An innovative practice, therapeutic touch has been used for around ten years in the treatment of eating disorders. Delivered by nurse clinicians having received specific training, this approach is based on nursing diagnoses which identify the major symptoms of this pathology. The support is built around the body and its perceptions. Through the helping relationship, it mobilises the patient's resources to favour a relationship of trust, a letting-go, physical, psychological and emotional relaxation, and improves the therapeutic alliance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Monroe, Carolyn Magdalen
To better understand how Therapeutic Touch can be used in today's health care arena, this integrative literature review will examine current research that will help answer the question, Does Therapeutic Touch reduce pain? An extensive search was conducted of the online databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PsychLIT, and PubMed to retrieve research articles published from 1997 to 2007. Seven studies that were conducted between 1997 and 2004 were found and only five of the seven were included as pertinent evidence to answer the question. All of the research that was reviewed to answer whether Therapeutic Touch could significantly reduce pain revealed a majority of statistically significant positive results for implementing this intervention. Because there are no identified risks to Therapeutic Touch as a pain relief measure, it is safe to recommend despite the limitations of current research. Therapeutic Touch should be considered among the many possible nursing interventions for the treatment of pain.
Full Text Available Penanganan nyeri pada pasien yang dilakukan oleh profesi perawat lebih banyak mengacu pada pendekatan terapi medis dan farmakologis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh therapeutic touch terhadap nyeri pasien pasca operasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain kuasi eksperimental yang dilakukan pada 60 orang responden, terdiri dari 30 orang kelompok intervensi dengan therapeutic touch dan 30 orang kelompok kontrol dengan teknik napas dalam. Penelitian berlangsung di ruang rawat bedah pasien dewasa RSUD Pasar Rebo. Data dikumpulkan dari bulan April hingga Oktober 2012. Hasil penelitian dengan uji Wilcoxon Signed Ranks menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang signifikan antara skala nyeri sebelum dan sesudah tindakan baik pada kelompok intervensi maupun kelompok kontrol (nilai p = 0,000. Hasil uji Mann-Whitney pun memperlihatkan adanya perbedaan yang signifikan pada penurunan skala nyeri antara kelompok intervensi dengan kelompok kontrol (nilai p = 0,000. Pain management for patients by nurses refers to medical therapy and pharmacological approaches. This study aimed to determine the effect of therapeutic touch on post-operative pain. This study used a quasi-experimental design conducted on 60 respondents, comprised 30 person for intervention group (therapeutic touch and 30 person for control group (deep-breaths technique. The study conducted in the surgical ward for adult patients at Pasar Rebo Hospital Jakarta. Data collected from April until October 2012. The result of Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test showed a significant difference between the pain scale before and after treatment either the intervention group or the control group (p value = 0.000. The Mann-Whitney test’s result also showed a significant difference in pain reduction between the scale of the intervention group with the control group (p value = 0.000.
Therapeutic Touch (TT) is a complementary healing modality used by health care providers to reduce anxiety, accelerate relaxation, decrease pain, and enhance immunity. Research studies report outcomes of TT treatments, but few describe the specific process. This qualitative research study was conducted to describe the nature of the core process of TT in adults and full term infants as practiced by five professional nurses, each treating one adult and one infant. Analysis of data obtained from interviews and focused participant observations was conducted. Findings provide empirical data to depict an overall process divided into three phases: (a) preparation, (b) treatment, and (c) termination, that adheres to the standard process as described by Krieger. It expands on the description of each phase, including two new subcomponents, orienting and disengagement, not previously seen in the literature. Lastly, the study describes the modification of the TT process with infants compared to adults.
Hawranik, Pamela; Johnston, Pat; Deatrich, Judith
Limited effective strategies exist to alleviate or treat disruptive behaviors in people with Alzheimer's disease. Fifty-one residents of a long-term care facility with Alzheimer's disease were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups. A multiple time series, blinded, experimental design was used to compare the effectiveness of therapeutic touch, simulated therapeutic touch, and usual care on disruptive behavior. Three forms of disruptive behavior comprised the dependent variables: physical aggression, physical nonaggression, and verbal agitation. Physical nonaggressive behaviors decreased significantly in those residents who received therapeutic touch compared with those who received the simulated version and the usual care. No significant differences in physically aggressive and verbally agitated behaviors were observed across the three study groups. The study provided preliminary evidence for the potential for therapeutic touch in dealing with agitated behaviors by people with dementia. Researchers and practitioners must consider a broad array of strategies to deal with these behaviors.
Full Text Available Touching is often a forgotten part of medicine. The manual medicine or therapeutic touch (TT is much more powerful than many modern, biomedically oriented physicians think. Pain and discomfort can be alleviated just by touching the sick area and in this way help the patient to be in better contact with the tissue and organs of their body. Lack of presence in the body seems to be connected with many symptoms that can be readily reversed simply by sensitive touch. When touch is combined with therapeutic work on mind and feelings, holistic healing seems to be facilitated and many problems can be solved in a direct and easy way in the clinic without drugs. This paper gives examples of the strength of manual medicine or therapeutic touch in its most simple form, and points to the power of physical contact between physician and his patient in the context of the theory and practice of holistic healing. Intimacy seems highly beneficial for the process of healing and it is very important to distinguish clearly between intimacy and sexuality for the physician and his patent to be able to give and receive touch without fear and without holding back emotionally.
dos Santos, Daniella Soares; Marta, Ilda Estéfani Ribeiro; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari; de Quadros, Andreza Urba; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos
to verify whether the Paw Edema Model can be used in investigations about the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation by measuring the variables pain, edema and neutrophil migration. this is a pilot and experimental study, involving ten male mice of the same genetic strain and divided into experimental and control group, submitted to the chemical induction of local inflammation in the right back paw. The experimental group received a daily administration of Therapeutic Touch for 15 minutes during three days. the data showed statistically significant differences in the nociceptive threshold and in the paw circumference of the animals from the experimental group on the second day of the experiment. the experiment model involving animals can contribute to study the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation, and adjustments are suggested in the treatment duration, number of sessions and experiment duration.
Ramada, Nadia Christina Oliveira; Almeida, Fabiane de Amorim; Cunha, Mariana Lucas da Rocha
To compare vital signs before and after the therapeutic touch observed in hospitalized newborns in neonatal intensive care unit. This was a quasi-experimental study performed at a neonatal intensive care unit of a municipal hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The sample included 40 newborns submitted to the therapeutic touch after a painful procedure. We evaluated the vital signs, such as heart and respiratory rates, temperature and pain intensity, before and after the therapeutic touch. The majority of newborns were male (n=28; 70%), pre-term (n=19; 52%) and born from vaginal delivery (n=27; 67%). Respiratory distress was the main reason for hospital admission (n=16; 40%). There was a drop in all vital signs after therapeutic touch, particularly in pain score, which had a considerable reduction in the mean values, from 3.37 (SD=1.31) to 0 (SD=0.0). All differences found were statistically significant by the Wilcoxon test (ptouch promotes relaxation of the baby, favoring reduction in vital signs and, consequently in the basal metabolism rate.
Johnston, Celeste; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; Rich, Bonnie; Whitley, Julie; Filion, Francoise; Cogan, Jennifer; Walker, Claire-Dominique
Preterm neonates below 30 weeks' gestational age undergo numerous painful procedures. Many management approaches are not appropriate for this population. Therapeutic Touch, an alternative approach based on the theory of energy medicine, has been shown to promote physiological stability in preterm neonates and reduce pain in some adult studies. The objective was to determine whether Therapeutic Touch is efficacious in decreasing pain in preterm neonates. Infants Touch (n = 27) with infant behind curtains, leaving the curtained area for the heel lance, performed by another. In the sham condition (n = 28), the therapist stood by the incubator with hands by her side. The Premature Infant Pain Profile was used for pain response and time for heart rate to return to baseline for recovery. Heart rate variability and stress response were secondary outcomes. There were no group differences in any of the outcomes. Mean Premature Infant Pain Profile scores across 2 minutes of heel lance procedure in 30-second blocks ranged from 7.92 to 8.98 in the Therapeutic Touch group and 7.64 to 8.46 in the sham group. Therapeutic Touch given immediately before and after heel lance has no comforting effect in preterm neonates. Other effective strategies involving actual touch should be considered.
Gronowicz, Gloria A; Jhaveri, Ankur; Clarke, Libbe W; Aronow, Michael S; Smith, Theresa H
Our objective was to assess the effect of Therapeutic Touch (TT) on the proliferation of normal human cells in culture compared to sham and no treatment. Several proliferation techniques were used to confirm the results, and the effect of multiple 10-minute TT treatments was studied. Fibroblasts, tendon cells (tenocytes), and bone cells (osteoblasts) were treated with TT, sham, or untreated for 2 weeks, and then assessed for [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into the DNA, and immunocytochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The number of PCNA-stained cells was also quantified. For 1 and 2 weeks, varying numbers of 10-minute TT treatments were administered to each cell type to determine whether there was a dose-dependent effect. TT administered twice a week for 2 weeks significantly stimulated proliferation of fibroblasts, tenocytes, and osteoblasts in culture (p = 0.04, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively) compared to untreated control. These data were confirmed by PCNA immunocytochemistry. In the same experiments, sham healer treatment was not significantly different from the untreated cultures in any group, and was significantly less than TT treatment in fibroblast and tenocyte cultures. In 1-week studies involving the administration of multiple 10-minute TT treatments, four and five applications significantly increased [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation in fibroblasts and tenocytes, respectively, but not in osteoblasts. With different doses of TT for 2 weeks, two 10-minute TT treatments per week significantly stimulated proliferation in all cell types. Osteoblasts also responded to four treatments per week with a significant increase in proliferation. Additional TT treatments (five per week for 2 weeks) were not effective in eliciting increased proliferation compared to control in any cell type. A specific pattern of TT treatment produced a significant increase in proliferation of fibro-blasts, osteoblasts, and tenocytes in culture. Therefore, TT may
Moore, Theresa; Ting, Brigid; Rossiter-Thornton, Maria
This pilot study explored the experience of participating in a Therapeutic Touch practice group. A qualitative descriptive-exploratory method was used, involving 12 members of practice groups in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada. Analysis of the data using an extraction-synthesis process yielded four themes: (a) learning with others through sharing and hands-on experience is valued; (b) connecting with a network of supportive relationships that sustain self and Therapeutic Touch practice; (c) comfort-discomfort arising with self, others, or ideas; and (d) meaningful changes emerge while experiencing group energy and Therapeutic Touch. The findings expand current knowledge about the positive aspects of participating in practice groups and provide a beginning understanding of member discomfort, which had not been previously reported. This knowledge will be useful to Therapeutic Touch organizations, practice group leaders, and group members. It will also guide health care agencies and practitioners of other healing modalities who may be considering establishing practice groups.
Tabatabaee, Amir; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri; Rassouli, Maryam; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; AlaviMajd, Hamid; Farahmand, Seyed Kazem
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) techniques has been growing. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine places therapeutic touch (TT) into the category of bio field energy. This literature review is aimed at critically evaluating the data from clinical trials examining the clinical efficacy of therapeutic touch as a supportive care modality in adult patients with cancer. Electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Scholar Google, and Science Direct) were searched from the year 1990 to 2015 to locate potentially relevant peer-reviewed articles using the key words therapeutic touch, touch therapy, neoplasm, cancer, and CAM. Additionally, relevant journals and references of all the located articles were manually searched for other potentially relevant studies. The number of 334 articles was found on the basis of the key words, of which 17 articles related to the clinical trial were examined in accordance with the objectives of the study. A total of 6 articles were in the final dataset in which several examples of the positive effects of healing touch on pain, nausea, anxiety and fatigue, and life quality and also on biochemical parameters were observed. Based on the results of this study, an affirmation can be made regarding the use of TT, as a non-invasive intervention for improving the health status in patients with cancer. Moreover, therapeutic touch was proved to be a useful strategy for adult patients with cancer.
Thomaz de Souza, André Luiz; Carvalho Rosa, David Patrick; Blanco, Bruno Anjos; Passaglia, Patrícia; Stabile, Angelita Maria
Therapeutic touch is a complementary treatment directed toward the balance of the energy field surrounding living beings. This study's aim was to investigate the effect of therapeutic touch on wound area contraction and fibroblast proliferation in rat skin. This study was conducted using 24 male Wistar rats with dorsal wounds of diameter 8mm. The rats were divided into the following two groups: a control group: in this, the wounds were sanitized with filtered water and neutral-pH soap and a treatment group: in this, the wounds were sanitized as in the control group but the rats also underwent to daily sessions of therapeutic touch. Wound area was measured on days 1, 4, and 7 using imagelab software, version 2.4 R.C. On days 4 and 7, six animals in each group were euthanized so that the lesioned tissue could be collected for fibroblast counts and histological evaluations. On days 1 and 4, wound areas were similar in both groups. Moreover, no significant differences in fibroblast counts were observed on day 4. On day 7, however, fibroblast counts were significantly higher in the treated group than in the control group, with a subsequent wound shrinkage. These data indicate that therapeutic touch may accelerate wound repair, possibly by increasing fibroblast activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Strickland, Mallory L; Boylan, Helen M
The goal of this research is to design a novel model using protein folding to study Therapeutic Touch, a noncontact form of energy manipulation healing. Presented is a feasibility study suggesting that the denaturation path of ribonuclease A may be a useful model to study the energy exchange underlying therapeutic touch. The folding of ribonuclease A serves as a controlled energy-requiring system in which energy manipulation can be measured by the degree of folding achieved. A kinetic assay and fluorescence spectroscopy are used to assess the enzyme-folding state. The data suggest that the kinetic assay is a useful means of assessing the degree of refolding, and specifically, the enzyme function. However, fluorescence spectroscopy was not shown to be an effective measurement of enzyme structure for the purposes of this work. More research is needed to assess the underlying mechanism of therapeutic touch to complement the existing studies. An enzyme-folding model may provide a useful means of studying the energy exchange in therapeutic touch.
Woods, Diana Lynn; Beck, Cornelia; Sinha, Karabi
Between 75-90% of nursing home (NH) residents with dementia develop behavioral symptoms (BSD) which may be associated with a stress response. Therapeutic touch has been shown to decrease restlessness in NH residents, however the mechanism is unknown. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to examine the effect of therapeutic touch on BSD and basal cortisol levels among NH residents with dementia. Using a double blind experimental interrupted time series ABAB design, 65 participants were assigned to one of three groups. The experimental group received therapeutic touch with contact on the neck and shoulders delivered twice daily for 3 days (administered over 2 separate treatment periods); the placebo group received a mimic treatment identical in appearance, and the control group received routine care. Study outcomes were BSD, measured by the modified Agitated Behavior Rating Scale (mABRS), and salivary cortisol levels, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 64 residents, aged 67-93 years (M = 85.5, SD = 5.50), completed the study. Restlessness was significantly reduced in the experimental group compared to the control group (p = 0.03). There was a significant difference in morning cortisol variability among groups across time periods (touch may be effective for management of symptoms like restlessness coupled with stress reduction. At a time when cost containment is a consideration in health care, therapeutic touch is an intervention that is non-invasive, readily learned, and can provide a non-pharmacologic alternative for selected persons with BSD. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Vanaki, Zohreh; Matourypour, Pegah; Gholami, Roya; Zare, Zahra; Mehrzad, Valiolah; Dehghan, Mojtaba
Therapeutic touch (TT) is independent nursing intervention which is effective on nausea induced by chemotherapy but technique, steps and variables affected by this therapy are not yet well known. The aim of this study was to elicit descriptions of how TT is used with cancer patients, providing a basis for the systematic use and evaluation of TT with patients. In this research, 108 patients were examined with intentional sampling and random allocation in 3 groups (control, placebo and intervention) in 2013 (each group 36). Intervention received therapeutic touch (touching of first energy layer) and demographic form, visual analog scale (VAS) for intensity of nausea, check list for duration and times of nausea in the morning, noon, afternoon and night at acute phase were used. Data were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis, χ(2) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Duration, frequency and intensity of nausea were significantly lower in the test group (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). The mean duration of intervention (whole process) was 21.38 min [SD 6.04]. In 69.4% of women there was a need for re-intervention after reassessment phase. Results of this randomized control trial showed that TT is effective on duration, times and intensity of nausea; therefore, TT can be used as an alternative method for patients who are willing to use this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zare, Zahra; Shahsavari, Hooman; Moeini, Mahin
Currently healthy heart word considered to be the objective of community health applications in many countries of the world because cardiovascular diseases are the most important factor in mortality of humans, worldwide. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery is one of the most common surgery procedures for these patients. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of therapeutic touch on medical vital signs of patients before coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The present study is a clinical trial with 44 samples that were selected by easy sampling method and based on two separate lists of random numbers for both men and women; they were divided into two groups. In the therapeutic touch group, intervention therapy was applied on patents for 20 minutes. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Test results showed that there was a significant difference between the mean pulse rate before and after intervention in both groups (p touch therapy as a safe and effective intervention on the patients which were revealed in this study, this technique can be used as a simple, cheap and applicable technique in all health care centers to help these patients.
Jhaveri, Ankur; Walsh, Stephen J; Wang, Yatzen; McCarthy, MaryBeth; Gronowicz, Gloria
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) techniques are commonly used in hospitals and private medical facilities; however, the effectiveness of many of these practices has not been thoroughly studied in a scientific manner. Developed by Dr. Dolores Krieger and Dora Kunz, Therapeutic Touch is one of these CAM practices and is a highly disciplined five-step process by which a practitioner can generate energy through their hands to promote healing. There are numerous clinical studies on the effects of TT but few in vitro studies. Our purpose was to determine if Therapeutic Touch had any effect on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization in vitro. TT was performed twice a week for 10 min each on human osteoblasts (HOBs) and on an osteosarcoma-derived cell line, SaOs-2. No significant differences were found in DNA synthesis, assayed by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation at 1 or 2 weeks for SaOs-2 or 1 week for HOBs. However, after four TT treatments in 2 weeks, TT significantly (p = 0.03) increased HOB DNA synthesis compared to controls. Immunocytochemistry for Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) confirmed these data. At 2 weeks in differentiation medium, TT significantly increased mineralization in HOBs (p = 0.016) and decreased mineralization in SaOs-2 (p = 0.0007), compared to controls. Additionally, Northern blot analysis indicated a TT-induced increase in mRNA expression for Type I collagen, bone sialoprotein, and alkaline phosphatase in HOBs and a decrease of these bone markers in SaOs-2 cells. In conclusion, Therapeutic Touch appears to increase human osteoblast DNA synthesis, differentiation and mineralization, and decrease differentiation and mineralization in a human osteosarcoma-derived cell line. (c) 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kumarappah, Ananthavalli; Senderovich, Helen
Patients with dementia experience various behavioral symptoms in the course of their illnesses, which greatly affect their quality of life. Current treatment modalities are not always effective, and, thus, nonpharmacological approaches are the preferred first-line therapy for managing such symptoms. They generally address the basic needs of the person with dementia and provide humane care, often producing noticeable improvements in symptoms. Thus, such therapies should precede pharmacological interventions. The following literature review of 5 publications from 2010 to 2015 evaluates the use of therapeutic touch (TT) in the management of responsive behavior in patients with dementia. The results of the review suggest that TT may be beneficial in reducing agitation in individuals with dementia; however, further research is needed to assess the use of TT.
Marta, Ilda Estefani Ribeiro; Baldan, Sueli Santiago; Berton, Ani Fabiana; Pavam, Michele; da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes
This research aimed to check the effectiveness of Therapeutic Touch on decreased pain intensity, depression self-assessment scores and improved sleep quality. A clinical before-after trial is presented. The study was carried out at a Basic Health Unit in Fernandópolis, SP-Brazil, involving 30 elderly patients with chronic non-oncologic pain who received 8 sessions of Therapeutic Touch in accordance with the Krieger-Kunz method. The Visual Analogue Scale for pain was applied before and after each session, and Beck Depression Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index before the first and after the last session. Data analysis showed a significant decrease (p Touch was effective to decrease pain intensity and depressive attitudes and symptoms, as well as to improve sleep quality.
Hanley, Mary Anne; Coppa, Denise; Shields, Deborah
For nearly 50 years, Therapeutic Touch (TT) has contributed to advancing holistic nursing practice and has been recognized as a uniquely human approach to healing. This narrative explores the development of a practice-based theory of healing through TT, which occurred between 2010 and 2016. Through the in-depth self-inquiry of participatory reflective dialogue in concert with constant narrative analysis, TT practitioners revealed the meaning of healing within the context of their TT practice. As the community of TT experts participated in an iterative process of small group and community dialogues with analysis and synthesis of emerging themes, the assumptions and concepts central to a theory of healing emerged, were clarified and verified. Exemplars of practice illustrate the concepts. A model of the theory of healing illuminates the movement and relationship among concepts and evolved over time. Feedback from nursing and inter-professional practitioners indicate that the theory of healing, while situated within the context of TT, may be useful in advancing holistic nursing practice, informing healing and caring approaches, stimulating research and education, and contributing to future transformations in health care.
Aghabati, Nahid; Pour Esmaiel, Zahra
Despite major advances in pain management, cancer pain is managed poorly in 80% of the patients with cancer. Due to deleterious side effects of pharmacology therapy in these people, there is an urgent need for clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions. To examine the effect of therapeutic touch (TT) on the pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, a randomized and three-groups experimental study—experimental (TT), placebo (placebo TT), and control (usual care)—was carried out. Ninety patients undergoing chemotherapy, exhibiting pain and fatigue of cancer, were randomized into one of the three groups in the Cancer Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Pain and fatigue were measured and recorded by participants before and after the intervention for 5 days (once a day). The intervention consisted of 30 min TT given once a day for 5 days between 10:00 a.m. and 10:30 a.m. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of pain and the Rhoten Fatigue Scale (RFS) were completed for 5 days before and after the intervention by the subjects. The TT (significant) was more effective in decreasing pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy than the usual care group, while the placebo group indicated a decreasing trend in pain and fatigue scores compared with the usual care group. PMID:18955319
Full Text Available Despite major advances in pain management, cancer pain is managed poorly in 80% of the patients with cancer. Due to deleterious side effects of pharmacology therapy in these people, there is an urgent need for clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions. To examine the effect of therapeutic touch (TT on the pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, a randomized and three-groups experimental study—experimental (TT, placebo (placebo TT, and control (usual care—was carried out. Ninety patients undergoing chemotherapy, exhibiting pain and fatigue of cancer, were randomized into one of the three groups in the Cancer Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Pain and fatigue were measured and recorded by participants before and after the intervention for 5 days (once a day. The intervention consisted of 30 min TT given once a day for 5 days between 10:00 a.m. and 10:30 a.m. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS of pain and the Rhoten Fatigue Scale (RFS were completed for 5 days before and after the intervention by the subjects. The TT (significant was more effective in decreasing pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy than the usual care group, while the placebo group indicated a decreasing trend in pain and fatigue scores compared with the usual care group.
Ana Cristina Ramos
Full Text Available Therapeutic Touch (TT is a contemporary approach to several ancestral healing practices. As one of the oldest vibrational therapies still in use, it is expected to act on the balancing of the human being’s energy field, by the laying hands on. The hands are, therefore, vehicles of comfort, affection, support and healing. This article illustrates a systematic review of the literature (RSL, on the effects of TT in the newborn. Objective: To know the effect of TT in the newborn. Methods: We carried the research on the Online Knowledge Library platform (Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online/B-On by researching on the available electronic databases. The articles which addressed the TT as an intervention in the newborn were included. From the 237 articles found, eight ones were selected according to the inclusion criteria previously established. Results: All studies demonstrated benefits of applying TT, such as calming effect after nursing procedures, because it reduces pain, reduces the motor activity, decreases the level of cortisol, facilitates feeding, suction/ swallowing and thus increases weight, stabilizes vital signs, promotes rest, improves interaction with the environment and saves energy for growth and healing. Conclusions: The practice of TT in the newborn can contribute to his well-being, bringing him physical, psychological and spiritual benefits.
Bush, A M; Geist, C R
Designs used to test claims for psychic healing of living systems not amenable to suggestion may produce artifact in the results when there is failure to control for other possible explanations. Some experimental methods in psychokinesis may produce electromagnetic field flux which could lead to erroneous conclusions. This study adds electrical and magnetic controls to assess their effect, leading to the conclusion that therapeutically touched corn seeds did not recover from saline injury significantly better than untreated controls.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of therapeutic touch (TT on anxiety and patient satisfaction when performed during a cataract surgery. Methods: A randomized controlled trial sample consisted of 114 individuals, 57 in the intervention group and 57 controls, who were hospitalized for cataract surgery and who conformed to the study criteria. Prior to the study approval was obtained from the ethics committee and informed consent was given by the patients. Data was collected using a personal information form, a visual analogue scale (VAS to measure anxiety, the Spielberg State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and the Newcastle Satisfaction with Nursing Care Scale (NSNCS. During the surgery, patients in the intervention group received a 15-minute session of TT. Results: In the intervention group, patients’ mean VAS anxiety score after TT was 3.56±1.85, while that of the control group in the 15th minute of the operation was 8,88±1,50. It was found that anxiety levels were reduced in the intervention group after TT compared with the control group, and that vital signs were affected positively. NSNCS scores of patients in the intervention group were higher than those in the control group. Conclusion: It was observed that TT applied during surgery reduced anxiety, affected vital signs positively and increased patent satisfaction. The application of TT during surgery is recommended. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 52-62
Tabatabaee, Amir; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri; Rassouli, Maryam; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; AlaviMajd, Hamid; Farahmand, Seyed Kazem
In patients with cancer, pain may influence their life style, and feeling of satisfaction and comfort, leading to fatigue, and cause impairment of their quality of life, personal relationships, sleep and daily activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of therapeutic touch (TT) on pain related parameters of in patients with cancer. In a randomized clinical trial a total of 90 male patients referring to Specialized Oncology Hospital in Mashhad, were conveniently selected and randomly divided into three intervention, placebo, and control groups. The intervention consisted of TT in 7 sessions for a 4-week period. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire along with the Brief Pain Inventory, which were then analyzed and compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. By comparing scores parameters of pain scales (general activity, mood, walking ability, relations with other people and sleep) in the three groups, there was no significant difference at the beginning of the first session. However, a significant difference was observed at the end of TT sessions between the three groups (p= 0.001). Furthermore, the groups were compared two-by-two by using Mann-Whitney test and Bonferroni correction, and the result indicated significant differences between the two intervention and placebo groups as well as between the two intervention and control groups. The results of the study showed that TT had a positive impact on the positive management of pain related parameters in cancer patients. Therefore, TT is suggested to be used by healthcare providers as a complementary method for managing pain and its parameters.
Matourypour, Pegah; Zare, Zahra; Mehrzad, Valiolah; Musarezaie, Amir; Dehghan, Mojtaba; Vanaki, Zohre
Nausea is the worst and most prevalent chemotherapy-induced complication experienced by 70-80% of patients despite mediation therapy. Reduction of nausea is one of the most important roles of oncologist nurses. Today, complementary therapies in addition to classic medicine, because of their lower costs, receive much attention. Nonetheless, their safety and effectiveness are not yet proven. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of therapeutic touch plan as a complementary therapy on acute nausea in women with breast cancer in 2012-2013 in Isfahan, Iran. A quasi-experimental, single-blind, randomized control trial with three groups (control, placebo and intervention) was performed at the Isfahan Seyedolshohada (AS) Teaching Hospital, Isfahan, in 2012-2013. The intervention was therapeutic touch plan on women with breast cancer, with the three groups receiving the same medicine regimen. Information was recorded by a checklist after infusion of chemotherapy drugs. Data analysis was performed by SPSS, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The ANOVA test showed that the therapeutic touch plan was significantly effective in reducing the duration of nausea compared with the control and placebo groups (P touch plan was significantly effective in delaying the onset of nausea compared with the control and placebo groups (P touch plan is effective in reducing acute chemotherapy-induced nausea; thus, education and implementation of the therapeutic touch plan is proposed for clinical nurses.
Matourypour, Pegah; Zare, Zahra; Mehrzad, Valiolah; Musarezaie, Amir; Dehghan, Mojtaba; Vanaki, Zohre
Introduction: Nausea is the worst and most prevalent chemotherapy-induced complication experienced by 70–80% of patients despite mediation therapy. Reduction of nausea is one of the most important roles of oncologist nurses. Today, complementary therapies in addition to classic medicine, because of their lower costs, receive much attention. Nonetheless, their safety and effectiveness are not yet proven. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of therapeutic touch plan as a complementary therapy on acute nausea in women with breast cancer in 2012–2013 in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental, single-blind, randomized control trial with three groups (control, placebo and intervention) was performed at the Isfahan Seyedolshohada (AS) Teaching Hospital, Isfahan, in 2012–2013. The intervention was therapeutic touch plan on women with breast cancer, with the three groups receiving the same medicine regimen. Information was recorded by a checklist after infusion of chemotherapy drugs. Data analysis was performed by SPSS, ANOVA and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The ANOVA test showed that the therapeutic touch plan was significantly effective in reducing the duration of nausea compared with the control and placebo groups (P touch plan was significantly effective in delaying the onset of nausea compared with the control and placebo groups (P touch plan is effective in reducing acute chemotherapy-induced nausea; thus, education and implementation of the therapeutic touch plan is proposed for clinical nurses. PMID:26430688
Honda, Noritsugu; Ohgi, Shohei; Wada, Norihisa; Loo, Kek Khee; Higashimoto, Yuji; Fukuda, Kanji
The purpose of this study was to determine whether therapeutic touch in preterm infants can ameliorate their sensory punctate stimulus response in terms of brain activation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. The study included 10 preterm infants at 34-40 weeks' corrected age. Oxyhaemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) concentration, heart rate (HR), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and body movements were recorded during low-intensity sensory punctate stimulation for 1 s with and without therapeutic touch by a neonatal development specialist nurse. Each stimulation was followed by a resting phase of 30 s. All measurements were performed with the infants asleep in the prone position. sensory punctate stimulus exposure significantly increased the oxy-Hb concentration but did not affect HR, SaO2 and body movements. The infants receiving therapeutic touch had significantly decreased oxy-Hb concentrations over time. Therapeutic touch in preterm infants can ameliorate their sensory punctate stimulus response in terms of brain activation, indicated by increased cerebral oxygenation. Therefore, therapeutic touch may have a protective effect on the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow during sensory punctate stimulus in neonates.
Whitley, Julie Anne; Rich, Bonnie L
To explore the hypothesis that nontouch therapy such as therapeutic touch (TT) reduces stress to a clinically important degree and is safe to use in preterm infants. A pilot randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Two groups of 10 infants were enrolled and randomly assigned to treatment or nontreatment groups. Gestational age was less than 29 weeks. Demographic descriptions of the 2 groups were statistically similar. The observer and staff were blinded to assignment; the TT practitioner was blinded to observed measurements. Each infant received either TT or no therapeutic touch (NTT) for 5 minutes on 3 consecutive days at the same time of day, behind a curtain. Heart period variability (HPV) was measured 5 minutes before, during, and after the treatment phase. Examination of the parameters of oxygen saturation and episodes of apnea demonstrated no increase in adverse events in TT group compared with NTT group. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance on HPV revealed differences in the interaction of group assignment with low-frequency, high-frequency, and low-to-high- frequency ratio interaction (F2,143 = 8.076, P = .000) and for group, day, and low-frequency, high-frequency, and low-to-high-frequency ratio (F2,288 = 3.146, P = .015), and in the posttreatment time period (F1,16 = 6.259, P = .024), reflective of greater parasympathetic activity in TT group. In this pilot trial, HPV showed an increase for the TT group compared with the NTT group. The study reveals no adverse effects of TT in preterm infants.
Busch, Martine; Visser, Adriaan; Eybrechts, Maggie; van Komen, Rob; Oen, Irma; Olff, Miranda; Dokter, Jan; Boxma, Han
Objective: Evaluation of therapeutic touch (TT) in the nursing of burn patients; post hoc evaluation of the research process in a non-academic nursing setting. Methods: 38 burn patients received either TT or nursing presence. On admission, days 2, 5 and 10 of hospitalization, data were collected on
Marlene B. Huff
Full Text Available The growing popularity and use of therapeutic touch (TT is an issue that has generated controversy and concern within the medical community. While anecdotal and traditional scientific evidence suggest that TT would be an advantageous addition for clinics and hospitals to include in their armamentarium of complementary interventions within the realm of traditional medicine, TT has not become widely available in the U.S. One reason for the lack of availability may be the dearth of conclusive scientific support for TT's efficacy and, therefore, its inclusion in clinic and hospital treatment planning would give it the appearance of legitimate practice, which it may not yet deserve. Whether or not deserved, if TT were added to hospital and clinic treatment protocols without substantial scientific support, it would be thought to have the implicit support of the scientific community, at which point the question of its efficacy would be moot in the minds of many people; thus patients would utilize it, because they believe it works rather than because it works. Since TT has not yet been scientifically proven as per Western standards, leaders of the health care community are likely wary of lending support to TT at this time. If TT can be found to be a scientifically sound therapeutic technique, then it will be more readily accepted in the health care community. This paper reviews TT.
Gronowicz, Gloria; Secor, Eric R; Flynn, John R; Jellison, Evan R; Kuhn, Liisa T
Evidence-based integrative medicine therapies have been introduced to promote wellness and offset side-effects from cancer treatment. Energy medicine is an integrative medicine technique using the human biofield to promote well-being. The biofield therapy chosen for study was Therapeutic Touch (TT). Breast cancer tumors were initiated in mice by injection of metastatic 66cl4 mammary carcinoma cells. The control group received only vehicle. TT or mock treatments were performed twice a week for 10 minutes. Two experienced TT practitioners alternated treatments. At 26 days, metastasis to popliteal lymph nodes was determined by clonogenic assay. Changes in immune function were measured by analysis of serum cytokines and by fluorescent activated cells sorting (FACS) of immune cells from the spleen and lymph nodes. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or tumor size. Metastasis was significantly reduced in the TT-treated mice compared to mock-treated mice. Cancer significantly elevated eleven cytokines. TT significantly reduced IL-1-a, MIG, IL-1b, and MIP-2 to control/vehicle levels. FACS demonstrated that TT significantly reduced specific splenic lymphocyte subsets and macrophages were significantly elevated with cancer. Human biofield therapy had no significant effect on primary tumor but produced significant effects on metastasis and immune responses in a mouse breast cancer model.
Full Text Available Evidence-based integrative medicine therapies have been introduced to promote wellness and offset side-effects from cancer treatment. Energy medicine is an integrative medicine technique using the human biofield to promote well-being. The biofield therapy chosen for study was Therapeutic Touch (TT. Breast cancer tumors were initiated in mice by injection of metastatic 66cl4 mammary carcinoma cells. The control group received only vehicle. TT or mock treatments were performed twice a week for 10 minutes. Two experienced TT practitioners alternated treatments. At 26 days, metastasis to popliteal lymph nodes was determined by clonogenic assay. Changes in immune function were measured by analysis of serum cytokines and by fluorescent activated cells sorting (FACS of immune cells from the spleen and lymph nodes. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or tumor size. Metastasis was significantly reduced in the TT-treated mice compared to mock-treated mice. Cancer significantly elevated eleven cytokines. TT significantly reduced IL-1-a, MIG, IL-1b, and MIP-2 to control/vehicle levels. FACS demonstrated that TT significantly reduced specific splenic lymphocyte subsets and macrophages were significantly elevated with cancer. Human biofield therapy had no significant effect on primary tumor but produced significant effects on metastasis and immune responses in a mouse breast cancer model.
Muliira, Joshua Kanaabi; Muliira, Rhoda Suubi
Therapeutic touch (TT) is a valid nursing intervention but some patients feel uncomfortable with it because of personal beliefs. This commentary presents observations and experiences of the use of TT during care of Muslim patients in the Sultanate of Oman. There is need to teach nursing students deliberate steps when considering its use in Muslim patients because they increase acceptability and implementation in a culturally sensitive manner.
Matourypour, Pegah; Vanaki, Zohreh; Zare, Zahra; Mehrzad, Valiolah; Dehghan, Mojtaba; Ranjbaran, Mehdi
Nausea and vomiting are the worst and the most prevalent complications experienced by 70-80% of patients. Complementary treatments including therapeutic touch are cost-effective and low-risk, independent nursing interventions. Present research aims at investigating the effect of therapeutic touch on the intensity of acute chemotherapy-induced vomiting in these patients. As a single-blind, randomized clinical trial, the present research was carried out on women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were divided into three groups of control, placebo, and intervention. The intervention was applied to each patient once for 20 min on the aura (human energy field) focusing on solar chakra. Data gathering instruments included demographic questionnaire and acute vomiting intensity scale. There was a significant difference among the three groups (and also after the intervention) (P touch was effective in reducing vomiting in the intervention group. However, the patients experienced lower-intensity vomiting which may be because of presence of a therapist and probably the reduced anxiety related to an additional intervention. So, further research is recommended considering the placebo group and employing another person in addition to the therapist, who is not skilled for this technique.
Domínguez Rosales, Rosario; Albar Marín, M Jesús; Tena García, Beatriz; Ruíz Pérez, M Teresa; Garzón Real, M Josefa; Rosado Poveda, M Asunción; González Caro, Eva
To determine the effectiveness of therapeutic touch on weight, the presence of postnatal complications, and length of hospital stay in preterm newborns, as well as on parental satisfaction with the care provided. We performed an experimental study in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Virgen Macarena University Hospital in Seville (Spain). Seventy eight premature neonates were randomly assigned to one of the comparison groups (39 in the control group and 39 in the experimental group). The outcome variables of weight, length of hospital stay, the presence of complications, and parental satisfaction were evaluated. Control variables related to maternal socio-demographic and clinic characteristics were also measured. The intervention was based on the application of therapeutic touch. The mean weight in grams was 1,867.80 (SD=149.72) in the experimental group and 1,860 (SD=181.92) in the control group (t=0.148; p=0.883). Length of hospital stay was 16.82 (SD=6.47) in the experimental group and 20.30 (SD=8.04) in the control group (t=2.100; p=0.039). Complications developed in 5.3% of the premature neonates in the experimental group and in 20% of those in the control group (chi(2)=3.78; p=0.049). The odds ratio for developing complications was 1.673 (CI 1.089-2.571). The application of therapeutic touch reduces the length of hospital stay and the presence of complications. Nevertheless, further research in larger samples is required.
Zolfaghari, Mitra; Eybpoosh, Sana; Hazrati, Maryam
To investigate the effects of Therapeutic Touch (TT) on anxiety, vital signs, and cardiac dysrhythmia in women undergoing cardiac catheterization. It was a quasi-experimental study. The participants had no history of hallucination, anxiety, or other psychological problems. Participants had to be conscious and have attained at least sixth-grade literacy level. Participants were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n = 23; received 10-15 minutes TT), a placebo group (n = 23; received 10-15 minutes simulated touch), and a control group (n = 23; did not receive any therapy). Data were collected using Spielberger's anxiety test, cardiac dysrhythmia checklist, and vital signs recording sheet. Statistical analyses were considered to be significant at α = .05 levels. Sixty-nine women ranging in age from 35 to 65 years participated. TT significantly decreased state anxiety p < 0.0001 but not trait anxiety (p = .88), decreased the incidence of all cardiac dysrhythmias p < 0.0001 except premature ventricular contraction (p = .01), and regulated vital signs p < 0.0001 in the intervention group versus placebo and control group. TT is an effective approach for managing state anxiety, regulating vital signs, and decreasing the incidence of cardiac dysrhythmia during stressful situations, such as cardiac catheterization, in Iranian cardiac patients.
Erotogod. The third chapter investigates the foundations of touch through a physiological and psychological approach. Chapter four presents an alternative haptic history of Virtual Realities through the presentation and discussion of several technological and artistic works that are computer...... is the analysis and conclusion of my experiments. The problems addressed concern how it feels to touch and be touched in multimodal environments, or so called Virtual Realities. Firstly how haptic, corporeal interaction influence the overall experience of a given interactive human-to-computer system. Secondly...... and the psychophysically-contextualized work of art The main results and applications of the study are firstly that haptic technologies bridge the gap between the real (corporeal) and the virtual (immaterial) world, supporting the assumption that the distinction between the ‘virtual’ and the ‘real’ is not convincing...
Busch, Martine; Visser, Adriaan; Eybrechts, Maggie; van Komen, Rob; Oen, Irma; Olff, Miranda; Dokter, Jan; Boxma, Han
Evaluation of therapeutic touch (TT) in the nursing of burn patients; post hoc evaluation of the research process in a non-academic nursing setting. 38 burn patients received either TT or nursing presence. On admission, days 2, 5 and 10 of hospitalization, data were collected on anxiety for pain, salivary cortisol, and pain medication. Interviews with nurses were held concerning research in a non-academic setting. Anxiety for pain was more reduced on day 10 in the TT-group. The TT-group was prescribed less morphine on day 1 and 2. On day 2 cortisol level before dressing changes was higher in the TT-group. The situational challenges of this study led to inconsistencies in data collection and a high patient attrition rate, weakening its statistical power. Conducting an effect study within daily nursing practice should not be done with a nursing staff inexperienced in research. Analysis of the remaining data justifies further research on TT for burn patients with pain, anxiety for pain, and cortisol levels as outcomes. Administering and evaluating TT during daily care requires nurses experienced both in TT and research, thus leading to less attrition and missing data, increasing the power of future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Monzillo, Eloise; Gronowicz, Gloria
Our purpose is to discuss the study design and innovative approaches that led to finding significant effects of one energy medicine therapy, Therapeutic Touch (TT), on cells. In the original published studies, TT was shown to significantly increase human osteoblast DNA synthesis, differentiation, and mineralization; increase in a dose-dependent manner the growth of other human cell types; and decrease the differentiation and mineralization of a human osteosarcoma-derived cell line. A unique feature of the study's methodology and design that contributed to the success of the findings was that a basic level of skill and maturity of the TT practitioner was quantified for producing observable and replicable outcomes in a test administered to all TT practitioners. Only those practitioners that passed the test were selected for the study. (2) The practitioners were required to keep a journal, which appeared to promote their ability to stay centered and replicate their treatments over months of cell experimentation. (3) The origin of the cells that the practitioners were treating was explained to them, although they were blinded to cell type during the experiments. (4) Only early passage cells were used to maintain a stable cell phenotype. (5) Standard protocols for performing TT in the room were followed to ensure reproducible conditions. (6) Placebo controls and untreated controls were used for each experiment. (7) The principal investigator and technicians performing the assays were blinded as to the experimental groups, and all assays and procedures were well established in the laboratory prior to the start of the TT experiments. The absence of studies on the human biofield from mainstream scientific literature is also discussed by describing the difficulties encountered in publishing. These roadblocks contribute to our lack of understanding of the human biofield and energy medicine modalities in science. In conclusion, this report seeks to encourage well
Full Text Available Abstract: This article discusses how, in Brazilian society, people tend to touch one another more freely in public than in other societies. Using several anecdotes, the article explores the ways in which men greet each other, women reach out to hug and kiss each other, how children relate to their mothers, and how even within the same society habits and mores related to physical touch change in time.
Examines the distinction between good touch and bad touch, a critical concept that is taught in virtually every child sexual abuse prevention program. Hypothesizes that the reason the distinction is difficult for young children to learn and retain stems from limitations in their abilities to judge a person's character. (SKC)
Chae, Younbyoung; Olausson, Håkan
Acupuncture is a therapeutic treatment that is characterised by the insertion of a needle at a particular location on the body. Acupuncture stimulation includes sensory-discriminative and affective-social touch dimensions. In this review, we discuss the role of touch during acupuncture stimulation with an emphasis on the therapeutic, sensory-discriminative and affective-social aspects. In the discriminative dimension, de qi, which is associated with needling, includes a combination of various sensations, such as heaviness, numbness, soreness and distension. Achieving the appropriate de qi sensation appears to be fundamental to the therapeutic outcome following acupuncture treatment. In the affective dimension, the acupuncture procedure typically includes gentle manual touch stimulation, which induces feelings of calm and well-being, perhaps by activating C tactile fibres. Enhanced activity of C tactile afferents may induce a 'limbic touch' response, resulting in emotional and hormonal reactions. Because acupuncture is a 'therapist intensive' and complex intervention, it is necessary to understand the role of social touch between the practitioner and patient. Both sensory-discriminative and affective-social touch aspects play an important role in the therapeutic effect of acupuncture treatment in clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Dave, Hiren J
Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is a practical, step by step tutorial that will get you to use Sencha Touch core components quickly and efficiently.Instant Sencha Touch is for hobbyists who want to explore the capabilities of Sencha Touch. No prior knowledge of Sencha Touch is assumed. This book is simultaneously helpful for developers as well who want to quickly learn about Sencha Touch Framework. The book is structured in such a way that amateurs as well as experts
Using an experimental model for the study of therapeutic touch Uso de un modelo experimental para estudio sobre el toque terapéutico Utilização de um modelo experimental para estudo sobre o toque terapêutico
Daniella Soares dos Santos; Ilda Estéfani Ribeiro Marta; Evelin Capellari Cárnio; Andreza Urba de Quadros; Thiago Mattar Cunha; Emilia Campos de Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: to verify whether the Paw Edema Model can be used in investigations about the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation by measuring the variables pain, edema and neutrophil migration. METHOD: this is a pilot and experimental study, involving ten male mice of the same genetic strain and divided into experimental and control group, submitted to the chemical induction of local inflammation in the right back paw. The experimental group received a daily administration of Therapeutic...
Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten
A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide.......A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide....
Kappers, A.M.L.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.
The shape of objects cannot only be recognized by vision, but also by touch. Vision has the advantage that shapes can be seen at a distance, but touch has the advantage that during exploration many additional object properties become available, such as temperature (Jones, 2009), texture (Bensmaia,
Spence, C.; Hobkinson, C.; Gallace, A.; Piqueras Fiszman, B.
The last few years have seen a rapid growth of research interest in the study of the role of touch and oralsomatosensation in the experience of eating and drinking. The various ways in which the sense of touch can be used to enhance the diner’s/consumer’s experience in both everyday eating and
This position paper outlines the first stages in an ongoing PhD project on mediated social touch, and the effects mediated touch can have on someone's affective state. It is argued that touch is a profound communication channel for humans, and that communication through touch can, to some extent,
Pedersen, Esben Warming
Tangible user interfaces seek to make computing natural and ubiquitous by coupling digital information with physical objects. The thesis contributes to this field by presenting empirical research on tangible computing and touch interaction. In the area of tangible computing, the thesis first......, by supporting multi-touch control, and by allowing efficient interaction with multiple tangibles. These benefits were evaluated in a study that shows that rotation-based interactions were more efficient with Tangible Bots. A second study demonstrated usefulness by observing how electronic musicians use Tangible....... In the area of touch interactions, we report on results from a study that investigated the influence of display orientation on users’ performance and satisfaction. Using a horizontal and a vertical touch screen, we studied 16 participants as they tapped, dragged, and interacted bimanually. Results show...
Huisman, Gijs; Darriba Frederiks, Aduén; Heylen, Dirk K.J.
Touch is an important modality for affective communication between individuals. Here we present a system, named the TaSST (Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch), that allows two people to communicate different types of touch at a distance by touching their own forearm. In this paper we will introduce the
Calmes, Stephanie A.; Piazza, Nick J.; Laux, John M.
Although some counselors have advocated for the limited use of touch in counseling, others have argued that touch has no place within the counseling relationship. Despite the controversy, the use of touch has been shown to have a number of therapeutic benefits; however, there are few ethical decision-making models that are appropriate for…
Spence, C.; Hobkinson, C.; Gallace, A; Piqueras Fiszman, B.
The last few years have seen a rapid growth of research interest in the study of the role of touch and oralsomatosensation in the experience of eating and drinking. The various ways in which the sense of touch can be used to enhance the diner’s/consumer’s experience in both everyday eating and drinking, as well as in the context of experiential dining, is also gaining ever more attention from professionals in a variety of disciplines. In this review, we highlight the importance that everythin...
The present invention relates to an optical touch-sensitive device and a method of determining a position and determining a position change of an object contacting an optical touch sensitive device. In particular, the present invention relates to an optical touch pad and a method of determining...... a position and determining a position change of an object contacting an optical touch pad. A touch-sensitive device, according to the present invention may comprise a light source, a touch- sensitive waveguide, a detector array, and a first light redirecting member, wherein at least a part of the light...
This is a personal reflection on an encounter with the works of the nineteenth-century painter J. M. W. Turner in London's Tate Britain exhibition "Late Turner: Painting Set Free". The article discusses the deeply subjective nature of engaging with artworks, and touches upon theories that might account for the ineffable but moving…
Becas, Didier; Luksenberg, Marion; Denis, Sandrine
Rugby subjects the body to a tough test. Attack, defence, contact, touching are all elements which form part of this physical activity. It is very structured and safe from a psychological perspective. Taking pleasure in the game, with its rules, helps patients to develop interpersonal and relationship skills.
Jung, Merel Madeleine; Cang, Xi Laura; Poel, Mannes; MacLean, Karon E.
Advances in the field of touch recognition could open up applications for touch-based interaction in areas such as Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). We extended this challenge to the research community working on multimodal interaction with the goal of sparking interest in the touch modality and to
Lindgren, Lenita; Jacobsson, Maritha; Lämås, Kristina
This study aims to describe and analyze healthy individuals' expressed experiences of touch massage (TM). Fifteen healthy participants received whole body touch massage during 60 minutes for two separate occasions. Interviews were analyzed by narrative analysis. Four identifiable storyline was found, Touch massage as an essential need, in this storyline the participants talked about a desire and need for human touch and TM. Another storyline was about, Touch massage as a pleasurable experience and the participants talked about the pleasure of having had TM. In the third storyline Touch massage as a dynamic experience, the informants talked about things that could modulate the experience of receiving TM. In the last storyline, Touch massage influences self-awareness, the participants described how TM affected some of their psychological and physical experiences. Experiences of touch massage was in general described as pleasant sensations and the different storylines could be seen in the light of rewarding experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.
Maria Júlia Paes da Silva
Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata a experiência de ensino do Toque Terapêutico (imposição de mãos para graduandos e graduados na área de saúde, num curso de 12 horas com aulas teóricas e exercícios práticos, A percepção dos exercícios foi registrada durante os dias de curso e é descrita a avaliação que os participantes fizeram do mesmo. Por ser inovador, este tipo de ensino nas instituições de saúde do Brasil, os autores consideram importante relatar os resultados do início desse ensino que nos EUA recebeu o nome de Toque Terapêutico (T.T. da enfermeira Dolores Krieger - docente na Faculdade de Enfermagem da Universidade de Nova York. Entre os achados, verificou-se que a grande maioria dos participantes teve um acréscimo na sensibilidade aos sintomas detectáveis pelo T.T. - tanto quantitativa quanto qualitativamente.El presente trabajo relata la experiencia de enseñanza del Toque Terapéutico (imposición de las manos para estudiantes de enfermería y enfermeros en un curso de doce horas con clases teóricas y ejercicios prácticos. La percepción de los ejercicios fue registrada durante los días del curso y se describe la evaluación que los participantes hicieron con respeto a ello. Por ser innovador ese tipo de enseñanza en las instituciones de salud en Brasil, los autores consideran importante relatar los resultados del comienzo de esa enseñanza, que en Estados Unidos recibió el nombre de Toque Terapéutico (T.T. de la enfermera DoIores Krieger - docente en la Facultad de Enfermería de Nueva York. Entre los hallazgos, se verificó que la gran mayoría de los participantes tuvo un incremento de la sensibilidad a los síntomas detectables a través del T.T. - sea cuantitativa sea cualitativamente.The present study shows the experience of learning Therapeutic Touch (concepts and technique lived by nurses and nursing students in Brazil. The students' perception was registered when they were learning the process. The chief
The book is written in a cookbook style, presenting examples in the style of recipes, allowing you to go directly to your topic of interest, or follow topics throughout a chapter to gain in-depth knowledge. This book is ideal for anyone who wants to gain the practical knowledge involved in using Sencha Touch mobile web application framework to make attractive web apps for mobiles. If you have some familiarity with HTML and CSS, then this book is for you. This book will give designers the skills they need to implement their ideas, and provide developers with creative inspiration through practic
Owen, Pamela M.; Gillentine, Jonathan
This study proposes to shift the current theoretical framework in which teachers practise a guarded approach regarding the touching of children in early childhood settings, towards a practice of acceptance. A brief historical context of touching is presented and supplemented with a survey of 63 currently practising K-3rd grade teachers. The survey…
Three seminars – at CERN, at Gran Sasso and in Japan – and an article calling for the scrutiny of the scientific community: the OPERA Collaboration opened its research publicly. In addition to huge press coverage, this triggered welcome reactions from colleagues around the world, many of whom will attempt to independently interpret and reproduce the measurement. OPERA’s Spokesperson touches base with the Bulletin. The CERN Main Auditorium was crowded as OPERA Physics co-ordinator Dario Autiero presented the results of their research (23 September 2011). According to the OPERA strategy, the results of the measurements are in the hands of the scientific community and, as for any other scientific result, several months will be needed before other groups will be able to perform an independent measurement. In the meantime, the OPERA Collaboration is dealing with an avalanche of emails from the scientific community, members of the general public, and the press. &...
Willemse, Christian Jacob Arendt Maria
One of the research areas within affective Computer Mediated Communication currently under investigation is that of mediated social touch. A social touch is a complex composition of different physical parameters that can be simulated by haptic technologies. In this article we argue why we think it
Full Text Available Supporters of touch therapy claim it can treat and cure a wide variety of illnesses, including heart failure, diabetes and infections. The "theory" is that people who are ill have disturbed "energy fields," and that by moving trained hands over the patient's body (without contact, a touch therapist can detect malalignments and repattern energy fields to create "energy balance." In a quasi- experimental study, 30 subjects in 6 hours post cesarean section state were divided into therapeutic touch or placebo (speech induction groups in a university hospital. In order to assess the pain, Visual Analog scale (VAS was used, before and after intervention. The mean pain score decreased significantly only in the therapeutic touch group (50.66 to 39.53 p<0.01. In conclusion, it is recommended that therapeutic touch , as an attentive technique, can be used in pain relieve after cesarean section.
Huisman, G.; Darriba Frederiks, A.; van Dijk, B.; Kröse, B.; Heylen, D.
In this paper we present the concept and initial design stages of the TaSST (Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch). The TaSST consists of a soft pressure-sensitive input layer, and an output layer containing vibration motors. A touch to ones own sleeve is felt as a vibration on the sleeve of another
Huisman, Gijs; Darriba Frederiks, Aduén; Heylen, Dirk; Van Dijk, Betsy; Kröse, Ben
In this paper we present the concept and initial design stages of the TaSST (Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch). The TaSST consists of a soft pressure-sensitive input layer, and an output layer containing vibration motors. A touch to ones own sleeve is felt as a vibration on the sleeve of another
Passionate about the relational dimension of care, this nurse-turned-researcher shares with us the key stages of her university career guided by the place of touch in the therapeutic relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Jones, T; Glover, L
The experience of touch is significant; both in its positive implications and in how it attracts caution and controversy. Accordingly, physical contact within psychological therapy has been shown to improve well-being and the therapeutic relationship, yet the majority of therapists never or rarely use touch. This research aimed to explore psychological processes underlying touch through the Alexander Technique, a psycho-physical technique taught one to one using touch. Six individuals who had received the Alexander Technique were interviewed, and 111 completed surveys. Interview data suggested an incompatibility between touch and the spoken word, which was understood through the way touch lacks verbal discourses in our society. The largely simplistic and dichotomous verbal understanding we have (either only very positive or very negative) could help understand some of the societal-level caution surrounding touch. Touch was seen also as a nurturing experience by interviewees, which influenced inter-personal and intra-personal relational processes. Developmental models were used to frame the way touch strengthened the pupil-teacher relationship and the way pupils' intra-personal psychological change seemed linked to this relational experience. The surveys largely supported these findings, and discussion is made around the notable way pupils negatively interpreted the intention of the survey. Implications for the use of touch in psychological therapies are discussed, as are limitations and ideas for future research. Touch is a powerful experience, and physical contact within psychological therapy has been shown to improve well-being and the therapeutic relationship, yet the majority of therapists never or rarely use touch. The AT is an alternative therapeutic approach to psycho-physical well-being that offers an interesting model to study the impact of touch. Findings from those that have used the technique reaffirmed that touch can improve well-being and can be a
Peloquin, S M
There is a power to touch, and a magic. Some call it mystery. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the various meanings and uses of touch, particularly within the context of relationship and helping. There will be no attempt to formulate a protocol for touch or to lay claim to a definitive meaning for touch. Reflection about touch may instead clarify some of its meanings and dynamics while encouraging care providers to embrace the experience of helping-through-touch. This paper supports a considered use of empathie touch because of its power and its ability to embody care.
This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…
Using an experimental model for the study of therapeutic touch Uso de un modelo experimental para estudio sobre el toque terapéutico Utilização de um modelo experimental para estudo sobre o toque terapêutico
Daniella Soares dos Santos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to verify whether the Paw Edema Model can be used in investigations about the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation by measuring the variables pain, edema and neutrophil migration. METHOD: this is a pilot and experimental study, involving ten male mice of the same genetic strain and divided into experimental and control group, submitted to the chemical induction of local inflammation in the right back paw. The experimental group received a daily administration of Therapeutic Touch for 15 minutes during three days. RESULTS: the data showed statistically significant differences in the nociceptive threshold and in the paw circumference of the animals from the experimental group on the second day of the experiment. CONCLUSION: the experiment model involving animals can contribute to study the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation, and adjustments are suggested in the treatment duration, number of sessions and experiment duration.OBJETIVO: verificar si el Modelo de Edema de Pata puede ser utilizado en las investigaciones acerca de los efectos del Toque Terapéutico sobre la inflamación, mensurándose las variables dolor, edema y migración de neutrófilos. MÉTODO: se trata de un estudio piloto, experimental, con 10 ratones machos del mismo linaje genético, divididos en grupo experimental y control, sometidos a inducción química de inflamación local en la pata derecha trasera. O grupo experimental recibió una aplicación diaria de Toque Terapéutico con duración de quince minutos, por tres días. RESULTADOS: Los datos evidenciaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el umbral de nocicepción y circunferencia de las patas de los animales del grupo experimental durante el segundo día del experimento. CONCLUSIÓN: El modelo de experimento con animal puede contribuir al estudio de los efectos del Toque Terapéutico sobre la inflamación: se sugiere ajuste en el tiempo de exposición, número de sesiones y
Bruun, Anders; Hahn, Claudia; Voigt, Benjamin
This study extends previous research by exploring the quality of the interaction experienced by a group of elderly participants interacting with a healthcare portal when applying a touch screen remote control. This is compared to a standard remote control with physical buttons....
Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7 ± 1.6 years participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1 decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2 increased ln(HF-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.
This paper presents findings from a longitude project on children‘s use of interactive touchscreens in classroom-settings. By exploring and analysing interaction among pairs, children‘s collaborative activities are under study, and it is highlighted how touch technologies invites for a more...
Gabay, Juliette; Hérisson, Brigitte
Training in "relational" touch is offered by a nurse and a psychologist working in tandem, according to a theoretical-practical approach. This is based on nurses' experience, their impressions and interdisciplinarity. The carers are therefore supported in the (re)discovery of thisprecioussensewhichoffers a different way of communicating.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation (AGATE, for Autonomous Go And Touch Exploration) will enable single-sol "go and touch" instrument placement from distances of up to five meters for...
Marshall, Joe; Linehan, Conor; Tennent, Paul; Hazzard, Adrian
Interpersonal touch is a key element of social behaviour, yet is largely ignored in HCI. In this paper, we describe two games which explore two extremes of interpersonal touch, and discuss key research questions relating to them.
Legg, Angela M.; Wilson, Janie H.
Touch between people is associated with several outcomes, including reduced stress, more positive mood, enhanced feelings of closeness, and positive behavioral change. However, the potential utility of touch rarely has been examined in a college sample, with teachers touching their students. In the present study, we used instrumental touch…
Pedersen, Henrik Chresten; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner
We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touching...
This survey provides an overview of work on haptic technology for social touch. Social touch has been studied extensively in psychology and neuroscience. With the development of new technologies, it is now possible to engage in social touch at a distance or engage in social touch with artificial
Gilroy, S.; Swanson, S.; Massa, G.
Roots must integrate many stimuli in order to direct their growth as they explore the soil. Gravitropism leads to downward growth but other stimuli such as gradients in nutrients, water, biotic and abiotic stresses and physical obstacles such as rocks all act on the roots sensory systems to modify this gravitropic response. We have therefore investigated the interaction of gravity signaling and response to other stimuli such as a mechanical obstruction to downward growth. A gravitropically directed primary root of Arabidopsis thaliana (growing vertically) senses an obstacle such as a glass plate placed in its direction of growth and initiates an avoidance growth response upon contacting the barrier. This response appears to be caused by an interaction of gravitropic and thigmotropic sensory systems. The touch stimulation of the root cap leads to alteration in growth, initially in the central and later in the distal elongation zone of the root. These growth responses maintain the root tip at an angle of 136 degrees to the barrier as the root grows across the obstacle's surface. Removal of cells in the root cap by laser ablation indicate that all root cap cells are required for this growth response to the barrier. Once the end of the barrier is reached and the root can grow off the obstruciton, gravitropism appears to occur faster than in roots that did not interact with an obstacle, suggesting that the touch stimulation of the barrier may alter gravitropic signaling or response. Touch stimulation of the root cap inhibited the pH-dependent gravity signaling events that are known to be required for gravitropic response. These results imply a transient suppression of gravisensing or graviresponse by touch. Touch stimulation of root cap cells elicited an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that appears to propagate from cell to cell throughout the cap, suggesting Ca2+ signaling may underlie the communication between gravity and touch sensing cells. Although the pgm1 -1 starch
Full Text Available The tactile sensitivity has been used as a model to analyze the cortical organization’s principles in order to realize a conscious perception. Somatosensory cortex is a perceptive macrosystem localized in the parietal cortex organized to represent the whole tactile system. Touch is a double complex sensory system because is localized in the hand, but also generalized as the whole body presence and may be described in three tactile perceptions forms: the passive touch, the active touch and the dynamic one. In last years, tactile perception received particular attention from scientists linked to the possible application in robotics, using the haptic perception, and for the therapeutic application in rehabilitation
Zhao, Sumin; Unsworth, Len
Interactivity is often considered as the defining feature of a book app. However, what constitutes interactivity in the context of apps is not always clear. We postulate in this chapter a multimodal social semiotic theory of interactivity, which considers interactivity as not simply a function...... of technology, but also a resource for meaning making. We distinguish two basic types of interactivity—intra-text and extra-text—incorporated in the touch design, and explore the different functions they perform in a broad range of picture book apps. In particular, we look at the app version of The Heart...... and the Bottle in depth, and illustrate how interactive design elements help to create an interpretative possibility of the story. We suggest that a better understanding of interactive touch design would promote more effective adult-child interactions around mobile applications....
Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J
Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain).
Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.
This survey provides an overview of work on haptic technology for social touch. Social touch has been studied extensively in psychology and neuroscience. With the development of new technologies, it is now possible to engage in social touch at a distance or engage in social touch with artificial social agents. Social touch research has inspired research into technology mediated social touch, and this line of research has found effects similar to actual social touch. The importance of haptic stimulus qualities, multimodal cues, and contextual factors in technology mediated social touch is discussed. This survey is concluded by reflecting on the current state of research into social touch technology, and providing suggestions for future research and applications.
Govindaraju, Navaneethan; Pallati, Rakesh
Green Touch is a start-up company in the Digital Menu arena that offers clients with an All in One Digital Technology solution and 24/7 customer support. Our goal is to offer a complete digital solution for the hospitality industry by offering state of the art technology which enables businesses to be more productive by reducing work flow for its employees and yet substantial increase profits. Digital Menus increase profits in more ways than one, WOW your guests with live images of your dishe...
Wang, Li; Champion, Erik
Can recent technology help bridge cultures through playful interaction appropriate to traditional tacit means of acquiring knowledge? In order to help answer this question, we designed four Adobe Flash-based based game prototypes and evaluated them via a touch-screen PC. The goal was to offer nonChinese...... participants a playful way of experiencing aspects of traditional Chinese culture. The four single-player games were based on the four arts of China (music, calligraphy, painting and the game of Go!). In the evaluation we asked non-Chinese and the Chinese participants to evaluate the games in terms of learning...
Tendências da pesquisa envolvendo o uso do toque terapêutico como uma estratégia de enfermagem Tendencias de la investigación que involucran el uso del toque terapéutico como una estrategia deenfermería Trends in research involving the use of therapeutic touch as a nursing strategy
Christiane Inocêncio Vasques
estudios clínicos bien delineados capaces de comprobar la efectividad de la intervención, además de estudiar poblaciones que por ahora no son abordadas, como los ancianos y recién nacidos.Therapeutic touch (TT is one of the oldest vibrational therapies still in use. Dolores Krieger and Dora Kunz, in the 1970s, pioneered the application of the method in nursing. Since then, research involving the use of therapeutic touch has been developed in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention to reduce the signs and symptoms related to various diseases. Many studies have evaluated the use of TT in isolation, however, a large part of these research studies compare this strategy with other complementary therapies, such as: music, guided imagery and relaxation. The results of these studies indicate improvement or reduction of signs and symptoms investigated in patients undergoing TT. However, methodological biases make it impossible to generalize the results, making it essential to conduct well-designed clinical trials capable of determining the effectiveness of the intervention, in addition to studying populations that have not yet been addressed, such as the elderly and newborns.
The aim of this article is to provide a cursory review of some of the literature relating to loneliness, existentialism and touch. With reference to the critical incident analysis (see Box 1), a reflection on the learning that has been achieved both intrapersonally and interpersonally will also be provided. A consideration of how exactly this experience of structured reflection may be used to enhance and develop practice will also be explored. The review will analyze the key concepts of loneliness, existentialism, the therapeutic relationship and touch within the realms of nursing practice, specifically in relation to death and dying. This article seeks to highlight the importance of having an understanding of loneliness in nursing, particularly when caring for patients who are dying.
The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...
Efeitos gradativos do toque terapêutico na redução da ansiedade de estudantes universitários Efecto gradual del tacto terapéutico en la reducción de la ansiedad en estudiantes universitarios Gradual effects of therapeutic touch in reducing anxiety in university students
Vanessa Miranda Gomes
Full Text Available Trabalho de pesquisa quantitativo realizado com 42 discentes de uma instituição pública de ensino superior, utilizando-se a técnica do Toque Terapêutico - Método Krieger-Kunz e aplicação de um questionário validado no Brasil para avaliar a ansiedade durante três sessões. Os sujeitos foram alocados em dois grupos: experimental (1, em que receberam a terapia complementar; e controle (2, em que foram submetidos a imitação da técnica sem intenção terapêutica. O objetivo foi identificar a influência gradativa desta terapia complementar de saúde no que se refere ao estado de ansiedade dos estudantes. A análise dos dados revelou uma redução estatisticamente significativa do estado de ansiedade em ambos os grupos, com pd" 0,05.Trabajo de pesquisa cuantitativo con 42 discentes de una institución pública de enseñanza superior, utilizándose la técnica del Toque Terapéutico - Método Krieger-Kunz y aplicación de un cuestionario validado en Brasil para evaluar la ansiedad durante tres sesiones. Los sujetos fueron alocados en dos grupos: experimental (1 que recibieron la terapia complementar y control (2 que fueron sometidos a la imitación de la técnica sin intención terapéutica. El objetivo fue identificar la influencia graduada de esta terapia complementar de salud en lo que se refiere al Estado de Ansiedad de los estudiantes. La análisis de los datos rebeló una reducción estadísticamente significativa del Estado de ansiedad en ambos los grupos con pd" 0,05.This is quantitative research conducted with 42 students of a public university using the Therapeutic Touch - Krieger-Kunz Method and the application of a questionnaire validated in Brazil to assess anxiety in three sessions. Subjects were divided into two groups: experimental (1, in which the complementary therapy was used; and control (2, in which a mock of the technique, with no therapeutic intention, was applied. The objective was to identify the gradual influence
石垣, 尚男; 武田, 到範; 中塚, 英弥
"This study is aimed at the following two objectives: - To demonstrate individual differences in exercises for touching numbers on a touch panel - To demonstrate training effect of touching numbers exercises. - Seven university students( 5 males and 2 females) participated as subjects. We used a large size touch panel, 1280mm in width and 750mm in height, and sports vision measurement software (SPEESION, by Asics). The training sessions took place twice a week for 9 consecutive weeks. The mai...
Jung, Merel Madeleine; Poel, Mannes; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.
For an artifact such as a robot or a virtual agent to respond appropriately to human social touch behavior, it should be able to automatically detect and recognize touch. This paper describes the data collection of CoST: Corpus of Social Touch, a data set containing 7805 captures of 14 different
Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.
Touch is an essential channel in interpersonal and affective communication, yet most social agents currently lack the capability to touch the user. In this paper we show the credibility of three premises that make the case that providing touch capability to social robots will increase their
Jung, Merel Madeleine
Touch behavior is of great importance during social interaction. Automatic recognition of social touch is necessary to transfer the touch modality from interpersonal interaction to other areas such as Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). This paper describes a PhD research program on the automatic
Erp, J.B.F. van
Touching is essential in interpersonal and affective communication, yet most social agents lack the capability to touch the user. In this paper we show the credibility of three premises that make the case that providing touch capability to social robots will increase their effectiveness in
Jung, Merel Madeleine; Boensma, Robert W.M.; Huisman, Gijs; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.
In this study we investigate the role of remote touch as an additional communication channel in the context of storytelling. We focus on studying the effect of remote touch and the timing of touch on perceived social presence and story recall. In our experiment people listened to an emotional story.
Jung, Merel Madeleine
Touch behavior is of great importance during social interaction. Automatic recognition of social touch is necessary to transfer the touch modality from interpersonal interaction to other areas such as Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). This paper describes a PhD research program on the automatic
Full Text Available Mika Elo is a postdoctoral researcher and lecturer in visual culture at Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture (Aalto-ARTS, Helsinki. His research interests include theory of photographic media, philosophical media theory, and artistic research. He is participating in discussions in these areas in the capacity of curator, visual artist and researcher. He has published articles in Finnish, German, and English among others on Benjamin, Nancy, artistic research and photography theory. His doctoral thesis Valokuvan medium [The Medium of Photography] was published in Finnish in 2005 (Tutkijaliitto, Helsinki. In 2009–2011 he worked in the Figures of Touch research project (figuresoftouch.com, and since 2011 he is the director of Media Aesthetics research group at Aalto-ARTS, Department of Media.Author Biography The article reflects on digitality and interface design in terms of the multiple senses of touch. Touching is presented as a “pathic” sense of being exposed, which implies that touching exceeds the tactile and even the phenomenal world. A particular focus is set on Aristotle's and Husserl's ways of thematizing the sense of touch. In this way, two extremes of the phenomenological thinking of touching are articulated: touching as an indistinct and heterogeneous constituent of sensitivity and touching as the guarantor of immediacy of the sense experience. Referring to Derrida's critical notes concerning haptocentrism, the article attempts to problematize the hand and the finger as phenomenological figures of touch and as holds of haptic realism. The article concludes that insofar as digital interface design aims at haptic realism it conceives of the sense of touch in terms of narcissistic feedback and thus tends to conceal the pathic moment of touching.
Miguel, Helga O.; Sampaio, Adriana; Martínez-Regueiro, Rocío; Gómez-Guerrero, Lorena; López-Dóriga, Cristina Gutiérrez; Gómez, Sonia; Carracedo, Ángel; Fernández-Prieto, Montse
Abnormal patterns of touch processing have been linked to core symptoms in ASD. This study examined the relation between tactile processing patterns and social problems in 44 children and adolescents with ASD, aged 6-14 (M = 8.39 ± 2.35). Multiple linear regression indicated significant associations between touch processing and social problems. No…
Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.
Touch is our primary non-verbal communication channel for conveying intimate emotions and as such essential for our physical and emotional wellbeing. In our digital age, human social interaction is often mediated. However, even though there is increasing evidence that mediated touch affords
Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna
Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…
Full Text Available Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration. 14 couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy.
Darriba Frederiks, Aduén; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Huisman, Gijs
Communication with others occurs through a multitude of signals, such as speech, facial expressions, and body postures. Understudied in this regard is the way we use our sense of touch in social communication. In this paper we present the TaSST (Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch), a hap- tic
van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander
Touch is our primary non-verbal communication channel for conveying intimate emotions and as such essential for our physical and emotional wellbeing. In our digital age, human social interaction is often mediated. However, even though there is increasing evidence that mediated touch affords
van Stralen, H.E.; van Zandvoort, M.J.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229475094; Hoppenbrouwers, S.S.; Vissers, L.M.; Kappelle, L.J.; Dijkerman, H.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829757
Introduction: Humans experience touch as pleasant when this occurs with a certain velocity (1–10cm/s). Affective, pleasant touch is thought to be mediated by a distinct neural pathway consisting of un-myelinated tactile afferents (C tactile fibers) that respond to stroking with a low velocity on the
Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick
Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch-pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending Aδ pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch-pain interactions. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kirsch, Louise P; Krahé, Charlotte; Blom, Nadia; Crucianelli, Laura; Moro, Valentina; Jenkinson, Paul M; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini
Touch is central to interpersonal interactions. Touch conveys specific emotions about the touch provider, but it is not clear whether this is a purely socially learned function or whether it has neurophysiological specificity. In two experiments with healthy participants (N = 76 and 61) and one neuropsychological single case study, we investigated whether a type of touch characterised by peripheral and central neurophysiological specificity, namely the C tactile (CT) system, can communicate specific emotions and mental states. We examined the specificity of emotions elicited by touch delivered at CT-optimal (3cm/s) and CT-suboptimal (18cm/s) velocities (Experiment 1) at different body sites which contain (forearm) vs. do not contain (palm of the hand) CT fibres (Experiment 2). Blindfolded participants were touched without any contextual cues, and were asked to identify the touch provider's emotion and intention. Overall, CT-optimal touch (slow, gentle touch on the forearm) was significantly more likely than other types of touch to convey arousal, lust or desire. Affiliative emotions such as love and related intentions such as social support were instead reliably elicited by gentle touch, irrespective of CT-optimality, suggesting that other top-down factors contribute to these aspects of tactile social communication. To explore the neural basis of this communication, we also tested this paradigm in a stroke patient with right perisylvian damage, including the posterior insular cortex, which is considered as the primary cortical target of CT afferents, but excluding temporal cortex involvement that has been linked to more affiliative aspects of CT-optimal touch. His performance suggested an impairment in 'reading' emotions based on CT-optimal touch. Taken together, our results suggest that the CT system can add specificity to emotional and social communication, particularly with regards to feelings of desire and arousal. On the basis of these findings, we speculate
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the concept sense of touch, which is considered in all its aspects and dimensions. The author's aim is to determine what is touch in terms of philosophy, what types it has and what traditional functions (i.e. prior to the emergence of virtual reality each of these functions performed. The conducted research allows the author to make a conclusion about the importance of perceiving the role and significance of man as a homo tangens - man touching and tangible.
Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I
...). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2...
Alapetite, Alexandre; Andersen, Henning Boje; Fogh, Rune
Following the paradigm shift where physical controls are replaced by touch-enabled surfaces, we report on an experimental evaluation of a user interface concept that allows touchscreen-based panels to be manipulated partially blindly (aircrafts, cars). The proposed multi-touch interaction strateg...... – involving visual front-view feedback to the user from a copy of the peripheral panel being manipulated – compares favourably against trackballs or head-down interactions.......Following the paradigm shift where physical controls are replaced by touch-enabled surfaces, we report on an experimental evaluation of a user interface concept that allows touchscreen-based panels to be manipulated partially blindly (aircrafts, cars). The proposed multi-touch interaction strategy...
Huisman, Gijs; Darriba Frederiks, Aduén; Van Dijk, Betsy; Heylen, Dirk
In this paper we outline the design process of TaSST (Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch), a touch-sensitive vibrotactile arm sleeve. The TaSST was designed to enable two people to communicate different types of touches over a distance. The touch-sensitive surface of the sleeve consists of a grid of
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 502 Electronic One Touch... utilizing only one touch of a button (``one touch bingo''). The proposed reinterpretation is in response to questions the NIGC received from the regulated community and the public about whether one touch bingo is a...
Huisman, Gijs; Darriba Frederiks, Aduén; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Krose, Ben
In this paper we outline the design process of the TaSST (Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch), a touch-sensitive vibrotactile arm sleeve. The TaSST was designed to enable two people to communicate different types of touch over a distance. The touch-sensitive surface of the sleeve consists of a grid of
Efetividade do Toque Terapêutico sobre a dor, depressão e sono em pacientes com dor crônica: ensaio clínico Efectividad del Toque Terapéutico en dolor, depresión y sueño en pacientes con dolor crónica: ensayo clínico The effectiveness of Therapeutic Touch on pain, depression and sleep in patients with chronic pain: clinical trial
Ilda Estefani Ribeiro Marta
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a efetividade do Toque Terapêutico na diminuição da intensidade da dor, escores de auto-avaliação de depressão e melhora da qualidade do sono. Consiste em um ensaio clínico do tipo antes e depois, realizado com 30 idosos com dor crônica não-oncológica que receberam 8 sessões de Toque Terapêutico Método Krieger-Kunz na Unidade Básica de Saúde de Fernandópolis (SP, Brasil. A Escala Analógica Visual para dor foi aplicada antes e após cada sessão, o Inventário de Depressão de Beck e o Índice de Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburgh, antes da primeira e após a última. A análise dos dados demonstrou diminuição significativa (pEste estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar la efectividad del Tacto Terapéutico en la disminución de la intensidad del dolor, puntajes de autoevaluación de depresión y mejora de la calidad del sueño. Consistió en un ensayo clínico del tipo antes y después, realizado en una Unidad Básica de Salud de Fernandópolis - SP - Brasil, con 30 ancianos con dolor crónico no oncológico que recibieron 8 sesiones de Tacto Terapéutico Método Krieger-Kunz. La Escala Analógica Visual para dolor fue aplicada antes y después de cada sesión, el Inventario de Depresión de Beck y el Índice de Calidad del Sueño de Pittsburgh antes de la primera y luego de la última. El análisis de los datos demostró una disminución significativa (pThis research aimed to check the effectiveness of Therapeutic Touch on decreased pain intensity, depression self-assessment scores and improved sleep quality. A clinical before-after trial is presented. The study was carried out at a Basic Health Unit in Fernandópolis, SP-Brazil, involving 30 elderly patients with chronic non-oncologic pain who received 8 sessions of Therapeutic Touch in accordance with the Krieger-Kunz method. The Visual Analogue Scale for pain was applied before and after each session, and Beck Depression Inventory and the
The skin not only protects the body from harm but, through receptors found in the skin, also enables the sense of touch. The sense of touch is used to obtain information about the world outside the body, for example, the shape and weight of a book or the texture of its cover. However, the sense of
Jung, Merel M.; Poppe, Ronald|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/317771345; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K. J.
Touch behavior is of great importance during social interaction. To transfer the tactile modality from interpersonal interaction to other areas such as Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) and remote communication automatic recognition of social touch is necessary. This paper introduces CoST: Corpus of
Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro
Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano.
Han, Areum; Kunik, Mark E
Limited evidence supports the use of therapeutic touch for people with dementia (PWD). Interventions incorporating a person-centered approach to touch delivered by staff may benefit PWD and staff in long-term care settings. The Compassionate Touch ® (CT) program provides skilled human touch and a compassionate presence following a person-centered approach and touch protocol. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of training and delivering CT. An online survey was sent via email to 112 staff who attended the CT coach training. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyze closed-and open-ended questions of the survey. Twenty-four staff members completed the survey and reported positive perspectives about the training, use of the program, and benefits for PWD and themselves. Five themes emerged, including (1) benefits for residents, (2) challenges in using CT, (3) when to use CT, (4) training staff, and (5) needed support. Preliminary findings from the present research show potential benefits of using the CT program for residents, challenges participants faced in using the program and training other staff, and support needed to overcome these challenges. Programs such as CT may benefit PWD and staff in residential care settings.
Woo, Seung-Hyun; Lumpkin, Ellen A.; Patapoutian, Ardem
The Merkel cell-neurite complex is a unique vertebrate touch receptor comprising two distinct cell types in the skin. Its presence in touch-sensitive skin areas was recognized more than a century ago, but the functions of each cell type in sensory transduction have been unclear. Three recent studies demonstrate that Merkel cells are mechanosensitive cells that function in touch transduction via Piezo2. One study concludes that Merkel cells rather than sensory neurons are principal sites of mechanotransduction, whereas the other two studies report that both Merkel cells and neurons encode mechanical inputs. Together, these studies settle a longstanding debate on whether Merkel cells are mechanosensory cells, and enable future investigations of how these skin cells communicate with neurons. PMID:25480024
Linkovski, Omer; Katzin, Naama; Salti, Moti
Since mirror neurons were introduced to the neuroscientific community more than 20 years ago, they have become an elegant and intuitive account for different cognitive mechanisms (e.g., empathy, goal understanding) and conditions (e.g., autism spectrum disorders). Recently, mirror neurons were suggested to be the mechanism underlying a specific type of synesthesia. Mirror-touch synesthesia is a phenomenon in which individuals experience somatosensory sensations when seeing someone else being touched. Appealing as it is, careful delineation is required when applying this mechanism. Using the mirror-touch synesthesia case, we put forward theoretical and methodological issues that should be addressed before relying on the mirror-neurons account. © The Author(s) 2016.
Rao, SSVV Narasimha
This book is a step-by-step tutorial aimed at beginners to Sencha Touch. There is ready sample code explained with essential screenshots for better and quicker understanding. This book is ideal for anyone who wants to gain the practical knowledge involved in using Sencha Touch mobile web application framework to make attractive web apps for mobiles. If you have some familiarity with HTML and CSS, then this book is for you. This book will give designers the skills they need to implement their ideas, and provides developers with creative inspiration through practical examples. It is assumed that
von Mohr, Mariana; Kirsch, Louise P; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini
The mammalian need for social proximity, attachment and belonging may have an adaptive and evolutionary value in terms of survival and reproductive success. Consequently, ostracism may induce strong negative feelings of social exclusion. Recent studies suggest that slow, affective touch, which is mediated by a separate, specific C tactile neurophysiological system than faster, neutral touch, modulates the perception of physical pain. However, it remains unknown whether slow, affective touch, can also reduce feelings of social exclusion, a form of social pain. Here, we employed a social exclusion paradigm, namely the Cyberball task (N = 84), to examine whether the administration of slow, affective touch may reduce the negative feelings of ostracism induced by the social exclusion manipulations of the Cyberball task. As predicted, the provision of slow-affective, as compared to fast-neutral, touch led to a specific decrease in feelings of social exclusion, beyond general mood effects. These findings point to the soothing function of slow, affective touch, particularly in the context of social separation or rejection, and suggest a specific relation between affective touch and social bonding.
Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.
The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…
Padfield, Nicolas; Löwgren, Jonas; Hobye, Mads
We present five design cases as an annotated portfolio, exploring ways to design for intimate, interpersonal touch and social intimacy in interaction design. Five key qualities are elicited from the cases, including novel connotations sparking curiosity; providing an excuse to interact; unfolding...
Higgins, Steve; Mercier, Emma; Burd, Liz; Joyce-Gibbons, Andrew
The development of multi-touch tables, an emerging technology for classroom learning, offers valuable opportunities to explore how its features can be designed to support effective collaboration in schools. In this study, small groups of 10- to 11-year-old children undertook a history task where they had to connect various pieces of information…
A phenomenological approach was used to gather, analyze and interpret the data, drawing on Merleau-Ponty's (1945/1962) philosophical exploration of perception and human experience, which emphasizes the body as a means of communicating with the world. The findings indicate that touch between coaches and ...
Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn
Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…
Huisman, Gijs; Bianchi-Berthouze, N.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.
The main aim of this first workshop on Mediated Touch and Affect (MeTA) is to bring together researchers from diverse communities, such as affective computing, hap tics, augmented reality, communication, design, psychology, human-robot interaction, and telepresence. The goal is to discuss the
Zhou, J.; Kryzak, A.; Suen, C.Y.
In the field of financial document processing, recognition of touching handwritten numerals has been limited by lack of good benchmarking databases and low reliability of algorithms. This paper addresses the efforts toward solving the two problems. Two databases IRIS-Bell\\\\\\'98 and TNIST are
A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)
Fikkert, F.W.; Hakvoort, M.; Hakvoort, M.C.; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.; Reidsma, D.; Reidsma, Dennis; Hondorp, G.H.W.
Interactive multi-touch tables can be a powerful means of communication for collaborative work as well as an engaging environment for competition. Through enticing gameplay we have evaluated user experience on competitive gameplay, collaborative work and musical expression. In addition, we report on
Pugh, Steven F.; Alford, Alan
Physical educators are always looking for new ideas that introduce moderate-to-vigorous activity, involve skill, encourage teamwork, and increase student interest. Touch rugby has the potential to contribute to these outcomes. Though the sport is not new, it is not a mainstream sport. Therefore, students see it as something new. Their motivation…
cognitive psychology, to develop and test a four-component model (4 C's) that depicts the most influential relational and ... and interpret the data, drawing on Merleau-Ponty's (1945/1962) philosophical exploration of perception and human ...... Other athletes painted a picture of touch in big competitions as being very ...
Pedrazza, Monica; Minuzzo, Stefania; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena
Touch is an essential part of caregiving and has been proved to be useful to reduce pain. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to nurses' perceptions of touch. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between nurses' feelings of comfort with touch and their well-being at work. A sample of 241 nurses attending a pain management training course completed a questionnaire, including the following measures: Comfort with Touch (CT) scale (task-oriented contact, touch promoting physical comfort, touch providing emotional containment), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; emotional exhaustion, cynicism), and Job Satisfaction. Results of structural equation models showed that touch providing emotional containment was the main predictor of emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion, in turn, was positively related to cynicism and negatively related to job satisfaction. In addition, the direct path from touch providing emotional containment to cynicism was significant. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Active, self-touch and the passive touch from an external source engage comparable afferent mechanoreceptors on the touched skin site. However, touch directed to glabrous skin compared to hairy skin will activate different types of afferent mechanoreceptors. Despite perceptual similarities between touch to different body sites, it is likely that the touch information is processed differently. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to elucidate the cortical differences in the neural signal of touch representations during active, self-touch and passive touch from another, to both glabrous (palm and hairy (arm skin, where a soft brush was used as the stimulus. There were two active touch conditions, where the participant used the brush in their right hand to stroke either their left palm or arm. There were two similar passive, touch conditions where the experimenter used an identical brush to stroke the same palm and arm areas on the participant. Touch on the left palm elicited a large, significant, positive blood-oxygenation level dependence (BOLD signal in right sensorimotor areas. Less extensive activity was found for touch to the arm. Separate somatotopical palm and arm representations were found in Brodmann area 3 of the right primary somatosensory cortex (SI and in both these areas, active stroking gave significantly higher signals than passive stroking. Active, self-touch elicited a positive BOLD signal in a network of sensorimotor cortical areas in the left hemisphere, compared to the resting baseline. In contrast, during passive touch, a significant negative BOLD signal was found in the left SI. Thus, each of the four conditions had a unique cortical signature despite similarities in afferent signalling or evoked perception. It is hypothesized that attentional mechanisms play a role in the modulation of the touch signal in the right SI, accounting for the differences found between active and passive touch.
Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Musil, Jason Jiri; Haggard, Patrick
The "body image" is a putative mental representation of one's own body, including structural and geometric details, as well as the more familiar visual and affective aspects. Very little research has investigated how we learn the structure of our own body, with most researchers emphasising the canonical visual representation of the body when we look at ourselves in a mirror. Here, we used non-visual self-touch in healthy participants to investigate the possibility that primary sensorimotor experience may influence cognitive representations of one's own body structure. Participants used the fingers of one hand (the 'active' hand), to touch the fingers of the other (the 'passive' hand). A conflict between the experience of the active and passive hand was introduced by experimenter interleaving their fingers with the fingers of the participant's passive hand. This led to the active hand experiencing that it touched more fingers than the passive hand felt it was being touched by. The effects on representation of body structure were assessed using an implicit measure based on Kinsbourne and Warrington's 'in-between task'. We found an underestimation of the number of fingers in the central part of the hand specifically linked to the experience of self-touch. This pattern of results corresponds to the experience of the passive hand, but not the active hand. Nevertheless, comparable reorganisation of fingers within the hand representation was found for both active and passive hands. We show that primary sensorimotor experience can modify the representation of body structure. This modification is driven by the passive experience of being touched, rather than by the active experience of touching. We believe this is the first experimental study of effects of self-touch on the mental representation of the body.
Bjorbækmo, Wenche Schrøder; Mengshoel, Anne Marit
Touch, while ubiquitous and ever present in the practice of physiotherapy, is conspicuously absent from physiotherapy-related research. Based on a theoretical perspective inspired by phenomenology, this article explores and elaborates on the meaning and significance of touch in the practice of physiotherapy. The research data were generated through 16 close observations conducted in primary care clinics, and through interviews with 9 physiotherapists and with 9 patients suffering from chronic neck problems. The findings revealed how the use of touch in the practice of physiotherapy brings people into proximity in ways more complex than simple skin-to-skin contact. Through nontouch, touch, and movements, physiotherapists invite their patients to participate in the process of creating and performing therapy; dialogue through touch and movement is vital. Touch in physiotherapy depends on the physiotherapist's embodied skills; those they cultivate in order to respectfully listen to their patients and guide them to explore their own bodily capacity, limits and possibilities. The findings also suggest that observing therapy from outside and from participating in it offer significant different experiences, information, understanding, and meanings. The differences between physiotherapy as observed expression and as lived experience would seem to have important implications for understanding the practice of physiotherapy.
This paper examines how films produced in the USA in the past 10 years and featuring the coaching of youth sport, represent the issue of touch during instruction and training. Touch in such films is figured in diverse ways ranging from pats of reassurance and hugs of congratulation to cuffs of disapprobation. Touch is also occasionally depicted…
Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.
Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…
Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate
Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues.
van Wingerden, Siewart; Uebbing, Tobias J.; Jung, Merel Madeleine; Poel, Mannes
Touch is an important interaction modality in social interaction, for instance touch can communicate emotions and can intensify emotions communicated by other modalities. In this paper we explore the use of Neural Networks for the classification of touch. The exploration and assessment of Neural
Full Text Available Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1 we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking towards the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2 we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants. In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude towards a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues.
Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Mongeau, Paul A.
Touch is an important and powerful form of communication that is often avoided for fear of negative interpretations. However, touch has also been associated with positive relational and educational outcomes. In this study, descriptions of touch that occurred between teachers and undergraduate students were elicited from students and then sorted…
Full Text Available This study focused on active light touch with predefined textures specially-designed for tactile perception. The counter-body material is stainless steel sheet. Three geometric structures (grid, crater and groove were fabricated by pulsed laser surface texturing. A total number of twenty volunteers participated in the research which contains two parts: perception tests and skin friction measurements. The perception tests focused mainly on the participants׳ perceptual attributes: perceived roughness and perceived stickiness. For the skin friction measurements, a multi-axis force/torque transducer was used to measure the normal force and friction force between skin and counter-surface along with the fingertip position. The results of the predefined textures showed the ability to reduce skin friction due to the reduction of contact area. Moreover, the participants׳ perceptual attributes were greatly influenced by the predefined micro-structures in the light touch regime.
Medina, Jared; DePasquale, Carrie
Individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) report feeling touch on their own body when seeing someone else being touched. We examined how the body schema - an on-line representation of body position in space - is involved in mapping touch from a viewed body to one's own body. We showed 45 mirror-touch synesthetes videos of a hand being touched, varying the location of the viewed touch by hand (left, right), skin surface (palmar, dorsal) and finger (index, ring). Participant hand posture was either congruent or incongruent with the posture of the viewed hand. After seeing the video, participants were asked to report whether they felt touch on their own body and, if so, the intensity and location of their percepts. We found that participants reported more frequent and more veridical (i.e., felt at the same somatotopic location as the viewed touch) mirror-touch percepts on posturally congruent versus posturally incongruent trials. Furthermore, participant response patterns varied as a function of postural congruence. Some participants consistently felt sensations on the hand surface that was stimulated in the video - even if their hands were in the opposite posture. Other participants' responses were modulated based on their own hand position, such that percepts were more likely to be felt on the upright, plausible hand surface in the posturally incongruent condition. These results provide evidence that mapping viewed touch to one's own body involves an on-line representation of body position in space. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Friedman, Jannice; Hart, Katherine S; den Bakker, Meghan C
The stigmas of several species are touch sensitive and respond to pressure by closing. Previous research suggests that stigma closure could prevent self pollination within a flower during a pollinator's visit or enhance male function by increasing pollen export. Both factors could be favored in outcrossers, and neither would be beneficial in selfers. We investigated variation in stigma-closing and the duration of closure in annual and perennial populations of the variable species Mimulus guttatus and whether four closely related selfing species (M. cupriphilus, M. laciniatus, M. nasutus, and M. pardalis) have lost their touch sensitivity. We grew plants in a controlled environment and performed experiments with and without the addition of pollen to the stigma. In M. guttatus, the speed of stigma-closing was rapid and unaffected by the deposition of pollen. Populations varied significantly in closing speed, which may reflect their geographic location. For annual populations only, anther-stigma separation significantly affected closing speed. Also, stigmas that closed quickly stayed closed longer, and stigmas that received pollen remained closed longer. Finally, in the selfing species, stigma-closing was more variable; some populations have entirely lost the ability to respond to touch. We discuss our results in the context of traits that promote outcrossing and traits that are under selection during the evolution of selfing. This is the first characterization of variation in touch responses across multiple populations within a species and the first to demonstrate the loss of touch sensitivity in selfing lineages. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.
Leonard, Katherine E; Kalman, Melanie
To explore the experience of being touched in people diagnosed with cancer and undergoing IV chemotherapy. Qualitative, phenomenologic. Central New York and northern Pennsylvania, both in the northeastern United States . 11 Caucasian, English-speaking adults. . Individual interviews used open-ended questions to explore the meaning of being touched to each participant. Meanings of significant statements, which pertained to the phenomenon under investigation, were formulated hermeneutically. Themes were derived from immersion in the data and extraction of similar and divergent concepts among all interviews, yielding a multidimensional understanding of the meaning of being touched in this sample of participants . Participants verbalized awareness of and sensitivity to the regard of others who were touching them, including healthcare providers, family, and friends. Patients do not classify a provider's touch as either task or comfort oriented. Meanings evolved in the context of three primary themes. The experience of being touched encompasses the quality of presence of providers, family, or friends. For touch to be regarded as positive, patients must be regarded as inherently whole and equal. The quality of how touch is received is secondary to and flows from the relationship established between patient and provider . This study adds to the literature in its finding that the fundamental quality of the relationship between patient and provider establishes the perceived quality of touch. Previous studies have primarily divided touch into two categories.
Kaufman, D; Mahoney, J M
A total of 96 men and 48 women participated in a study on the effect of touch in the natural setting of public taverns in the United States. Participants in the same-gender (men-men) or mixed-gender dyads were either touched or not touched by waitress confederates. Regardless of dyad type, participants who were touched consumed more alcohol than participants who were not touched. Men in the mixed-gender dyads consumed more alcohol when the women was touched. Same-gender (men-men) dyads aggregately consumed more alcohol than mixed-gender dyads. The results are interpreted in terms of the environmental cues and the dynamics of the group.
Over the past few years, one of the most fundamental changes in current computer-mediated environments has been input devices, moving from mouse devices to touch interfaces. However, most studies of online retailing have not considered device environments as retail cues that could influence users' shopping behavior. In this research, I examine the…
Sanderson, Cami M.; Jorgensen, Jerry D.
A study examined the perceptions of appropriateness regarding four types of touch between college students and professors. Subjects included 382 students, 108 men and 202 women, enrolled in a basic speech communication course at a large midwestern university. Using video depictions, an analysis of variance was conducted exploring differences in…
Toet, A.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Petrignani, F.F.; Dufrasnes, M.H.; Sahhashivan, A.
We present the design of a haptic computer accessory that adds the experience of touch to online conversations. It enables dyads to exchange the physical experience of holding hands regardless of distance and location. Text, speech and video communication systems support the transmission of several
de Jong, Jutta R; Keizer, Anouk; Engel, Manja M; Dijkerman, H Chris
The sense of how we experience our physical body as our own represents a fundamental component of human self-awareness. Body ownership can be studied with bodily illusions which are generated by inducing a visuo-tactile conflict where individuals experience illusionary ownership over a fake body or body part, such as a rubber hand. Previous studies showed that different types of touch modulate the strength of experienced ownership over a rubber hand. Specifically, participants experienced more ownership after the rubber hand illusion was induced through affective touch vs non-affective touch. It is, however, unclear whether this effect would also occur for an entire fake body. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether affective touch modulates the strength of ownership in a virtual reality full body illusion. To elicit this illusion, we used slow (3 cm/s; affective touch) and fast (30 cm/s; non-affective touch) stroking velocities on the participants' abdomen. Both stroking velocities were performed either synchronous or asynchronous (control condition), while participants viewed a virtual body from a first-person-perspective. In our first study, we found that participants experienced more subjective ownership over a virtual body in the affective touch condition, compared to the non-affective touch condition. In our second study, we found higher levels of subjective ownership for synchronous stimulation, compared to asynchronous, for both touch conditions, but failed to replicate the findings from study 1 that show a difference between affective and non-affective touch. We, therefore, cannot conclude unequivocally that affective touch enhances the full-body illusion. Future research is required to study the effects of affective touch on body ownership.
Southern, Caleb; Clawson, James; Frey, Brian; Abowd, Gregory; Romero, Mario
We present a demonstration of BrailleTouch, an accessible keyboard for blind users on a touchscreen smartphone (see Figure 1). Based on the standard Perkins Brailler, BrailleTouch implements a six-key chorded braille soft keyboard . We will briefly introduce audience members to the braille code, and then allow them to hold the BrailleTouch prototype and enter text, with the aid of a visual chart of the braille alphabet. QC 20160418
Clark, John Earl
Full of explained code and enriched with screenshots, this book is the practical way to take your Sencha Touch skills to the next level.If you want to gain practical knowledge for using the Sencha Touch mobile web application framework, and you are familiar with HTML and CSS, then this book is for you. It is assumed that you know how to use touchscreens, touch events, and mobile devices such as Apple iOS and Google Android.
Kelly Jean Sheehan; David H. Uttal
Parents and educators often expect that children will learn from touch screen devices, such as during joint e-book reading. Therefore an essential question is whether young children understand that the touch screen can be a symbolic medium – that entities represented on the touch screen can refer to entities in the real world. Research on symbolic development suggests that symbolic understanding requires that children develop dual representational abilities, meaning children need to appreciat...
Watts, Cody; Sharlin, Ehud; Woytiuk, Peter
International audience; Increasingly, the movements of players' physical bodies are being used as a method of controlling and playing video games. This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games; multiplayer games which players control by physically touching their partners. Although a small number of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed, the best practices for creating video games based on this unconventional interaction technique re...
Corradi, Tadeo; Hall, Peter; Iravani, Pejman
This paper explores ways of combining vision and touch for the purpose of object recognition. In particular, it focuses on scenarios when there are few tactile training samples (as these are usually costly to obtain) and when vision is artificially impaired. Whilst machine vision is a widely studied field, and machine touch has received some attention recently, the fusion of both modalities remains a relatively unexplored area. It has been suggested that, in the human brain, there exist shared multi-sensorial representations of objects. This provides robustness when one or more senses are absent or unreliable. Modern robotics systems can benefit from multi-sensorial input, in particular in contexts where one or more of the sensors perform poorly. In this paper, a recently proposed tactile recognition model was extended by integrating a simple vision system in three different ways: vector concatenation (vision feature vector and tactile feature vector), object label posterior averaging and object label posterior product. A comparison is drawn in terms of overall accuracy of recognition and in terms of how quickly (number of training samples) learning occurs. The conclusions reached are: (1) the most accurate system is "posterior product", (2) multi-modal recognition has higher accuracy to either modality alone if all visual and tactile training data are pooled together, and (3) in the case of visual impairment, multi-modal recognition "learns faster", i.e. requires fewer training samples to achieve the same accuracy as either other modality.
Ozolins, Lise-Lotte; Hörberg, Ulrica; Dahlberg, Karin
This study describes the phenomenon of caring touch from the patients' perspective in an anthroposophic clinical context where caring touch is often used to promote health and alleviate suffering. The aim of the study was to explore and phenomenologically describe the phenomenon of caring touch from the patients' perspectives. The study has been carried out with a Reflective Lifeworld Research approach in order to understand and describe human existential phenomena. Ten female patients were interviewed in an anthroposophic clinic in Sweden. The findings show how caring touch has multifaceted meanings and makes the patients' feel present and anchored in a meaningful context. The patients' feel that they are seen, accepted and confirmed. Furthermore, touch creates a caring space where the patients become receptive for care and has the power to alleviate the patients' suffering, as well as to frighten and cause or worsen the suffering. In order to take advantage of the caring potential, the patient needs to be invited to a respectful and sensitive form of touch. An interpersonal flexible space is necessary where the touch can be effective, and where a dynamic interplay can develop. In conclusion, caring touch is an opportunity for carers to support well-being and health. The carers need to approach their patients in both a sensitive and reflective way. A caring science perspective can serve as a help to further understand touch as a unique caring act. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Sheehan, Kelly J; Uttal, David H
Parents and educators often expect that children will learn from touch screen devices, such as during joint e-book reading. Therefore an essential question is whether young children understand that the touch screen can be a symbolic medium - that entities represented on the touch screen can refer to entities in the real world. Research on symbolic development suggests that symbolic understanding requires that children develop dual representational abilities, meaning children need to appreciate that a symbol is an object in itself (i.e., picture of a dog) while also being a representation of something else (i.e., the real dog). Drawing on classic research on symbols and new research on children's learning from touch screens, we offer the perspective that children's ability to learn from the touch screen as a symbolic medium depends on the effect of interactivity on children's developing dual representational abilities. Although previous research on dual representation suggests the interactive nature of the touch screen might make it difficult for young children to use as a symbolic medium, the unique interactive affordances may help alleviate this difficulty. More research needs to investigate how the interactivity of the touch screen affects children's ability to connect the symbols on the screen to the real world. Given the interactive nature of the touch screen, researchers and educators should consider both the affordances of the touch screen as well as young children's cognitive abilities when assessing whether young children can learn from it as a symbolic medium.
Full Text Available Our culture seems to be visual. Maybe in knowledge… But, it is the fact that we always touch objects, other persons, ourselves. Every moment of our life is tactile. In the following article we shall ask about a touching, how we know it in common, and how we live it. We will try to delimitate some different kinds of tactile perception, which is also a part of our life. We want to point out that grasping is only one of the modalities of touching. This work is searching for a closer, temperamental touching.
Ragan, Eric [Texas A& M University
Several researchers have investigated phantom tactile sensation (i.e., the perception of a nonexistent actuator between two real actuators) and apparent tactile motion (i.e., the perception of a moving actuator due to time delays between onsets of multiple actuations). Prior work has focused primarily on determining appropriate Durations of Stimulation (DOS) and Stimulus Onset Asynchronies (SOA) for simple touch gestures, such as a single finger stroke. To expand upon this knowledge, we investigated complex touch gestures involving multiple, simultaneous points of contact, such as a whole hand touching the arm. To implement complex touch gestures, we modified the Tactile Brush algorithm to support rectangular areas of tactile stimulation.
Jung, Merel Madeleine; Poel, Mannes; Reidsma, Dennis; Heylen, Dirk K.J.
Social robots should be able to automatically understand and respond to human touch. The meaning of touch does not only depend on the form of touch but also on the context in which the touch takes place. To gain more insight into the factors that are relevant to interpret the meaning of touch within
Chou, Jyh Rong
The touch mouse is a new type of computer mouse that provides users with a new way of touch-based environment to interact with computers. For more than a decade, user experience (UX) has grown into a core concept of human-computer interaction (HCI), describing a user's perceptions and responses that result from the use of a product in a particular…
Piper, Heather; Taylor, Bill; Garratt, Dean
This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its…
Contact or touch detectors in which a subject acts as a switch between two metal surfaces have proven more popular and arguably more useful for recording responses than capacitance switches, photocell detectors, and force detectors. Components for touch detectors circuits are inexpensive and, except for some special purpose designs, can be easily…
Huisman, Gijs; Darriba Frederiks, Aduén
In this paper we investigate the expression of emotions through mediated touch. Participants used the Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch (TaSST), a wearable sleeve that consists of a pressure sensitive input layer, and a vibration motor output layer, to record a number of expressions of discrete
Stamatis, Panagiotis J.
This paper begins by exploring touch as "tactile perception" dimension, which means what human hands could achieve, especially considering the important role of skin receptors. The author moves forward to a description of children's necessity for contact as well as to their touch disorders. Following descriptions further clarify these items in the…
Martin, Stephen L.
This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…
White, Rebekah C; Davies, Anne M Aimola
We thoroughly enjoyed Ward and Banissy's Discussion Paper on mirror-touch synesthesia. The authors contrast two theories for explaining this phenomenon-the Threshold Theory and their Self-Other Theory. Ward and Banissy note that the Self-Other Theory garners support from studies that have tested individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia using the rubber hand paradigm. In this Commentary, we provide further support for the Self-Other Theory by drawing on findings from control participants without mirror-touch synesthesia tested with two different no-touch rubber hand paradigms-one paradigm makes it easier while the other makes it more difficult to make the self-other distinction.
Ebert, Lars C; Hatch, Gary; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen
Keyboards, mice, and touch screens are a potential source of infection or contamination in operating rooms, intensive care units, and autopsy suites. The authors present a low-cost prototype of a system, which allows for touch-free control of a medical image viewer. This touch-free navigation system consists of a computer system (IMac, OS X 10.6 Apple, USA) with a medical image viewer (OsiriX, OsiriX foundation, Switzerland) and a depth camera (Kinect, Microsoft, USA). They implemented software that translates the data delivered by the camera and a voice recognition software into keyboard and mouse commands, which are then passed to OsiriX. In this feasibility study, the authors introduced 10 medical professionals to the system and asked them to re-create 12 images from a CT data set. They evaluated response times and usability of the system compared with standard mouse/keyboard control. Users felt comfortable with the system after approximately 10 minutes. Response time was 120 ms. Users required 1.4 times more time to re-create an image with gesture control. Users with OsiriX experience were significantly faster using the mouse/keyboard and faster than users without prior experience. They rated the system 3.4 out of 5 for ease of use in comparison to the mouse/keyboard. The touch-free, gesture-controlled system performs favorably and removes a potential vector for infection, protecting both patients and staff. Because the camera can be quickly and easily integrated into existing systems, requires no calibration, and is low cost, the barriers to using this technology are low.
Krackow, Elisa; Lynn, Steven Jay
Preschool children (ages 48-70 months, N = 48) experienced 2 to-be-remembered events (i.e., the games Twister and Shapes) that included either innocuous bodily touch or no touch. Participants were interviewed 7 days later and asked direct ("Did Amy kiss you?") or suggestive "tag" questions ("Amy kissed you, didn't she?") equated for content. Results indicated that children who were innocuously touched were no more likely to falsely assent to "abuse-related" touch questions (e.g., "Amy touched your bottom, didn't she?") than were children who were not touched. However, children who were asked tag questions responded at chance levels, thereby making high errors of commission in response to abuse-touch questions relative to their no-tag counterparts who responded to "abuse questions" accurately 93% of the time. Children who were asked tag questions assented at a higher rate to general forensic questions ("Amy took your picture, didn't she?") than did children asked direct questions, and children assented at higher rates to "abuse-touch" questions than to general forensic questions. Results are discussed in terms of prior research on interviewing techniques and adult influence on children's testimony.
Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith
The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and…
Pfab, Isabel; Willemse, Christian Jacob Arendt Maria
Social touches are essential in interpersonal communication, for instance to show affect. Despite this importance, mediated interpersonal communication oftentimes lacks the possibility to touch. A human touch is a complex composition of several physical qualities and parameters, but different haptic
Croy, Ilona; Drechsler, Edda; Hamilton, Paul; Hummel, Thomas; Olausson, Håkan
Touch can be highly emotional, and depending on the environment, it can be perceived as pleasant and comforting or disgusting and dangerous. Here, we studied the impact of context on the processing of tactile stimuli using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm. This was achieved by embedding tactile stimulation in a variable olfactory environment. Twenty people were scanned with BOLD fMRI while receiving the following stimulus blocks: Slow stroking Touch, Civette odor (feces like), Rose odor, Touch+Civette, and Touch+Rose. Ratings of pleasantness and intensity of tactile stimuli and ratings of disgust and intensity of olfactory stimuli were collected. The impact of the olfactory context on the processing of touch was studied using covariance analyses. Coupling between olfactory processing and somatosensory processing areas was assessed with psychophysiological interaction analysis (PPI). A subjectively disgusting olfactory environment significantly reduced the perceived pleasantness of touch. The touch fMRI activation in the secondary somatosensory cortex, operculum 1 (OP1), was positively correlated with the disgust towards the odors. Decreased pleasantness of touch was related to decreased posterior insula activity. PPI analysis revealed a significant interaction between the OP1, posterior insula, and regions processing the disgust of odors (orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala). We conclude that the disgust evaluation of the olfactory environment moderates neural reactivity in somatosensory regions by upregulation of the OP1 and downregulation of the posterior insula. This adaptive regulation of affective touch processing may facilitate adaptive reaction to a potentially harmful stimulus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kelly Jean Sheehan
Full Text Available Parents and educators often expect that children will learn from touch screen devices, such as during joint e-book reading. Therefore an essential question is whether young children understand that the touch screen can be a symbolic medium – that entities represented on the touch screen can refer to entities in the real world. Research on symbolic development suggests that symbolic understanding requires that children develop dual representational abilities, meaning children need to appreciate that a symbol is an object in itself (i.e., picture of a dog while also being a representation of something else (i.e., the real dog. Drawing on classic research on symbols and new research on children’s learning from touch screens, we offer the perspective that children’s ability to learn from the touch screen as a symbolic medium depends on the effect of interactivity on children’s developing dual representational abilities. Although previous research on dual representation suggests the interactive nature of the touch screen might make it difficult for young children to use as a symbolic medium, the unique interactive affordances may help alleviate this difficulty. More research needs to investigate how the interactivity of the touch screen affects children’s ability to connect the symbols on the screen to the real world. Given the interactive nature of the touch screen, researchers and educators should consider both the affordances of the touch screen as well as young children’s cognitive abilities when assessing whether young children can learn from it as a symbolic medium.
Fragiacomo, Giulio; Pedersen, Thomas; Hansen, Ole
Hysteresis has always been one of the main concerns when fabricating touch mode capacitive pressure sensors (TMCPS). This phenomenon can be fought at two different levels: during fabrication or after fabrication with the aid of a dedicated signal conditioning circuit. We will describe a microfabr......Hysteresis has always been one of the main concerns when fabricating touch mode capacitive pressure sensors (TMCPS). This phenomenon can be fought at two different levels: during fabrication or after fabrication with the aid of a dedicated signal conditioning circuit. We will describe...... in the touch mode region....
Alsius, Agnès; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador
One of the classic examples of multisensory integration in humans occurs when speech sounds are combined with the sight of corresponding articulatory gestures. Despite the longstanding assumption that this kind of audiovisual binding operates in an attention-free mode, recent findings (Alsius et al. in Curr Biol, 15(9):839-843, 2005) suggest that audiovisual speech integration decreases when visual or auditory attentional resources are depleted. The present study addressed the generalization of this attention constraint by testing whether a similar decrease in multisensory integration is observed when attention demands are imposed on a sensory domain that is not involved in speech perception, such as touch. We measured the McGurk illusion in a dual task paradigm involving a difficult tactile task. The results showed that the percentage of visually influenced responses to audiovisual stimuli was reduced when attention was diverted to a tactile task. This finding is attributed to a modulatory effect on audiovisual integration of speech mediated by supramodal attention limitations. We suggest that the interactions between the attentional system and crossmodal binding mechanisms may be much more extensive and dynamic than it was advanced in previous studies.
Full Text Available Perceptual segregation in rapidly changing visual displays can be facilitated by a synchronized salient sound that segregates itself from other sounds in the sequence (Vroomen & de Gelder, 2000. We examined whether this “freezing” phenomenon can also be found in tactile perception. Three vibrators were placed on the participant's palm to produce four different tactile patterns. Four sounds were presented separately and simultaneously with each of the four tactile patterns. Among the three same-pitch tones, an abrupt high-pitch tone was presented simultaneously with the designated temporal position of the target pattern in the sequence of tactual stimuli that was presented rapidly and repeatedly. The task was to identify the tactile pattern of the target. Results showed that participants responded faster and more accurately with the high-pitch tone, compared to the condition when all the tones were of the same pitch. However, the result reversed when an extra tactile cue was presented on the wrist. This suggests that a salient auditory signal can improve perceptual segregation not only in vision but also in touch. That is, it is a cross-modal facilitation, not an alerting or attentional cueing effect.
Wilkinson, Dawn S; Knox, Pamela L; Chatman, James E; Johnson, Terrance L; Barbour, Nilufer; Myles, Yvonne; Reel, Antonio
(1) to determine the clinical effectiveness of Healing Touch (HT) on variables assumed to be related to health enhancement; (2) to determine whether practitioner training level moderates treatment effectiveness. Mixed-method repeated measures design with quasi-experimental and naturalistic approaches, paired with nomothetic and idiographic analyses. Practitioner's offices or client's home. Twenty-two (22) clients who had never experienced HT. Three treatment conditions: no treatment (NT), HT only (standard HT care), and HT+ (Standard HT care plus music plus guided imagery). Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentrations in saliva, self-reports of stress levels, client perceptions of health enhancement, and qualitative questionnaires about individual effects. Clients of practitioners with more training experienced statistically significant positive sIgA change over the HT treatment series, while clients of practitioners with less experience did not. Clients reported a statistically significant reduction of stress level after both HT conditions. Perceived enhancement of health was reported by 13 of 22 clients (59%). Themes of relaxation, connection, and enhanced awareness were identified in the qualitative analysis of the HT experience. Pain relief was reported by 6 of 11 clients (55%) experiencing pain. The data support the clinical effectiveness of HT in health enhancement, specifically for raising sIgA concentrations, lowering stress perceptions and relieving pain. The evidence indicates that positive responses were not exclusively as a result of placebo, that is, client beliefs, expectations, and behaviors regarding HT.
Jiang, Lijun; Meng, Weizhi
dynamics can be described as the characteristics of the inputs received from a touchscreen when a user is interacting with a device (e.g., a touchscreen mobile phone). Intuitively, touch dynamics is different from keystroke dynamics in that touch dynamics has more input types such as multi-touch and touch......With the wide adoption of smartphones, touchscreens have become the leading input method on the mobile platform, with more than 78 % of all phones using a touchscreen. Thus, more research studies started focusing on touch dynamics and its applications on user authentication. Generally, touch...... movement. On the other hand, the inputs of press button up and press button down in keystroke dynamics are similar to the actions of touch press up and touch press down (e.g., single-touch) in touch dynamics. Due to its characteristics, touch dynamics received more attention from the literature...
Kulkarni, Anjali; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Gupta, Piyush; Sharma, Harsh; Agrawal, R K
.... Evidence exists supporting the benefits of touch and massage therapy. We reviewed the literature to look at the various techniques of providing massage, its benefits, possible mechanism of action and adverse effects...
Unleash your iPhone and take it to the limit using secret tips and techniques from gadget hacker Erica Sadun. Fast and fun to read, Taking Your iPod touch 4 to the Max is fully updated to show you how get the most out of Apple's new OS 4. You'll find all the best undocumented tricks as well as the most efficient and enjoyable introduction to the iPhone available. Starting with an introduction to iPod touch 4 basics, you'll quickly move on to discover the iPod touch's hidden potential, like how to connect to a TV, get contract-free VOIP, and hack OS 4 so it will run apps on your iPod touch. Fro
Florina Tendea, Camelia
supplemented attitudes and behaviors that care for their health, for the health of others and to the natural environment, interest and appreciation of logical argument; curiosity and concern about environmental phenomena, independent thinking, creativity. I think that is very important, like teacher, to combine the two parts of teaching: theoretical one and practical one. TEACH means setting a bag of theoretical aspects and also who can provide us support?(ideas, resources, scientific competitions etc.) and TOUCH means practical aspects for teachers & students. Resoults: Participating of teachers and students at workshops, round table, scientific debates provide knowledge about Space in context of STEM disciplines, Hands-on experiences; Find different situations of learning; Ideas, methods and techniques for design new lessons; Real scientific data from ESA/ESERO/ROSA sites; Chance to be part of international projects. Conclusions:Teach and Touch the Earth and Sky - could be a great chance to benefit from the proposed programs of ESA, through which space can be brought into the classroom and used as a tool for teaching and learning, moreover access to actual scientific data and experiences shared by the scientists, or other specialists offers a new prespective in the study of STEM subjects by students.
Creating iPhone Apps with Cocoa Touch: The Mini Missing Manual walks you through developing your first iPhone App and introduces you to your programming environments and tools: Cocoa Touch, Interface Builder, Xcode, and the Objective-C programming language. If you're a Java or C developer, this eBook is your fast track to App development. This eBook is adapted from parts of iPhone App Development: The Missing Manual.
Juan Mateu; María José Lasala; Xavier Alamán
© 2015 by MDPI (http://www.mdpi.org). Reproduction is permitted for noncommercial purposes. In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, ab...
Hardy, Robert; Rukzio, Enrico; Wagner, Matthias; Paolucci, Massimo
An ongoing issue for mobile application developers is the limited output capabilities of mobile phones . For this reason, current mobile phones may still fail to fully address the requirements of map, multimedia and information browsing applications. This paper presents Touch & Interact: an NFC (Near Field Communication) interaction technique that utilizes the capabilities of mobile phones and the screen size of public displays. Using the Touch & Interact interaction technique, an NFC phon...
Kirman, Ben; Harrer, Sabine; Hasselager, Andrea; Linehan, Conor; Toft, Ida; Schumacher, Raimund
This position paper presents a conversation between players and the designers of the unique mobile game experience Cunt Touch This. Revisiting their personal experiences with playing the game, the player-authors read the game as a system that takes advantage of social embarrassment as a key element from which the pleasure of the game is derived. Contrasting this view, the designer-authors comment on the original intention, production context and purpose of Cunt Touch This. The goal of thi...
Verdezoto, Nervo; Grönvall, Erik
Sustaining daily, unsupervised healthcare activities in a private home setting can challenge, among others, older adults. In this paper, we discuss experiences from designing a tablet mobile application, MediFrame, to support older adults’ medication management at home. In relation to Medi......Frame’s touch interface design, we discuss existing guidelines that can be adopted for touch interfaces and we use MediFrame to illustrate an implementation of such guidelines....
Erin E. Benay
Full Text Available This issue brings together an exciting collection of essays that investigate the collaborative roles of senses in the genesis and experience of renaissance and baroque art. Examining, in particular, the ways in which senses were evoked in the realm of the sacred, where questions of the validity of sensory experience were particularly contentious and fluid, the contributors seek to problematise the neoplatonic imperialism of sight and sense hierarchies that traditionally considered touch, along with smell and taste, as base and bodily. The essays show instead that it was a multiplicity of sensory modalities – touch, sight, hearing, and sometimes even taste and smell, that provided access to the divine – and shaped the imaginative, physical and performative experience of works of art. The issue’s project thus brings us closer to achieving Geraldine Johnson’s eloquent proprosal, that, by revisioning Michael Baxandall’s famous ‘period eye’, we might, in fact, arrive at a more aptly described, historically specific, 'period body'.
Pamela K. Gilbert
Full Text Available In the nineteenth century, touch was considered to be a more privileged sense than has been generally noted, and the hand was pre-eminently the site of active touching. The hand comes newly to rival the face in descriptive significance in mid-nineteenth-century fiction, and reflects contemporary notions of the role of touch in the exercise of the will and the development of the sensorium. This article explores medical and philosophical understandings of embodied touch within the period, and examines why the hand emerged as a focal point for scientific, poetic, and popular discussion. Such scientists as Charles Bell, Herbert Spencer, and Alexander Bain tend to work within two paradigms: the hand as a site of sensory input that forms a conduit between inner and outer worlds, and the hand as an instrument of the will. The article explores Dickens's use of these ideas about touch and development in his 1850 'Bildungsroman', 'David Copperfield'. David struggles to establish his proper status as a middle-class male, in part by learning to use his hands to impose his own will and to resist the dominance of inappropriate others through touch.
Maratos, Frances A; Duarte, Joana; Barnes, Christopher; McEwan, Kirsten; Sheffield, David; Gilbert, Paul
Research demonstrates that highly self-critical individuals can respond negatively to the initial introduction of a range of therapeutic interventions. Yet touch as a form of therapeutic intervention in self-critical individuals has received limited prior investigation, despite documentation of its beneficial effects for well-being. Using the Forms of Self-Criticism/Self-Reassuring Scale, 15 high- and 14 low- self-critical individuals (from a sample of 139 females) were recruited to assess how self-criticism impacts upon a single instance of focused touch. All participants took part in a hand massage- and haptic control- intervention. Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase, as well as questionnaire measures of emotional responding were taken before and after the interventions. Following hand massage, analyses revealed cortisol decreased significantly across all participants; and that significant changes in emotional responding reflected well-being improvements across all participants. Supplementary analyses further revealed decreased alpha amylase responding to hand massage as compared to a compassion-focused intervention in the same (highly self-critical) individuals. Taken together, the physiological and emotional data indicate high self-critical individuals responded in a comparable manner to low self-critical individuals to a single instance of hand massage. This highlights that focused touch may be beneficial when first engaging highly self-critical individuals with specific interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elfekey, Hatem; Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Okamoto, Shogo
Touch sensing is a fundamental approach in human-to-machine interfaces, and is currently under widespread use. Many current applications use active touch sensing technologies. Passive touch sensing technologies are, however, more adequate to implement low power or energy harvesting touch sensing interfaces. This paper presents a passive touch sensing technique based on the fact that the human body is affected by the surrounding extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, such as those of AC power lines. These external ELF fields induce electric potentials on the human body-because human tissues exhibit some conductivity at these frequencies-resulting in what is called AC hum. We therefore propose a passive touch sensing system that detects this hum noise when a human touch occurs, thus distinguishing between touch and non-touch events. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is validated by designing and implementing a flexible touch sensing keyboard.
Li, Wei; Kang, Lijun; Piggott, Beverly J; Feng, Zhaoyang; Xu, X Z Shawn
Most animals can distinguish two distinct types of touch stimuli: gentle (innocuous) and harsh (noxious/painful) touch, however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model for the study of gentle touch sensation. However, little is known about harsh touch sensation in this organism. Here we characterize harsh touch sensation in C. elegans. We show that C. elegans exhibits differential behavioural responses to harsh touch and gentle touch. Laser ablations identify distinct sets of sensory neurons and interneurons required for harsh touch sensation at different body segments. Optogenetic stimulation of the circuitry can drive behaviour. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that TRP family and amiloride-sensitive Na(+) channels mediate touch-evoked currents in different sensory neurons. Our work identifies the neural circuits and characterizes the sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans, establishing it as a genetic model for studying this sensory modality.
Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.
Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores
Full Text Available Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1 to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2 to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC. Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation
Chun, Charlotte A; Hupé, Jean-Michel
A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2-4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9-14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes.
Charlotte Anne Chun
Full Text Available A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia’s connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person’s arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one’s own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker’s mouth. To explore synesthesia’s associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n=3,743 was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1,017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However effect size was small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2 to 4% and sequence-space synesthesia (9 to 14%. Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect
Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon
Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…
Full Text Available Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child's use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children's employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes.
Schlefman, Amanda; Rappaport, David I; Adams-Gerdts, Walle; Stubblefield, Samuel C
Components of complementary and alternative medicine are increasingly being implemented at academic medical centers. These approaches include therapeutic touch or healing touch (HT), an energy-based therapy using light touch on or near the body. Limited data exist regarding complementary and alternative medicine use at children's hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns and clinical characteristics of HT consultations among children hospitalized at Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients hospitalized from January 2012 through December 2013, comparing patients who received HT consultations with those who did not. There were 25,396 admissions during the study period; 882 (4%) of these, representing 593 individual patients, received an HT consultation. As compared with those without an HT consultation, patients receiving HT were older (median 12 years vs 5 years, P<.001), female (58% vs 46%, P<.001), and more likely to be admitted to the hematology/oncology or blood/bone marrow transplant units (P<.001). Patients with HT consultations had longer hospitalizations (median 121 hours vs 38 hours, P<.001) and more medical problems (median 12 vs 4, P<.001). Six attending physicians were responsible for placing the majority of HT consultations. Of the 593 patients receiving an HT consultation, 21% received ≥2 consultations during the study period. Certain patients, such as those with longer hospitalizations and more medical problems, were more likely to receive HT consultations. Many patients received multiple consultations, suggesting that HT may be an important aspect of ongoing care for hospitalized children.
Lee, Stephen; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip; Smith, Bryan; Ferrari, Mauro
Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'être of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multistep work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self-assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.
Zubair, Haseeb; Azim, Shafquat; Ahmad, Aamir; Khan, Mohammad Aslam; Patel, Girijesh Kumar; Singh, Seema; Singh, Ajay Pratap
Phytochemicals are an important part of traditional medicine and have been investigated in detail for possible inclusion in modern medicine as well. These compounds often serve as the backbone for the synthesis of novel therapeutic agents. For many years, phytochemicals have demonstrated encouraging activity against various human cancer models in pre-clinical assays. Here, we discuss select phytochemicals-curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), resveratrol, plumbagin and honokiol-in the context of their reported effects on the processes of inflammation and oxidative stress, which play a key role in tumorigenesis. We also discuss the emerging evidence on modulation of tumor microenvironment by these phytochemicals which can possibly define their cancer-specific action. Finally, we provide recent updates on how low bioavailability, a major concern with phytochemicals, is being circumvented and the general efficacy being improved, by synthesis of novel chemical analogs and nanoformulations.
As the battlefield becomes "digitized", all arms of the military are deploying COTS displays in the form of Portable Notebooks, Kneeboards, GPS and PDA's in ever greater numbers. Many of these COTS equipments and associated displays use full color LCD's and resistive touch panels as the operator-interface. These displays are a challenge to those who must modify the COTS equipment for NVG compatibility. Traditional NVG filter options have relatively poor color rendering and are too thick or rigid to interface with touch panels. In addition, many of these displays do not have sufficient dimming capabilities to allow covert night-time operations and do not have sufficient luminance for daytime operations. Polymeric materials recently developed by Wamco have been specifically designed for applications where traditional NVG filters have failed. These applications will be discussed and quantified in terms of NVG Compatibility, Color Rendering, Luminance Contrast and Daytime Readability, Touch Screen Sensitivity and Environmental Performance.
Galaxy Tab lets you work, play, read, and connect on the go, but mastering its TouchWiz interface and finding the best apps can be tricky-unless you have this Missing Manual. Gadget whiz Preston Gralla provides crystal-clear explanations and step-by-step instructions to get you up to speed quickly, whether you have the 3G/4G or Wi-Fi version of this amazing device. The important stuff you need to know: Design your experience. Add interactive widgets and mini-apps to your screen with TouchWiz.Satisfy your appetite. Download thousands of games and apps from the Android Market.Keep in touch. Ch
Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi
This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance.
Leonard, Julia A; Berkowitz, Talia; Shusterman, Anna
Physical touch has many documented benefits, but past research has paid little attention to the effects of touch on children's development. Here, we tested the effect of touch on children's compliance behaviour in a modified delay-of-gratification task. Forty children (M = 59 months) were randomly assigned to a touch or no touch group. Children in the intervention condition received a friendly touch on the back while being told that they should wait for permission to eat a candy. Results showed that children in the touch condition waited an average of two minutes longer to eat the candy than children in the no touch condition. This finding has implications for the potential of using touch to promote positive behaviours in children.
Akhtar, Humza; Kemao, Qian; Kakarala, Ramakrishna
A touch panel is an input device for human computer interaction. It consists of a network of sensors, a sampling circuit and a micro controller for detecting and locating a touch input. Touch input can come from either finger or stylus depending upon the type of touch technology. These touch panels provide an intuitive and collaborative workspace so that people can perform various tasks with the use of their fingers instead of traditional input devices like keyboard and mouse. Touch sensing technology is not new. At the time of this writing, various technologies are available in the market and this paper reviews the most common ones. We review traditional designs and sensing algorithms for touch technology. We also observe that due to its various strengths, capacitive touch will dominate the large-scale touch panel industry in years to come. In the end, we discuss the motivation for doing academic research on large-scale panels.
Adam L Nekimken
Full Text Available For decades, Caenorhabditis elegans roundworms have been used to study the sense of touch, and this work has been facilitated by a simple behavioral assay for touch sensation. To perform this classical assay, an experimenter uses an eyebrow hair to gently touch a moving worm and observes whether or not the worm reverses direction. We used two experimental approaches to determine the manner and moment of contact between the eyebrow hair tool and freely moving animals and the forces delivered by the classical assay. Using high-speed video (2500 frames/second, we found that typical stimulus delivery events include a brief moment when the hair is contact with the worm's body and not the agar substrate. To measure the applied forces, we measured forces generated by volunteers mimicking the classical touch assay by touching a calibrated microcantilever. The mean (61 μN and median forces (26 μN were more than ten times higher than the 2-μN force known to saturate the probability of evoking a reversal in adult C. elegans. We also considered the eyebrow hairs as an additional source of variation. The stiffness of the sampled eyebrow hairs varied between 0.07 and 0.41 N/m and was correlated with the free length of hair. Collectively, this work establishes that the classical touch assay applies enough force to saturate the probability of evoking reversals in adult C. elegans in spite of its variability among trials and experimenters and that increasing the free length of the hair can decrease the applied force.
Bahman Bijari, Bahare; Iranmanesh, Sedigheh; Eshghi, Fateme; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza
Objective. Touch is one of the first strong positive senses that develop in neonate. Therapeutic touch could be considered as a complementary treatment in Neonate intensive care units (NICU). Methods. This quasi-experimental study was conducted to compare the effect of Yakson and GHT on behavioral reaction of preterm infants hospitalized in NICU in south-east of Iran. 90 preterm infants participated in this study. They are randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) Yakson group, n = 30, (2) GHT group, n = 30, (3) control group, n = 30. Each infant received the GHT and Yakson interventions twice a day for 5 days. Each session lasted 15 minutes. The control group received routine nursing care. Results. In interventional group, an increase was found in sleep state score after the Yakson and GHT intervention. Their awake and fussy states' scores decreased after both interventions. No significant difference was found between Yakson and GHT group in their behavioral state scores. Conclusion. The findings suggest that Yakson and GHT had soothing and calming effect on preterm infants and could be beneficial in nursing interventions. PMID:22792482
Kye, Neo Wen; Mustapha, Aida; Azah Samsudin, Noor
Children nowadays are having problem learning and understanding basic mathematical operations because they are not interested in studying or learning mathematics. This project proposes an educational game called Magic Touch Math that focuses on basic mathematical operations targeted to children between the age of three to five years old using gesture recognition to interact with the game. Magic Touch Math was developed in accordance to the Game Development Life Cycle (GDLC) methodology. The prototype developed has helped children to learn basic mathematical operations via intuitive gestures. It is hoped that the application is able to get the children motivated and interested in mathematics.
Technology violates human dignity only to the extent that its use reduces persons to the moral status of objects. The prevalence of technology in health care is an extension of the scientific paradigm, in which the body is reduced to an object void of subjectivity. The empathie paradigm, in contrast, is based upon the moral primacy of subjectivity. Empathic touch-as distinct from instrumental and philanthropic touch-establishes a clinical relation of intersubjectivity, affirming in patients the dignity and worth that morally distinguish persons from objects.
Full Text Available Sexual problems are found in four major forms: lack of libido, lack of arousal and potency, pain and discomfort during intercourse, and lack of orgasm. It is possible to work with a holistic approach to sexology in the clinic in order to find and repair the negative beliefs, repressions of love, and lack of purpose of life, which are the core to problems like arousal, potency, and pain with repression of gender and sexuality. It is important not to focus only on the gender and genitals in understanding the patient's sexual problems. It is of equal importance not to neglect the body, its parts, and the feelings and emotions connected to them. Shame, guilt, helplessness, fear, disgust, anger, hatred, and other strong feelings are almost always an important part of a sexual problem and these feelings are often “held” by the tissue of the pelvis and sexual organs. The patient with sexual problems can be helped both by healing existence in general and by discharging old painful emotions from the tissues. The later process of local healing is often facilitated by a simple technique: accepting contact via touch. This is a very simple technique, where the self-acceptance of the patient is to be promoted, for example, asking the female patient to put her hand on her stomach (uterus or vulva, after which the holistic physician puts his hand supportively around hers. When done with care and after obtaining the necessary trust of the patient, this aspect of holding often releases the old negative emotions of shame bound to the touched areas. Afterwards, the emotional problems become a subject for conversational therapy and further holistic processing. Primary vulvodynia seems to be one of the diseases that can be cured after only a few successful sessions of working with acceptance through touch. The technique can be used as an isolated procedure or as a part of a pelvic examination. When touching the genitals with the intention of sexual healing, a
Ventegodt, Søren; Morad, Mohammed; Hyam, Eytan; Merrick, Joav
Sexual problems are found in four major forms: lack of libido, lack of arousal and potency, pain and discomfort during intercourse, and lack of orgasm. It is possible to work with a holistic approach to sexology in the clinic in order to find and repair the negative beliefs, repressions of love, and lack of purpose of life, which are the core to problems like arousal, potency, and pain with repression of gender and sexuality. It is important not to focus only on the gender and genitals in understanding the patient"s sexual problems. It is of equal importance not to neglect the body, its parts, and the feelings and emotions connected to them. Shame, guilt, helplessness, fear, disgust, anger, hatred, and other strong feelings are almost always an important part of a sexual problem and these feelings are often "held" by the tissue of the pelvis and sexual organs. The patient with sexual problems can be helped both by healing existence in general and by discharging old painful emotions from the tissues. The later process of local healing is often facilitated by a simple technique: accepting contact via touch. This is a very simple technique, where the self-acceptance of the patient is to be promoted, for example, asking the female patient to put her hand on her stomach (uterus) or vulva, after which the holistic physician puts his hand supportively around hers. When done with care and after obtaining the necessary trust of the patient, this aspect of holding often releases the old negative emotions of shame bound to the touched areas. Afterwards, the emotional problems become a subject for conversational therapy and further holistic processing. Primary vulvodynia seems to be one of the diseases that can be cured after only a few successful sessions of working with acceptance through touch. The technique can be used as an isolated procedure or as a part of a pelvic examination. When touching the genitals with the intention of sexual healing, a written therapeutic
Maaswinkel, E.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van Dieen, J.H.
This study investigated the effect of touch on trunk sway in a seated position. Two touch conditions were included: touching an object with the index finger of the right hand (hand-touch) and maintaining contact with an object at the level of the spine of T10 on the mid back (back-touch). In both
Moehring, Francie; Cowie, Ashley M; Menzel, Anthony D; Weyer, Andy D; Grzybowski, Michael; Arzua, Thiago; Geurts, Aron M; Palygin, Oleg; Stucky, Cheryl L
The first point of our body's contact with tactile stimuli (innocuous and noxious) is the epidermis, the outermost layer of skin that is largely composed of keratinocytes. Here, we sought to define the role that keratinocytes play in touch sensation in vivo and ex vivo. We show that optogenetic inhibition of keratinocytes decreases behavioral and cellular mechanosensitivity. These processes are inherently mediated by ATP signaling, as demonstrated by complementary cutaneous ATP release and degradation experiments. Specific deletion of P2X4 receptors in sensory neurons markedly decreases behavioral and primary afferent mechanical sensitivity, thus positioning keratinocyte-released ATP to sensory neuron P2X4 signaling as a critical component of baseline mammalian tactile sensation. These experiments lay a vital foundation for subsequent studies into the dysfunctional signaling that occurs in cutaneous pain and itch disorders, and ultimately, the development of novel topical therapeutics for these conditions. © 2018, Moehring et al.
Rutberg, Stina; Kostenius, Catrine; Öhrling, Kerstin
The aim was to explore the lived experience of physical therapy of persons with migraine. Data were collected by conducting narrative interviews with 11 persons with migraine. Inspired by van Manen, a hermeneutic phenomenological method was used to analyse the experiences of physical therapy which these persons had. Physical therapy for persons with migraine meant making an effort in terms of time and energy to improve their health by meeting a person who was utilising his or her knowledge and skill to help. Being respected and treated as an individual and having confidence in the physical therapist were highlighted aspects. The analysis revealed a main theme, "meeting a physical therapist with professional tools and a personal touch". The main theme included four sub-themes, "investing time and energy to feel better", "relying on the competence of the physical therapist", "wanting to be treated and to become involved as an individual" and "being respected in a trustful relationship". The therapeutic relationship with the physical therapist is important and the findings of this study can increase awareness about relational aspects of physical therapy and encourage thoughtfulness among physical therapists and other healthcare professionals interacting with persons with migraine. Physical therapists use both professional tools and a personal touch in their interaction with persons with migraine and this article can increase physical therapists' awareness and encourage thoughtfulness in their professional practice. Being respected and treated as an individual and having confidence in the physical therapist are important aspects of the therapeutic relationship and indicate a need for patient-centred care. By making the effort of spending the time and energy required, physical therapy could be a complement or an alternative to medication to ease the consequences of migraine.
Fragiacomo, Giulio; Eriksen, Gert F.; Christensen, Carsten
technology to design and fabricate these sensors has been implemented. Capacitive pressure sensing, on the other hand, is still an open and really promising field. Results Capacitive microsensors were designed and fabricated (Fig. 1) and an analytical model for touch mode regime, which fitted accurately...
Therapy involves verbal and non-verbal exchanges between the client and the therapist. The utilization of touch as a non-verbal method by the therapist appears to have generated lots of controversies that merit attention. This paper, therefore, articulates these controversies by looking into what the research endeavour is ...
Davis, Carol; Yang, Alice
For many parents, a phone call home from a teacher means trouble. The result? When a teacher gets in touch, parents' anxiety levels and defensive barriers may automatically go up, reducing their potential to participate as partners in their children's education. But it does not have to be that way. Teachers can regularly contact students' families…
Wallace, Mark; Broschart, Stephen; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Bhaskharan, Shyam; Cangahuala, Alberto
Outline: (1) Trajectory Description (2) Design Drivers: (2a) Dynamics (2b) Environment (2c) Spacecraft and Ground and System Capabilities (2d) Mission Objectives (3) Design Choices (4) Historical Precedents (5) Case Studies. What is Touch-and-Go (TAG)? (1) Descent to the surface (2) Brief contact (3) Ascends to a safe distance
Klos, V.; Deventer, M.O. van; Staalduinen, M. van; Hartog, F.T.H. den
Near Field Communication (NFC) enables fast interactive mobile services as it allows two mobile devices to quickly and securely exchange information when they are within touching range. However, NFC-enabled phones are virtually absent on the market today, which impedes the break-through of these
Saal, Hannes P; Bensmaia, Sliman J
State-of-the-art prosthetic hands nearly match the dexterity of the human hand, and sophisticated approaches have been developed to control them intuitively. However, grasping and dexterously manipulating objects relies heavily on the sense of touch, without which we would struggle to perform even the most basic activities of daily living. Despite the importance of touch, not only in motor control but also in affective communication and embodiment, the restoration of touch through bionic hands is still in its infancy, a shortcoming that severely limits their effectiveness. Here, we focus on approaches to restore the sense of touch through an electrical interface with the peripheral nerve. First, we describe devices that can be chronically implanted in the nerve to electrically activate nerve fibers. Second, we discuss how these interfaces have been used to convey basic somatosensory feedback. Third, we review what is known about how the somatosensory nerve encodes information about grasped objects in intact limbs and discuss how these natural neural codes can be exploited to convey artificial tactile feedback. Finally, we offer a blueprint for how these codes could be implemented in a neuroprosthetic device to deliver rich, natural, and versatile tactile sensations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Although there is data on the spontaneous behavioural repertoire of the fetus, studies on their behavioural responses to external stimulation are scarce.The aim of the current study was to measure fetal behavioural responses in reaction to maternal voice; to maternal touch of the abdomen compared to a control condition, utilizing 3D real-time (4D sonography. Behavioural responses of 23 fetuses (21st to 33rd week of gestation; N = 10 in the 2nd and N = 13 in the 3rd trimester were frame-by-frame coded and analyzed in the three conditions.Results showed that fetuses displayed more arm, head, and mouth movements when the mother touched her abdomen and decreased their arm and head movements to maternal voice. Fetuses in the 3rd trimester showed increased regulatory (yawning, resting (arms crossed and self-touch (hands touching the body responses to the stimuli when compared to fetuses in the 2nd trimester.In summary, the results from this study suggest that fetuses selectively respond to external stimulation earlier than previously reported, fetuses actively regulated their behaviours as a response to the external stimulation, and that fetal maturation affected the emergence of these differential responses to the environment.
The question of physical interaction is especially relevant in school physical education, where a lot of the teaching and activities are based on body movements. However, the issue of "touching" has been questioned in recent years. This paper takes its starting point in the discourse of child protection and the growing anxiety around…
Full Text Available Governments and national bodies are increasingly concerned with promoting outdoor activity as a means to benefit general health and wellbeing. Techniques to encourage and popularize engagement with the outdoor environment should therefore be welcome. This paper explores the use of a touch table as a method to facilitate discussions about people’s engagement with rural and urban landscapes through recreational walking. We describe a study in north-east Scotland involving 22 participants who undertook walks of their choice using GPS smartphone applications to track their routes. Tracked routes were uploaded to a touch table and small group sessions explored spatial behavior in, and perceptions and knowledge of, local landscapes. Individual interviews 4–6 weeks later elicited reflections on the touch table session and personal engagement with the landscape. Two types of findings are reported: (i observations and recommendations relating to the use of a touch table in combination with GPS applications; and (ii knowledge exchange and insights afforded by group discussion and individual reflection. We conclude that our approach is a promising participatory method through which to investigate spatial behavior and promote recreational opportunities in the landscape.
Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kristian
The paper presents a project involving school children’s use of mobile phones at Moesgaard Museum, in Aarhus, Denmark. A special anthropological exhibition called “Touch the World” is arranged around items supplied by UNESCO. The paper will discuss the pedagogical perspective of using mobile phones...
Catala, Alejandro; Theune, Mariët; Heylen, Dirk
Touch displays moving autonomously, i.e., being self-Actuated, are starting to be part of system prototypes reported in the literature. In the future, user interactions with such prototypes may take place while the display is moving. However, since current prototypes do not yet require this type of
Smithmaitrie, Pruittikorn; Kanjantoe, Jinda; Tandayya, Pichaya
The objective of this research is to investigate dynamic responses of the piezoelectric Braille cell when it is subjected to both electrical signal and touching force. Physical behavior of the piezoelectric actuator inside the piezoelectric Braille cell is analyzed. The mathematical model of the piezoelectric Braille system is presented. Then, data of visually impaired people using a Braille Note is studied as design information and a reference input for calculation of the piezoelectric Braille response under the touching force. The results show dynamic responses of the piezoelectric Braille cell. The designed piezoelectric bimorph has a settling time of 0.15 second. The relationship between the Braille dot height and applied voltage is linear. The behavior of the piezoelectric Braille dot when it is touched during operation shows that the dot height is decreased as the force increases. The result provides understanding of the piezoelectric Braille cell behavior under both touching force and electrical excitation simultaneously. This is the important issue for the design and development of piezoelectric Braille cells in senses of controlling Braille dot displacement or force-feedback in the future.
Full Text Available Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children’s lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under three years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them.
Jung, Merel Madeleine
Touch is an important nonverbal form of interpersonal interaction which is used to communicate emotions and other social messages. As interactions with social robots are likely to become more common in the near future these robots should also be able to engage in tactile interaction with humans.
Kneissl, Fabian; Röttger, Richard; Sandner, Uwe
For this paper we developed the concept and implemented a fully working prototype of a snowboarder community platform based on Near Field Communication. All-I-Touch is a service which provides product information at the point of sale and additionally connects the user with his social community in...
Comer, Christopher; Baba, Yoshichika
Orthopteroid insects (cockroaches, crickets, locusts and related species) allow examination of active sensory processing in a comparative framework. Some orthopteroids possess long, mobile antennae endowed with many chemo- and mechanoreceptors. When the antennae are touched, an animal's response depends upon the identity of the stimulus. For example, contact with a predator may lead to escape, but contact with a conspecific may usually not. Active touch of an approaching object influences the likelihood that a discrimination of identity will be made. Using cockroaches, we have identified specific descending mechanosensory interneurons that trigger antennal-mediated escape. Crucial sensory input to these cells comes from chordotonal organs within the antennal base. However, information from other receptors on the base or the long antennal flagellum allows active touch to modulate escape probability based on stimulus identity. This is conveyed, at least to some extent, by textural information. Guidance of the antennae in active exploration depends on visual information. Some of the visual interneurons and the motor neurons necessary for visuomotor control have been identified. Comparisons across Orthoptera suggest an evolutionary model where subtle changes in the architecture of interneurons, and of sensorimotor control loops, may explain differing levels of vision–touch interaction in the active guidance of behaviour. PMID:21969682
Gibson, Cindy L.
In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…
If you want to learn how to use Max 6 and/or TouchDesigner, or work in audio-visual real-time processing, this is the book for you. It is intended for intermediate users of both programs and can be helpful for artists, designers, musicians, VJs, and researchers. A basic understanding of audio principles is advantageous.
Stefanie M. Erk
Full Text Available This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video can (1 enhance recovery from sadness, (2 enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3 increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble, which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses and subjective (questionnaires data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was
Ehrsson, H. Henrik
Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005). We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n = 10), all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n = 12). The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception) revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals. PMID:22558268
Erk, Stefanie M; Toet, Alexander; Van Erp, Jan B F
This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for
Valeria I Petkova
Full Text Available Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005. We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n = 10, all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n = 12. The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals.
Saraf, Ravi F; Maheshwari, Vivek
Touch is one of the five senses designed by nature for survival. 'Touch' may (partially) be characterized as a sensory operation for measuring texture and softness of an object by mechanical contact...
Anderson, Joel G; Suchicital, Liliana; Lang, Maria; Kukic, Azra; Mangione, Lucrezia; Swengros, Diane; Fabian, Jennifer; Friesen, Mary Ann
... such as Healing Touch. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a Healing Touch intervention for reducing pain, nausea, and anxiety in patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery...
Bilton, Douglas; Cayton, Harry
What is "right-touch regulation"? In this article we explain why the Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (the Authority) has focussed much of its policy work in recent times on seeking an answer to this question, and why it wants to know. We explain why the Authority's predecessor body, the Council for Healthcare…
Kirkorian, Heather L.; Choi, Koeun; Pempek, Tiffany A.
Researchers examined whether contingent experience using a touch screen increased toddlers' ability to learn a word from video. One hundred and sixteen children (24-36 months) watched an on-screen actress label an object: (a) without interacting, (b) with instructions to touch "anywhere" on the screen, or (c) with instructions to touch a…
Udo, J. P.; Fels, D. I.
In this paper we demonstrate how universal design theory and the research available on museum-based touch tours can be used to develop a touch tour for blind and low-vision theatregoers. We discuss these theoretical and practical approaches with reference to data collected and experience gained from the creation and execution of a touch tour for…
Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Mongeau, Paul A.
Touch is an important and powerful form of communication that is often avoided for fear of negative interpretations. However touch has also been associated with positive relational and educational outcomes. In this study, descriptions of touch, elicited from students, that occurred between teachers and students were sorted using S.E. Jones' (1994)…
Full Text Available The perception of touch is complex and there has been a lack of ways to describe the full tactile experience quantitatively. Guest et al. (2011 developed a Touch Perception Task (TPT in order to capture such experiences, and here we used the TPT to examine differences in sensory and emotional aspects of touch at different skin sites. We compared touch on three skin sites: the hairy arm and cheek, and the glabrous palm. The hairy skin contains C-tactile (CT afferents, which play a role in affective touch, whereas glabrous skin does not contain CT afferents and is involved in more discriminative touch. In healthy volunteers, three different materials (soft brush, sandpaper, fur were stroked across these skin sites during self-touch or experimenter-applied touch. After each stimulus, participants rated the tactile experience using descriptors in the TPT. Sensory and emotional descriptors were analysed using factor analyses. Five sensory factors were found: Texture, Pile, Moisture, Heat/Sharp and Cold/Slip, and three emotional factors: Positive Affect, Arousal and Negative Affect. Significant differences were found in the use of descriptors in touch to hairy versus glabrous skin: this was most evident in touch on forearm skin, which produced higher emotional content. The touch from another was also judged as more emotionally positive then self-touch, and participants readily discriminated between the materials on all factors. The TPT successfully probed sensory and emotional percepts of the touch experience, which aided in identifying skin where emotional touch was more pertinent. It also highlights the potentially important role for CTs in the affective processing of inter-personal touch, in combination with higher-order influences, such as through cultural belonging and previous experiences.
Full Text Available In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain.
Mateu, Juan; Lasala, María José; Alamán, Xavier
In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain.
Meng, Weizhi; Li, Wenjuan; Kwok, Lam For
not only on PCs, but also on smartphones to authenticate legitimate users and detect impostors. However, as compared to common computers, we identify that users are able to perform some distinct actions like multi-touch on smartphones. The multi-touch is a distinguished feature on current smartphones....... In the evaluation, we develop a multi-touch enabled CD-GPS on smartphones and conduct two major experiments with a total of 90 participants. The study results indicate that participants are more likely to use multi-touch features to create their secrets, and multi-touch can make a positive impact on creating...
Bufalari, Ilaria; Porciello, Giuseppina; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria
Mirror Touch Synesthetes (MTSs) feel touch while they observe others being touched. According to the authors, two complementary theoretical frameworks, the Threshold Theory and the Self-Other Theory, explain Mirror Touch Synesthesia (MTS). Based on the behavioral evidence that in MTSs the mere observation of touch is sufficient to elicit self-other merging (i.e., self-representation changes), a condition that in non-MTSs just elicits self-other sharing (i.e., mirroring activity without self-other blurring), and on the rTPJ anatomical alterations in MTS, we argue that MTS may derive from an abnormally plastic self-representation and atypical multisensory integrative mechanisms.
Lamm, Claus; Silani, Giorgia; Singer, Tania
In spite of considerable progress in the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the experience of empathy, the majority of previous investigations have focused on how we share negative affective states (and in particular pain) of others, whereas only few studies have targeted empathy for positive emotions. This bias has precluded addressing one of the central tenets of the shared representations account of empathy, which is that different networks should be engaged when empathizing with emotions that are represented on different neural levels. The aim of the present study was to overcome this limitation and to test whether empathy for pleasant and unpleasant affective touch is underpinned by different neural networks. To this end we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with two independent replication experiments (N = 18, N = 32), and a novel paradigm enabling the joint investigation of first-hand and vicarious responses to pleasant and unpleasant affect induced via visuo-tactile stimulation. This revealed that empathy is subserved by distinct neural networks, with those regions recruited in the first-hand experience of positive or negative affective states also being specifically recruited when empathizing with these respective states in others. More specifically, the first-hand and vicarious experience of pleasant touch commonly recruited medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), while unpleasant touch was associated with shared activation in the right fronto-insular cortex. The observation that specifically tailored subsystems of the human brain are engaged to share positive versus negative touch of others brings fresh evidence to one of the major goals of the social neuroscience of empathy: to identify which specific aspects of the affective states of others are shared, and what role this plays in enabling the understanding of the emotions of others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Balzer, J W
The health care industry is looking to continuous quality improvement as a process to both improve patient care and promote cost effectiveness. Interdisciplinary teams are learning to work together and to use data-driven problem solving. Humor adds a creative and welcome touch to the process that makes it easier and more fun to work in teams. The team leader or facilitator who uses humor along the journey sanctions the risk-taking behavior that accompanies creative solutions to tough problems.
Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study has been to evaluate the pathogenic bacteria contamination of touch surfaces in hospital wards. Material and Methods: Samples were taken from frequently touched surfaces in the hospital environment in 13 units of various types. Culturing was carried out on solid blood agar and in growth broth (tryptic soy broth – TSB. Species identification was performed using the analytical profile index (API biochemical testing and confirmed with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS system. Results: The total of 161 samples were taken for the study. Fifty-two of them, after 24 h of culture on a solid medium, demonstrated bacterial growth and further 60 samples had growth after prior multiplication in TSB. Overall, 69.6% of samples exhibited growth of 19 bacterial species. Pathogenic species – representing indicator organisms of efficiency of hospital cleaning – was demonstrated by 21.4% of samples. Among them Acinetobacter spp., Enterocococci spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were identified. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were predominant. The proportion of various groups of bacteria significantly varied in respective hospitals, and in various types of wards. Disturbing observation is a large proportion of resistance of isolated CNS strains as a potential reservoir of resistance genes. Conclusions: The results show that touch surfaces in hospital units are contaminated by both potentially pathogenic and pathogenic bacterial species. In connection with the reported, also in Poland, frequent omission or incorrect execution of hand hygiene by hospital staff, and probably patients, touch surfaces still constitute important reservoir of pathogenic bacteria. Improving hand hygiene compliance of health-care workers with recommendations is necessary for increasing biological safety of hospital environment. Med Pr 2017;68(3:459–467
Yau, Jeffrey M; Olenczak, Jonathon B; Dammann, John F; Bensmaia, Sliman J
Temporal frequency is a fundamental sensory dimension in audition and touch. In audition, analysis of temporal frequency is necessary for speech and music perception; in touch, the spectral analysis of vibratory signals has been implicated in texture perception and in sensing the environment through tools. Environmental oscillations impinging upon the ear are generally thought to be processed independently of oscillations impinging upon the skin. Here, we show that frequency channels are perceptually linked across audition and touch. In a series of psychophysical experiments, we demonstrate that auditory stimuli interfere with tactile frequency perception in a systematic manner. Specifically, performance on a tactile-frequency-discrimination task is impaired when an auditory distractor is presented with the tactile stimuli, but only if the frequencies of the auditory and tactile stimuli are similar. The frequency-dependent interference effect is observed whether the distractors are pure tones or band-pass noise, so an auditory percept of pitch is not required for the effect to be produced. Importantly, distractors that strongly impair frequency discrimination do not interfere with judgments of tactile intensity. This surprisingly specific crosstalk between different modalities reflects the importance of supramodal representations of fundamental sensory dimensions.
Loïs S Miraucourt
Full Text Available Dynamic mechanical allodynia is a widespread and intractable symptom of neuropathic pain for which there is a lack of effective therapy. During tactile allodynia, activation of the sensory fibers which normally detect touch elicits pain. Here we provide a new behavioral investigation into the dynamic component of tactile allodynia that developed in rats after segmental removal of glycine inhibition. Using in vivo electrophysiological recordings, we show that in this condition innocuous mechanical stimuli could activate superficial dorsal horn nociceptive specific neurons. These neurons do not normally respond to touch. We anatomically show that the activation was mediated through a local circuit involving neurons expressing the gamma isoform of protein kinase C (PKCgamma. Selective inhibition of PKCgamma as well as selective blockade of glutamate NMDA receptors in the superficial dorsal horn prevented both activation of the circuit and allodynia. Thus, our data demonstrates that a normally inactive circuit in the dorsal horn can be recruited to convert touch into pain. It also provides evidence that glycine inhibitory dysfunction gates tactile input to nociceptive specific neurons through PKCgamma-dependent activation of a local, excitatory, NMDA receptor-dependent, circuit. As a consequence of these findings, we suggest that pharmacological inhibition of PKCgamma might provide a new tool for alleviating allodynia in the clinical setting.
Bologna, L. L.; Pinoteau, J.; Passot, J.-B.; Garrido, J. A.; Vogel, J.; Ros Vidal, E.; Arleo, A.
Objective. Fine touch sensing relies on peripheral-to-central neurotransmission of somesthetic percepts, as well as on active motion policies shaping tactile exploration. This paper presents a novel neuroengineering framework for robotic applications based on the multistage processing of fine tactile information in the closed action-perception loop. Approach. The integrated system modules focus on (i) neural coding principles of spatiotemporal spiking patterns at the periphery of the somatosensory pathway, (ii) probabilistic decoding mechanisms mediating cortical-like tactile recognition and (iii) decision-making and low-level motor adaptation underlying active touch sensing. We probed the resulting neural architecture through a Braille reading task. Main results. Our results on the peripheral encoding of primary contact features are consistent with experimental data on human slow-adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They also suggest second-order processing by cuneate neurons may resolve perceptual ambiguities, contributing to a fast and highly performing online discrimination of Braille inputs by a downstream probabilistic decoder. The implemented multilevel adaptive control provides robustness to motion inaccuracy, while making the number of finger accelerations covariate with Braille character complexity. The resulting modulation of fingertip kinematics is coherent with that observed in human Braille readers. Significance. This work provides a basis for the design and implementation of modular neuromimetic systems for fine touch discrimination in robotics.
Klein, Yoni; Djaldetti, Ruth; Keller, Yosi; Bachelet, Ido
The recent proliferation in mobile touch-based devices paves the way for increasingly efficient, easy to use natural user interfaces (NUI). Unfortunately, touch-based NUIs might prove difficult, or even impossible to operate, in certain conditions e.g. when suffering from motor dysfunction such as Parkinson's Disease (PD). Yet, the prevalence of such devices makes them particularly suitable for acquiring motor function data, and enabling the early detection of PD symptoms and other conditions. In this work we acquired a unique database of more than 12,500 annotated NUI multi-touch gestures, collected from PD patients and healthy volunteers, that were analyzed by applying advanced shape analysis and statistical inference schemes. The proposed analysis leads to a novel detection scheme for early stages of PD. Moreover, our computational analysis revealed that young subjects may be using a 'slang' form of gesture-making to reduce effort and attention cost while maintaining meaning, whereas older subjects put an emphasis on content and precise performance.
Franzén, Erika; Paquette, Caroline; Gurfinkel, Victor; Horak, Fay
Light touch with a stable object reduces postural sway by increasing axial postural tone in healthy subjects. However, it is unknown whether subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD), who have more postural sway and higher axial postural tone than healthy subjects, can benefit from haptic touch. To investigate the effect of light and heavy touch on postural stability and hip tone in subjects with PD. Fourteen subjects with mid-stage PD and 14 healthy control subjects were evaluated during quiet standing with eyes closed with their arms (a) crossed, (b) lightly touching a fixed rigid bar in front of them, and (c) firmly gripping the bar. Postural sway was measured with a forceplate, and axial hip tone was quantified using a unique device that measures the resistance of the hips to yaw rotation while maintaining active stance. Subjects with PD significantly decreased their postural sway with light or heavy touch (P touch, hip tone was larger in PD subjects. With touch, however, tone values were similar in both groups. This change in hip tone with touch was highly correlated with the initial amount of tone (PD, r = -.72 to -.95; controls, r = -.74 to -.85). The authors showed, for the first time, that subjects with PD benefit from touch similarly to control subjects and that despite higher axial postural tone, PD subjects are able to modulate their tone with touch. Future studies should investigate the complex relationship between touch and postural tone.
Unilateral light fingertip touch of a stationary object has a significant stabilizing effect on postural sway during stance. The purpose of this study was to find out if this effect is enhanced by bilateral light touch of parallel stationary objects. The postural sway of 54 healthy subjects was tested in four stance conditions: no touch; unilateral left light touch of the left handle of a walker; unilateral right light touch of the right handle of the same walker; and bilateral light touch of the two handles. During testing, subjects stood blindfolded on two foam pads placed on the left and right force plates of the Tetrax balance system. Testing in each condition lasted 45 s and was executed twice in a random order. As expected, postural sway was significantly reduced by unilateral left or right light fingertip touch. It was significantly further decreased by bilateral light touch. In addition, light touch conditions were associated with a reduction in pressure fluctuations between the heel and forefoot of the same foot as well as those of the contralateral foot, with a concomitant increase in weight shift fluctuations between the two feet. The decrease in postural sway with bilateral light touch suggests cortical modulation of the bilateral touch inputs, with enhancement of the stabilizing response.
Link, Terri; Kleiner, Catherine; Mancuso, Mary P; Dziadkowiec, Oliwier; Halverson-Carpenter, Katherine
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention put forth the recommendation to clean areas considered high touch more frequently than minimal touch surfaces. The operating room was not included in these recommendations. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequently touched surfaces in the operating room and their level of contamination. Phase 1 was a descriptive study to identify high touch areas in the operating room. In phase 2, high touch areas determined in phase 1 were cultured to determine if high touch areas observed were also highly contaminated and if they were more contaminated than a low touch surface. The 5 primary high touch surfaces in order were the anesthesia computer mouse, OR bed, nurse computer mouse, OR door, and anesthesia medical cart. Using the OR light as a control, this study demonstrated that a low touch area was less contaminated than the high touch areas with the exception of the OR bed. Based on information and data collected in this study, it is recommended that an enhanced cleaning protocol be established based on the most frequently touched surfaces in the operating room. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Langford, N J
Therapeutic misadventure can be defined as an injury or an adverse event caused by medical management rather than by an underlying disease. Within the National Health Service there were over 86,000 reported adverse incidents in 2007. In the USA medication errors have been rated as the fourth highest cause of death. Unfortunately one of the greatest contributors to iatrogenic injury is human error. The potential types of misadventure are infinite. Medication errors are a major part of this, being responsible for over 70% of cases that cause serious harm. However, many medication errors caused by slips, lapses, technical errors and mistakes are preventable; intentional violations of safe operating procedures are not. While medication errors were tolerated by society in the past, the readiness to institute criminal proceedings against health-care professionals has increased greatly in the UK over the last decade. The medication process consists of writing prescriptions, dispensing the product, administering it and monitoring its effects. Prescription errors arise owing to incomplete information, lack of appropriate labelling, environmental factors and human blunders. Even with a perfect prescription the right medication must be dispensed and appropriately labelled. Dispensing errors are not uncommon and may be compounded by non-clinical considerations. Administration of a drug by injection is one of the most dangerous aspects of the medication process, especially in inexperienced hands. The final component of medication supply is monitoring the effect of the medication. With short courses of medication such monitoring is easy, but with long-term medication, particularly with potent drugs where the margin between efficacy and toxicity is small, active procedures may be required to ensure toxicity does not ensue. Despite the endeavour of health-care professions to stick to the rule of 'first, do no harm', in reality this is difficult to achieve all of the time. When
Vlaming, Luc; Collins, Christopher; Hancock, Mark; Nacenta, Miguel; Isenberg, Tobias; Carpendale, Sheelagh
We present the Rizzo, a multi-touch virtual mouse that has been designed to provide the fine grained interaction for information visualization on a multi-touch table. Our solution enables touch interaction for existing mouse-based visualizations. Previously, this transition to a multi-touch
Kashdan, Todd B; Doorley, James; Stiksma, Melissa C; Hertenstein, Matthew J
Physical touch is central to the emotional intimacy that separates romantic relationships from other social contexts. In this study of 256 adults (128 heterosexual couples, mean relationship length = 20.5 months), we examined whether individual differences in social anxiety influenced comfort with and avoidance of physical touch. Because of prior work on sex difference in touch use, touch comfort, and social anxiety symptoms and impairment, we explored sex-specific findings. We found evidence that women with greater social anxiety were less comfortable with touch and more avoidant of touch in same-sex friendships. Additionally, a woman's social anxiety had a bigger effect on a man's comfort with touch and avoidance of touch in the romantic relationship than a man's social anxiety had on the woman's endorsement of touch-related problems. These effects were uninfluenced by the length of romantic relationships. Touch is a neglected emotional experience that offers new insights into the difficulties of individuals suffering from social anxiety problems, and their romantic partners.
Cocksedge, Simon; George, Bethan; Renwick, Sophie; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A
Good communication skills are integral to successful doctor-patient relationships. Communication may be verbal or non-verbal, and touch is a significant component, which has received little attention in the primary care literature. Touch may be procedural (part of a clinical task) or expressive (contact unrelated to a procedure/examination). To explore GPs' and patients' experiences of using touch in consultations. Qualitative study in urban and semi-rural areas of north-west England. Participating GPs recruited registered patients with whom they felt they had an ongoing relationship. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and subjected to constant comparative qualitative analysis. All participants described the importance of verbal and non-verbal communication in developing relationships. Expressive touch was suggested to improve communication quality by most GPs and all patients. GPs reported a lower threshold for using touch with older patients or those who were bereaved, and with patients of the same sex as themselves. All patient responders felt touch on the hand or forearm was appropriate. GPs described limits to using touch, with some responders rarely using anything other than procedural touch. In contrast, most patient responders believed expressive touch was acceptable, especially in situations of distress. All GP responders feared misinterpretation in their use of touch, but patients were keen that these concerns should not prevent doctors using expressive touch in consultations. Expressive touch improves interactions between GPs and patients. Increased educational emphasis on the conscious use of expressive touch would enhance clinical communication and, hence, perhaps patient wellbeing and care.
Cocksedge, Simon; George, Bethan; Renwick, Sophie; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A
Background Good communication skills are integral to successful doctor–patient relationships. Communication may be verbal or non-verbal, and touch is a significant component, which has received little attention in the primary care literature. Touch may be procedural (part of a clinical task) or expressive (contact unrelated to a procedure/examination). Aim To explore GPs’ and patients’ experiences of using touch in consultations. Design and setting Qualitative study in urban and semi-rural areas of north-west England. Method Participating GPs recruited registered patients with whom they felt they had an ongoing relationship. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and subjected to constant comparative qualitative analysis. Results All participants described the importance of verbal and non-verbal communication in developing relationships. Expressive touch was suggested to improve communication quality by most GPs and all patients. GPs reported a lower threshold for using touch with older patients or those who were bereaved, and with patients of the same sex as themselves. All patient responders felt touch on the hand or forearm was appropriate. GPs described limits to using touch, with some responders rarely using anything other than procedural touch. In contrast, most patient responders believed expressive touch was acceptable, especially in situations of distress. All GP responders feared misinterpretation in their use of touch, but patients were keen that these concerns should not prevent doctors using expressive touch in consultations. Conclusion Expressive touch improves interactions between GPs and patients. Increased educational emphasis on the conscious use of expressive touch would enhance clinical communication and, hence, perhaps patient wellbeing and care. PMID:23540485
The paper presents the fabrication of transparent, flexible sensor patches developed using a casting technique with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as substrate and a nanocomposite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and PDMS as interdigital electrodes. The electrodes act as strain sensitive capacitor. The prototypes were used as touch sensitive sensors attached to the limbs. Experiments results show the sensitivity of the patches towards tactile sensing. The results are very promising and can play a key role in the development of a cost efficient sensing system attached to prosthetic limbs.
Cai, Jie [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Braun, James E. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Langner, M. Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
The research presented in this report builds upon these previous efforts and proposes a set of tests to assess no touch audit tools using real utility bill and on-site data. The proposed assessment methodology explicitly investigates the behaviors of the monthly energy end uses with respect to outdoor temperature, i.e., the building energy signature, to help understand the Tool's disaggregation accuracy. The project team collaborated with Field Diagnosis Services, Inc. (FDSI) to identify appropriate test sites for the evaluation.
The book is written in a cookbook style, presenting examples in the style of recipes, allowing you to go directly to your topic of interest, or follow topics throughout a chapter to gain in-depth knowledge. This book is essential for C# and .NET developers with no previous experience in iOS development and Objective-C developers that want to make a transition to the benefits of MonoTouch and the C# language, for creating complete, compelling iPhone, iPod and iPad applications and deploying them to the App Store.
Herbenick, Debby; Fu, Tsung-Chieh Jane; Arter, Jennifer; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dodge, Brian
The study purpose was to assess, in a U.S. probability sample of women, experiences related to orgasm, sexual pleasure, and genital touching. In June 2015, 1,055 women ages 18 to 94 from the nationally representative GfK KnowledgePanel® completed a confidential, Internet-based survey. While 18.4% of women reported that intercourse alone was sufficient for orgasm, 36.6% reported clitoral stimulation was necessary for orgasm during intercourse, and an additional 36% indicated that, while clitoral stimulation was not needed, their orgasms feel better if their clitoris is stimulated during intercourse. Women reported diverse preferences for genital touch location, pressure, shape, and pattern. Clinical, therapeutic, and educational implications are discussed.
Kurihara, Kazutaka; Nagano, Naoshi; Watanabe, Yuta; Fujimura, Yuichi; Minaduki, Akinori; Hayashi, Hidehiko; Tsuchiya, Yohei
Direct-touch presentation devices such as touch-sensitive electronic whiteboards have two serious problems. First, the presenter's hand movements tend to distract the audience's attention from content. Second, the presenter' s manipulation tends to obscure content. In this paper we describe a new electronic whiteboard system that supports multi-touch gestures and employs a special pie menu interface named "sPieMenu." This pie menu is displayed under the presenter's palm and is thus invisible ...
Elmi, Muna; Pawar, Vijay M; Shaw, Michael; Wong, David; Zhan, Haoyun; Srinivasan, Mandayam A
The sense of touch is a fundamental mechanism that nearly all organisms use to interact with their surroundings. However, the process of mechanotransduction whereby a mechanical stimulus gives rise to a neuronal response is not well understood. In this paper we present an investigation of the biomechanics of touch using the model organism C. elegans. By developing a custom micromanipulation and force sensing system around a high resolution optical microscope, we measured the spatial deformation of the organism's cuticle and force response to controlled uniaxial indentations. We combined these experimental results with anatomical data to create a multilayer computational biomechanical model of the organism and accurately derive its material properties such as the elastic modulus and poisson's ratio. We demonstrate the utility of this model by combining it with previously published electrophysiological data to provide quantitative insights into different biomechanical states for mechanotransduction, including the first estimate of the sensitivity of an individual mechanoreceptor to an applied stimulus (parameterised as strain energy density). We also interpret empirical behavioural data to estimate the minimum number of mechanoreceptors which must be activated to elicit a behavioural response.
Full Text Available Flexible electronics sensors for tactile applications in multi-touch sensing and large scale manufacturing were designed and fabricated. The sensors are based on polyimide substrates, with thixotropy materials used to print organic resistances and a bump on the top polyimide layer. The gap between the bottom electrode layer and the resistance layer provides a buffer distance to reduce erroneous contact during large bending. Experimental results show that the top membrane with a bump protrusion and a resistance layer had a large deflection and a quick sensitive response. The bump and resistance layer provided a concentrated von Mises stress force and inertial force on the top membrane center. When the top membrane had no bump, it had a transient response delay time and took longer to reach steady-state. For printing thick structures of flexible electronics sensors, diffusion effects and dimensional shrinkages can be improved by using a paste material with a high viscosity. Linear algorithm matrixes with Gaussian elimination and control system scanning were used for multi-touch detection. Flexible electronics sensors were printed with a resistance thickness of about 32 µm and a bump thickness of about 0.2 mm. Feasibility studies show that printing technology is appropriate for large scale manufacturing, producing sensors at a low cost.
Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Mazzoni, Alberto; Oddo, Calogero Maria
We implemented neuromorphic artificial touch and emulated the firing behavior of mechanoreceptors by injecting the raw outputs of a biomimetic tactile sensor into an Izhikevich neuronal model. Naturalistic textures were evaluated with a passive touch protocol. The resulting neuromorphic spike trains were able to classify ten naturalistic textures ranging from textiles to glass to BioSkin, with accuracy as high as 97%. Remarkably, rather than on firing rate features calculated over the stimulation window, the highest achieved decoding performance was based on the precise spike timing of the neuromorphic output as captured by Victor Purpura distance. We also systematically varied the sliding velocity and the contact force to investigate the role of sensing conditions in categorizing the stimuli via the artificial sensory system. We found that the decoding performance based on the timing of neuromorphic spike events was robust for a broad range of sensing conditions. Being able to categorize naturalistic textures in different sensing conditions, these neurorobotic results pave the way to the use of neuromorphic tactile sensors in future real-life neuroprosthetic applications.
Full Text Available This paper presents a method of integrating two contrasting sensor systems for studying human interaction with a mechanical system, using piano performance as the case study. Piano technique requires both precise small-scale motion of fingers on the key surfaces and planned large-scale movement of the hands and arms. Where studies of performance often focus on one of these scales in isolation, this paper investigates the relationship between them. Two sensor systems were installed on an acoustic grand piano: a monocular high-speed camera tracking the position of painted markers on the hands, and capacitive touch sensors attach to the key surfaces which measure the location of finger-key contacts. This paper highlights a method of fusing the data from these systems, including temporal and spatial alignment, segmentation into notes and automatic fingering annotation. Three case studies demonstrate the utility of the multi-sensor data: analysis of finger flexion or extension based on touch and camera marker location, timing analysis of finger-key contact preceding and following key presses, and characterisation of individual finger movements in the transitions between successive key presses. Piano performance is the focus of this paper, but the sensor method could equally apply to other fine motor control scenarios, with applications to human-computer interaction.
Madden, John D. W.; Dobashi, Yuta; Sarwar, Mirza S.; Preston, Eden C.; Wyss, Justin K. M.; Woehling, Vincent; Nguyen, Tran-Minh-Giao; Plesse, Cedric; Vidal, Frédéric; Naficy, Sina; Spinks, Geoffrey M.
There is increasing interest in creating bendable and stretchable electronic interfaces that can be worn or applied to virtually any surface. The electroactive polymer community is well placed to add value by incorporating sensors and actuators. Recent work has demonstrated transparent dielectric elastomer actuation as well as pressure, stretch or touch sensing. Here we present two alternative forms of sensing. The first uses ionically conductive and stretchable gels as electrodes in capacitive sensors that detect finger proximity. In this case the finger acts as a third electrode, reducing capacitance between the two gel electrodes as it approaches, which can be detected even during bending and stretching. Very light finger touch is readily detected even during deformation of the substrate. Lateral resolution is achieved by creating a sensor array. In the second approach, electrodes placed beneath a salt containing gel are able to detect ion currents generated by the deformation of the gel. In this approach, applied pressure results in ion currents that create a potential difference around the point of contact, leading to a voltage and current in the electrodes without any need for input electrical energy. The mechanism may be related to effects seen in ionomeric polymer metal composites (IPMCs), but with the response in plane rather than through the thickness of the film. Ultimately, these ionically conductive materials that can also be transparent and actuate, have the potential to be used in wearable devices.
MacRitchie, Jennifer; McPherson, Andrew P.
This paper presents a method of integrating two contrasting sensor systems for studying human interaction with a mechanical system, using piano performance as the case study. Piano technique requires both precise small-scale motion of fingers on the key surfaces and planned large-scale movement of the hands and arms. Where studies of performance often focus on one of these scales in isolation, this paper investigates the relationship between them. Two sensor systems were installed on an acoustic grand piano: a monocular high-speed camera tracking the position of painted markers on the hands, and capacitive touch sensors attach to the key surfaces which measure the location of finger-key contacts. This paper highlights a method of fusing the data from these systems, including temporal and spatial alignment, segmentation into notes and automatic fingering annotation. Three case studies demonstrate the utility of the multi-sensor data: analysis of finger flexion or extension based on touch and camera marker location, timing analysis of finger-key contact preceding and following key presses, and characterization of individual finger movements in the transitions between successive key presses. Piano performance is the focus of this paper, but the sensor method could equally apply to other fine motor control scenarios, with applications to human-computer interaction. PMID:26082732
Ellingsen, Dan-Mikael; Leknes, Siri; Løseth, Guro; Wessberg, Johan; Olausson, Håkan
Inter-individual touch can be a desirable reward that can both relieve negative affect and evoke strong feelings of pleasure. However, if other sensory cues indicate it is undesirable to interact with the toucher, the affective experience of the same touch may be flipped to disgust. While a broad literature has addressed, on one hand the neurophysiological basis of ascending touch pathways, and on the other hand the central neurochemistry involved in touch behaviors, investigations of how external context and internal state shapes the hedonic value of touch have only recently emerged. Here, we review the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the integration of tactile “bottom–up” stimuli and “top–down” information into affective touch experiences. We highlight the reciprocal influences between gentle touch and contextual information, and consider how, and at which levels of neural processing, top-down influences may modulate ascending touch signals. Finally, we discuss the central neurochemistry, specifically the μ-opioids and oxytocin systems, involved in affective touch processing, and how the functions of these neurotransmitters largely depend on the context and motivational state of the individual. PMID:26779092
Morris, Douglas; Henegar, J; Khanin, S; Oberle, G; Thacker, S
Instrumental touch is identified as having purposeful physical contact in order to complete a task. Expressive touch is identified as warm, friendly physical contact and is not solely for performing a task. Expressive touch has been associated with improved client status, increased rapport and greater gains made during therapy. The purpose of the study was to observe the frequency of expressive and instrumental touch utilized by an occupational therapist during an occupational therapy session. Thirty-three occupational therapy professionals, including occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants, employed at skilled nursing facilities in southwest Florida were observed. Data were collected on the Occupational Therapy Interaction Assessment. The results of the data analysis showed a positive relationship between the gender of the therapist and the frequency of expressive touch. The data also showed that a large majority of touches were instrumental touch and pertained to functional mobility. The results of the study can contribute to a better understanding of the holistic aspects of occupational therapy. By the use of more expressive touch, occupational therapy practitioners may have a positive, beneficial effect on both the client and the therapy process as a whole. Further research is needed to determine the effect an occupational therapy setting has on the frequency of instrumental and expressive touch. A larger sample size and a distinction between evaluation and treatment sessions would benefit future studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper
Multi-touch, wall-sized displays afford new forms of collaboration. Yet, most data on collaboration with multi-touch displays come from tabletop settings, where users often sit and where space is a limited resource. We study how two-person groups navigate in relation to a 2.8m!1.2m multi-touch di......-touch display with 24.8 megapixels and to each other when solving a sensemaking task on a document collection. The results show that users physically navigate to shift fluently among different parts of the display and between parallel and joint group work....
Full Text Available Inter-individual touch can be a desirable reward that can both relieve negative affect and evoke strong feelings of pleasure. However, if other sensory cues indicate it is undesirable to interact with the toucher, the affective experience of the same touch may be flipped to disgust. While a broad literature has addressed, on one hand the neurophysiological basis of ascending touch pathways, and on the other hand the central neurochemistry involved in touch behaviors, investigations of how external context and internal state shapes the hedonic value of touch have only recently emerged. Here, we review the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the integration of tactile bottom-up stimuli and top-down information into affective touch experiences. We highlight the reciprocal influences between gentle touch and contextual information, and consider how, and at which levels of neural processing, top-down influences may modulate ascending touch signals. Finally, we discuss the central neurochemistry, specifically the µ-opioids and oxytocin systems, involved in affective touch processing, and how the functions of these neurotransmitters largely depend on the context and motivational state of the individual.
Jain, Aastha; Bhatia, Pooja; Chugh, Archana
The emerging field of synthetic biology holds tremendous potential for developing novel drugs to treat various human conditions. The current study discusses the scope of synthetic biology for human therapeutics via microbial approach. In this context, synthetic biology aims at designing, engineering and building new microbial synthetic cells that do not pre-exist in nature as well as re-engineer existing microbes for synthesis of therapeutic products. It is expected that the construction of novel microbial genetic circuitry for human therapeutics will greatly benefit from the data generated by 'omics' approaches and multidisciplinary nature of synthetic biology. Development of novel antimicrobial drugs and vaccines by engineering microbial systems are a promising area of research in the field of synthetic biology for human theragnostics. Expression of plant based medicinal compounds in the microbial system using synthetic biology tools is another avenue dealt in the present study. Additionally, the study suggest that the traditional medicinal knowledge can do value addition for developing novel drugs in the microbial systems using synthetic biology tools. The presented work envisions the success of synthetic biology for human therapeutics via microbial approach in a holistic manner. Keeping this in view, various legal and socio-ethical concerns emerging from the use of synthetic biology via microbial approach such as patenting, biosafety and biosecurity issues have been touched upon in the later sections.
The purpose of this article is to share professional knowledge, practice, and educational opportunities related to energy-based nursing in order to broaden and improve the delivery of health care services. The holistic, theory-based approach places a patient's perceived needs first, and cares for the human body as well as the spirit. Energy medicine is an intricate part of the patient's expectation for health care. Watson's transpersonal-caring-healing model is explored (Watson, 1999). This model expands the view of the person to one that embodies energy that is comprised of spirit, a universal mind, and consciousness. The North American Nurses Diagnosis Association (NANDA) recognizes energy therapy as an intervention representing a specific theory: human energy field theory (HEFT). This therapy is related to the approved nursing diagnosis of energy field disturbance 1.8 (NANDA, 1995/1996). Healing touch (HT) is an energy-based therapeutic approach to healing that emphasizes caring for the whole person based on the HEFT. It is used in the nursing profession to influence changes in the human energy system; HT affects physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual health. The nursing process is evident throughout the curriculum. Nurse researchers report positive patients outcomes. The holistic nursing concept of energetic healing returns nurse professionals to the essence of nursing. Spinal cord injury (SCI) nurses will benefit by increasing their knowledge and awareness of energy therapy to increase patient satisfaction and improve outcomes for persons with SCI.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In rubber hand illusions and full body illusions, touch sensations are projected to non-body objects such as rubber hands, dolls or virtual bodies. The robustness, limits and further perceptual consequences of such illusions are not yet fully explored or understood. A number of experiments are reported that test the limits of a variant of the rubber hand illusion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A variant of the rubber hand illusion is explored, in which the real and foreign hands are aligned in personal space. The presence of the illusion is ascertained with participants' scores and temperature changes of the real arm. This generates a basic illusion of touch projected to a foreign arm. Participants are presented with further, unusual visuotactile stimuli subsequent to onset of the basic illusion. Such further visuotactile stimulation is found to generate very unusual experiences of supernatural touch and touch on a non-hand object. The finding of touch on a non-hand object conflicts with prior findings, and to resolve this conflict a further hypothesis is successfully tested: that without prior onset of the basic illusion this unusual experience does not occur. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A rubber hand illusion is found that can arise when the real and the foreign arm are aligned in personal space. This illusion persists through periods of no tactile stimulation and is strong enough to allow very unusual experiences of touch felt on a cardboard box and experiences of touch produced at a distance, as if by supernatural causation. These findings suggest that one's visual body image is explained away during experience of the illusion and they may be of further importance to understanding the role of experience in delusion formation. The findings of touch on non-hand objects may help reconcile conflicting results in this area of research. In addition, new evidence is provided that relates to the recently discovered psychologically
Lucia Dalla Pellegrina
Full Text Available With the Great Crisis of 2008-2009 we have witnessed a relevant episode of macroeconomic vulnerability affecting many countries. To what extent such vulnerability has depended upon the design of light-touch (LT banking regulation? We observe an Unpleasant Nexus (UN, i.e. that macroeconomic volatility is associated in a robust and systematic way with LT banking regulation. But the UN does not operate in a vacuum. The link between vulnerability and LT banking regulation seems representative of a more general relationship between institutional design and macroeconomic performance. Our analysis shows how various types of institutions – public, political, legal, monetary – also seem to exert an unexpected effect on resilience.
Mulligan, Jeffrey B.
The availability of low-cost high-quality touch-screen displays in modern mobile devices has created opportunities for new approaches to routine visual measurements. Here we describe a novel method in which subjects use a finger swipe to indicate the transition from visible to invisible on a grating which is swept in both contrast and frequency. Because a single image can be swiped in about a second, it is practical to use a series of images to zoom in on particular ranges of contrast or frequency, both to increase the accuracy of the measurements and to obtain an estimate of the reliability of the subject. Sensitivities to chromatic and spatio-temporal modulations are easily measured using the same method. We will demonstrate a prototype for Apple Computer's iPad-iPod-iPhone family of devices, implemented using an open-source scripting environment known as QuIP (QUick Image Processing,
In this presentation, I will investigate the construction of embodied motivation in the interactions between educators and pre-school children during physical activity. The purpose of this study is to advancing the argument that motivation-building is more than pep-talks, magic formulaes...... or intellectual persuasion. Educators can motivate children to participate and immerse themselves in physical activities in and through touch and movement. This way they can facilitate felt here-and-now-experiences of embodied significance (Wrathall 2005) among children. On the basis of field work observations...... in a Danish Kindergarten and phenomenological interpretations I will argue that motivation to participate and engage is facilitated when educators speak to the 'bodies' of children, rather than to their intellectual reasoning. I will illustrate how an educator motivates a child during a game of tag by guiding...
Reiki touch therapy is a complementary biofield energy therapy that involves the use of hands to help strengthen the body's ability to heal. There is growing interest among nurses to use Reiki in patient care and as a self-care treatment, however, with little supportive empirical research and evidence to substantiate these practices. The purpose of this integrative review is to begin the systematic process of evaluating the findings of published Reiki research. Selected investigations using Reiki for effects on stress, relaxation, depression, pain, and wound healing management, among others is reviewed and summarized. A summary of Reiki studies table illustrates the study descriptions and Reiki treatment protocols specified in the investigations. Synthesis of findings for clinical practice and implications for future research are explored.
Yuan, Zuqing; Zhou, Tao; Yin, Yingying; Cao, Ran; Li, Congju; Wang, Zhong Lin
Tactile sensors with large-scale array and high sensitivity is essential for human-machine interaction, smart wearable devices, and mobile networks. Here, a transparent and flexible triboelectric sensing array (TSA) with fingertip-sized pixels is demonstrated by integrating ITO electrodes, FEP film, and signal transmission circuits on an undivided palm-sized polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The sensing pixels can be triggered by the corresponding external contact to induce the electrostatic potential in the transparent electrodes without power consumption, which is individually recognized by the sensor. By testing the response of the pixels, the electrical characterization is systematically investigated. The proposed TSA exhibits excellent durability, independence, and synchronicity, which is able to realize real-time touch sensing, spatial mapping, and motion monitoring. The integrated TSA has great potential for an active tactile system, human-machine interface, wearable electronics, private communication, and advanced security identification.
recognition implemented in the human brain? 3. Are there intrinsic asymmetries in the contributions of vision and touch to visuo-haptic object recognition? In all three studies, the same set of familiar, manipulable objects were used as stimuli as they are commonly captured by all three senses. Study 1......Recognizing objects is one of the most fundamental capabilities we use in every day interaction with our environment. As object information can be conveyed by different senses, real-life object perception is usually a multisensory experience. Thereby, we do not perceive an accumulation of features...... comprised two complementary fMRI experiments in order to identify brain regions where uni- and multisensory object-specific processing converge across all three senses or either bisensory pairings. Thereby, the first experiment contrasted processing of unimodal visual, auditory, and haptic objects relative...
President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation "demands basic research," Obama said, adding that Congress should not "gut these investments in our budget." Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to "open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources."
Hartmann, Florian; Schlaefer, Alexander
Today's highly technical operating rooms lead to fairly complex surgical workflows where the surgeon has to interact with a number of devices, including the operating room light. Hence, ideally, the surgeon could direct the light without major disruption of his work. We studied whether a gesture tracking-based control of an automated operating room light is feasible. So far, there has been little research on control approaches for operating lights. We have implemented an exemplary setup to mimic an automated light controlled by a gesture tracking system. The setup includes a articulated arm to position the light source and an off-the-shelf RGBD camera to detect the user interaction. We assessed the tracking performance using a robot-mounted hand phantom and ran a number of tests with 18 volunteers to evaluate the potential of touch-less light control. All test persons were comfortable with using the gesture-based system and quickly learned how to move a light spot on flat surface. The hand tracking error is direction-dependent and in the range of several centimeters, with a standard deviation of less than 1 mm and up to 3.5 mm orthogonal and parallel to the finger orientation, respectively. However, the subjects had no problems following even more complex paths with a width of less than 10 cm. The average speed was 0.15 m/s, and even initially slow subjects improved over time. Gestures to initiate control can be performed in approximately 2 s. Two-thirds of the subjects considered gesture control to be simple, and a majority considered it to be rather efficient. Implementation of an automated operating room light and touch-less control using an RGBD camera for gesture tracking is feasible. The remaining tracking error does not affect smooth control, and the use of the system is intuitive even for inexperienced users.
Pfeifer, Céline M; Wiegand, Peter
Experts are increasingly concerned by issues regarding the activity level of DNA stains. A case from our burglary-related casework pointed out the need for experiments regarding the persistence of DNA when more than one person touched a tool handle. We performed short tandem repeat (STR) analyses for three groups of tools: (1) personal and mock owned tools; (2) tools, which were first "owned" by a first user and then handled in a burglary action by a second user; and (3) tools, which were first owned by a first user and then handled in a moderate action. At least three types of tool handles were included in each of the groups. Every second user handled the tool with and without gloves. In total, 234 samples were analyzed regarding profile completeness of first and second user as well as properties like detectable major profile or mixture attributes. When second users simulated a burglary by using a tool bare handed, we could not detect the first user as major component on their handles but attribute him to the stain in 1/40 cases. When second users broke up the burglary setup using gloves, the first user matched the DNA handle profile in 37% of the cases. Moderate use of mock borrowed tools demonstrated a material-dependent persistence. In total, we observed that the outcome depends mainly on the nature of contact, the handle material, and the user-specific characteristics. This study intends to supplement present knowledge about persistence of touch DNA with a special emphasis on burglary-related cases with two consecutive users and to act as experimental data for an evaluation of the relevance of alleged hypotheses, when such is needed in a court hearing.
Our interaction with digital resources is becoming increasingly based on touch, gestures, and now also eye movement. Many everyday consumer electronics products already include touch-based interfaces, from e-book readers to tablets, and from the last personal computers to the GPS system in your car. What implications do these new forms of…
Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon
Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…
Mercier, E.; Higgins, S.
Multi-touch surfaces have the potential to change the nature of computer-supported collaborative learning, allowing more equitable access to shared digital content. In this paper, we explore how large multi-touch tables can be used by groups of students as an external representation of their group interaction processes. Video data from 24 groups…
Egmose, Ida; Cordes, Katharina; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne
research suggests that touch is an important means through which parents regulate their infants’ affects. Also, previous research has shown that post-partum depressed (PPD) mothers and nonclinical mothers differ in their touching behaviors when interacting with their infants. We examined the affect...
Reissland, Nadja; Aydin, Ezra; Francis, Brian; Exley, Kendra
This longitudinal observational study investigated whether foetuses change their hand preference with gestational age, and also examined the effects of maternal stress on lateralized foetal self-touch. Following ethical approval, fifteen healthy foetuses (eight girls and seven boys) were scanned four times from 24 to 36 weeks gestation. Self-touch behaviours which resulted in a touch of the foetal face/head were coded in 60 scans for 10 min and analysed in terms of frequency of the foetuses using left and right hands to touch their face. The joint effects of foetal age, stress and sex on laterality were assessed. We modelled the proportion of right self-touches for each foetal scan using a generalized linear mixed model, taking account of the repeated measures design. There was substantial variability in hand preference between foetuses. However, there was no significant increase in the proportion of right-handed touches with foetal age. No sex differences in handedness were identified. However, maternally reported stress level was significantly positively related to foetal left-handed self-touches (odds ratio 0.915; p < .0001). This longitudinal study provides important new insights into the effect of recent maternal stress on foetal predominant hand use during self-touch.
Jensen, Sebastian H. Nesgaard; Myrtue, Niels G.; Pedersen, Casper
to a computer to use the processing power of the computer to provide touch features for a third device. This paper purposes such a system for providing touch features for a normal LCD monitor in which the only available processing power is the one provided by an android smart phone which is connected...
The game of touch rugby is considered safe, yielding minimal acute musculoskeletal injuries. This study profiled the prevalence of acute touch rugby musculoskeletal injury among female adolescent non-elite, recreational players over a 6 month period (February-July 2014). Data were collected from 76 high school players ...
This study aims to reveal whether the touch math technique is effective in teaching basic addition to children with autism. The dependent variable of this study is the children's skills to solve addition problems correctly, whereas teaching with the touch math technique is the independent variable. Among the single-subject research models, a…
California State Univ., Chico.
This training manual developed by the Public Access Subcommittee of the Reference Department of Meriam Library (California State University, Chico) provides instructions for using the library's online public catalog by means of a touch terminal which accepts commands in the form of a touch on a particular part of the terminal screen. Author and…
The importance and varieties of human touch have been the subject of much research. Touching varies from culture to culture and is a way of talking in most Latin American countries. Three Puerto Rican novels provide examples of this nonverbal communicative style: "Mambru se fue a la guerra," by Jose Luis Gonzalez; "La vispera del…
Haurum, Helle; Beckmann, Suzanne C.
Customers and firms interact at many different touch-points that enable customer engagement behaviour. By adopting a customer-centric approach we investigated through 20 in-depth interviews what drives service customers’ CEB manifestations in touch-points, which the firm either manages, monitors,......’ role-playing behaviours can change across touch-points, contingent upon goal-directedness. Hence, this study provides rich insights into customer-firm encounters at touch-points, which subsequently define and shape the relation over time.......Customers and firms interact at many different touch-points that enable customer engagement behaviour. By adopting a customer-centric approach we investigated through 20 in-depth interviews what drives service customers’ CEB manifestations in touch-points, which the firm either manages, monitors......, or manoeuvres between. The key findings are that (a) CEBs are driven by different forms of goal-role integration across touch-points, (b) customers’ goal-directedness determines the touch-points where CEBs are manifested, (c) customers’ role-playing behaviours determine the nature of CEBs, and (d) customers...
Sensory systems can adapt to different environmental signals. Here we identify four conditions that modulate anterior touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans after several hours and demonstrate that such sensory modulation is integrated at multiple levels to produce a single output. Prolonged vibration involving integrin signaling directly sensitizes the touch receptor neurons (TRNs). In contrast, hypoxia, the dauer state, and high salt reduce touch sensitivity by preventing the release of long-range neuroregulators, including two insulin-like proteins. Integration of these latter inputs occurs at upstream neurohormonal cells and at the insulin signaling cascade within the TRNs. These signals and those from integrin signaling converge to modulate touch sensitivity by regulating AKT kinases and DAF-16/FOXO. Thus, activation of either the integrin or insulin pathways can compensate for defects in the other pathway. This modulatory system integrates conflicting signals from different modalities, and adapts touch sensitivity to both mechanical and non-mechanical conditions. PMID:24806678
Fritz, Thomas Hans; Brummerloh, Berit; Urquijo, Maria; Wegner, Katharina; Reimer, Enrico; Gutekunst, Sven; Schneider, Lydia; Smallwood, Jonathan; Villringer, Arno
Emotion elicited through music transfers to subsequent processing of facial expressions. Music may accordingly function as a social technology by promoting social bonding. Here, we investigated whether music would cross-modally influence the perception of sensual touch, a behavior related to mating. A robot applied precisely controlled gentle touch to a group of healthy participants while they listened to music that varied with respect to its perceived sexiness. As the perceived sexiness of the music increased, so did the subjective sexiness of the touch stimulations. In short, the perception of sexiness transferred from music to touch. Because sensual touch is key to mating behavior and relates to procreation, this association has implications for the universality and evolutionary significance of music. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Cooley, Philip C; Rogers, Susan M; Turner, Charles F; Al-Tayyib, Alia A; Willis, Gordon; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana
This paper describes a new interview data collection system that uses a laptop personal computer equipped with a touch-sensitive video monitor. The touch-screen-based audio computer-assisted self-interviewing system, or touch screen audio-CASI, enhances the ease of use of conventional audio CASI systems while simultaneously providing the privacy of self-administered questionnaires. We describe touch screen audio-CASI design features and operational characteristics. In addition, we present data from a recent clinic-based experiment indicating that the touch audio-CASI system is stable, robust, and suitable for administering relatively long and complex questionnaires on sensitive topics, including drug use and sexual behaviors associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.
Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper
Touchpad devices are widely used but lacking in pointing efficiency. The TouchGrid, an instance of what we term cell cursors, replaces moving the cursor through dragging the finger on a touchpad with tapping in different regions of the touchpad. The touchpad regions are recursively mapped...... to smaller display regions and thereby enable high-precision pointing without requiring high tapping precision. In an experiment, six subjects used the TouchGrid and a standard touchpad across different numbers of targets, distances to targets, and target widths. Whereas standard touchpad operation follows...... Fitts law, target selection time with the TouchGrid is a linear function of the required number of taps. The TouchGrid was significantly faster for small targets and for tasks requiring one tap, and marginally faster for two-tap tasks. Error rates tended to be higher with the TouchGrid than...
Developing C# Applications for iPhone and iPad using MonoTouch shows you how to use your existing C# skills to write apps for the iPhone and iPad. Fortunately, there's MonoTouch, Novell's .NET library that allows C# developers to write C# code that executes in iOS. Furthermore, MonoTouch allows you to address all the unique functions of the iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad. And the big plus: You needn't learn any Objective-C to master MonoTouch!. Former Microsoft engineer and published app-store developer Bryan Costanich shows you how to use the tools you already know to create native apps in iOS
Franzén, Erika; Paquette, Caroline; Gurfinkel, Victor; Horak, Fay
Background Light touch with a stable object reduces postural sway by increasing axial postural tone in healthy subjects. However, it is unknown whether subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD), who have more postural sway and higher axial postural tone than healthy subjects, can benefit from haptic touch. Objective To investigate the effect of light and heavy touch on postural stability and hip tone in subjects with PD. Methods Fourteen subjects with mid-stage PD, and 14 healthy control subjects were evaluated during quiet standing with eyes closed with their arms: 1) crossed, 2) lightly touching a fixed rigid bar in front of them and 3) firmly gripping the bar. Postural sway was measured with a forceplate and axial hip tone was quantified using a unique device that measures the resistance of the hips to yaw rotation while maintaining active stance. Results Subjects with PD significantly decreased their postural sway with light or heavy touch (ptouch, hip tone was larger in PD subjects. With touch, however, tone values were similar in both groups. This change in hip tone with touch was highly correlated with the initial amount of tone (PD: r=− 0.72 to −0.95 and controls: r=−0.74 to−0.85). Conclusions We showed, for the first time, that subjects with PD benefit from touch similarly to control subjects and that despite higher axial postural tone, PD subjects are able to modulate their tone with touch. Future studies should investigate the complex relationship between touch and postural tone. PMID:22415944
Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; He, Ye; Gorczyca, David; Xiang, Yang; Cheng, Li E; Meltzer, Shan; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung
Touch sensation is essential for behaviours ranging from environmental exploration to social interaction; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In Drosophila larvae, two types of sensory neurons, class III and class IV dendritic arborization neurons, tile the body wall. The mechanotransduction channel PIEZO in class IV neurons is essential for sensing noxious mechanical stimuli but is not involved in gentle touch. On the basis of electrophysiological-recording, calcium-imaging and behavioural studies, here we report that class III dendritic arborization neurons are touch sensitive and contribute to gentle-touch sensation. We further identify NOMPC (No mechanoreceptor potential C), a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels, as a mechanotransduction channel for gentle touch. NOMPC is highly expressed in class III neurons and is required for their mechanotransduction. Moreover, ectopic NOMPC expression confers touch sensitivity to the normally touch-insensitive class IV neurons. In addition to the critical role of NOMPC in eliciting gentle-touch-mediated behavioural responses, expression of this protein in the Drosophila S2 cell line also gives rise to mechanosensitive channels in which ion selectivity can be altered by NOMPC mutation, indicating that NOMPC is a pore-forming subunit of a mechanotransduction channel. Our study establishes NOMPC as a bona fide mechanotransduction channel that satisfies all four criteria proposed for a channel to qualify as a transducer of mechanical stimuli and mediates gentle-touch sensation. Our study also suggests that different mechanosensitive channels may be used to sense gentle touch versus noxious mechanical stimuli.
Martinelli, Alessandra Rezende; Coelho, Daniel Boari; Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Kohn, André Fabio; Teixeira, Luis Augusto
Light fingertip touch of a static bar generates extra somatosensory information used by the postural control system to reduce body sway. While the effect of light touch has been studied in quiet stance, less attention has been given to its potential benefit for reactive postural responses. In the present study, we tested the effect of light fingertip touch of a stable surface on recovery of postural stability from a mechanical perturbation. Participants stood upright on a force plate touching a static rigid bar while being pulled backward by a load. Unpredictable release of the load induced fast anterior body sway, requiring a reactive response to recover balance. Effect of light touch on postural responses was assessed as a function of vision and malleability of the support surface, analyzing different epochs ranging from the pre-perturbation period to recovery of a relatively stable quiet stance. Results showed that light touch induced lower magnitude of muscular activation in all epochs. Center of pressure (CoP) displacement/sway was affected by interaction of light touch with manipulation of the other sensory information. For the periods associated with quiet stance, light touch led to decreased CoP sway in the malleable surface in the pre-perturbation epoch, and in the condition combining no vision and malleable surface in the balance restabilization and follow-up quiet stance epochs. For the fast reactive response epoch, light touch induced smaller amplitude of CoP displacement across conditions, and lower CoP maximum velocity in the condition combining no vision and rigid surface. These results showed that light touch modulates postural responses in all epochs associated with an unanticipated mechanical perturbation, with a more noticeable effect in conditions manipulating sensory information relevant for balance control.
Edvardsson, Jan David; Sandman, Per-Olof; Rasmussen, Birgit H
Touch is central to nursing and health care workers frequently touch their patients, consciously or unconsciously in their interactions with them. Most literature has studied touch from a patient perspective, thus inquiry about professionals' experiences are rare. The aim of this study was to illuminate meanings of giving touch in nursing care of older patients. To understand the meaning of lived experiences of giving touch in care of older patients, interviews with 12 health care professionals in northern Sweden were analysed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach influenced by the philosophy of Ricoeur. The findings show that giving touch in the care of older patients is a transforming experience, where one suddenly perceives oneself as both a valuable person and professional who no longer powerlessly confronts patients' haunted and disrupted bodies, but who, by means of touch, has gained power to ease this suffering. The experience also transforms the way one regards older patients. Instead of seeing a severely demanding patient suffering from dementia and/or pain, one is able to see the person behind the disease as a human being, like oneself. A relationship described as calm, friendly and humane is created between caregiver and patient when giving touch, a relationship that transcends the moment of touch and influences one's way of caring. This understanding is presented using the theoretical framework of the philosophy of Marcel. Giving touch has the power to shed new light on health care professionals' experiences of caring for older patients suffering from dementia and/or pain, giving them the power to be a valuable person and professional.
Full Text Available Odors are powerful emotional stimuli influencing mood, attention and behavior. Here we examined if odors change the perception of pleasant touch. In line with the warning function of the olfactory system, we proposed that especially unpleasant odors will reduce touch pleasantness, presumably through a disgust-related mechanism.Forty-five healthy participants (mean age 23.3 +/- 3years SD, 24 females were presented to slow (3 cm/s and fast (30 cm/s brush stroking delivered by a robot to the forearm. Touch pleasantness under the influence of an unpleasant odor (Civette, smelling like feces and an intensity matched pleasant odor (Rose was compared to an odorless control condition. In a pilot study with 30 participants (mean age 25.9 +/-6 years, 21 females, the odors were matched according to their intensity, and we studied the influence of disgust sensitivity on the perception of 4 different odor qualities.The unpleasant odor decreased touch pleasantness for both stroking velocities compared to the odorless control (p<0.005 whereas the rose odor did not change touch pleasantness significantly. Disgust sensitivity was correlated with the modulation of touch pleasantness. The pilot study revealed a significant correlation between disgust sensitivity and the perception of the unpleasant odor qualities (r = -0.56; p = 0.007, but not with any of the other odors.Unpleasant odors are powerful in modulating touch pleasantness, and disgust might be a moderating variable.
Croy, Ilona; Angelo, Silvia D'; Olausson, Håkan
Odors are powerful emotional stimuli influencing mood, attention and behavior. Here we examined if odors change the perception of pleasant touch. In line with the warning function of the olfactory system, we proposed that especially unpleasant odors will reduce touch pleasantness, presumably through a disgust-related mechanism. Forty-five healthy participants (mean age 23.3 +/- 3years SD, 24 females) were presented to slow (3 cm/s) and fast (30 cm/s) brush stroking delivered by a robot to the forearm. Touch pleasantness under the influence of an unpleasant odor (Civette, smelling like feces) and an intensity matched pleasant odor (Rose) was compared to an odorless control condition. In a pilot study with 30 participants (mean age 25.9 +/-6 years, 21 females), the odors were matched according to their intensity, and we studied the influence of disgust sensitivity on the perception of 4 different odor qualities. The unpleasant odor decreased touch pleasantness for both stroking velocities compared to the odorless control (p<0.005) whereas the rose odor did not change touch pleasantness significantly. Disgust sensitivity was correlated with the modulation of touch pleasantness. The pilot study revealed a significant correlation between disgust sensitivity and the perception of the unpleasant odor qualities (r = -0.56; p = 0.007), but not with any of the other odors. Unpleasant odors are powerful in modulating touch pleasantness, and disgust might be a moderating variable.
Kwok, Yen Lee Angela; Gralton, Jan; McLaws, Mary-Louise
There is limited literature on the frequency of face-touching behavior as a potential vector for the self-inoculation and transmission of Staphylococcus aureus and other common respiratory infections. A behavioral observation study was undertaken involving medical students at the University of New South Wales. Their face-touching behavior was observed via videotape recording. Using standardized scoring sheets, the frequency of hand-to-face contacts with mucosal or nonmucosal areas was tallied and analyzed. On average, each of the 26 observed students touched their face 23 times per hour. Of all face touches, 44% (1,024/2,346) involved contact with a mucous membrane, whereas 56% (1,322/2,346) of contacts involved nonmucosal areas. Of mucous membrane touches observed, 36% (372) involved the mouth, 31% (318) involved the nose, 27% (273) involved the eyes, and 6% (61) were a combination of these regions. Increasing medical students' awareness of their habituated face-touching behavior and improving their understanding of self-inoculation as a route of transmission may help to improve hand hygiene compliance. Hand hygiene programs aiming to improve compliance with before and after patient contact should include a message that mouth and nose touching is a common practice. Hand hygiene is therefore an essential and inexpensive preventive method to break the colonization and transmission cycle associated with self-inoculation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We report a tactile touch sensor based on a planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistor (LC-g-OFET structure. The LC-g-OFET touch sensors were fabricated by forming the 10 μm thick LC layer (4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl - 5CB on top of the 50 nm thick channel layer (poly(3-hexylthiophene - P3HT that is coated on the in-plane aligned drain/source/gate electrodes (indium-tin oxide - ITO. As an external physical stimulation to examine the tactile touch performance, a weak nitrogen flow (83.3 μl/s was employed to stimulate the LC layer of the touch device. The LC-g-OFET device exhibited p-type transistor characteristics with a hole mobility of 1.5 cm2/Vs, but no sensing current by the nitrogen flow touch was measured at sufficiently high drain (VD and gate (VG voltages. However, a clear sensing current signal was detected at lower voltages, which was quite sensitive to the combination of VD and VG. The best voltage combination was VD = −0.2 V and VG = −1 V for the highest ratio of signal currents to base currents (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio. The change in the LC alignment upon the nitrogen flow touch was assigned as the mechanism for the present LC-g-OFET touch sensors.
Porter, Brad W; Zhu, Yun J; Webb, David T; Christopher, David A
Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch-regulated genes. The genes and novel touch
Sheehan, Kelly J.; Uttal, David H.
Parents and educators often expect that children will learn from touch screen devices, such as during joint e-book reading. Therefore an essential question is whether young children understand that the touch screen can be a symbolic medium – that entities represented on the touch screen can refer to entities in the real world. Research on symbolic development suggests that symbolic understanding requires that children develop dual representational abilities, meaning children need to appreciate that a symbol is an object in itself (i.e., picture of a dog) while also being a representation of something else (i.e., the real dog). Drawing on classic research on symbols and new research on children’s learning from touch screens, we offer the perspective that children’s ability to learn from the touch screen as a symbolic medium depends on the effect of interactivity on children’s developing dual representational abilities. Although previous research on dual representation suggests the interactive nature of the touch screen might make it difficult for young children to use as a symbolic medium, the unique interactive affordances may help alleviate this difficulty. More research needs to investigate how the interactivity of the touch screen affects children’s ability to connect the symbols on the screen to the real world. Given the interactive nature of the touch screen, researchers and educators should consider both the affordances of the touch screen as well as young children’s cognitive abilities when assessing whether young children can learn from it as a symbolic medium. PMID:27570516
Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Narayanan, Sankaran; MacNeill, Fiona; Osin, Peter; Nerurkar, Ashutash; Gui, Gerald
Sentinel lymph node biopsy is emerging as the new standard for axillary staging in breast cancer. Intra-operative assessment of the sentinel lymph nodes allows immediate completion of axillary dissection during the same anaesthetic. This project was a quality assurance practice to establish feasibility, time-to-report, as well as accuracy of performing intra-operative assessment of sentinel lymph nodes using touch imprint cytology in our centre. This prospective audit included 146 sentinel lymph nodes from 74 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer. All patients underwent axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy using combined blue dye and radiocolloid technique. Results of intra-operative touch imprint cytology using haematoxylin and eosin staining were compared with the definitive histopathology results. Mean time to report touch imprint cytology was 25.7 +/- 6.4 min (range, 15-40 min). Histopathology demonstrated metastasis in 25 sentinel nodes from 17 (23%) patients. Intra-operative touch imprint cytology detected 15 nodes in 11 patients, giving a sensitivity of 60% (nodes) and 66.7% (patients) and specificity of 99.2% (nodes) and 98.2% (patients) based on the number of nodes and patients involved, respectively. Touch imprint cytology failed to show metastatic involvement in 10 nodes from 6 patients; of these, five nodes had micrometastasis (< 2 mm) and the other five had macrometastasis. One touch imprint cytology positive node contained isolated tumour cells only. Using intra-operative touch imprint cytology made a change in treatment of 11(14.9%) patients, and spared second axillary procedure in 7 (9.4%) patients. Intra-operative sentinel lymph node assessment using touch imprint cytology is feasible within a busy NHS practice. We now offer touch imprint cytology to patients following appropriate counselling.
Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a multitude of publications showing the activation of an observer's somatosensory cortical system during the observation of touch on another person. Behavioural demonstrations of mirror touch, however, have been slow in coming forward, and have so far primarily been shown as visual remapping of touch on the face. The present study uses a new paradigm to investigate the mirroring of others’ tactile sensations: a 2-AFC task of intensity judgment for touch on the observer's left and right index finger pads. Observers viewed a left and right hand in an egocentric position, which were either touched passively (pencil moving to touch index finger pad or actively sought touch (index finger moving to touch pencil. Touch and no-touch events for the two viewed hands were designed to eliminate confounding effects of spatial attention. Felt touches were either concurrent with viewed touch or no-touch events, or were delayed in time to assess potential response bias. The findings demonstrate visual remapping of touch for touch on the hands. If touch was shown on one of the hands only (e.g. left, observers were more likely to perceive touch on the same hand (ie. their own left hand as more intense than touch on the other hand even if tactile intensities did not differ, compared to touch shown on both or neither hand. These remapping effects occurred only when viewed and felt touches were concurrent, they were strongly modulated by the way in which viewed touch was incurred, and they were more reliable for touch on the left hand. A second, control experiment, in which touch observation was replaced by bright dots shown on or next to the finger pads, confirmed that these effects were largely due to genuine tactile mirroring rather than to somatotopic cueing. This 2-AFC tactile intensity judgment task may be a useful paradigm to investigate the remapping of others’ tactile sensations onto an observer's own body.
McClure, Wallace B; Dunn, Craig
What .NET C# developers need to enter the hot field of iPhone apps. iPhone applications offer a hot opportunity for developers. Until the open source MonoTouch project, this field was limited to those familiar with Apple's programming languages. Now .NET and C# developers can join the party. This Wrox guide is the first book to cover MonoTouch, preparing developers to take advantage of this lucrative opportunity.: MonoTouch opens the field of iPhone app development to .NET and C# developers for the first time; the Wrox reputation among .NET developers assures them that this guide covers everyt
Plumb, Melinda; Kautz, Karlheinz; Tootell, Holly
The adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in early childhood educational settings, in particular touch screen technology such as interactive whiteboards and tablet computing devices has potential for use within early childhood educational institutions. We conducted a literature...... that can support the successful implementation of touch screen technology within early childhood educational institutions....... in regards to touch screen technology in early childhood, particularly from a process perspective, and suggest that further research is required to understand the interplay between individual actions and organisational structural influences. This will contribute to the development of an understanding...
Touch and gestural devices have been hailed as next evolutionary step in human-computer interaction. As software companies struggle to catch up with one another in terms of developing the next great touch-based interface, designers are charged with the daunting task of keeping up with the advances in new technology and this new aspect to user experience design. Product and interaction designers, developers and managers are already well versed in UI design, but touch-based interfaces have added a new level of complexity.
Yoon, Y.; Talke, F. E.
The touch-down and take-off characteristics of a typical pico-type magnetic recording slider is investigated as a function of pressure level and groove dimensions of discrete track recording (DTR) media. Keeping the ambient pressure constant, we found that the touch-down velocity was higher for DTR disks than for “smooth” disks without discrete tracks. Likewise, the “ambient” touch-down pressure at constant velocity was found to be higher for DTR disks than for smooth media. The hysteresis be...
Using jqTouch, an open source solution, is a fast way for you to convert a static Web page into looking like a native iPhone or Android app. In this short ebook find out how you can use the Open Source jqTouch Library to extend the functionality built into jQuery to build Web sites that run on your iOS and Android phones but look and interact as if they are native apps. You will also discover how to create custom interfaces, screen flipping, and set themes with jqTouch.
Hart, Laura K.; Freel, Mildred I.; Haylock, Pam J.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.
The use of complementary therapies by cancer patients has become so prevalent that nurses working in oncology are finding it necessary to understand these therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. The integrative use of the biofield therapy Healing Touch (HT) in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages 1B1 to IVA) during a recent research study is described. Findings indicated effects of HT on the immune response and on depression, in contrast to patients receiving relaxation or standard care. Specifically, HT patients demonstrated a minimal decrease in natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) over the course of treatment whereas NKCC of patients receiving relaxation therapy (RT) and standard care (SC) declined sharply during radiation (p = 0.018). HT patients also showed significant decreases in depressed mood compared to RT and SC (p < 0.05). These findings, as well as the energetic effects of chemoradiation that were observed, and the proposed mechanisms and potential contributions of biofield therapy are addressed. It is suggested that the appropriate integration of complementary modalities into oncology care has the potential to enhance the impact of conventional care by putting the patient in the best condition to use their innate healing resources. PMID:21951738
Berry, Kevin; Antreasian, Peter; Moreau, Michael C.; May, Alex; Sutter, Brian
The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu in late 2018. Following an extensive campaign of proximity operations activities to characterize the properties of Bennu and select a suitable sample site, OSIRIES-REx will fly a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to obtain a regolith sample. The paper summarizes the mission design of the TAG sequence, the propulsive required to achieve the trajectory, and the sequence of events leading up to the TAG event. The paper will summarize the Monte-Carlo simulation of the TAG sequence and present analysis results that demonstrate the ability to conduct the TAG within 25 meters of the selected sample site and +-2 cms of the targeted contact velocity. The paper will describe some of the challenges associated with conducting precision navigation operations and ultimately contacting a very small asteroid.
The insula is believed to be associated with touch-evoked effects. In this work, functional MRI was applied to investigate the network model of insula function when 20 normal subjects received tactile stimulation over segregated areas. Data analysis was performed with SPM8 and Conn toolbox. Activations in the contralateral posterior insula were consistently revealed for all stimulation areas, with the overlap located in area Ig2. The area Ig2 was then used as the seed to estimate the insula-associated network. The right insula, left superior parietal lobule, left superior temporal gyrus, and left inferior parietal cortex showed significant functional connectivity with the seed region for all stimulation conditions. Connectivity maps of most stimulation conditions were mainly distributed in the bilateral insula, inferior parietal cortex, and secondary somatosensory cortex. Post hoc ROI-to-ROI analysis and graph theoretical analysis showed that there were higher correlations between the left insula and the right insula, left inferior parietal cortex and right OP1 for all networks and that the global efficiency was more sensitive than the local efficiency to detect differences between notes in a network. These results suggest that the posterior insula serves as a hub to functionally connect other regions in the detected network and may integrate information from these regions. PMID:23936840
Berry, Kevin; Antreasian, Peter; Moreau, Michael C.; May, Alex; Sutter, Brian
The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu in late 2018. Following an extensive campaign of proximity operations activities to characterize the properties of Bennu and select a suitable sample site, OSIRIS-REx will fly a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to obtain a regolith sample. The paper summarizes the mission design of the TAG sequence, the propulsive maneuvers required to achieve the trajectory, and the sequence of events leading up to the TAG event. The paper also summarizes the Monte-Carlo simulation of the TAG sequence and presents analysis results that demonstrate the ability to conduct the TAG within 25 meters of the selected sample site and 2 cm/s of the targeted contact velocity. The paper describes some of the challenges associated with conducting precision navigation operations and ultimately contacting a very small asteroid.
On Wednesday 3 December, Plinio and Sofia, two young kids from Ticino, visited CERN accompanied by their parents. Organized by Make-A-Wish Switzerland – a foundation that grants wishes to children living with life-threatening conditions – the visit was the opportunity for Plinio to see his dream of touching a plasma ball come true. Plinio, 6 years old, his sister Sofia, 11 years old, and their parents during their recent visit to CERN (top); back home (bottom) with Plinio's Make-A-Wish gift. (Photo credits: top: Make-A-Wish Foundation; bottom: provided by the family) Plinio, 6 years old, and Sofia, 11 years old, suffer from a rare disease known as Fanconi Anemia. On 3 December, they visited the Globe, the ATLAS visitor centre and the Microcosm. The whole family also enjoyed a special session of “Fun with Physics” presented by Dominique Bertola, from the CERN Education Group. Both kids showed their strong interest in CERN: Plinio surprised ...
Pa, P S
A newly design reclamation system using an ultrasonic micro electroetching (UMECE) as a machining process for Indium-tin-oxide(ITO) nanostructured coatings dissolved from a surface of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) of touch-panel is presented. The design features of the reclamation mechanism and a designed wedge-form tool are of major interest. The low yield of ITO nanostructured coatings is an important factor in optoelectronic semiconductor production. In the current experiment, a small diameter of the anode accompanying with a small distance between the two anodes, reduced the amount of time for effective ultrasonic micro electroetching of ITO since the effect of removal is facilitated by supplying sufficient electrochemical power. The performance of ultrasonics was found to be more effective than pulsed current, requiring no increase in electric power. Additionally, electric power, when combined with a fast feed rate, provides highly effective dissolution. Higher frequency or the greater power of ultrasonics corresponds to a higher dissolution rate for ITO nanostructured coatings. A small anode of the wedge-form tool or a small size of the cathode takes less time for the same amount of ITO removal. Importantly, ultrasonic micro electroetching with the designed wedge-form tool requires only a short period of time to dissolve the ITO's nanostructured coatings easily and cleanly.
Onno van der Groen
Full Text Available Stimuli from different sensory modalities are thought to be processed initially in distinct unisensory brain areas prior to convergence in multisensory areas. However, signals in one modality can influence the processing of signals from other modalities and recent studies suggest this cross-modal influence may occur early on, even in 'unisensory' areas. Some recent psychophysical studies have shown specific cross-modal effects between touch and vision during binocular rivalry, but these cannot completely rule out a response bias. To test for genuine cross-modal integration of haptic and visual signals, we investigated whether congruent haptic input could influence visual contrast sensitivity compared to incongruent haptic input in three psychophysical experiments using a two-interval, two-alternative forced-choice method to eliminate response bias. The initial experiment demonstrated that contrast thresholds for a visual grating were lower when exploring a haptic grating that shared the same orientation compared to an orthogonal orientation. Two subsequent experiments mapped the orientation and spatial frequency tunings for the congruent haptic facilitation of vision, finding a clear orientation tuning effect but not a spatial frequency tuning. In addition to an increased contrast sensitivity for iso-oriented visual-haptic gratings, we found a significant loss of sensitivity for orthogonally oriented visual-haptic gratings. We conclude that the tactile influence on vision is a result of a tactile input to orientation-tuned visual areas.
Oddo, Calogero M; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spanne, Anton; Enander, Jonas M D; Mogensen, Hannes; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Camboni, Domenico; Micera, Silvestro; Jörntell, Henrik
Investigations of the mechanisms of touch perception and decoding has been hampered by difficulties in achieving invariant patterns of skin sensor activation. To obtain reproducible spatiotemporal patterns of activation of sensory afferents, we used an artificial fingertip equipped with an array of neuromorphic sensors. The artificial fingertip was used to transduce real-world haptic stimuli into spatiotemporal patterns of spikes. These spike patterns were delivered to the skin afferents of the second digit of rats via an array of stimulation electrodes. Combined with low-noise intra- and extracellular recordings from neocortical neurons in vivo, this approach provided a previously inaccessible high resolution analysis of the representation of tactile information in the neocortical neuronal circuitry. The results indicate high information content in individual neurons and reveal multiple novel neuronal tactile coding features such as heterogeneous and complementary spatiotemporal input selectivity also between neighboring neurons. Such neuronal heterogeneity and complementariness can potentially support a very high decoding capacity in a limited population of neurons. Our results also indicate a potential neuroprosthetic approach to communicate with the brain at a very high resolution and provide a potential novel solution for evaluating the degree or state of neurological disease in animal models.
Isil Z Yildiz-Aktas
Full Text Available Background: Male infertility is traditionally evaluated by tissue core biopsies of the testes. Touch preparations (TP of these biopsies have been infrequently used. The aim of this study is to report our experience with using testicular biopsy TP for the evaluation of male infertility. Materials and Methods: A retrospective search was performed for cases of testes biopsies with concurrent TP. These cases were evaluated for clinical information, specimen adequacy, and cytological-histological correlation. Results: A total of 39 cases were identified from men with a mean age of 34 years (range 23 to 50 years. TP slides were satisfactory for evaluation in 31 (89% cases, and less than optimal in four due to low cellularity, obscuring blood or air drying artifact. Cytopathology showed concordance with the biopsy in almost all cases. In one discordant case where the biopsies showed no active spermatogenesis, a rare sperm were identified on the TP. Conclusions: TP of the testis is a helpful adjunct to biopsy because of its ability to clearly evaluate all stages of spermatogenesis. These data demonstrate that TP cytopathology of the testes in our experience has an excellent correlation with both normal testicular biopsies and those showing pathological spermatogenesis, and in rare cases may provide added benefit in evaluating the presence of spermatogenesis for male infertility. Albeit uncommon, cytopathologists may be required to identify and evaluate spermatogenic elements in cytology specimens being submitted from men with infertility.
Fattibene, Paola; Trompier, Francois; Wieser, Albrecht; Brai, Maria; Ciesielski, Bartlomej; De Angelis, Cinzia; Della Monaca, Sara; Garcia, Tristan; Gustafsson, H; Hole, Eli Olag; Juniewicz, M; Krefft, K; Longo, Anna; Leveque, Philippe; Lund, Eva; Marrale, Maurizio; Michalec, Barbara; Mierzwińska, Gabriela; Rao, J L; Romanyukha, Alexander A; Tuner, Hasan
This paper presents the results of an interlaboratory comparison of retrospective dosimetry using the electron paramagnetic resonance method. The test material used in this exercise was glass coming from the touch screens of smart phones that might be used as fortuitous dosimeters in a large-scale radiological incident. There were 13 participants to whom samples were dispatched, and 11 laboratories reported results. The participants received five calibration samples (0, 0.8, 2, 4, and 10 Gy) and four blindly irradiated samples (0, 0.9, 1.3, and 3.3 Gy). Participants were divided into two groups: for group A (formed by three participants), samples came from a homogeneous batch of glass and were stored in similar setting; for group B (formed by eight participants), samples came from different smart phones and stored in different settings of light and temperature. The calibration curves determined by the participants of group A had a small error and a critical level in the 0.37-0.40-Gy dose range, whereas the curves determined by the participants of group B were more scattered and led to a critical level in the 1.3-3.2-Gy dose range for six participants out of eight. Group A were able to assess the dose within 20 % for the lowest doses (smart phones need to be further investigated. An alongside conclusion is that the protocol was easily transferred to participants making a network of laboratories in case of a mass casualty event potentially feasible.
Full Text Available Recent work in animals suggests that the extent of early tactile stimulation by parents of offspring is an important element in early caregiving. We evaluate the psychometric properties of a new parent-report measure designed to assess frequency of tactile stimulation across multiple caregiving domains in infancy. We describe the full item set of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale (PICTS and, using data from a UK longitudinal Child Health and Development Study, the response frequencies and factor structure and whether it was invariant over two time points in early development (5 and 9 weeks. When their infant was 9 weeks old, 838 mothers responded on the PICTS while a stratified subsample of 268 mothers completed PICTS at an earlier 5 week old assessment (229 responded on both occasions. Three PICTS factors were identified reflecting stroking, holding and affective communication. These were moderately to strongly correlated at each of the two time points of interest and were unrelated to, and therefore distinct from, a traditional measure of maternal sensitivity at 7-months. A wholly stable psychometry over 5 and 9-week assessments was not identified which suggests that behavior profiles differ slightly for younger and older infants. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that all three factors are characterized by full configural and metric invariance, as well as a moderate degree of evidence of scalar invariance for the stroking factor. We propose the PICTS as a valuable new measure of important aspects of caregiving in infancy.
Koukounari, Artemis; Pickles, Andrew; Hill, Jonathan; Sharp, Helen
Recent work in animals suggests that the extent of early tactile stimulation by parents of offspring is an important element in early caregiving. We evaluate the psychometric properties of a new parent-report measure designed to assess frequency of tactile stimulation across multiple caregiving domains in infancy. We describe the full item set of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale (PICTS) and, using data from a UK longitudinal Child Health and Development Study, the response frequencies and factor structure and whether it was invariant over two time points in early development (5 and 9 weeks). When their infant was 9 weeks old, 838 mothers responded on the PICTS while a stratified subsample of 268 mothers completed PICTS at an earlier 5 week old assessment (229 responded on both occasions). Three PICTS factors were identified reflecting stroking, holding and affective communication. These were moderately to strongly correlated at each of the two time points of interest and were unrelated to, and therefore distinct from, a traditional measure of maternal sensitivity at 7-months. A wholly stable psychometry over 5 and 9-week assessments was not identified which suggests that behavior profiles differ slightly for younger and older infants. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that all three factors are characterized by full configural and metric invariance, as well as a moderate degree of evidence of scalar invariance for the stroking factor. We propose the PICTS as a valuable new measure of important aspects of caregiving in infancy. PMID:26696945
Michelle N Edelmann
Full Text Available Additional somatosensory contact of preterm human infants improves a variety of developmental assessment scores, but less is known about its lasting consequences. In rodents, maternal contact may influence the programming of juvenile social play behavior. Therefore, we used a paradigm where we can control the levels of somatosensory contact associated with maternal care. We find that additional somatosensory contact of offspring can have lasting consequences on juvenile social play behavior in a sex-dependent manner. Specifically, additional somatosensory stimuli reduced male social play behavior, but did not change female play behavior. We then examined if this additional infant contact altered some neurobiological substrates associated with play within the juvenile amygdala. Control males had lower levels of 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels contrasted to females; however, similar to its sex-dependent effect on juvenile social play, males that received additional somatosensory contact had higher serotonin 5HT2a receptor mRNA levels than control males. No difference was found in females. As serotonin signaling typically opposes juvenile play behavior, these data suggest that maternal touch can program lasting differences in juvenile social play and 5HT2a receptors mRNA levels within the juvenile amygdala.
Chou, Shu-Yu; Ma, Rujun; Li, Yunfei; Zhao, Fangchao; Tong, Kwing; Yu, Zhibin; Pei, Qibing
A light-emitting touch-responsive device (LETD) for instantaneous visualization of pressure mapping is reported. The LETD integrates an organometal halide perovskite polymer composite emissive layer and a flexible silver nanowire polyurethane composite transparent electrode. The composite emissive layer contains methylammonium lead bromide nanocrystals uniformly dispersed in a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) matrix and emits an intense green luminescence that peaks at 529 nm. The PEO matrix promotes the formation of small perovskite grains (∼20 nm) and a pinhole-free composite film with surface roughness of only 2.96 nm. The composite transparent electrode is separated from the emissive layer with a 100 μm thick spacer. When a local pressure is applied, a Schottky contact is formed instantaneously between the metal and the emissive layer, and electroluminescence is produced at voltages as low as 2.5 V and reaches 1030 cd/m2 at 6 V. The transparent LETD has approximately 68% transparency. It can be bent to a 6 mm radius when polyethylene terephthalate is used as the substrate. The perovskite LETD has fast response and can be pixelated to offer potential applications in robotics, motion detection, fingerprint devices, and interactive wallpapers.
Oddo, Calogero M.; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spanne, Anton; Enander, Jonas M. D.; Mogensen, Hannes; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Camboni, Domenico; Micera, Silvestro; Jörntell, Henrik
Investigations of the mechanisms of touch perception and decoding has been hampered by difficulties in achieving invariant patterns of skin sensor activation. To obtain reproducible spatiotemporal patterns of activation of sensory afferents, we used an artificial fingertip equipped with an array of neuromorphic sensors. The artificial fingertip was used to transduce real-world haptic stimuli into spatiotemporal patterns of spikes. These spike patterns were delivered to the skin afferents of the second digit of rats via an array of stimulation electrodes. Combined with low-noise intra- and extracellular recordings from neocortical neurons in vivo, this approach provided a previously inaccessible high resolution analysis of the representation of tactile information in the neocortical neuronal circuitry. The results indicate high information content in individual neurons and reveal multiple novel neuronal tactile coding features such as heterogeneous and complementary spatiotemporal input selectivity also between neighboring neurons. Such neuronal heterogeneity and complementariness can potentially support a very high decoding capacity in a limited population of neurons. Our results also indicate a potential neuroprosthetic approach to communicate with the brain at a very high resolution and provide a potential novel solution for evaluating the degree or state of neurological disease in animal models. PMID:28374841
Nicholls, Daniel; Chang, Esther; Johnson, Amanda; Edenborough, Michel
This article presents the mental health aspects of 'touch' associated with a funded research project: Avoiding 'high tech' through 'high touch' in end-stage dementia: Protocol for care at the end-of-life. These mental health aspects highlight the human need for touch that continues up until and inclusive of the final stages of life. This study was informed by Simard's (2007) 'high touch' protocol based on the End-of-Life Namaste Care programme for people with dementia. The article is situated in relation to the research project which used a three-phase mixed methods approach. Data explored in this article are derived from focus groups conducted at three residential aged care facilities located in metropolitan and regional areas of NSW, Australia. The exploration of touch vis-a-vis mental health fell under two broad themes: touch by others and touch by the person. Sub-elements of these themes comprised touch towards a physical objective, touch towards an emotional objective, touch of objects and touch of others. The overarching outcome of interconnectedness embraced environmental awareness and human and life awareness. These two broad themes, with their accompanying elements, express the essential nature of mental health as a reciprocal connectedness, with reciprocal impacts on both those people with advanced dementia and their carers.
In this study, subjects in a driving simulator followed a lead vehicle that continuously changed speed : while they also performed a secondary task on a touch-screen monitor that could be located at various : positions within the simulator. Subjects ...
PSA) level or abnormal findings on rectal examination. All biopsies were taken under transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. Two touch imprints were prepared from each CNB. The TIC results were correlated with CNB.
Panagiotis Zaharias; Despina Michael; Yiorgos Chrysanthou
...? Do they contribute to a greater user experience (UX) and learning effectiveness? In this paper we describe the use of the "Walls of Nicosia" a 3D multi-touch table installed at the Leventis Municipal Museum in Nicosia, Cyprus...
Henricson, Maria; Ersson, Anders; Määttä, Sylvia; Segesten, Kerstin; Berglund, Anna-Lena
The study aimed to investigate the effects of a five-day tactile touch intervention in order to find new and unconventional measures to moderate the detrimental influence of patients' stressors during intensive care. The hypothesis was that tactile touch would decrease stress indicators such as anxiety, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate and requirements of sedative drugs and noradrenalin. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken with 44 patients, which were assigned either to tactile touch or standard treatment (a rest hour). Observations of the stress indicators were made before, during and after the intervention or standard treatment. The study showed that tactile touch led to significantly lower levels of anxiety. The circulatory parameters suggested increased circulatory stability indicated by a reduction in noradrenalin requirement. The results need to be further validated through studies with larger sample sizes.
Hachet, Martin; de la Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Laviole, Jérémy; Cohé, Aurélie; Cursan, Sébastien
A museum exhibition on the Lascaux caves provides the opportunity to experiment with touch-based interfaces manipulating 3D virtual objects. The researchers targeted three tasks: observing rare objects, reassembling object fragments, and reproducing artwork.
Morry, Marian M; Enzle, Michael E
We investigated how expectancies about gender dominance for knowledge influence the frequency of self-touching enacted by conversing members of mixed-sex dyads. The study was a 2 (male vs. female dyad member) × 2 (normatively male vs...
Ito-Jäger, Sachiyo; Howard, Amanda R; Purvis, Karyn B; Cross, David R
The superior self-regulation and attention-regulation abilities of securely attached children have been repeatedly demonstrated. However, the mechanisms that allow securely attached children to exhibit higher levels of attention focus than insecurely attached (anxious-ambivalent and anxious-avoidant) children need to be explored. One possible mechanism that has been hypothesized to play a role in focusing attention is self-touch. Previous research has shown that 10-year-old children exhibit more bilateral self-touch (i.e., both hands are simultaneously moving onto each other or on the body, and both hands are in contact with each other or with the body), but not lateral self-touch (i.e., one hand is moving on the other hand or on the body, and the hand is in contact with the other hand or with the body), when they focus attention on a task. Because bilateral coordination is still developing during childhood, we expected that lateral self-touch, instead of bilateral self-touch, may be associated with attention focus for toddlers. The objectives of the present study were to examine whether securely attached toddlers exhibit more self-touch, particularly lateral self-touch, while they focus on a task than while they do not focus on a task. We expected to find that the association between lateral self-touch and attention focus is not as strong for insecurely attached toddlers. Data from forty-nine mother-child dyads were employed for analyses. The attachment classification of the children was determined using the Strange Situation. The duration of attention focus and self-touch behavior during a reading task were coded. An association between lateral self-touch and attention focus was found for children of all attachment classifications. This association was particularly strong for securely attached children. We discuss the possibility that securely attached toddlers may use lateral self-touch to regulate attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A. Jones; Forster, B.
Selective attention helps process the myriad of information constantly touching our body. Both endogenous and exogenous mechanisms are relied upon to effectively process this information; however, it is unclear how they relate in the sense of touch. In three tasks we contrasted endogenous and exogenous event-related potential (ERP) and behavioural effects. Unilateral tactile cues were followed by a tactile target at the same or opposite hand. Clear behavioural effects showed facilitation of e...
Fritz, Thomas Hans; Brummerloh, Berit; Urquijo, Maria; Wegner, Katharina; Reimer, Enrico; Gutekunst, Sven; Schneider, Lydia; Smallwood, Jonathan; Villringer, Arno
Emotion elicited through music transfers to subsequent processing of facial expressions. Music may accordingly function as a social technology by promoting social bonding. Here, we investigated whether music would cross-modally influence the perception of sensual touch, a behavior related to mating. A robot applied precisely controlled gentle touch to a group of healthy participants while they listened to music that varied with respect to its perceived sexiness. As the perceived sexiness of t...
Cabibihan, John-John; Joshi, Deepak; Srinivasa, Yeshwin Mysore; Chan, Mark Aaron; Muruganantham, Arrchana
To touch and be touched are vital to human development, well-being, and relationships. However, to those who have lost their arms and hands due to accident or war, touching becomes a serious concern that often leads to psychosocial issues and social stigma. In this paper, we demonstrate that the touch from a warm and soft rubber hand can be perceived by another person as if the touch were coming from a human hand. We describe a three-step process toward this goal. First, we made participants select artificial skin samples according to their preferred warmth and softness characteristics. At room temperature, the preferred warmth was found to be 28.4 °C at the skin surface of a soft silicone rubber material that has a Shore durometer value of 30 at the OO scale. Second, we developed a process to create a rubber hand replica of a human hand. To compare the skin softness of a human hand and artificial hands, a robotic indenter was employed to produce a softness map by recording the displacement data when constant indentation force of 1 N was applied to 780 data points on the palmar side of the hand. Results showed that an artificial hand with skeletal structure is as soft as a human hand. Lastly, the participants' arms were touched with human and artificial hands, but they were prevented from seeing the hand that touched them. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggests that a warm and soft artificial hand can create an illusion that the touch is from a human hand. These findings open the possibilities for prosthetic and robotic hands that are life-like and are more socially acceptable.
Full Text Available Interactional quality has been shown to enhance learning during book reading and play, but has not been examined during touch screen use. Learning to apply knowledge from a touch screen is complex for infants because it involves transfer of learning between a 2-dimensional (2D screen and 3-dimensional (3D object in the physical world. This study uses a touch screen procedure to examine interactional quality measured via maternal structuring, diversity of maternal language, and dyadic emotional responsiveness and infant outcomes during a transfer of learning task. Fifty 15-month-old infants and their mothers participated in this semi-naturalistic teaching task. Mothers were given a 3D object, and a static image of the object presented on a touch screen. Mothers had 5 minutes to teach their infant that a button on the real toy works in the same way as a virtual button on the touch screen (or vice versa. Overall, 64% of infants learned how to make the button work, transferring learning from the touch screen to the 3D object or vice versa. Infants were just as successful in the 3D to 2D transfer direction as they were in the 2D to 3D transfer direction. A cluster analysis based on emotional responsiveness, the proportion of diverse maternal verbal input, and amount of maternal structuring resulted in two levels of interactional quality: high quality and moderate quality. A logistic regression revealed the level of interactional quality predicted infant transfer. Infants were 19 times more likely to succeed and transfer learning between the touch screen and real object if they were in a high interactional quality dyad, even after controlling for infant activity levels. The present findings suggest that interactional quality between mother and infant plays an important role in making touch screens effective teaching tools for infants’ learning.
Ilona Croy; Angelo, Silvia D'; Håkan Olausson
Objectives Odors are powerful emotional stimuli influencing mood, attention and behavior. Here we examined if odors change the perception of pleasant touch. In line with the warning function of the olfactory system, we proposed that especially unpleasant odors will reduce touch pleasantness, presumably through a disgust-related mechanism. Methods Forty-five healthy participants (mean age 23.3 +/− 3years SD, 24 females) were presented to slow (3 cm/s) and fast (30 cm/s) brush stroking delivere...
ce phénomène sur les sociétés locales, à savoir, les risques de multiplication des conflits dans les zones touchées, la perte des moyens de subsistance des populations riveraines et la perturbation de la vie socio-économique et culturelle. C'est suite à ces constats qu'est né le slogan : «Touche pas à ma terre, c'est ma vie !
Kangas, Brian D.; Bergman, Jack
Despite the increasing sophistication and affordability of touch-sensitive technology, its use in the behavioral sciences has been limited. The present paper describes the design and empirical validation of a novel touch-sensitive operant conditioning chamber for use with unrestrained squirrel monkeys. In addition, results from a variant of a commonly employed animal model of learning, the repeated acquisition task, demonstrated the effectiveness of this chamber in programming an assay of com...
HOMMA Ayako:筆頭著者; Hara, Hideki; MATSUZAKI Kumiko; SASAKI Miki; MASAOKA Yuri; Homma, Ikuo
Among animal-facilitated therapies, dolphin-facilitated therapy has been shown to beneficially affect human behavior, emotion and speech ability. We recently showed that touching a dolphin reduced the respiratory rate and state anxiety in healthy children. In this study, we collected electroencephalographic data (EEG), widely used for examining various brain functions, before and after touching dolphins. We examined the relationship between EEG power spectra and individual trait anxiety score...
Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis
Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185
Adams, Michael J; Johnson, Simon A; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis
Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick-slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function.
Full Text Available Tactile explorations with the fingertips provide information regarding the physical properties of surfaces and their relative pleasantness. Previously, we performed an investigation in the active touch domain and linked several surface properties (i.e. frictional force fluctuations and net friction with their pleasantness levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate physical factors being important for pleasantness perception during passive fingertip stimulation. Specifically we were interested to see whether factors, such as surfaces' topographies or their frictional characteristics could influence pleasantness. Furthermore, we ascertained how the stimulus pleasantness level was impacted by (i the normal force of stimulus application (FN and (ii the stimulus temperature (TS.The right index fingertips of 22 blindfolded participants were stimulated using 27 different stimuli, which varied in average roughness (Ra and TS. A 4-axis robot moved the stimuli horizontally under participants' fingertips with three levels of FN. The robot was equipped with force sensors, which recorded the FN and friction force (FT during stimulation. Participants rated each stimulus according to a three-level pleasantness scale, as very pleasant (scored 0, pleasant (scored 1, or unpleasant (scored 2. These ordinal pleasantness ratings were logarithmically transformed into linear and unidimensional pleasantness measures with the Rasch model. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate a possible link between the stimulus properties (i.e. Ra, FN, FT, and TS and their respective pleasantness levels. Only the mean Ra and FT values were negatively correlated with pleasantness. No significant correlation was detected between FN or TS and pleasantness.Pleasantness perception, resulting from passive fingertip stimulation, seems to be influenced by the surfaces' average roughness levels and average FT occurring during fingertip stimulation.
Klöcker, Anne; Oddo, Calogero Maria; Camboni, Domenico; Penta, Massimo; Thonnard, Jean-Louis
Objective Tactile explorations with the fingertips provide information regarding the physical properties of surfaces and their relative pleasantness. Previously, we performed an investigation in the active touch domain and linked several surface properties (i.e. frictional force fluctuations and net friction) with their pleasantness levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate physical factors being important for pleasantness perception during passive fingertip stimulation. Specifically we were interested to see whether factors, such as surfaces' topographies or their frictional characteristics could influence pleasantness. Furthermore, we ascertained how the stimulus pleasantness level was impacted by (i) the normal force of stimulus application (FN) and (ii) the stimulus temperature (TS). Methods and Results The right index fingertips of 22 blindfolded participants were stimulated using 27 different stimuli, which varied in average roughness (Ra) and TS. A 4-axis robot moved the stimuli horizontally under participants' fingertips with three levels of FN. The robot was equipped with force sensors, which recorded the FN and friction force (FT) during stimulation. Participants rated each stimulus according to a three-level pleasantness scale, as very pleasant (scored 0), pleasant (scored 1), or unpleasant (scored 2). These ordinal pleasantness ratings were logarithmically transformed into linear and unidimensional pleasantness measures with the Rasch model. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate a possible link between the stimulus properties (i.e. Ra, FN, FT, and TS) and their respective pleasantness levels. Only the mean Ra and FT values were negatively correlated with pleasantness. No significant correlation was detected between FN or TS and pleasantness. Conclusion Pleasantness perception, resulting from passive fingertip stimulation, seems to be influenced by the surfaces' average roughness levels and average FT occurring during fingertip
Ohmaru, Takako; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Sugitani, Maiko; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Fukushima, Kotaro; Kato, Kiyoko
Virtual touch tissue quantification (VTTQ) has been developed to evaluate tissue elasticity. Our previous study using delivered placentas showed increased elasticity in fetal growth restriction (FGR). Therefore, we investigated changes in placental elasticity during pregnancy, including complicated pregnancies. Based on complications, 199 women were divided into 5 groups (normal, FGR, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), diabetes mellitus and collagen disease), and shear wave velocity (SWV) of the placenta, measured using VTTQ, was compared. A cross-sectional study was performed with the 143 normal cases to construct the reference range. The association between placental SWV and the expression ratio of collagen fibers in the placenta stained with Masson's trichrome was determined. The SWV was safely measured for all participants. The correlation between SWV and gestational weeks was not significant. The mean ± SD SWVs in the normal, FGR, and PIH groups were 0.98 ± 0.21, 1.28 ± 0.39, and 1.60 ± 0.45 m/sec, respectively. The FGR and PIH groups had significantly higher SWVs than that of the normal group. SWV and the expression ratio of collagen fibers were significantly correlated. Based on the present findings, changes in SWV during pregnancy were associated with placental fibrosis, and increased SWV in PIH and/or FGR cases might be influenced by infarction, ischemic changes, and inflammation, as well as fibrosis. In conclusion, the measurement of placental SWV is potentially useful to evaluate the condition of the placenta during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zgraggen, Emanuel; Zeleznik, Robert; Drucker, Steven M
Interactively exploring multidimensional datasets requires frequent switching among a range of distinct but inter-related tasks (e.g., producing different visuals based on different column sets, calculating new variables, and observing the interactions between sets of data). Existing approaches either target specific different problem domains (e.g., data-transformation or data-presentation) or expose only limited aspects of the general exploratory process; in either case, users are forced to adopt coping strategies (e.g., arranging windows or using undo as a mechanism for comparison instead of using side-by-side displays) to compensate for the lack of an integrated suite of exploratory tools. PanoramicData (PD) addresses these problems by unifying a comprehensive set of tools for visual data exploration into a hybrid pen and touch system designed to exploit the visualization advantages of large interactive displays. PD goes beyond just familiar visualizations by including direct UI support for data transformation and aggregation, filtering and brushing. Leveraging an unbounded whiteboard metaphor, users can combine these tools like building blocks to create detailed interactive visual display networks in which each visualization can act as a filter for others. Further, by operating directly on relational-databases, PD provides an approachable visual language that exposes a broad set of the expressive power of SQL including functionally complete logic filtering, computation of aggregates and natural table joins. To understand the implications of this novel approach, we conducted a formative user study with both data and visualization experts. The results indicated that the system provided a fluid and natural user experience for probing multi-dimensional data and was able to cover the full range of queries that the users wanted to pose.
Lee, I-Chieh; Pacheco, Matheus M; Newell, Karl M
Studies that have manipulated vision and touch in posture usually emphasize the prescriptive closed-loop function of the information to reduce the amount of postural motion. In contrast, we examine here the hypothesis that the standard sensory manipulations to maintain quiet stance also change in specific ways the constraints on the task goal and the emergent movement organization. Twelve participants were instructed to maintain quiet postural stance under three sensory factors: surface compliance (foam/no foam), visual information (open/closed eyes) and tactile information (finger touch/no finger touch). The standard deviation of center of pressure (COP) motion decreased with the presence of vision, touch and rigid surface. The correlation dimension showed that the manipulation of touch and vision produced different attractor dynamics that also interacted with surface compliance. Vision decreased the correlation dimension in the foam surface while the touch manipulation increased dimension in the rigid surface. The sensory information manipulations changed the qualitative properties of the attractor dynamics as well as the quantitative properties of the amount of postural motion providing evidence for the specific nature of the postural organization across information conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Touchscreen interaction has become a fundamental means of controlling mobile phones and smartwatches. However, the small form factor of a smartwatch limits the available interactive surface area. To overcome this limitation, we propose the expansion of the touch region of the screen to the back of the user’s hand. We developed a touch module for sensing the touched finger position on the back of the hand using infrared (IR line image sensors, based on the calibrated IR intensity and the maximum intensity region of an IR array. For complete touch-sensing solution, a gyroscope installed in the smartwatch is used to read the wrist gestures. The gyroscope incorporates a dynamic time warping gesture recognition algorithm for eliminating unintended touch inputs during the free motion of the wrist while wearing the smartwatch. The prototype of the developed sensing module was implemented in a commercial smartwatch, and it was confirmed that the sensed positional information of the finger when it was used to touch the back of the hand could be used to control the smartwatch graphical user interface. Our system not only affords a novel experience for smartwatch users, but also provides a basis for developing other useful interfaces.
Dong, Hui; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Tao; Ge, Jian-Ye; Dong, Ying-Qiang; Sun, Qi-Fan; Liu, Chao; Li, Cai-Xia
To select appropriate preprocessing methods for different substrates by comparing the effects of four different preprocessing methods on touch DNA samples and to determine the effect of various storage times on the results of touch DNA sample analysis. Hand touch DNA samples were used to investigate the detection and inspection results of DNA on different substrates. Four preprocessing methods, including the direct cutting method, stubbing procedure, double swab technique, and vacuum cleaner method, were used in this study. DNA was extracted from mock samples with four different preprocessing methods. The best preprocess protocol determined from the study was further used to compare performance after various storage times. DNA extracted from all samples was quantified and amplified using standard procedures. The amounts of DNA and the number of alleles detected on the porous substrates were greater than those on the non-porous substrates. The performances of the four preprocessing methods varied with different substrates. The direct cutting method displayed advantages for porous substrates, and the vacuum cleaner method was advantageous for non-porous substrates. No significant degradation trend was observed as the storage times increased. Different substrates require the use of different preprocessing method in order to obtain the highest DNA amount and allele number from touch DNA samples. This study provides a theoretical basis for explorations of touch DNA samples and may be used as a reference when dealing with touch DNA samples in case work.
Mitsuda, Takashi; Yoshioka, Yuichi
When people make a choice between multiple items, they usually evaluate each item one after the other repeatedly. The effect of the order and number of evaluating items on one's choices is essential to understanding the decision-making process. Previous studies have shown that when people choose a favorable item from two items, they tend to choose the item that they evaluated last. This tendency has been observed regardless of sensory modalities. This study investigated the origin of this bias by using three experiments involving two-alternative forced-choice tasks using handkerchiefs. First, the bias appeared in a smoothness discrimination task, which indicates that the bias was not based on judgments of preference. Second, the handkerchief that was touched more often tended to be chosen more frequently in the preference task, but not in the smoothness discrimination task, indicating that a mere exposure effect enhanced the bias. Third, in the condition where the number of touches did not differ between handkerchiefs, the bias appeared when people touched a handkerchief they wanted to touch last, but not when people touched the handkerchief that was predetermined. This finding suggests a direct coupling between final voluntary touching and judgment.
Koole, Sander L; Tjew A Sin, Mandy; Schneider, Iris K
Individuals with low (rather than high) self-esteem often struggle with existential concerns. In the present research, we examined whether these existential concerns may be alleviated by seemingly trivial experiences of both real and simulated interpersonal touch. A brief touch on the shoulder by a female experimenter led individuals with low self-esteem to experience less death anxiety (Study 1) and more social connectedness after a death reminder (Study 2). Reminding individuals with low self-esteem of death increased their desire for touch, as indicated by higher value estimates of a teddy bear, a toy animal that simulates interpersonal touch (Study 3). Finally, holding a teddy bear (vs. a cardboard box) led individuals with low self-esteem to respond to a death reminder with less defensive ethnocentrism (Study 4). Individuals with high self-esteem were unaffected by touch (Studies 1-4). These findings highlight the existential significance of embodied touch experiences, particularly for individuals with low self-esteem.
Koppel, Lina; Andersson, David; Morrison, India; Västfjäll, Daniel; Tinghög, Gustav
Pleasant touch is thought to increase the release of oxytocin. Oxytocin, in turn, has been extensively studied with regards to its effects on trust and prosocial behavior, but results remain inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of touch on economic decision making. Participants (n = 120) were stroked on their left arm using a soft brush (touch condition) or not at all (control condition; varied within subjects), while they performed a series of decision tasks assessing betrayal aversion (the Betrayal Aversion Elicitation Task), altruism (donating money to a charitable organization), and risk taking (the Balloon Analog Risk Task). We found no significant effect of touch on any of the outcome measures, neither within nor between subjects. Furthermore, effects were not moderated by gender or attachment. However, attachment avoidance had a significant effect on altruism in that those who were high in avoidance donated less money. Our findings contribute to the understanding of affective touch-and, by extension, oxytocin-in social behavior, and decision making by showing that touch does not directly influence performance in tasks involving risk and prosocial decisions. Specifically, our work casts further doubt on the validity of oxytocin research in humans.
Zhou, Yanmin; He, Bin; Yan, Zhe; Shang, Yinghui; Wang, Qigang; Wang, Zhipeng
Soft robots possess great potential in environmental adaptations, while their environmental sensing abilities are critical. Conductive hydrogels have been suggested to possess sensing abilities. However, their application in soft robots is lacking. In this work, we fabricated a soft and stretchable gel material, introduced its sensing mechanisms, and developed a measurement setup. Both experimental and simulation studies indicate strong nonlinearity of touch locating on a square touch panel with Cartesian coordinates. To simplify the touch locating, we proposed a touch locating system based on round touch panels with polar coordinates. Mathematical calculations and finite element method (FEM) simulations showed that in this system the locating of a touch point was only determined by its polar radius. This was verified by experimental studies. As a resistor, a gel strip's resistance increases with stretching. To demonstrate their applications on soft robots, a 3D printed three-fingered soft gripper was employed with gel strips attached. During finger bending for rod grasping, the resistances of the gel strips increased, indicating stretching of the soft material. Furthermore, the strain and stress of a gel strip increased with a decrease of the rod diameter. These studies advance the application of conductive hydrogels on soft robots.
Full Text Available The Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling pathway regulates developmental, homeostatic, and repair processes throughout the body. In the skin, touch domes develop in tandem with primary hair follicles and contain sensory Merkel cells. The developmental signaling requirements for touch dome specification are largely unknown. We found dermal Wnt signaling and subsequent epidermal Eda/Edar signaling promoted Merkel cell morphogenesis by inducing Shh expression in early follicles. Lineage-specific gene deletions revealed intraepithelial Shh signaling was necessary for Merkel cell specification. Additionally, a Shh signaling agonist was sufficient to rescue Merkel cell differentiation in Edar-deficient skin. Moreover, Merkel cells formed in Fgf20 mutant skin where primary hair formation was defective but Shh production was preserved. Although developmentally associated with hair follicles, fate mapping demonstrated Merkel cells primarily originated outside the hair follicle lineage. These findings suggest that touch dome development requires Wnt-dependent mesenchymal signals to establish reciprocal signaling within the developing ectoderm, including Eda signaling to primary hair placodes and ultimately Shh signaling from primary follicles to extrafollicular Merkel cell progenitors. Shh signaling often demonstrates pleiotropic effects within a structure over time. In postnatal skin, Shh is known to regulate the self-renewal, but not the differentiation, of touch dome stem cells. Our findings relate the varied effects of Shh in the touch dome to the ligand source, with locally produced Shh acting as a morphogen essential for lineage specification during development and neural Shh regulating postnatal touch dome stem cell maintenance.
Karagozoglu, Serife; Kahve, Emine
This quasi-experimental and cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the efficacy of back massage, a nursing intervention, on the process of acute fatigue developing due to chemotherapy and on the anxiety level emerging in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy during this process. The study was conducted on 40 patients. To collect the data, the Personal Information Form, the State Anxiety part of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Brief Fatigue Inventory were used. In our study, it was determined that mean anxiety scores decreased in the intervention group patients after chemotherapy. The level of fatigue in the intervention group decreased statistically significantly on the next day after chemotherapy (p=.020; effect size=0.84). At the same time, the mean anxiety scores of the patients in the intervention group decreased right after the massage provided during chemotherapy (p=.109; effect size=0.37) and after chemotherapy. In line with our study findings, it can be said that back massage given during chemotherapy affects anxiety and fatigue suffered during the chemotherapy process and that it significantly reduces state anxiety and acute fatigue. Therefore, the effective use of back massage in the process of chemotherapy by oncology nurses who have a key role in cancer treatment and care can make it more modulated. © 2013.
Dvorak, J; Kirkendall, D; Vouillamoz, M
Football players who have either physical symptoms or disease after injury may need to be treated with specific medicines that are on the list of prohibited substances. Therapeutic use exemption may be granted to such players, in accordance with strictly defined criteria—these are presented in this article. Procedures of how to request for an abbreviated or a standard therapeutic use exemption are explained, and data on therapeutic use exemptions (UEFA and FIFA, 2004 and 2005) are also presented. PMID:16799102
Bowman, Richard W.
This thesis describes advances in the holographic technology used to control multiple optical traps (and hence many trapped particles), and improved methods for monitoring the positions and forces involved. The speed with which multiple holographic optical traps can be moved has traditionally been limited by the time taken to calculate holograms, but by using consumer graphics cards and high speed Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) I have implemented holographic systems fast enough to react to the Brownian motion of trapped particles. Brownian motion can, to some extent, be suppressed by this approach, and it also allows the trap's stiffness to be engineered to balance sensitivity against tight constraint of position. Feedback control using an SLM, rather than the other beam steering technologies that have been employed, is able to react to motion in three dimensions. This requires 3D position measurement, which is provided by the stereo microscopy technique described in Chapter 2. By illuminating and viewing the sample from two different angles it is possible to reconstruct the depth of objects. This is accomplished through a single high numerical aperture microscope objective, the same lens used to focus the trapping laser. In conjunction with a fast CMOS camera, it is possible to track particles with an accuracy of 2-3nm at several thousand frames per second. This allows measurement of forces and displacements within the control loop, that can be fed back to influence the position of the optical traps. This force information can also be relayed to the operator using a force-feedback joystick as detailed in Chapter 7. Interface design is an important part of making technology accessible to scientists from other disciplines; to this end I have also developed a multi-touch tablet application to control optical tweezers. By creating simple, reliable systems and coupling them to an intuitive interface, I have endeavoured to produce developments which are of use to the
Li, Hui; Hsueh, Yeh; Wang, Fuxing; Bai, Xuejun; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Li
Research shows that preschoolers are likely to anthropomorphize not only animals, but also inanimate toy after being exposed to books that personify these objects. Can such an effect also arise through young children's use of touch-screen games? The present study is the first to examine whether playing a touch-screen personified train game affects young children's anthropomorphism of real trains. Seventy-nine 4- and 6-year-old children were randomly assigned to play either a touch-screen game or a board game of Thomas the Tank Engine for 10 min. They completed the Individual Differences in Anthropomorphism Questionnaire-Child Form (IDAQ-CF) (two subscales: Technology/Inanimate Nature, Animate Nature) and an additional four items about the anthropomorphism of real trains, before (T1) and after (T2) the game. Overall results showed that children manifested a small but statistically significant increase in anthropomorphizing of real trains after their exposure to both games, claiming that real trains were like humans. Interestingly, 4-year-old children in the board game group tended to anthropomorphize real trains more than those in the touch-screen group, whereas the reverse was true for the 6-year-old children. The results suggest that touch-screen games may delay the decline of children's anthropomorphism during the cognitive and socio-emotional transition that occurs in children aged 5-7. These findings have implications for future research on how touch-screen games increase children's anthropomorphism of the real world, and more generally, for evaluation of the influence of the growing use of touch-screen games on young children's learning.
Aron, William S.; And Others
Focusing on the drug addiction problem and its antecedent conditions in a Chicano population, the article examines several therapeutic interventions suggested by these conditions and indicates how they might be incorporated into a drug addiction Therapeutic Community treatment program designed to meet the needs of Chicano drug addicts. (Author/NQ)
Holden, Martha J.; Powers, Jane Levine
Describes Therapeutic Crisis Intervention (TCI) program as providing staff with skills, knowledge, and confidence to manage child in crisis to bring about a "maximum amount of lasting response." Contends that, by applying principles of TCI training, direct care worker can attain therapeutic control and maintain dignity of both adult and child…
Smith, Ralph W.
Discusses the implications of the rapid, dramatic changes taking place in therapeutic recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The article notes the impact of changes in managed care, examines programming trends in therapeutic recreation (adventure/outdoor education, competitive sports, handcycling, health enhancement activities, and…
Karina Cyrineu Vale
Full Text Available This article is to identify and establish associations between the Indian infant massage technique known in the West as Shantala to the theory of child development Donald Winnicott, based on personal and professional experience of the author. She relates the offer massage as a potentially therapeutic space for the stimulation of healthy development of the unborn in a broad sense - physical and emotional aspects, from the establishment of a healthy bond with their caregiver. Care for the caregiver environment-where the recognition of the baby as a developing human being "there" and expresses, are valued in the prevention and treatment of developmental disorders neuro-psycho-motor.
Many of the revolutionary principles introduced by Ferenczi in his clinical practice have now been widely accepted especially in the field of trauma and trauma therapy. Examples of these innovative views include his emphasis on empathy as opposed to technical neutrality and his stress on the real conditions of child caring and family environmental deficits and on the consequences of interpersonal violence and abuse that lead to "identification with the aggressor" by the victim thereby resulting in the internalization of both aggressiveness and guilt (the split guilt of the abuser). The resulting "fragmentation" of the personality, which is now considered dissociation (instead of Freud's "repression"), is at the root of several severe disorders, characterized by distortion of reality, loss of touch with one's body and loss of trust in the other. Therefore "abreaction is not enough". A new, positive relational experience must be re-inscribed at the level of implicit memory.
Chapman, G E
Research in nurses' communications has concentrated on nurse to patient interactions. Those few studies which focus on nurse to nurse communications seem to be generated by a pragmatic and normative concern with effective information sharing. In this paper, which describes one aspect of a larger case study of a hospital-based therapeutic community, the description and analysis of nurses' reports flows not from a normative model of professional practice, but rather an exploration of how professional practice is articulated as discourse in nurses' written accounts. Foucault's ideas about therapeutic discourse inform the theoretical framework of the research. Ethnomethodological concerns with the importance of documentary analysis provide the methodological rationale for examining nurses' 24-hour report documents, as official discourse, reflecting therapeutic practice in this setting. A content analysis of nurses' reports, collected over a period of 4 months, demonstrated the importance of domesticity and ordinary everyday activities in nurses' accounts of hospital life. Disruption to the 'life as usual' domesticity in the community seemed to be associated with admission to and discharge from the hospital when interpersonal and interactional changes between patients occur. It is suggested that nurses in general hospital wards and more orthodox psychiatric settings might usefully consider the impact of admissions and discharges on the group of patients they manage, and make this a discursive focus of their work.
Anderson, Joel G; Suchicital, Liliana; Lang, Maria; Kukic, Azra; Mangione, Lucrezia; Swengros, Diane; Fabian, Jennifer; Friesen, Mary Ann
Given the growth in the number of bariatric surgeries, it is important for healthcare practitioners to maximize symptom management for these patients, including the option of complementary therapies such as Healing Touch. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a Healing Touch intervention for reducing pain, nausea, and anxiety in patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Following surgery, a nurse administered the Healing Touch intervention once daily. Study participants reported levels of pain, nausea, and anxiety immediately before and after the Healing Touch intervention using separate numeric rating scales. Significant decreases in pain, nausea, and anxiety were observed immediately following the intervention on post-operative days one and two, and in pain and anxiety on post-operative day three compared with pre-intervention levels. These findings indicate that the Healing Touch intervention is feasible and acceptable to patients undergoing bariatric surgery, and significantly improved pain, nausea, and anxiety in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hentz, F; Mulliez, A; Belgacem, B; Noirfalise, C; Barrier, H; Gorrand, J; Paniagua, C c; Mathé, B; Gerbaud, L
New care methods have emerged in the last few years. Healing Touch is relaxing and as such, helps prepare the patient for the medical act, the pain of which he may often feel anxious about As they foster confidence between the patient and the medical practitioner, such practices create better conditions for the medical care act to be performed. Even if there is no doubt about its impact on the patient, the effect of Healing Touch has never been scientifically assessed, and the only available references are rather scarce. This is the reason why we wished to assess the impact of this care in a number of clinical situations through a randomised clinical experiment. The object of this paper is to assert the efficacy of such care on the patient, especially on pain relief and the decrease of anxiety. To this end, authenticated assessment scales were used, such as the visual analog pain scale or Spielberg's test anxiety inventory. A prospective multicentre randomised study was carried out to create a control group to be compared to the group treated with Healing Touch. Only willing patients who were prescribed healing touch were included in the experiment. Patients with cognitive problems - be they temporary (linked to a temporary clinical conditions) or not - or those suffering from some disabilities preventing them from using assessment scales and questionnaires are excluded. The recruitment of a 784-patient panel was needed to set out the 8 situations in which a Healing Touch indication may be effective.
Cabibihan, John-John; Srinivasa, Yeshwin Mysore; Chan, Mark Aaron; Muruganantham, Arrchana
To touch and be touched are vital to human development, well being, and relationships. However, to those who have lost their arms and hands due to accident or war, touching becomes a serious concern that often leads to psychosocial issues and social stigma. In this paper, we demonstrate that the touch from a warm and soft rubber hand can be perceived by another person as if the touch were coming from a human hand. We describe a three step process toward this goal. First, we made participants select artificial skin samples according to their preferred warmth and softness characteristics. At room temperature, the preferred warmth was found to be 28.4 deg C at the skin surface of a soft silicone rubber material that has a Shore durometer value of 30 at the OO scale. Second, we developed a process to create a rubber hand replica of a human hand. To compare the skin softness of a human hand and artificial hands, a robotic indenter was employed to produce a softness map by recording the displacement data when const...
Moszkowski, Robin J; Stack, Dale M; Girouard, Nadine; Field, Tiffany M; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Diego, Miguel
The present study investigated the touching behaviors of 4-month-old infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers during the still-face (SF; maternal emotional unavailability) and separation (SP; maternal physical unavailability) procedures. Forty-one dyads participated in the present study; dyads were from low SES backgrounds and they exhibited poor relationship qualities (e.g. poor maternal sensitivity, low infant responsiveness); thus, they were considered at-risk. Results indicated that infants exhibited more patting and pulling when mothers were unavailable during the SF and SP procedures. Moreover, depression affected infants' tactile behaviors: infants of depressed mothers used more reactive types of touch (i.e. active touching behaviors, such as grab, pat, pull) than infants of non-depressed mothers during emotional and physical unavailability, suggesting greater activity levels in infants of depressed mothers. Negative relationship indicators, such as maternal intrusiveness and hostility, predicted soothing/regulatory (i.e. nurturing) and reactive/regulatory types of touch, even after controlling for maternal depression. Taken together, these results underscore the importance of touch for infant communication and regulation during early social interactions.
Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, P. O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Cabibihan, John-John [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Yoon, W. Jong [School of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, University of Washington, Bothell, Washington 98011 (United States); Kumar, Bijandra, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292 (United States); Research and Development Centre in Pharmaceutical Science and Applied Chemistry, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Erandawane, Pune 411038 (India)
The ongoing revolution in touch panel technology and electronics demands the need for thin films, which are flexible, stretchable, conductive, and highly touch responsive. In this regard, conductive elastomer nanocomposites offer potential solutions for these stipulations; however, viability is limited to the poor dispersion of conductive nanomaterials such as graphene into the matrix. Here, we fabricated a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer based transparent and flexible conductive touch responsive film by dispersing rGO honeycombs uniformly into PDMS elastomer through an ionic liquid (IL) modification. Pursuing a simple, scalable, and safe method of solution casting, this provides a versatile and creative design of a transparent and stretchable rGO/IL-PDMS capacitive touch responsive, where rGO acts as a sensing element. This transparent film with ∼70% transmittance exhibits approximately a five times faster response in comparison to rGO/PDMS film, with negligible degradation over time. The performance of this touch screen film is expected to have applications in the emerging field of foldable electronics.
Full Text Available Pleasant touch is thought to increase the release of oxytocin. Oxytocin, in turn, has been extensively studied with regards to its effects on trust and prosocial behavior, but results remain inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of touch on economic decision making. Participants (n = 120 were stroked on their left arm using a soft brush (touch condition or not at all (control condition; varied within subjects, while they performed a series of decision tasks assessing betrayal aversion (the Betrayal Aversion Elicitation Task, altruism (donating money to a charitable organization, and risk taking (the Balloon Analog Risk Task. We found no significant effect of touch on any of the outcome measures, neither within nor between subjects. Furthermore, effects were not moderated by gender or attachment. However, attachment avoidance had a significant effect on altruism in that those who were high in avoidance donated less money. Our findings contribute to the understanding of affective touch—and, by extension, oxytocin—in social behavior, and decision making by showing that touch does not directly influence performance in tasks involving risk and prosocial decisions. Specifically, our work casts further doubt on the validity of oxytocin research in humans.
Bair, Woei-Nan; Barela, José A; Whitall, Jill; Jeka, John J; Clark, Jane E
In two experiments, the ability to use multisensory information (haptic information, provided by lightly touching a stationary surface, and vision) for quiet standing was examined in typically developing (TD) children, adults, and in seven-year-old children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Four sensory conditions (no touch/no vision, with touch/no vision, no touch/with vision, and with touch/with vision) were employed. In experiment 1, we tested four-, six- and eight-year-old TD children and adults to provide a developmental landscape for performance on this task. In experiment 2, we tested a group of seven-year-old children with DCD and their age-matched TD peers. For all groups, touch robustly attenuated standing sway suggesting that children as young as four years old use touch information similarly to adults. Touch was less effective in children with DCD compared to their TD peers, especially in attenuating their sway velocity. Children with DCD, unlike their TD peers, also benefited from using vision to reduce sway. The present results suggest that children with DCD benefit from using vision in combination with touch information for standing control possibly due to their less well developed internal models of body orientation and self-motion. Internal model deficits, combined with other known deficits such as postural muscles activation timing deficits, may exacerbate the balance impairment in children with DCD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Phytochemicals are an important part of traditional medicine and have been investigated in detail for possible inclusion in modern medicine as well. These compounds often serve as the backbone for the synthesis of novel therapeutic agents. For many years, phytochemicals have demonstrated encouraging activity against various human cancer models in pre-clinical assays. Here, we discuss select phytochemicals—curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, resveratrol, plumbagin and honokiol—in the context of their reported effects on the processes of inflammation and oxidative stress, which play a key role in tumorigenesis. We also discuss the emerging evidence on modulation of tumor microenvironment by these phytochemicals which can possibly define their cancer-specific action. Finally, we provide recent updates on how low bioavailability, a major concern with phytochemicals, is being circumvented and the general efficacy being improved, by synthesis of novel chemical analogs and nanoformulations.
This paper presents an approach for empowering collaborative workspaces through ultra-high resolution tiled display environments concurrently interfaced with multiple multi-touch devices. Multi-touch table devices are supported along with portable multi-touch tablet and phone devices, which can be added to and removed from the system on the fly. Events from these devices are tagged with a device identifier and are synchronized with the distributed display environment, enabling multi-user support. As many portable devices are not equipped to render content directly, a remotely scene is streamed in. The presented approach scales for large numbers of devices, providing access to a multitude of hands-on techniques for collaborative data analysis. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Beaton, Robert J.; Welman, Novia
Two experiments were performed to assess the effects of touch key design parameters on menu-selection error rates, The first experiment determined that the optimal design consisted of touch keys 10,16-mm high, either 10,16- or 20, 2- wide, and separated vertically by less than 10,16 mm, The second experiment extended the investigation by including the effects of viewing angle, These latter results replicated the first experiment, but also favored the 2012-mm wide key for off-axis viewing conditions, In both experiments, the horizontal separation between touch keys did not affect menu-selection accuracy; however, subjective selection favored a 20.32-mm horizontal separation.
Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.
Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna
Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch. PMID:28934203
Lee, Jong-Kwon; Kim, Sang-Soo; Park, Yong-In; Kim, Chang-Dong; Hwang, Yong-Kee
In-cell adaptive touch technology for use in an electrophoretic display (EPD) has been developed and implemented in 11.5 in. UXGA flexible electronic paper display. Here, two types of a-Si:H photo-sensor arrays fabricated on a stainless steel substrate at the process temperature of 250 °C have been used along with an overall capacitive sensor formed on top of the flexible panel. Thus, we can resolve the sensing issue of normal photo-sensor array as well as maintain the feature of low power consumption in the EPD. Moreover, new touch algorithm adapted depending upon the amount of light intensity has been applied to enhance touch sensitivity regardless of environmental light conditions.
The author extended the proposition (V. J. Derlega, R. J. Lewis, S. Harrison, B. A. Winstead, & R. Costanza, 1989) that the fear of being seen as homosexual accounts for the common finding that U.S. women engage in more same-sex touch than do U.S. men. The author proposed a theoretic model positing that the magnitude of homophobia's influence on behavior and on reactions to behavior is proportional to the likelihood that the behavior is sexual in nature. An experiment involving reactions to same-sex embraces demonstrated that, although homophobia was negatively related to evaluations of same-sex affectionate touch, the magnitude of the relationship covaried with the probability that the touch was sexual. The implications of these findings for longer range theory development are discussed.
Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Ren, Tian-Ling; Shu, Yi; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Cang-Hai
Recently, graphene oxide (GO) supercapacitors with ultra-high energy densities have received significant attention. In addition to energy storage, GO capacitors might also have broad applications in renewable energy engineering, such as vibration and sound energy harvesting. Here, we experimentally create a macroscopic flexible capacitive touch pad based on GO film. An obvious touch "ON" to "OFF" voltage ratio up to ∼60 has been observed. Moreover, we tested the capacitor structure on both flat and curved surfaces and it showed high response sensitivity under fast touch rates. Collectively, our results raise the exciting prospect that the realization of macroscopic flexible keyboards with large-area graphene based materials is technologically feasible, which may open up important applications in control and interface design for solar cells, speakers, supercapacitors, batteries and MEMS systems.
Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael
Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.
This article addresses the strategies employed by Nahua community of Mexixo to deal with health problems. Drawing on qualitative research, it discusses the choice of plural therapeutic itineraries, including the use of informal and formal healthcare.
Chen, Ying-Pei; Han, Ting; Wu, Rong; Yao, Ming-Hua; Xu, Guang; Zhao, Li-Xia; Liu, Hui; Pu, Huan; Fang, Yan
Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) with Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification (VTQ) or Virtual Touch Tissue Imaging Quantification (VTIQ) measures shear wave velocity (SWV), which is proportional to tissue stiffness, a diagnostic parameter for malignancy. To compare the performance of VTQ and VTIQ in diagnosing solid breast tumors. Conventional ultrasound, VTQ and VTIQ were used to examine 246 solid breast tumors from 230 patients. Tumors were grouped according to size: 20 mm. Pathological diagnoses were via histological examination of biopsies. ROC curves were used to assess diagnostic performance and optimal cut-off points for VTQ and VTIQ. For all sizes, SWVVTQ and SWVVTIQ were higher for malignant versus benign tumors (P breast tumors. Although both methods have higher sensitivities in tumors≥10 mm, their overall diagnostic performance was similar for all sizes.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The effect of touch on the growth of newborns has been achieved by educated staff, but touch therapy by mothers, as the most important care provider for their infants, has not been focused in previous studies. Materials & Methods: In this randomized controlled trail and double blind study which was conducted at Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2010, 60 preterm newborns, which were discharged from neonatal intensive care unit (NICU , were randomly allocated to a control and a touch therapy group (30 newborns in each group. Touch therapy was directly instructed to the mother, also offering guide booklets to the mother. Touch was provided by mother for three periods, 20 minutes each, per day, until term corrected age. In two groups, neonate weight by the electronic weighing scale with an accuracy of ± 10 grams, height with an infant meter, also head and chest circumference with a non-stretchable cloth-tape were measured at the time of discharge following the term corrected age. The statistical data was analyzed by the SPSS software using Kolmogrov Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, Independent T-test and Fisher test. Results: The mean age, type of delivery, level of education, employment and socio-economic status in mothers of the two groups, also weight, sex and other neonate characteristics had no statistical differences. At the term corrected age, there were no differences in mean of height, head and chest circumference between two groups, but the interventional group showed an average weight gain more than the control group, (3373± 270.3 , 2905± 372.6 gr which was statistically significant (p=0.04. It means that neonates in intervention group gained 468 grams more than the control group. Conclusion: Between all anthropometric measurements, only weight was affected by touch therapy. This might be due to the speed of weight gaining compared to increase in height, head and chest circumference.
Yearwood, Edilma L.; Friedmann, Erika
Background: While massage has been removed from nursing curricula, studies have reported massage as safe and effective for stress reduction, relaxation, pain relief, fatigue, and quality of life. Objective: To compare the efficacy of two intensities of touch administered during two seated massages on the attitudes of nursing students toward touch for their self-care and patient care. Participants: Nursing students who volunteered gave institutional review board–approved written informed consent to undergo massage by a licensed massage therapist. Settings/location: A private room adjacent to the nursing lab in a school of nursing. Intervention: Brief seated massages of differing intensities. Each participant received low-intensity and high-intensity touch in a two-block, randomized order, within-subjects design. Linear mixed models nested within subject and random intercept analyses were used to test hypotheses in this two-treatment, two-sequence, two-period crossover design. Outcome measures: Health questionnaires/visual analogue scales pertaining to physical/affective/and attitudinal status were completed before and after each massage. Results: Twenty-nine participants (93% female, 83% single) completed the study. Before massage, the optimal intensity of touch anticipated for self-comfort was 6.6 (0=no pressure;10=most intense pressure imaginable). The mean touch intensities were 6.7 for high-intensity massage and 0.5 for low-intensity (pmassage were as follows: low intensity, 37.5% better; high intensity, 62.7% better (pmassage (pmassage was more efficacious than low-intensity massage and positively influenced nursing student attitudes toward the inclusion of massage in self-care/patient care. The role of touch for self-care/patient care in the nursing curricula merits reconsideration. PMID:25140587
Vandenbroucke, S; Crombez, G; Loeys, T; Goubert, L
In this study, we investigated the effects of observing pain and touch in others on vicarious somatosensory experiences and the detection of subtle somatosensory stimuli. Furthermore, the effect of taking a first- versus a third-person perspective was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 57) viewed videos depicting hands being pricked (pain), hands being touched by a cotton swab (touch), and control scenes (same approaching movement of a hand as in the other video categories, but without the painful/touching object) while experiencing vibrotactile stimuli themselves on the left, on the right, or on both hands. Participants reported the location at which they felt a somatosensory stimulus. The vibrotactile stimuli and visual scenes were applied in a spatially congruent or incongruent way, and other trials were presented without vibrotactile stimuli. The videos were depicted in first-person perspective and third-person perspective (i.e., the videos were shown upside down). We calculated the proportions of correct responses and false alarms (i.e., numbers of trials on which a vicarious somatosensory experience was reported congruent or incongruent to the site of the visual information). Pain-related scenes facilitated the detection of tactile stimuli and augmented the number of vicarious somatosensory experiences, as compared with observing the touch or control videos. Detection accuracy was higher for videos depicted in first-person perspective than for those in third-person perspective. Perspective had no effect on the number of vicarious somatosensory experiences. This study indicates that somatosensory detection is particularly enhanced during the observation of pain-related scenes, as compared to the observation of touch or control videos. These research findings further demonstrate that perspective taking impacts somatosensory detection, but not the report of vicarious experiences.
Zhang, Feng-Juan, E-mail: email@example.com; Han, Ruo-Ling, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Zhao, Xin-Ming, E-mail: email@example.com
Highlights: • All nodules in the research were confirmed by histopathology. • The classification method of VTI was easy to learn. • VTQ could provide quantitative elasticity measurements for thyroid nodules. • VTI classification could provide semi-quantitative elasticity analysis. • The area ratio could show invasive extent of malignant tumor. - Abstract: Objectives: To explore the value of virtual touch tissue image (VTI) and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Methods: One-hundred and seven patients with 113 thyroid nodules were performed conventional ultrasound and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography. The stiffness of the nodules on virtual touch tissue image (VTI) was graded, and the area ratios (AR) of nodules on VTI images versus on B-mode images were calculated. Shear wave velocity (SWV) within the thyroid nodules were measured using virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) technique. The pathological diagnosis as the gold standard draws the receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) to find the cut-off point of VTI grades, AR and SWV to predict thyroid cancer. Results: The difference in VTI grades of malignant and benign nodules was statistically significant (P < 0.05), as well as in AR and SWV. There was no significant difference in the AR of nodules or the SWV of nodules in benign group or in malignant group. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of VTI grades, AR, and SWV in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules were calculated. There was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy among the three methods. Conclusion: VTI grades, AR of nodules on VTI images versus on B-mode images and SWV within the nodules can help the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
Poole, Debra Ann; Bruck, Maggie; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen
The belief that props help children report abuse has fostered the widespread use of anatomical dolls and body diagrams in forensic interviews. Yet studies involving alleged abuse victims, children who have experienced medical examinations, and children who have participated in staged events have failed to find consistent evidence that props improve young children's ability to report key information related to bodily contact. Because props elevate the risk of erroneous touch reports, interviewers need to reconsider the belief that props are developmentally appropriate in forensic interviews, and researchers need to explore new approaches for eliciting disclosures of inappropriate touching.
Pikhitsa, Peter V; Pikhitsa, Stanislaw
We provide a complete classification of possible configurations of mutually pairwise-touching infinite cylinders in Euclidian three-dimensional space. It turns out that there is a maximum number of such cylinders possible in three dimensions independently of the shape of the cylinder cross-sections. We give the explanation of the uniqueness of the non-trivial configuration of seven equal mutually touching round infinite cylinders found earlier. Some results obtained for the chirality matrix, which is equivalent to the Seidel adjacency matrix, may be found useful for the theory of graphs.
According to the treatment needs of patients with limb movement disorder, on the basis of the limb rehabilitative training prototype, function of measure and control system are analyzed, design of system hardware and software is completed. The touch screen which is adopt as host computer and man-machine interaction window is responsible for sending commands and training information display; The PLC which is adopt as slave computer is responsible for receiving control command from touch screen, collecting the sensor data, regulating torque and speed of motor by analog output according to the different training mode, realizing ultimately active and passive training for limb rehabilitation therapy.
Cheung, Howard [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Braun, James E. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Langner, M. Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
This report describes a methodology developed for assessing the performance of no touch building audit tools and presents results for an available tool. Building audits are conducted in many commercial buildings to reduce building energy costs and improve building operation. Because the audits typically require significant input obtained by building engineers, they are usually only affordable for larger commercial building owners. In an effort to help small building and business owners gain the benefits of an audit at a lower cost, no touch building audit tools have been developed to remotely analyze a building's energy consumption.
Chen, Yen-Lin; Liang, Wen-Yew; Chiang, Chuan-Yen; Hsieh, Tung-Ju; Lee, Da-Cheng; Yuan, Shyan-Ming; Chang, Yang-Lang
This study presents efficient vision-based finger detection, tracking, and event identification techniques and a low-cost hardware framework for multi-touch sensing and display applications. The proposed approach uses a fast bright-blob segmentation process based on automatic multilevel histogram thresholding to extract the pixels of touch blobs obtained from scattered infrared lights captured by a video camera. The advantage of this automatic multilevel thresholding approach is its robustness and adaptability when dealing with various ambient lighting conditions and spurious infrared noises. To extract the connected components of these touch blobs, a connected-component analysis procedure is applied to the bright pixels acquired by the previous stage. After extracting the touch blobs from each of the captured image frames, a blob tracking and event recognition process analyzes the spatial and temporal information of these touch blobs from consecutive frames to determine the possible touch events and actions performed by users. This process also refines the detection results and corrects for errors and occlusions caused by noise and errors during the blob extraction process. The proposed blob tracking and touch event recognition process includes two phases. First, the phase of blob tracking associates the motion correspondence of blobs in succeeding frames by analyzing their spatial and temporal features. The touch event recognition process can identify meaningful touch events based on the motion information of touch blobs, such as finger moving, rotating, pressing, hovering, and clicking actions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed vision-based finger detection, tracking, and event identification system is feasible and effective for multi-touch sensing applications in various operational environments and conditions. PMID:22163990
Full Text Available This study presents efficient vision-based finger detection, tracking, and event identification techniques and a low-cost hardware framework for multi-touch sensing and display applications. The proposed approach uses a fast bright-blob segmentation process based on automatic multilevel histogram thresholding to extract the pixels of touch blobs obtained from scattered infrared lights captured by a video camera. The advantage of this automatic multilevel thresholding approach is its robustness and adaptability when dealing with various ambient lighting conditions and spurious infrared noises. To extract the connected components of these touch blobs, a connected-component analysis procedure is applied to the bright pixels acquired by the previous stage. After extracting the touch blobs from each of the captured image frames, a blob tracking and event recognition process analyzes the spatial and temporal information of these touch blobs from consecutive frames to determine the possible touch events and actions performed by users. This process also refines the detection results and corrects for errors and occlusions caused by noise and errors during the blob extraction process. The proposed blob tracking and touch event recognition process includes two phases. First, the phase of blob tracking associates the motion correspondence of blobs in succeeding frames by analyzing their spatial and temporal features. The touch event recognition process can identify meaningful touch events based on the motion information of touch blobs, such as finger moving, rotating, pressing, hovering, and clicking actions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed vision-based finger detection, tracking, and event identification system is feasible and effective for multi-touch sensing applications in various operational environments and conditions.
Forero, Juan; Misiaszek, John E
Light touch at the fingertip has been shown to influence postural control during standing and walking. Interlimb cutaneous reflexes have been proposed to provide a neural link between the upper and lower limbs to assist in interlimb coordination during activities such as walking. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that cutaneous sensory pathways linking the arm and leg will be facilitated if subjects use light touch to assist with postural control during treadmill walking. To test this, interlimb cutaneous reflexes from the median nerve, serving the skin contact region, and radial nerve, serving an irrelevant sensory territory, were tested in the legs of subjects walking on treadmill in an unstable environment. Interlimb cutaneous reflexes were tested while subjects (a) touched or (b) did not touch a stable contact with their fingertip, and while the eyes were either (c) open or (d) closed. Reflexes arising from both nerves were facilitated when vision was removed that was then ameliorated when touch was provided. These changes in reflex amplitude during the eyes closed conditions were mirrored by changes in background muscle activity. We suggest that this facilitation of interlimb reflexes from both nerves arises from a generalized increase in excitability related to the postural anxiety of walking on a treadmill with the eyes closed, which is then restored by the provision of light touch. However, the influence of touch when the eyes were open differed depending upon the nerve stimulated. Radial nerve reflexes in the legs were suppressed when touch was provided, mirroring a suppression in the background muscle activity. In contrast, median nerve reflexes in the leg were larger when touch was provided with the eyes open, despite a suppression of background muscle activity. This nerve-specific effect of touch on the amplitude of the interlimb cutaneous reflexes suggests that touch sensory information from the median nerve was facilitated when that input was
Argash, Oz; Caspi, Opher
In recent years there has been an increase in the interest of cancer patients in receiving complementary medicine therapies as supportive measures to cure the disease. In response, medical units that combine conventional and complementary medicine (integrative medicine) have been established in leading cancer centers worldwide. In Israel, a special integrative medicine unit that combines mind-body, Chinese medicine, nutrition, herbs, supplements, and manual therapies (such as shiatsu) before, during and after conventional anti-cancer therapies has been established as an integral part of the Davidoff Comprehensive Cancer Center in 2006. Shiatsu represents a group of manual therapeutic techniques, including acupressure. Shiatsu offers cancer patients a non-pharmacologic method to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life throughout the course of illness. Research indicates that acupressure is relatively effective and safe for common cancer-related symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and insomnia. In our experience, shiatsu is also relatively effective and safe for other common symptoms such as fatigue, muscular pain and body image dissatisfaction. Yet, insufficient evidence exists to delineate the best means by which shiatsu and other manual therapies could or should be integrated into routine cancer care. The purpose of the present paper is to describe what is currently known about this topic in order to support decision-making that is based on facts, rather than on myths and misconceptions. We call for more research that examines the effectiveness and safety of shiatsu and other manual therapies in the care of cancer patients.
Stanfield, Staci A.
This exploratory case study was designed to investigate the implementation of an iPod touch pilot program in sixth grade science classrooms at an intermediate school in Southeast Texas. More specifically, this study explored the benefits and challenges associated with the utilization of iPod touch devices for students, teachers, and their campus…
Bendas, Johanna; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Ritschel, Gerhard; Olausson, Hakan; Weidner, Kerstin; Croy, Ilona
Background: Unmyelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptors-the so-called C-tactile (CT) afferents-play a crucial role in the perception and conduction of caressing and pleasant touch sensations and significantly contribute to the concept of erotic touch perception. Aim: To investigate the relations
Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.
Young children living in technology-based communities are using touch-screen tablets (e.g. iPads) to engage with the digital world at an early age. The intuitive touch-screen interface, easily downloadable apps (applications) and mobility of tablets drive their increasing popularity with pre-schoolers. This review examines research to date on…
Littmann, Karin; Petersen, Eva; Pussinen, Christel
. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the OneTouch Verio(®). Method. The OneTouch Verio(®) was evaluated by the Scandinavian evaluation of laboratory equipment for primary healthcare (SKUP) according to a protocol based on ISO 15197 and the American Diabetes...
Littman, Karin; Petersen, Eva R.B.; Pussinen, Christel
. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the OneTouch Verio®. Method. The OneTouch Verio® was evaluated by the Scandinavian evaluation of laboratory equipment for primary healthcare (SKUP) according to a protocol based on ISO 15197 and the American Diabetes Association...
Dowd, Therese; Kolcaba, Katharine; Steiner, Richard; Fashinpaur, Diane
Three nursing interventions to increase total comfort and reduce stress-related events in young college students experiencing stress were compared. Healing Touch, coaching, and a combination of both, were compared to a waitlist. On comfort and stress, Healing Touch had better immediate results, while coaching had better carryover effects.
Ellingsen, Ryleigh; Clinton, Elias
This manuscript reviews the empirical literature of the TouchMath© instructional program. The TouchMath© program is a commercial mathematics series that uses a dot notation system to provide multisensory instruction of computation skills. Using the program, students are taught to solve computational tasks in a multisensory manner that does not…
Given Kant's exceptionless moral prohibition on lying, one might suspect that he is committed to a similar prohibition on withholding diagnostic and prognostic information from patients. I confirm this suspicion by adapting arguments against therapeutic privilege from his arguments against lying. However, I show that all these arguments are importantly flawed and submit that they should be rejected. A more compelling Kantian take on informed consent and therapeutic privilege is achievable, I argue, by focusing on Kant's duty of beneficence, which requires us to aim at furthering others' ends. But I show that there are some cases in which furthering a patient's ends requires withholding material medical information from her. Although I concede that these cases are probably quite rare, I conclude that the best Kantian thinking agrees with that of therapeutic privilege's advocates.
Ju, Woo-Eon; Moon, Yong-Ju; Park, Cheon-Ho; Choi, Seung Tae
To provide tactile feedback on flexible touch screens, transparent relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrators were designed and fabricated in this study. The film vibrator can be integrated underneath a transparent cover film or glass, and can also produce acoustic waves that cause a tactile sensation on human fingertips. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)] polymer was used as the relaxor ferroelectric polymer because it produces a large strain under applied electric fields, shows a fast response, and has excellent optical transparency. The natural frequency of this tactile-feedback touch screen was designed to be around 200-240 Hz, at which the haptic perception of human fingertips is the most sensitive; therefore, the resonance of the touch screen at its natural frequency provides maximum haptic sensation. A multilayered relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrator was also demonstrated to provide the same vibration power at reduced voltage. The flexible P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) film vibrators developed in this study are expected to provide tactile sensation not only in large-area flat panel displays, but also in flexible displays and touch screens.
Liou, Daniel D.
This article intends to support the efforts of administrators, teachers, and community activists to center race, equity, and anti-deficit perspectives within the practice of school leadership. By drawing upon methods of critical race studies, and Du Bois's 1935 concept of the sympathetic touch, the author provides examples of anti-deficit…
The ability to identify visual cues that improve decision making and performance is beneficial for sport; however, after a thorough perusal, virtually no published information is available on visual training, decision making and touch rugby. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of visual cues and practice on ...
Ciampa, Katia; Gallagher, Tiffany L.
In this single-case study, we examined the perceived influence of school-wide Apple iPod Touch integration on student learning and engagement. Data collection consisted of elementary teacher and principal interviews, as well as parent surveys. Findings revealed that there was a marked shift in teachers' and students' perceived roles when the iPod…
The article examines the experience of participating in Contact Improvisation by male prisoners. It specifically focuses on issues of touch for this participant group and how inmates can learn different ways of acting from acquiring Contact skills, contributing to their rehabilitation. The paper looks at the culture in prisons that propagates a…
Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Maria, Ed.; Mavrou, Katerina, Ed.; Paparistodemou, Efi, Ed.
Despite increased interest in mobile devices as learning tools, the amount of available primary research studies on their integration into mathematics teaching and learning is still relatively small due to the novelty of these technologies. "Integrating Touch-Enabled and Mobile Devices into Contemporary Mathematics Education" presents…
Torres Peralta, Raquel
Multi-touch tablets allow users to interact with computers through intuitive, natural gestures and direct manipulation of digital objects. One advantage of these devices is that they can offer a large, collaborative space where several users can work on a task at the same time. However the lack of privacy in these situations makes standard…
Erp, J.B.F. van; Philippi, T.G.; Winkel, K.N. de; Werkhoven, P.
Pairing two brief auditory beeps with a single flash can evoke the percept of a second, illusory, flash. Investigations of the underlying neural mechanisms are limited to post-stimulus effects of this sound-induced illusory flash. We investigated whether touch modulates the visual evoked potential
Fujisaki, Waka; Tokita, Midori; Kariya, Kenji
Most research on the multimodal perception of material properties has investigated the perception of material properties of two modalities such as vision-touch, vision-audition, audition-touch, and vision-action. Here, we investigated whether the same affective classifications of materials can be found in three different modalities of vision, audition, and touch, using wood as the target object. Fifty participants took part in an experiment involving the three modalities of vision, audition, and touch, in isolation. Twenty-two different wood types including genuine, processed, and fake were perceptually evaluated using a questionnaire consisting of twenty-three items (12 perceptual and 11 affective). The results demonstrated that evaluations of the affective properties of wood were similar in all three modalities. The elements of "expensiveness, sturdiness, rareness, interestingness, and sophisticatedness" and "pleasantness, relaxed feelings, and liked-disliked" were separately grouped for all three senses. Our results suggest that the affective material properties of wood are at least partly represented in a supramodal fashion. Our results also suggest an association between perceptual and affective properties, which will be a useful tool not only in science, but also in applied fields. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
de Witte, M.
This article discusses the bodily mass reproduction of divine touch in Ghanaian charismatic Pentecostalism and argues for an understanding of conversion as an ongoing bodily process that 'tunes' the senses to specific sensory experiences. Presenting a case study of the International Central Gospel
Strijkers, R.J.; Muller, L.; Cristea, M.L.; Belleman, R.; de Laat, C.; Sloot, P.; Meijer, R.
This article introduces the Interactive Network concept and describes the design and implementation of the first prototype. In an Interactive Network humans become an integral part of the control system to manage programmable networks and grid networks. The implementation consists of a multi-touch
James, Jennifer Hauver
If educational research stemming from colleges of education is sometimes out of touch, scholarship engaged by school districts and state boards of education is often dangerous in its distant view but arms-length reach. Teaching and learning are enhanced when members of the school community engage in collective grounded efforts to make real change.…
Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn; Pavey, Amanda
Currently, there is a relative research lacuna in phenomenological research into the lived experience of motor neurone disease. Based on a sociological research project in the UK, involving 42 participants diagnosed with MND, this article explores the potential of a phenomenological sociology for analysing experiences of this drastically life-limiting neurological disorder. Calls have been made for sociological researchers to analyse more fully and deeply the sensory dimension of the lived body, and this article also contributes to this newly developing body of literature. While the social sciences have been accused of a high degree of ocularcentrism, here we take forward the literature by specifically focusing upon the haptic dimension, given that touch - and particularly the loss of key elements of the haptic dimension- emerged as salient in MND patients' accounts. To illustrate the potential of our phenomenologically inspired theoretical perspective, we consider two specific haptic themes: (i) being out of touch: the loss of certain forms of touch within MND and (ii) unwelcome touch by medical staff. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Presents an interview with Susan Lederman that contains a fascinating and informative overview of the recent developments in neuropsychological research concerning the sense of touch. Discusses the physiological processes that support this sensory experience and reveals them to be much more flexible, intricate, and adaptive than previously…
Nov 25, 2011 ... jective touch and objective thermometry have suggested that tactile ... use of one or more parts of the body. It has been re- ... Table 1: Predictive indices of palpation at different sites for fever. Sens = Sensitivity. Spec = Specificity. PPV = Positive Predictive Value. NPV = Negative Predictive Value. Of the 145 ...
White, Rebekah C; Weinberg, Jennifer L; Aimola Davies, Anne M
The self-touch illusion is elicited when the participant (with eyes closed) administers brushstrokes to a prosthetic hand while the examiner administers synchronous brushstrokes to the participant's other (receptive) hand. In three experiments we investigated the effects of misalignment on the self-touch illusion. In experiment 1 we manipulated alignment (0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, 135 degrees, 180 degrees) of the prosthetic hand relative to the participant's receptive hand. The illusion was equally strong at 0 degrees and 45 degrees: the two conditions in which the prosthetic hand was in an anatomically plausible orientation. To investigate whether the illusion was diminished at 90 degrees (and beyond) by anatomical implausibility rather than by misalignment, in experiment 2 hand positioning was changed. The illusion was equally strong at 0 degrees, 45 degrees, and 90 degrees, but diminished at 135 degrees despite the prosthetic hand now being in an anatomically plausible orientation. Thus the illusion is diminished with misalignment of 135 degrees, irrespective of anatomical plausibility. Having demonstrated that the illusion was equally strong with the hands aligned (0 degrees) or misaligned by 45 degrees, in experiment 3 we demonstrated that participants did not detect a 45 degrees misalignment. Large degrees of misalignment prevent a compelling experience of the self-touch illusion, and the self-touch illusion prevents detection of small degrees of misalignment.
Step 8 of the Ten Steps to Mother-Friendly Care encourages all mothers and families, including those with sick or premature newborns or infants with congenital problems, to touch, hold, breastfeed, and care for their babies to the extent compatible with their conditions. The rationales for compliance with the step and systematic review are presented. PMID:18523668
Nov 10, 2015 ... Abstract. Objectives: Touch imprint cytology (TIC) is a reliable, cost-effective technique for the diagnosis of cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value and accuracy of TIC of prostate core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens in predicting the final histology in patients with suspected ...
Objectives: Touch imprint cytology (TIC) is a reliable, cost-effective technique for the diagnosis of cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value and accuracy of TIC of prostate core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens in predicting the final histology in patients with suspected prostate cancer. Subjects and ...
Velstra, Inge-Marie; Bolliger, Marc; Baumberger, Michael; Rietman, Johan Swanik; Curt, Armin
Applied as a bedside test of gross dorsal column function, the testing of light touch (LT) sensation is of high clinical value in the diagnosis of human spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the assessment of overall dorsal column deficit by testing only LT may be limited, because the dorsal column
Nevile, Maurice Richard; Tuccio, William A.
We use video recordings from pilot training flights to show how instructors support attention of a student wearing ‘foggles’, a view-limiting device designed to train pilots to fly by reference only to the cockpit flight instruments. The instructors touch cockpit displays with a pointing finger, ...
Deutz, D.B.; Mascarenhas, N.T.; Schelen, J.B.J.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, P.
A highly sensitive, lead-free, and flexible piezoelectric touch sensor is reported based on composite films of alkaline niobate K0.485Na0.485Li0.03NbO3 (KNLN) powders aligned in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. KNLN powder is fabricated by solid-state sintering and consists of microcubes. The
Delleman, N.J.; Berndsen, M.B.
At a VDU workstation professional touch-typing operators worked at eight different combined adjustments of visual target height and chair backrest inclination. Working posture, workers' perceptions and work performance were measured. Two conclusions were drawn. First, in order to minimize the load
Yu, Lingyun; Svetachov, Pjotr; Isenberg, Petra; Everts, Maarten H.; Isenberg, Tobias
We present the design and evaluation of FI3D, a direct-touch data exploration technique for 3D visualization spaces. The exploration of three-dimensional data is core to many tasks and domains involving scientific visualizations. Thus, effective data navigation techniques are essential to enable
Piper, Heather; Garratt, Dean; Taylor, Bill
This text introduces recently completed research on "no touch" sports coaching, by placing it in a broader social context which problematises the way child abuse and child protection (or safeguarding) are conceived and discussed in terms of policy and practice. It also provides a brief indicative summary of the research findings and…
Dibbern, Simon; Rasmussen, Kasper Vestergaard; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel
In this paper we describe AcuTable, a new tangible user interface. AcuTable is a shapeable surface that employs capacitive touch sensors. The goal of AcuTable was to enable the exploration of the capabilities of such haptic interface and its applications. We describe its design and implementation...
Öhman, Marie; Quennerstedt, Ann
In this paper we question the rationality of "no-touch policies" and offer an alternative approach to the matter of physical contact between teachers and students in the context of physical education (PE) in schools. Earlier research has drawn attention to how a discourse of child protection is starting to affect how physical contact is…
Baron-Cohen, Simon; Robson, Emma; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Allison, Carrie
Research has linked Mirror-Touch (MT) synaesthesia with enhanced empathy. We test the largest sample of MT synaesthetes to date to examine two claims that have been previously made: that MT synaesthetes (1) have superior empathy; and (2) only ever experience their MT synaesthesia in response to viewing a person being touched. Given that autism has been suggested to involve deficits in cognitive empathy, we also test two predictions: that MT synaesthetes should (3) be less likely than general population individuals without MT synaesthesia to have an autism spectrum condition (ASC), if MT is characterized by superior empathy; and (4) have fewer autistic traits. We selected three groups: a pure MT synaesthesia group (N = 46), a pure grapheme-colour (GC) synaesthesia group (N = 36), and a typical control group without synaesthesia (N = 46). Participants took three measures of empathy and one measure of autistic traits. MT synaesthetes did not show enhanced empathy. In addition, 30% of all MT synaesthetes recruited into this study (N = 135) reported also having ASC, and MT synaesthetes showed higher autistic trait scores than controls. Finally, some MT experiences were reported in response to viewing objects being touched. Our findings dispute the views that MT synaesthesia is linked with enhanced empathy, is less likely to occur with ASC or elevated autistic traits, and is specific to seeing a person being touched. PMID:27490947
Full Text Available Research has linked Mirror-Touch (MT synaesthesia with enhanced empathy. We test the largest sample of MT synaesthetes to date to examine two claims that have been previously made: that MT synaesthetes (1 have superior empathy; and (2 only ever experience their MT synaesthesia in response to viewing a person being touched. Given that autism has been suggested to involve deficits in cognitive empathy, we also test two predictions: that MT synaesthetes should (3 be less likely than general population individuals without MT synaesthesia to have an autism spectrum condition (ASC, if MT is characterized by superior empathy; and (4 have fewer autistic traits. We selected three groups: a pure MT synaesthesia group (N = 46, a pure grapheme-colour (GC synaesthesia group (N = 36, and a typical control group without synaesthesia (N = 46. Participants took three measures of empathy and one measure of autistic traits. MT synaesthetes did not show enhanced empathy. In addition, 30% of all MT synaesthetes recruited into this study (N = 135 reported also having ASC, and MT synaesthetes showed higher autistic trait scores than controls. Finally, some MT experiences were reported in response to viewing objects being touched. Our findings dispute the views that MT synaesthesia is linked with enhanced empathy, is less likely to occur with ASC or elevated autistic traits, and is specific to seeing a person being touched.
We describe the use of Apple's iPod touch/iPhone, acting as the pendulum bob, as a means of measuring pendulum period, making use of the device's three-axis digital accelerometer and the freely available SPARKvue app from PASCO scientific. The method can be readily incorporated into an introductory physics laboratory experiment.…
Valeria I Petkova
Full Text Available Feeling touch on a body part is paradigmatically considered to require stimulation of tactile afferents from the body part in question, at least in healthy non-synaesthetic individuals. In contrast to this view, we report a perceptual illusion where people experience "phantom touches" on a right rubber hand when they see it brushed simultaneously with brushes applied to their left hand. Such illusory duplication and transfer of touch from the left to the right hand was only elicited when a homologous (i.e., left and right pair of hands was brushed in synchrony for an extended period of time. This stimulation caused the majority of our participants to perceive the right rubber hand as their own and to sense two distinct touches--one located on the right rubber hand and the other on their left (stimulated hand. This effect was supported by quantitative subjective reports in the form of questionnaires, behavioral data from a task in which participants pointed to the felt location of their right hand, and physiological evidence obtained by skin conductance responses when threatening the model hand. Our findings suggest that visual information augments subthreshold somatosensory responses in the ipsilateral hemisphere, thus producing a tactile experience from the non-stimulated body part. This finding is important because it reveals a new bilateral multisensory mechanism for tactile perception and limb ownership.
Cardini, Flavia; Haggard, Patrick; Ladavas, Elisabetta
We have investigated the relation between visuo-tactile interactions and the self-other distinction. In the Visual Enhancement of Touch (VET) effect, non-informative vision of one's own hand improves tactile spatial perception. Previous studies suggested that looking at "another"person's hand could also enhance tactile perception, but did not…
Allison, Leslie K; Kiemel, Tim; Jeka, John J
Unexplained falls in older adults are thought to arise from subtle deficits in multiple components of the postural control system, including peripheral sensory loss and central sensory processing. One commonly proposed central sensory processing deficit is a decline in the adaptive use of changing or conflicting sensory inputs for estimating body dynamics, i.e., multisensory reweighting. We examined the assumption of impaired multisensory reweighting in healthy and fall-prone older adults using quantitative methods that have previously demonstrated reweighting in young adults. Standing subjects were exposed to simultaneous medio-lateral oscillatory visual and fingertip touch inputs at varying relative amplitudes. No group differences in overall levels of vision and touch gain were found. Both healthy and fall-prone older adults demonstrated the same pattern of adaptive gain change as healthy young adults. Like the young adults, both elderly groups displayed clear evidence of intra- and inter-sensory reweighting to both vision and touch motion stimuli. These data suggest that, for small amplitude vision and touch stimuli, the central sensory reweighting adaptation process remains intact in healthy and fall-prone older adults with sufficiently intact peripheral sensation.
Davidsen, Jacob; Christiansen, Ellen Tove
the Embodied Interaction Analysis, we find that the constraints of single-touch screens offer support for intersubjective meaning making in their capacity of constraining the interaction. This “grain of sand” shows how children display and construct a shared work space through embodied interaction...
de Knegt, N.; Defrin, R.; Schuengel, C.; Lobbezoo, F.; Evenhuis, H.; Scherder, E.
The spinothalamic pathway mediates sensations of temperature, pain, and touch. These functions seem impaired in children with Down syndrome (DS), but have not been extensively examined in adults. The objective of the present study was to compare the spinothalamic-mediated sensory functions between
Nov 25, 2011 ... subjective impression of the mother is erroneous, there may be inappropriate investigation and exposure .... is usually the first method used to check for the presence or absence of fever in a child suspected to be .... the part of the body covered by clothing will likely feel warm to touch such that there is a high ...
Deutz, D.B.; Tempelman, E.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.
To enable the design of more intuitive product user interfaces, the prospects of matching piezoelectric touch sensors with flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology are investigated. Low stiffness piezoelectric composite sensors, combining piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 powder with a
Park, Jong Kang; Lee, Chang-Ju; Kim, Jong Tae
The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and driving levels of capacitive touch sensors determine the applicability of these sensors to thinner displays and sensor-integrated modules. The simultaneous driving technique has been widely applied to capacitive touch sensors to cope with various types of environmental noise. A Hadamard matrix has been used to determine the driving code and multiplex capacitive signals required to increase the SNR and responsivity of touch sensors. Using multi-level Hadamard matrices, a new driving technique for sensing concurrent capacitive elements across multiple rows of a touch panel was developed. The technique provides more effective design choices than the existing bipolar driving method by supporting a variety of orders of matrices and regular capacity. The required TX voltage can be reduced by applying the Kronecker product for higher orders of simultaneous driving. A system model is presented for multiplexing capacitive signals to extract the SNR of the existing Hadamard matrices as well as one of the proposed multi-level sequences. In addition, the corresponding multi-level drivers and receivers were implemented to verify the theoretical expectations and simulation results of the proposed technique.
Jameson, J. Matt; Thompson, Victoria; Manuele, Greg; Smith, Diane; Egan, Hannah; Moore, Tiffany
Media scholars have long recognized the interaction between the medium that conveys the information and the information that is conveyed. This study examined the relative impact of different low- and high-tech instructional mediums (e.g., flashcards and the iTouch) on the acquisition of general education content-referenced sight words and…
Jorritsma, Wiard; Prins, Jonatan T.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.
This study aimed to determine the most appropriate touch-based interaction technique for I2Vote, an image-based audience response system for radiology education in which users need to accurately mark a target on a medical image. Four plausible techniques were identified: land-on, take-off,
M S A Noman Ranak
Full Text Available Due to recent advancements and appealing applications, the purchase rate of smart devices is increasing at a higher rate. Parallely, the security related threats and attacks are also increasing at a greater ratio on these devices. As a result, a considerable number of attacks have been noted in the recent past. To resist these attacks, many password-based authentication schemes are proposed. However, most of these schemes are not screen size independent; whereas, smart devices come in different sizes. Specifically, they are not suitable for miniature smart devices due to the small screen size and/or lack of full sized keyboards. In this paper, we propose a new screen size independent password-based authentication scheme, which also offers an affordable defense against shoulder surfing, brute force, and smudge attacks. In the proposed scheme, the Press Touch (PT-a.k.a., Force Touch in Apple's MacBook, Apple Watch, ZTE's Axon 7 phone; 3D Touch in iPhone 6 and 7; and so on-is transformed into a new type of code, named Press Touch Code (PTC. We design and implement three variants of it, namely mono-PTC, multi-PTC, and multi-PTC with Grid, on the Android Operating System. An in-lab experiment and a comprehensive survey have been conducted on 105 participants to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Kim, Keehoon; Colgate, James Edward; Peshkin, Michael A.; Kuiken, Todd A.
Existing prosthetic limbs do not provide amputees with cutaneous feedback. Tactile feedback is essential to intuitive control of a prosthetic limb and it is now clear that the sense of body self-identification is also linked to cutaneous touch. Here we have created an artificial sense of touch for a prosthetic limb by coupling a pressure sensor on the hand through a robotic stimulator to surgically redirected cutaneous sensory nerves (targeted reinnervation) that once served the lost limb. We hypothesize that providing physiologically relevant cutaneous touch feedback may help an amputee incorporate an artificial limb into his or her self image. To investigate this we used a robotic touch interface coupled with a prosthetic limb and tested it with two targeted reinnervation amputees in a series of experiments fashioned after the Rubber Hand Illusion. Results from both subjective (self-reported) and objective (physiological) measures of embodiment (questionnaires, psychophysical temporal order judgements and residual limb temperature measurements) indicate that returning physiologically appropriate cutaneous feedback from a prosthetic limb drives a perceptual shift towards embodiment of the device for these amputees. Measurements provide evidence that the illusion created is vivid. We suggest that this may help amputees to more effectively incorporate an artificial limb into their self image, providing the possibility that a prosthesis becomes not only a tool, but also an integrated body part. PMID:21252109
Christensen, Mads Bock; Fisker, Martin; Topp, Kasper Steen Fischer
Tangible widgets are graspable physical objects that can be detected by a capacitive touch screen. These are used as an interaction method in the tablet game "Hover Wars", a 2-player competitive combat game. Hover Wars was designed to work mainly with tangible widgets and the affordances thereof ...... uncovers some advantages and disadvantages of using tangible widgets as an interaction method....
Ranak, M S A Noman; Azad, Saiful; Nor, Nur Nadiah Hanim Binti Mohd; Zamli, Kamal Z
Due to recent advancements and appealing applications, the purchase rate of smart devices is increasing at a higher rate. Parallely, the security related threats and attacks are also increasing at a greater ratio on these devices. As a result, a considerable number of attacks have been noted in the recent past. To resist these attacks, many password-based authentication schemes are proposed. However, most of these schemes are not screen size independent; whereas, smart devices come in different sizes. Specifically, they are not suitable for miniature smart devices due to the small screen size and/or lack of full sized keyboards. In this paper, we propose a new screen size independent password-based authentication scheme, which also offers an affordable defense against shoulder surfing, brute force, and smudge attacks. In the proposed scheme, the Press Touch (PT)-a.k.a., Force Touch in Apple's MacBook, Apple Watch, ZTE's Axon 7 phone; 3D Touch in iPhone 6 and 7; and so on-is transformed into a new type of code, named Press Touch Code (PTC). We design and implement three variants of it, namely mono-PTC, multi-PTC, and multi-PTC with Grid, on the Android Operating System. An in-lab experiment and a comprehensive survey have been conducted on 105 participants to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Punt, Marius M.; Stefels, Coen N.; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.; Dankelman, Jenny
The increasing amount of equipment used in the Operating Room ( OR) asks for ergonomical user interfaces. The aim of this study was to investigate in a pelvi-trainer setting the efficiency, reliability and user satisfaction of voice control, touch panel control and conventional manual control by an
Dai, Jingwen; Chung, Chi-Kit Ronald
We address how a human-computer interface with small device size, large display, and touch-input facility can be made possible by a mere projector and camera. The realization is through the use of a properly embedded structured light sensing scheme that enables a regular light-colored table surface to serve the dual roles of both a projection screen and a touch-sensitive display surface. A random binary pattern is employed to code structured light in pixel accuracy, which is embedded into the regular projection display in a way that the user perceives only regular display but not the structured pattern hidden in the display. With the projection display on the table surface being imaged by a camera, the observed image data, plus the known projection content, can work together to probe the 3-D workspace immediately above the table surface, like deciding if there is a finger present and if the finger touches the table surface, and if so, at what position on the table surface the contact is made. All the decisions hinge upon a careful calibration of the projector-camera-table surface system, intelligent segmentation of the hand in the image data, and exploitation of the homography mapping existing between the projector's display panel and the camera's image plane. Extensive experimentation including evaluation of the display quality, hand segmentation accuracy, touch detection accuracy, trajectory tracking accuracy, multitouch capability and system efficiency are shown to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed realization.
Biggs, Emma E; Meulders, Ann; Kaas, Amanda L; Goebel, R.; Vlaeyen, Johan W S
Fear of touch, due to allodynia and spontaneous pain, is not well-understood. Experimental methods to advance this topic are lacking, and therefore we propose a novel tactile conditioning paradigm. Seventy-six pain-free participants underwent acquisition in both a predictable and unpredictable pain
Feldman, Ruth; Keren, Miri; Gross-Rozval, Orna; Tyano, Sam
Objective: To examine mother and child's touch patterns in infant feeding disorders within a transactional framework. Method: Infants (aged 9-34 months) referred to a community-based clinic were diagnosed with feeding disorders (n = 20) or other primary disorder (n = 27) and were case matched with nonreferred controls (n = 47). Mother-child play…
Stronach, Ian; Piper, Heather
This article draws on data from a single element of a larger project which focused on the issue of "touching" between education and child care professionals and children in a number of settings. This case study looks at a school once internationally renowned as the exemplar of "free" schooling. The authors consider how the…
Klein, Tijmen; Gueniat, Florimond; Pastur, Luc; Vernier, Frederic; Isenberg, Tobias
We present an interaction design study of several non-overlapping direct-touch interaction widgets, postures, and bi-manual techniques to support the needs of scientists who are exploring a dataset. The final interaction design supports navigation/zoom, cutting plane interaction, a drilling
Hanson, E; Haas, C; Jucker, R; Ballantyne, J
In forensic casework analysis it is often necessary to attempt to obtain DNA profiles from microscopic amounts of biological material left behind by perpetrators of crime. The ability to obtain profiles from trace biological evidence is routinely demonstrated with so-called 'touch DNA' evidence, which is generally perceived to be the result of DNA obtained from shed skin cells transferred from donor to an object or person during physical contact. Although a genetic profile from trace biological evidence is routinely obtained, the tissue source of the profile is rarely known. This merely perpetuates the 'mystery' of the nature of 'touch DNA' evidence allowing the significance or meaningfulness of genetic profiles obtained from these samples to be challenged. Numerous reports state that the tissue source of origin of 'touch DNA' evidence cannot be determined due to the small amount of biological material present, while others conclude that the DNA profiles are obtained from shed skin cells (as opposed to, say, buccal epithelial cells present in saliva traces) without any scientific basis for this assertion. Proper identification of the biological material present might be crucial to the investigation and prosecution of a criminal offense and a misrepresentation of the nature of the evidence can have undue influence on the perception of the circumstance of the crime. Thus far, research has failed to provide forensic scientists with feasible, definitive methods to identify the tissue origin of 'touch DNA'. In the present work, we sought to identify novel highly specific and sensitive messenger RNA (mRNA) biomarkers for the identification of skin. Gene candidates were identified using both literature searches and whole transcriptome deep sequencing (RNA-Seq). Utilizing this dual approach, we identified and evaluated over 100 gene candidates. Five mRNA markers were identified that demonstrated a high degree of specificity for skin. Using these markers, we have been able
Full Text Available Lymphedema is a disorder of the lymphatic vascular system characterized by impaired lymphatic return and swelling of the extremities. Lymphedema is divided into primary and secondary forms based on the underlying etiology. Despite substantial advances in both surgical and conservative techniques, therapeutic options for the management of lymphedema are limited. Although rarely lethal, lymphedema is a disfiguring and disabling condition with an associated decrease in the quality of life. The recent impressive expansion of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms governing lymphangiogenesis provides new possibilities for the treatment of lymphedema. This review highlights the lymphatic biology, the pathophysiology of lymphedema, and the therapeutic lymphangiogenesis using hepatocyte growth factor.
Sobell, Jeffrey M; Leonardi, Craig L
Advances in molecular biology have provided the basis for development of new therapeutic approaches to psoriasis. New, more effective therapies target specific molecules in the inflammatory cascade involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.The biologic era of psoriasis therapy began with inhibitors of T-cell activation, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin (IL)-12/23. Continued investigation has led to therapies and therapeutic candidates that target IL-17, IL-23, phosphodiesterase-4, and isomers of Janus kinase. 2014 by Frontline Medical Communications Inc.
Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...
Ishigaki, Tomoya; Ueta, Kozo; Imai, Ryota; Morioka, Shu
In human postural control, touching a fingertip to a stable object with a slight force (postural sway independent of mechanical support, which is referred to as the effect of light touch (LT effect). The LT effect is achieved by the spatial orientation according to haptic feedback acquired from an external spatial reference. However, the neural mechanism of the LT effect is incompletely understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to employ EEG frequency analysis to investigate the cortical brain activity associated with the LT effect when attentional focus was strictly controlled with the eyes closed during standing (i.e., control, fixed-point touch, sway-referenced touch, and only fingertip attention). We used EEG to measure low-alpha (about 8-10 Hz) and high-alpha rhythm (about 10-12 Hz) task-related power decrease/increase (TRPD/TRPI). The LT effect was apparent only when the subject acquired the stable external spatial reference (i.e., fixed-point touch). Furthermore, the LT-specific effect increased the high-alpha TRPD of two electrodes (C3, P3), which were mainly projected from cortical brain activities of the left primary sensorimotor cortex area and left posterior parietal cortex area. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between the LT effect and increased TRPD of C3. In contrast, the LT effect correlated positively with increased TRPD of P3. These results suggest that central and parietal high-alpha TRPD of the contralateral hemisphere reflects the sensorimotor information processing and sensory integration for the LT effect. These novel findings reveal a partial contribution of a cortical neural mechanism for the LT effect.
Full Text Available Background: Intra operative cytology (IC, including touch imprint (TI and crash preparations (CP, in general has been demonstrated to be a diagnostic tool for many organs but its validity and reliability for diagnosis of thyroid nodules remain controversial. We evaluate the diagnostic value of frozen section, touch imprint, crash preparation and the combination of touch imprint and crash preparation and the combination of frozen section, touch imprint and crash preparation. Materials ans Methods : 55 intra operative specimens from patients with thyroid nodules who underwent thyroidectomy were evaluated at Alzahra and vali-Asr hospital laboratories. For all of the patients frozen section (FS, touch imprint (TI and crash preparation (CP was obtained and reviewed by two pathologists at the same time. Serial TI and CP, and FS, TI and CP were reviewed by the same pathologists. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and accuracy were calculated according to the permanent section as the gold standard test. Results: In our study sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for FS was 100%, 97.6% and 98.1% respectively; for TI they were 78.6%, 95% and 92.4%; for CP they were 78.6%, 92.7% and 89.9%; for serial TI and CP they were 85.7%, 92.7% and 90.9%; and for the combination of FS and TI and CP they were 100%, 97.6% and 98.18% respectively. Conclusions: Intra operative cytology (including TI and CP seems to be a useful, valuable and inexpensive method in clinics, which do not have equipment for frozen sections. Intra operative cytology combined with FS increased the overall accuracy of diagnosis. Further studies are needed to validate the obtained results of this study.
Galinsky, Adena M
Little is known about the non-genitally-focused sexual behavior of those experiencing sexual difficulties. The objective of this study was to review the theory supporting a link between sexual touching and difficulties with sexual arousal and orgasm, and to examine associations between these constructs among older adults in the United States. The data were from the 2005-2006 National Social Life Health and Aging Project, which surveyed 3,005 community-dwelling men and women ages 57-85 years. The 1,352 participants who had had sex in the past year reported on their frequency of sexual touching and whether there had been a period of several months or more in the past year when they were unable to climax, had trouble getting or maintaining an erection (men) or had trouble lubricating (women). Women also reported how often they felt sexually aroused during partner sex in the last 12 months. The odds of being unable to climax were greater by 2.4 times (95% CI 1.2-4.8) among men and 2.8 times (95% CI 1.4-5.5) among women who sometimes, rarely or never engaged in sexual touching, compared to those who always engaged in sexual touching, controlling for demographic factors and physical health. These results were attenuated but persisted after controlling for emotional relationship satisfaction and psychological factors. Similar results were obtained for erectile difficulties among men and subjective arousal difficulties among women, but not lubrication difficulties among women. Infrequent sexual touching is associated with arousal and orgasm difficulties among older adults in the United States.
Full Text Available In natural habitats plants can be exposed to brief and light contact with neighbouring plants. This mechanical stimulus may represent a cue that induces responses to nearby plants. However, little is known about the effect of touching on plant growth and interaction with insect herbivores. To simulate contact between plants, a soft brush was used to apply light and brief mechanical stimuli to terminal leaves of potato Solanum tuberosum L. The number of non-glandular trichomes on the leaf surface was counted on images made by light microscope while glandular trichomes and pavement cells were counted on images made under scanning electronic microscope. Volatile compounds were identified and quantified using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Treated plants changed their pattern of biomass distribution; they had lower stem mass fraction and higher branch and leaf mass fraction than untouched plants. Size, weight and number of tubers were not significantly affected. Touching did not cause trichome damage nor change their total number on touched terminal leaves. However, on primary leaves the number of glandular trichomes and pavement cells was significantly increased. Touching altered the volatile emission of treated plants; they released higher quantities of the sesquiterpenes (E-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D-4-ol and (E-nerolidol, and lower quantities of the terpenes (E-ocimene and linalool, indicating a systemic effect of the treatment. The odour of touched plants was significantly less preferred by the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae compared to odour of untouched plants. The results suggest that light contact may have a potential role in the detection of neighbouring plants and may affect plant-insect interactions.
Farash, Katherine; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack
DNA profiles can be obtained from 'touch DNA' evidence, which comprises microscopic traces of human biological material. Current methods for the recovery of trace DNA employ cotton swabs or adhesive tape to sample an area of interest. However, such a 'blind-swabbing' approach will co-sample cellular material from the different individuals, even if the individuals' cells are located in geographically distinct locations on the item. Thus, some of the DNA mixtures encountered in touch DNA samples are artificially created by the swabbing itself. In some instances, a victim's DNA may be found in significant excess thus masking any potential perpetrator's DNA. In order to circumvent the challenges with standard recovery and analysis methods, we have developed a lower cost, 'smart analysis' method that results in enhanced genetic analysis of touch DNA evidence. We describe an optimized and efficient micromanipulation recovery strategy for the collection of bio-particles present in touch DNA samples, as well as an enhanced amplification strategy involving a one-step 5 µl microvolume lysis/STR amplification to permit the recovery of STR profiles from the bio-particle donor(s). The use of individual or few (i.e., "clumps") bioparticles results in the ability to obtain single source profiles. These procedures represent alternative enhanced techniques for the isolation and analysis of single bioparticles from forensic touch DNA evidence. While not necessary in every forensic investigation, the method could be highly beneficial for the recovery of a single source perpetrator DNA profile in cases involving physical assault (e.g., strangulation) that may not be possible using standard analysis techniques. Additionally, the strategies developed here offer an opportunity to obtain genetic information at the single cell level from a variety of other non-forensic trace biological material.
Choi, Kup-Sze; Chan, Tak-Yin
To investigate the feasibility of using tablet device as user interface for students with upper extremity disabilities to input mathematics efficiently into computer. A touch-input system using tablet device as user interface was proposed to assist these students to write mathematics. User-switchable and context-specific keyboard layouts were designed to streamline the input process. The system could be integrated with conventional computer systems only with minor software setup. A two-week pre-post test study involving five participants was conducted to evaluate the performance of the system and collect user feedback. The mathematics input efficiency of the participants was found to improve during the experiment sessions. In particular, their performance in entering trigonometric expressions by using the touch-input system was significantly better than that by using conventional mathematics editing software with keyboard and mouse. The participants rated the touch-input system positively and were confident that they could operate at ease with more practice. The proposed touch-input system provides a convenient way for the students with hand impairment to write mathematics and has the potential to facilitate their mathematics learning. Implications for Rehabilitation Students with upper extremity disabilities often face barriers to learning mathematics which is largely based on handwriting. Conventional computer user interfaces are inefficient for them to input mathematics into computer. A touch-input system with context-specific and user-switchable keyboard layouts was designed to improve the efficiency of mathematics input. Experimental results and user feedback suggested that the system has the potential to facilitate mathematics learning for the students.
During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…
Lin, Ken; Roosinovich, Elena; Ma, Barbara; Hung, Chien-Fu
It is now well established that most cervical cancers are causally associated with HPV infection. This realization has led to efforts to control HPV-associated malignancy through prevention or treatment of HPV infection. Currently, commercially available HPV vaccines are not designed to control established HPV infection and associated premalignant and malignant lesions. To treat and eradicate pre-existing HPV infections and associated lesions which remain prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, effective therapeutic HPV vaccines are needed. DNA vaccination has emerged as a particularly promising form of therapeutic HPV vaccines due to its safety, stability and ability to induce antigen-specific immunity. This review focuses on improving the potency of therapeutic HPV vaccines through modification of dendritic cells (DCs) by  increasing the number of antigen-expressing/antigen-loaded DCs,  improving HPV antigen expression, processing and presentation in DCs, and  enhancing DC and T cell interaction. Continued improvement in therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines may ultimately lead to an effective DNA vaccine for the treatment of HPV-associated malignancies. PMID:20066511
Ross, Kirsty M.; Pye, Rachel E.; Randell, Jordan
Touch screen storybooks turn reading into an interactive multimedia experience, with hotspot-activated animations, sound effects, and games. Positive and negative effects of reading multimedia stories have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms which explain how children’s learning is affected remain uncertain. The present study examined the effect of storybook format (touch screen and print) on story comprehension, and considered how level of touch screen interactivity (high and low) and shared reading behaviors (cognitive and emotional scaffolding, emotional engagement) might contribute to comprehension. Seven-year-olds (n = 22) were observed reading one touch screen storybook and one print storybook with their mothers. Story comprehension was inferior for the touch screen storybooks compared to the print formats. Touch screen interactivity level had no significant effect on comprehension but did affect shared reading behaviors. The mother–child dyads spent less time talking about the story in the highly interactive touch screen condition, despite longer shared reading sessions because of touch screen interactions. Positive emotional engagement was greater for children and mothers in the highly interactive touch screen condition, due to additional positive emotions expressed during touch screen interactions. Negative emotional engagement was greater for children when reading and talking about the story in the highly interactive condition, and some mothers demonstrated negative emotional engagement with the touch screen activities. The less interactive touch screen storybook had little effect on shared reading behaviors, but mothers controlling behaviors were more frequent. Storybook format had no effect on the frequency of mothers’ cognitive scaffolding behaviors (comprehension questions, word help). Relationships between comprehension and shared reading behaviors were examined for each storybook, and although length of the shared reading session and
Kirsty Mhairi Ross
Full Text Available Touch screen storybooks turn reading into an interactive multimedia experience, with hotspot-activated animations, sound effects, and games. Positive and negative effects of reading multimedia stories have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms which explain how children’s learning is affected remain uncertain. The present study examined the effect of storybook format (touch screen and print on story comprehension, and considered how level of touch screen interactivity (high and low and shared reading behaviors (cognitive and emotional scaffolding, emotional engagement might contribute to comprehension. Seven-year-olds (n = 22 were observed reading one touch screen storybook and one print storybook with their mothers. Story comprehension was inferior for the touch screen storybooks compared to the print versions. Touch screen interactivity had no significant effect on comprehension but did affect shared reading behaviors. The mother-child dyads spent less time talking about the story in the highly interactive touch screen condition, despite longer shared reading sessions because of touch screen interactions. Positive emotional engagement was greater for children and mothers in the highly interactive touch screen condition, due to additional positive emotions expressed during touch screen interactions. Negative emotional engagement was greater for children when reading and talking about the story in the highly interactive condition, and some mothers demonstrated negative emotional engagement with the touch screen activities. The less interactive touch screen storybook had little effect on shared reading behaviors, but mothers controlling behaviors were more frequent. Storybook format had no effect on the frequency of mothers’ cognitive scaffolding behaviors (comprehension questions, word help. Relationships between comprehension and shared reading behaviors were examined for each storybook, and length of the shared reading session and
Valter Afonso Vieira
Full Text Available Some people cannot buy products without first touching them, believing that doing so will create more assurance and information and reduce uncertainty. The international consumer marketing literature suggests an instrument to measure consumers' necessity for pohysical contact, called Need for Touch (NFT. This paper analyzes whether the Need for Touch structure is empirically consistent. Based on a literature review, we suggest six hypotheses in order to assess the nomological, convergent, and discriminant validity of the phenomenon. Departing from these, data supported four assumptions in the predicted direction. Need for Touch was associated with Need for Input and with Need for Cognition. Need for Touch was not associated with traditional marketing channels. The results also showed the dual characterization of Need for Touch as a bi-dimensional construct. The moderator effect indicated that when the consumer has a higher (vs. lower Need for Touch autotelic score, the experiential motivation for shopping played a more (vs. less important role in impulsive motivation. Our Study 3 supports the NFT structure and shows new associations with the need for unique products and dependent decisions.
Laura Clara Grandi
Full Text Available Affective touch plays a key role in affiliative behavior, offering a mechanism for the formation and maintenance of social bonds among conspecifics, both in humans and non-human primates. Furthermore, it has been speculated that the CT fiber system is a specific coding channel for affiliative touch that occurs during skin-to-skin interactions with conspecifics. In humans, this touch is commonly referred to as the caress, and its correlation with the CT fiber system has been widely demonstrated. It has been hypothesized that the sweeping touch that occurs during grooming in non-human primates may modulate the CT fibers, with recent preliminary studies on rhesus monkeys supporting this hypothesis. The present mini-review proposes a comparison between the pleasant touch, caress and sweeping of humans and non-human primates, respectively. The currently available data was therefore reviewed regarding i the correlation between pleasant touch and CT fibers both in humans and non-human primates, ii the autonomic effects, iii the encoding at the central nervous system, iv the development from early life to adulthood, and v the potential applications of pleasant touch in the daily lives of both humans and non-human primates. Moreover, by considering both the similarities and discrepancies between the human caress and non-human primate sweeping, a possible evolutionary mechanism can be proposed that has developed from sweeping as a utilitarian action with affiliative meaning among monkeys, to the caress as a purely affective gesture associated with humans.
Henricson, Maria; Segesten, Kerstin; Berglund, Anna-Lena; Määttä, Sylvia
Touch has been a part of the healing process in many civilisations and cultures throughout the centuries. Nurses frequently use touch to provide comfort and reach their patients. The aim of this study was to illuminate the meaning of receiving tactile touch when being cared for in an intensive care unit. Tactile touch is a complementary method including the use of effleurage, which means soft stroking movements along the body. The context used to illuminate the meaning of receiving tactile touch was two general intensive care units (ICUs). Six patients, who have been cared for in the two ICUs, participated in the study. A phenomenological-hermeneutical method based on the philosophy of Ricoeur and developed for nursing research by Lindseth and Norberg [Lindseth A, Norberg A. A phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experience. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 2004;18:145-53] was chosen for the analysis. Data consisted of narratives, which were analysed in three recurring phases: naïve understanding, structural analyses and comprehensive understanding. Two main themes were found: being connected to oneself and being unable to gain and maintain pleasure. The comprehensive understanding of receiving tactile touch during intensive care seems to be an expression of enjoying tactile touch and gaining hope for the future. This study reveals that it is possible to experience moments of pleasure in the midst of being a severely ill patient at an ICU and, through this experience also gain hope.
Sanjo, Y; Yokoyama, T; Sato, S; Ikeda, K; Nakajima, R
To develop an ergonomically designed computerized recordkeeping tool for anesthesiologists that allows the clinician to maintain visual contact with the patient while performing recordkeeping. To simplify the human interface software, we developed two general use software components. All purpose menu type 1 (APM1) was used for entering events using a tree structured menu. APM1 was designed to adapt to the limits of human memory, by using Miller's rule of 7 to guide the input process. APM1 can be considered to be a three-dimensional table list consisting of 7 vertical and 7 horizontal choices, which has further 5 tree-structured divergences. APM1 is also completely configurable by the user. All purpose menu 2 (APM2) was used to implement the system-initiated human interface where the system will prompt the user by voice for each entry. When users touch a key on APM1 and APM2, the system was designed to respond with a voice prompt. A touch-screen was also utilized and designed to fit the anesthesia machine. The screen is equipped with a small speaker for voice response and a microphone for voice recognition. The positions of the screen are adjustable supported by a long flexible limb (85 cm). After improving the design, systems were assembled for 10 operating rooms. Of the multiple features of the VOCAAR user interface, the following were well accepted by users and employed daily: touch-screen input, and voice response. The noncompulsory use rate was 87% during the initial 2 weeks, increased to 94% after 2 weeks and 100% after two months. The mean sound emission by voice response (n = 10, mean +/- SD) was 8.2 +/- 2.3 dB at the main anesthetist site (35 cm from the speaker mounted on the touch-screen), 2.2 +/- 1.3 dB at the staff site (1.5 m from the touch-screen), which was only audible for anesthesiologist but for surgeon. An EARK system was designed to allow the user to maintain visual contact with the patient while performing recordkeeping tasks. The combination
Garrison Sheldon R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell disease (SCD is associated with both acute vaso-occlusive painful events as well as chronic pain syndromes, including heightened sensitivity to touch. We have previously shown that mice with severe SCD (HbSS mice; express 100% human sickle hemoglobin in red blood cells; RBCs have sensitized nociceptors, which contribute to increased mechanical sensitivity. Yet, the hypersensitivity in these neural populations alone may not fully explain the mechanical allodynia phenotype in mouse and humans. Findings Using the Light Touch Behavioral Assay, we found HbSS mice exhibited increased responses to repeated application of both innocuous punctate and dynamic force compared to control HbAA mice (100% normal human hemoglobin. HbSS mice exhibited a 2-fold increase in percent response to a 0.7mN von Frey monofilament when compared to control HbAA mice. Moreover, HbSS mice exhibited a 1.7-fold increase in percent response to the dynamic light touch “puffed” cotton swab stimulus. We further investigated the mechanisms that drive this behavioral phenotype by focusing on the cutaneous sensory neurons that primarily transduce innocuous, light touch. Low threshold cutaneous afferents from HbSS mice exhibited sensitization to mechanical stimuli that manifested as an increase in the number of evoked action potentials to suprathreshold force. Rapidly adapting (RA Aβ and Aδ D-hair fibers showed the greatest sensitization, each with a 75% increase in suprathreshold firing compared to controls. Slowly adapting (SA Aβ afferents had a 25% increase in suprathreshold firing compared to HbAA controls. Conclusions These novel findings demonstrate mice with severe SCD exhibit mechanical allodynia to both punctate and dynamic light touch and suggest that this behavioral phenotype may be mediated in part by the sensitization of light touch cutaneous afferent fibers to suprathreshold force. These findings indicate that Aβ fibers can be
Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro
One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers. PMID:26264836
Trier, Sofie; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Jensen, Simon Bjerregaard
Oral administration of therapeutic peptides could benefit millions of chronically ill people worldwide, through easier and less stigmatized therapy, and likely improve the long-term effects of currently widespread disease mismanagement. However, oral peptide delivery is a formidable task due......, but it is not widely studied in an oral context. As acylation furthermore increases interactions with the lipid membranes of mammalian cells, it offers several potential benefits for oral delivery of therapeutic peptides, and we hypothesize that tailoring the acylation may be used to optimize intestinal translocation...... to the harsh and selective gastrointestinal system, and development has lacked far behind injection therapy. Peptide acylation is a powerful tool to alter the pharmacokinetics, biophysical properties and chemical stability of injectable peptide drugs, primarily used to prolong blood circulation...
de Vries, Kay; Green, Anita J
Therapeutic cannabis use raises a number of dilemmas for nurses. This article examines the legal, political and ethical challenges raised by the use of cannabis by people with life-limiting or terminal illnesses in their own homes. (Throughout this paper, the term cannabis refers to illegal cannabis unless specified.) A literature review of databases from 1996 was conducted and internet material was also examined. Evidence on the therapeutic use of cannabis suggests it may produce improvements in quality of life, which has led to increased use among people with life-limiting illnesses. The cannabis used is usually obtained illegally, which can have consequences for both those who use it and nurses who provide treatment in the community.
Abdualkader, A. M.; A M Ghawi; Alaama, M.; M. Awang; A Merzouk
Hematophagous animals including leeches have been known to possess biologically active compounds in their secretions, especially in their saliva. The blood-sucking annelids, leeches have been used for therapeutic purposes since the beginning of civilization. Ancient Egyptian, Indian, Greek and Arab physicians used leeches for a wide range of diseases starting from the conventional use for bleeding to systemic ailments, such as skin diseases, nervous system abnormalities, urinary and reproduct...
Zhu Rui; Li Zhongzhe
Touch-screen smart phones have gradually occupied the market of traditional Qwerty Phones and become the mainstream products of mobile phone industry. However, few ergonomics research has been conducted on the touch screens of smart phones, while it has led to tendosynovitis among users owing to the overuse of thumbs. Sizes of smart phones in market range from 3.0 to 7.0 inches. What’s more, 4.0 inches and above are the common size of current touch screens. Also, considering the users’ habits...
Cabibihan, John-John; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; 10.1186/1743-0003-8-16
Prosthetic arms and hands that can be controlled by the user's electromyography (EMG) signals are emerging. Eventually, these advanced prosthetic devices will be expected to touch and be touched by other people. As realistic as they may look, the currently available prosthetic hands have physical properties that are still far from the characteristics of human skins because they are much stiffer. In this paper, different configurations of synthetic finger phalanges have been investigated for their skin compliance behaviour and have been compared with the phalanges of the human fingers and a phalanx from a commercially available prosthetic hand. Handshake tests were performed to identify which areas on the human hand experience high contact forces. After these areas were determined, experiments were done on selected areas using an indenting probe to obtain the force-displacement curves. Finite element simulations were used to compare the force-displacement results of the synthetic finger phalanx designs with th...
Kang, Hwayeong; Shin, Gwanseob
Touchscreen interfaces for computers are known to cause greater physical stress compared to traditional computer interfaces. The objective of this study was to evaluate how physical demands and task performance of a tap gesture on a computer touchscreen vary between target locations and display positions. Twenty-three healthy participants conducted reach-tap-return trials with touch targets at fifteen locations in three display positions. Mean completion time, touch accuracy and electromyography of the shoulder and neck extensor muscles were compared between the target locations and display positions. The results demonstrated that participants completed the trial 12%-27% faster with 13%-39% less muscle activity when interacting with targets in the lower area of the display compared to when tapping upper targets (p findings suggest that proper target placement and display positioning can improve task performance and lessen physical demands of computer touchscreen interface use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xu, Chao; Zhou, Dongxiang; Liu, Yunhui
Touching Mycobacterium tuberculosis objects in the Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images present different shapes and invisible boundaries in the adhesion areas, which increases the difficulty in objects recognition and counting. In this paper, we present a segmentation method of combining the hierarchy tree analysis with gradient vector flow snake to address this problem. The skeletons of the objects are used for structure analysis based on the hierarchy tree. The gradient vector flow snake is used to estimate the object edge. Experimental results show that the single objects composing the touching objects are successfully segmented by the proposed method. This work will improve the accuracy and practicability of the computer-aided diagnosis of tuberculosis.
Ittyerah, Miriam; Marks, Lawrence E.
A total of 60 subjects, 20 in each experimental condition, gave ‘same-different’ judgments to pairs of stimuli differing in radius of curvature. Stimuli were presented intramodally to vision, intramodally to haptic touch, and cross-modally to vision and haptic touch. Results showed that performance, quantified by the measure d’, differed among the three modality conditions, being best in vision and poorest in haptics, with cross-modal performance falling roughly mid-way between. Unimodal visual performance exceeded cross-modal performance by about one d’ unit, and cross-modal performance similarly exceeded unimodal haptic performance by about one d’ unit. The study reveals the relative differences in the discrimination of curvatures of objects in vision and haptics. PMID:18504512