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Sample records for theileriosis

  1. Seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China

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    Yaqiong Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine theileriosis is a common disease transmitted by ticks, and can cause loss of beef and dairy cattle worldwide. Here, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA based on Theileria luwenshuni surface protein (TlSP was developed and used to carry out a seroepidemiological survey of bovine theileriosis in northern China. Methods We used the BugBuster Ni-NTA His•Bind Purification Kit to purify recombinant TlSP (rTlSP, which was subsequently analyzed by Western Blotting to evaluate cross-reactivity with other pathogen-positive sera. The iELISA method based on rTlSP was successfully developed. Sera from 2005 blood samples were tested with the rTlSP-iELISA method, and blood smears from these samples were observed by microscopy. Results The specificity of iELISA was 98.9%, the sensitivity was 98.5%, and the cut-off was selected as 24.6%. Western Blot analysis of rTlSP confirmed that there were cross-reactions with Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Theileria ovis, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. The epidemiological survey showed that the highest positive rate of bovine theileriosis was 98.3%, the lowest rate was 84.1%, and the average positive rate was 95.4% by iELISA. With microscopy, the highest positive rate was 38.9%, the lowest rate was 5.1%, and the relative average positive rate was 13.7%. Conclusions An rTlSP-iELISA was developed to detect circulating antibodies against bovine Theileria in northern China. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China, and it also provides seroepidemiological data on bovine theileriosis in China.

  2. Prevalence of carrier state theileriosis in lactating cows

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    Niranjana Sahoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to examine the carrier status of theileriosis among apparently healthy cross-bred jersey cattle population of Odisha using conventional blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 apparently healthy cross-bred Jersey lactating cows were considered in this study. Blood samples were subjected to microscopic examination after staining with Giemsa stain and PCR based molecular diagnosis using two sets of primer, i.e., N516/N517 and TorF1/TorF2 specific for Theileria annulata and Theileria orientalis, respectively. Results: Examination of blood samples revealed presence of theileria parasites to a magnitude of 20.59% for T. annulata, 8.82% for T. orientalis, and 2.94% for both. Conclusion: Molecular diagnosis was found to be much more sensitive than conventional method for diagnosis of theileriosis. T. annulata was found to be the predominant species affecting the exotic cattle. T. orientalis was detected in apparently healthy cows.

  3. Control of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection) of cattle.

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    Brown, C G

    1990-04-01

    Tropical bovine theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata and transmitted by ticks of the genus Hyalomma may be controlled by one or more of the following methods: i) management, with particular emphasis on movement control; ii) vector control by application of acaricides, preventing transmission of disease; iii) treatment of clinical disease using specific chemotherapeutics; iv) immunization with live vaccines; and v) the use of cattle resistant to ticks or the disease. Of these the most important and effective control method is the use of a live cell culture vaccine attenuated by prolonged culture in vitro of mononuclear cells persistently infected with macroschizonts of T. annulata. This vaccine, used chiefly in susceptible taurine dairy cattle, can now be complemented by using novel chemotherapeutic naphthoquinones--parvaquone and buparvaquone--which are very effective in treatment of the clinical disease in these valuable cattle.

  4. Serum Levels of Zinc, Copper and Their Carrier Proteins in Cattle with theileriosis

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    M Fartashvand

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 90 cattle with theileriosis and 90 healthy cattle were studied based on clinical and laboratory examination including parasitological and biochemical tests. Special biochemical kits were used for determination of zinc, copper, albumin, calcium, magnesium and ferrous levels in sera. Serum levels of transferin and ceruloplasmin were measured with ELISA and Sunderman & Nomoto method, respectively. The serum level of zinc was significantly decreased in cattle suffering from theileriosis (p

  5. Status of theileriosis among herbivores in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Masoud Soosaraei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Theileriosis is a protozoal disease caused by Theileria spp. mostly in warm-blooded vertebrates worldwide. It is one of the common tick-borne diseases among domestic animals in tropical and sub-tropical regions, which have a variety of unlikable effects on health economy and animal welfare. In the present study, the prevalence of theileriosis among domestic farm animals in Iran was systematically evaluated. Methods: To identify the related papers, 10 English and Persian databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Medical Subject Headings, Google Scholar, Magiran, Barakatns (formerly Iranmedex, Elm net, and Scientific Information Database, were appraised for articles published throughout 1999-2017. Results: A total of 56 papers, providing the examination of 11,317 cattle, 9394 sheep, 2991 buffaloes, 1504 horses, 600 goats, and 212 donkeys were analyzed, matching for the prevalence of theileriosis from different parts of Iran were permitted for our allowing checklist. The overall prevalence of theileriosis among domestic herbivores was expected to be 19% (95% confidence interval: 15%, 22%. Our findings highlighted the average of the maximum prevalence in Razavi Khorasan (60.4% and West Azerbaijan (49.1% and the minimum in Mazandaran (1.1% and East Azerbaijan provinces (2.2%, respectively. The high prevalence of Theileria infection in the herbivores (mainly sheep verifies the well-known enzootic episode of theileriosis in Iran, predominantly in northeastern and western parts of the country. Conclusion: Our results suggested updated and imperative information on the true burden of theileriosis in Iran. Moreover, it could be supporting the gaps among monitoring, prevention, and control arrangements to improve the health economy, particularly among dairy farm animals.

  6. Temporal and spatial patterns of theileriosis in Zimbabwe: 2000-2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The communal areas recorded the highest number of cases (31%), whilst the resettlement areas had the lowest reported cases (10%), though the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Evidence from this study suggest theileriosis is spreading to most parts of the country thus improved availability of acaricides to enable ...

  7. Theileriosis in six dogs in South Africa and its potential clinical significance

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    Chantal T. Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by a piroplasma of the genus Theileria that can causeanaemia and thrombocytopenia. Its clinical importance for dogs’ remains poorly understood,as only some develop clinical signs. In this study, physical and laboratory findings, treatment and outcomes of six client-owned diseased dogs presented at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital are described retrospectively. In the dogs, Theileria species (n = 4and Theileria equi (n = 2 were detected by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-reverse blothybridisation assay in blood samples, whilst PCR for Babesia, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia were negative. The most common physical findings were pale mucous membranes (five out of six dogs, bleeding tendencies (five out of six dogs and lethargy (three out of six dogs. All dogs were thrombocytopenic [median 59.5 x 109/L (range 13–199] and five out of six dogs were anaemic [median haematocrit 18% (range 5–32]. Bone marrow core biopsies performed in two dogs showed myelofibrosis. Theileriosis was treated with imidocarb dipropionate and the suspected secondary immune-mediated haematological disorders with prednisolone and azathioprine. Five dogs achieved clinical cure and post-treatment PCR performed in three out of five dogs confirmed absence of circulating parasitaemia. An immune-mediated response to Theileria species is thought to result in anaemia and/or thrombocytopenia in diseased dogs with theileriosis. A bleeding tendency, most likely secondary to thrombocytopenia and/or thrombocytopathy, was the most significant clinical finding in these cases. The link between thrombocytopenia, anaemia and myelofibrosis in theileriosis requires further investigation and theileriosis should be considered a differential diagnosis for dogs presenting with anaemia and/or thrombocytopenia in endemic tick-borne disease areas.

  8. ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF TROPICAL THEILERIOSIS ON A HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN DAIRY FARM IN PAKISTAN.

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    Rashid, Muhammad; Haroon, Akbar; Rashid, Muhmmad Imran; Khalid, Saeed; Liaquat, Ahmad; Saghir, Abdullah; Wasim, Shehzad; Saher, Islam; Shahid, Farooqi

    2018-03-09

    The dairy industry in Pakistan is booming and investors are anxious to fund dairy farms that are using high milk producing (exotic) cattle breeds such as Holsteins that are not native to the country. Unfortunately, the benefits of increased milk production do not provide resistance to pathogens present in regions where the exotic breeds are introduced. Therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate the economic impact of Theileria annulata on a commercial Holstein dairy farm in the District of Ranjanpur, in the Province of Punjab, Pakistan. The economic impact of T. annulata infection was calculated for cattle with subclinical and clinical theileriosis. Losses were estimated based on milk production, morbidity, mortality and tick control costs (organophosphate sprays). Animals were classified into groups after screening for mastitis, teat abnormality, abnormal parturition, intestinal parasites and hemoparasites (T. annulata, Babesia spp., and Anaplasma spp.). Microscopy was done for hemoparasites and intestinal parasites. PCR was used to confirm microscopic identification of T. annulata. Animals were classified into 3 groups, comprising group A (normal), group B (subclinical theileriosis) and group C (acute theileriosis). Hemoparasites were observed microscopically in 28.7% of cows. Theileria annulata was found in 8% and the herd incidence (new cases) of T. annulata was 2.8%. Milk production, animal rectal temperature and body condition scores of group A with B and C were significantly different (P0.05). The total expenditure incurred due to theileriosis was US $74.98 per animal and 13.83% of total farm costs. Hence theileriosis caused significant economic loss of US $18743.76 (0.02 million) on this Holstein Friesian dairy.

  9. Milk losses due to bovine tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection in Algeria

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    Ouarda Ayadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the impact of tropical theileriosis onset on milk yield decrease in 10 local bred cows in Skikda (Northern Algeria during 2015 summer season. The milk yield decrease estimated weekly during two months was 2.76 L/day/cow corresponding to 31.92% of the total milk yield. This decrease corresponds to 110.5 Algerian Dinars (1.02 US$/day/diseased cow. The relative variation of milk yield showed a dramatic decrease from 82.72% to 0.76% at Day 21 then became constant. Further studies are needed to improve these estimations of financial losses due to bovine tropical theileriosis in Algeria.

  10. Effect of Peganum harmala (wild rue extract on experimental ovine malignant theileriosis : pathological and parasitological findings

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    A. Derakhshanfar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Malignant theileriosis of sheep is a highly fatal, acute or subacute disease is caused by the tick-borne protozoan parasite, Theileria hirci. In this investigation ten healthy male lambs aged 5-6 months were randomly divided into two groups, A and B and were kept in isolated tick-proof pens. They were treated for internal and external parasite before commencement of the experiment. The lambs were experimentally infected with T. hirci by placing ticks Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum infected with T. hirci on them. The ticks used in this survey had originally been isolated from sheep and colonies of them were established in an insectarium. Before and after infection rectal temperatures and clinical signs of the lambs were recorded, blood and prescapular lymph node smears were prepared and examined to determine the extent of the parasitaemia, and blood samples were analyzed to evaluate their haemoglobin (Hb and packed cell volume (PCV rates. Three days after the commencement of a febrile reaction and appearance of the schizonts in the lymph node smears, treatment of the lambs in Group A with an extract containing the alkaloids of Peganum harmala (wild rue was commenced. Group B lambs were kept untreated controls. Before treatment there were no significant differences in the rectal temperature, parasitaemia rate, and the Hb and PCV values between animals in the two groups but after treatment significant differences in these values was detected (P < 0.05. After treatment, the clinical signs and parasites in the lymph node smears of the animals in Group A disappeared and they all animals recovered. These parameters in the animals of Group B progressed until their death. Pathological studies showed the characteristic lesions of theileriosis in lambs in Group B, but not in Group A. The results indicate a therapeutic effect of the alkaloids of P. harmala for treatment of ovine malignant theileriosis.

  11. Evaluation of the Acridine Orange Fluorescence Technique and the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody as Diagnostic Tests for Tropical Theileriosis

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    Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the use of acridine orange fluorescence technique on blood slides as a rapid diagnostic test for tropical theileriosis in comparison with the Giemsa-stained thin blood film technique. Also the indirect fluorescent antibody test has been employed for the serodiagnosis of tropical theileriosis. The study was carried out on 62 young and 48 adult Friesian cattle suffering from clinical tropical theileriosis in Qassim Region, Central Saudi Arabia, during the period from August 2006 to July 2008. For control, blood samples were also obtained from 25 young and 25 adult, clinically healthy, Friesian cattle, selected at random from different dairy farms in Qassim Region. Thin blood films were fixed with methanol and stained with Giemsa and acridine orange and were examined by two independent microbiologists. There was 100% correlation in the interpretation of slides stained with Giemsa and acridine orange both with respect to positivity and negativity, between the two microbiologists. It is concluded that if facilities are available acridine orange is a valuable alternative for screening tropical theileriosis. The method may also have potential value in the diagnosis of Theileria parva, which causes East Coast fever, and also other Theileria species. Results of the present study also showed that IFA test was not found sufficiently sensitive and specific as has been reported earlier. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 341-344

  12. First confirmed report of outbreak of theileriosis/anaplasmosis in a cattle farm in Henan, China.

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    Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Yaqun; Dong, Haiju; Jian, Fuchun; Shi, Ke; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Ning, Changshen

    2018-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) impose a significant constraint to livestock production world widely. In this paper, we presented a case of TBD in a cattle farm in Henan, China. 35 blood samples (7 samples sent by veterinarian, 28 samples gathered by our colleagues) were collected from ill, surviving and asymptomatic cattle and microscopic observation and PCR assays were conducted to characterize the pathogens. Genus Ixodes feeding on these cattle were collected and identified. Theileria annulata-like and Anaplasma marginale-like pathogens were observed in the blood smears stained with Giemsa staining under microscope. Furthermore, 5 out of 7 cattle blood samples were found to be positive for T. annulata by PCR. In the 28 blood specimens, three were positive for T. annulata, while A. marginale DNA was detected in nine blood DNA samples. Besides, 56 ticks feeding on cattle were collected from this farm and were all identified as Rhipisephalus microplus, meanwhile, 10 of them were found to be positive for A. marginale. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of the msp4 gene sequences of A. marginale obtained in this study showed that the isolate from cattle (KX840009) fell in the same clade with that of R. microplus (KX904527), sharing 100% similarity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report of outbreak of theileriosis/anaplasmosis in cattle farms in Henan, China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Control of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection in cattle in North Africa

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    Mohamed Gharbi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection is a protozoan disease of cattle transmitted by Hyalomma ticks. This parasite is causing high losses in several countries in South Europe, North Africa and Asia. Indeed, both symptomatic and subclinical forms are present in infected animals causing live weight decrease, milk yield decrease, abortions and in some cases death. Due to its high medical and financial impact, the control of this disease is of paramount importance. It can be implemented through five control measures: (i treatment of infected animals with theilericidal drugs and other symptomatic treatments (this option is used for the treatment of animals and is insufficient to eradicate the parasite, (ii use of acaricides in animals which contain several side effects for humans, animals and the environment, (iii roughcasting and smoothing of the outer and inner surfaces of the cattle buildings for endophilic tick species (this control option is expensive but leads to the eradication of the parasite from the farm, (iv vaccination against ticks, a control option used with success against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus species but not still available for Hyalomma ticks and (v vaccination against the parasite with live attenuated vaccines. These control options were presented in the paper and their advantages and limits were discussed. The implementation of one (or more of these control options should take into account other considerations (social, political, etc.; they sometimes cause the failure of the control action.

  14. "Ormilo disease" a disorder of zebu cattle in Tanzania: bovine cerebral theileriosis or new protozoan disease?

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    Catalano, Deborah; Biasibetti, Elena; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-01

    "Ormilo" disease is a neurological disorder of cattle described by Maasai herders in Tanzania. It is attributed to infection by Theileria species, although no detailed data are available in the literature. The authors describe the macroscopical and histological changes observed in 30 brains of indigenous short-horn zebu cattle from Northern Tanzania, aged 2-9 years, with the characteristic neurological signs of "Ormilo". Moreover, the ultrastructural details observed in 14 selected brain samples were reported. Areas of congestion and hemorrhages, associated with the obstruction of the cerebral vessels with large numbers of parasitized lymphoid cells, were observed. Electron microscopy showed the presence of intralymphocytic parasites morphologically comparable to flagellated protozoa, not previously described in the lymphoid cells of cattle, but only reported during the sexual stages within the vector. Theileria taurotragi was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) in nine samples. The authors hypothesize that the parasite detected by electron microscopy could be a strain of a Theileria endemic to this region till now not investigated, having an intralymphocytic phase and being associated with other Theileria spp. infestation. Further studies are needed to better understand the etiology of "Ormilo" disease and to characterize the morphology of the observed parasite, clarifying its role in the disease in Tanzania.

  15. Nuevas aportaciones al conocimiento epidemiológico de la theileriosis (Theileria annulata) en Extremadura

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    Rol Díaz, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    En la memoria presentada se pueden encontrar tres apartados bien diferenciados. En el primero de ellos, se establece la cronobiología y distribución de los ixodidos que parasitan en los bovinos de la comarca de Cáceres. Se establecen los datos relativos a la incidencia y prevalencia de los ixodidos parásitos. En el segundo apartado, se establecen los ixodidos vectores de este protozoo llegando a determinar qué especies y cuáles no son capaces de albergar y transmitir a theileria annulata...

  16. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in Assam, India

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    Parikshit Kakati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%,T. orientalis(21.05% and A. marginale (14.03%, respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B.microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural transmission by R (B. microplus through the transovarian mode.

  17. Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks

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    Kinyanjui Peter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli, T. orientalis (ikeda, T. orientalis (chitose and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP or type C (SSU rRNA. The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak.

  18. Preliminary application and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP for detection of bovine theileriosis and trypanosomosis in Tanzania : research communication

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    O.M.M. Thekisoe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of LAMP, PCR and microscopy to detect Theileria spp. and Trypanosoma congolense in field-derived bovine blood samples from Tanzania was evaluated and compared. No parasites were detected by microscopy. Furthermore, no bovine Theileria spp. were detected by LAMP and PCR from all the 24 samples collected from Arusha. Four and one out of 24 samples were positive for Theileria congolense infection by LAMP and PCR respectively while, 18 and nine out of 40 samples from Dar es Salaam were positive by LAMP and PCR for Theileria spp. Infection, respectively. Although all samples from Dar es Salaam were negative for Trypanosoma congolense infections by PCR, 12 out of 40 samples were LAMP positive. Whilst PCR is an established gene amplification method for the detection of Theileria and trypanosome parasites, this study introduces LAMP as an alternative molecular diagnostic tool that could be used in large-scale epidemiological surveys.

  19. Evaluation of indirect TaSP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of tropical theileriosis in cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

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    Mohamed, Amr M; Abdel-Rady, Ahmed; Ahmed, Laila S; El-Hosary, Amira

    2012-05-25

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of Theileria annulata surface protein (TaSP)-ELISA, in comparison with traditional microscopic test, for the diagnosis of T. annulata infection among Egyptian baladi cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Molecular confirmation of infection using T. annulata merozoite surface (Tams-1) target amplification by PCR was used as a gold standard. A total of 76 clinically suspected animals including 64 baladi cattle and 12 water buffaloes were investigated in the current study by the three methods. Based on the PCR-confirmed results, the evaluation study revealed higher sensitivity of TaSP-ELISA (72.9% and 75%) as compared to microscopic examination (58.3% and 50%) among cattle and buffaloes, respectively. On the other hand, the specificity of TaSP-ELISA in diagnosis of T. annulata infection was higher (87.5%) in baladi cattle as compared to water buffaloes (37.5%). In conclusion, TaSP-ELISA was shown to be suitable for the diagnosis of T. annulata infection in cattle under field conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. miR-126-5p by direct targeting of JNK-interacting protein-2 (JIP-2) plays a key role in Theileria-infected macrophage virulence

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Malak; Rchiad, ‍ Zineb; Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Ben Rached, Fathia; Tajeri, Shahin; Latre De Late, Perle; Langsley, Gordon; Pain, Arnab

    2018-01-01

    Theileria annulata is an apicomplexan parasite that infects and transforms bovine macrophages that disseminate throughout the animal causing a leukaemia-like disease called tropical theileriosis. Using deep RNAseq of T. annulata-infected B cells

  1. Prevalence of Theileria annulata in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, Sudan.

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    Abaker, Ismail A; Salih, Diaeldin A; Haj, Lima M El; Ahmed, Rawia E; Osman, Manal M; Ali, Awadia M

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, during the period from June to September 2015, to study the prevalence of bovine tropical theileriosis. Apparently, healthy cattle of different age groups, different breeds, and from both sexes were randomly selected from seven locations. Three age groups of cattle were selected, group one Darfur region.

  2. Comparative bioinformatics analysis of transcription factor genes indicates conservation of key regulatory domains among babesia bovis, babesia microti and theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicomplexa tick borne hemoparasites including B. bovis, B. microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis respectively. These neglected parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate a...

  3. Antitheilerial Chemical Drugs: A Review | Hayat | Bulletin of Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthetic or semi synthetic chemical drugs were used for treatment of Theileria species. These drugs include antimalarial, trypanocides and antibiotics, antiviral, etc. The aim of this study was to over-view chemical drugs tested for treatment of theileriosis. Keywords: Theileria, treatment, chemical drug ...

  4. Real-time PCR for detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Real-time PCR for detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi parasites in ticks. ... This study aimed to develop a real-time PCR screening test for Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in ticks. Adult D. reticulatus were ... This test is suitable for application in epidemiological surveillance of equine babesiosis and theileriosis.

  5. Molecular study of Theileria camelensis and Theileria dromedarii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breeding of camels in the world is growing expansionary due to increasing in consumption rate of its meat, milk and wool. Besides, The rise of profitability of this industry and importing of camels into the country through the South East borders make it important to recognize infectious diseases in this species. Theileriosis ...

  6. Nuclear and related techniques in control and epidemiology of haemoparasitic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duzgun, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Haemoparasitic diseases of animals have tremendous economic importance in the world. The main tick-borne infections affecting cattle and sheep in Turkey are babesiosis and theileriosis. Babesiosis caused by Babesia bovis and B.ovis has a considerable negative impact on animal industry. Also, theileriosis is one of the limiting factors in cattle production. The importance of haemoprotozoan diseases has been emphasized for many years in Turkey. But, no serious attempt has been made to solve this problem. First, it has been considered that it is important to determine the distribution of babesiosis and theileriosis using sero-diagnostic tests. Since the 1980's, special attention has been given to develop of serologic tests for the diagnosis of haemoparasitic diseases. Mainly ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), IFAT (indirect fluorescent antibody test) and RIA (radio immunoassay) test have been used in the serological studies. Sero-epidemiological investigations have shown that both babesiosis and theileriosis are prevalent in most regions of Turkey. Greatest progress has been made with vaccines for the control of Haemoprotozoan infections. The use of living parasites to immunize the ruminants against the spread of babesiosis and theileriosis has been employed for a log time in livestock management with varying success. Although attenuated vaccines have been effective, they have several problems associated with them, among the most important is the cotransmission of the other enzootic agents and a short shelf life. Therefore, there are studies targeted at developing other preventive techniques. Irradiate Babesia spp-infected erythrocytes have been used to prevent parasitaemia. It was observed that irradiated organism are non-transmissible by the tick vector and do not revert to virulence after 12 months in a carrier animal. Culture-derived vaccine against theileriosis has been used widely and successfully is safe in all breeds of cattle and provides

  7. Nuclear and related techniques in control and epidemiology of haemoparasitic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duzgun, A.

    2004-01-01

    Haemoparasitic diseases of animals have tremendous economic importance in the world. The main tick-borne infections affecting cattle and sheep in Turkey are babesiosis and theileriosis. Babesiosis caused by Babesia bovis and B.ovis has a considerable negative impact on animal industry. Also, theileriosis is one of the limiting factors in cattle production. The importance of haemoprotozoan diseases has been emphasized for many years in Turkey. But, no serious attempt has been made to solve this problem. First, it has been considered that it is important to determine the distribution of babesiosis and theileriosis using sero-diagnostic tests. Since the 1980's, special attention has been given to develop of serologic tests for the diagnosis of haemoparasitic diseases. Mainly ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), IFAT (indirect fluorescent antibody test) and RIA (radio immunoassay) test have been used in the serological studies. Sero-epidemiological investigations have shown that both babesiosis and theileriosis are prevalent in most regions of Turkey. Greatest progress has been made with vaccines for the control of Haemoprotozoan infections. The use of living parasites to immunize the ruminants against the spread of babesiosis and theileriosis has been employed for a log time in livestock management with varying success. Although attenuated vaccines have been effective, they have several problems associated with them, among the most important is the cotransmission of the other enzootic agents and a short shelf life. Therefore, there are studies targeted at developing other preventive techniques. Irradiate Babesia spp-infected erythrocytes have been used to prevent parasitaemia. It was observed that irradiated organism are non-transmissible by the tick vector and do not revert to virulence after 12 months in a carrier animal. Culture-derived vaccine against theileriosis has been used widely and successfully is safe in all breeds of cattle and provides at least

  8. Proteomic analysis of the Theileria annulata schizont.

    OpenAIRE

    Witschi Marc; Xia D; Sanderson Sandy; Baumgartner Martin; Wastling Jonathan; Dobbelaere Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite, Theileria annulata, is the causative agent of tropical theileriosis, a devastating lymphoproliferative disease of cattle. The schizont stage transforms bovine leukocytes and provides an intriguing model to study host/pathogen interactions. The genome of T. annulata has been sequenced and transcriptomic data are rapidly accumulating. In contrast, little is known about the proteome of the schizont, the pathogenic, transforming life cycle stage of the parasite. Using o...

  9. Bovine Tick-borne Protozoan Diseases: Emerging Threats

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ashker MR

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne protozoan diseases, Theileriosis and Babesiosis, are major health and management problems of cattle, small ruminants and buffaloes in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Recently, tickborne diseases were ranked high in terms of their impact on poor farming communities in developing countries. Whereas the global economic importance of ticks is particularly high for livestock, there is also a relevant impact on public health in the northern hemisphere.

  10. Detection of Theileria annulata carriers in Holstein–Friesian (Bos taurus taurus) and Sistani (Bos taurus indicus) cattle breeds by polymerase chain reaction in Sistan region, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Majidiani, Hamidreza; Nabavi, Reza; Ganjali, Maryam; Saadati, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Theileria annulata is common in tropical and subtropical regions especially in Iran and causes great economic losses in cattle industry. In Iran the epidemiological aspects of bovine theileriosis in different breeds of cattle is poorly understood. The aim of present study is comparison of the number of T. annulata carriers in the two major cattle breeds (Holstein–Friesian and Sistani) in Sistan of Iran by giemsa and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. During winter 2013, 160 native cattl...

  11. Expression of major piroplasm protein (p33) of Theileria sergenti (Korean isolate) and its immunogenicity in guinea pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Seung-Won; Kweon, Chang-Hee; Choi, Eun-Jin; Yoon, Yong-Dhuk

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the development of a subunit vaccine against theileriosis in cattle, the DNA fragments encoding piroplasm surface protein (p33) of Theileria sergenti of a Korean isolate were expressed in baculoviruses. The expressed p33 was characterized by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) and western blotting analysis. The expression of p33 was mainly detected on the surface of infected Sf21 cells by IFA. The immunoblotting analysis revealed the presence of a same molecular weight protein ...

  12. Nuclear and related techniques in control and epidemiology of haemoparasitic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duezguen, A.

    2004-01-01

    Two genera of intra-erythraric protozoa cause diseases of major importance, Babesia causing babesiosis in cattle, sheep, horses and dogs; and Theileria, causing theileriosis in cattle and sheep. Babesiosis is one of the most common infection of free living animals world wide and is gaining increasing interest as an emerging zoonosis in humans. These diseases cause high morbidity and mortality rates in livestock production mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. All babesial parasites described to date are transmitted by ixodid ticks to their vertebrate hosts. They are piriform, round, amoeboid, or rod-shaped, depending in part on the genus. The severity of the disease is attributed to erythrocyte destruction and plugging of capillaries with parasitized erythrocytes leading to impaired organ function. They occur in the erytrocytes; some genera occur in the leukocytes or other blood system cells as well. In Turkey, babesiosis is seldom lethal, at least if diagnosed early and cured, but it is always associated with a reduction of the profit from both cattle and sheep breeding.. Babesia bovis, B.divergens, and B.bigemina are the most important Babesia species of bovine babesiosis. Also, B.ovis, in sheep, has been found in all climatic regions of Turkey and causes a great economic losses in sheep breeding. Theileriosis is the one of the serious tick-borne diseases in cattle production in the Mediterranean littoral and the Middle East, extending eastward to India. The most important Theileria species is T.annulata, the causative agent of tropical theileriosis in cattle in Turkey. Theileria species occurs commonly in the lymphocytes and erythrocytes of the affected animals. The forms in the erythrocytes are round, oval, rod shaped or comma shaped. Some Theileria parasites enter lymphocytes and develop into forms called schizonts. All are transmitted by ticks. The mortality rate of babesiosis and theileriosis is as high as 30-90 % in untreated cases

  13. Prevalence of Theileria annulata in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, Sudan

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    Ismail A. Abaker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, during the period from June to September 2015, to study the prevalence of bovine tropical theileriosis. Materials and Methods: Apparently, healthy cattle of different age groups, different breeds, and from both sexes were randomly selected from seven locations. Three age groups of cattle were selected, group one <1 year old, group two 1-3 years old, and group three older than 3 years. These cattle were indigenous and cross (Friesian X zebu. A total of 150 blood samples were collected for blood smears, blood in EDTA tubes, and serum samples as well as ticks infesting cattle. Three diagnostic techniques were used such as blood smear, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Of 150 samples, 11 (7.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.1-5.5 were positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in the blood smears, 70 (46.7%, 95% CI: 35.7-57.7 were positive for Theileria annulata antibodies in the IFAT, and of 100 samples, 39 (39%, 95% CI: 46.6-31.4 were positive for T. annulata using PCR. The prevalence of T. annulata was higher in indigenous breed than cross cattle by the three diagnostic techniques. The highest prevalence of T. annulata was recorded among cattle older than 3 years old. There were three genera and ten species of ticks found feeding on cattle. These were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, Hyalomma dromedrii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma truncatum, Amblyomma variegatum, and Amblyomma lepidum. Conclusion: The study concluded that tropical theileriosis is prevalent among dairy cattle in Nyala. H. anatolicum was found in very low numbers, suggesting other ticks may play a role in the transmission of the disease. Molecular characterization of T. annulata is recommended for accurate mapping of the disease and evaluates the magnitude problem of

  14. Buparvaquone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for targeted delivery in theleriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Maheshkumar P.; Shelkar, Nilakash; Gaikwad, Rajiv V.; Vanage, Geeta R.; Samad, Abdul; Devarajan, Padma V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Buparvaquone (BPQ), a hydroxynaphthoquinone derivative, has been investigated for the treatment of many infections and is recommended as the gold standard for the treatment of theileriosis. Theileriosis, an intramacrophage infection is localized mainly in reticuloendotheileial system (RES) organs. The present study investigates development of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of BPQ for targeted delivery to the RES. Materials and Methods: BPQ SLN was prepared using melt method by adding a molten mixture into aqueous Lutrol F68 solution (80°C). Larger batches were prepared up to 6 g of BPQ with GMS: BPQ, 2:1. SLN of designed size were obtained using ultraturrax and high pressure homogenizer. A freeze and thaw study was used to optimize type and concentration of cryoprotectant with Sf: Mean particle size, Si: Initial particle size Solutol HS-15 and Lutrol F68 at 2% w/v and greater enabled the desired Sf/Si < 1.3. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction revealed decrease in crystallinity of BPQ in BPQ SLN while, scanning electron microscope revealed spherical morphology. BPQ SLN revealed good stability at 4°C and 25°C. Low hemolytic potential (<8%) and in vitro serum stability up to 5 h was observed. Cytotoxicity of SLN to the U937 cell was low. The macrophage cell line revealed high (52%) uptake of BPQ SLN in 1 h suggesting the potential to RES uptake. SLN revealed longer circulation and biodistrbution study confirmed high RES uptake (75%) in RES organs like liver lung spleen etc. Conclusion: The high RES uptake suggests BPQ SLN as a promising approach for targeted and improved delivery in theileriosis. PMID:24459400

  15. Some hydrolase activities from the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch, 1844 (Ixodoidea: Ixodida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giménez-Pardo C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work has been made a detection and preliminary characterization of some hydrolases in whole extracts from unfed adult males and females of Hyalomma lusitanicum, one of the vectors for Theileria annulata that causes Mediterranean theileriosis in cattle. We have elected as targets, proteases as enzymes implicated in the nutritional processes of ticks, esterases that are usually implicated in resistance to organophosphates and phosphatises often implicated in protein phosphorilation and control of ticks salivary gland. The biological role and physiological significance are discussed in terms of the possibility of use these enzymes as possible in future anti-tick vaccination or acaricide resistance.

  16. [What makes a parasite "transforming"? Insights into cancer from the agents of an exotic pathology, Theileria spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, K M; Weitzman, J B

    2017-02-01

    Theileria are obligate eukaryotic intracellular parasites of cattle. The diseases they cause, Tropical theileriosis and East Coast Fever, cause huge economic loss in East African, Mediterranean and central and South-East Asian countries. These apicomplexan parasites are the only intracellular eukaryotic parasites known to transform their host cell and represent a unique model to study host-parasite interactions and mechanisms of cancer onset.Here, we review how Theileria parasites induce transformation of their leukocyte host cell and discuss similarities with tumorigenesis. We describe how genomic innovation, epigenetic changes and hijacking of signal transductions enable a eukaryotic parasite to transform its host cell.

  17. Clinical and hematological study on crossbred cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally infected with Theileria annulata in Sharkia province, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and hematological findings in crossbred cattle and water buffaloes naturally infected with Theileria annulata with special reference to the clinical picture of tropical theileriosis in Egyptian buffaloes. A total 50 field cases of cattle...... in infected buffaloes was more prominent than in infected cattle with persistence of some lesions after recovery as corneal opacity and pulmonary lesions. Hematological analysis revealed a significant decrease in RBCS count, PCV%, hemoglobin amount and WBCs in the infected animals comparing to the healthy...

  18. Emergence of new genotype and diversity of Theileria orientalis parasites from bovines in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Neena; Bhandari, Vasundhra; Reddy, D Peddi; Sharma, Paresh

    2015-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a serious threat to livestock worldwide. Uncertainty around species prevalence, antigenic diversity and genotypes of strains make it difficult to assess the impact of this parasite and to provide necessary treatment. We aimed to characterize genotypic diversity, phylogeny and prevalence of Theileria orientalis parasites from the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India by collecting bovine blood samples from the major districts of the two states. Bioinformatic analysis identified antigenic diversity among the prevalent parasite strains using major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene. Our study revealed a prevalence rate of 4.8% (n=41/862) of T. orientalis parasites in bovine animals and a new genotype of T. orientalis parasite which was not previously reported in India. The emergence of these new genotypes could be an explanation for the frequent outbreaks of bovine theileriosis. Further, whole genome sequencing of T. orientalis strains will help to elucidate the genetic factors relevant for transmissibility and virulence as well as vaccine and new drug development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Buparvaquone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for targeted delivery in theleriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshkumar P Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Buparvaquone (BPQ, a hydroxynaphthoquinone derivative, has been investigated for the treatment of many infections and is recommended as the gold standard for the treatment of theileriosis. Theileriosis, an intramacrophage infection is localized mainly in reticuloendotheileial system (RES organs. The present study investigates development of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN of BPQ for targeted delivery to the RES. Materials and Methods: BPQ SLN was prepared using melt method by adding a molten mixture into aqueous Lutrol F68 solution (80°C. Larger batches were prepared up to 6 g of BPQ with GMS: BPQ, 2:1. SLN of designed size were obtained using ultraturrax and high pressure homogenizer. A freeze and thaw study was used to optimize type and concentration of cryoprotectant with Sf: Mean particle size, Si: Initial particle size <1.3. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM study was performed on optimized formulation. Formulation was investigated for in vitro serum stability, hemolysis and cell uptake study. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study was performed in Holtzman rat. Results: Based on solubility in lipid; glyceryl monostearate (GMS was selected for preparation of BPQ SLN. Batches of BPQ SLN were optimized for average particle size and entrapment efficiency at <100 mg solid content. A combination of Solutol HS-15 and Lutrol F68 at 2% w/v and greater enabled the desired Sf/Si < 1.3. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction revealed decrease in crystallinity of BPQ in BPQ SLN while, scanning electron microscope revealed spherical morphology. BPQ SLN revealed good stability at 4°C and 25°C. Low hemolytic potential (<8% and in vitro serum stability up to 5 h was observed. Cytotoxicity of SLN to the U937 cell was low. The macrophage cell line revealed high (52% uptake of BPQ SLN in 1 h suggesting the potential to RES uptake. SLN revealed

  20. Serological and molecular detection of Theileria equi in sport horses of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Edlainne P; Vidotto, Odilon; Almeida, Jonatas C; Ribeiro, Luana P S; Borges, Marcos V; Pequeno, Walter H C; Stipp, Danilo T; de Oliveira, Celso J B; Biondo, Alexander W; Vieira, Thállitha S W J; Vieira, Rafael F C

    2016-08-01

    Theileriosis is a worldwide protozoal tick-borne disease caused by Theileria equi, which may produce a variety of clinical signs and turn infected horses into lifetime carriers. This study has aimed to perform a serological and molecular detection of T. equi and associated factors in sports horses from six areas of northeastern Brazil. In overall, 59.6% horses were positive by indirect immunofluorescence assay and 50.4% by polymerase chain reaction. No significant association was found when presence of ticks, age, gender, anemia or total plasma proteins was analyzed with seropositivity and molecular techniques. Although a significant association of infection was found in two cities. Thus, local risk factors other than presence of ticks, horse age, gender, anemia and total plasmatic proteins may dictate prevalence of T. equi infection in sports horses, even in highly endemic areas with no control of infection prior to horse competitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural infection rates and transmission of Theileria annulata by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Salih

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum nymphs were collected from two localities in the Sudan: Eddamer in Northern Sudan and Wad-Medani in Central Sudan. They were allowed to moult to adult ticks, which were assessed for Theileria infection in their salivary glands using Feulgen stain. At Eddamer, 49.6 % of 123 ticks examined were infected with Theileria and the mean intensity of infection was 1.3 (i.e. the number of infected acini / number of infected ticks. At Wad-Medani, 8.6 % of 162 ticks were infected and the mean intensity of infection was 7.9. The prevalence of infection was higher in female than in male ticks at both localities. When adult H. a. anatolicum were applied onto two susceptible calves, both animals developed the severe form of theileriosis.

  2. Seasonal incidence of Haemoprotozoal diseases in crossbred cattle and buffalo in Kaira and Anand districts of Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Vahora

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal incidence of haemoprotozoal diseases in crossbred cattle and buffalo was studied by examining 3152 and 1129 blood smears respectively, received from various veterinary sub centres located in Anand and Kaira districts of Gujarat during period from April 2009 to March 2010. The present study has recorded higher incidence of haemoprotozoal diseases in crossbred cattle and buffalo from June to September and June to August, respectively. In crossbred cattle, 1172 (37% out of 3152 blood smears were positive for haemoprotozoal infection while in buffalo, 191 (17% out of 1129 blood smears were positive for haemoprotozoal infection. In both the species, higher incidence of Theileriosis was recorded during monsoon season as compared to other protozoan diseases. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 223-225

  3. TGF-b2 induction regulates invasiveness of Theileria-transformed leukocytes and disease susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Chaussepied

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Theileria parasites invade and transform bovine leukocytes causing either East Coast fever (T. parva, or tropical theileriosis (T. annulata. Susceptible animals usually die within weeks of infection, but indigenous infected cattle show markedly reduced pathology, suggesting that host genetic factors may cause disease susceptibility. Attenuated live vaccines are widely used to control tropical theileriosis and attenuation is associated with reduced invasiveness of infected macrophages in vitro. Disease pathogenesis is therefore linked to aggressive invasiveness, rather than uncontrolled proliferation of Theileria-infected leukocytes. We show that the invasive potential of Theileria-transformed leukocytes involves TGF-b signalling. Attenuated live vaccine lines express reduced TGF-b2 and their invasiveness can be rescued with exogenous TGF-b. Importantly, infected macrophages from disease susceptible Holstein-Friesian (HF cows express more TGF-b2 and traverse Matrigel with great efficiency compared to those from disease-resistant Sahiwal cattle. Thus, TGF-b2 levels correlate with disease susceptibility. Using fluorescence and time-lapse video microscopy we show that Theileria-infected, disease-susceptible HF macrophages exhibit increased actin dynamics in their lamellipodia and podosomal adhesion structures and develop more membrane blebs. TGF-b2-associated invasiveness in HF macrophages has a transcription-independent element that relies on cytoskeleton remodelling via activation of Rho kinase (ROCK. We propose that a TGF-b autocrine loop confers an amoeboid-like motility on Theileria-infected leukocytes, which combines with MMP-dependent motility to drive invasiveness and virulence.

  4. Diagnosis of cattle diseases endemic to sub-Saharan Africa: evaluating a low cost decision support tool in use by veterinary personnel.

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    Mark C Eisler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis is key to control and prevention of livestock diseases. In areas of sub-Saharan Africa where private practitioners rarely replace Government veterinary services reduced in effectiveness by structural adjustment programmes, those who remain lack resources for diagnosis and might benefit from decision support. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated whether a low-cost diagnostic decision support tool would lead to changes in clinical diagnostic practice by fifteen veterinary and animal health officers undertaking primary animal healthcare in Uganda. The eight diseases covered by the tool included 98% of all bovine diagnoses made before or after its introduction. It may therefore inform proportional morbidity in the area; breed, age and geographic location effects were consistent with current epidemiological understanding. Trypanosomosis, theileriosis, anaplasmosis, and parasitic gastroenteritis were the most common conditions among 713 bovine clinical cases diagnosed prior to introduction of the tool. Thereafter, in 747 bovine clinical cases estimated proportional morbidity of fasciolosis doubled, while theileriosis and parasitic gastroenteritis were diagnosed less commonly and the average number of clinical signs increased from 3.5 to 4.9 per case, with 28% of cases reporting six or more signs compared to 3% beforehand. Anaemia/pallor, weakness and staring coat contributed most to this increase, approximately doubling in number and were recorded in over half of all cases. Finally, although lack of a gold standard hindered objective assessment of whether the tool improved the reliability of diagnosis, informative concordance and misclassification matrices yielded useful insights into its role in the diagnostic process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The diagnostic decision support tool covered the majority of diagnoses made before or after its introduction, leading to a significant increase in the number of clinical signs

  5. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Theileria annulata in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamidhi, Salama; H Tageldin, Mohammed; Weir, William; Al-Fahdi, Amira; Johnson, Eugene H; Bobade, Patrick; Alqamashoui, Badar; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Thompson, Joanne; Kinnaird, Jane; Shiels, Brian; Tait, Andy; Babiker, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    Theileriosis, caused by a number of species within the genus Theileria, is a common disease of livestock in Oman. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry due to a high rate of morbidity and mortality in both cattle and sheep. Since little is currently known about the genetic diversity of the parasites causing theileriosis in Oman, the present study was designed to address this issue with specific regard to T. annulata in cattle. Blood samples were collected from cattle from four geographically distinct regions in Oman for genetic analysis of the Theileria annulata population. Ten genetic markers (micro- and mini-satellites) representing all four chromosomes of T. annulata were applied to these samples using a combination of PCR amplification and fragment analysis. The resultant genetic data was analysed to provide a first insight into the structure of the T. annulata population in Oman. We applied ten micro- and mini-satellite markers to a total of 310 samples obtained from different regions (174 [56%] from Dhofar, 68 [22%] from Dhira, 44 [14.5%] from Batinah and 24 [8%] from Sharqia). A high degree of allelic diversity was observed among the four parasite populations. Expected heterozygosity for each site ranged from 0.816 to 0.854. A high multiplicity of infection was observed in individual hosts, with an average of 3.3 to 3.4 alleles per locus, in samples derived from Batinah, Dhofar and Sharqia regions. In samples from Dhira region, an average of 2.9 alleles per locus was observed. Mild but statistically significant linkage disequilibrium between pairs of markers was observed in populations from three of the four regions. In contrast, when the analysis was performed at farm level, no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed. Finally, no significant genetic differentiation was seen between the four populations, with most pair-wise FST values being less than 0.03. Slightly higher FST values (GST' = 0.075, θ = 0.07) were

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Theileria annulata in Oman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salama Al-Hamidhi

    Full Text Available Theileriosis, caused by a number of species within the genus Theileria, is a common disease of livestock in Oman. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry due to a high rate of morbidity and mortality in both cattle and sheep. Since little is currently known about the genetic diversity of the parasites causing theileriosis in Oman, the present study was designed to address this issue with specific regard to T. annulata in cattle.Blood samples were collected from cattle from four geographically distinct regions in Oman for genetic analysis of the Theileria annulata population. Ten genetic markers (micro- and mini-satellites representing all four chromosomes of T. annulata were applied to these samples using a combination of PCR amplification and fragment analysis. The resultant genetic data was analysed to provide a first insight into the structure of the T. annulata population in Oman.We applied ten micro- and mini-satellite markers to a total of 310 samples obtained from different regions (174 [56%] from Dhofar, 68 [22%] from Dhira, 44 [14.5%] from Batinah and 24 [8%] from Sharqia. A high degree of allelic diversity was observed among the four parasite populations. Expected heterozygosity for each site ranged from 0.816 to 0.854. A high multiplicity of infection was observed in individual hosts, with an average of 3.3 to 3.4 alleles per locus, in samples derived from Batinah, Dhofar and Sharqia regions. In samples from Dhira region, an average of 2.9 alleles per locus was observed. Mild but statistically significant linkage disequilibrium between pairs of markers was observed in populations from three of the four regions. In contrast, when the analysis was performed at farm level, no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed. Finally, no significant genetic differentiation was seen between the four populations, with most pair-wise FST values being less than 0.03. Slightly higher FST values (GST' = 0.075,

  7. Concentrations of buparvaquone in milk and tissue of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Hillerton, J E; Pegram, D

    2016-11-01

    To determine the concentration of the anti-theilerial drug buparvaquone in the milk and tissue of dairy cattle following treatment with two different formulations, and to assess the effect of clinical theileriosis on the concentration of buparvaquone in milk. Healthy lactating dairy cows (n=25) were injected once (Day 0) I/M with 2.5 mg/kg of one of two formulations of buparvaquone (Butalex; n=12 or Bupaject; n=13). Milk samples were collected from all cows daily until Day 35. Five cows were slaughtered on each of Days 56, 119, 147, 203 and 328, and samples of liver, muscle and injection site tissue collected. Milk samples were also collected from cows (n=14) clinically affected with theileriosis for up to 21 days after treatment with buparvaquone. Milk and tissue samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; limits of detection (LOD) were 0.00018 mg/kg for muscle and 0.00023 mg/L for milk. Concentrations of buparvaquone in milk and tissues were log10-transformed for analysis using multivariate models. In healthy cows, concentrations of buparvaquone in milk declined with time post-treatment (pcows at Day 35. Concentration in milk was higher one day after treatment in cows treated with Butalex than in cows treated with Bupaject, but not different thereafter (p=0.007). Concentrations of buparvaquone in muscle were below the LOD for four of five animals at Day 119 and for all animals by Day 147, but were above the LOD at the injection site of one cow, and in the liver of three cows at Day 328. Tissue concentrations did not differ with formulation nor was there a formulation by time interaction (p>0.3). Concentrations of buparvaquone in the milk of clinically affected animals were not different from those of healthy animals at 1 and 21 days post-treatment (p=0.72). Between 21 and 25 days post-treatment concentrations were below the LOD in 9/14 milk samples from clinically affected cows. Detectable concentrations of buparvaquone were found in

  8. A PCR-based survey of selected Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Kothalawala, Hemal; Abeyratne, Sembukutti Arachchige Eranga; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Hadirampela, Dilhani Thilanka; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; Sukumar, Subramaniyam; Kuleswarakumar, Kulanayagam; Chandrasiri, Alawattage Don Nimal; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2012-11-23

    Hemoprotozoan parasites are responsible for significant economic losses in cattle. We screened Sri Lankan cattle populations for the presence of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using species-specific PCR assays. Out of 316 samples collected from animals in four different districts of Sri Lanka (Nuwara Eliya, Polonnaruwa, Ampara, and Jaffna), 231 (73.1%) were positive for at least one parasite species. All four parasite species were detected among the study groups from all of the districts surveyed. The first and second commonest hemoprotozoan parasites identified were T. orientalis (53.5%) and B. bigemina (30.1%), respectively. We found that the dry zones (Polonnaruwa, Ampara, and Jaffna) had more Babesia-positive animals than the hill country wet zone (Nuwara Eliya). In contrast, T. orientalis was the predominant species detected in Nuwara Eliya, while infection with T. annulata was more common in the dry zones. In addition, 81 (35.1%) of the 231 positive samples were infected with more than one parasite species. The presence of multiple parasite species among the different cattle populations is of clinical and economic significance. Therefore, island-wide control and prevention programs against bovine babesiosis and theileriosis are needed to minimize the financial burden caused by these parasites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In silico analysis of Ta9 gene polymorphism in an Iranian Theileria annulata schizont-infected cell line S15 vaccine strain and native isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi, G.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by obligate intracellular parasites related to the genus Theileria. Cellular immune responses protect cattle against pathogens through the activation of immune cells. Nowadays, live, attenuated vaccine of Theileria annulata (T. annulata is being produced in Iran and is recommended for active cattle immunization. Detection of the immunogenic antigens and epitopes recognized by CD8+ T Lymphocytes is vital for the development of recombinant and subunit vaccines. Herein, sequences of the genes encoding Ta9, which is an important antigen recognized by bovine CD8+ T cells specific for T. annulata, in Iranian S15 vaccine strains, several Iranian isolates, as well as reference Ta9 DNA sequences registered in GeneBank were compared through polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The obtained data from DNA sequences were analyzed by using "Nucleotide", "Blast n", "BioEdit" and "IEDB" softwares. The results showed high level of variation in nucleotides and amino acids level. The observed polymorphism in Ta9 gene sequences of Iranian vaccine strains and some isolates from Iran demonstrated that this antigen contains polymorphic sequences and is active along with the specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC of the host. Polymorphic sequences and specific epitopes of Ta9 gene for CD8+ T cell provides an explanation for incomplete protection observed after inoculation of heterologous parasites in vaccinated cattle. These results have important implications for the application of Ta9 antigen for developing novel subunit vaccines.

  10. Phylogenetic study of Theileria lestoquardi based on 18SrRNA gene Isolated from sheep in the middle region of Iraq

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    M.J.A. Alkhaled

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Theileriosis is parasitic infection causes by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Theileria. T. lestoquardi is the most virulent species in sheep and goats which causes a severe disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. In this study the phylogenetic relationships between two local isolate of T. lestoquardi and nine T. lestoquardi global isolates as well as Babesia ovis out-group isolate were analyzed using the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The multiple sequence alignment analysis and neighbor joining phylogenetic tree analysis were performed by using ClustalW multiple sequence alignment online based analysis of 1098bp 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis results of these gene sequences revealed that T. lestoquardi local isolates were closely related to T. lestoquardi Iran isolate (JQ917458.1 and two Iraq Kurdistan isolates (KC778786.1 and KC778785.1 more than other countries. This study represents the first report on the use of molecular phylogeny to classify T. lestoquardi obtained in Middle Region of Iraq.

  11. miR-126-5p by direct targeting of JNK-interacting protein-2 (JIP-2) plays a key role in Theileria-infected macrophage virulence

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Malak

    2018-03-23

    Theileria annulata is an apicomplexan parasite that infects and transforms bovine macrophages that disseminate throughout the animal causing a leukaemia-like disease called tropical theileriosis. Using deep RNAseq of T. annulata-infected B cells and macrophages we identify a set of microRNAs induced by infection, whose expression diminishes upon loss of the hyper-disseminating phenotype of virulent transformed macrophages. We describe how infection-induced upregulation of miR-126-5p ablates JIP-2 expression to release cytosolic JNK to translocate to the nucleus and trans-activate AP-1-driven transcription of mmp9 to promote tumour dissemination. In non-disseminating attenuated macrophages miR-126-5p levels drop, JIP-2 levels increase, JNK1 is retained in the cytosol leading to decreased c-Jun phosphorylation and dampened AP-1-driven mmp9 transcription. We show that variation in miR-126-5p levels depends on the tyrosine phosphorylation status of AGO2 that is regulated by Grb2-recruitment of PTP1B. In attenuated macrophages Grb2 levels drop resulting in less PTP1B recruitment, greater AGO2 phosphorylation, less miR-126-5p associated with AGO2 and a consequent rise in JIP-2 levels. Changes in miR-126-5p levels therefore, underpin both the virulent hyper-dissemination and the attenuated dissemination of T. annulata-infected macrophages.

  12. HK2 Recruitment to Phospho-BAD Prevents Its Degradation, Promoting Warburg Glycolysis by Theileria-Transformed Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Malak; Lombès, Anne; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Kennedy, Eileen J; Langsley, Gordon

    2017-03-10

    Theileria annulata infects bovine leukocytes, transforming them into invasive, cancer-like cells that cause the widespread disease called tropical theileriosis. We report that in Theileria-transformed leukocytes hexokinase-2 (HK2) binds to B cell lymphoma-2-associated death promoter (BAD) only when serine (S) 155 in BAD is phosphorylated. We show that HK2 recruitment to BAD is abolished by a cell-penetrating peptide that acts as a nonphosphorylatable BAD substrate that inhibits endogenous S155 phosphorylation, leading to complex dissociation and ubiquitination and degradation of HK2 by the proteasome. As HK2 is a critical enzyme involved in Warburg glycolysis, its loss forces Theileria-transformed macrophages to switch back to HK1-dependent oxidative glycolysis that down-regulates macrophage proliferation only when they are growing on glucose. When growing on galactose, degradation of HK2 has no effect on Theileria-infected leukocyte proliferation, because metabolism of this sugar is independent of hexokinases. Thus, targeted disruption of the phosphorylation-dependent HK2/BAD complex may represent a novel approach to control Theileria-transformed leukocyte proliferation.

  13. Clinical study of foot and mouth disease in feedlot calves in Mosul region

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    M. A. Abd- Alhameed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The affected calves showed clinical signs including presence of vesicles at the bucal cavity and hoof (90.7%, fever (36%, salivation (32.9%, depression (20.5%, Anorexia (19.6%, loss of body weight (7.94%, lamness (15.9%, lesions at the muzzle (15.3%, presence of the lesions at the feet (6.0%, prostration (4.7%, diarrhea (3.3%, presence of the lesion at the mouth cavity (3.0%, paralysis of hind quarters (2.2% and sudden death (1.6%. There was significant increase in the rectal temperature, respiration rates, and heart rates in the infected animals compared with control group. Recovered animals appeared some diseases including theileriosis (40.4%, tympany (22.8%, pneumonia (19.9%, foot abscess (14.7%, and babesiosis (2.2 %. The mortality rate varied between 3.4% to 27.9% in different herds and the mean was 3.3 % in all herds. There was significant relationship between age of animals and the incidence of the disease.

  14. In vivo comparison of susceptibility between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle types to Theileria parva infection

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    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether Bos taurus cattle differ form Bos indicus in their susceptibility to infection with the Muguga stabilate of Theileria parva and in their resistance to the resultant disease. Ten Friesians (B. taurus, ten improved Borans (B. indicus, ten unimproved Borans (B. indicus and ten Zebus (B. indicus born to dams from an East Coast fever (ECF endemic area were inoculated with an infective dose50 dilution of T. parva Muguga stabilate 147. All the animals except one Friesian and one Zebu developed schizont parasitosis. All the improved Borans, nine of the Friesians, eight of the unimproved Borans and six of the Zebus developed a febrile response. Four of the improved Borans, four of the Friesians and three of the unimproved Borans died of theileriosis. No significant difference (P > 0.05 in the prepatent period occurred between the groups, but the Zebus had a significantly shorter duration of schizont parasitosis (P > 0.05 and took a significantly shorter time to recover (P > 0.05 than the other three groups. There was no significant difference in the two parameters between the other three groups. The study showed that three B. indicus breds and a B. taurus breed are equally susceptible to T. parva infection. However, Zebus born to dams from an ECF endemic area showed a better ability to control the course of disease than cattle from ECF free areas.

  15. Molecular prevalence and genetic diversity of bovine Theileria orientalis in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawm, Saw; Shimizu, Kohei; Hirota, Jun-Ichi; Tosa, Yusuke; Htun, Lat Lat; Maw, Ni Ni; Thein, Myint; Kato, Hirotomo; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Theileria orientalis is a causative agent of benign theileriosis in cattle and distributed in mainly Asian countries. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of T. orientalis infection by PCR based on the major piroplasm surface protein gene (MPSP) sequences in cattle in Myanmar, followed by phylogenetic analysis of the MPSP genes. The MPSP gene was amplified in 258 of 713 (36.2%) cattle blood DNA samples collected from five cities in different geographical regions of Myanmar. Phylogenetic analysis of MPSP sequences from 54 T. orientalis-positive DNA samples revealed the presence of six allelic genotypes, including Types 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, and N-3. Types 5 and 7 were the predominant types detected. Sequences of the MPSP genes detected in Myanmar were closely related to those from Thailand, Vietnam or Mongolia. These findings suggest that movement of animals carrying T. orientalis parasites between Southeast Asian countries could be a reason for the similar genotype distribution of the parasites in Myanmar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular Identification of Hemoprotozoan Parasites in Camels (Camelus dromedarius of Iran

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    Alireza SAZMAND

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although camels represent a valuable source of food, wool and hide in many countries, in-depth information about their vector-borne pathogens is scarce compared to other animals. The aim of the current study was to characterize vector-borne protozoa in the blood of dromedaries from Iran by molecular tools.Methods: From June to July 2014, 200 peripheral blood samples were collected from asymptomatic one-humped camels in two provinces of Kerman and Sistan- va-Baloochestan in central and southeastern Iran. Microscopic examination was performed on Giemsa-stained blood smears, and drops of blood were spotted on Whatman FTA® cards for further analyses. Genomic DNA was extracted from the cards, and PCR was carried out for the detection of piroplasms and trypanosomes, followed by sequence analysis of positive samples.Results: One sample was positive Trypanosoma spp. trypomastigotes in light microscopy. PCR results revealed one positive sample each with Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi.Conclusion: Camels were identified as hosts for bovine Mediterranean theileriosis in the investigated area. The presence of Tr. evansi, the causative agent of surra disease, was also confirmed in camels of Iran. Further studies are recommended in order to investigate their impact on the health and productivity of camels and other livestock in this region.

  17. Discrimination between ovine Babesia and Theileria species in China based on the ribosomal protein S8 (RPS8) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhancheng; Liu, Guangyuan; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jin; Xie, Junren; Zheng, Jinfeng; Yuan, Xiaosong; Wang, Fangfang; Shen, Hui; Tian, Meiyuan

    2013-10-18

    Ovine babesiosis and theileriosis are important hemoprotozoal diseases of sheep and goats in tropical and subtropical regions that lead to economic losses in these animals. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is a reliable molecular diagnostic tool for discriminating Theileria or Babesia species in the same host. In this study, the DNA sequences of a ribosomal protein S8 (RPS8) gene from four species of piroplasms in China were used to develop a species-specific PCR-RFLP diagnostic tool. The sensitivity of the PCR assays was 0.1 pg DNA for B. motasi and 1 pg DNA for T. uilenbergi and 10 pg DNA for Babesia sp. Xinjiang-2005 and T. luwenshuni. The clear size difference of the PCR products allowed for a direct discrimination for B. motasi, Babesia sp. Xinjiang-2005 and ovine Theileria species (T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni), except that the mixed infection between T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni may be difficult to distinguish, simply after the electrophoretic separation of the amplification products. Further T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni diagnoses were made by digesting the PCR product with SacI. The established method could be applicable for the survey of parasite dynamics, and epidemiological studies as well as prevention and control of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethnoveterinary treatments for common cattle diseases in four districts of the Southern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syakalima, Michelo; Simuunza, Martin; Zulu, Victor Chisha

    2018-02-01

    Ethno veterinary knowledge has rarely been recorded, and no or limited effort has been made to exploit this knowledge despite its widespread use in Zambia. This study documented the types of plants used to treat important animal diseases in rural Zambia as a way of initiating their sustained documentation and scientific validation. The study was done in selected districts of the Southern Zambia, Africa. The research was a participatory epidemiological study conducted in two phases. The first phase was a pre-study exploratory rapid rural appraisal conducted to familiarize the researchers with the study areas, and the second phase was a participatory rural appraisal to help gather the data. The frequency index was used to rank the commonly mentioned treatments. A number of diseases and traditional treatments were listed with the help of local veterinarians. Diseases included: Corridor disease (Theileriosis), foot and mouth disease, blackleg, bloody diarrhea, lumpy skin disease, fainting, mange, blindness, coughing, bloat, worms, cobra snakebite, hemorrhagic septicemia, and transmissible venereal tumors. The plant preparations were in most diseases given to the livestock orally (as a drench). Leaves, barks, and roots were generally used depending on the plant type. Ethno veterinary medicine is still widespread among the rural farmers in the province and in Zambia in general. Some medicines are commonly used across diseases probably because they have a wide spectrum of action. These medicines should, therefore, be validated for use in conventional livestock healthcare systems in the country to reduce the cost of treatments.

  19. Molecular Identification of Hemoprotozoan Parasites in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazmand, Alireza; Eigner, Barbara; Mirzaei, Mohammad; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyed Hossein; Harl, Josef; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Although camels represent a valuable source of food, wool and hide in many countries, in-depth information about their vector-borne pathogens is scarce compared to other animals. The aim of the current study was to characterize vector-borne protozoa in the blood of dromedaries from Iran by molecular tools. From June to July 2014, 200 peripheral blood samples were collected from asymptomatic one-humped camels in two provinces of Kerman and Sistan- va-Baloochestan in central and southeastern Iran. Microscopic examination was performed on Giemsa-stained blood smears, and drops of blood were spotted on Whatman FTA ® cards for further analyses. Genomic DNA was extracted from the cards, and PCR was carried out for the detection of piroplasms and trypanosomes, followed by sequence analysis of positive samples. One sample was positive Trypanosoma spp. trypomastigotes in light microscopy. PCR results revealed one positive sample each with Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi . Camels were identified as hosts for bovine Mediterranean theileriosis in the investigated area. The presence of Tr. evansi , the causative agent of surra disease, was also confirmed in camels of Iran. Further studies are recommended in order to investigate their impact on the health and productivity of camels and other livestock in this region.

  20. Comparative evaluation of antibody positive titer by ELISA and IFA in Theileria annulata vaccinated cattle in Iran

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    Hashemi-Fesharki R.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to evaluate antibody positive titer in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle using schizont infected myeloid cells as an antigen. The result was compared with indirect fluorescent antibody level in the same animals. For this study 116 milking cows, 95 vaccinated and 21 non-vaccinated, were bleeded in order to prepare sera. They were tested with both ELISA and IFA tests. 94 sera had positive antibody titer and 22 sera were negative through ELISA test but, with IFA test, only 89 sera showed positive antibody titer and 27 were negative. Thereby, it was concluded that the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA test in comparison with IFA test was 95.5 % and 66.6 % respectively. This study generally indicated that ELISA could be an effective test for seroepidemiological investigations of bovine tropical theileriosis, and it is considered to be valid as an additional test to distinguish the vaccinated from the non vaccinated cattle in order to schedule vaccination programs.

  1. PCR diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in Maharashtra state, India indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds.

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    Sunil W Kolte

    Full Text Available Tick-borne pathogens (TBP are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD, most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey with native Bos indicus (numerous breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type. The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic

  2. PCR diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in Maharashtra state, India indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolte, Sunil W; Larcombe, Stephen D; Jadhao, Suresh G; Magar, Swapnil P; Warthi, Ganesh; Kurkure, Nitin V; Glass, Elizabeth J; Shiels, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    Tick-borne pathogens (TBP) are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD), most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey) with native Bos indicus (numerous) breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type). The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites) and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic benefit.

  3. Proteomic analysis of the Theileria annulata schizont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witschi, M.; Xia, D.; Sanderson, S.; Baumgartner, M.; Wastling, J.M.; Dobbelaere, D.A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite, Theileria annulata, is the causative agent of tropical theileriosis, a devastating lymphoproliferative disease of cattle. The schizont stage transforms bovine leukocytes and provides an intriguing model to study host/pathogen interactions. The genome of T. annulata has been sequenced and transcriptomic data are rapidly accumulating. In contrast, little is known about the proteome of the schizont, the pathogenic, transforming life cycle stage of the parasite. Using one-dimensional (1-D) gel LC-MS/MS, a proteomic analysis of purified T. annulata schizonts was carried out. In whole parasite lysates, 645 proteins were identified. Proteins with transmembrane domains (TMDs) were under-represented and no proteins with more than four TMDs could be detected. To tackle this problem, Triton X-114 treatment was applied, which facilitates the extraction of membrane proteins, followed by 1-D gel LC-MS/MS. This resulted in the identification of an additional 153 proteins. Half of those had one or more TMD and 30 proteins with more than four TMDs were identified. This demonstrates that Triton X-114 treatment can provide a valuable additional tool for the identification of new membrane proteins in proteomic studies. With two exceptions, all proteins involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle were identified. For at least 29% of identified proteins, the corresponding transcripts were not present in the existing expressed sequence tag databases. The proteomics data were integrated into the publicly accessible database resource at EuPathDB (www.eupathdb.org) so that mass spectrometry-based protein expression evidence for T. annulata can be queried alongside transcriptional and other genomics data available for these parasites. PMID:23178997

  4. Transcriptome and microRNome of Theileria annulata Host Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rchiad, Zineb

    2016-06-01

    Tropical Theileriosis is a parasitic disease of calves with a profound economic impact caused by Theileria annulata, an apicomplexan parasite of the genus Theileria. Transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, T. annulata infects and transforms bovine lymphocytes and macrophages into a cancer-like phenotype characterized by all six hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we investigate the transcriptional landscape of T. annulata-infected lymphocytes to define genes and miRNAs regulated by host cell transformation using next generation sequencing. We also define genes and miRNAs differentially expressed as a result of the attenuation of a T.annulata-infected macrophage cell line used as a vaccine. By comparing the transcriptional landscape of one attenuated and two transformed cell lines we identify four genes that we propose as key factors in transformation and virulence of the T. annulata host cells. We also identify miR- 126-5p as a key regulator of infected cells proliferation, adhesion, survival and invasiveness. In addition to the host cell trascriptome we studied T. annulata transcriptome and identified the role of ROS and TGF-β2 in controlling parasite gene expression. Moreover, we have used the deep parasite ssRNA-seq data to refine the available T. annulata annotation. Taken together, this study provides the full list of host cell’s genes and miRNAs transcriptionally perturbed after infection with T. annulata and after attenuation and describes genes and miRNAs never identified before as players in this type of host cell transformation. Moreover, this study provides the first database for the transcriptome of T. annulata and its host cells using next generation sequencing.

  5. Partial characterization of a novel anti-inflammatory protein from salivary gland extract of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae ticks

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    Mayukh Ghosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks transmit Theileria annulata, causative agent of tropical theileriosis to cattle and buffaloes causing a major economic loss in terms of production and mortality in tropical countries. Ticks have evolved several immune evading strategies to circumvent hosts’ rejection and achieve engorgement. Successful feeding of ticks relies on a pharmacy of chemicals located in their complex salivary glands and secreted saliva. These chemicals in saliva could inhibit host inflammatory responses through modulating cytokine secretion and detoxifying reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the present study was aimed to characterize anti-inflammatory peptides from salivary gland extract (SGE of H. a. anatolicum ticks with a view that this information could be utilized in raising vaccines, designing synthetic peptides or peptidomimetics which can further be developed as novel therapeutics. Materials and Methods: Salivary glands were dissected out from partially fed adult female H. a. anatolicum ticks and homogenized under the ice to prepare SGE. Gel filtration chromatography was performed using Sephadex G-50 column to fractionate the crude extract. Protein was estimated in each fraction and analyzed for identification of anti-inflammatory activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE was run for further characterization of protein in desired fractions. Results: A novel 28 kDa protein was identified in H. a. anatolicum SGE with pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: Purification and partial characterization of H. a. anatolicum SGE by size-exclusion chromatography and SDSPAGE depicted a 28 kDa protein with prominent anti-inflammatory activity.

  6. Characterization of Theileria equi genotypes in horses in Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketter-Ratzon, Dafna; Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Saar, Tal; Qura'n, Lara; Zivotofsky, Doni; Abdeen, Ziad; Baneth, Gad; Steinman, Amir

    2017-06-01

    Equine theileriosis caused by Theileria equi is endemic in the Middle East, where it causes a severe disease as well as widespread subclinical infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of T. equi genotypes in Israel and the neighboring Palestinian Authority and Jordan. Blood samples from 355 horses from Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan were tested for the prevalence of T. equi DNA. Two hundred and fourteen (60%) were found positive for T. equi infection by PCR. Of those, the 18S rRNA (1458bp) and the EMA-1 (745bp) genes of T. equi were sequenced from 15 horse samples that represent Israel's geographical distribution together with four samples from the Palestinian Authority and two from Jordan. The results were used for genotype characterization and phylogenetic analysis of T. equi in the equine population in Israel and its surroundings. Three 18S rRNA genotype clades were found in Israel (A, C and D) with clade D being the most prevalent and included all four isolates from the PA. In contrast, the EMA-1 gene showed little diversity with all sequences clustering in the same clade apart from one Jordanian sequence. Results suggest that although the Israeli horse population is small and relatively confined geographically, it is probable that the genetic variability, which was found among Israeli horses, is a result of introduction of horses from other countries. It also suggests that the EMA-1 gene is probably not a good target for the evaluation of variance in T. equi populations. Characterization of the different genotypes prevalent in a certain region is important in order to map out the intra-species sequence heterogeneity of the parasite, which is needed in order to develop new diagnostic tools and vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Tick-Borne Diseases in Turkey: A Review Based on One Health Perspective.

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    Abdullah Inci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs with zoonotic characteristics. In Turkey, almost 19 TBDs have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis, one filarial nematode (acanthocheilonemasis, ten bacterial agents (anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, aegyptianellosis, tick-borne typhus, Candidatus Rickettsia vini, Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne relapsing fever [TBRF], tularaemia, bartonellosis, and hemoplasmosis, and four viral infections (tick-borne encephalitis [TBE], Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever [CCHF], louping-ill [LI], and lumpy skin disease [LSD]. The growing number of TBD cases, in particular the fatal viral epidemics in humans, have led to increased public awareness and concern against TBDs in recent years. The World Health Organization (WHO has developed a new political concept, called the "One Health" initiative, which is especially relevant for developing strategies against tick infestations and TBD control in humans and animals. It would be beneficial for Turkey to adopt this new strategy and establish specific research and control programs in coordination with international organizations like WHO, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC to combat TBDs based on the "One Health Initiative" concept. In this article, we review the occurrence of primary TBDs in man and animals in Turkey in light of the "One Health" perspective.

  8. Detection of Babesia and Theileria species infection in cattle from Portugal using a reverse line blotting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M G; Marques, P X; Oliva, A

    2010-12-15

    Babesiosis and Theileriosis are tick-borne diseases widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high economic impact worldwide. In Portugal there are at least 4 tick vectors known to be competent for the transmission of Babesia and Theileria sp. identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis punctata. All these potential Babesia and Theileria tick vectors are widely distributed in Portugal, although they are predominant in the Southern region. In this study, 1104 cattle blood samples were randomly collected from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and analyzed by PCR-reverse line blotting (RLB) for the detection of Babesia and Theileria sp. Testing indicated that 74.7% of the bovines tested were positive for either Babesia and/or Theileria sp. In addition, five different apicomplexan species, namely, Theileria buffeli, Theileria annulata, Babesia divergens, Babesia bovis, and Babesia bigemina were detected by RLB among the bovines tested. T. buffeli was the most frequently found species, being present in 69.9% of the positive samples either as single infections (52.4%), or as mixed infections (17.5%). The Babesia specie most frequently found was B. divergens, detected in 4.2% of the infected bovines. Overall, infected bovines were found in all regions tested; however the highest number of infected bovines was observed in Évora district (96.2%) and in cattle from Limousin breeds (81.7%). The results indicate widespread Babesia and Theileria infections in Portuguese bovines, suggesting the need for improved control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of different diagnostic tools for Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle in Menofia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayel, Mohamed; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Aboulaila, Mahmoud; Elsify, Ahmed; Hassan, Hany; Ibrahim, Elsayed; Salama, Akram; Yanai, Tokuma

    2012-09-01

    Bovine piroplasmosis is caused by tick-borne hemoprotozoans of the genera Babesia and Theileria and is the most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, causing a major economic impact worldwide. In the current study, a total of 405 cattle of different ages, sexes, and breeds were randomly sampled for surveying and diagnosis of babesiosis and theileriosis using three methods: direct microscopy (blood smears), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed that, out of 405 examined cattle, 33 (8.15 %) were infected with Babesia sp. and 65 (16.05 %) with Theileria sp. (total number of infected cattle was 98). Mixed infection was seen in 11 (2.72 %) animals. Moreover, application of the three diagnostic assays on 158 randomly sampled cattle indicated that 17 (10.76 %) and 33 (20.89 %) were positive for Babesia and Theileria spp. by the direct smear technique, 25 (15.82 %) and 33 (20.89 %) by IFAT (fluorescence was greenish yellow for Babesia and yellowish for Theileria), and 20 (12.66 %) and 38 (24.05 %) by PCR. Using primers specific for Babesia and Theileria spp., we found that diagnostic bands appeared at ~350 and ~370 bp, respectively indicating the presence of these piroplasms. Statistically, there was a non-significant difference of the positivity in response to the three techniques; thus, any of these methods can be described as useful for diagnosing blood parasites in both domesticated animals and birds. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that direct microscopy can be used in acute infections, whereas IFAT and PCR are useful in chronicity.

  10. Molecular identification of Theileria and Babesia in sheep and goats in the Black Sea Region in Turkey.

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    Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir

    2013-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate presence and distribution of Theileria and Babesia species via microscopic examination and reverse line blotting (RLB) techniques in sheep and goats in the Black Sea region of Turkey. For this purpose, 1,128 blood samples (869 sheep and 259 goats) were collected by active surveillance from sheep and goats in different provinces of various cities in the region in the years 2010 and 2011. Smears were prepared from the blood samples, stained with Giemsa, and examined under the light microscope for Theileria and Babesia piroplasms. The genomic DNAs were extracted from blood samples. The length of 360-430-bp fragment in the variable V4 region of 18S SSU rRNA gene of Theileria and Babesia species was amplified using the gDNAs. The polymerase chain reaction products were hybridized to the membrane-connected species-specific probes. A total of 38 animals (3.37%) including 34 sheep (3.91%) and 4 goats (1.54%) were found to be positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in microscopic examination of smears while Babesia spp. piroplasm could not detected. Infection rates were 34.64% in sheep, 10.04% in goats, and totally 28.99% for Theileria ovis while 0.58% in sheep and totally 0.44% for Babesia ovis. However, Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in 2.65% of sheep and 2.04% of all animals; besides Theileria sp., MK had 0.58% prevalence in sheep and 0.77% in goats, with a total 0.62% with RLB. Although T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK were determined in both sheep and goats, B. ovis and Theileria sp. OT3 were observed only in the sheep. These results provide the first detailed molecular data for sheep and goat theileriosis and babesiosis in the region.

  11. Molecular epidemiological survey of bacterial and parasitic pathogens in hard ticks from eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Ye; Gong, Xiang-Yao; Zheng, Chen; Song, Qi-Yuan; Chen, Ting; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Jie; Deng, Hong-Kuan; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2017-03-01

    Ticks are able to transmit various pathogens-viruses, bacteria, and parasites-to their host during feeding. Several molecular epidemiological surveys have been performed to evaluate the risk of tick-borne pathogens in China, but little is known about pathogens circulating in ticks from eastern China. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the presence of bacteria and parasites in ticks collected from Xuzhou, a 11258km 2 region in eastern China. In the present study, ticks were collected from domestic goats and grasses in urban districts of Xuzhou region from June 2015 to July 2016. After tick species identification, the presence of tick-borne bacterial and parasitic pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia sp., Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and Theileria sp., was established via conventional or nested polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR) and sequence analysis. Finally, a total of 500 questing adult ticks, identified as Haemaphysalis longicornis, were investigated. Among them, 28/500 tick samples (5.6%) were infected with A. phagocytophilum, and 23/500 (4.6%) with Theileria luwenshuni, whereas co-infection with these pathogens was detected in only 1/51 (2%) of all infected ticks. In conclusion, H. longicornis is the dominant tick species in the Xuzhou region and plays an important role in zoonotic pathogen transmission. Both local residents and animals are at a significant risk of exposure to anaplasmosis and theileriosis, due to the high rates of A. phagocytophilum and T. luwenshuni tick infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphed and moving: TNFα-driven motility promotes cell dissemination through MAP4K4-induced cytoskeleton remodeling

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    Min Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell dissemination from an initial site of growth is a highly coordinated and controlled process that depends on cell motility. The mechanistic principles that orchestrate cell motility, namely cell shape control, traction and force generation, are highly conserved between cells of different origins. Correspondingly, the molecular mechanisms that regulate these critical aspects of migrating cells are likely functionally conserved too. Thus, cell motility deregulation of unrelated pathogenesis could be caused and maintained by similar mechanistic principles. One such motility deregulation disorder is the leukoproliferative cattle disease Tropical Theileriosis, which is caused by the intracellular, protozoan parasite Theileria annulata. T. annulata transforms its host cell and promotes the dissemination of parasite-infected cells throughout the body of the host. An analogous condition with a fundamentally different pathogenesis is metastatic cancer, where oncogenically transformed cells disseminate from the primary tumor to form distant metastases. Common to both diseases is the dissemination of motile cells from the original site. However, unlike metastatic cancer, host cell transformation by Theileria parasites can be reverted by drug treatment and cell signaling be analyzed under transformed and non-transformed conditions. We have used this reversible transformation model and investigated parasite control of host cell motile properties in the context of inflammatory signaling in Ma M. et al. [PLoS Pathog (2014 10: e1004003]. We found that parasite infection promotes the production of the inflammatory cytokine TNFα in the host macrophage. We demonstrated that increased TNFα triggers motile and invasive properties by enhancing actin cytoskeleton remodeling and cell motility through the ser/thr kinase MAP4K4. We concluded that inflammatory conditions resulting in increased TNFα could facilitate cell dissemination by activating the actin

  13. Comparative Bioinformatics Analysis of Transcription Factor Genes Indicates Conservation of Key Regulatory Domains among Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzan, Heba F; Knowles, Donald P; Suarez, Carlos E

    2016-11-01

    Apicomplexa tick-borne hemoparasites, including Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis, respectively. These parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate and tick hosts. Large gaps in knowledge concerning the mechanisms used by these parasites for gene regulation remain. Regulatory genes coding for DNA binding proteins such as members of the Api-AP2, HMG, and Myb families are known to play crucial roles as transcription factors. Although the repertoire of Api-AP2 has been defined and a HMG gene was previously identified in the B. bovis genome, these regulatory genes have not been described in detail in B. microti and T. equi. In this study, comparative bioinformatics was used to: (i) identify and map genes encoding for these transcription factors among three parasites' genomes; (ii) identify a previously unreported HMG gene in B. microti; (iii) define a repertoire of eight conserved Myb genes; and (iv) identify AP2 correlates among B. bovis and the better-studied Plasmodium parasites. Searching the available transcriptome of B. bovis defined patterns of transcription of these three gene families in B. bovis erythrocyte stage parasites. Sequence comparisons show conservation of functional domains and general architecture in the AP2, Myb, and HMG proteins, which may be significant for the regulation of common critical parasite life cycle transitions in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi. A detailed understanding of the role of gene families encoding DNA binding proteins will provide new tools for unraveling regulatory mechanisms involved in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi life cycles and environmental adaptive responses and potentially contributes to the development of novel convergent strategies for improved control of babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis.

  14. Detection of Theileria annulata in blood samples of carrier cattle by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Oliveira, C; van der Weide, M; Habela, M A; Jacquiet, P; Jongejan, F

    1995-01-01

    We report the detection of Theileria annulata, the causative agent of tropical theileriosis, by PCR in blood samples obtained from carrier cattle. The assay employs primers specific for the gene encoding the 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata. A 721-bp fragment was amplified from blood samples taken monthly from calves experimentally infected with one of four different stocks of T. annulata originating in either Mauritania, Portugal, Spain, or Turkey. At the end of the experiment, five animals carried the infection for 12 months and two animals remained infected for 15 months. DNAs from six other Theileria species, T. parva, T. mutans, T. sergenti, T. buffeli, T. velifera, and T. taurotragi, were not amplified. Moreover, DNAs from four other hemoparasites (Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis, and Babesia bigemina) were also not amplified. As a control, primers derived from the small subunit rRNA gene of Theileria spp. amplified a 1.1-kb DNA fragment from all Theileria species examined but not from the other four hemoparasites. As few as two to three parasites per microliter of infected blood in a 50-microliters sample volume were detected by Southern or microplate hybridization with a T. annulata-specific cDNA probe. In addition, 92 field samples obtained from cattle in Spain were tested; 22% were positive in blood smears, 40% were positive by immunofluorescent antibody test, and 75% were positive for T. annulata by PCR. The method provides a useful diagnostic tool for detecting T. annulata carrier cattle. PMID:8567902

  15. Comparative Bioinformatics Analysis of Transcription Factor Genes Indicates Conservation of Key Regulatory Domains among Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi.

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    Heba F Alzan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexa tick-borne hemoparasites, including Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis, respectively. These parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate and tick hosts. Large gaps in knowledge concerning the mechanisms used by these parasites for gene regulation remain. Regulatory genes coding for DNA binding proteins such as members of the Api-AP2, HMG, and Myb families are known to play crucial roles as transcription factors. Although the repertoire of Api-AP2 has been defined and a HMG gene was previously identified in the B. bovis genome, these regulatory genes have not been described in detail in B. microti and T. equi. In this study, comparative bioinformatics was used to: (i identify and map genes encoding for these transcription factors among three parasites' genomes; (ii identify a previously unreported HMG gene in B. microti; (iii define a repertoire of eight conserved Myb genes; and (iv identify AP2 correlates among B. bovis and the better-studied Plasmodium parasites. Searching the available transcriptome of B. bovis defined patterns of transcription of these three gene families in B. bovis erythrocyte stage parasites. Sequence comparisons show conservation of functional domains and general architecture in the AP2, Myb, and HMG proteins, which may be significant for the regulation of common critical parasite life cycle transitions in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi. A detailed understanding of the role of gene families encoding DNA binding proteins will provide new tools for unraveling regulatory mechanisms involved in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi life cycles and environmental adaptive responses and potentially contributes to the development of novel convergent strategies for improved control of babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis.

  16. The African buffalo: A villain for inter-species spread of infectious diseases in southern Africa

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    Anita L. Michel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer is a large wild bovid which until recently ranged across all but the driest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and their local range being limited to about 20 km from surface water. They are of high ecological value due to their important role as bulk feeders in the grazing hierarchy. They also have high economic value, because they are one of the sought after ‘Big Five’ in the eco-tourism industry. In Africa, buffaloes have been recognised for some time as an important role player in the maintenance and transmission of a variety of economically important livestock diseases at the wildlife and/or livestock interface. These include African strains of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, Corridor disease (theileriosis, bovine tuberculosis and bovine brucellosis. For a number of other diseases of veterinary importance, African buffaloes may also serve as amplifier or incidental host, whereby infection with the causative pathogens may cause severe clinical signs such as death or abortion as in the case of anthrax and Rift Valley fever, or remain mild or subclinical for example heartwater. The long term health implications of most of those infections on the buffalo at a population level is usually limited, and they do not pose a threat on the population’s survival. Because of their ability to harbour and transmit important diseases to livestock, their sustainable future in ecotourism, trade and transfrontier conservation projects become complex and costly and reliable diagnostic tools are required to monitor these infections in buffalo populations.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of bovine Babesia spp. and Theileria orientalis parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis were the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites was observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand was classified into types 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research on potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand

  18. Assessing the performance of multiplexed tandem PCR for the diagnosis of pathogenic genotypes of Theileria orientalis using pooled blood samples from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Gasser, Robin B; Stevenson, Mark A; McGrath, Sean; Jabbar, Abdul

    2017-02-01

    Oriental theileriosis caused by multiple genotypes of Theileria orientalis is an important tick-borne disease of bovines. Here, we assessed the performance of an established multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) for the diagnosis of the two recognized, pathogenic genotypes (chitose and ikeda) of T. orientalis in cattle using pooled blood samples. We used a total of 265 cattle blood samples, which were divided into two groups according to previous MT-PCR results for individual samples. Samples in group 1 (n = 155) were from a herd with a relatively high prevalence of T. orientalis infection; and those in group 2 (n = 110) were from four herds with a low prevalence. For group 1, 31 and 15 batches of five- and ten-pooled samples (selected at random), respectively, were formed. For group 2, 22 and 11 batches of five- and ten-pooled samples (selected at random), respectively, were formed. DNAs from individual pooled samples in each batch and group were then tested by MT-PCR. For group 1, the apparent prevalences estimated using the 31 batches of five-pooled samples (97%) and 15 batches of ten-pooled samples (100%) were significantly higher compared with individual samples (75%). For group 2, higher apparent prevalences (9% and 36%) were also recorded for the 22 and 11 batches of pooled samples, respectively, compared with individual samples (7%). Overall, the average infection intensity recorded for the genotypes of chitose and ikeda were considerably lower in pooled compared with individual samples. The diagnostic specificities of MT-PCR were estimated at 95% and 94%, respectively, when batches of five- and ten-pooled samples were tested, and 94% for individual samples. The diagnostic sensitivity of this assay was estimated at 98% same for all individual, five- and ten-pooled samples. This study shows that screening batches of five- and ten-pooled blood samples from cattle herds are similar to those obtained for individual samples, and, importantly, that the reduced cost

  19. Molecular surveillance of Theileria parasites of livestock in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fahdi, Amira; Alqamashoui, Badar; Al-Hamidhi, Salama; Kose, Onur; Tageldin, Mohammed H; Bobade, Patrick; Johnson, Eugene H; Hussain, Abdel-Rahim; Karagenc, Tulin; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Bilgic, Huseyin Bilgin; Babiker, Hamza

    2017-08-01

    Theileriosis is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases of livestock in the Arabian Peninsula, and causes high rates of mortality and morbidity in sheep and cattle. However, there is a paucity of information on the distribution of Theileria spp. over the whole region and their impact on different hosts. The present study carried out a country-wide molecular survey for Theileria spp. of livestock in Oman across four governorates. The aim of the survey was to define the prevalence of Theileria spp. in cattle, sheep and goats, highlight risk factors for infection and identify the main tick species involved in parasite transmission. A total of 2020 animals were examined in the survey consisting of sheep [n=592], goats [n=981] and cattle [n=447]. All three species were raised and co-grazed on the same farms. Theileria parasites were detected using PCR-RFLP and RLB of the 18S rRNA gene. Cloning and sequencing of the 18S rRNA was carried out on 11 T. lestoquardi isolates from Ash-Sharqiyah, and Ad-Dhahira governorates, and phylogenetic relationships were inferred using additional sequences of T. lestoquardi, T. annulata and T. ovis available in GenBank. Theileria spp. prevalence was 72.3%, 36.7% and 2.7% among cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Strong similarity in results was obtained using RLB and PCR-RFLP for detection of Theileria spp. however, RLB detected a higher rate of mixed infection than PCR-RFPL (POman in the same clade as other T. lestoquardi strains isolated from the same regional area (Iraq and Iran). The main tick species, identified on the examined animals, Hyalomma anatolicum, was widely distributed and was found in all of the surveyed governorates. Theileria spp. are widespread in Oman with variable prevalence detected in different regions. Two economically important hosts, cattle and sheep are at high risk from virulent T. annulata and T. lestoquardi, respectively. The survey indicates extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of infection

  20. Transmisión de Anaplasma marginale por garrapatas

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    Kelly A. Brayton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale, patógeno de distribución mundial, es transmitido por garrapatas Ixódidas. Comprender su complejo desarrollo dentro de la garrapata vector, permitirá la predicción de brotes y ofrecerá oportunidades para controlar su transmisión. En este trabajo se revisa su ciclo básico de desarrollo junto con los estudios recientes acerca de las diferencias de transmisión entre cepas, que delinean aspectos de la interacción patógeno - vector. Bacterias, virus o protozoarios transmitidos por artrópodos causan enfermedades severas, tanto en humanos como en animales. Las enfermedades infecciosas transmitidas por garrapatas, entre las que incluimos a la Anaplasmosis (A. marginale, babesiosis (Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, B. divergens y Theileriosis (Theileria annulata, T. parva, se encuentran entre las más importantes en el ámbito mundial, con pérdidas cercanas a los siete mil millones de dólares anualmente; y, a pesar de su impacto, permanecen escasamente bajo control, basado primordialmente en la aplicación de acaricidas, para interrumpir su transmisión. La aparición de garrapatas resistentes a múltiples sustancias acaricidas, representa una amenaza en este tipo de control y, como resultado, hay un resurgimiento de la investigación para el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias para su control. Nuevas opciones para prevenir la transmisión de patógenos de animales por garrapatas, será el resultado de entender las interacciones garrapata patógeno; proceso que culmina con el desarrollo de la infección y transmisión exitosa. En todos los casos de patógenos transmitidos por garrapatas, el desarrollo de la infección se realiza coordinamente a los momentos de adhesión y alimentación del vector sobre el animal. Esto sucede por la interdependencia en la señalización entre el patógeno y el vector al alimentarse y, por ello, será susceptible de intervención.

  1. Experiences in tick control by acaricide in the traditional cattle sector in Zambia and Burkina Faso: possible environmental and public health implications

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    Daniele De Meneghi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Livestock, especially cattle, play a paramount role in agriculture production systems, particularly in poor countries throughout the world. Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs have an important impact on livestock and agriculture production in Sub-Saharan Africa. The authors review the most common methods used for the control of ticks and TBDs. Special emphasis is given to the direct application of acaricides to the host animals. The possible environmental and public health adverse effects (i.e. risks for the workers, residues in the environment, and in food products of animal origin are mentioned. The authors present two case studies, describing different field experiences in controlling ticks in two African countries. In Zambia (Southern Africa, a strategic dipping regime was used to control Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks, vectors of theileriosis, a deadly disease affecting cattle in the traditional livestock sector in Southern Province. The dipping regime adopted allowed to reduce the tick challenge and cattle mortally rate, and at the same time, to employ less acaricide as compared to the intensive dipping used so far, without disrupting the building-up of enzootic stability. In Burkina Faso (West Africa, where dipping was never used for tick control, an acaricide footbath was employed as an alternative method to the traditional technique used locally (portable manual sprayers. This was developed from field observations on the invasion/attachment process of the Amblyomma variegatum ticks –vector of cowdriosis- on the animal hosts, leading to a control method aimed to kill ticks temporarily attached to the interdigital areas before their permanent attachment to the predilection sites. This innovative method has been overall accepted by the local farmers. It has the advantage of greatly reducing costs of treatments and has a minimal environmental impact, making footbath a sustainable and replicable method, adoptable also in other West

  2. Major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abayneh, Takele; Sibhat, Berhanu; Shiferaw, Dessie; Szonyi, Barbara; Krontveit, Randi I; Skjerve, Eystein; Wieland, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    Vector-borne diseases are among major health constraints of small ruminant in Ethiopia. While various studies on single vector-borne diseases or presence of vectors have been conducted, no summarized evidence is available on the occurrence of these diseases and the related vectors. This systematic literature review provides a comprehensive summary on major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia. Search for published and unpublished literature was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015. The search was both manual and electronic. The databases used in electronic search were PubMed, Web of Science, CAB Direct and AJOL. For most of the vector-borne diseases, the summary was limited to narrative synthesis due to lack of sufficient data. Meta-analysis was computed for trypanosomosis and dermatophilosis while meta-regression and sensitivity analysis was done only for trypanososmosis due to lack of sufficient reports on dermatophilosis. Owing emphasis to their vector role, ticks and flies were summarized narratively at genera/species level. In line with inclusion criteria, out of 106 initially identified research reports 43 peer-reviewed articles passed the quality assessment. Data on 7 vector-borne diseases were extracted at species and region level from each source. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate of trypanosomosis was 3.7% with 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8, 4.9), while that of dermatophilosis was 3.1% (95% CI: 1.6, 6.0). The in-between study variance noted for trypanosomosis was statistically significant (pparasitic presence in blood was documented for babesiosis (3.7% in goats); and anaplasmosis (3.9% in sheep). Serological evidence was retrieved for bluetongue ranging from 34.1% to 46.67% in sheep, and coxiellosis was 10.4% in goats. There was also molecular evidence on the presence of theileriosis in sheep (93%, n=160) and goats (1.9%, n=265). Regarding vectors of veterinary importance, 14 species of ticks in

  3. Epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy of Theileria equi infection in Giza, Egypt

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    Fayez A. Salib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of Theileria equi among horses in different age groups, both sexes, months and seasons of the year, and regions of Giza governourate. Studying the changes in the blood picture, blood chemistries, liver enzymes associate with T.equi infections in horses. Evaluating IFA and CFT at different dilutions in the serodiagnosis of T.equi infections in horses. Evaluating four anti-Theileria medication regimens (diminazine aceturate, imidiocarb 7%, buparvaquone and a combination of imidiocarb 7% and buparvaquone in treatment of T.equi infections in horses. Materials and Methods: Total of 149 horses were examined by clinical signs and blood smears. Fortey whole blood samples from T.equi infected horses were examined to measure haemoglobin, total RBCs count and PCV. Fortey serum samples from T.equi infected horses were examined to measure total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, ALT and AST enzymes. Serum samples from T.equi infected (40 and non infected (14 horses were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA and complement fixation test (CFT at different dilutions. Four groups of T.equiinfected horses (A,B,C,D, each group was represented by 10 horses and was separately treated with diminazine aceturate, imidiocarb 7%, buparvaquone and a combination of imidiocarb 7% and buparvaquone respectively. Results: the prevalence of T.equi was 41.61% in totally examined horses. The prevalence was higher in males than females. The highest prevalence was among age group ranged from 5-10 years as (22.81%. The highest prevalence was in July and was recorded as (25.81% and the disease was more prevalent in summer than winter. The highest prevalence was recorded in Nazlet-alsamman as (51.61%. Equine theileriosis was clinically characterized by fever, haemoglobinuria, oedema, anaemia and icterus. The best dilution for IFA was 1/160 where sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were the highest for this test as (98%, (92.86% and (97