J.G.; Bamberger, J.A.; Franklin, A.L.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lippek, H.E.; Loscutoff, W.V.; Wilson, C.L.

    1978-06-01

    This report contains a summary characterization of the existing domestic coal transportation system and an assessment of some potential problems which may impact coal transportation in the United States during the balance of the century. A primary purpose of this task is to provide information and perspective that contributes to the evaluation of research and development needs and priorities in future programs. Specific concerns are identified which warrant additional programmatic effort to fill apparent gaps in the coverage of other relevant programs. Recommendations are made for new programs to address these concerns according to their apparent importance under conditions known or anticipated in early 1978. These recommendations are intended to encourage new research initiatives by the coal transportation industry, the Department of Energy (DOE) and other cognizant agencies. Concerns were identified by the analysis of problem issues associated with currently-projected growth scenarios for domestic coal consumption. The assessment of potential problem effects on the adequacy of future coal transportation assumes domestic coal production levels of approximately one billion tons in 1985 and two billion tons by the year 2000. The relative priorities of potential problems were judged on the basis of their overall impact on the system and the immediacy of this potential impact.

  6. Energy material transport, now through 2000, system characteristics and potential problems. Task 3. Final report - petroleum transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, J.G.

    1979-03-01

    This report contains a summary characterization of the petroleum transportation system and an assessment of some potential problems that may impact petroleum transportation in the United States during the balance of the century. A primary purpose of this task is to provide information and perspective that contribute to the evaluation of research and development needs and priorities in future programs. The system characterization in Section 3 includes a review of petroleum product movements, modal operations and comparisons, and transportation regulations and safety. This system overview summarizes domestic production and consumption scenarios to the year 2000. A median scenario based on published projections shows that the US will probably rely on foreign oil to supply between 40 and 50 percent of domestic petroleum needs throughout the balance of the century. Potential problems in petroleum transportation were identified by the analysis and prioritization of current issues. The relative priorities of problem concerns were judged on the basis of their overall impact on the system and the immediacy of this potential impact. Two classes of concern are distinguished: 1. Potential problems that appear to require new programmatic action, in addition to effort already committed, to minimize the possible future impact of these concerns. 2. Latent concerns that may increase or decrease in priority or entirely change in nature as they develop. While the trend of these concerns should be monitored, new program action does not appear necessary at this time.

  7. Aluminum and other metals in Alzheimer's disease: a review of potential therapy with chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Jose L

    2006-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Although the causes of AD remain still unknown, it seems that certain environmental factors may be involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease. While AD is associated with the abnormal aggregation of beta-amyloid protein in the brain, evidence shows that certain metals play a role in the precipitation and cytotoxicity of this protein. Among these metals, the potential role of aluminum as a possible ethiopathogenic factor in AD has been especially controversial. This review is mainly focused on the role of aluminum and metals such as copper and zinc in AD, as well as on metal chelator therapy as a potential treatment for AD. The effects of desferrioxamine and other Al chelating agents have been reviewed. The role of the metal chelator clioquinol in AD, which has been reported to reduce beta-amyloid plaques, presumably by chelation associated with copper and zinc, is also revised. Finally, the potential role of silicon in AD is also discussed.

  8. Assessment of (10)B concentration in boron neutron capture therapy: potential of image-guided therapy using (18)FBPA PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimosegawa, Eku; Isohashi, Kayako; Naka, Sadahiro; Horitsugi, Genki; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-12-01

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer, the accurate estimation of (10)B tissue concentrations, especially in neighboring normal organs, is important to avoid adverse effects. The (10)B concentration in normal organs after loading with (10)B, however, has not been established in humans. In this study, we performed 4-borono-2-[(18)F]-fluoro-phenylalanine ((18)FBPA) PET in healthy volunteers and estimated the chronological changes in the (10)B concentrations of normal organs. In 6 healthy volunteers, whole-body (18)FBPA PET scans were repeated 7 times during 1 h, and the mean (18)FBPA distributions of 13 organs were measured. Based on the (18)FBPA PET data, we then estimated the changes in the (10)B concentrations of the organs when the injection of a therapeutic dose of (10)BPA-fructose complex ((10)BPA-fr; 30 g, 500 mg/kg body weight) was assumed. The maximum mean (18)FBPA concentrations were reached at 2-6 min after injection in all the organs except the brain and urinary bladder. The mean (18)FBPA concentration in normal brain plateaued at 24 min after injection. When the injection of a therapeutic dose of (10)BPA-fr was assumed, the estimated mean (10)B concentration in the kidney increased to 126.1 ± 24.2 ppm at 3 min after injection and then rapidly decreased to 30.9 ± 7.4 ppm at 53 min. The estimated mean (10)B concentration in the bladder gradually increased and reached 383.6 ± 214.7 ppm at 51 min. The mean (10)B concentration in the brain was estimated to be 7.6 ± 1.5 ppm at 57 min. (18)FBPA PET has a potential to estimate (10)B concentration of normal organs before neutron irradiation of BNCT when several assumptions are validated in the future studies.

  9. The potential of intravenous immunoglobulins for cancer therapy: a road that is worth taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbí, Angel L; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; Domínguez-Soto, Angeles

    2016-05-01

    Much has been learned recently about the role of immunoglobulins as effector molecules of the adaptive immunity and as active elements in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. The increasing number of pathologies where intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) display a beneficial action illustrates their therapeutic relevance. Considering recent findings on the ability of IVIg to modulate macrophage polarization, herein we review evidences on the antitumoral activity of IVIg. Fragmentary and nonconclusive, available evidences are just suggestive of the potential of IVIg in antitumoral therapy, but encourage for the generation of additional evidences through well-designed clinical trials, and for additional studies to address the molecular effects of IVIg as a means to avoid the extrapolation of data gathered from animal models.

  10. Preparation and characterization of an iron oxide-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for potential bone cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneha, Murugesan; Sundaram, Nachiappan Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, multifunctional magnetic nanostructures have been found to have potential applications in biomedical and tissue engineering. Iron oxide nanoparticles are biocompatible and have distinctive magnetic properties that allow their use in vivo for drug delivery and hyperthermia, and as T2 contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Hydroxyapatite is used frequently due to its well-known biocompatibility, bioactivity, and lack of toxicity, so a combination of iron oxide and hydroxyapatite materials could be useful because hydroxyapatite has better bone-bonding ability. In this study, we prepared nanocomposites of iron oxide and hydroxyapatite and analyzed their physicochemical properties. The results suggest that these composites have superparamagnetic as well as biocompatible properties. This type of material architecture would be well suited for bone cancer therapy and other biomedical applications.

  11. Modulation of late positive potentials by sexual images in problem users and controls inconsistent with "porn addiction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prause, Nicole; Steele, Vaughn R; Staley, Cameron; Sabatinelli, Dean; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-07-01

    "Excessive" viewing of visual sexual stimuli (VSS) is the most commonly reported hypersexual behavior problem and is especially amenable to laboratory study. A pattern of enhanced sexual cue responsiveness is expected in this sample if hypersexuality shares features of other addiction models. Participants (N=122) who either reported or denied problematic VSS use were presented with emotional, including explicit sexual, images while their evoked response potentials were recorded. An interaction of hypersexual problem group and the level of desire for sex with a partner predicted LPP amplitude. Specifically, those reporting problems regulating their VSS use who also reported higher sexual desire had lower LPP in response to VSS. This pattern appears different from substance addiction models. These are the first functional physiological data of persons reporting VSS regulation problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC AND INFORMATIVE POTENTIAL OF STUDENTS IN THE TEACHING OF THE INVERSE PROBLEMS FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Семенович Корнилов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In article attention that when training in the inverse problems for differential equations at students scientific and cognitive potential develops is paid. Students realize that mathematical models of the inverse problems for differential equations find the application in economy, the industries, ecology, sociology, biology, chemistry, mathematician, physics, in researches of the processes and the phenomena occurring in water and earth’s environment, air and space.Attention of the reader that in training activity to the inverse problems for differential equations at students the scientific outlook, logical, algorithmic, information thinking, creative activity, independence and ingenuity develop is focused. Students acquire skills to apply knowledge of many physical and mathematical disciplines, to carry out the analysis of the received decision of the reverse task and to formulate logical outputs of application-oriented character. Solving the inverse problems for differential equations, students acquire new knowledge in the field of applied and calculus mathematics, informatics, natural sciences and other knowledge.

  13. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for people with diabetes and emotional problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VAN Son, Jenny; Nyklíček, Ivan; Pop, Victor J M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The DiaMind trial showed beneficial immediate effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on emotional distress, but not on diabetes distress and HbA1c. The aim of the present report was to examine if the effects would be sustained after six month follow-up. METHODS: In the Dia......Mind trial, 139 outpatients with diabetes (type-I or type-II) and a lowered level of emotional well-being were randomized into MBCT (n=70) or a waiting list with treatment as usual (TAU: n=69). Primary outcomes were perceived stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and diabetes distress. Secondary outcomes...... depressive symptoms when using Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (p=.016, d=.48). No significant between-group effect was found on diabetes distress and HbA1c. CONCLUSION: This study showed sustained benefits of MBCT six months after the intervention on emotional distress in people with diabetes...

  14. Stem cell therapy for joint problems using the horse as a clinically relevant animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Betts, Dean H.

    2007-01-01

    Research into articular cartilage is a surprisingly recent endeavour and much remains to be learned about the normal development of the synovial joint and its components that interplay in osteoarthritis and focal cartilage defects. Stem cell research is likely to contribute to the understanding...... of the developmental biology of synovial joints and their pathologies. Before human clinical trials are undertaken, stem cell-based therapies for non-life-threatening disorders should be evaluated for their safety and efficacy using animal models of spontaneous disease and not solely by the existing laboratory models...... of experimentally induced lesions. The horse lends itself as a good animal model of spontaneous joint disorders that are clinically relevant to similar human disorders. Equine stem cell and tissue engineering studies may be financially feasible to principal investigators and small biotechnology companies...

  15. OpenMP for 3D potential boundary value problems solved by PIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    KuŻelewski, Andrzej; Zieniuk, Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is examination of an application of modern parallel computing technique OpenMP to speed up the calculation in the numerical solution of parametric integral equations systems (PIES). The authors noticed, that solving more complex boundary problems by PIES sometimes requires large computing time. This paper presents the use of OpenMP and fast C++ linear algebra library Armadillo for boundary value problems modelled by 3D Laplace's equation and solved using PIES. The testing example shows that the use of mentioned technologies significantly increases speed of calculations in PIES.

  16. Dialectical Behavior Therapy of borderline patients with and without substance use problems. Implementation and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Louisa M C; Verheul, Roel; Schippers, Gerard M; van den Brink, Wim

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine whether standard Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) (1) can be successfully implemented in a mixed population of borderline patients with or without comorbid substance abuse (SA), (2) is equally efficacious in reducing borderline symptomatology among those with and those without comorbid SA, and (3) is efficacious in reducing the severity of the substance use problems. The implementation of DBT is examined qualitatively. The impact of comorbid SA on its efficacy, as well as on its efficacy in terms of reducing SA, is investigated in a randomized clinical trial comparing DBT with treatment-as-usual (TAU) in 58 female borderline patients with (n = 31) and without (n = 27) SA. Standard DBT can be applied in a group of borderline patients with and without comorbid SA. Major implementation problems did not occur. DBT resulted in greater reductions of severe borderline symptoms than TAU, and this effect was not modified by the presence of comorbid SA. Standard DBT, as it was delivered in our study, however, had no effect on SA problems. Standard DBT can be effectively applied with borderline patients with comorbid SA problems, as well as those without. Standard DBT, however, is not more efficacious than TAU in reducing substance use problems. We propose that, rather than developing separate treatment programs for dual diagnosis patients, DBT should be "multitargeted." This means that therapists ought to be trained in addressing a range of severe manifestations of personality pathology in the impulse control spectrum, including suicidal and self-damaging behaviors, binge eating, and SA.

  17. Group parent-child interaction therapy: A randomized control trial for the treatment of conduct problems in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niec, Larissa N; Barnett, Miya L; Prewett, Matthew S; Shanley Chatham, Jenelle R

    2016-08-01

    Although efficacious interventions exist for childhood conduct problems, a majority of families in need of services do not receive them. To address problems of treatment access and adherence, innovative adaptations of current interventions are needed. This randomized control trial investigated the relative efficacy of a novel format of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), a treatment for young children with conduct problems. Eighty-one families with 3- to 6-year-old children (71.6% boys, 85.2% White) with diagnoses of oppositional defiant or conduct disorder were randomized to individual PCIT (n = 42) or the novel format, Group PCIT. Parents completed standardized measures of children's conduct problems, parenting stress, and social support at intake, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Therapist ratings, parent attendance, and homework completion provided measures of treatment adherence. Throughout treatment, parenting skills were assessed using the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System. Parents in both group and individual PCIT reported significant improvements from intake to posttreatment and follow-up in their children's conduct problems and adaptive functioning, as well as significant decreases in parenting stress. Parents in both treatment conditions also showed significant improvements in their parenting skills. There were no interactions between time and treatment format. Contrary to expectation, parents in Group PCIT did not experience greater social support or treatment adherence. Group PCIT was not inferior to individual PCIT and may be a valuable format to reach more families in need of services. Future work should explore the efficiency and sustainability of Group PCIT in community settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Gauging the Potential of Socially Critical Environmental Education (EE): Examining Local Environmental Problems through Children's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoubaris, Dimitris; Georgopoulos, Aleksandros

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative research work is to detect the needs, aspirations and feelings of pupils experiencing local environmental problems and elaborate them through the prism of a socially critical educational approach. Semi-structured focus group interviews are used as a research method applied to four primary schools located near…

  19. How to design fiber optic sensors that work: basic technology, main problems, pitfalls, and potential solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Dakin, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Summary• Overview of optical fibre sensor types(Classified according to operating principles)• Difference between intrinsic and extrinsic sensors• Intensity-based sensors• Spectrally-encoded sensors• Propagation-time-encoded sensors• Interferometric sensors• Discussion of how to avoid problems and make practical sensors• Multiplexed and distributed sensors

  20. The roles of the convex hull and the number of potential intersections in performance on visually presented traveling salesperson problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Douglas; Lee, Michael D; Dry, Matthew; Hughes, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The planar Euclidean version of the traveling salesperson problem requires finding the shortest tour through a two-dimensional array of points. MacGregor and Ormerod (1996) have suggested that people solve such problems by using a global-to-local perceptual organizing process based on the convex hull of the array. We review evidence for and against this idea, before considering an alternative, local-to-global perceptual process, based on the rapid automatic identification of nearest neighbors. We compare these approaches in an experiment in which the effects of number of convex hull points and number of potential intersections on solution performance are measured. Performance worsened with more points on the convex hull and with fewer potential intersections. A measure of response uncertainty was unaffected by the number of convex hull points but increased with fewer potential intersections. We discuss a possible interpretation of these results in terms of a hierarchical solution process based on linking nearest neighbor clusters.

  1. Retrospective analysis of antiretroviral therapy uptake and retention of male clients receiving methadone maintenance therapy in two provinces in Vietnam: potential synergy of the two therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Linh Thi Thuy; Kitamura, Akiko; Do, Hoa Mai; Lai, Kim Anh; Le, Nhan Tuan; Nguyen, Van Thi Thuy; Kato, Masaya

    2017-02-17

    Vietnam has a concentrated HIV epidemic with injection drug use being the dominant mode of HIV transmission. Vietnam has rapidly expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). This study aims to analyze ART uptake and retention among male clients receiving MMT in Vietnam in the early phase of the MMT program. The male clients (age ≥18) who were newly enrolled in care or started ART at two HIV clinics in Hanoi (2009 to 2011) and three HIV clinics in Can Tho (2010 to 2012) were included for the analysis. The CD4 lymphocyte count at HIV care enrollment and ART initiation and retention on ART were retrospectively analyzed. The values of those receiving MMT were compared with the values of two groups: those in whom injection drug use (IDU) status was documented, but were not receiving MMT, and all male clients not receiving MMT. To analyze retention, survival analysis with log rank test and Cox proportional hazard model was used. During the study period, 663 adult men were newly enrolled in HIV care (237 had IDU status documented) and 456 initiated ART (167 had IDU status documented). Among those who initiated ART, 28 were receiving MMT. At care enrolment, those receiving MMT had a median CD4 count of 230 (IQR 57-308) cells/mm3, while men self-reporting IDU and not receiving MMT and all men not receiving MMT had a median CD4 count of 158 (IQR 50-370) cells/mm3 and 143 (IQR 35-366) cells/mm3, respectively. At ART initiation, men receiving MMT had significantly higher CD4 count with median at 203 (IQR 64-290) cells/mm3 than men self-reporting IDU and not receiving MMT (80, IQR 40-220, cells/mm3, p = 0.038) and all men not receiving MMT (76, IQR 20-199, cells/mm3, p = 0.009). Those receiving MMT had a significantly higher retention rate than those self-reporting IDU but not receiving MMT (hazard ratio = 0.18, p = 0.019) and men not receiving MMT (hazard ratio = 0.20, p = 0.041). Our analysis suggests that men receiving MMT

  2. The Effect of Emotion Regulation Training based on Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Gross Process Model on Symptoms of Emotional Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Salehi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two training methods of emotional regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT and gross emotion regulation process model(GERM in reducing symptoms of emotional problems (depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity and hostility. Materials and Method: In this semi-experimental study, 45 students who referred to Isfahan university center by themselves, randomly selected between the students who have emotional problems, they randomly assigned into three groups (two experimental and a waiting list group. One of the experimental group received DBT and another on GERM. The data obtained using SCL-90-R and psychological interview (in pre- post test and follow-up. Results: 1- Both experimental methods reduce interpersonal sensitivity of students. 2- Just DBT reduced depression symptoms. 3- Both experimental methods reduce anxiety symptoms but in DBT, recurrent anxiety symptoms were observed in follow up stage. Also these methods had different effect on anxiety symptoms. 4- None of the above methods could reduce hostility symptoms. Conclusion: Those findings showed effectiveness of two training methods of emotional regulation on emotion problems. We could use GERM method for intervention in anxiety, DBT method for intervention in depression and both method for intervention in interpersonal sensitivity

  3. Iatrogenic hyperkalemia as a serious problem in therapy of cardiovascular diseases in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozakowska-Kapłon, Beata; Janowska-Molenda, Iwona

    2009-03-01

    The therapy of cardiovascular diseases has improved rapidly over the past 20 years. The most commonly used medications in cardiac patients are drugs affecting potassium homeostasis in the kidneys or the gastrointestinal tract, particularly inhibitors of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) axis. They all can lead to hyperkalemia. This disorder may cause severe damage to the muscles and both the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical course of moderate and severe iatrogenic hiperkalemia in patients hospitalized for cardiovascular disease. The present study analyzed a history of 26 patients with severe or moderate iatrogenic hyperkalemia, selected from among 5553 patients hospitalized in the years 2005-2006 in the Department of Clinical Cardiology of the Swietokrzyskie Cardiology Center, Kielce. They accounted for 0.46% of all patients treated at that time at the Ward. The concentration of potassium on admission to hospital was > 6.0 mmol/l. Before admission all patients were treated in out-patient clinics with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, spironolactone, amiloride, triam-terene, beta-blockers, or potassium supplements administered in monotherapy or in combination. A mean age of patients was 79 years, most of them (80%) were women. The average blood potassium level was 7.3 mmol/l on admision and 5.1 mmol/l at discharge. Severe bradyarrhythmia and complete atrioventricular block requiring temporary pacing (n = 13) were observed in 21 patients (81%). Twenty-four patients (85%) had elevated levels of renal function parameters on admission. The average creatinine level on admission was 2.64 mg/dl, and 2.06 mg/dl on discharge. Ten (38%) out of 26 patients suffered from diabetes and 21 patients (81%) had arterial hypertension. Three out of 26 patients died in the hospital despite intensive therapy. Polypharmacy should be used with particular caution in subjects

  4. Prognosis and therapy for ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma: Problems with staging and treatment strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraoka, Atsushi, E-mail: hirage@m.ehime-u.ac.jp [Gastroenterology Center, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital, Kasuga-cho 83, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-0024 (Japan); Kawamura, Tomoe; Aibiki, Toshihiko; Okudaira, Tomonari; Toshimori, Akiko; Yamago, Hiroka; Nakahara, Hiromasa; Suga, Yoshifumi; Azemoto, Nobuaki; Miyata, Hideki; Miyamoto, Yasunao; Ninomiya, Tomoyuki [Gastroenterology Center, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital, Kasuga-cho 83, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-0024 (Japan); Murakami, Tadashi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiology, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan); Kawasaki, Hideki [Department of Surgery, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan); Hirooka, Masashi; Abe, Masanori; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime (Japan); Michitaka, Kojiro [Gastroenterology Center, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital, Kasuga-cho 83, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-0024 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •Although a patient with a ruptured HCC is generally considered to have a poor prognosis and treated as T4 in the 7th edition of the AJCC/UICC, some ruptured cases show a good clinical course. •There are no clear criteria established for treating a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which is classified as T4 in TNM stage of UICC 7th. •This article describes that better prognosis can be expected with curative treatment in patients with a ruptured HCC, especially those with a single tumor, and without decompensated liver cirrhosis and PVTT/extrahepatic metastasis. T4 classification should not include all types of ruptured HCC. -- Abstract: Background: There are no clear criteria established for treating a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To elucidate the clinical features of affected patients, we examined prognosis and therapy choices. Materials/methods: We enrolled 67 patients treated for a ruptured HCC (HCV 44, HBV 5, HBV + HCV 1, alcohol 2, others 15; naïve HCC 34, recurrent 33) from 2000 to 2013, and investigated their clinical background and prognosis. Results: Median survival time (MST) for all cases was 4 months. For patients who survived for more than 1 year after rupture, the percentages of Child-Pugh C and positive for portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT)/extrahepatic metastasis were less than for those who died within 1 year. Child-Pugh classification (A:B:C = 14:15:5 vs. 4:9:20, P < 0.001) was better, while the percentage of patients with multiple tumors was lower [19/34 (55.9%) vs. 29/33 (87.9%), respectively; P < 0.001] in the naïve group. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were better in the naïve as compared to the recurrent group (60.6% and 33.3% vs. 12.6% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.01). MST according to modified TNM stage (UICC 7th) calculated after exclusion of T4 factor of rupture, stage I was better than others (22.7 vs. (II) 2.2, (III) 1.2, and (IV) 0.7 months) (P = 0.010). Conclusion: In patients with a ruptured

  5. Music therapy for children and adolescents with behavioural and emotional problems: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sam; McConnell, Tracey; McLaughlin, Katrina; Lynn, Fiona; Cardwell, Christopher; Braiden, Hannah-Jane; Boylan, Jackie; Holmes, Valerie

    2017-05-01

    Although music therapy (MT) is considered an effective intervention for young people with mental health needs, its efficacy in clinical settings is unclear. We therefore examined the efficacy of MT in clinical practice. Two hundred and fifty-one child (8-16 years, with social, emotional, behavioural and developmental difficulties) and parent dyads from six Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service community care facilities in Northern Ireland were randomised to 12 weekly sessions of MT plus usual care [n = 123; 76 in final analyses] or usual care alone [n = 128; 105 in final analyses]. Follow-up occurred at 13 weeks and 26 weeks postrandomisation. Primary outcome was improvement in communication (Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales) (SSIS) at 13 weeks. Secondary outcomes included social functioning, self-esteem, depression and family functioning. There was no significant difference for the child SSIS at week 13 (adjusted difference in mean 2.4; 95% CI -1.2 to 6.1; p = .19) or for the guardian SSIS (0.5; 95% CI -2.9 to 3.8; p = .78). However, for participants aged 13 and over in the intervention group, the child SSIS communication was significantly improved (6.1, 95% CI 1.6 to 10.5; p = .007) but not the guardian SSIS (1.1; 95% CI -2.9 to 5.2; p = .59). Overall, self-esteem was significantly improved and depression scores were significantly lower at week 13. There was no significant difference in family or social functioning at week 13. While the findings provide some evidence for the integration of music therapy into clinical practice, differences relating to subgroups and secondary outcomes indicate the need for further study. ISRCTN Register; ISRCTN96352204. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Walking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your legs or feet Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.

  7. The initial value problem, scattering and inverse scattering, for Schroedinger equations with a potential and a non-local nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, MarIa de los Angeles Sandoval; Weder, Ricardo [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-726, Mexico DF 01000 (Mexico)

    2006-09-15

    We consider nonlinear Schroedinger equations with a potential, and non-local nonlinearities, that are models in mesoscopic physics, for example of a quantum capacitor, and that are also models of molecular structure. We study in detail the initial value problem for these equations, in particular, existence and uniqueness of local and global solutions, continuous dependence on the initial data and regularity. We allow for a large class of unbounded potentials. We have no restriction on the growth at infinity of the positive part of the potential. We also construct the scattering operator in the case of potentials that go to zero at infinity. Furthermore, we give a method for the unique reconstruction of the potential from the small amplitude limit of the scattering operator. In the case of the quantum capacitor, our method allows us to uniquely reconstruct all the physical parameters from the small amplitude limit of the scattering operator.

  8. Male infertility during antihypertensive therapy: are we addressing correctly the problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Simone Laganà

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Male fertility significantly decreased in the last 50 years, as showed in several studies reporting a reduction of sperm counts per ml in the seminal fluid. Several “acute” pharmacological treatments, as antibiotics, could cause subclinical and temporary reduction of male fertility; conversely, long-term medical treatment may severely affect male fertility, although this effect could be considered transient in most of the cases. Thus, nowadays, several long-term pharmacological treatments may represent a clinical challenge. The association between several kind of antihypertensive drugs and reduction of male fertility has been showed in the mouse model, although the modification(s which may alter this fine-regulated machinery are still far to be elucidated. Furthermore, well-designed observational studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to accurately define this association in human model, meaning a narrative overview synthesizing the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerized databases. We strongly solicit future human studies (both observational and randomized clinical trials on large cohorts with adequate statistical power which may clarify this possible association and the effects (reversible or permanent of each drug. Furthermore, we suggest a close collaboration between general practitioners, cardiologists, and andrologists in order to choose the most appropriate antihypertensive therapy considering also patient’s reproductive desire and possible risk for his fertility.

  9. Clinical results and therapeutic problems of combined therapy for maxillary sinus carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Mariya, Yasushi; Anbai, Akira; Abo, Mitsuru; Abe, Yoshinao [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine; Watanabe, Sadao; Kattou, Keiichi; Basaki, Kiyoshi; Matsukura, Hiroaki

    1998-12-01

    A retrospective study was carried out on 50 patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma, mostly stage IV, treated by a combined therapy with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery during 1985-1996 at Hirosaki University Hospital. Thirty-one of the 50 patients were male and 19 were female, and the average age was 59.2 years old. The 5-year cause specific survival rate was 48.5%, the 5-year local control rate was 46.7% in all patients and the most patients were died of local recurrence. The patients without lymph node metastasis, treated with extended radical surgery and irradiated dose of 50 Gy showed a significantly better survival and local control than the other patients, although T-stage, histology and total administration of 5-FU were not significant. On the other hand, the patients with high biologically effective dose (BED) corrected for overall radiation treatment time (cBED) showed a significantly better local control than those with low cBED. Multivariate analysis demonstrated N-stage, radical surgery and cBED to be significant variables for survival and local control. It is concluded that radiotherapists should aim to improve local control without cosmetic and functional impairments and should, for that purpose, maintain high cBED for maxillary sinus carcinoma, i.e. no interruption of radiotherapy. (author)

  10. Experiences and Perceptions of Problem Gamblers on Cognitive and Exposure Therapies When Taking Part in a Randomised Controlled Trial: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Pols, Rene; Lavis, Tiffany; Battersby, Malcolm; Harvey, Peter

    2016-12-01

    In South Australia (SA) problem gambling is mainly a result of the widespread availability of electronic gaming machines. A key treatment provider in SA offers free cognitive and behavioural therapy (CBT) to help-seeking problem gamblers. The CBT program focuses on the treatment of clients' urge to gamble using exposure therapy (ET) and cognitive therapy (CT) to restructure erroneous gambling beliefs. The aim of this study was to explore treatment specific and non-specific effects for CT alone and ET alone using qualitative interviews. Interviewees were a sub-sample of participants from a randomised trial that investigated the relative efficacy of CT versus ET. Findings revealed that all interviewees gained benefit from their respective therapies and their comments did not appear to favour one therapy over another. Both treatment specific and treatment non-specific effects were well supported as playing a therapeutic role to recovery. Participants' comments in both therapy groups suggested that symptom reduction was experienced on a gambling related urge-cognition continuum. In addition to symptom improvement from therapy-specific mechanisms, ET participants described a general acquisition of "rational thought" from their program of therapy and CT participants had "taken-over" their gambling urges. The findings also highlighted areas for further improvement including therapy drop-out.

  11. The Flipside of the Power of Engineered T Cells: Observed and Potential Toxicities of Genetically Modified T Cells as Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Felipe; Frigault, Matthew J; Maus, Marcela V

    2017-02-01

    Autologous T cells modified to recognize novel antigen targets are a novel form of therapy for cancer. We review the various potential forms of observed and hypothetical toxicities associated with genetically modified T cells. Despite the focus on toxicities in this review, re-directed T cells represent a powerful and highly effective form of anti-cancer therapy; we remain optimistic that the common toxicities will become routinely manageable and that some theoretical toxicity will be exceedingly rare, if ever observed. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential and Limitation of HLA-Based Banking of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casimir de Rham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Great hopes have been placed on human pluripotent stem (hPS cells for therapy. Tissues or organs derived from hPS cells could be the best solution to cure many different human diseases, especially those who do not respond to standard medication or drugs, such as neurodegenerative diseases, heart failure, or diabetes. The origin of hPS is critical and the idea of creating a bank of well-characterized hPS cells has emerged, like the one that already exists for cord blood. However, the main obstacle in transplantation is the rejection of tissues or organ by the receiver, due to the three main immunological barriers: the human leukocyte antigen (HLA, the ABO blood group, and minor antigens. The problem could be circumvented by using autologous stem cells, like induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, derived directly from the patient. But iPS cells have limitations, especially regarding the disease of the recipient and possible difficulties to handle or prepare autologous iPS cells. Finally, reaching standards of good clinical or manufacturing practices could be challenging. That is why well-characterized and universal hPS cells could be a better solution. In this review, we will discuss the interest and the feasibility to establish hPS cells bank, as well as some economics and ethical issues.

  13. Estimation of Nonlinearity in the Problem of Constructing Confidence Regions for Movement of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids Observed in One Opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernitsov, A. M.; Syusina, O. M.; Tamarov, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Theoretical substantiation of different methods for calculating the nonlinearity indices in problems of constructing confidence regions for asteroid movement is given. The nonlinearity indices of potentially hazardous asteroids observed in one opposition are determined from the data for March 2014 presented by the Minor Planet Center (MPC). The examined asteroids are subdivided into groups with the nonlinearity index smaller than 0.01, lying in the range from 0.01 to 0.1, and greater than 0.1. This will allow one to make a correct choice between the linear and nonlinear approach to the problem of constructing the initial confidence region for each concrete asteroid from this list.

  14. THE PROBLEM OF THE AESTHETIC POTENTIAL REALIZATION AS EXAMPLIFIED IN THE XIX CENTURY IRKUTSK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mr. Michael G Tripuzov

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of the aesthetic potential realization in one of the provincial Siberian centers of XIX century, Irkutsk in particular, in the light of the modern philosophy historian B. A. Kuvakin's views...

  15. Potential usage of ING family members in cancer diagnostics and molecular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Mehmet; Demircan, Kadir; Gunduz, Esra; Katase, Naoki; Tamamura, Ryo; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    The Inhibitor of Growth (ING) gene family is an emerging putative type II tumor suppressor gene (TSG). Proteins of INGs (ING1-5), critical modulator of the histone code via PHD fingers, are able to suppress cell growth and proliferation, induce apoptosis, and modulate cell cycle progression. ING proteins are involved in transcriptional regulation of genes, such as the p53-inducible gene p21. ING proteins also serve as shuttling proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm, and dysregulation of this nucleocytoplasmic traffic has been shown in some cancer cells. In cancer cells, ING mRNA levels are often lost or suppressed but the genes are rarely mutated. Recently the potential roles of ING proteins as prognostic biomarkers, detection of aggressive behavior of the tumor as well as prediction of chemo-radiotherapy response have also emerged. In this review, we summarize the up-to-date knowledge on functions of the ING proteins, the protein status in human tumors and discuss as a potential target in the molecular diagnostics and therapy of cancer.

  16. Rat models of spinal cord injury: from pathology to potential therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Kjell

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A long-standing goal of spinal cord injury research is to develop effective spinal cord repair strategies for the clinic. Rat models of spinal cord injury provide an important mammalian model in which to evaluate treatment strategies and to understand the pathological basis of spinal cord injuries. These models have facilitated the development of robust tests for assessing the recovery of locomotor and sensory functions. Rat models have also allowed us to understand how neuronal circuitry changes following spinal cord injury and how recovery could be promoted by enhancing spontaneous regenerative mechanisms and by counteracting intrinsic inhibitory factors. Rat studies have also revealed possible routes to rescuing circuitry and cells in the acute stage of injury. Spatiotemporal and functional studies in these models highlight the therapeutic potential of manipulating inflammation, scarring and myelination. In addition, potential replacement therapies for spinal cord injury, including grafts and bridges, stem primarily from rat studies. Here, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of rat experimental spinal cord injury models and summarize knowledge gained from these models. We also discuss how an emerging understanding of different forms of injury, their pathology and degree of recovery has inspired numerous treatment strategies, some of which have led to clinical trials.

  17. Rat models of spinal cord injury: from pathology to potential therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A long-standing goal of spinal cord injury research is to develop effective spinal cord repair strategies for the clinic. Rat models of spinal cord injury provide an important mammalian model in which to evaluate treatment strategies and to understand the pathological basis of spinal cord injuries. These models have facilitated the development of robust tests for assessing the recovery of locomotor and sensory functions. Rat models have also allowed us to understand how neuronal circuitry changes following spinal cord injury and how recovery could be promoted by enhancing spontaneous regenerative mechanisms and by counteracting intrinsic inhibitory factors. Rat studies have also revealed possible routes to rescuing circuitry and cells in the acute stage of injury. Spatiotemporal and functional studies in these models highlight the therapeutic potential of manipulating inflammation, scarring and myelination. In addition, potential replacement therapies for spinal cord injury, including grafts and bridges, stem primarily from rat studies. Here, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of rat experimental spinal cord injury models and summarize knowledge gained from these models. We also discuss how an emerging understanding of different forms of injury, their pathology and degree of recovery has inspired numerous treatment strategies, some of which have led to clinical trials. PMID:27736748

  18. Vitamin D as an adjunctive therapy in asthma. Part 1: A review of potential mechanisms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kerley, Conor P

    2015-02-27

    Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is highly prevlalent worldwide. The classical role for vitamin D is to regulate calcium absorption form the gastrointestinal tract and influence bone health. Recently vitamin D receptors and vitamin D metabolic enzymes have been discovered in numerous sites systemically supporting diverse extra-skeletal roles of vitamin D, for example in asthmatic disease. Further, VDD and asthma share several common risk factors including high latitude, winter season, industrialization, poor diet, obesity, and dark skin pigmentation. Vitamin D has been demonstrated to possess potent immunomodulatory effects, including effects on T cells and B cells as well as increasing production of antimicrobial peptides (e.g. cathelicidin). This immunomodulation may lead to asthma specific clinical benefits in terms of decreased bacterial\\/viral infections, altered airway smooth muscle-remodeling and -function as well as modulation of response to standard anti-asthma therapy (e.g. glucocorticoids and immunotherapy). Thus, vitamin D and its deficiency have a number of biological effects that are potentially important in altering the course of disease pathogenesis and severity in asthma. The purpose of this first of a two-part review is to review potential mechanisms whereby altering vitamin D status may influence asthmatic disease.

  19. The Promises, Problems, and Potentials of a Bourdieu-Inspired Staging of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The promise of Bourdieu-inspired analysts to provide a “different reading” of the international is receiving increasing attention in the academic discipline of international relations (IR). This attention also generates awareness and of problems inherent in the Bourdieuian approach and a desire t...... of his contention that one should never privilege scholastic theorizing for the sake of theorizing nor hesitate to “read a thinker against himself.”...

  20. Eph receptor A10 has a potential as a target for a prostate cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, Kazuya [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Yamashita, Takuya [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Inoue, Masaki [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Higashisaka, Kazuma [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Center of Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhiro [Cancer Biology Research Center, Sanford Research/USD, 2301 E. 60th Street N, Sioux Falls, SD 57104 (United States); Mukai, Yohei [Laboratory of Innovative Antibody Engineering and Design, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Kamada, Haruhiko [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); The Center of Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • EphA10 mRNA is overexpressed in breast, prostate and colon cancer cell lines. • EphA10 is overexpressed in clinical prostate tumors at mRNA and protein levels. • Anti-EphA10 antibodies were cytotoxic on EphA10-positive prostate cancer cells. - Abstract: We recently identified Eph receptor A10 (EphA10) as a novel breast cancer-specific protein. Moreover, we also showed that an in-house developed anti-EphA10 monoclonal antibody (mAb) significantly inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells, suggesting EphA10 as a promising target for breast cancer therapy. However, the only other known report for EphA10 was its expression in the testis at the mRNA level. Therefore, the potency of EphA10 as a drug target against cancers other than the breast is not known. The expression of EphA10 in a wide variety of cancer cells was studied and the potential of EphA10 as a drug target was evaluated. Screening of EphA10 mRNA expression showed that EphA10 was overexpressed in breast cancer cell lines as well as in prostate and colon cancer cell lines. Thus, we focused on prostate cancers in which EphA10 expression was equivalent to that in breast cancers. As a result, EphA10 expression was clearly shown in clinical prostate tumor tissues as well as in cell lines at the mRNA and protein levels. In order to evaluate the potential of EphA10 as a drug target, we analyzed complement-dependent cytotoxicity effects of anti-EphA10 mAb and found that significant cytotoxicity was mediated by the expression of EphA10. Therefore, the idea was conceived that the overexpression of EphA10 in prostate cancers might have a potential as a target for prostate cancer therapy, and formed the basis for the studies reported here.

  1. The Study of Potentials and Problems in Reading Faced By the Eighth Grade Students of Junior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Made Istri Utami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowing students’ problems, especially in reading, is very important to design an appropriate and meaningful learning. From the problem identification, teacher can find the potency of designing and developing material to meet students’ need. Therefore, this study was aimed to identify the potentials and problems toward reading lesson faced by the eighth grade students of Junior High School. This study was based on the result of classroom observation, document study, and also checklists. The identification of potency and problems through classroom observation was done to obtain data on how existing reading material was used in teaching reading on the classroom. There was also document study to evaluate existing reading material and syllabus used for teaching reading. Then, the data from the teacher and students had been gathered by administering checklists. From the result of the study, it can be identified that the problems faced by the eighth grade students of Junior High School in reading dealt with topic selection, pictures or illustration, and reading activities, while the potency was to develop new reading material by using those problems as consideration.

  2. Radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy: Problems with the concept of relative biological effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coderre, J.A.; Makar, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation dose delivered to cells in vitro or vivo during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a mixture of photons, fast neutrons and heavy charged particles from the interaction of neutrons with nitrogen and born. The concept of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) had been developed to allow comparison of the effects of these radiations with the effects of standard photon treatments such as 250 kVp x-rays or {sup 60}Co gamma rays. The RBE value for all of these high linear energy transfer radiations can vary considerably depending upon the experimental conditions and endpoint utilized. The short range of the particles from the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}) {sup 7}Li reaction make the precise subcellular location of the {sup 10}B atom of critical importance. The microscopic distribution of the {sup 10}B has a decided effect on the dosimetry. Monte Carlo simulations have shown that, at the cellular level, there is a profound difference in the probability of cell kill depending on the location of the {sup 10}B relative to the nucleus. Different boron-delivery agents will almost certainly have different distribution patterns at the subcellular level. The effect of BNCT with the amino acid p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) was compared with the effect of 250 kVp x-rays on a pigmented B16 melanoma subclone, both in vitro and in vivo. Generally accepted RBE values were applied to the relevant components of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) thermal neutron beam, however, there were still discrepancies when the resulting dose response curves were compared with the response to 250 kVp x-rays.

  3. Nodal Melanoma Metastasis under Infliximab Therapy in a Patient with Nevoid Melanoma First Misdiagnosed as Benign Nevus: A Potentially Dangerous Diagnostic Pitfall in the Era of Biologic Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Safa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who developed nodal melanoma metastasis under infliximab therapy 2 years after the removal of a nevoid melanoma, which was initially misdiagnosed as a benign compound nevus. This case illustrates the potential link between tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α inhibition and the reactivation of latent melanoma. Furthermore, this case highlights the need for a complete skin examination before using anti-TNF-α therapy to rule out atypical malignant lesions or melanomas that can easily be missed because of presentations such as nevoid melanoma.

  4. Effects of Ethanol Lock Therapy on Central Line Infections and Mechanical Problems in Children With Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokha, Jasmeet S; Davidovics, Zev H; Samela, Kate; Emerick, Karan

    2017-05-01

    Although use of 70% ethanol lock therapy (ELT) has been shown to decrease the rate of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in patients with intestinal failure and central venous catheters (CVCs), concerns have been raised about its association with higher rates of mechanical problems and CVC replacements (CVC-Rs). We sought to compare the rates of CRBSI, mechanical problems, and CVC-Rs in a cohort of pediatric patients with intestinal failure, with and without ELT (ELT + and ELT - , respectively). Data were collected in a retrospective chart review from February 2007 to May 2014. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare nonparametric and paired data, respectively. Twenty-nine children had 9033 catheter days (CDs). The ELT + group (vs ELT - ) had lower rate of infection and significantly fewer CVC-Rs due to infection but significantly more mechanical events and related CVC-Rs with significantly shorter mean CVC survival. In 13 children who had a pre-ELT and post-ELT period, ELT was associated with a decrease in the rate of CVC-Rs due to infection (0.36 vs 4.74/1000 CDs, P = .046) and an increase in the rate of CVC-Rs due to mechanical problems (5.05 vs 0/1000 CDs, P = .018). While ELT + is associated with a lower rate of CRBSIs and related CVC-Rs, it is also associated with higher rates of mechanical problems and related CVC-Rs. In addition to investigating the ideal concentration, duration, and timing of ELT to preserve the integrity of the CVC, alternatives to exclusively ethanol-based lock solutions should be developed.

  5. The determinants of cost-effectiveness potential: an historical perspective on lipid-lowering therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refoios Camejo, Rodrigo; McGrath, Clare; Miraldo, Marisa; Rutten, Frans

    2013-05-01

    The concept of cost effectiveness emerged in an attempt to link the prices of new healthcare technologies to the immediate value they provide, with payers defining the acceptable cost per unit of incremental effect over the alternatives available. It has been suggested that such measures allow developers to assess potential market profitability in an early stage of development, but may result in discouraging investment in efficient research if not used appropriately. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of the factors determining cost effectiveness and assess the evolution of cost-effectiveness potential for drugs in development using lipid-lowering therapy as a case study. The study is based on observational clinical and market data covering a 20-year period (from 1990 to 2010) in the UK. Real-life clinical data including total cholesterol laboratory test results were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and are used to illustrate how the clinical effectiveness of existing standard care changed over time in patients managed in clinical practice. Prescription Cost Analysis (PCA) data were extracted and the average price of the drug mix used was computed throughout the study period. Using this information, the maximum clinical benefit and cost savings to be had were estimated for each year of the analysis using a cost-effectiveness model. Subsequently, the highest price a new technology providing the maximum clinical effectiveness possible (i.e. eliminating cardiovascular risk from high cholesterol levels) could achieve under current cost-effectiveness rules was calculated and used as a measure of the potential cost effectiveness of drugs in development. The results in this study show that the total cholesterol values of patients managed in clinical practice moved steadily towards recommended clinical targets. Overall, the absolute potential for incremental health-related quality of life decreased by approximately 78

  6. Potential for promoting recurrent laryngeal nerve regeneration by remote delivery of viral gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Adam D; Hogikyan, Norman D; Oh, Alex; Feldman, Eva L

    2012-02-01

    The aims of this study were to demonstrate the ability to enhance nerve regeneration by remote delivery of a viral vector to the crushed recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), to demonstrate the usefulness of a crushed RLN model to test the efficacy of viral gene therapy, and to discuss future potential applications of this approach. Animal study. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to two groups. In the experimental group, an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector carrying a zinc-finger transcription factor, which stimulates endogenous insulinlike growth factor I production (AAV2-TO-6876vp16), was injected into the crushed RLN. In the control group, an AAV vector carrying the gene for green fluorescent protein was injected into the crushed RLN. Unilateral RLN paralysis was confirmed endoscopically. At 1 week, laryngeal endoscopies were repeated and recorded. Larynges were cryosectioned in 15-μm sections and processed for acetylcholine histochemistry (motor endplates) followed by neurofilament immunoperoxidase (nerve fibers). Percentage nerve-endplate contact (PEC) was determined and compared. Vocal fold motion was evaluated by blinded reviewers using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The difference between PEC on the crushed and uncrushed sides was statistically less in the experimental group (0.54 ± 0.18 vs. 0.30 ± 0.26, P = .0006). The VAS score at 1 week was significantly better in the experimental group (P = .002). AAV2-TO-6876vp16 demonstrated a neurotrophic effect when injected into the crushed RLN. The RLN offers a conduit for viral gene therapy to the brainstem that could be useful for the treatment of RLN injury or bulbar motor neuron disease. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Patient perspectives: Kundalini yoga meditation techniques for psycho-oncology and as potential therapies for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David S

    2005-03-01

    The ancient system of Kundalini Yoga (KY) includes a vast array of meditation techniques. Some were discovered to be specific for treating psychiatric disorders and others are supposedly beneficial for treating cancers. To date, 2 clinical trials have been conducted for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The first was an open uncontrolled trial and the second a single-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing a KY protocol against the Relaxation Response and Mindfulness Meditation (RRMM) techniques combined. Both trials showed efficacy on all psychological scales using the KY protocol; however, the RCT showed no efficacy on any scale with the RRMM control group. The KY protocol employed an OCD-specific meditation technique combined with other techniques that are individually specific for anxiety, low energy, fear, anger, meeting mental challenges, and turning negative thoughts into positive thoughts. In addition to OCD symptoms, other symptoms, including anxiety and depression, were also significantly reduced. Elements of the KY protocol other than the OCD-specific technique also may have applications for psycho-oncology patients and are described here. Two depression-specific KY techniques are described that also help combat mental fatigue and low energy. A 7-part protocol is described that would be used in KY practice to affect the full spectrum of emotions and distress that complicate a cancer diagnosis. In addition, there are KY techniques that practitioners have used in treating cancer. These techniques have not yet been subjected to formal clinical trials but are described here as potential adjunctive therapies. A case history demonstrating rapid onset of acute relief of intense fear in a terminal breast cancer patient using a KY technique specific for fear is presented. A second case history is reported for a surviving male diagnosed in 1988 with terminal prostate cancer who has used KY therapy long term as part of a self

  8. Sustained Adoption of an Evidence-Based Treatment: A Survey of Clinicians Certified in Problem-Solving Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Crabb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Training models that incorporate case supervision in addition to didactic instruction appear to be effective in maximizing clinicians’ proficiency in evidence-based treatments (EBTs. However, it is unknown the extent to which these models promote sustained adoption of EBTs. We describe the results of an online survey on post-training utilization of an EBT, problem-solving therapy (PST, among 40 clinicians highly trained in PST. Seventy-five percent of the survey’s 40 respondents reported that they continued to use PST in their clinical practices. Many PST-trained clinicians reported that they had modified the PST protocol in their clinical practices according to patient characteristics or preferences. Considering these results, we recommend emphasizing patient variability and treatment tailoring throughout the training process as a means for promoting clinicians’ sustained adoption of EBTs.

  9. Sustained adoption of an evidence-based treatment: a survey of clinicians certified in problem-solving therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Rebecca M; Areán, Patricia A; Hegel, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Training models that incorporate case supervision in addition to didactic instruction appear to be effective in maximizing clinicians' proficiency in evidence-based treatments (EBTs). However, it is unknown the extent to which these models promote sustained adoption of EBTs. We describe the results of an online survey on post-training utilization of an EBT, problem-solving therapy (PST), among 40 clinicians highly trained in PST. Seventy-five percent of the survey's 40 respondents reported that they continued to use PST in their clinical practices. Many PST-trained clinicians reported that they had modified the PST protocol in their clinical practices according to patient characteristics or preferences. Considering these results, we recommend emphasizing patient variability and treatment tailoring throughout the training process as a means for promoting clinicians' sustained adoption of EBTs.

  10. Simultaneous delivery time and aperture shape optimization for the volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment planning problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnam, Mehdi; Gendreau, Michel; Lahrichi, Nadia; Rousseau, Louis-Martin

    2017-06-14

    In this paper, we propose a novel heuristic algorithm for the volumetric-modulated arc therapy treatment planning problem, optimizing the trade-off between delivery time and treatment quality. We present a new mixed integer programming model in which the multi-leaf collimator leaf positions, gantry speed, and dose rate are determined simultaneously. Our heuristic is based on column generation; the aperture configuration is modeled in the columns and the dose distribution and time restriction in the rows. To reduce the number of voxels and increase the efficiency of the master model, we aggregate similar voxels using a clustering technique. The efficiency of the algorithm and the treatment quality are evaluated on a benchmark clinical prostate cancer case. The computational results show that a high-quality treatment is achievable using a four-thread CPU. Finally, we analyze the effects of the various parameters and two leaf-motion strategies.

  11. Web-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Mental Health Problems in College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael E; Haeger, Jack A; Pierce, Benjamin G; Twohig, Michael P

    2016-07-20

    There are significant challenges in addressing the mental health needs of college students. The current study tested an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), web-based self-help program to treat a broad range of psychological problems students struggle with. A sample of 79 college students was randomized to web-based ACT or a waitlist condition, with assessments at baseline and posttreatment. Results indicated adequate acceptability and program engagement for the ACT website. Relative to waitlist, participants receiving ACT improved on overall distress, general anxiety, social anxiety, depression, academic concerns, and positive mental health. There were no between-group effects on eating concerns, alcohol use, or hostility, or on some key ACT process of change measures. ACT participants improved more on mindful acceptance and obstruction to valued living, both of which mediated treatment outcomes. Results are discussed in the context of lessons learned with the website prototype, and areas for further research are presented. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Simultaneous delivery time and aperture shape optimization for the volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment planning problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnam, Mehdi; Gendreau, Michel; Lahrichi, Nadia; Rousseau, Louis-Martin

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel heuristic algorithm for the volumetric-modulated arc therapy treatment planning problem, optimizing the trade-off between delivery time and treatment quality. We present a new mixed integer programming model in which the multi-leaf collimator leaf positions, gantry speed, and dose rate are determined simultaneously. Our heuristic is based on column generation; the aperture configuration is modeled in the columns and the dose distribution and time restriction in the rows. To reduce the number of voxels and increase the efficiency of the master model, we aggregate similar voxels using a clustering technique. The efficiency of the algorithm and the treatment quality are evaluated on a benchmark clinical prostate cancer case. The computational results show that a high-quality treatment is achievable using a four-thread CPU. Finally, we analyze the effects of the various parameters and two leaf-motion strategies.

  13. Biodritin microencapsulated human islets of Langerhans and their potential for type 1 diabetes mellitus therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Lisbôa, A C V; Mares-Guia, T R; Grazioli, G; Goldberg, A C; Sogayar, M C

    2008-03-01

    Microencapsulation of pancreatic islets with polymeric compounds constitutes an attractive alternative therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. The major limiting factor is the availability of a biocompatible and mechanically stable polymer. We investigated the potential of Biodritin, a novel polymer constituted of alginate and chondroitin sulfate, for islet microencapsulation. Biodritin microcapsules were obtained using an air jet droplet generator and gelated with barium or calcium chloride. Microencapsulated rat insulinoma RINm5F cells were tested for viability using the [3-(4,5-dimetyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide] [MTT] colorimetric assay. Microencapsulated rat pancreatic islets were coincubated with macrophages derived from mouse peritoneal liquid to assess the immunomodulatory potential of the microcapsules, using quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR). Biodritin biocompatibility was demonstrated by subcutaneous injection of empty microcapsules into immunocompetent Wistar rats. Insulin secretion by microencapsulated human pancreatic islets was evaluated using an electrochemoluminescent assay. Microencapsulated human islets transplanted into chemically induced diabetic mice were monitored for reversal of hyperglycemia. The metabolic activity of microencapsulated RINm5F cells persisted for at least 15 days. Interleukin-1beta expression by macrophages was observed during coculture with islets microencapsulated with Biodritin-CaCl2, but not with Biodritin-BaCl2. No statistical difference in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was observed between nonencapsulated and microencapsulated islets. Upon microencapsulated islet transplantation, the blood glucose level of diabetic mice normalized; they remained euglycemic for at least 60 days, displaying normal oral glucose tolerance tests. This study demonstrated that Biodritin can be used for islet microencapsulation and reversal of diabetes; however, further investigations are required to assess its

  14. Obstructive uropathy from locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer: an old problem with new therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Justin I; Duty, Brian D; Okeke, Zeph; Smith, Arthur D

    2012-02-01

    Despite stage migration to more organ-confined disease in the era of prostate-specific antigen, the complications of advanced prostate cancer are still relatively common. Urinary tract obstruction in advanced and metastatic prostate cancer can have a varied presentation, because it may occur in multiple anatomic locations at any point in the natural history of the disease. In all cases, management depends on the current stage of disease, technical feasibility of potential therapeutic interventions, and overall prognosis of the patient. This review highlights a practical approach to the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of obstructive uropathy from prostate cancer.

  15. Internet-based acceptance and commitment therapy for psychological distress experienced by people with hearing problems: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Peter; Hesser, Hugo; Weineland, Sandra; Bergwall, Kajsa; Buck, Sonia; Jäder Malmlöf, Johan; Lantz, Henning; Lunner, Thomas; Andersson, Gerhard

    2017-09-12

    Psychological distress is common among people with hearing problems, but treatments that specifically target this aspect have been almost non-existent. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, an eight-week long Internet-based treatment, informed by Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, was administered to explore the feasibility and efficacy of such a treatment. Included participants were randomized to either treatment (n = 31) or wait-list control (n = 30) condition. All participants were measured prior to randomization and immediately after treatment ended using standardized self-report instruments measuring hearing-related emotional and social adjustment (Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly - S, HHIE-S), quality of life (Quality of Life Inventory, QOLI), and symptoms of depression and anxiety (Patient health Questionnaire, PHQ-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, GAD-7). Linear mixed effects regression analysis using the full intention-to-treat sample demonstrated that the treatment had superior outcomes on the main outcome measure as compared with the control group, Cohen's d = 0.93, 95% CI [0.24, 1.63]. The benefits of treatment over control were also evident in scores of depression, Cohen's d = 0.61, 95% CI [0.04, 1.19], and quality of life, Cohen's d = 0.88, 95% CI [0.14, 1.61]. The results provide preliminary support for Internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy as a potentially effective treatment of psychological symptoms associated with hearing problems.

  16. Identification of potential neuromotor mechanisms of manual therapy in patients with musculoskeletal disablement: rationale and description of a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulig Kornelia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many health care practitioners use a variety of hands-on treatments to improve symptoms and disablement in patients with musculoskeletal pathology. Research to date indirectly suggests a potentially broad effect of manual therapy on the neuromotor processing of functional behavior within the supraspinal central nervous system (CNS in a manner that may be independent of modification at the level of local spinal circuits. However, the effect of treatment speed, as well as the specific mechanism and locus of CNS changes, remain unclear. Methods/Design We developed a placebo-controlled, randomized study to test the hypothesis that manual therapy procedures directed to the talocrural joint in individuals with post-acute ankle sprain induce a change in corticospinal excitability that is relevant to improve the performance of lower extremity functional behavior. Discussion This study is designed to identify potential neuromotor changes associated with manual therapy procedures directed to the appendicular skeleton, compare the relative effect of treatment speed on potential neuromotor effects of manual therapy procedures, and determine the behavioral relevance of potential neuromotor effects of manual therapy procedures. Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00847769.

  17. Evaluation of a Community Pharmacy-Based Screening Questionnaire to Identify Patients at Risk for Drug Therapy Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammett, Robert T; Blackburn, David; Taylor, Jeff; Mansell, Kerry; Kwan, Debbie; Papoushek, Christine; Jorgenson, Derek

    2015-09-01

    To determine if a short screening questionnaire can identify patients at risk for drug therapy problems (DTPs) in a community pharmacy setting. Self-administered questionnaire. Three community pharmacies in Saskatoon, Canada. Forty-nine adults who were picking up a refill prescription for a medication that had remained stable over the past 6 months (i.e., no changes to drug, dose, or regimen) during 4 consecutive weeks at each of the three pharmacies between November 2013 and February 2014. All patients completed a self-administered screening questionnaire and underwent a blinded comprehensive medication assessment with a clinical pharmacist. Agreement between the screening questionnaire responses and responses based on information from the medication assessment were assessed with Cohen's κ coefficient. The DTPs identified during the medication assessments were categorized in one of the eight standard DTP categories: unnecessary drug therapy, inappropriate drug, subtherapeutic dose, supratherapeutic dose, drug therapy required, adverse drug reaction, noncompliance, and other or unsure. The DTPs were also assigned a severity-mild, moderate, or severe-using adapted Schneider criteria. The number and severity of DTPs identified were compared among patients categorized as high versus low risk for DTPs as determined by the questionnaire responses. Of the 49 patients who completed the study, 18 (37%) were high risk and 31 (63%) low risk. The agreement between risk categorization based on the screening questionnaire and medication assessment was very good (κ = 0.91, p<0.01). Also, patients identified as high risk on the screening questionnaire had a mean of 3.7 (p<0.01) more DTPs than low-risk patients. Seventeen (94%) of the 18 high-risk patients had at least one moderate or severe DTP compared with 15 (48%) of the 31 low-risk patients. The screening questionnaire was a reliable method for identifying patients in community pharmacies who have a large number of DTPs

  18. Hidden problems in current health-care financing and potential changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrey, B; Hofschire, P J

    1993-03-01

    Health-care costs in the United States have risen significantly in the past 10 years, markedly affecting access to quality medical and mental health care. Deficit financing of our federal health-care expenditures adds billions of dollars annually to our national debt. Health-care reform is being hindered by both the inability of the government to pay for the uninsured and the unremitting spiral of the Medicare and Medicaid entitlement programs. The reasons for the total health-care cost increases include higher provider charges, overutilization of services, and the burgeoning technology; problems of malpractice, overspecialization, and consumer demands have also fueled the higher costs.

  19. The blow-up problem for a semilinear parabolic equation with a potential

    OpenAIRE

    Cortazar, Carmen; Elgueta, Manuel; Rossi, Julio D.

    2007-01-01

    Let $\\Omega$ be a bounded smooth domain in $\\RR^N$. We consider the problem $u_t= \\Delta u + V(x) u^p$ in $\\Omega \\times [0,T)$, with Dirichlet boundary conditions $u=0$ on $\\partial \\Omega \\times [0,T)$ and initial datum $u(x,0)= M \\phi (x)$ where $M \\geq 0$, $\\phi$ is positive and compatible with the boundary condition. We give estimates for the blow up time of solutions for large values of $M$. As a consequence of these estimates we find that, for $M$ large, the blow up set concentrates ne...

  20. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT in the Treatment of Young Children's Behavior Problems. A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åse Bjørseth

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to compare the effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT with treatment as usual (TAU in young children who were referred to regular child and adolescent mental health clinics for behavior problems.Eighty-one Norwegian families with two- to seven-year-old children (52 boys who had scored ≥ 120 on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI were randomly assigned to receive either PCIT or TAU. The families were assessed 6 and 18 months after beginning treatment. Parenting skills were measured using the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System (DPICS, and child behavior problems were measured using the ECBI and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL.Linear growth curve analyses revealed that the behavior problems of children receiving PCIT improved more compared with children receiving TAU according to mother reports (ECBI d = .64, CBCL d = .61, both p < .05 but not according to father report. Parents also improved with regard to Do and Don't skills (d = 2.58, d = 1.46, respectively, both p ≤ .001. At the 6-month assessment, which often occurred before treatment was finished, children who had received PCIT had lower father-rated ECBI and mother-rated CBCL-scores (p = .06 compared with those who had received TAU. At the 18-month follow-up, the children who had received PCIT showed fewer behavior problems compared with TAU according to mother (d = .37 and father (d = .56 reports on the ECBI and mother reports on the CBCL regarding externalizing problems (d = .39. Parents receiving PCIT developed more favorable Do Skills (6-month d = 1.81; 18-month d = 1.91 and Don't Skills (6-month d = 1.46; 18-month d = 1.42 according to observer ratings on the DPICS compared with those receiving TAU.Children receiving PCIT in regular clinical practice exhibited a greater reduction in behavior problems compared with children receiving TAU, and their parents' parenting skills improved to a greater degree

  1. The multi-flavor Schwinger model with chemical potential. Overcoming the sign problem with matrix product states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kuehn, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Saito, Hana [AISIN AW Co., Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    During recent years there has been an increasing interest in the application of matrix product states, and more generally tensor networks, to lattice gauge theories. This non-perturbative method is sign problem free and has already been successfully used to compute mass spectra, thermal states and phase diagrams, as well as real-time dynamics for Abelian and non-Abelian gauge models. In previous work we showed the suitability of the method to explore the zero-temperature phase structure of the multi-flavor Schwinger model at non-zero chemical potential, a regime where the conventional Monte Carlo approach suffers from the sign problem. Here we extend our numerical study by looking at the spatially resolved chiral condensate in the massless case. We recover spatial oscillations, similar to the theoretical predictions for the single-flavor case, with a chemical potential dependent frequency and an amplitude approximately given by the homogeneous zero density condensate value.

  2. [The potential financial impact of oral health problems in the families of preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo Leite; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Martins, Carolina Castro; Paiva, Saul Martins; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the perception of parents/caregivers regarding the financial impact of oral health problems on the families of preschool children. A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was conducted with 834 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale. "Financial impact" was the dependent variable. Questionnaires addressing socio-demographic variables, history of toothache and health perceptions were administered. Clinical exams were performed by three dentists previously calibrated (Kappa: 0.85-0.90). Descriptive statistics were performed, followed by logistic regression for complex samples (α = 5%). The frequency of financial impact due to oral health problems in preschool children was 7.7%. The following variables were significantly associated with financial impact: parental perception of child's oral health as poor, the interaction between history of toothache and absence of dental caries and the interaction between history of toothache and presence of dental caries. It is concluded that often parents/caregivers reported experiencing a financial impact due to seeking treatment late, mainly by the presence of toothache and complications of the clinical condition.

  3. Current Problems in Developing the Natural Resource Potential of the Russian Exclave in the Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Gennady M.; Gritsenko, Vladimir A.; Dedkov, Viktor P.; Zotov, Sergey I.; Chernyshkov, Pavel P.

    2016-01-01

    The compact Kaliningrad region boasts relatively favourable environmental conditions and a remarkable diversity of natural resources. This article seeks to compare the natural resources of the exclave and other Russian regions. The authors examine recent statistical data to estimate the region's natural and resource potential, analyse its…

  4. Lattice QCD with chemical potential: Evading the fermion-sign problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since the turn of the millennium there has been tremendous progress in understanding QCD at finite chemical potential, . Apart from qualitative results obtained using models, and exact results at very large obtained in weak coupling theory, there has been tremendous progress in getting exact and quantitative results ...

  5. Antioxidant potential of selected supplements in vitro and the problem of its extrapolation for in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Ogrin Papić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: antioxidants, free radicals and oxidative stress have been studied extensively for quite some time but their role in diseases and their prevention has not been clearly determined. Because commercialantioxidants do not need to pass clinical tests in order to be sold over the counter we have decided to test the antioxidant potential of different commercial preparations with the antioxidative properties.Methods: pH, rH and oxidant-reduction potential of different preparations in aqueous solution was measured. Afterwards antioxidant potential using FormPlus® after adding the preparation to human blood as a morecomplex environment with different homeostasis mechanisms was determined.Results: all the results showed expected change compared to the control but the results in aqueous solution did not match the results obtained from the human blood, as was expected.Conclusion: from the experiments it can be concluded that while the preparations did show antioxidant activity, it is very difficult and even wrong to predict the antioxidant potential of an antioxidant preparationadded to human blood, let alone in a living organism, based just on the results obtained in aqueous solution. Further possibilities for research include more extensive studies of antioxidant preparations in more complex environment and last but not least in test organisms or in human trials.

  6. Correlation between Novel Potential Indoor Risk Factors and Frequency of Doctor's Visit for Respiratory Problem in Taiwan's Tropical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With a global rising trend in prevalence of allergic diseases, more attention has been paid to investigation of environmental risk factors. Many risk factors have so far been identified. However, novel risk factors specific to Taiwanese environment and lifestyle were still relatively unknown. Objective: To investigate the potential effects of a number of little-known indoor risk factors on the frequency of doctor's visit for respiratory problems in context of Taiwanese environment and lifestyle. Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based study was performed on a 861 participants around Kaohsiung area, Taiwan. Survey investigation was employed to assess the household environment and the frequency of doctor's visit for respiratory problems. Results: Participants who performed “daily cleaning” was shown to have a significantly (p=0.007 higher mean number of doctor's visits in comparison to those who did not. Similar observation was made for participants who periodically took out beddings (p=0.042. Age had a significant positive correlation (linear regression β 0.089 with frequency of respiratory problems. Conclusion: The habit of daily cleaning was implicated as a potential indoor risk factor due to the unique nature of Taiwanese cleaning habit and close contact with cleaning supplies, which could serve as chemical irritants. Bedding takeout was predicted to be an indicator of chronic allergies rather than an actual risk factor. However, both were controversial in their role as potential indoor risk factor, and required further examination.

  7. The potential of denitrification for the stabilization of activated sludge processes affected by low alkalinity problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Hoffmann

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the problems provoked by nitrification of wastewater with low alkalinity were analyzed in a pilot sequencing batch activated sludge reactor (SBR. Decrease in pH resulted in disappearence of protozoa. De-flocculation of the activated sludge floc started below pH 6.5, resulting in enhanced effluent turbidity and loss of bacteria. Nitrification efficiency was affected below pH 6.2. The denitrification activity was not sufficient to keep up the pH, due to a low C/N ratio of the wastewater. Based on alkalinity and ammonia concentration of the wastewater and the necessary denitrification rate to prevent operational problems, was developed a prognostic diagram. The applicability of this diagram was tested for the SBR with excellent results. The diagram could be applied to optimize the operation of wastewater treatment plants affected by problems with low alkalinity wastewater.Os problemas provocados pela nitrificação no esgoto com baixa alcalinidade foram analisados num reator piloto do tipo lodos ativados seqüencial por batelada (RSB, alimentado por esgoto urbano. A diminuição do pH se mostrou em três níveis: com pH de 6,8 - 6,0 os protozoários, responsáveis para a filtração da fase liquida, desaparecerem; os flocos de lodos ativados começaram a se destruir abaixo pH 6,5 resultando em elevação da turbidez no efluente final e abaixo de pH 6,2-6,0 a nitrificação foi afetada. A influência da desnitrificação para manter o pH foi analisada. Devido a baixa relação C:N no esgoto pré-tratado, a desnitrificação não se mostrou suficiente para manter o pH estável. Este trabalho apresenta o cálculo da alcalinidade que considera a influência da nitrificação e desnitrificação, de acordo com os resultados obtidos no RSB. Baseado nesse cálculo, foi desenvolvida uma recomendação na forma gráfica para usar em ETE´s afetadas por baixa alcalinidade.

  8. Development of a Positive Youth Development Program: Promoting the Mental Health of Stressful Adolescents Using Principles of Problem Solving Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T.L. Shek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the proposal for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a positive youth development program that attempts to promote the mental health of stressful Chinese adolescents using principles of Problem Solving Therapy (PST. There are two general aims of PST: to help clients identify life difficulties and resolve them, as well as to teach them skills on how to deal with future problems. The proposed project will utilize the principles of PST as the guiding framework to run two mental health promotion courses for adolescents who are experiencing disturbing stressful responses and students who want to improve their stress management style. Both objective and subjective outcome evaluation strategies will be carried out to assess the effectiveness of the intervention to promote the psychological well-being in adolescents who are experiencing stress. A related sample proposal is described that can give social workers some insight on how to prepare a proposal for developing the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs.

  9. Group problem-solving therapy for postnatal depression among HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibanda, Dixon; Shetty, Avinash K; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Woelk, Godfrey; Stranix-Chibanda, Lynda; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe

    2014-01-01

    Postnatal depression (PND) is a major problem in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A total of 210 postpartum mothers attending primary care urban clinics were screened for PND at 6 weeks postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition; DSM-IV) criteria for major depression. The HIV prevalence was 14.8%. Of the 210 enrolled postpartum mothers, 64 (33%) met DSM IV criteria for depression. Using trained peer coun- selors, mothers with PND (n = 58) were randomly assigned to either group problem-solving therapy (PST, n = 30) or amitriptyline (n = 28). Of the 58 mothers with PND, 49 (85%) completed 6 weeks of group PST (n = 27) or pharmacotherapy (n = 22). At baseline, the mean EPDS score for participants randomized to group PST was 17.3 (standard deviation [SD] 3.7), while the group randomized to amitriptyline had a mean EPDS score of 17.9 (SD 3.9; P = .581). At 6 weeks postintervention, the drop in mean EPDS score was greater in the PST group (8.22, SD 3.6) compared to the amitriptyline group (10.7, SD 2.7; P = .0097). Group PST using peer counselors is feasible, acceptable, and more effective compared to pharmacotherapy in the treatment of PND. Group PST could be integrated into maternal and child health clinics and preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV programs in LMICs.

  10. Underbanked: Cooperative Banking as a Potential Solution to the Marijuana-Banking Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Patrick A

    2016-01-01

    Numerous states have recently legalized recreational marijuana, which has created a burgeoning marijuana industry needing and demanding access to a variety of banking and financial services. Due, however, to the interplay between the federal criminalization of marijuana and federal anti-money laundering laws, U.S. financial institutions cannot handle legally the proceeds from marijuana activity. As a result, most financial institutions are unwilling to flout federal anti-money laundering laws, and so too few marijuana-related businesses can access banking services. This Note argues that the most viable policy option for resolving this "underbanking" problem is a financial cooperative approach such as a cannabis-only financial cooperative. Even in light of federal anti-money laundering laws, this Note contends that the Federal Reserve is legally authorized to grant some cannabis-only financial cooperatives access to its payment system services under the Monetary Control Act of 1980.

  11. Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence: problems, progress, and potential in theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compas, B E; Connor-Smith, J K; Saltzman, H; Thomsen, A H; Wadsworth, M E

    2001-01-01

    Progress and issues in the study of coping with stress during childhood and adolescence are reviewed. Definitions of coping are considered, and the relationship between coping and other aspects of responses to stress (e.g., temperament and stress reactivity) is described. Questionnaire, interview, and observation measures of child and adolescent coping are evaluated with regard to reliability and validity. Studies of the association of coping with symptoms of psychopathology and social and academic competence are reviewed. Initial progress has been made in the conceptualization and measurement of coping, and substantial evidence has accumulated on the association between coping and adjustment. Problems still remain in the conceptualization and measurement of coping in young people, however, and aspects of the development and correlates of coping remain to be identified. An agenda for future research on child-adolescent coping is outlined.

  12. Estimates on potential functions and boundary behavior of positive solutions for sublinear Dirichlet problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Alsaedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We give global estimates on some potential of functions in a bounded domain of the Euclidean space ${\\mathbb{R}}^n\\; (n\\geq 2$. These functions may be singular near the boundary and are globally comparable to a product of a power of the distance to the boundary by some particularly well behaved slowly varying function near zero. Next, we prove the existence and uniqueness of a positive solution for the integral equation $u=V(a u^{\\sigma}$ with $0\\leq \\sigma <1$, where V belongs to a class of kernels that contains in particular the potential kernel of the classical Laplacian $V=(-\\Delta^{-1}$ or the fractional laplacian $V=(-\\Delta^{\\alpha/2}$, $0<\\alpha<2$.

  13. Problems and perspectives of development of state directing of work potential forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Шило

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article argued that the state is the main governing entity of formation of labor potential, and should provide the flexibility of public policy and its focus on innovative model of development in the current circumstances. The ways of improvement of state regulation of the process of formation of labor potential through the introduction of legal, administrative, economic and program-target levers of influence, aimed at coverage of the professional orientation of the system of total formal and informal education, the focus of the system of professional education in accordance to the needs of the economy and innovation development, the formation of the system of continuing education during working life was developed.

  14. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of epithelial potentially malignant disorders of the mouth: advantages and disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaimari, G.; Russo, C.; Palaia, G.; Tenore, G.; Del Vecchio, A.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: Leukoplakia is a potentially malignant epithelial lesion with carcinomatous percentages transformation comprehended between 1% and 7% for the homogeneous forms and from 4% to 15% for the non-homogeneous ones. Their removal can be performed by scalpel or laser surgery (excision or vaporization). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a bloodless treatment option, based on the involvement of three elements: light, photosensitizer and oxygen. When the molecules of the photosensitizer are activated by a low power laser, energy is transferred to molecular oxygen creating highly reactive radicals of oxygen, that have a cytotoxic effect on target cells. Aim of the study: According to several studies in Literature, it has been decided to evaluate through an initial clinical trial, the efficacy of PDT using topical aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) activated by a laser diode (λ = 635 nm) to treat potentially oral malignant lesions and to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages derived from the use of this technique. Materials and Methods: Five patients, affected by oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral verrucous leukoplakia (OVL) on the mucosal cheeks, labial commissure, fornix and retromolar areas, have been treated using the PDT. Irradiation time with Diode laser: 1000s. Irradiation mode: Scanning. 5 cycles of 3 minute + final cycle of 100 seconds. Each cycle has been interrupted by pauses of 3 minutes. Results and conclusion: PDT results to be effective in the treatment of OL, especially on OVL. In fact, OVL, due to its irregularity, has got an area of increased retention for the gel that is more difficult to be removed by salivary flow. This could explain the better results obtained in this case rather than in those ones of OL. Furthermore, the advantages have been represented by: less invasivity, high sensitivity for altered tissues, minimal scar tissue, less side effects and no pain during and after operation. In contrast to this, the disadvantages were: longer treatment

  15. The potential of photodynamic therapy to treat esophageal candidiasis coexisting with esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haixia; Mao, Yongping; Gu, Ying; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Jing; Huang, Naiyan; Liu, Qingsen; Yang, Yunsheng

    2014-01-05

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used in recent years to deal with fungal infections because of the prevalence of fungi resistance to drugs. However, PDT for gastrointestinal fungal infection has not been reported. This study was conducted to assess the potential of PDT to deal with esophageal candidiasis. Two male patients with histological evidence of esophageal candidiasis coexisting with esophageal cancer were included in this retrospective study. Both patients were treated with PDT. This treatment was repeated at least 1month after the initial PDT if the patient still had residual cancer or esophageal candidiasis. Short-term efficacy was evaluated on the basis of endoscopy and histology findings. Further follow-up data were obtained from endoscopy results or telephone conversation. The esophageal candidiasis located 21-24cm and 25-28cm from the incisors of case 1 reached complete remission after one and two PDT sessions, respectively. The esophageal cancer coexisting with esophageal candidiasis located 21-24cm from the incisors reached complete remission after two PDT sessions. No recurrence was found at a 14-month follow-up. The esophageal cancer located 30-35cm from the incisors reached partial response after three PDT sessions. Both of the esophageal candidiasis and the coexisting esophageal cancer at 23-26cm from the incisors of case 2 reached complete remission and the esophageal cancer at 34-37cm from the incisors reached complete remission after one PDT session. No recurrence was found at a 24-month follow-up. There were no serious adverse events found in either of the two cases. Results of this preliminary study indicate that PDT may be a potential method to deal with esophageal candidiasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain death organ donation potential and life support therapy limitation in neurocritical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, M A; Pont, T; Sandiumenge, A; Oliver, E; Gener, J; Badía, M; Mestre, J; Muñoz, E; Esquirol, X; Llauradó, M; Twose, J; Quintana, S

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the profile, incidence of life support therapy limitation (LSTL) and donation potential in neurocritical patients. A multicenter prospective study was carried out. Nine hospitals authorized for organ harvesting for transplantation. All patients consecutively admitted to the hospital with GCS death (BD) and organ donation incidence were recorded. A total of 549 patients were included, with a mean age of 59.0 ± 14.5 years. The cause of coma was cerebral hemorrhage in 27.0% of the cases.LSTL was applied in 176 patients (32.1%). In 78 cases LSTL consisted of avoiding ICU admission. Age, the presence of contraindications, and specific causes of coma were associated to LSTL. A total of 58.1% of the patients died (n=319). One-hundred and thirty-three developed BD (24.2%), and 56.4% of these became organ donors (n=75). The presence of edema and mid-line shift on the CT scan, and transplant coordinator evaluation were associated to BD. LSTL was associated to a no-BD outcome. Early LSTL (first 4 days) was applied in 9 patients under 80 years of age, with no medical contraindications for donation and a GCS ≤ 4 who finally died in asystole. LSTL is a frequent practice in neurocritical patients. In almost one-half of the cases, LSTL consisted of avoiding admission to the ICU, and on several occasions the donation potential was not evaluated by the transplant coordinator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  17. Phthalocyanine derivatives possessing 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy groups as potential agents for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinska, Malgorzata; Skupin-Mrugalska, Paulina; Szczolko, Wojciech; Sobotta, Lukasz; Sciepura, Mateusz; Tykarska, Ewa; Wierzchowski, Marcin; Teubert, Anna; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Wyszko, Eliza; Gdaniec, Maria; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Goslinski, Tomasz; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Murias, Marek

    2015-03-12

    Three 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy substituted phthalocyanines were synthesized and characterized. Phthalocyanine derivatives revealed moderate to high quantum yields of singlet oxygen production depending on the solvent applied (e.g., in DMF ranging from 0.25 to 0.53). Their photosensitizing potential for photodynamic therapy was investigated in an in vitro model using cancer cell lines. Biological test results were found particularly encouraging for the zinc(II) phthalocyanine derivative possessing two 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy substituents in nonperipheral positions. Cells irradiated for 20 min at 2 mW/cm(2) revealed the lowest IC50 value at 0.25 μM for prostate cell line (PC3), whereas 1.47 μM was observed for human malignant melanoma (A375) cells. The cytotoxic activity in nonirradiated cells of novel phthalocyanine was found to be very low. Moreover, the cellular uptake, localization, cell cycle, apoptosis through an ELISA assay, and immunochemistry method were investigated in LNCaP cells. Our results showed that the tested photosensitizer possesses very interesting biological activity, depending on experimental conditions.

  18. Antioxidant Therapy as a Potential Approach to Severe Influenza-Associated Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroo Toyoda

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available With the appearance of the novel influenza A (H1N1 virus 2009 strain we have experienced a new influenza pandemic and many patients have died from severe complications associated with this pandemic despite receiving intensive care. This suggests that a definitive medical treatment for severe influenza-associated complications has not yet been established. Many studies have shown that superoxide anion produced by macrophages infiltrated into the virus-infected organs is implicated in the development of severe influenza-associated complications. Selected antioxidants, such as pyrrolidine dithiocabamate, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, glutathione, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, thujaplicin, resveratrol, (+-vitisin A, ambroxol, ascorbic acid, 5,7,4-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone, catechins, quercetin 3-rhamnoside, iso- quercetin and oligonol, inhibit the proliferation of influenza virus and scavenge superoxide anion. The combination of antioxidants with antiviral drugs synergistically reduces the lethal effects of influenza virus infections. These results suggest that an agent with antiviral and antioxidant activities could be a drug of choice for the treatment of patients with severe influenza-associated complications. This review article updates knowledge of antioxidant therapy as a potential approach to severe influenza-associated complications.

  19. New potential therapy for orthotopic bladder carcinoma by combining HVJ envelope with doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hirokazu; Komaba, Shintaro; Yamasaki, Tsugiko; Maeda, Mitsuyo; Kimura, Yoshimitsu; Maeda, Akito; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2008-05-01

    To establish a new therapeutic method to treat bladder carcinoma, we investigated the therapeutic potential of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DXR) combined with hemagglutinating virus of Japan-envelope vector (HVJ-E) in an orthotropic mouse bladder cancer model. DXR and/or HVJ-E were instilled into the bladder after implantation of MB49 cells. Antitumor effects of combination therapy were evaluated by histological analysis of the bladder on day 14 after tumor implantation. The survival rate of MB49-disseminated mice was examined for 60 days after single or double administration of DXR alone or DXR/HVJ-E. The surviving mice were re-challenged with intravesical injection of MB49 cells, and the bladder was observed after 3 weeks. Combined intravesical instillation of HVJ-E and DXR resulted in a significantly higher rate of tumor-free mice (11/21) compared with mice treated using DXR alone (3/19, P60 days for intravesical instillation of HVJ-E and DXR, compared with the 29 days for DXR instillation alone (PHVJ-E increased antitumor effects in combination with chemotherapeutic agent (DXR). Antitumor immunity appeared to be enhanced using HVJ-E.

  20. Metal Oxide Nanomaterials in Nanomedicine: Applications in Photodynamic Therapy and Potential Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojia; Aker, Winfred G; Huang, Ming-Ju; Watts, John D; Hwang, Huey-Min

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide nanomaterials have exhibited excellent performance as nanomedicines in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer and infection treatment. Their unique and tunable physicochemical properties advance them as promising alternatives in drug delivery, early diagnosis, imaging, and treatment against various tumors and infectious diseases. Moreover, the implementation of nanophototherapy in deep tissue sites is enhanced by advancements in photosensitization technology. Notwithstanding the progress made in emerging metal oxide nanomaterials-derived PDT, the potential toxicity towards adjunct tissues associated with this approach remains challenging. Regulation and legislation have also been recommended and subsequently enacted in response to public concerns related to large-scale production, transportation, use, and disposal of those nanomaterials. Consequently, a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) paradigm has been adopted and is widely used in evaluating and predicting the side effects of nanomedicines, thus influencing their design and fabrication. This article briefly reviews the application of metal oxide nanomaterials in PDT and their associated adverse impacts as reported in recent publications. The future trends and implications of this platform in nanomedicine are also highlighted. However, more studies and efforts have to be carried out for developing novel nano-therapeutics with high selectivity, sensitivity, biocompatibility, and minimal side effects in PDT.

  1. Interleukin 21 - its potential role in the therapy of B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Shruti; Sarosiek, Kristopher A; Lossos, Izidore S

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21), a member of IL-2 cytokine family, has pleotropic biological effects on lymphoid and myeloid cells. During the past 15 years, since the discovery of IL-21, great advances have been made regarding its biological activity and the mechanisms controlling IL-21-mediated cellular responses, especially in hematological malignancies. Preclinical studies have shown that IL-21R is expressed on healthy and neoplastic B-cells and exogenous IL-21 can induce direct apoptosis of IL-21R expressing B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), making it a potentially attractive anti-lymphoma therapy. However, in some hematological malignancies such as multiple myeloma, Hodgkin lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma, IL-21 can induce proliferation of neoplastic B-cells. In NHL, the underlying mechanism of cell death was found to be different between the various subtypes, including activation of different JAK/STAT signal transduction pathways or other factors. Immunomodulatory effects of IL-21 have also been reported to contribute to its anti-tumor effects as described by earlier studies in solid tumors and B-cell associated malignancies. These effects are predominantly mediated by IL-21's ability to activate cytolytic activities by NK-cells and CD4 + /CD8 + T-cells. In this review, we provide an overview of IL-21's effects in NHL, results from clinical trials utilizing IL-21, and propose how IL-21 can be therapeutically exploited for treating these lymphomas.

  2. BRAF inhibitors and radiotherapy for melanoma brain metastases: potential advantages and disadvantages of combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Mudit; Patel, Kirtesh R; Danish, Hasan H; Lawson, David H; Khan, Mohammad K

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive malignancy that frequently spreads to the brain, resulting in rapid deterioration in both quality and quantity of life. Historically, treatment options for melanoma brain metastases (MBM) have predominantly consisted of surgery and radiotherapy. While these options can help provide local control, the majority of patients still develop intracranial progression. Indeed, novel therapeutic options, including molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapy, have improved outcomes and are now changing the role of radiotherapy. Up to 50% of melanomas contain an activating BRAF mutation, resulting in hyperactive cellular proliferation and survival. Drugs that target BRAF have been introduced for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and offer hope in improving disease outcomes; however, many of these trials either excluded or had a limited amount of patients with MBM. Recent studies have revealed that melanoma cell lines become more radiosensitive following BRAF inhibition, thus providing a potential synergistic mechanism when combining BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) and radiotherapy. However, neurotoxicity concerns also exist with this combination. This article reviews the efficacy and limitations of BRAFi therapy for MBM, describes current evidence for combining BRAFis with radiation, discusses the rationale and evidence for combination modalities, and highlights emerging clinical trials specifically investigating this combination in MBM.

  3. Thymosin α1 represents a potential potent single-molecule-based therapy for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Luigina; Oikonomou, Vasilis; Moretti, Silvia; Iannitti, Rossana G; D'Adamo, Maria Cristina; Villella, Valeria R; Pariano, Marilena; Sforna, Luigi; Borghi, Monica; Bellet, Marina M; Fallarino, Francesca; Pallotta, Maria Teresa; Servillo, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Eleonora; Puccetti, Paolo; Kroemer, Guido; Pessia, Mauro; Maiuri, Luigi; Goldstein, Allan L; Garaci, Enrico

    2017-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) that compromise its chloride channel activity. The most common mutation, p.Phe508del, results in the production of a misfolded CFTR protein, which has residual channel activity but is prematurely degraded. Because of the inherent complexity of the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in CF, which include impaired chloride permeability and persistent lung inflammation, a multidrug approach is required for efficacious CF therapy. To date, no individual drug with pleiotropic beneficial effects is available for CF. Here we report on the ability of thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1)-a naturally occurring polypeptide with an excellent safety profile in the clinic when used as an adjuvant or an immunotherapeutic agent-to rectify the multiple tissue defects in mice with CF as well as in cells from subjects with the p.Phe508del mutation. Tα1 displayed two combined properties that favorably opposed CF symptomatology: it reduced inflammation and increased CFTR maturation, stability and activity. By virtue of this two-pronged action, Tα1 has strong potential to be an efficacious single-molecule-based therapeutic agent for CF.

  4. The potential application of photodynamic therapy in drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji-Eun; Oak, Chul-Ho; Sung, Nackmoon; Jheon, Sanghoon

    2015-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious bacterial disease that has historically created a high global health burden. Unfortunately, the emergence of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB), which includes multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), has greatly affected the treatment of TB. Anti-TB chemotherapy drugs are classified into five groups to facilitate application of effective guidelines for the treatment regimen. However, chemotherapy has a limited ability to treat DR-TB, and therefore a novel alternative treatment for DR-TB is required. In this review, we focused on photodynamic therapy (PDT) as potential treatment for DR-TB. PDT is a widely used cancer treatment that combines photosensitizers and harmless laser light to produce reactive oxygen species that selectively damage the target cells. Initially, PDT was originally developed to target pathogenic microorganisms but fell into disuse because of adverse reactions. Recently, photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy is attracting attention again as an alternative treatment for bacterial infections. In our previous study, we suggested that PDT could be a novel option to treat MDR- and XDR-TB in vitro. Despite the limited previous studies regarding PDT in TB models, fast-developing bronchoscopic technologies and clinician experience will soon facilitate the clinical application of safe and minimally invasive PDT for TB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mozart K.448 acts as a potential add-on therapy in children with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Wei-Te; Wang, Chien-Hua; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Lin; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Weng, Chia-Fen; Lee, Mei-Wen; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major, K.448 (Mozart K.448), has been shown to improve mental function, leading to what is known as the Mozart effect. Our previous work revealed that epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy decreased during and immediately after listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of Mozart K.448 on children with refractory epilepsy. Eleven children with refractory epilepsy were enrolled. All of the patients were diagnosed as having had refractory epilepsy for more than 1 year (range =1 year to 6 years 4 months, mean =3 years 11 months) and had been receiving at least two antiepileptic drugs (AED). During the study period, they listened to Mozart K.448 once a day before bedtime for 6 months. Seizure frequencies were recorded 6 months before they started listening to this music and monthly during the study period. All of the patients remained on the same AEDs during the 6-month study period. Frequencies of seizures were compared before and after listening to Mozart K.448. Eight of eleven patients were seizure free (N=2) or had very good responses (N=6) after 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448. The remaining three (27.3%) showed minimal or no effect (effectiveness Mozart K.448 should be further studied as a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of children with refractory epilepsy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential mechanisms of diet therapy for fibrocystic breast conditions show inadequate evidence of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, N K; Lampe, J W

    2000-11-01

    Fibrocystic breast conditions, formerly referred to as fibrocystic breast disease, affect about half of all women and typically present as any combination of breast nodularity, swelling, and pain. We reviewed the literature to evaluate evidence supporting nutrition interventions commonly recommended for fibrocystic breast conditions by health care providers. Randomized, controlled studies of the effectiveness of caffeine restriction fail to support any benefit in fibrocystic breast conditions. Similarly, evidence supporting evening primrose oil, vitamin E, or pyridoxine as treatments for the discomforts of fibrocystic breast conditions is insufficient to draw conclusions about effectiveness. Dietary alterations that influence the intermediate markers for fibrocystic breast conditions include low-fat (15% to 20% energy), high-fiber (30 g/day), and soy isoflavone regimens. However, our findings provide no solid evidence for secondary prevention or treatment of fibrocystic breast conditions through a dietary approach. Health care providers should limit recommendations to proven diet therapies supported by randomized, placebo-controlled trials, given the instability inherent in fibrocystic breast conditions and the near 20% placebo effect associated with intervention. Because excessive estrogen or altered sensitivity to estrogen is the dominant theory of etiology, interventions that may modulate endogenous steroid hormones warrant further investigation as potential treatments for symptomatic fibrocystic breast conditions.

  7. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: study of bacterial recovery viability and potential development of resistance after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Anabela; Carvalho, Carla M B; Faustino, Maria A; Neves, Maria G P M S; Tomé, João P C; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Cunha, Angela; Gomes, Newton C M; Alves, Eliana; Almeida, Adelaide

    2010-01-20

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has emerged in the clinical field as a potential alternative to antibiotics to treat microbial infections. No cases of microbial viability recovery or any resistance mechanisms against it are yet known. 5,10,15-tris(1-Methylpyridinium-4-yl)-20-(pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin triiodide (Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF) was used as photosensitizer. Vibrio fischeri and recombinant Escherichia coli were the studied bacteria. To determine the bacterial recovery after treatment, Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF (5.0 microM) was added to bacterial suspensions and the samples were irradiated with white light (40 W m(-2)) for 270 minutes. Then, the samples were protected from light, aliquots collected at different intervals and the bioluminescence measured. To assess the development of resistance after treatment, bacterial suspensions were exposed to white light (25 minutes), in presence of 5.0 microM of Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF (99.99% of inactivation) and plated. After the first irradiation period, surviving colonies were collected from the plate and resuspended in PBS. Then, an identical protocol was used and repeated ten times for each bacterium. The results suggest that aPDT using Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF represents a promising approach to efficiently destroy bacteria since after a single treatment these microorganisms do not recover their viability and after ten generations of partially photosensitized cells neither of the bacteria develop resistance to the photodynamic process.

  8. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy: Study of Bacterial Recovery Viability and Potential Development of Resistance after Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Alves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT has emerged in the clinical field as a potential alternative to antibiotics to treat microbial infections. No cases of microbial viability recovery or any resistance mechanisms against it are yet known. 5,10,15-tris(1-Methylpyridinium-4-yl-20-(pentafluorophenyl-porphyrin triiodide (Tri-Py+-Me-PF was used as photosensitizer. Vibrio fischeri and recombinant Escherichia coli were the studied bacteria. To determine the bacterial recovery after treatment, Tri-Py+-Me-PF (5.0 µM was added to bacterial suspensions and the samples were irradiated with white light (40 W m-2 for 270 minutes. Then, the samples were protected from light, aliquots collected at different intervals and the bioluminescence measured. To assess the development of resistance after treatment, bacterial suspensions were exposed to white light (25 minutes, in presence of 5.0 μM of Tri-Py+-Me-PF (99.99% of inactivation and plated. After the first irradiation period, surviving colonies were collected from the plate and resuspended in PBS. Then, an identical protocol was used and repeated ten times for each bacterium. The results suggest that aPDT using Tri-Py+-Me-PF represents a promising approach to efficiently destroy bacteria since after a single treatment these microorganisms do not recover their viability and after ten generations of partially photosensitized cells neither of the bacteria develop resistance to the photodynamic process.

  9. The sweet trap in tumors: aerobic glycolysis and potential targets for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Chen, Xun; Wang, Liantang; Chen, Shangwu

    2016-06-21

    Metabolic change is one of the hallmarks of tumor, which has recently attracted a great of attention. One of main metabolic characteristics of tumor cells is the high level of glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect. The energy production is much less in glycolysis pathway than that in tricarboxylic acid cycle. The molecular mechanism of a high glycolytic flux in tumor cells remains unclear. A large amount of intermediates derived from glycolytic pathway could meet the biosynthetic requirements of the proliferating cells. Hypoxia-induced HIF-1α, PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, and many other factors, such as oncogene activation and tumor suppressor inactivation, drive cancer cells to favor glycolysis over mitochondrial oxidation. Several small molecules targeting glycolytic pathway exhibit promising anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we will focus on the latest progress in the regulation of aerobic glycolysis and discuss the potential targets for the tumor therapy.

  10. Potentiation of photodynamic therapy of cancer by complement: the effect of γ-inulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbelik, M; Cooper, P D

    2006-01-01

    Host response elicited by photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancerous lesions is a critical contributor to the clinical outcome, and complement system has emerged as its important element. Amplification of complement action was shown to improve tumour PDT response. In search of a clinically relevant complement activator for use as a PDT adjuvant, this study focused on γ-inulin and examined its effects on PDT response of mouse tumours. Intralesional γ-inulin (0.1 mg mouse−1) delivered immediately after PDT rivaled zymosan (potent classical complement activator) in delaying the recurrence of B16BL6 melanomas. This effect of γ-inulin was further enhanced by IFN-γ pretreatment. Tumour C3 protein levels, already elevated after individual PDT or γ-inulin treatments, increased much higher after their combination. With fibrosarcomas MCA205 and FsaR, adjuvant γ-inulin proved highly effective in reducing recurrence rates following PDT using four different photosensitisers (BPD, ce6, Photofrin, and mTHPC). At 3 days after PDT plus γ-inulin treatment, over 50% of cells found at the tumour site were CTLs engaged in killing specific targets via perforin–granzyme pathway. This study demonstrates that γ-inulin is highly effective PDT adjuvant and suggests that by amplifying the activation of complement system, this agent potentiates the development of CTL-mediated immunity against PDT-treated tumours. PMID:17146472

  11. Cardiorenal syndrome: pathophysiological mechanism, preclinical models, novel contributors and potential therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Cao, Longxing; Li, Huang; Wang, Binghui; Li, Zhiliang

    2014-01-01

    To review the current knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanisms, preclinical models, novel contributors and potential therapies of cardiorenal syndrome. The literature concerning cardiorenal syndrome in this review was collected from PubMed published in English up to January 2014. Original articles and critical reviews related to cardiorenal syndrome were selected and carefully analyzed. Cardiorenal syndrome is a condition characterized by kidney and heart failure where failure of one organ worsens the function of the other thus further accelerating the progressive failure of both organs. The pathophysiology of cardiorenal syndrome is not fully understood, but may be caused by a complex combination of neurohormonal system activation, endothelial dysfunction, proteinuria, oxidative stress, uremic toxins and other factors. Managing cardiorenal syndrome is still a major therapeutic challenge in clinical practice because many of the drugs used to control heart failure can worsen renal function, and vice versa. Non-dialyzable uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate, causing detrimental effects on the heart and kidney as well as stimulation of inflammatory responses, may be an effective therapeutic target for cardiorenal syndrome. Suitable disease models of cardiorenal syndrome are urgently needed to investigate the pathophysiology and effective therapeutic approaches to the condition. Non-dialyzable protein-bound uremic toxins that may have cardiac and renal effects may provide therapeutic benefit to cardiorenal syndrome patients.

  12. Cellular Signaling Pathway Alterations and Potential Targeted Therapies for Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Giunti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parafollicular C-cell-derived medullary thyroid cancer (MTC comprises 3% to 4% of all thyroid cancers. While cytotoxic treatments have been shown to have limited efficacy, targeted molecular therapies that inhibit rearranged during transfection (RET and other tyrosine kinase receptors that are mainly involved in angiogenesis have shown great promise in the treatment of metastatic or locally advanced MTC. Multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as vandetanib, which is already approved for the treatment of progressive MTC, and cabozantinib have shown distinct advantages with regard to rates of disease response and control. However, these types of tyrosine kinase inhibitor compounds are able to concurrently block several types of targets, which limits the understanding of RET as a specific target. Moreover, important resistances to tyrosine kinase inhibitors can occur, which limit the long-term efficacy of these treatments. Deregulated cellular signaling pathways and genetic alterations in MTC, particularly the activation of the RAS/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR cascades and RET crosstalk signaling, are now emerging as novel and potentially promising therapeutic treatments for aggressive MTC.

  13. Multidisciplinary Consideration of Potential Pathophysiologic Mechanisms of Paradoxical Erythema with Topical Brimonidine Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, James R; Steinhoff, Martin; Lorton, Dianne; Detmar, Michael; Schäfer, Gregor; Holmes, Anna; Di Nardo, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease with transient and non-transient redness as key characteristics. Brimonidine is a selective α2-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist approved for persistent facial erythema of rosacea based on significant efficacy and good safety data. The majority of patients treated with brimonidine report a benefit; however, there have been sporadic reports of worsening erythema after the initial response. A group of dermatologists, receptor physiology, and neuroimmunology scientists met to explore potential mechanisms contributing to side effects as well as differences in efficacy. We propose the following could contribute to erythema after application: (1) local inflammation and perivascular inflammatory cells with abnormally functioning ARs may lead to vasodilatation; (2) abnormal saturation and cells expressing different AR subtypes with varying ligand affinity; (3) barrier dysfunction and increased skin concentrations of brimonidine with increased actions at endothelial and presynaptic receptors, resulting in increased vasodilation; and (4) genetic predisposition and receptor polymorphism(s) leading to different smooth muscle responses. Approximately 80% of patients treated with brimonidine experience a significant improvement without erythema worsening as an adverse event. Attention to optimizing skin barrier function, setting patient expectations, and strategies to minimize potential problems may possibly reduce further the number of patients who experience side effects. Galderma International S.A.S., Paris, France.

  14. Problem-Solving Therapy During Outpatient Stroke Rehabilitation Improves Coping and Health-Related Quality of Life: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marieke M; Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka H; Van't Spijker, Adriaan; Lannoo, Engelien; Busschbach, Jan J V; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether problem-solving therapy (PST) is an effective group intervention for improving coping strategy and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with stroke. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, the intervention group received PST as add-on to standard outpatient rehabilitation, the control group received outpatient rehabilitation only. Measurements were performed at baseline, directly after the intervention, and 6 and 12 months later. Data were analyzed using linear-mixed models. Primary outcomes were task-oriented coping as measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations and psychosocial HRQoL as measured by the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale. Secondary outcomes were the EuroQol EQ-5D-5L utility score, emotion-oriented and avoidant coping as measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, problem-solving skills as measured by the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised, and depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Included were 166 patients with stroke, mean age 53.06 years (SD, 10.19), 53% men, median time poststroke 7.29 months (interquartile range, 4.90-10.61 months). Six months post intervention, the PST group showed significant improvement when compared with the control group in task-oriented coping (P=0.008), but not stroke-specific psychosocial HRQoL. Furthermore, avoidant coping (P=0.039) and the utility value for general HRQoL (P=0.034) improved more in the PST group than in the control after 6 months. PST seems to improve task-oriented coping but not disease-specific psychosocial HRQoL after stroke >6-month follow-up. Furthermore, we found indications that PST may improve generic HRQoL recovery and avoidant coping. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2509. Unique identifier: CNTR2509. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Chemotherapy plus targeted drugs in conversion therapy for potentially resectable colorectal liver metastases: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Sun, Yinan; Zhao, Ben; Zhang, Huixian; Yu, Qianqian; Yuan, Xianglin

    2016-08-23

    To evaluate the safety and efficiency of the conversion therapy: chemotherapy plus anti-epidermal growth factor Receptor (EGFR) or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) with different rat sarcoma (RAS) status in patients with potentially resectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified and the association between RAS mutation and clinical outcome in CRLM patients treated with anti-EGFR or anti-VEGFR MoAbs was investigated. Searches were performed for data recorded between January 2005 and August 2015 in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE. Objective response rates (ORR), conversion resection rates (CRR), R0 resection rates (R0R) and rate ratios (RR) were used to assess the strength of the association between different RAS status, MoAbs and conversion efficiency. In the conversion therapy, ORR and RR were associated with patients with wild type RAS and different MoAbs. Patients treated with MoAbs: anti-VEGFR or anti-EGFR drugs, resulted in higher ORR, (RR=1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27-1.84, P therapy, (RR=0.91, 95%CI: 0.76-1.08, Ptherapy, (RR=1.56, 95%CI: 1.16-2.01, P conversion efficiency for patients with potentially resectable CRLM patients, and anti-EGFR therapies maybe more effective than anti-VEGFR therapies. RAS status is a potential predictive marker of the clinical benefit resulting from treatment with anti-EGFR MoAbs therapy in CRLM patients and anti-EGFR MoAbs therapy could displayed greater efficiency only in patients with wild type RAS.

  16. Reminder about potentially serious problems with a type of blocked ANOVA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Verrill; David E. Kretschmann

    2017-01-01

    A type of blocked experiment has the potential of being poorly designed and/or analyzed. Verrill (1993, 1999) and Verrill et al. (2004) referred to such an experiment as a “predictor sort” experiment. David and Gunnink (1997) described the procedure as “artificial pairing.” In textbooks it is sometimes referred to as a “matched pair” or a “matched...

  17. Blood lead levels in a group of children: the potential risk factors and health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuShady, Mones M; Fathy, Hanan A; Fathy, Gihan A; Fatah, Samer Abd El; Ali, Alaa; Abbas, Mohamed A

    To investigate blood lead levels in schoolchildren in two areas of Egypt to understand the current lead pollution exposure and its risk factors, aiming to improve prevention politicies. This was a cross-sectional study in children (n=400) aged 6-12 years recruited from two areas in Egypt (industrial and urban). Blood lead levels were measured using an atomic absorption method. Detailed questionnaires on sources of lead exposure and history of school performance and any behavioral changes were obtained. The mean blood lead level in the urban area of Egypt (Dokki) was 5.45±3.90μg/dL, while that in the industrial area (Helwan) was 10.37±7.94μg/dL, with a statistically significant difference between both areas (plead levels≥10μg/dL, versus 42% of those in Helwan. A significant association was found between children with abnormal behavior and those with pallor with blood lead level≥10μg/dL, when compared with those with blood lead levellead level≥10μg/dL. Lead remains a public health problem in Egypt. High blood lead levels were significantly associated with bad health habits and housing with increased exposure, as well as abnormal behavior and pallor. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Examining ecological validity in social interaction: problems of visual fidelity, gaze, and social potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Arran T; Holmes, Nicholas P

    2016-01-01

    Social interaction is an essential part of the human experience, and much work has been done to study it. However, several common approaches to examining social interactions in psychological research may inadvertently either unnaturally constrain the observed behaviour by causing it to deviate from naturalistic performance, or introduce unwanted sources of variance. In particular, these sources are the differences between naturalistic and experimental behaviour that occur from changes in visual fidelity (quality of the observed stimuli), gaze (whether it is controlled for in the stimuli), and social potential (potential for the stimuli to provide actual interaction). We expand on these possible sources of extraneous variance and why they may be important. We review the ways in which experimenters have developed novel designs to remove these sources of extraneous variance. New experimental designs using a 'two-person' approach are argued to be one of the most effective ways to develop more ecologically valid measures of social interaction, and we suggest that future work on social interaction should use these designs wherever possible.

  19. Itch sensation through transient receptor potential channels: a systematic review and relevance to manual therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucaciu, Octavian C; Connell, Gaelan P

    2013-01-01

    Patients may present with a complaint of "itchiness" or an "odd sensation" that can be relieved by manual therapy treatment options, which demonstrates the relevance of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. There are studies that identify the role of various TRP channels as modulators of the itch sensation; however, discrepancies in the literature exist with respect to the overall neural pathway of the itch sensation, musculoskeletal implications, and decisive therapeutic implications. The purpose of this study was to review the literature and rate the quality of published articles regarding the role of TRP channels in the itch sensation. A systematic search of relevant literature that was published in English by a peer-reviewed journal between January 2000 and June 2012 was performed in PubMed. Studies that met the predetermined inclusion criteria regarding the relationship between TRP channels and itch were identified and then evaluated for methodological quality by the Downs and Black Quality Index score system and were summarized. Nine studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria, all of which had fair methodological quality from the perspective of the modified Downs and Black Quality Index. TRPA1, TRPM8, and TRPV1-4 were indicated as key channels responsible for the transmission of the itch sensation. TRPV1 channels convey histamine-dependent itch, and TRPA1 channels convey histamine-independent itch. Temperature, nerve growth factor, and substance-P were also described as important itch modulators. There are similarities between the neural pathways responsible for itch, pain, and temperature, which explain the ability of noxious temperature to suppress the desire to scratch. Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, innocuous vibration, and cutaneous field stimulation have demonstrated relatively weak attenuation of itch, the use of topical capsaicin, noxious heat, and noxious cold have been demonstrated as effective therapies

  20. Potentiators (specific therapies for class III and IV mutations) for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay; Sinha, Ian P; Dwan, Kerry; Echevarria, Carlos; Schechter, Michael; Southern, Kevin W

    2015-03-26

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common inherited life-shortening illness in Caucasians and caused by a mutation in the gene that codes for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR), which functions as a salt transporter. This mutation most notably affects the airways of people with cystic fibrosis. Excess salt absorption by defective CFTR dehydrates the airway lining and leads to defective mucociliary clearance. Consequent accumulation of thick, sticky mucus makes the airway prone to chronic infection and progressive inflammation; respiratory failure often ensues. Additionally, abnormalities with CFTR lead to systemic complications like malnutrition, diabetes and subfertility.Since the discovery of the causative gene, our understanding of the structure and function of CFTR and the impact of different mutations has increased and allowed pharmaceutical companies to design new mutation-specific therapies targeting the underlying molecular defect. Therapies targeting mutation classes III and IV (CFTR potentiators) aim to normalise airway surface liquid and help re-establish mucociliary clearance, which then has a beneficial impact on the chronic infection and inflammation that characterizes lung disease in people with cystic fibrosis. These therapies may also affect other mutations. To evaluate the effects of CFTR potentiators on clinically important outcomes in children and adults with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Last search: 05 March 2015.We searched the EU Clinical Trials Register, clinicaltrials.gov (US Clinical Trials Register) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). Last search of clinical trial registries: 06 February 2014. Randomised controlled trials of parallel design comparing CFTR potentiators to

  1. Chaos and the continuum limit in the gravitational N-body problem. II. Nonintegrable potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Ioannis V; Kandrup, Henry E

    2002-06-01

    This paper continues a numerical investigation of the statistical properties of "frozen-N orbits," i.e., orbits evolved in frozen, time-independent N-body realizations of smooth density distributions rho corresponding to both integrable and nonintegrable potentials, allowing for 10(2.5)focus is on distinguishing between, and quantifying, the effects of graininess on initial conditions corresponding, in the continuum limit, to regular and chaotic orbits. Ordinary Lyapunov exponents chi do not provide a useful diagnostic for distinguishing between regular and chaotic behavior. Frozen-N orbits corresponding in the continuum limit to both regular and chaotic characteristics have large positive chi even though, for large N, the "regular" frozen-N orbits closely resemble regular characteristics in the smooth potential. Alternatively, viewed macroscopically, both regular and "chaotic" frozen-N orbits diverge as a power law in time from smooth orbits with the same initial condition. However, convergence towards the continuum limit is much slower for chaotic orbits. For regular orbits, the time scale associated with this divergence t(G) approximately N(1/2)t(D), with t(D) a characteristic dynamical, or crossing, time; for chaotic orbits t(G) approximately (ln N)t(D). For N>10(3)-10(4), clear distinctions exist between the phase mixing of initially localized ensembles, which, in the continuum limit, exhibit regular versus chaotic behavior. Regular ensembles evolved in a frozen-N density distribution diverge as a power law in time, albeit more rapidly than ensembles evolved in the smooth distribution. Chaotic ensembles diverge in a fashion that is roughly exponential, albeit at a larger rate than that associated with the exponential divergence of the same ensemble evolved in smooth rho. For both regular and chaotic ensembles, finite-N effects are well mimicked, both qualitatively and quantitatively, by energy-conserving white noise with amplitude eta proportional, variant 1/N

  2. A Phase II randomised controlled trial assessing the feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness of Dignity Therapy for older people in care homes: Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Alison

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most older people living in nursing homes die there, there is a dearth of robust evaluations of interventions to improve their end-of-life care. Residents usually have multiple health problems making them heavily reliant on staff for their care, which can erode their sense of dignity. Dignity Therapy has been developed to help promote dignity and reduce distress. It comprises a recorded interview, which is transcribed, edited then returned to the patient, who can bequeath it to people of their choosing. Piloting has suggested that Dignity Therapy is beneficial to people dying of cancer and their families. The aims of this study are to assess the feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness of Dignity Therapy to reduce psychological and spiritual distress in older people reaching the end of life in care homes, and to pilot the methods for a Phase III RCT. Methods/design A randomised controlled open-label trial. Sixty-four residents of care homes for older people are randomly allocated to one of two groups: (i Intervention (Dignity Therapy offered in addition to any standard care, and (ii Control group (standard care. Recipients of the "generativity" documents are asked their views on taking part in the study and the therapy. Both quantitative and qualitative outcomes are assessed in face-to-face interviews at baseline and at approximately one and eight weeks after the intervention (equivalent in the control group. The primary outcome is residents' sense of dignity (potential effectiveness assessed by the Patient Dignity Inventory. Secondary outcomes for residents include depression, hopefulness and quality of life. In view of the relatively small sample size, quantitative analysis is mainly descriptive. The qualitative analysis uses the Framework method. Discussion Dignity Therapy is brief, can be done at the bedside and could help both patients and their families. This detailed exploratory research shows if

  3. FAMILY THE POTENTIAL OF YOUNG MUSCOVITES AND THE PROBLEMS OF ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN A METROPOLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Kikkas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the potential of international transport corridors, which can be developed in the Arctic, as well as the analysis of the main factors aff ecting the success of such projects. The basic concept of international transport corridors, compared to the Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage to identify the most competitive corridor. Describes the requirements that must be done to transform the Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage to international transport corridor. We identifi ed and analyzed the main factors affecting the success of the project to transform the Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage to international transport corridor.

  4. Basic problems and new potentials in monitoring sediment transport using Japanese pipe type geophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakajo, Saiichi

    2016-04-01

    The authors have conducted a lot of series of monitoring of sediment transport by pipe type geophone in a model hydrological channel with various gradients and water discharge, using the various size of particles from 2 to 21 mm in the diameter. In the case of casting soils particle by particle into the water channel, 1,000 test cases were conducted. In the case of casting all soils at a breath into the water channel, 100 test cases were conducted. The all test results were totally analyzed by the conventional method, with visible judgement by video pictures. Then several important basic problems were found in estimating the volume and particle distributions by the conventional method, which was not found in the past similar studies. It was because the past studies did not consider the types of collisions between sediment particle and pipe. Based on these experiments, the authors have firstly implemented this idea into the old formula to estimate the amount of sediment transport. In the formula, two factors of 1) the rate of sensing in a single collision and 2) the rate of collided particles to a cast all soil particles were concretely considered. The parameters of these factors could be determined from the experimental results and it was found that the obtained formula could estimate grain size distribution. In this paper, they explain the prototype formula to estimate a set of volume and distribution of sediment transport. Another finding in this study is to propose a single collision as a river index to recognize its characteristics of sediment transport. This result could characterize the risk ranking of sediment transport in the rivers and mudflow in the mountainous rivers. Furthermore, in this paper the authors explain how the preciseness of the pipe geophone to sense the smaller sediment particles shall be improved, which has never been able to be sensed.

  5. Searching for Music's Potential: A Critical Examination of Research on Music Therapy with Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordino, Robert; Comer, Ronald; Heller, Wendy B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a literature review on music therapy for individuals with autism because of the frequent use of music therapy for those with autism and recent research on the musical abilities of this population. To accomplish this narrative review, articles were searched from relevant databases, reference lists from articles, and book…

  6. Iron therapy as treatment of anemia: A potentially detrimental and hazardous strategy in colorectal cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, M.J. (M. J.); J.J. Harlaar (Joris Jan); Jeekel, J. (J.); M.R. Schipperus (Martin); J.J. Zwaginga (Jaap)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIn colorectal cancer patients, iron therapy, and especially intravenous iron therapy, is increasingly used to treat anemia and reduce the use of blood transfusions. However, iron has also been shown to be an essential nutrient for rapidly proliferating tissues and cells. In this respect,

  7. Complementary Therapies for Significant Dysfunction from Tinnitus: Treatment Review and Potential for Integrative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Q. Wolever

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is a prevalent and costly chronic condition; no universally effective treatment exists. Only 20% of patients who report tinnitus actually seek treatment, and when treated, most patients commonly receive sound-based and educational (SBE therapy. Additional treatment options are necessary, however, for nonauditory aspects of tinnitus (e.g., anxiety, depression, and significant interference with daily life and when SBE therapy is inefficacious or inappropriate. This paper provides a comprehensive review of (1 conventional tinnitus treatments and (2 promising complementary therapies that have demonstrated some benefit for severe dysfunction from tinnitus. While there has been no systematic study of the benefits of an Integrative Medicine approach for severe tinnitus, the current paper reviews emerging evidence suggesting that synergistic combinations of complementary therapies provided within a whole-person framework may augment SBE therapy and empower patients to exert control over their tinnitus symptoms without the use of medications, expensive devices, or extended programs.

  8. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an educational intervention for practice teams to deliver problem focused therapy for insomnia: rationale and design of a pilot cluster randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ørner Roderick; Middleton Hugh C; Dyas Jane V; Harrison Andrew; Tilling Michelle; Apekey Tanefa; Siriwardena A Niroshan; Sach Tracey; Dewey Michael; Qureshi Zubair M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sleep problems are common, affecting over a third of adults in the United Kingdom and leading to reduced productivity and impaired health-related quality of life. Many of those whose lives are affected seek medical help from primary care. Drug treatment is ineffective long term. Psychological methods for managing sleep problems, including cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBTi) have been shown to be effective and cost effective but have not been widely implemente...

  9. The inhibitor of growth (ING) gene family: potential role in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Mehmet; Gunduz, Esra; Rivera, Rosario S; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2008-06-01

    The discovery of ING1 gene paved the way to the identification of other ING members (ING2-5) and their isoforms associated with cell cycle, apoptosis and senescence. The ING family has been an emerging putative tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in which the major mechanism is through interaction with the determinants of chromatin function and gene-specific transcription factors. The regulatory mechanism highly involves the conserved plant homeodomain (PHD), which binds to histones in a methylation-sensitive manner, suggesting that ING proteins may contribute to the maintenance of the epigenetic code. Furthermore, ING family members contain nuclear localization signals and N-terminal sequences important in the interaction with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetyltransferase (HDAC) that regulate gene promoter activity within chromatin. Although ING proteins have the same PHD motif, the variation in the N-terminal dictates the differences in tumor the suppressive ability of ING in various tumors. Inactivation of the normal function is achieved through allelic loss of genomic regions containing the ING gene, alteration in the ING promoter region, variation of mRNA splicing efficacy or reduced mRNA stability. It is most probably the apparent combination of these aberrant mechanisms that resulted in reduced availability of functional ING protein. In cancer cells, ING transcript levels are often suppressed but the genes are rarely mutated. The mechanism of suppression of ING expression may have to do with the abnormally high methylation levels of the ING gene promoter, which have been correlated with low transcript levels. Emerging evidence on the function of ING and related regulatory mechanisms strongly points to ING as a candidate TSG and therefore a potential target in the molecular therapy of some types of tumor.

  10. Large anti-HER2/neu liposomes for potential targeted intraperitoneal therapy of micrometastatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofou, Stavroula; Enmon, Richard; Palm, Stig; Kappel, Barry; Zanzonico, Pat; McDevitt, Michael R.; Scheinberg, David A.; Sgouros, George

    2011-01-01

    Effective targeting and killing of intraperitoneally disseminated micrometastases remains a challenge. Objective/Methods In this work, we evaluated the potential of antibody-labeled PEGylated large liposomes as vehicles for direct intraperitoneal (i.p.) drug delivery with the aim to enhance the tumor-to-normal organ ratio and to improve the bioexposure of cancer cells to the delivered therapeutics while shifting the toxicities toward the spleen. These targeted liposomes are designed to combine: (1) specific targeting to and internalization by cancer cells mediated by liposome-conjugated tumor-specific antibodies, (2) slow clearance from the peritoneal cavity, and (3) shift of normal organ toxicities from the liver to the spleen due to their relatively large size. Results Conjugation of anti-HER2/neu antibodies to the surface of large (approximately 600 nm in diameter) PEGylated liposomes results in fast, specific binding of targeted liposomes to cancer cells in vitro, followed by considerable cellular internalization. In vivo, after i.p. administration, these liposomes exhibit fast, specific binding to i.p. cancerous tumors. Large liposomes are slowly cleared from the peritoneal cavity, and they exhibit increased uptake by the spleen relative to the liver, while targeted large liposomes demonstrate specific tumor uptake at early times. Although tissue and tumor uptake are greater for cationic liposomes, the tumor-to-liver and spleen-to-liver ratios are similar for both membrane compositions, suggesting a primary role for the liposome’s size, compared to the liposome’s surface charge. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that large targeted liposomes administered i.p. could be a potent drug-delivery strategy for locoregional therapy of i.p. micrometastatic tumors. PMID:20070139

  11. Clinical potential for vitamin D as a neoadjuvant for photodynamic therapy of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Rollakanti, Kishore

    2015-03-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), comprising basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most common form of human cancer worldwide. Effective therapies include surgical excision, cryotherapy, and ionizing radiation, but all of these cause scarring. ALA-based PDT is a non-scarring modality used routinely for NMSC in Europe but not in the USA, primarily due to lingering uncertainties about efficacy. We have identified three agents (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and vitamin D) that can be used as neoadjuvants, i.e., can be given as a pretreatment prior to ALA-PDT, to improve the efficacy of tumor killing in mouse models of NMSC. Vitamin D (VD3) is the most recent neoadjuvant on this list. In this presentation we make the case that VD3 may be superior to the other agents to improve results of ALA-PDT skin cancer treatment. The active form of VD3 (calcitriol) is available topically as a pharmaceutical grade cream or ointment (FDA-approved for psoriasis), and works well for boosting ALA-PDT tumor treatment in mouse models. For deep tumors not reachable by a topical route, calcitriol can be given systemically and is very effective, but carries a risk of causing hypercalcemia as a side effect. To circumvent this risk, we have conducted experiments with the natural dietary form of VD3 (cholecalciferol), and showed that this improves ALA-PDT efficacy almost to the same extent as calcitriol. Because cholecalciferol does not increase serum calcium levels, this represents a potentially extremely safe approach. Data in mouse models of BCC and SCC will be presented.

  12. An epigenetic framework for neurodevelopmental disorders: from pathogenesis to potential therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Mark J

    2013-05-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are characterized by aberrant and delayed early-life development of the brain, leading to deficits in language, cognition, motor behaviour and other functional domains, often accompanied by somatic symptoms. Environmental factors like perinatal infection, malnutrition and trauma can increase the risk of the heterogeneous, multifactorial and polygenic disorders, autism and schizophrenia. Conversely, discrete genetic anomalies are involved in Down, Rett and Fragile X syndromes, tuberous sclerosis and neurofibromatosis, the less familiar Phelan-McDermid, Sotos, Kleefstra, Coffin-Lowry and "ATRX" syndromes, and the disorders of imprinting, Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes. NDDs have been termed "synaptopathies" in reference to structural and functional disturbance of synaptic plasticity, several involve abnormal Ras-Kinase signalling ("rasopathies"), and many are characterized by disrupted cerebral connectivity and an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory transmission. However, at a different level of integration, NDDs are accompanied by aberrant "epigenetic" regulation of processes critical for normal and orderly development of the brain. Epigenetics refers to potentially-heritable (by mitosis and/or meiosis) mechanisms controlling gene expression without changes in DNA sequence. In certain NDDs, prototypical epigenetic processes of DNA methylation and covalent histone marking are impacted. Conversely, others involve anomalies in chromatin-modelling, mRNA splicing/editing, mRNA translation, ribosome biogenesis and/or the regulatory actions of small nucleolar RNAs and micro-RNAs. Since epigenetic mechanisms are modifiable, this raises the hope of novel therapy, though questions remain concerning efficacy and safety. The above issues are critically surveyed in this review, which advocates a broad-based epigenetic framework for understanding and ultimately treating a diverse assemblage of NDDs ("epigenopathies") lying at the

  13. Most Plastic Products Release Estrogenic Chemicals: A Potential Health Problem That Can Be Solved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun Z.; Yaniger, Stuart I.; Jordan, V. Craig; Klein, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chemicals having estrogenic activity (EA) reportedly cause many adverse health effects, especially at low (picomolar to nanomolar) doses in fetal and juvenile mammals. Objectives: We sought to determine whether commercially available plastic resins and products, including baby bottles and other products advertised as bisphenol A (BPA) free, release chemicals having EA. Methods: We used a roboticized MCF-7 cell proliferation assay, which is very sensitive, accurate, and repeatable, to quantify the EA of chemicals leached into saline or ethanol extracts of many types of commercially available plastic materials, some exposed to common-use stresses (microwaving, ultraviolet radiation, and/or autoclaving). Results: Almost all commercially available plastic products we sampled—independent of the type of resin, product, or retail source—leached chemicals having reliably detectable EA, including those advertised as BPA free. In some cases, BPA-free products released chemicals having more EA than did BPA-containing products. Conclusions: Many plastic products are mischaracterized as being EA free if extracted with only one solvent and not exposed to common-use stresses. However, we can identify existing compounds, or have developed, monomers, additives, or processing agents that have no detectable EA and have similar costs. Hence, our data suggest that EA-free plastic products exposed to common-use stresses and extracted by saline and ethanol solvents could be cost-effectively made on a commercial scale and thereby eliminate a potential health risk posed by most currently available plastic products that leach chemicals having EA into food products. PMID:21367689

  14. The potential of vacuum therapy in the treatment of a newborn infant with severe thermal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Budkevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of successful combination therapy in a newborn infant with severe thermal injury. When admitted to the hospital, the infant was diagnosed with third-degree flame burn covering 75% of the body surface and shock. Specialized emergency care involved antishock measures and replacement of vital functions, stepwise surgical interventions aimed to excise necrotic tissues and to restore lost skin tissue, and antimicrobial and symptomatic therapies. Topical treatment included the use of current wound coatings. Skin autocells were used for significant skin defect. Aacuum therapy was performed to stimulate repair processes and to prepare wounds for further skin plasty. The techniques of vacuum therapy included RENAS\\S-GO and PICO apparatuses. Its efficiency was evaluated by microbiological, immunohistochemical, and planimetric examinations. Analysis of the decontaminating impact of a vacuum coating could establish its substantial effect in reducing wound bacterial contamination by 65% in the study group and by an average of 21% in the comparison group. That of immunohistochemical findings during vacuum therapy could reveal the high expression of two markers characterizing wound an-giogenesis. Comparative analysis of planimetric readings showed no significant differences in the use of vacuum therapy and current wound coatings. Thus, negative-pressure therapy creates favorable conditions for a wound healing process, providing effective wound decontamination and stimulating granulation tissue maturation as a factor to prepare for skin plasty.

  15. Potential benefits of combining cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine gene therapy and irradiation for prostate cancer. Experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Koshida, Kiyoshi; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Mizokami, Atsushi; Namiki, Mikio [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of combining cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (CD/5-FC) gene therapy and radiation therapy (either external beam radiation or radioimmunotherapy [RIT]), for the treatment of prostate cancer. Tumor xenografts of CD-transduced LNCaP cells grown in the testes of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice were used to evaluate antitumor effect. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with 500 mg/kg of 5-FC, or with 5, 15 or 30 mg/kg of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), for 9 days. The tumors were treated with fractionated radiation at a dose of 1 or 3 Gy/day for 3 days, or I-131 labelled anti-prostate specific antigen (anti-PSA) monoclonal antibody (mAb) administration at a subtherapeutic dose of 20 or 80 {mu}Ci. Intratumoral and serum concentrations of 5-FU were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Mice treated with CD/5-FC gene therapy presented a significant tumor growth inhibition comparable to that obtained with 15 mg/kg, 5-FU systemic administration without marked weight loss. Treatment with CD/5-FC gene therapy resulted in higher tumor but lower serum concentrations of 5-FU than treatment with systemic 5-FU chemotherapy. An additive antitumor effect was obtained when CD/5-FC therapy was combined with 1 Gy irradiation, which by itself did not produce a significant antitumor effect. However, the efficacy of CD/5-FC therapy was not enhanced when combined with RIT, probably due to poor accumulation of the mAb as the tumor/blood ratio never exceeded 1. These findings indicate that CD/5-FC gene therapy for prostate cancer may function with enhanced antitumor effect when combined with external beam radiation. However, combining CD/5-FC gene therapy and RIT using an anti-PSA mAb may not be effective because of insufficient accumulation of the mAb at the target tumors. (author)

  16. Music therapy for mental disorder and mental health: the untapped potential of Indian classical music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Shantala

    2017-05-01

    Music is a universal human trait. The healing power of music has been acknowledged in almost all traditions of music. Music therapy is moving from a social-science model focusing on overall health and well-being towards a neuroscience model focusing on specific elements of music and its effect on sensorimotor, language and cognitive functions. The handful of evidence-based music therapy studies on psychiatric conditions have shown promising results. Traditional music, such as Indian classical music, has only recently been evaluated in evidence-based research into music therapy. The need for systematic research in this area is underscored.

  17. How can an existential-phenomenological Bildung perspective throw light on the potentials and workings of Problem-Based Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, Casper

    2018-01-01

    What is the purpose of higher learning and the ideals of the university? What traits characterize the habitus of the profession that the students enter after completing their studies? Including such Bildung-perspectives (Gadamer) and profession-perspectives (Bourdieu) makes it possible to come...... to a deeper understanding of the workings and potentials of Problem-Based Learning, and of the demands that this educational philosophy place on the institution, supervisor and student. Through case studies it is demonstrated that project work contributes to psychology students’ embodiment of the habitus...

  18. Potential return on investment for implementation of perioperative goal-directed fluid therapy in major surgery: a nationwide database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michard, Frederic; Mountford, William K; Krukas, Michelle R; Ernst, Frank R; Fogel, Sandy L

    2015-01-01

    Preventable postsurgical complications are increasingly recognized as a major clinical and economic burden. A recent meta-analysis showed a 17-29 % decrease in postoperative morbidity with goal-directed fluid therapy. Our objective was to estimate the potential economic impact of perioperative goal-directed fluid therapy. We studied 204,680 adult patients from 541 US hospitals who had a major non-cardiac surgical procedure between January 2011 and June 2013. Hospital costs (including 30-day readmission costs) in patients with and without complications were extracted from the Premier Inc. research database, and potential cost-savings associated with a 17-29 % decrease in postoperative morbidity were estimated. A total of 76,807 patients developed one or more postsurgical complications (morbidity rate 37.5 %). In patients with and without complications, hospital costs were US$27,607 ± 32,788 and US$15,783 ± 12,282 (p potential gross cost-savings of US$153-263 million for the study period, US$61-105 million per year, or US$754-1286 per patient. Potential savings per patient were highly variable from one surgical procedure to the other, ranging from US$354-604 for femur and hip-fracture repair to US$3515-5996 for esophagectomies. When taking into account the volume of procedures, the total potential savings per year were the most significant (US$32-55 million) for colectomies. Postsurgical complications occurred in more than one third of our study population and had a dramatic impact on hospital costs. With goal-directed fluid therapy, potential cost-savings per patient were US$754-1286. The highest cost-savings per year were observed for colectomies. These projections should help hospitals estimate the return on investment when considering the implementation of goal-directed fluid therapy.

  19. Health care provider communication training in rural Tanzania empowers HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy to discuss adherence problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, S; Letang, E; Glass, T R; Natamatungiro, A; Mnzava, D; Mapesi, H; Haschke, M; Duthaler, U; Berger, B; Muri, L; Bader, J; Marzolini, C; Elzi, L; Klimkait, T; Langewitz, W; Battegay, M

    2017-10-01

    Self-reported adherence assessment in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is challenging and may overestimate adherence. The aim of this study was to improve the ability of health care providers to elicit patients' reports of nonadherence using a "patient-centred" approach in a rural sub-Saharan African setting. A prospective interventional cohort study of HIV-infected patients on ART for ≥ 6 months attending an HIV clinic in rural Tanzania was carried out. The intervention consisted of a 2-day workshop for health care providers on patient-centred communication and the provision of an adherence assessment checklist for use in the consultations. Patients' self-reports of nonadherence (≥ 1 missed ART dose/4 weeks), subtherapeutic plasma ART concentrations (communication can successfully be implemented with a simple intervention in rural Africa. It increases the likelihood of HIV-infected patients reporting problems with adherence to ART; however, sustainability remains a challenge. © 2017 The Authors HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  20. Effectiveness of problem-solving therapy for older, primary care patients with depression: results from the IMPACT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arean, Patricia; Hegel, Mark; Vannoy, Steven; Fan, Ming-Yu; Unuzter, Jurgen

    2008-06-01

    We compared a primary-care-based psychotherapy, that is, problem-solving therapy for primary care (PST-PC), to community-based psychotherapy in treating late-life major depression and dysthymia. The data here are from the IMPACT study, which compared collaborative care within a primary care clinic to care as usual in the treatment of 1,801 primary care patients, 60 years of age or older, with major depression or dysthymia. This study is a secondary data analysis (n = 433) of participants who received either PST-PC (by means of collaborative care) or community-based psychotherapy (by means of usual care). Older adults who received PST-PC had more depression-free days at both 12 and between 12 and 24 months (beta = 47.5, p <.001; beta = 47.0, p <.001), and they had fewer depressive symptoms and better functioning at 12 months (beta(dep) = -0.36, p <.001; beta(func) = -0.94, p <.001), than those who received community-based psychotherapy. We found no differences at 24 months. Results suggest that PST-PC as delivered in primary care settings is an effective method for treating late-life depression.

  1. Effect of Problem-Solving Therapy on Depressed Low-Income Homebound Older Adults' Death/Suicidal Ideation and Hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Marti, C Nathan; Conwell, Yeates

    2016-06-01

    Previous study findings of psychotherapy's effect on suicide prevention have been inconsistent. This study reports the results of secondary analyses of outcome data from a short-term depression treatment on reducing death/suicidal ideation among 158 low-income homebound adults aged 50+. The treatment, in-person or telehealth problem-solving therapy (PST), compared with telephone support call, has been found effective in reducing depressive symptoms and disability among participants. Compared with support call participants, tele-PST participants, but not in-person PST participants, exhibited lower ideation ratings across the follow-up period. Effect sizes at 36 weeks were 0.31 for tele-PST and 0.17 for in-person PST. Hopelessness mediated the effect of tele-PST but not in-person PST; however, in-person PST also alleviated hopelessness, which led to lower ideation. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. Strategies to Maximize the Potential of Marine Biomaterials as a Platform for Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeongmin; Lee, Jaehwi

    2016-01-01

    Marine biopolymers have been explored as a promising cell therapy system for efficient cell delivery and tissue engineering. However, the marine biomaterial-based systems themselves have exhibited limited performance in terms of maintenance of cell viability and functions, promotion of cell proliferation and differentiation as well as cell delivery efficiency. Thus, numerous novel strategies have been devised to improve cell therapy outcomes. The strategies include optimization of physical and biochemical properties, provision of stimuli-responsive functions, and design of platforms for efficient cell delivery and tissue engineering. These approaches have demonstrated substantial improvement of therapeutic outcomes in a variety of research settings. In this review, therefore, research progress made with marine biomaterials as a platform for cell therapy is reported along with current research directions to further advance cell therapies as a tool to cure incurable diseases. PMID:26821034

  3. Music therapy for mental disorder and mental health: the untapped potential of Indian classical music

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, Shantala

    2017-01-01

    Music is a universal human trait. The healing power of music has been acknowledged in almost all traditions of music. Music therapy is moving from a social-science model focusing on overall health and well-being towards a neuroscience model focusing on specific elements of music and its effect on sensorimotor, language and cognitive functions. The handful of evidence-based music therapy studies on psychiatric conditions have shown promising results. Traditional music, such as Indian classical...

  4. Hijama therapy (wet cupping) - its potential use to complement British healthcare in practice, understanding, evidence and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Mohammed Imran

    2016-05-01

    Wet cupping was used in the nineteenth century for treatment of patients in the United Kingdom (UK) by a few experienced practitioners. Revival Hijama use by practitioners in the UK in recent years has been observed as well as interest from the public, with developments of specific certified training programmes, established businesses providing tailored Hijama therapy Clinical Waste disposal services, provisions of insurance cover, involvement of medical professionals and membership with the General Regulatory Council for Complementary Therapies (GRCCT). However, there has also been noted that there is not much in the way of guidance or regulation. Therefore, we would like to initiate some communication and understanding of Hijama (wet cupping) to benefit medical professionals, discussing recent research undertaken as a basis for potentially more in the future (evidence-based practice), in the likely event that a patient might request to be referred for this therapy during a consultation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of multisystemic therapy pilot services in Services for Teens Engaging in Problem Sexual Behaviour (STEPS-B): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Butler, Stephen; Baruch, Geoffrey; Byford, Sarah; Seto, Michael C; Wason, James; Wells, Charles; Greisbach, Jessie; Ellison, Rachel; Simes, Elizabeth

    2015-11-02

    Clinically effective and cost-effective methods for managing problematic sexual behaviour in adolescents are urgently needed. Adolescents who show problematic sexual behaviour have a range of negative psychosocial outcomes, and they and their parents can experience stigma, hostility and rejection from their community. Multisystemic therapy (MST) shows some evidence for helping to reduce adolescent sexual reoffending and is one of the few promising interventions available to young people who show problematic sexual behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for Services for Teens Engaging in Problem Sexual Behaviour (STEPS-B), a feasibility trial of MST for problem sexual behaviour (MST-PSB) in antisocial adolescents at high risk of out-of-home placement due to problematic sexual behaviour. Eighty participants and their families recruited from five London boroughs will be randomized to MST-PSB or management as usual with follow-up to 20 months post-randomization. The primary outcome is out-of-home placement at 20 months. Secondary outcomes include sexual and non-sexual offending rates and antisocial behaviours, participant well-being, educational outcomes and total service and criminal justice sector costs. Feasibility outcomes include mapping the clinical service pathways needed to recruit adolescents displaying problematic sexual behaviour, acceptability of a randomized controlled trial to the key systems involved in managing these adolescents, and acceptability of the research protocol to young people and their families. Data will be gathered from police computer records, the National Pupil Database and interviews and self-report measures administered to adolescents and parents and will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The STEPS-B feasibility trial aims to inform policymakers, commissioners of services and professionals about the potential for implementing MST-PSB as an intervention for adolescents showing problem sexual behaviour. Should MST

  6. Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills, Executive Function and Learning Potential in Preadolescents with High/Low Family Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Sara; Gómez-Pérez, M Mar; Molinero, Clara; Calero, M Dolores

    2017-10-30

    Situations generated by high family risk have a negative effect on personal development, especially during preadolescence. Growing up in the presence of risk factors can lead to negative consequences on mental health or on school performance. The objective of this study focuses on individual factors related to this phenomenon during preadolescence. Specifically, we seek to establish whether level of family risk (high vs. low risk) is related to interpersonal problem-solving skills, executive function and learning potential in a sample of preadolescents controlling age, sex, total IQ, verbal comprehension ability and the classroom influences. The participants were 40 children, 23 boys and 17 girls between the ages of 7 and 12, twenty of which had a record on file with the Social and Childhood Protection Services of Information deleted to maintain the integrity of the review process, and therefore, a high family risk situation. The other 20 participants had a low family risk situation. Results show that the preadolescents from high family risk performed worse on interpersonal solving-problem skills and executive function (p effects of high family risk situation in preadolescents and give value of taking into account protective factors such as learning potential when assessing preadolescents from high family risk.

  7. Longitudinal assessment of thrombin generation potential in response to alteration of antiplatelet therapy after TIA or ischaemic stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, W O

    2013-02-01

    The impact of changing antiplatelet therapy on thrombin generation potential in patients with ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. We assessed patients within 4 weeks of TIA or ischaemic stroke (baseline), and then 14 days (14d) and >90 days (90d) after altering antiplatelet therapy. Thrombin generation was assessed in platelet poor plasma. Ninety-one patients were recruited. Twenty-four were initially assessed on no antiplatelet therapy, and then after 14d (N = 23) and 90d (N = 8) on aspirin monotherapy; 52 were assessed on aspirin monotherapy, and after 14 and 90 days on aspirin and dipyridamole combination therapy; 21 patients were assessed on aspirin and after 14 days (N = 21) and 90 days (N = 19) on clopidogrel. Peak thrombin generation and endogenous thrombin potential were reduced at 14 and 90 days (p ≤ 0.04) in the overall cohort. We assessed the impact of individual antiplatelet regimens on thrombin generation parameters to investigate the cause of this effect. Lag time and time-to-peak thrombin generation were unchanged at 14 days, but reduced 90 days after commencing aspirin (p ≤ 0.009). Lag time, peak thrombin generation and endogenous thrombin potential were reduced at both 14 and 90 days after adding dipyridamole to aspirin (p ≤ 0.01). Lag time was reduced 14 days after changing from aspirin to clopidogrel (p = 0.045), but this effect was not maintained at 90 days (p = 0.2). This pilot study did not show any consistent effects of commencing aspirin, or of changing from aspirin to clopidogrel on thrombin generation potential during follow-up. The addition of dipyridamole to aspirin led to a persistent reduction in peak and total thrombin generation ex vivo, and illustrates the diverse, potentially beneficial, newly recognised \\'anti-coagulant\\' effects of dipyridamole in ischaemic CVD.

  8. Efficacy of conversion gastrectomy following docetaxel, cisplatin, and S-1 therapy in potentially resectable stage IV gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, J; Fushida, S; Tsukada, T; Oyama, K; Okamoto, K; Makino, I; Nakamura, K; Miyashita, T; Tajima, H; Takamura, H; Ninomiya, I; Ohta, T

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances in gastric cancer chemotherapy have made macroscopic complete resection possible in some patients with stage IV disease. We retrospectively investigated the efficacy of multimodal therapy with combined docetaxel, cisplatin, and S-1 (DCS) and conversion gastrectomy in 57 patients with stage IV gastric cancer. Of the 57 patients, 15 patients were categorized into potentially resectable case, which is defined as patients with single incurable factor including the upper abdominal para-aortic lymph node metastasis (16a2b1 PAN metastasis) or fewer than three peripheral liver metastases. The other 42 were categorized as initially unresectable. All of patients underwent DCS therapy, and then 34 patients underwent conversion gastrectomy. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate among the patients who underwent conversion gastrectomy was 50.1% with MST of 29.9 months. They had significantly longer OS than patients who underwent DCS therapy alone (p conversion gastrectomy identified 16a2b1PAN metastasis, peritoneal metastasis, potential resectable case, R0 resection as significant prognostic factors. A 3-year OS in potential resectable cases was 92.9%. Multivariate analysis identified potential resectability as the only independent prognostic factor contributing to OS (HR 0.133, 95%CI 0.024-0. 744, p = 0.021). In contrast, clinical response was selected as the only independent prognostic factor in the subgroup of initially unresectable cases (HR 0.354, 95%CI 0.151-0.783, p = 0.021). Patients with potentially resectable disease had a remarkably good prognosis among stage IV gastric cancer patients, and might be ideal candidates for conversion gastrectomy following DCS therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Symmetry-improved 2PI approach to the Goldstone-boson IR problem of the SM effective potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Pilaftsis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effective potential of the Standard Model (SM, from three loop order and higher, suffers from infrared (IR divergences arising from quantum effects due to massless would-be Goldstone bosons associated with the longitudinal polarizations of the W± and Z bosons. Such IR pathologies also hinder accurate evaluation of the two-loop threshold corrections to electroweak quantities, such as the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field. However, these divergences are an artifact of perturbation theory, and therefore need to be consistently resummed in order to obtain an IR-safe effective potential. The so-called Two-Particle-Irreducible (2PI effective action provides a rigorous framework to consistently perform such resummations, without the need to resort to ad hoc subtractions or running into the risk of over-counting contributions. By considering the recently proposed symmetry-improved 2PI formalism, we address the problem of the Goldstone-boson IR divergences of the SM effective potential in the gaugeless limit of the theory. In the same limit, we evaluate the IR-safe symmetry-improved 2PI effective potential, after taking into account quantum loops of chiral fermions, as well as the renormalization of spurious custodially breaking effects triggered by fermionic Yukawa interactions. Finally, we compare our results with those obtained with other methods presented in the literature.

  10. Problem Adaptation Therapy for Pain (PATH-Pain): A Psychosocial Intervention for Older Adults with Chronic Pain and Negative Emotions in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N; Ravdin, Lisa D; Stern, Amy; Bolier, Ruth; Kenien, Cara; Reid, M Carrington

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is highly prevalent in older adults, contributes to activity restriction and social isolation, disrupts family and interpersonal relationships, and poses a significant economic burden to society. Negative emotions such as sadness, anxiety, helplessness, and hopelessness are associated with chronic pain and contribute to poor quality of life, impaired interpersonal and social functioning, and increased disability. Psychosocial interventions for older adults with chronic pain have been historically developed for, and are almost exclusively delivered to, cognitively intact patients. Therefore, many older adults with chronic pain and comorbid cognitive deficits have limited treatment options. Our multidisciplinary team developed Problem Adaptation Therapy for Pain in Primary Care (PATH-Pain), a psychosocial intervention for older adults with chronic pain, negative emotions, and a wide range of cognitive functioning, including mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment. In the current article, we describe the principles underlying PATH-Pain, review the steps taken to adapt the original PATH protocol, outline the treatment process, and present a case illustrating its potential value.

  11. International framework for examination of the cervical region for potential of Cervical Arterial Dysfunction prior to Orthopaedic Manual Therapy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, A; Rivett, D; Carlesso, L; Flynn, T; Hing, W; Kerry, R

    2014-06-01

    A consensus clinical reasoning framework for best practice for the examination of the cervical spine region has been developed through an iterative consultative process with experts and manual physical therapy organisations. The framework was approved by the 22 member countries of the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Physical Therapists (October 2012). The purpose of the framework is to provide guidance to clinicians for the assessment of the cervical region for potential of Cervical Arterial Dysfunction in advance of planned management (inclusive of manual therapy and exercise interventions). The best, most recent scientific evidence is combined with international expert opinion, and is presented with the intention to be informative, but not prescriptive; and therefore as an aid to the clinician's clinical reasoning. Important underlying principles of the framework are that 1] although presentations and adverse events of Cervical Arterial Dysfunction are rare, it is a potentially serious condition and needs to be considered in musculoskeletal assessment; 2] manual therapists cannot rely on the results of one clinical test to draw conclusions as to the presence or risk of Cervical Arterial Dysfunction; and 3] a clinically reasoned understanding of the patient's presentation, including a risk:benefit analysis, following an informed, planned and individualised assessment, is essential for recognition of this condition and for safe manual therapy practice in the cervical region. Clinicians should also be cognisant of jurisdictionally specific requirements and obligations, particularly related to patient informed consent, when intending to use manual therapy in the cervical region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential predictors of functional outcomes after home-based constraint-induced therapy for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-ling; Lin, Keh-chung; Kang, Lin-ju; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Hsieh-ching; Hsieh, Yu-wei

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Our objective was to identify predictors for treatment outcomes after home-based constraint-induced therapy (CIT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD. Forty-three children (aged 4-12 yr) with CP were treated with individualized CIT at home for 4 wk. Potential predictors were age, sex, affected hand, and upper-extremity motor capacity measured by the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale, 2nd edition (PDMS-2). Outcomes were the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL) Amount of Hand Use and Quality of Hand Use subscales and the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM). RESULTS. A higher PDMS-2 Visual-Motor Integration subscale score predicted a better WeeFIM score after home-based CIT (adjusted R² = .35). Younger age predicted better performance on the PMAL Amount of Hand Use and Quality of Hand Use subscales (adjusted R² = .06-.08) after home-based CIT. CONCLUSION. The potential predictors may allow occupational therapy practitioners to target those children who will benefit most after home-based constraint-induced therapy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  13. Funding therapies for rare diseases: an ethical dilemma with a potential solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Colman; Jan, Stephen; Thompson, Kelly

    2016-02-16

    Funding rare disease therapies presents a challenge in Australia where there is a legislative requirement to consider cost-effectiveness. Currently the Life Saving Drugs Programme (LSDP) provides subsidised access to high-cost therapies for rare, life-threatening conditions. However the LSDP is currently under review by the Minsiter for Health and future access to rare disease therapies in uncertain. Internationally there is no gold standard model to evaluate and fund rare disease therapies, and considerable variation exists. However, common features of international systems include the opportunity for early stakeholder engagement, flexibility with evidence requirements, cost-effectiveness criteria and transparency in relation to the decision making framework and outcomes. Australians value equality and equal opportunity in relation to health care. To meet these expectations there is a clear need to maintain a separate fit-for-purpose framework to evaluate and fund rare disease therapies drawing on overseas best practice. This will provide certainty for industry to continue to invest in such treatments, as well as ensuring funding recommendations are reflective of Australian values balanced against the need for financial sustainability.

  14. The potential of transcranial photobiomodulation therapy for treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Farzad; Rasta, Seyed Hossein

    2017-05-24

    Major depressive disorder is a common debilitating mood disorder that affects quality of life. Prefrontal cortex abnormalities, an imbalance in neurotransmitters, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the major factors in the etiology of major depressive disorder. Despite the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder, 30%-40% of patients do not respond to antidepressants. Given this, exploring the alternative therapies for treatment or prevention of major depressive disorder has aroused interest among scientists. Transcranial photobiomodulation therapy is the use of low-power lasers and light-emitting diodes in the far-red to near-infrared optical region for stimulation of neuronal activities. This non-invasive modality improves the metabolic capacity of neurons due to more oxygen consumption and ATP production. Beneficial effects of transcranial photobiomodulation therapy in the wide range of neurological and psychological disorders have been already shown. In this review, we focus on some issue relating to the application of photobiomodulation therapy for major depressive disorder. There is some evidence that transcranial photobiomodulation therapy using near-infrared light on 10-Hz pulsed mode appears to be a hopeful technique for treatment of major depressive disorder. However, further studies are necessary to find the safety of this method and to determine its effective treatment protocol.

  15. Tooth separation potential problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, A E; Sharmada, B K; Pai, Sandesh S; Nandini, Nelvigi; Roopa, Tubaki

    2014-01-01

    A displaced orthodontic elastic separator was proposed as being the source of a gingival abscess that progresses to severe bone loss and exfoliation in a healthy adolescent patient with sound periodontal status prior to commencement of orthodontic treatment. After one year of undergoing orthodontic treatment, the patient presented with dull pain and mobility in the left upper permanent molar for which there was no apparent etiology. On clinical examination the patient had gingival inflammation, associated with a deep pocket and severe mobility (Grade III) in relation to the same teeth. Radiographic examination ofan Orthopantomogram (OPG) and IntraOral Periapical Radiograph (IOPAR) revealed a chronic periodontal abscess with severe necrosis of the periodontal ligament and severe alveolar bone loss. On curettage it was found that there was orthodontic elastic separator which was displaced sub gingivally. Active orthodontic forces were temporarily removed and splinting was done. 6 month follow up showed no mobility and significant improvement of alveolar bone height.

  16. Recurrent cardiotoxicity potentiated by the interaction of proteasome inhibitor and immunomodulatory therapy for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradley, Michael G; Groarke, John D; Laubach, Jacob; Alsina, Melissa; Lenihan, Daniel J; Cornell, Robert F; Maglio, Michelle; Shain, Kenneth H; Richardson, Paul G; Moslehi, Javid

    2018-01-01

    Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have improved treatment options, including immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) and proteasome inhibitors (PIs). Despite their efficacy, increased rates of cardiovascular (CV) complications occur in patients exposed to some of these therapies. While previous research has focused on identifying the toxicities inherent to each specific agent, the CV side effects may be potentiated by the combination of PIs and IMiDs plus dexamethasone. We present a patient with MM with recurrent cardiotoxicity only when exposed to combination PI and IMiD-based therapy. We also review the literature in this context, and propose a potential algorithm for cardiotoxicity prevention in this population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT)-Experimental investigations and clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniszczuk, Anna; Wojtunik-Kulesza, Karolina A; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Kasprzak, Kamila

    2016-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an intensively studied part of medicine based on free radicals. These reactive species, extremely harmful for whole human organism, are used for eradication numerous diseases. Specific structure of ill tissues causes accumulation free radicals inside them without attack remaining healthy tissues. A rapid development of medicine and scientific research has led to extension of PDT towards treatment many diseases such as cancer, herpes, acne and based on antimicrobials. The presented review article is focused on the aforementioned disorders with accurate analysis of the newest available scientific achievements. The discussed cases explicitly indicate on high efficacy of the therapy. In most cases, free radicals turned out to be solution of many afflictions. Photodynamic therapy can be considered as promising treatment with comparable effectiveness but without side effects characteristic for chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Spotlight on fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol in COPD: design, development, and potential place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal C

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitra Lal, Charlie Strange Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy and Sleep Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA Abstract: COPD is characterized by persistent airflow obstruction caused by exposure to irritants including cigarette smoke, dust, and fumes. According to the latest GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, a combination of inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting β2 agonists, and long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists can be used for group D COPD patients who are at high risk for exacerbations. Umeclidinium/fluticasone furoate/vilanterol is one such triple-combination therapy currently under development with some completed and several ongoing clinical trials. This review paper summarizes the pharmacologic profiles of these medications and highlights findings from clinical trials, including safety and efficacy data, while speculating on the role of this therapy in current treatment for COPD. Keywords: COPD, umeclidinium, fluticasone furoate, vilanterol, triple therapy

  19. Brivaracetam: review of its pharmacology and potential use as adjunctive therapy in patients with partial onset seizures [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumoli L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brivaracetam: review of its pharmacology and potential use as adjunctive therapy in patients with partial onset seizures [Corrigendum] Mumoli L, Palleria C, Gasparini S, et al. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015;9:5719–5725.   The authors advise several errors in the paper that are corrected in Corrigendum. View the original article by Mumoli et al.

  20. Therapy of anxiety disorders – the problem of choosing a drug in the primary health care physician’s practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Święcicki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental disorders. A vast majority of patients with such problems are treated by the primary health care physicians. In practice, the most available form of treatment at this level of health care is pharmacotherapy. The most frequently chosen drugs belong to the group of benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepine anxiolytics exhibit the commonly known advantages: they are effective in the short run and very well tolerated. A bit less attention is paid to their severe disadvantages. These disadvantages comprise first of all: inclination to induce dependence which is often connected with the need to increase the dose of the drug to obtain a comparable effect, adverse impact on cognitive functions, and the risk of a significant increase in the dose of the drug after discontinuation of benzodiazepine (rebound phenomena. The article presents disadvantages and advantages of benzodiazepines and benefits connected with the use of the underestimated though effective anxiolytic – hydroxyzine. The results of controlled studies point to the efficacy of this drug in therapy of generalized anxiety disorder. Hydroxyzine may be also effectively used during discontinuation of benzodiazepines. This drug does not exhibit any addictive properties and its administration does not cause disturbances in cognitive functions. Psychotherapy continues to be the basic form of treatment of anxiety disorders, but its use in everyday medical practice conditions is often very difficult. In pharmacotherapy of anxiety the use of hydroxyzine is safer than the use of benzodiazepines, and it is often equally effective. Also other drugs, which are not discussed extensively in this article, such as antidepressants in the group of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, buspirone and pregabalin, exhibit significant anti-anxiety effects.

  1. Confusion about epinephrine dosing leading to iatrogenic overdose: a life-threatening problem with a potential solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Manreet; Irvin, Charlene B; Frank, John J; Weber, Kathryn; Rosman, Howard

    2010-04-01

    Epinephrine is indicated for various medical emergencies, including cardiac arrest and anaphylaxis, but the dose and route of administration are different for each indication. For anaphylaxis, it is given intramuscularly at a low dose, whereas for cardiac arrest a higher dose is required intravenously. We encountered a patient with suspected anaphylaxis who developed transient severe systolic dysfunction because of inappropriately received cardiac arrest dose, ie, larger dose given as an intravenous push. Three additional patients who experienced potentially lethal cardiac complications after receiving inappropriately higher doses intravenously were also identified. These iatrogenic errors resulted from underlying confusion by physicians about proper dosing of epinephrine for anaphylaxis. The risk of error was amplified by the need for rapid decision making in critically ill anaphylactic patients. An e-mail survey of local hospitals in southeast Michigan revealed that 6 of 7 hospitals did not stock prefilled intramuscular dose syringes for emergency use in anaphylaxis. At our institution, we have introduced prefilled and appropriately labeled intramuscularly dosed epinephrine syringes in crash carts, which are easily distinguished from intravenously dosed epinephrine syringes. In this Concepts article, we describe the clinical problem of inadvertent epinephrine overdose and propose a potential solution. Epinephrine must be clearly packaged and labeled to avoid inappropriate usage and unnecessary, potentially lethal complications in patients with anaphylaxis. Copyright (c) 2009 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sources of and Solutions to Problems in the Refinement of Protein NMR Structures against Torsion Angle Potentials of Mean Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszewski, John; Clore, G. Marius

    2000-10-01

    It is often the case that a substantial number of torsion angles (both backbone and sidechain) in structures of proteins and nucleic acids determined by NMR are found in physically unlikely and energetically unfavorable conformations. We have previously proposed a database-derived potential of mean force comprising one-, two-, three-, and four-dimensional potential surfaces which describe the likelihood of various torsion angle combinations to bias conformational sampling during simulated annealing refinement toward those regions that are populated in very high resolution (≤1.75 Å) crystal structures. We now note a shortcoming of our original implementation of this approach: namely, the forces it places on atoms are very rough. When the density of experimental restraints is low, this roughness can both hinder convergence to commonly populated regions of torsion angle space and reduce overall conformational sampling. In this paper we describe a modification that completely eliminates these problems by replacing the original potential surfaces by a sum of multidimensional Gaussian functions. Structures refined with the new Gaussian implementation now simultaneously enjoy excellent global sampling and excellent local choices of torsion angles.

  3. Six-month postintervention depression and disability outcomes of in-home telehealth problem-solving therapy for depressed, low-income homebound older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Marti, C Nathan; Bruce, Martha L; Hegel, Mark T; Wilson, Nancy L; Kunik, Mark E

    2014-08-01

    Despite their high rates of depression, homebound older adults have limited access to evidence-based psychotherapy. The purpose of this paper was to report both depression and disability outcomes of telehealth problem-solving therapy (tele-PST via Skype video call) for low-income homebound older adults over 6 months postintervention. A 3-arm randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of tele-PST to in-person PST and telephone care calls with 158 homebound individuals who were aged 50+ and scored 15+ on the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). Treatment effects on depression severity (HAMD score) and disability (score on the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule [WHODAS]) were analyzed using mixed-effects regression with random intercept models. Possible reciprocal relationships between depression and disability were examined with a parallel-process latent growth curve model. Both tele-PST and in-person PST were efficacious treatments for low-income homebound older adults; however the effects of tele-PST on both depression and disability outcomes were sustained significantly longer than those of in-person PST. Effect sizes (dGMA-raw ) for HAMD score changes at 36 weeks were 0.68 for tele-PST and 0.20 for in-person PST. Effect sizes for WHODAS score changes at 36 weeks were 0.47 for tele-PST and 0.25 for in-person PST. The results also supported reciprocal and indirect effects between depression and disability outcomes. The efficacy and potential low cost of tele-delivered psychotherapy show its potential for easy replication and sustainability to reach a large number of underserved older adults and improve their access to mental health services. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. MEK inhibitors and their potential in the treatment of advanced melanoma: the advantages of combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran KA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Khiem A Tran,1,* Michelle Y Cheng,1,* Anupam Mitra,1 Hiromi Ogawa,1 Vivian Y Shi,1 Laura P Olney,1 April M Kloxin,2 Emanual Maverakis1 1Department of Dermatology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA; 2Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The treatment of melanoma has improved markedly over the last several years with the advent of more targeted therapies. Unfortunately, complex compensation mechanisms, such as those of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway, have limited the clinical benefit of these treatments. Recently, a better understanding of melanoma resistance mechanisms has given way to intelligently designed multidrug regimes. Herein, we review the extensive pathways of BRAF inhibitor (vemurafenib and dabrafenib resistance. We also review the advantages of dual therapy, including the addition of an MEK inhibitor (cobimetinib or trametinib, which has proven to increase progression-free survival when compared to BRAF inhibitor monotherapy. Finally, this review touches on future treatment strategies that are being developed for advanced melanoma, including the possibility of triple therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors and the work on optimizing sequential therapy. Keywords: cobimetinib, trametinib, vemurafenib, dabrafenib, BRAF inhibitor, MAPK pathway

  5. Potential mechanisms for cell-based gene therapy to treat HIV/AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera-Carrillo, Elena; Berkhout, Ben

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 35 million people are infected with HIV worldwide. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients but efficacy requires strict adherence and the treatment is not curative. Most importantly, the emergence of drug-resistant virus strains and

  6. Potential Mediators of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents With Comorbid Major Depression and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Noah K.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Clarke, Gregory N.; Stice, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Several possible mediators of a group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depressed adolescents were examined. Six measures specific to CBT (e.g., negative cognitions, engagement in pleasurable activities) and 2 nonspecific measures (therapeutic alliance, group cohesion) were examined in 93 adolescents with comorbid major depressive disorder…

  7. Demonstrating Potential of Cell Therapy for Wilson's Disease with the Long-Evans Cinnamon Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Fadi Luc; Sharma, Yogeshwar; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is characterized by the inability to excrete copper (Cu) from the body with progressive tissue injury, especially in liver and brain. The molecular defect in WD concerns mutations in ATP7B gene leading to loss of Cu transport from the hepatocyte to the bile canaliculus. While drugs, e.g., Cu chelators, have been available for several decades, these must be taken lifelong, which can be difficult due to issues of compliance or side effects. Many individuals may require liver transplantation, which can also be difficult due to donor organ shortages. Therefore, achieving permanent cures via cell or gene therapy are of great interest for WD. Cell therapy is feasible because transplanted hepatocytes can integrate in liver parenchyma and restore deficient functions, including transport of Cu into bile. The availability of authentic animal models that recapitulate hepatic WD, especially the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat, has advanced cell transplantation research in WD. We describe requirements for cell therapy in animal models with several standardized methods for studies to test or refine cell therapy strategies in WD.

  8. Imatinib and beyond--exploring the full potential of targeted therapy for CML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Kantarjian, Hagop; Cortes, Jorge

    2009-09-01

    A subset of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who receive imatinib therapy will require alternative therapy at some point owing to safety reasons or lack of efficacy. Achieving an early response with imatinib is protective against treatment failure; second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs; for example, nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib), however, have proven to be efficacious at restoring cytogenetic responses in patients who require subsequent therapy. Response duration, however, is yet to be established and a considerable proportion of patients fail to achieve a clinically meaningful response. A third generation of TKIs is currently undergoing clinical testing for use in patients who fail imatinib and a second-generation TKI. Most of these agents are multikinase inhibitors with activity against a wide variety of BCR-ABL1 mutations, including the highly resistant T315I. The use of second-generation TKIs in the frontline setting seems to provide higher rates of early response compared with imatinib. If these results are confirmed in randomized studies, nilotinib and dasatinib could replace imatinib as standard frontline therapy in CML. Despite the activity of all of the above mentioned agents, curing CML will ultimately depend on the development of agents capable of vanquishing BCR-ABL1-positive CML stem cells. Efforts aimed at achieving this goal are ongoing.

  9. Acupuncture therapy: mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety: a potential intervention for psychogenic disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Scientific bases for the mechanism of action of acupuncture in the treatment of pain and the pathogenic mechanism of acupuncture points are briefly summarized. The efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy is discussed based on the results of German clinical trials. A conclusion on the role for acupuncture in the treatment of psychogenic disorders could not be reached. PMID:24444292

  10. Concise Review : Adult Salivary Gland Stem Cells and a Potential Therapy for Xerostomia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pringle, Sarah; Van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Robert P.

    The ability to speak, swallow, masticate, taste food, and maintain a healthy oral cavity is heavily reliant on the presence of saliva, the hugely important effect of which on our everyday lives is often unappreciated. Hyposalivation, frequently experienced by people receiving radiation therapy for

  11. Development of gene therapy: potential in severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A Montiel-Equihua

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Claudia A Montiel-Equihua, Adrian J Thrasher, H Bobby GasparCentre for Immunodeficiency, Molecular Immunology Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UKAbstract: The history of stem cell gene therapy is strongly linked to the development of gene therapy for severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID and especially adenosine deaminase (ADA-deficient SCID. Here we discuss the developments achieved in over two decades of clinical and laboratory research that led to the establishment of a protocol for the autologous transplant of retroviral vector-mediated gene-modified hematopoietic stem cells, which has proved to be both successful and, to date, safe. Patients in trials in three different countries have shown long-term immunological and metabolic correction. Nevertheless, improvements to the safety profile of viral vectors are underway and will undoubtedly reinforce the position of stem cell gene therapy as a treatment option for ADA-SCID.Keywords: adenosine deaminase, severe combined immunodeficiency, gene therapy, hematopoietic stem cell, retrovirus, clinical trial

  12. [Potential analysis of research on speech therapy-led communication training in aphasia following stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Sabrina; Lauer, Norina; Corsten, Sabine; Voigt-Radloff, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, about 100,000 people currently suffer from aphasia. This speech disorder occurs as a result of neurologic events such as stroke or traumatic brain injury. Aphasia causes major limitations in social participation and quality of life and can be associated with unemployability and social isolation. For affected persons, it is essential to regain and maintain autonomy in daily life, both at work and with family and friends. The loss of autonomy is perceived much more dramatically than the loss of speech. Clients wish to minimise this loss of autonomy in daily life. As full recovery is not achievable in chronic aphasia, treatment must focus on improved compensatory approaches and on supporting the clients' coping strategies. Based on eight randomised comparisons including 347 participants, a recent Cochrane review (Brady et al., 2012) revealed that speech therapy - as compared with no treatment - had positive effects on functional communication in clients suffering from aphasia (0.30 SMD; 95% CI[0.08 to 0.52]). There was no evidence suggesting that one type of training was superior to the others. However, quality of life and social participation were not evaluated as outcomes. Recent studies found that speech therapy-led training for communication and self-efficacy and the integration of communication partners may have a positive impact on these client-centred outcomes. Speech therapy-led training for communication within a group setting should be manualised and pilot-tested with respect to feasibility and acceptance in a German sample of people with aphasia and their communication partners. Instruments measuring quality of life and social participation can be validated within the scope of this feasibility study. These research efforts are necessary to prepare a large-scale comparative effectiveness research trial comparing the effects of both usual speech therapy and speech therapy-led group communication training on quality of life and social participation

  13. Effects of intrauterine growth restriction on sleep and the cardiovascular system: The use of melatonin as a potential therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wallace, Euan M; Miller, Suzanne L; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2016-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) complicates 5-10% of pregnancies and is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, mortality and neurodevelopmental delay. The development of sleep and cardiovascular control are closely coupled and IUGR is known to alter this development. In the long-term, IUGR is associated with altered sleep and an increased risk of hypertension in adulthood. Melatonin plays an important role in the sleep-wake cycle. Experimental animal studies have shown that melatonin therapy has neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in the IUGR fetus. Consequently, clinical trials are currently underway to assess the short and long term effects of antenatal melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Given melatonin's role in sleep regulation, this hormone could affect the developing infants' sleep-wake cycle and cardiovascular function after birth. In this review, we will 1) examine the role of melatonin as a therapy for IUGR pregnancies and the potential implications on sleep and the cardiovascular system; 2) examine the development of sleep-wake cycle in fetal and neonatal life; 3) discuss the development of cardiovascular control during sleep; 4) discuss the effect of IUGR on sleep and the cardiovascular system and 5) discuss the future implications of melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Profile of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol dry powder inhaler combination therapy as a potential treatment for COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramori, Gaetano; Chung, Kian Fan; Adcock, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no cure for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The limited efficacy of current therapies for COPD indicates a pressing need to develop new treatments to prevent the progression of the disease, which consumes a significant amount of health care resources and is an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current national and international guidelines for the management of stable COPD patients recommend the use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and their combination for maintenance treatment of moderate to severe stable COPD. Once-daily fluticasone furoate/vilanterol dry powder inhaler combination therapy has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency as a new regular treatment for patients with stable COPD. Fluticasone furoate/vilanterol dry powder inhaler combination therapy has been shown to be effective in many controlled clinical trials involving thousands of patients in the regular treatment of stable COPD. This is the first once-daily combination of ultra-long-acting inhaled β2-agonists and inhaled glucocorticoids that is available for the treatment of stable COPD and has great potential to improve compliance to long-term regular inhaled therapy and hence to improve the natural history and prognosis of COPD patients.

  15. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an educational intervention for practice teams to deliver problem focused therapy for insomnia: rationale and design of a pilot cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ørner Roderick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep problems are common, affecting over a third of adults in the United Kingdom and leading to reduced productivity and impaired health-related quality of life. Many of those whose lives are affected seek medical help from primary care. Drug treatment is ineffective long term. Psychological methods for managing sleep problems, including cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBTi have been shown to be effective and cost effective but have not been widely implemented or evaluated in a general practice setting where they are most likely to be needed and most appropriately delivered. This paper outlines the protocol for a pilot study designed to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an educational intervention for general practitioners, primary care nurses and other members of the primary care team to deliver problem focused therapy to adult patients presenting with sleep problems due to lifestyle causes, pain or mild to moderate depression or anxiety. Methods and design This will be a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of a complex intervention. General practices will be randomised to an educational intervention for problem focused therapy which includes a consultation approach comprising careful assessment (using assessment of secondary causes, sleep diaries and severity and use of modified CBTi for insomnia in the consultation compared with usual care (general advice on sleep hygiene and pharmacotherapy with hypnotic drugs. Clinicians randomised to the intervention will receive an educational intervention (2 × 2 hours to implement a complex intervention of problem focused therapy. Clinicians randomised to the control group will receive reinforcement of usual care with sleep hygiene advice. Outcomes will be assessed via self-completion questionnaires and telephone interviews of patients and staff as well as clinical records for interventions and prescribing. Discussion Previous studies in adults

  16. D-amino acid oxidase-nanoparticle system: a potential novel approach for cancer enzymatic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Adriana; Gornati, Rosalba; Cappellini, Francesca; Caldinelli, Laura; Pollegioni, Loredano; Bernardini, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    The authors propose a new magnetic nanoparticle-enzyme system for cancer therapy capable of targeting the enzyme and consequently decreasing the adverse effects, meanwhile improving the patient's life quality. The authors have functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles with 3-amino-propyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and conjugated it to yeast D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) by coupling this with glutaraldehyde. The authors have tested the Fe3O4-APTES-DAAO system on three tumor cell lines. Exposed cells show, at the electron microscope level, nanoparticles on the surface of the plasma membrane and inside endocytic vesicles. Fe3O4-APTES-DAAO caused a substantial decrease of cell viability greatly augmented when D-alanine, a DAAO substrate, was added. Fe3O4-APTES-DAAO was demonstrated to be more effective than free DAAO, confirming the validity of the system in cancer therapy.

  17. Spotlight on fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol in COPD: design, development, and potential place in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Chitra; Strange, Charlie

    2017-01-01

    COPD is characterized by persistent airflow obstruction caused by exposure to irritants including cigarette smoke, dust, and fumes. According to the latest GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) guidelines, a combination of inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting β 2 agonists, and long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists can be used for group D COPD patients who are at high risk for exacerbations. Umeclidinium/fluticasone furoate/vilanterol is one such triple-combination therapy currently under development with some completed and several ongoing clinical trials. This review paper summarizes the pharmacologic profiles of these medications and highlights findings from clinical trials, including safety and efficacy data, while speculating on the role of this therapy in current treatment for COPD.

  18. The potential for tumor suppressor gene therapy in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Andrew C; Ludwig, Megan L; Spector, Matthew E; Brenner, J Chad

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma remains a highly morbid and fatal disease. Importantly, genomic sequencing of head and neck cancers has identified frequent mutations in tumor suppressor genes. While targeted therapeutics increasingly are being investigated in head and neck cancer, the majority of these agents are against overactive/overexpressed oncogenes. Therapy to restore lost tumor suppressor gene function remains a key and under-addressed niche in trials for head and neck cancer. Recent advances in gene editing have captured the interest of both the scientific community and the public. As our technology for gene editing and gene expression modulation improves, addressing lost tumor suppressor gene function in head and neck cancers is becoming a reality. This review will summarize new techniques, challenges to implementation, future directions, and ethical ramifications of gene therapy in head and neck cancer.

  19. Circulating Cell-Free DNA in Plasma of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients Undergoing Preoperative Chemoradiation: A Potential Diagnostic Tool for Therapy Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Zitt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating cell-free DNA opens up an interesting field for therapy monitoring, in particular during multimodal therapy protocols. The objective of this proof of principle study was to evaluate whether the amount of circulating plasma DNA has the potential to serve as a marker for therapy monitoring during the treatment course of locally advanced rectal cancer patients. We especially focused on kinetics of circulating DNA to assess whether variances in kinetics have the potential to discriminate between therapy responders and nonresponders.

  20. [Double antiaggregant therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing coronary angioplasty revascularization. Pending clinical problems and effects of therapy non-compliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Gianni; De Servi, Stefano; Tubaro, Marco; Cavallini, Claudio; Andreotti, Felicita; Olivari, Zoran; Bolognese, Leonardo; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe

    2011-02-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are the most frequent cause of hospitalization in intensive cardiac care units and are associated with a high risk of early complications. As a consequence, medical attention and healthcare are mainly directed towards the treatment of the acute phase of ACS, when the risk is higher. However, the risk associated with ACS is not simply confined to the hospitalization period, but may persist for months or years because of the frequent recurrence of ischemic events and related outcomes. Although more aggressive invasive strategies and powerful therapies with anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents have strongly improved the acute prognosis of ACS, the prognosis still remains unfavorable. Notwithstanding this, cardiologists mostly focus on the acute phase of ACS, while adopting a less aggressive approach after patient discharge and during outpatient follow-up. However, secondary prevention measures are as important as acute therapy and should be largely applied, including accurate estimation of the residual risk for the individual patient, appropriate implementation of secondary prevention, and close monitoring of adherence to suggested treatments, such as dual antiplatelet therapy. In conclusion, adherence to therapy is a clinically relevant factor, and efforts towards its improvement should be actively pursued. Moreover, appropriate prescriptions may stimulate therapy adherence with favorable effects, resulting in better clinical outcomes and healthcare cost containment. This holds particularly true for patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous revascularization.

  1. Whole body vibration therapy: a novel potential treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Hongyu; Henrik O Berdel; Moore, David; Davis, Franklin; Liu, Jun; Mozaffari, Mahmood; Jack C Yu; Baban, Babak

    2015-01-01

    There is a worsening epidemic of obesity and diabetes in the world. Life style interventions including dietary changes and increase in exercise can improve glucose metabolism and health in general. However, standard exercise programs are strenuous, time-consuming, and thus have low long-term compliance issues. We tested the feasibility of using high frequency, low amplitude whole body vibration (WBV) therapy to improve glucose metabolism in young type 2 diabetic (T2DM) mice. We also aimed to ...

  2. The potential of targeted antiangiogenesis therapies in the treatment of esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu WW

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wen Wen Xu,1,2 Bin Li,1,2,3 Annie L M Cheung1,2,31Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, 2The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation (HKU-SIRI, 3Centre for Cancer Research, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Esophageal cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide and its incidence is increasing at an alarming rate. Despite advances in surgical techniques and combined multimodality therapy, the survival rate of esophageal cancer remains poor. Clearly, the time is ripe for introducing novel strategies such as targeted therapies to improve treatment outcome. The significance of angiogenesis and angiogenic factors in the progression and aggressiveness of esophageal cancer is well documented. However, although increasing numbers of antiangiogenic agents designed to inhibit angiogenesis through multiple mechanisms have been developed in the past few decades, and some of them have shown promising results in preclinical and clinical studies, there is as yet no antiangiogenic agent approved for esophageal cancer. This review provides a summary of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that regulate these processes, and the strategies for targeting angiogenesis in tumors. We will also present the rationale and challenges of antiangiogenic therapy, and the antiangiogenic agents that have been tested in preclinical studies or clinical trials for esophageal cancer. With further research bringing a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in angiogenesis, and as new angiogenesis-targeting agents continue to evolve, there are reasons to be optimistic that targeting angiogenesis may bring new opportunities to cure this highly lethal disease.Keywords: esophageal cancer, angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor, targeted therapies

  3. Bacterial Cellulose Membranes as a Potential Drug Delivery System for Photodynamic Therapy of Skin Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Peres,Maristela F. S.; Nigoghossian,Karina; Primo,Fernando L.; Saska,Sybele; Capote,Ticiana S. O.; Caminaga,Raquel M. S.; Messaddeq,Younes; Ribeiro,Sidney J. L.; Tedesco,Antonio C.

    2016-01-01

    The development of drug delivery systems for photodynamic therapy (PDT) is increasingly demanded due to the hydrophobicity presented by most of photosensitizers molecules. Bacterial cellulose (BC), a highly pure cellulose produced by bacteria, possesses the essential features for applications in drug delivery systems, such as large surface area and excellent loading capacity. BC membranes prepared containing a photosensitizer, chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc), were tested aiming applica...

  4. Farnesoid X Receptor Agonism Protects against Diabetic Tubulopathy: Potential Add-On Therapy for Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Andi; Al-Dabet, Moh'd Mohanad; Ghosh, Sanchita; Kohli, Shrey; Manoharan, Jayakumar; ElWakiel, Ahmed; Gadi, Ihsan; Bock, Fabian; Nazir, Sumra; Wang, Hongjie; Lindquist, Jonathan A; Nawroth, Peter Paul; Madhusudhan, Thati; Mertens, Peter R; Shahzad, Khurrum; Isermann, Berend

    2017-11-01

    Established therapies for diabetic nephropathy (dNP) delay but do not prevent its progression. The shortage of established therapies may reflect the inability to target the tubular compartment. The chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) ameliorates maladaptive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling and experimental dNP. Additionally, TUDCA activates the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is highly expressed in tubular cells. We hypothesized that TUDCA ameliorates maladaptive ER signaling via FXR agonism specifically in tubular cells. Indeed, TUDCA induced expression of FXR-dependent genes (SOCS3 and DDAH1) in tubular cells but not in other renal cells. In vivo, TUDCA reduced glomerular and tubular injury in db/db and diabetic endothelial nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice. FXR inhibition with Z-guggulsterone or vivo-morpholino targeting of FXR diminished the ER-stabilizing and renoprotective effects of TUDCA. Notably, these in vivo approaches abolished tubular but not glomerular protection by TUDCA. Combined intervention with TUDCA and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril in 16-week-old db/db mice reduced albuminuria more efficiently than did either treatment alone. Although both therapies reduced glomerular damage, only TUDCA ameliorated tubular damage. Thus, interventions that specifically protect the tubular compartment in dNP, such as FXR agonism, may provide renoprotective effects on top of those achieved by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Optimizing insulin pump therapy: the potential advantages of using a structured diabetes management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Karin; Ziegler, Ralph; Neu, Andreas; Reinehr, Thomas; Daab, Iris; Walz, Marion; Maraun, Michael; Schnell, Oliver; Kulzer, Bernhard; Reichel, Andreas; Heinemann, Lutz; Parkin, Christopher G; Haak, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy improves glycemic control, reduces hypoglycemia and increases treatment satisfaction in individuals with diabetes. As a number of patient- and clinician-related factors can hinder the effectiveness and optimal usage of CSII therapy, new approaches are needed to address these obstacles. Ceriello and colleagues recently proposed a model of care that incorporates the collaborative use of structured SMBG into a formal approach to personalized diabetes management within all diabetes populations. We adapted this model for use in CSII-treated patients in order to enable the implementation of a workflow structure that enhances patient-physician communication and supports patients' diabetes self-management skills. We recognize that time constraints and current reimbursement policies pose significant challenges to healthcare providers integrating the Personalised Diabetes Management (PDM) process into clinical practice. We believe, however, that the time invested in modifying practice workflow and learning to apply the various steps of the PDM process will be offset by improved workflow and more effective patient consultations. This article describes how to implement PDM into clinical practice as a systematic, standardized process that can optimize CSII therapy.

  6. Potential proton beam therapy for recurrent endometrial cancer in the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanazume, Shintaro; Arimura, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Douchi, Tsutomu

    2015-05-01

    Proton beam radiotherapy mainly has been used in the gynecological field in patients with cervical cancer. The efficacy of proton beam therapy in patients with recurrent endometrial cancer has not yet been determined. A 77-year-old endometrial cancer patient presented with recurrence in the vagina without distant metastasis following hysterectomy. A hard mass measuring 6 cm originated from the apex of the vagina, surrounded the vaginal cavity, and infiltrated the proximal and distal vagina. The patient received proton beam radiotherapy using a less invasive particle treatment system while minimizing the dose to the surrounding normal tissues. The dose to the planning target volume was 74 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) with 37 fractions. The patient was treated with 150-210-MeV proton beams for 53 days. Proton beam therapy led to the disappearance of tumors without any complications except for grade 1 cystitis although evidence of further complications is not available past our 6-month follow-up period. Proton beam therapy may become a useful treatment modality for recurrent endometrial cancer as well as cervical uterine cancer. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. ROR1 and ROR2 in Human Malignancies: Potentials for Targeted Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilly eRebagay

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapies require cellular protein expression that meets specific requirements that will maximize effectiveness, minimize off-target toxicities, and provide an opportunity for a therapeutic effect. The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptors (ROR are possible targets for therapy that may meet such requirements. RORs are transmembrane proteins that are part of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK family. The RORs have been shown to play a role in tumor-like behavior, such as cell migration and cell invasiveness and are normally not expressed in normal adult tissue. As part of the large effort in target discovery, ROR proteins have recently been found to be expressed in human cancers. Their unique expression profiles may provide a novel class of therapeutic targets for small molecules against the kinase or for antibody-based therapies against these receptors. Being restricted on tumor cells and not on most normal tissues, RORs are excellent targets for the treatment of minimal residual disease, the final hurdle in the curative approach to many cancers, including solid tumors such as neuroblastoma. In this review, we summarize the biology of RORs as they relate to human cancer, and highlight the therapeutic approaches directed toward them.

  8. Internet-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychological Distress Experienced by People With Hearing Problems: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Peter; Hesser, Hugo; Weineland, Sandra; Bergwall, Kajsa; Buck, Sonia; Hansson-Malmlöf, Johan; Lantz, Henning; Lunner, Thomas; Andersson, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    Psychological distress and psychiatric symptoms are prevalent among people with hearing loss or other audiological conditions, but psychological interventions for these groups are rare. This article describes the study protocol for a randomized controlled trial for evaluating the effect of a psychological treatment delivered over the Internet for individuals with hearing problems and concurrent psychological distress. Participants who are significantly distressed will be randomized to either an 8-week Internet-delivered acceptance-based cognitive behavioral therapy (i.e., acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT]), or wa it-list control. We aim to include measures of distress associated with hearing difficulties, anxiety, and depression. In addition, we aim to measure acceptance associated with hearing difficulties as well as quality of life. The results of the trial may further our understanding of how to best treat people who present problems with both psychological distress and hearing in using the Internet.

  9. Biological activity of N(4)-boronated derivatives of 2'-deoxycytidine, potential agents for boron-neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizioł, Joanna; Uram, Łukasz; Szuster, Magdalena; Sekuła, Justyna; Ruman, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary anticancer therapy that requires boron compound for nuclear reaction during which high energy alpha particles and lithium nuclei are formed. Unnatural, boron-containing nucleoside with hydrophobic pinacol moiety was investigated as a potential BNCT boron delivery agent. Biological properties of this compound are presented for the first time and prove that boron nucleoside has low cytotoxicity and that observed apoptotic effects suggest alteration of important functions of cancer cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of DNA from cancer cells proved that boron nucleoside is inserted into nucleic acids as a functional nucleotide derivative. NMR studies present very high degree of similarity of natural dG-dC base pair with dG-boron nucleoside system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. What do Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities Learn about Sexuality and Dating? A Potential Role for Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Krantz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the qualitative study was to describe the perspectives of high school educators regarding how adolescents with developmental disabilities are taught about sexuality and dating. In addition, the investigators sought to examine how occupational therapy practitioners could be better integrated into the educational team to address this need. Method: Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results: Three major themes emerged: (a sexuality is unique to each student, (b teachers and parents do not know what to do, and (c a potential role for OT. Conclusions: Occupational therapy practitioners may be well suited to address the needs identified through this study given their unique expertise.

  11. Maternal hyperoxygenation: A potential therapy for congenital heart disease in the fetuses? A systematic review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co-Vu, Jennifer; Lopez-Colon, Dalia; Vyas, Himesh V; Weiner, Natalie; DeGroff, Curt

    2017-12-01

    To assess efficacy, safety, outcomes, and intrauterine complications following maternal hyperoxygenation (MH) therapy in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD). A systematic review was performed following an electronic search of databases. Articles were published before January 1, 2017, in an English-language and non-English-language journals (with English translations), and included human fetuses and expectant mothers with a fetal diagnosis of CHD who received MH. Ninety-six articles were identified; 72 were excluded and 24 full-text articles were reviewed. Only 9 articles met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. A total of 270 fetuses underwent MH therapy: 169 had CHD, and 101 had normal heart anatomies. Seven studies used fetal echocardiography, while 2 studies used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). The mean gestational age at therapy was 33.4 weeks (26-38 weeks). Majority of MH protocols used 100% FiO2 with non-rebreather face mask at 8 L of flow, achieving 60%-70% FiO2 , or maternal PaO2 goal of 250 mm Hg. No significant adverse events were reported. Four studies reported increased size of the hypoplastic cardiac structures after MH. Three studies utilized acute MH to risk stratify hypoplastic left heart syndrome fetuses. Two studies assessed acute MH in the setting of CMR. The current evidence for MH therapy suggests an increase in pulmonary blood flow, and venous return, ductal flow, and heart dimensions in fetuses. MH has potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in fetuses with CHD. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to ascertain whether MH therapy provides improved outcomes on fetuses with certain types of CHD. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Estimation of accuracy of an asymptotic solution of the generalized Cauchy problem for the Boussinesq equation as applied to the potential model of tsunami with a "simple" source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerzh-Zen'kovich, S. Ya.

    2017-10-01

    Statement of the hydrodynamic problem in the framework of the potential tsunami model with "simple" source whose solution is chosen as the reference one. Generalized Cauchy problem for the Boussinesq equation and its reduction to the classical one. Analytical solution of the Cauchy problem for the Boussinesq equation. An explanation of the incorrectness of the formulation of the problem. Derivation of an approximate equation for the correct setting of the Cauchy problem. The known reference solution of the problem. An analytical solution of the correct problem and the derivation of its asymptotic representation in the "far zone." Comparison of the graphs of the temporal history of wave height calculated by the formulas of the asymptotic and reference solutions. Estimation of the accuracy of the asymptotic solution by a three-level scale. Discussion. A remark concerning the referees.

  13. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Interpersonal Problems and Psychological Flexibility in Female High School Students With Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, Sayedeh Monireh; Kazemi-Zahrani, Hamid; Besharat, Mohammad Ali

    2015-07-12

    Social anxiety is a psychological disorder which has devastative and pernicious effects on interpersonal relationships and one's psychological flexibility. The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on interpersonal problems and psychological flexibility in female high school students with social anxiety disorder. With a semi-experimental design, the subjects were assessed using the Social Anxiety Scale and clinical interview. The statistical population of the research was high school female students studying in 5 areas of Isfahan. 30 individuals were purposively selected as the sample. The subjects of the research were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy was given in 10 sessions of 90 minutes in the experimental group and the control group did not receive any treatment. Pre-test and post-test scores of Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance & the results showed that after the intervention, there was a significant difference between the scores of the subjects in the experimental and control groups. This means that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy can influence interpersonal problems and their six dimensions and psychological flexibility as well.

  14. Potential clinical applications of adult human mesenchymal stem cell (Prochymal® therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel AN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Amit N Patel, Jorge GenoveseUniversity of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: In vitro, in vivo animal, and human clinical data show a broad field of application for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. There is overwhelming evidence of the usefulness of MSCs in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and immune therapy. At present, there are a significant number of clinical trials exploring the use of MSCs for the treatment of various diseases, including myocardial infarction and stroke, in which oxygen suppression causes widespread cell death, and others with clear involvement of the immune system, such as graft-versus-host disease, Crohn's disease, and diabetes. With no less impact, MSCs have been used as cell therapy to treat defects in bone and cartilage and to help in wound healing, or in combination with biomaterials in tissue engineering development. Among the MSCs, allogeneic MSCs have been associated with a regenerative capacity due to their unique immune modulatory properties. Their immunosuppressive capability without evidence of immunosuppressive toxicity at a global level define their application in the treatment of diseases with a pathogenesis involving uncontrolled activity of the immune system. Until now, the limitation in the number of totally characterized autologous MSCs available represents a major obstacle to their use for adult stem cell therapy. The use of premanufactured allogeneic MSCs from controlled donors under optimal conditions and their application in highly standardized clinical trials would lead to a better understanding of their real applications and reduce the time to clinical translation.Keywords: regeneration, immunomodulation, tissue engineering, allogeneic, mesenchymal stem cells

  15. Potential clinical impact of laser-accelerated beams in cancer ion therapy

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    Obcemea, Ceferino

    2016-09-01

    In this article, I present three advantages of plasma-accelerated ion beams for cancer therapy. I discuss how: 1. low-emittance and well-collimated beams are advantageous in proximal normal tissue-sparing; 2. highly-peaked quasi-monoenergetic beams are ideal for fast energy selection and switching in Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) as a treatment delivery; 3. high fluence and ultra-short pulse delivery produce collective excitations in the medium and enhance the stopping power. This in turn produces denser ionization track signatures (spurs, blobs, etc.) in target tumors, higher linear energy transfer, higher Bragg peak, and higher radiobiological effectiveness at the micro-level.

  16. RNAe in a transgenic growth hormone mouse model shows potential for use in gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Haizhou; Yao, Yi; Jin, Shouhong; Yu, Yingting; Hu, Xiongbing; Zhuang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Hanshuo; Wu, Qiong

    2017-02-01

    RNAe is a new method that enhances protein expression at the post-transcriptional level. RNAe utility was further explored to improve endogenous protein expression. Transgenic mice were created by targeting RNAe to growth hormone gene into the C57/BL mouse genome by transposon mediated integration; the mice showed a heavier body weight and longer body length compared with normal mice. RNAe can also be used for gene therapy through the delivery of in vitro transcribed RNA. This study takes a further step towards applying RNAe in pharmaceutical approaches by transposon-based transgenic mice model construction and the use of in vitro transcribed RNA transfection assay.

  17. Potential of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takuya; Andoh, Tooru; Sudo, Tamotsu; Fujita, Ikuo; Fukase, Naomasa; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Hirose, Tkanori; Sakuma, Toshiko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Kawamoto, Teruya; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Satomi; Atagi, Shinji; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Ono, Koji; Ichikawa, Hideki; Suzuki, Minoru

    2015-12-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are relatively rare neoplasms with poor prognosis. At present there is no effective treatment for MPNST other than surgical resection. Nonetheless, the anti-tumor effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was recently demonstrated in two patients with MPNST. Subsequently, tumor-bearing nude mice subcutaneously transplanted with a human MPNST cell line were injected with p-borono-L-phenylalanine (L-BPA) and subjected to BNCT. Pathological studies then revealed that the MPNST cells were selectively destroyed by BNCT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Helicobacter pylori recurrence after first- and second-line eradication therapy in Korea: the problem of recrudescence or reinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Young; Hyun, Jong Jin; Jung, Sung Woo; Koo, Ja Seol; Yim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Sang Woo

    2014-06-01

    Recurrence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the result of either recrudescence or reinfection. Annual recurrence rates per patient-year of follow-up have been reported to vary across countries. The aim of this study was to analyze recurrence rates of H. pylori after first-line and second-line eradication therapies in Korea. From 2007 to 2010, 2691 patients with H. pylori infection received first-line therapy and 573 patients who failed to respond to first-line therapy received second-line therapy. H. pylori infection and the success of eradication were assessed by endoscopic biopsy and rapid urease test or (13) C-urea breath test. All patients were advised to undergo (13) C-urea breath test or esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy or rapid urease test 6 months after eradication, with annual follow-up thereafter. The eradication rate of the first-line therapy was 79.9% (1283/1605) and that of the second-line therapy was 90.4% (394/436) by per protocol analysis. Annual recurrence rates sharply declined after 2-year follow-up. Annual recurrence rates within and after 2-year follow-up were 9.3 and 2.0% after first-line therapy and those of second-line therapy were 4.5 and 2.9%, respectively. Annual recurrence rates of H. pylori showed a sharp decline after 2-year follow-up after eradication in Korean adults, which is not higher than that of Western countries. Enough time interval after treatment (i.e., 2 years) is necessary to confirm eradication, and it would not be easy to distinguish between recurrence and recrudescence before 2 years without identifying H. pylori strains. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The plant-based immunomodulator curcumin as a potential candidate for the development of an adjunctive therapy for cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taramelli Donatella

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The clinical manifestations of cerebral malaria (CM are well correlated with underlying major pathophysiological events occurring during an acute malaria infection, the most important of which, is the adherence of parasitized erythrocytes to endothelial cells ultimately leading to sequestration and obstruction of brain capillaries. The consequent reduction in blood flow, leads to cerebral hypoxia, localized inflammation and release of neurotoxic molecules and inflammatory cytokines by the endothelium. The pharmacological regulation of these immunopathological processes by immunomodulatory molecules may potentially benefit the management of this severe complication. Adjunctive therapy of CM patients with an appropriate immunomodulatory compound possessing even moderate anti-malarial activity with the capacity to down regulate excess production of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules, could potentially reverse cytoadherence, improve survival and prevent neurological sequelae. Current major drug discovery programmes are mainly focused on novel parasite targets and mechanisms of action. However, the discovery of compounds targeting the host remains a largely unexplored but attractive area of drug discovery research for the treatment of CM. This review discusses the properties of the plant immune-modifier curcumin and its potential as an adjunctive therapy for the management of this complication.

  20. Emerging potential of natural products for targeting mucins for therapy against inflammation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macha, Muzafar A; Krishn, Shiv Ram; Jahan, Rahat; Banerjee, Kasturi; Batra, Surinder K; Jain, Maneesh

    2015-03-01

    Deregulated mucin expression is a hallmark of several inflammatory and malignant pathologies. Emerging evidence suggests that, apart from biomarkers, these deregulated mucins are functional contributors to the pathogenesis in inflammation and cancer. Both overexpression and downregulation of mucins in various organ systems is associated with pathobiology of inflammation and cancer. Restoration of mucin homeostasis has become an important goal for therapy and management of such disorders has fueled the quest for selective mucomodulators. With improved understanding of mucin regulation and mechanistic insights into their pathobiological roles, there is optimism to find selective non-toxic agents capable of modulating mucin expression and function. Recently, natural compounds derived from dietary sources have drawn attention due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties and low toxicity. Considerable efforts have been directed towards evaluating dietary natural products as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents; identification, characterization and synthesis of their active compounds; and improving their delivery and bioavailability. We describe the current understanding of mucin regulation, rationale for targeting mucins with natural products and discuss some natural products that modulate mucin expression and functions. We further discuss the approaches and parameters that should guide future research to identify and evaluate selective natural mucomodulators for therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.