WorldWideScience

Sample records for the next step device

  1. An approach to next step device optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpietro, E.

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for ITER EDA were to achieve ignition with a good safety margin, and controlled long inductive burn. These requirements lead to a big device, which requested a too ambitious step to be undertaken by the world fusion community. More realistic objectives for a next step device shall be to demonstrate the net production of energy with a high energy gain factor (Q) and a high boot strap current fraction (>60%) which is required for a Fusion Power Plant (FPP). The Next Step Device (NSD) shall also allow operation flexibility in order to explore a large range of plasma parameters to find out the optimum concept for the fusion power plant prototype. These requirements could be too demanding for one single device and could probably be better explored in a strongly integrated world programme. The cost of one or more devices is the decisive factor for the choice of the fusion power development programme strategy. The plasma elongation and triangularity have a strong impact in the cost of the device and are limited by the plasma vertical position control issue. The distance between plasma separatrix and the toroidal field conductor does not vary a lot between devices. It is determined by the sum of the distance between first wall-plasma sepratrix and the thickness of the nuclear shield required to protect the toroidal field coil insultation. The thickness of the TF coil is determined by the allowable stresses and superconducting characteristics. The outer radius of the central solenoid is the result of an optimisation to provide the magnetic flux to inductively drive the plasma. Therefore, in order to achieve the objectives for Q and boot-strap current fractions at the minimum cost, the plasma aspect ratio and magnetic field value shall be determined. The paper will present the critical issues for the next device and will make considerations on the optimal way to proceed towards the realisation of the fusion power plant

  2. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-01-01

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  3. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  4. Deposition Diagnostics for Next-step Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Bader, A.; Wampler, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    The scale-up of deposition in next-step devices such as ITER will pose new diagnostic challenges. Codeposition of hydrogen with carbon needs to be characterized and understood in the initial hydrogen phase in order to mitigate tritium retention and qualify carbon plasma facing components for DT operations. Plasma facing diagnostic mirrors will experience deposition that is expected to rapidly degrade their reflectivity, posing a new challenge to diagnostic design. Some eroded particles will collect as dust on interior surfaces and the quantity of dust will be strictly regulated for safety reasons - however diagnostics of in-vessel dust are lacking. We report results from two diagnostics that relate to these issues. Measurements of deposition on NSTX with 4 Hz time resolution have been made using a quartz microbalance in a configuration that mimics that of a typical diagnostic mirror. Often deposition was observed immediately following the discharge suggesting that diagnostic shutters should be closed as soon as possible after the time period of interest. Material loss was observed following a few discharges. A novel diagnostic to detect surface particles on remote surfaces was commissioned on NSTX

  5. Proceedings of the international workshop on engineering design of next step reversed field pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, D.B.

    1987-11-01

    These Proceedings contain the formal contributed papers, the workshop papers and workshop summaries presented at the International Workshop on Engineering Design of Next Step RFP Devices held at Los Alamos, July 13-17, 1987. Contributed papers were presented at formal sessions on the topics: (1) physics overview (3 papers); (2) general overview (3 papers); (3) front-end (9 papers); (4) computer control and data acquisition (1 paper); (5) magnetics (5 papers); and (6) electrical design (9 papers). Informal topical workshop sessions were held on the topics: (1) RFP physics (9 papers); (2) front-end (7 papers); (3) magnetics (3 papers); and (4) electrical design (1 paper). This volume contains the summaries written by the Chairmen of each of the informal topical workshop sessions. The papers in these Proceedings represent a significant review of the status of the technical base for the engineering design of the next step RFP devices being developed in the US, Europe, and Japan, as of this date

  6. Proceedings of the international workshop on engineering design of next step reversed field pinch devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, D.B. (comp.)

    1987-11-01

    These Proceedings contain the formal contributed papers, the workshop papers and workshop summaries presented at the International Workshop on Engineering Design of Next Step RFP Devices held at Los Alamos, July 13-17, 1987. Contributed papers were presented at formal sessions on the topics: (1) physics overview (3 papers); (2) general overview (3 papers); (3) front-end (9 papers); (4) computer control and data acquisition (1 paper); (5) magnetics (5 papers); and (6) electrical design (9 papers). Informal topical workshop sessions were held on the topics: (1) RFP physics (9 papers); (2) front-end (7 papers); (3) magnetics (3 papers); and (4) electrical design (1 paper). This volume contains the summaries written by the Chairmen of each of the informal topical workshop sessions. The papers in these Proceedings represent a significant review of the status of the technical base for the engineering design of the next step RFP devices being developed in the US, Europe, and Japan, as of this date.

  7. Robotics: The next step?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Ivo A M J

    2014-02-01

    Robotic systems were introduced 15 years ago to support complex endoscopic procedures. The technology is increasingly used in gastro-intestinal surgery. In this article, literature on experimental- and clinical research is reviewed and ergonomic issues are discussed. literature review was based on Medline search using a large variety of search terms, including e.g. robot(ic), randomized, rectal, oesophageal, ergonomics. Review articles on relevant topics are discussed with preference. There is abundant evidence of supremacy in performing complex endoscopic surgery tasks when using the robot in an experimental setting. There is little high-level evidence so far on translation of these merits to clinical practice. Robotic systems may appear helpful in complex gastro-intestinal surgery. Moreover, dedicated computer based technology integrated in telepresence systems opens the way to integration of planning, diagnostics and therapy. The first high tech add-ons such as near infrared technology are under clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Robotics: the next step?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes; Kuipers, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Robotic systems were introduced 15 years ago to support complex endoscopic procedures. The technology is increasingly used in gastro-intestinal surgery. In this article, literature on experimental- and clinical research is reviewed and ergonomic issues are discussed. Methods: literature

  9. Neutral pumping rates for a next step tokamak ignition device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.D.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Heifetz, D.

    1985-01-01

    Neutral pumping rates are calculated for pump-limiter and divertor options of a next step tokamak ignition device using a method that accounts for the coupled effects of neutral transport and plasma transport. For both pump limiters and divertors the plasma flow into the channel surrounding the neutralizer plate is greatly reduced by the neutral recycling. The fraction of this flow that is pumped can be large (>50%) but in general is dependent on the particular geometry and plasma conditions. It is estimated that pumping speeds greater than or approximately 10 5 L/s are adequate for the exhaust requirements in the pump-limiter and the divertor cases

  10. Tritium inventory and recovery in next-step fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, R.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Federici, G.

    2002-01-01

    Future fusion devices will use tritium and deuterium fuel. Because tritium is both radioactive and expensive, it is absolutely necessary that there be an understanding of the tritium retention characteristics of the materials used in these devices as well as how to recover the tritium. There are three materials that are strong candidates for plasma-facing-material use in next-step fusion devices. These are beryllium, tungsten, and carbon. While beryllium has the disadvantage of high sputtering and low melting point (which limits its power handling capabilities in divertor areas), it has the advantages of being a low-Z material with a good thermal conductivity and the ability to get oxygen from the plasma. Due to beryllium's very low solubility for hydrogen, implantation of beryllium with deuterium and tritium results in a saturated layer in the very near-surface with limited inventory (J. Nucl. Mater. 273 (1999) 1). Unfortunately, there are nuclear reactions generated by neutrons that will breed tritium and helium in the material bulk (J. Nucl. Mater. 179 (1991) 329). This process will lead to a substantial tritium inventory in the bulk of the beryllium after long-term neutron exposure (i.e. well beyond the operation life time of a next-step reactor like ITER). Tungsten is a high-Z material that will be used in the divertor region of next-step devices (e.g. ITER) and possibly as a first wall material in later devices. The divertor is the preferred location for tungsten use because net erosion is very low there due to low sputtering and high redeposition. While experiments are still continuing on tritium retention in tungsten, present data suggest that relatively low tritium inventories will result with this material (J. Nucl. Mater. 290-293 (2001) 505). For tritium inventories, carbon is the problem material. Neutron damage to the graphite can result in substantial bulk tritium retention (J. Nucl. Mater. 191-194 (1992) 368), and codeposition of the sputtered carbon

  11. An Initial Evaluation of Tablet Devices & What Are the Next Steps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillen, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of tablet devices for a Graduate Entry Medical School (GEMS). The purpose of this evaluation is to assess what type of tablet device could meet the needs of a GEMS student. GEMS requirements for the evaluation include; using the tablet device to replace paper teaching resources in lectures and tutorials and…

  12. Alternative divertor target concepts for next step fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazul, I. V.

    2016-12-01

    The operational conditions of a divertor target in the next steps of fusion devices are more severe in comparison with ITER. The current divertor designs and technologies have a limited application concerning these conditions, and so new design concepts/technologies are required. The main reasons which practically prevent the use of the traditional motionless solid divertor target are analyzed. We describe several alternative divertor target concepts in this paper. The comparative analysis of these concepts (including the advantages and the drawbacks) is made and the prospects for their practical implementation are prioritized. The concept of the swept divertor target with a liquid metal interlayer between the moving armour and motionless heat-sink is presented in more detail. The critical issues of this design are listed and outlined, and the possible experiments are presented.

  13. Challenges for Plasma Diagnostic in a Next Step Device (FIRE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Kenneth M.

    2002-01-01

    The physics program of any next-step tokamak such as FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] sets demands for plasma measurement which are at least as comprehensive as on present tokamaks, with the additional capabilities needed for control of the plasma and for understanding the effects of the alpha-particles. The diagnostic instrumentation must be able to provide the fine spatial and temporal resolution required for the advanced tokamak plasma scenarios. It must also be able to overcome the effects of neutron- and gamma-induced electrical noise in ceramic components or detectors, and fluorescence and absorption in optical components. There are practical engineering issues of minimizing radiation streaming while providing essential diagnostic access to the plasma. Many diagnostics will require components at or close to the first wall, e.g., ceramics and MI cable for magnetic diagnostics and mirrors for optical diagnostics; these components must be mounted to operate, and survive, i n fluxes which require special material selection. A better set of diagnostics of alpha-particles than that available for the TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] is essential; it must be qualified well before moving into D-T [deuterim-tritium] experiments. A start has been made to assessing the potential implementation of key diagnostics for the FIRE device. The present status is described

  14. Tritium retention in next step devices and the requirements for mitigation and removal techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counsell, G; Coad, P; Grisola, C; Hopf, C

    2006-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying the retention of fuel species in tokamaks with carbon plasma-facing components are presented, together with estimates for the corresponding retention of tritium in ITER. The consequential requirement for new and improved schemes to reduce the tritium inventory is highlighted and the results of ongoing studies into a range of techniques are presented, together with estimates of the tritium removal rate in ITER in each case. Finally, an approach involving the integration of many tritium removal techniques into the ITER operational schedule is proposed as a means to extend the period of operations before major intervention is required

  15. ICRP 60 - the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Thomson, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Following the publication in 1990 of the recommendations proposed by the International Commission on Radiological protection (ICRP 60), this editorial briefly highlights the advice given by the NRPB to UK government departments on how to implement those recommendations regarding occupational, medical and public exposure. (UK)

  16. Interactive Video, The Next Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, L. R.; Wold-Brennon, R.; Cooper, S. K.; Brinkhuis, D.

    2012-12-01

    Video has the ingredients to reach us emotionally - with amazing images, enthusiastic interviews, music, and video game-like animations-- and it's emotion that motivates us to learn more about our new interest. However, watching video is usually passive. New web-based technology is expanding and enhancing the video experience, creating opportunities to use video with more direct interaction. This talk will look at an Educaton and Outreach team's experience producing video-centric curriculum using innovative interactive media tools from TED-Ed and FlixMaster. The Consortium for Ocean Leadership's Deep Earth Academy has partnered with the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) to send educators and a video producer aboard three deep sea research expeditions to the Juan de Fuca plate to install and service sub-seafloor observatories. This collaboration between teachers, students, scientists and media producers has proved a productive confluence, providing new ways of understanding both ground-breaking science and the process of science itself - by experimenting with new ways to use multimedia during ocean-going expeditions and developing curriculum and other projects post-cruise.

  17. Status of the mirror-next-step (MNS) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, C.C.; Doggett, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1979-09-01

    A study was made to define the features of the experimental mirror fusion device - the Mirror Next Step, or MNS - that will bridge the gap between present mirror confinement experiments and a power-producing reactor. The project goals and organization of the study are outlined, some initial device parameters are described, and the technological requirements are related to ongoing development programs

  18. Next steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    On the 60th anniversary of the founding of the Chartered Institute of Transport, its past, its current aims and structure, and the role which the Institute should adopt to the year 2000 are discussed. Technological and social change, bureaucracy, industrial relations, worker participation, government and transport, national role, and financial policy, are some of the subjects covered. In discussing the energy crisis, the objectives of the European Communities for 1985 and 1990 dealing with energy and energy conservatin are noted. Absent was the mention of the role that transport could play in the more efficient and effective utilization of energy. The Institute of Transport has the opportunity to demonstrate leadership and initiative in cooperating with governments in the area of energy use and energy conservation.

  19. Time to pause before the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemon, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Many scientists, who have staunchly supported ITER for years, are coming to realize it is time to further rethink fusion energy's development strategy. Specifically, as was suggested by Grant Logan and Dale Meade, and in keeping with the restructuring of 1996, a theme of better, cheaper, faster fusion would serve the program more effectively than ''demonstrating controlled ignition...and integrated testing of the high-heat-flux and nuclear components required to utilize fusion energy...'' which are the important ingredients of ITER's objectives. The author has personally shifted his view for a mixture of technical and political reasons. On the technical side, he senses that through advanced tokamak research, spherical tokamak research, and advanced stellarator work, scientists are coming to a new understanding that might make a burning-plasma device significantly smaller and less expensive. Thus waiting for a few years, even ten years, seems prudent. Scientifically, there is fascinating physics to be learned through studies of burning plasma on a tokamak. And clearly if one wishes to study burning plasma physics in a sustained plasma, there is no other configuration with an adequate database on which to proceed. But what is the urgency of moving towards an ITER-like step focused on burning plasma? Some of the arguments put forward and the counter arguments are discussed here

  20. Developing Boundary/PMI Solutions for Next-Step Fusion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Leonard, A. W.; Thomas, D. M.; Allen, S. L.; Hill, D. N.; Unterberg, Z.

    2014-10-01

    The path towards next-step fusion development requires increased emphasis on the boundary/plasma-material interface. The new DIII-D Boundary/Plasma-Material Interactions (PMI) Center has been established to address these critical issues on a timescale relevant to the design of FNSF, adopting the following transformational approaches: (1) Develop and test advanced divertor configurations on DIII-D compatible with core plasma high performance operational scenarios in FNSF; (2) Validate candidate reactor PFC materials at reactor-relevant temperatures in DIII-D high-performance plasmas, in collaboration with the broad material research/development community; (3) Integrate validated boundary-materials interface with high performance plasmas to provide viable boundary/PMI solutions for next-step fusion devices. This program leverages unique DIII-D capabilities, promotes synergistic programs within the broad PMI community, including linear material research facilities. It will also enable us to build a compelling bridge for the US research on long-pulse facilities. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC05-00OR2725.

  1. Implications of fusion results for a reactor: a proposed next step device-JIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Simulations with a critical-temperature model have been made of proposed future devices (NET, ITER, JIT, etc.). These show that only machines with a current capability of ∼ 30MA have a sufficient ignition domain to cope with more realistic operating conditions (i.e. taking into account sawteeth effects, impurity dilution and semi-continuous operation). The importance of dilution and Bremsstrahlung radiation are clearly demonstrated; a mean temperature > 7keV is required for ignition. This prevents higher field, lower current devices from reaching ignition. Transient operations with monster sawteeth or H-mode allow such devices (>30MA) to reach ignition at lower density without additional heating. To investigate the problems of a controlled burning plasma for days in semi-continuous operation, the plasma of the next-step tokamak should be similar in size and performance to an energy producing reactor. The scientific and technical aims of such a machine should be to study burning plasma, test wall technology, provide a test-bed for breeding blankets and most importantly to demonstrate the potential and viability of fusion as an energy source. The main design characteristics of a Thermonuclear Furnace-JIT-dedicated to these objectives are presented. Watercooled copper magnets are used to benefit from proven technology. A single-null divertor configuration ensures helium exhaust and possibly benefits from an H-mode to reach the ignition domain. The X-point position relative to the dump plates would be swept to limit wall loading

  2. Particle accelerators: the next big step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.

    1982-01-01

    Ideas which are currently under discussion for increasing the present energy range of particle accelerators but which are also economical in resources and do not demand elaborate techniques, are examined. Among the possible methods reviewed are the use of laser beams, the electron ring concept, and the use of wake fields left by electrons in storage rings. (U.K.)

  3. Multidisciplinary Teams: The Next Step in Science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Leal-Egaña.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the current characteristics in science, is the high complexity and technical character that becomes over the last years. This has induced the development of a specific type of professionals, highly specialized in the disciplines that they are involved in, which has produced a communicational breach between the scientists involved on different branches of the science. One of the strategies intended to cross this breach, is the generation of multidisciplinary research strategies, in which professionals of every field of the science can take part, being a kind of scientific and human bridge between the different research teams where they are involved in. This new style to do investigation has made possible the generation of new branches in science, such as for example Biotechnology. In this field -Tissue Engineering- becomes to be a very interesting example of the potential to work in multidisciplinary teams. The reason for this is mainly to avoid technical mistakes, which could cause the death of some patients and which can only be solved by developing research under a multidisciplinary strategy. Nevertheless, and in spite of the success working with multidisciplinary teams, this kind of strategy is rarely used in Latin-American, where the reasons seems to be centered in some aspects personal and cultural. This work shows an example of the new style to develop complex research, which could suggest a new way of working in Latin-American, granted that there is the will to enhance current scientific level.

  4. FOOTPRINTS FOR SUSTAINABILITY: THE NEXT STEPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the ecological footprint as an ecological accounting method, points out research needs for improvement of the analysis, and suggests potential new applications.

  5. Next step in change: The ''learning organization''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, C.E.H.

    1996-01-01

    Although the cost reductions over the past 15 years were painful, they forced the petroleum industry to put resources to work more efficiently, and now they're doing many of the right things in the right ways. Foremost, they've been finding and developing new oil resources from a wide variety of sources at low costs, even while in many areas the quality of the resource base has continued to deteriorate. They've also made great progress in stripping costs out of the entire supply chain, remediating environmental problems, reformulating fuels, and managing risk. In a low price environment, performance improvement is the name of the game, and over time a number of tools have been created to help meet this challenge. Because these tools have been developed successively, each building upon the accomplishments of its predecessors, the author sees them as the ''building blocks'' of organizational transformation. The latest building block -- and one that a lot of thought is being put into at Arthur D. Little -- is the ''learning organization.'' This and the other building blocks are discussed (decentralization, total quality management, business process redesign, high performance business, and virtualization)

  6. Enhancing regional collaboration -- taking the next step

    OpenAIRE

    Temple, Jennie M.

    2007-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Enhancing regional collaboration has been identified as one of the eight National Priorities for Homeland Security by the president of the United States. While South Carolina has made significant efforts in expanding regional collaboration, such as the creation of regional Counter Terrorism Coordinating Councils (CTCCs), there is still much work to be done. There are several teams and capabilities in place throughout the state, but they are uncoordinated, lack structure,...

  7. Next step, the Tour de France?

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    The penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour de France, the Annecy-Semnoz time-trial, has already been won – by a CERN staff member!     In keeping with tradition, the organisers of the Tour de France organise another race, the Étape du Tour, which is open to the general public and follows the actual route of an official stage of the Tour proper. This year, the chosen venue was Annecy and its neighbouring mountain, Le Semnoz, which played host to 11,000 cycling enthusiasts from all parts. This penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour will be raced by the professionals on 20 July. The public race was won by Nicolas Roux, an experienced cyclist and member of CERN’s GS-IS Group, who devoured the 128-km course in just 4 hours and 15 minutes, nine seconds ahead of cycling champion Julien Absalon. “I just managed to overhaul Julien Absalon 500 m before the finishing line,” Nicolas recounts. “It was a fantastic race!” Come rain o...

  8. Integrated Modelling - the next steps (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. V.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated modelling (IM) has made considerable advances over the past decade but it has not yet been taken up as an operational tool in the way that its proponents had hoped. The reasons why will be discussed in Session U17. This talk will propose topics for a research and development programme and suggest an institutional structure which, together, could overcome the present obstacles. Their combined aim would be first to make IM into an operational tool useable by competent public authorities and commercial companies and, in time, to see it evolve into the modelling equivalent of Google Maps, something accessible and useable by anyone with a PC or an iphone and an internet connection. In a recent study, a number of government agencies, water authorities and utilities applied integrated modelling to operational problems. While the project demonstrated that IM could be used in an operational setting and had benefit, it also highlighted the advances that would be required for its widespread uptake. These were: greatly improving the ease with which models could be a) made linkable, b) linked and c) run; developing a methodology for applying integrated modelling; developing practical options for calibrating and validating linked models; addressing the science issues that arise when models are linked; extending the range of modelling concepts that can be linked; enabling interface standards to pass uncertainty information; making the interface standards platform independent; extending the range of platforms to include those for high performance computing; developing the concept of modelling components as web services; separating simulation code from the model’s GUI, so that all the results from the linked models can be viewed through a single GUI; developing scenario management systems so that that there is an audit trail of the version of each model and dataset used in each linked model run. In addition to the above, there is a need to build a set of integrated

  9. Electric deregulation in Texas : the next steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, R.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation provided a look at the deregulated market in Texas and provided some statistics and facts about the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) which monitors the reliability of 37,000 miles of power transmission lines and 77,000 MW of generation. The governance adopted by ERCOT was described along with market design and wholesale operation in terms of open access to transmission and distribution systems, reliability, timely conveyance of information needed to support customer choice, and accurate accountability for electricity production and delivery. Transmission has been one the greatest challenges facing ERCOT, but retail operations are progressing well despite initial start-up problems. tabs., figs

  10. Virtualization, The next step for online services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Piroska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization allows sharing and allocating the hardware resources to more virtual machines thus increasing their usage rate. There are multiple solutions available today such as VMware vSphere, Microsoft Hyper-V, Xen Server and Red Hat KVM each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Choosing the right virtualization solution largely depends on the used applications and their resources requirements. The comparative analysis of the available virtualization solutions shows that it is essential to establish performance criteria’s and minimum and maximum resources usage thresholds over a given period of time. The coexistence of different services in different virtual machines that use different amount of resources allows a more efficient use of the available hardware resources.

  11. Ignition in the next step tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, J.

    1990-07-01

    A 1/2-D model for thermal equilibrium of a thermonuclear plasma with transport described by an empirical global energy confinement time is described. Ignition in NET and ITER is studied for a number of energy confinement time scaling expressions. Ignited operation of these machines at the design value of the neutron wall load is shown to satisfy both beta and density constraints. The value of the confinement time enhancement factor required for such operation is found to be lower for the more recently proposed scaling expressions than it is for the oldest ones. With such new scalings, ignition could be obtained in H-mode in NET and ITER even with relatively flat density profiles

  12. Embodied cognition: Taking the next step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel M Willems

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a large amount of empirical studies related to ‘embodied cognition’. While interesting and valuable, there is something dissatisfying with the current state of affairs in this research domain. Hypotheses tend to be underspecified, testing in general terms for embodied versus disembodied processing. The lack of specificity of current hypotheses can easily lead to an erosion of the embodiment concept, and result in a situation in which essentially any effect is taken as positive evidence. Such erosion is not helpful to the field and does not do justice to the importance of embodiment. Here we want to take stock, and formulate directions for how it can be studied in a more fruitful fashion. As an example we will describe few example studies that have investigated the role of sensori-motor systems in the coding of meaning (‘embodied semantics’. Instead of focusing on the dichotomy between embodied and disembodied theories, we suggest that the field move forward and ask how and when sensori-motor systems and behavior are involved in cognition.

  13. Combined SRCT & FXCT - The next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Acres, R. G.; Winnett, A.; Wang, F.

    2016-03-01

    One of the goals in developing synchrotron radiation x-ray computed tomography (SRCT) for biomedical specimens, is allowing particular tissues and cell types to be marked in the images. This is equivalent to the staining in histology, which enables researchers to visualise and measure tissue structure and biochemical processes within the specimen. Some progress in this direction for SRCT is being made, using a variety of contrast agents that alter the natural x-ray attenuation of the marked tissue [1]. However there are limits to the usefulness of these attenuation altering techniques. Often high concentrations of potentially disruptive chemicals are required with reduced compatibility for in-vivo studies. Another image highlighting technique which might prove more sensitive is x-ray fluorescence imaging. In this case usually endogenous elemental markers are visualised. We would like to develop a lower resolution, but wider field of view means of three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence imaging compatible with SRCT. We have previously proposed a technique in which x-ray fluorescence CT (FXCT) and SRCT data can be collected simultaneously [2]. This work resulted in proof of concept modelling, and a simple experiment test system. We show data here which demonstrate a two-dimensional (2-D) reconstruction of an iodine fluorescence map from a phantom. Measurements were performed with a fixed beam modulating mask using the Imaging and Medical beam line (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron. Fluorescence data was obtained during a CT scan using a single point detector, while transmission data was simultaneously collected using an area detector. A maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (MLEM) iterative algorithm was used to reconstruct the fluorescence map. We report on technique development and now believe compressive sensing (CS) imaging techniques suit SRCT and may overcome the issues encountered so far in combining SRCT and FXCT.

  14. Doctor of Professional Counseling: The Next Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Stephen; Cade, Rochelle; Locke, Don W.

    2012-01-01

    Professional doctorates have been established in the allied health professions by clinicians seeking the highest levels of independent practice. Allied health professional doctorates include nursing practice (DNP), occupational therapy (OTD), psychology (PsyD), social work (DSW), and marriage and family therapy (DMFT). Lessons learned from the…

  15. Multi-User Interactive TV: the Next Step in Personalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brandenburg, Ray; van Deventer, M. Oskar; Karagiannis, Georgios; Schenk, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years there has been an increasing trend towards personalization in the TV world. IMS-based IPTV is a good example of a highly personalized IPTV architecture, featuring an advanced identity management subsystem. This article studies a next step in the personalization of the

  16. The CTB Treaty and next steps towards nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, W.

    1998-01-01

    The achievement of a CTBT is of course the indispensable first step in any program of nuclear disarmament. It will not be easy for Conference on Disarmament to agree by consensus to establish the committee on nuclear disarmament and will be even more difficult for it to agree on its mandate or terms of reference. In the meantime the nuclear powers should seek to implement a number of steps towards nuclear disarmament which thy can argue and implement by their own accord. The next steps are described in this report

  17. Tandem mirror next step conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doggett, J.N.; Damm, C.C.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made to define the features of the experimental mirror fusion device - The Tandem Mirror Next Step, or TMNS - that will bridge the gap between present mirror confinement experiments and a power-producing reactor. We outline the project goals, describe some initial device parameters, and relate the technological requirements to ongoing development programs

  18. The next step in biology: a periodic table?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Pawan K

    2007-08-01

    Systems biology is an approach to explain the behaviour of a system in relation to its individual components. Synthetic biology uses key hierarchical and modular concepts of systems biology to engineer novel biological systems. In my opinion the next step in biology is to use molecule-to-phenotype data using these approaches and integrate them in the form a periodic table. A periodic table in biology would provide chassis to classify, systematize and compare diversity of component properties vis-a-vis system behaviour. Using periodic table it could be possible to compute higher- level interactions from component properties. This paper examines the concept of building a bio-periodic table using protein fold as the fundamental unit.

  19. Tandem mirror next step: remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doggett, J.N.; Damm, C.C.; Hanson, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    This study of the next proposed experiment in the Mirror Fusion Program, the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS), has included serious consideration of the maintenance requirements of such a large source of high energy neutrons with its attendant throughput of tritium. Although maintenance will be costly in time and money, our conclusion is that with careful attention to a design for maintenance plan such a device can be reliably operated

  20. Agroforestry—The Next Step in Sustainable and Resilient Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Heron Wilson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture faces the unprecedented task of feeding a world population of 9 billion people by 2050 while simultaneously avoiding harmful environmental and social effects. One effort to meet this challenge has been organic farming, with outcomes that are generally positive. However, a number of challenges remain. Organic yields lag behind those in conventional agriculture, and greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching remain somewhat problematic. In this paper, we examine current organic and conventional agriculture systems and suggest that agroforestry, which is the intentional combination of trees and shrubs with crops or livestock, could be the next step in sustainable agriculture. By implementing systems that mimic nature’s functions, agroforestry has the potential to remain productive while supporting a range of ecosystem services. In this paper, we outline the common practices and products of agroforestry as well as beneficial environmental and social effects. We address barriers to agroforestry and explore potential options to alter policies and increase adoption by farmers. We conclude that agroforestry is one of the best land use strategies to contribute to food security while simultaneously limiting environmental degradation.

  1. EDITORIAL: Towards the next node in downsized devices Towards the next node in downsized devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-02-01

    Over the past 50 years, one notable trend in the progress of electronics technology has been the steady scaling down in physical size, widely known as Moore's Law. Over the next ten years the ability to continue miniaturizing devices within the existing technological framework faces some fundamental obstacles, and alternatives to traditional CMOS architectures are being investigated. Carbon nanotubes, the wonder material first discovered by Iijima in 1991 [1], have been proposed as a possible means of continuing the trend to down-size devices. This has initiated research into the thermal properties of carbon nanotubes that may affect device performance [2], as well as new synthesis techniques that allow control over the diameter and chirality [3], which are physical characteristics of carbon nanotubes that influence their electronic properties. Carbon nanotubes have been touted as a host of device challenges since their discovery, but an application with truly commercial benefits is yet to be devised. Although the vast potential in carbon nanotube applied research may not yet have tapped into the cashflow from mainstream commerce, the role they have played so far in advancing our understanding of the fundamental properties of systems at the nanoscale remains priceless. Germanium and silicon nanowires are also possible candidates to infiltrate electronic devices. Means of refining fabrication processes and enhancing transport properties in these materials [4, 5] is already a hot topic of research. Electron-beam-induced deposition is one approach that is now widely adopted for fabricating three-dimensional structures for nanoscale devices. However, despite the merits of convenience and versatility, the potential applications of electron-beam-induced deposition are still limited by the problem of impurities introduced by the process. The review published in Nanotechnology [6] at the end of last year presents a user-oriented overview of electron

  2. A Microfluidic Device for Preparing Next Generation DNA Sequencing Libraries and for Automating Other Laboratory Protocols That Require One or More Column Chromatography Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Swee Jin; Phan, Huan; Gerry, Benjamin Michael; Kuhn, Alexandre; Hong, Lewis Zuocheng; Min Ong, Yao; Poon, Polly Suk Yean; Unger, Marc Alexander; Jones, Robert C.; Quake, Stephen R.; Burkholder, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Library preparation for next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) remains a key bottleneck in the sequencing process which can be relieved through improved automation and miniaturization. We describe a microfluidic device for automating laboratory protocols that require one or more column chromatography steps and demonstrate its utility for preparing Next Generation sequencing libraries for the Illumina and Ion Torrent platforms. Sixteen different libraries can be generated simultaneously with significantly reduced reagent cost and hands-on time compared to manual library preparation. Using an appropriate column matrix and buffers, size selection can be performed on-chip following end-repair, dA tailing, and linker ligation, so that the libraries eluted from the chip are ready for sequencing. The core architecture of the device ensures uniform, reproducible column packing without user supervision and accommodates multiple routine protocol steps in any sequence, such as reagent mixing and incubation; column packing, loading, washing, elution, and regeneration; capture of eluted material for use as a substrate in a later step of the protocol; and removal of one column matrix so that two or more column matrices with different functional properties can be used in the same protocol. The microfluidic device is mounted on a plastic carrier so that reagents and products can be aliquoted and recovered using standard pipettors and liquid handling robots. The carrier-mounted device is operated using a benchtop controller that seals and operates the device with programmable temperature control, eliminating any requirement for the user to manually attach tubing or connectors. In addition to NGS library preparation, the device and controller are suitable for automating other time-consuming and error-prone laboratory protocols requiring column chromatography steps, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation. PMID:23894273

  3. A microfluidic device for preparing next generation DNA sequencing libraries and for automating other laboratory protocols that require one or more column chromatography steps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Jin Tan

    Full Text Available Library preparation for next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS remains a key bottleneck in the sequencing process which can be relieved through improved automation and miniaturization. We describe a microfluidic device for automating laboratory protocols that require one or more column chromatography steps and demonstrate its utility for preparing Next Generation sequencing libraries for the Illumina and Ion Torrent platforms. Sixteen different libraries can be generated simultaneously with significantly reduced reagent cost and hands-on time compared to manual library preparation. Using an appropriate column matrix and buffers, size selection can be performed on-chip following end-repair, dA tailing, and linker ligation, so that the libraries eluted from the chip are ready for sequencing. The core architecture of the device ensures uniform, reproducible column packing without user supervision and accommodates multiple routine protocol steps in any sequence, such as reagent mixing and incubation; column packing, loading, washing, elution, and regeneration; capture of eluted material for use as a substrate in a later step of the protocol; and removal of one column matrix so that two or more column matrices with different functional properties can be used in the same protocol. The microfluidic device is mounted on a plastic carrier so that reagents and products can be aliquoted and recovered using standard pipettors and liquid handling robots. The carrier-mounted device is operated using a benchtop controller that seals and operates the device with programmable temperature control, eliminating any requirement for the user to manually attach tubing or connectors. In addition to NGS library preparation, the device and controller are suitable for automating other time-consuming and error-prone laboratory protocols requiring column chromatography steps, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation.

  4. Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential Application in Next-Step Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, F.Q.L.; John, B.; Skinner, C.H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Calle, C.I.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to manage inventories of carbon, tritium, and high-Z elements in fusion plasmas depends on means for effective dust removal. A dust conveyor, based on a moving electrostatic potential well, was tested with particles of tungsten, carbon, glass and sand. A digital microscope imaged a representative portion of the conveyor, and dust particle size and volume distributions were derived before and after operation. About 10 mm3 volume of carbon and tungsten particles were moved in under 5 seconds. The highest driving amplitude tested of 3 kV was the most effective. The optimal driving frequency was 210 Hz (maximum tested) for tungsten particles, decreasing to below 60 Hz for the larger sand particles. Measurements of particle size and volume distributions after 10 and 100 cycles show the breaking apart of agglomerated carbon, and the change in particle distribution over short timescales (<1 s).

  5. Next generation toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Shoichi

    1998-10-01

    A general survey of the possible approach for the next generation toroidal devices was made. Either surprisingly or obviously (depending on one's view), the technical constraints along with the scientific considerations lead to a fairly limited set of systems for the most favorable approach for the next generation devices. Specifically if the magnetic field strength of 5 T or above is to be created by superconducting coils, it imposes minimum in the aspect ratio for the tokamak which is slightly higher than contemplated now for ITER design. The similar technical constraints make the minimum linear size of a stellarator large. Scientifically, it is indicated that a tokamak of 1.5 times in the linear dimension should be able to produce economically, especially if a hybrid reactor is allowed. For the next stellarator, it is strongly suggested that some kind of helical axis is necessary both for the (almost) absolute confinement of high energy particles and high stability and equilibrium beta limits. The author still favors a heliac most. Although it may not have been clearly stated in the main text, the stability afforded by the shearless layer may be exploited fully in a stellarator. (author)

  6. Next generation toroidal devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Shoichi [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A general survey of the possible approach for the next generation toroidal devices was made. Either surprisingly or obviously (depending on one`s view), the technical constraints along with the scientific considerations lead to a fairly limited set of systems for the most favorable approach for the next generation devices. Specifically if the magnetic field strength of 5 T or above is to be created by superconducting coils, it imposes minimum in the aspect ratio for the tokamak which is slightly higher than contemplated now for ITER design. The similar technical constraints make the minimum linear size of a stellarator large. Scientifically, it is indicated that a tokamak of 1.5 times in the linear dimension should be able to produce economically, especially if a hybrid reactor is allowed. For the next stellarator, it is strongly suggested that some kind of helical axis is necessary both for the (almost) absolute confinement of high energy particles and high stability and equilibrium beta limits. The author still favors a heliac most. Although it may not have been clearly stated in the main text, the stability afforded by the shearless layer may be exploited fully in a stellarator. (author)

  7. HIA, the next step: Defining models and roles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putters, Kim

    2005-01-01

    If HIA is to be an effective instrument for optimising health interests in the policy making process it has to recognise the different contests in which policy is made and the relevance of both technical rationality and political rationality. Policy making may adopt a rational perspective in which there is a systematic and orderly progression from problem formulation to solution or a network perspective in which there are multiple interdependencies, extensive negotiation and compromise, and the steps from problem to formulation are not followed sequentially or in any particular order. Policy problems may be simple with clear causal pathways and responsibilities or complex with unclear causal pathways and disputed responsibilities. Network analysis is required to show which stakeholders are involved, their support for health issues and the degree of consensus. From this analysis three models of HIA emerge. The first is the phases model which is fitted to simple problems and a rational perspective of policymaking. This model involves following structured steps. The second model is the rounds (Echternach) model that is fitted to complex problems and a network perspective of policymaking. This model is dynamic and concentrates on network solutions taking these steps in no particular order. The final model is the 'garbage can' model fitted to contexts which combine simple and complex problems. In this model HIA functions as a problem solver and signpost keeping all possible solutions and stakeholders in play and allowing solutions to emerge over time. HIA models should be the beginning rather than the conclusion of discussion the worlds of HIA and policymaking

  8. The next step: intelligent digital assistance for clinical operating rooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miehle Juliana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of new technologies, the surgical working environment becomes increasingly complex and comprises many medical devices that have to be taken cared of. However, the goal is to reduce the workload of the surgical team to allow them to fully focus on the actual surgical procedure. Therefore, new strategies are needed to keep the working environment manageable. Existing research projects in the field of intelligent medical environments mostly concentrate on workflow modeling or single smart features rather than building up a complete intelligent environment. In this article, we present the concept of intelligent digital assistance for clinical operating rooms (IDACO, providing the surgeon assistance in many different situations before and during an ongoing procedure using natural spoken language. The speech interface enables the surgeon to concentrate on the surgery and control the technical environment at the same time, without taking care of how to interact with the system. Furthermore, the system observes the context of the surgery and controls several devices autonomously at the appropriate time during the procedure.

  9. Lunar Station: The Next Logical Step in Space Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Robert Bruce; Harper, Lynn; Newfield, Mark; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the product of the efforts of sixteen nations over the course of several decades. It is now complete, operational, and has been continuously occupied since November of 20001. Since then the ISS has been carrying out a wide variety of research and technology development experiments, and starting to produce some pleasantly startling results. The ISS has a mass of 420 metric tons, supports a crew of six with a yearly resupply requirement of around 30 metric tons, within a pressurized volume of 916 cubic meters, and a habitable volume of 388 cubic meters. Its solar arrays produce up to 84 kilowatts of power. In the course of developing the ISS, many lessons were learned and much valuable expertise was gained. Where do we go from here? The ISS offers an existence proof of the feasibility of sustained human occupation and operations in space over decades. It also demonstrates the ability of many countries to work collaboratively on a very complex and expensive project in space over an extended period of time to achieve a common goal. By harvesting best practices and lessons learned, the ISS can also serve as a useful model for exploring architectures for beyond low-­- earth-­-orbit (LEO) space development. This paper will explore the concept and feasibility for a Lunar Station. The Station concept can be implemented by either putting the equivalent capability of the ISS down on the surface of the Moon, or by developing the required capabilities through a combination of delivered materials and equipment and in situ resource utilization (ISRU). Scenarios that leverage existing technologies and capabilities as well as capabilities that are under development and are expected to be available within the next 3-­5 years, will be examined. This paper will explore how best practices and expertise gained from developing and operating the ISS and other relevant programs can be applied to effectively developing Lunar Station.

  10. The Next Step in the Evolution of the RBV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    This essay addresses the role of transaction cost economics (TCE) inadvancing the resource-based view. In particular, it is argued that TCE hasthe potential to remedy a number of weak spots in the RBV, such as theabsence of attention in the RBV to the interaction between value creation andvalue...

  11. The Doctor of Nursing Practice: defining the next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Margaret

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the previous articles in this special issue of the Journal of Nursing Education that are based on the Committee on Institutional Cooperation's Dean's Conference on the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) and to identify areas of consensus, as well as areas of controversy. Areas of consensus include the high level of interest in DNP programs and the intent to expand the role of the advanced practice nurse to population health, policy, and leadership. Areas of controversy include the nature of the DNP product, the definition of clinical experiences, the nature of the capstone project, the outcomes of these new practitioners, and the impact on schools. Suggestions for achieving higher levels of consensus, including the need for respective, inclusive dialogue, are provided. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. The cost management organization: the next step for materiel management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuweiler, R C

    1997-06-01

    With Materiel Management's transition over the last decade from simple logistics to analysis and cost management, it has gained recognition as a key part of the management team responsible for supplies, equipment, standards, and associated processes to identify, purchase, store, distribute, issue, and dispose of supplies and equipment. The materiel manager's job consists of putting the right product in the right place at the right time and in the right quantity at the best total delivered cost. In this context, Materiel Management has made powerful impacts to lower costs associated with: Distribution--costs have been lowered by actively adopting advanced supply channel management techniques such as primary suppliers, JIT, stockless programs, case cart/custom kit/procedure based delivery systems, modified stockless programs as well as margin management through cost plus, flat fee, or margins paid per activity. Cost of goods--lowered through aggregated purchasing in the forms of regional and national purchasing alliances and local capitation or other gain/risk share programs. Internal process costs--lowered by out-sourcing and/or integrating supplier processes and personnel into operations via partnership approaches. We have also reduced transactional costs through EDI transaction sets and the emerging use of the inter and intranet/electronic commerce, procurement cards, and evaluated receipt settlement processes. De-layering--We have lowered the operating costs of Materiel Management overhead by re-design/re-engineering, resulting in reduced management and greater front line authority. Quality--We have learned to identify and respond to customer and supplier needs by using quality improvement tools and ongoing measurement and monitoring techniques. Through this we have identified the waste of non-beneficial products and services. We have adopted supplier certification measurers to ensure quality is built into processes and outcomes. With so much already accomplished

  13. Next Step Spherical Torus Design Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Kessel, C.; Ono, M.; Peng, M.; Schmidt, J.; Woolley, R.; Zatz, I.

    2002-01-01

    Studies are underway to identify and characterize a design point for a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) experiment. This would be a ''Proof of Performance'' device which would follow and build upon the successes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) a ''Proof of Principle'' device which has operated at PPPL since 1999. With the Decontamination and Decommissioning (DandD) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) nearly completed, the TFTR test cell and facility will soon be available for a device such as NSST. By utilizing the TFTR test cell, NSST can be constructed for a relatively low cost on a short time scale. In addition, while furthering spherical torus (ST) research, this device could achieve modest fusion power gain for short-pulse lengths, a significant step toward future large burning plasma devices now under discussion in the fusion community. The selected design point is Q=2 at HH=1.4, P subscript ''fusion''=60 MW, 5 second pulse, with R subscript ''0''=1.5 m, A=1.6, I subscript ''p''=10vMA, B subscript ''t''=2.6 T, CS flux=16 weber. Most of the research would be conducted in D-D, with a limited D-T campaign during the last years of the program

  14. The Virginia pharmacy practice transformation conference: outcomes and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Janet A

    2012-04-01

    Thought leaders in Virginia came together to achieve consensus on the pharmacy practice innovations required to advance the medication-related health outcomes of patients in the Commonwealth. The participants identified key elements and strategies needed for practice transformation and these became the foundation for practice change. The primary key elements included legislation and regulation modifications, payment reform, and business model development. The Virginia Pharmacy Congress, which represents key pharmacy stakeholders in the Commonwealth, became the home for the transformation movement and the development and implementation of a unified action plan for achieving the envisioned practice transformation.

  15. Slovenian national health insurance card: the next step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, T; Kandus, G; Trcek, D; Zupan, B

    1999-01-01

    The Slovenian national health insurance company started a full-scale deployment of the insurance smart card that is at the present used for insurance data and identification purpose only. There is ample capacity on the cards that were selected, to contain much more data than needed for the purely administrative and charging purposes. There are plans to include some basic medical information, donor information, etc. On the other hand, there are no firm plans to use the security infrastructure and the extensive network, connecting the insurance company with the more than 200 self service terminals positioned at the medical facilities through the country to build an integrated medical information system that would be very beneficial to the patients and the medical community. This paper is proposing some possible future developments and further discusses on the security issues involved with such countrywide medical information system.

  16. Automating Groundwater Sampling At Hanford, The Next Step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, C.W.; Conley, S.F.; Hildebrand, R.D.; Cunningham, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the groundwater monitoring activities at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State have been very 'people intensive.' Approximately 1500 wells are sampled each year by field personnel or 'samplers.' These individuals have been issued pre-printed forms showing information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from 2 official electronic databases: the Hanford Well information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and other personnel posted the collected information onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. A pilot project for automating this extremely tedious process was lauched in 2008. Initially, the automation was focused on water-level measurements. Now, the effort is being extended to automate the meta-data associated with collecting groundwater samples. The project allowed electronic forms produced in the field by samplers to be used in a work flow process where the data is transferred to the database and electronic form is filed in managed records - thus eliminating manually completed forms. Elimating the manual forms and streamlining the data entry not only improved the accuracy of the information recorded, but also enhanced the efficiency and sampling capacity of field office personnel.

  17. Regulating the health care workforce: next steps for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Celia

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the recent ferment surrounding professional self-regulation in medicine and other health professions. It reviews the academic literature and sets out an agenda for research. The first section considers definitions, acknowledging the particularly complex regulatory maze in UK health care at present, in which professional self-regulation is only one part. The second section reviews academic writing, currently dispersed among the disciplines. 'The logic of light touch regulation', a feature of the 19th century establishment of the General Medical Council, can perhaps shed light on present debates. Alongside the intense political spotlight on regulation in the wake of the Bristol case, consumer-led research and consumer pressure to rethink the principles of regulation has emerged. This is examined in the third section. Finally, themes for research are advanced. First, there is a need to explore the changing relationship between the state and professions and implications, not only for the professions but for health care more broadly. Second, calls for a new professionalism need to be given clearer content. Third, the moves towards more lay involvement in regulatory bodies need study. Fourth, questions of human rights and professional registers must be explored. Fundamental questions of what professional self-regulation can hope to achieve and where it fits in relation to government ambitions as a whole, remain unresolved. Alongside the work programme of the new overarching regulator, there may well be scope for a new style of public enquiry covering the whole territory of regulation.

  18. Wind Powering America: The Next Steps in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Jennifer L. [North Carolina Solar Center; Scanlin, Dennis [Appalachian State University; Quinlan, Paul [North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association

    2013-06-18

    The goal of this project is to apply the WPA’s proactive outreach strategy to the problem of educating the public about the likely transmission infrastructure developments concomitant to the significant development of wind energy resources in North Carolina. Given the lead time to develop significant new transmission infrastructure (5-10 years), it is critical to begin this outreach work today, so that wind resources can be developed to adequately meet the 20% by 2030 goal in the mid- to long-term (10-20 years). The project team planned to develop a transmission infrastructure outreach campaign for North Carolina by: (1) convening a utility interest group (UIG) of the North Carolina Wind Working Group (NC WWG) consisting of electric utilities in the state and the Southeast; and (2) expanding outreach to local and state government officials in North Carolina.

  19. The 2012 School Psychology Futures Conference: Accomplishments and next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamruz-Smith, Susan; Harrison, Patti L.; Cummings, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    The major national and international school psychology organizations hosted the 2012 School Psychology Futures Conference during the fall of 2012. The conference was designed to provide an opportunity for school psychologists to plan their future roles in better supporting children, families, and schools. The 2012 conference, titled "School…

  20. Fintech: the next step in banking and finance

    OpenAIRE

    Fuster Espí, Adrià

    2017-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic: 2016/2017 Throughout this dissertation, we will analyse the major changes that digital revolution has meant to the financial world, and how this technological improvements have created new financial platforms which operate separately from the banking sector. We will detailedly examine the segment of financial Startups and how do they work by examining one of the most important Spanish Fintech in the crowdlen...

  1. Dissuasive cigarette sticks: the next step in standardised ('plain') packaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Eckert, Christine; Louviere, Jordan

    2016-11-01

    Standardised (or 'plain') packaging has reduced the appeal of smoking by removing imagery that smokers use to affiliate themselves with the brand they smoke. We examined whether changing the appearance of cigarette sticks could further denormalise smoking and enhance the negative impact of standardised packaging. We conducted an online study of 313 New Zealand smokers who comprised a Best-Worst Choice experiment and a rating task. The Best-Worst experiment used a 2×3×3×6 orthogonal design to test the following attributes: on-pack warning message, branding level, warning size and stick appearance. We identified three segments whose members' choice patterns were strongly influenced by the stick design, warning theme and size, and warning theme, respectively. Each of the dissuasive sticks tested was less preferred and rated as less appealing than the most common stick in use; a 'minutes of life lost' stick was the most aversive of the stimuli tested. Dissuasive sticks could enhance the effect of standardised packaging, particularly among older smokers who are often more heavily addicted and resistant to change. Countries introducing standardised packaging legislation should take the opportunity to denormalise the appearance of cigarette sticks, in addition to removing external tobacco branding from packs and increasing the warning size. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Managed maintenance, the next step in power plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, G.; Anderson, T.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Westinghouse Nuclear Services Integration Division managed maintenance services are described. Essential to the management and control of a total plant maintenance programme is the development of a comprehensive maintenance specification. During recent years Westinghouse has jointly developed total plant engineering-based maintenance specifications with a number of utilities. The process employed and the experience to date are described. To efficiently implement the maintenance programme Westinghouse has developed a computer software program specifically designed for day to day use at the power plant by maintenance personnel. This program retains an equipment maintenance history, schedules maintenance activities, issues work orders and performs a number of sophisticated analyses of the maintenance backlog and forecast, equipment failure rates, etc. The functions of this software program are described and details of Westinghouse efforts to support the utilities in reducing outage times through development of predefined outage plans for critical report maintenance activities are given. Also described is the experience gained in the training of specialized maintenance personnel, employing competency-based training techniques and equipment mock-ups, and the benefits experienced, in terms of improved quality and productivity of maintenance performed. The success experienced with these methods has caused Westinghouse to expand the use of these training techniques to the more routine skill areas of power plant maintenance. A significant reduction in the operating costs of nuclear power plants will only be brought about by a significant improvement in the quality of maintenance. Westinghouse intends to effect this change by expanding its international service capabilities and to make major investments in order to promote technological developments in the area of power plant maintenance. (author)

  3. The next steps in Seti-Italia science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montebugnoli, Stelio; Cosmovici, Cristiano; Monari, Jader; Pluchino, Salvatore; Zoni, Luca; Bartolini, Marco; Orlati, Andrea; Salerno, Emma; Schillirò, Francesco; Pupillo, Giuseppe; Perini, Federico; Bianchi, Germano; Tani, Mattia; Amico, Leonardo

    2010-02-01

    The Italian Medicina Radioastronomy Station (nearby Bologna) is equipped with two antennas: the 32 mt (VLBI) dish and the Northern Cross, a large T-shaped parabolic/cylindrical antenna (30.000 sqm). So far Seti observations have been performed using a SERENDIP IV high resolution spectrometer connected to the VLBI dish in "piggy back" mode configuration. In order to facilitate data interpretation and to introduce innovative methods to search for possible extraterrestrial signals, we are planning to make use of the large UHF Northern Cross transit telescope. Sky observations performed at least within two months, could provide for each day a number of matrices labeled according to the observing sidereal time. The entire set of matrices will be characterized by an averaged spectrum on each row per day. Keeping constant the transit antenna declination, a coherent signal coming from a definite position of the sky, would produce a "flag on" in the same submatrix at the same sidereal time. Detections collected in this way could be considered "confirmed" since they always come from the same region of the sky and are observed regularly. An extremely powerful processing board based on a multi-FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Array) core was developed and is now under programming. This is conceived to be the processing core for this new kind of investigations.

  4. Progress and Next Steps in the BIOPROTA Collaborative Forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sanchez, Danyl [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 40, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Smith, G. [GMS Abingdon Ltd, Tamarisk, Radley Road, Abingdon, OX14 3PP (United Kingdom); Smith, K. [RadEcol Consulting Ltd, Fell View, Middletown, Cumbria, CA22 2UG (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    BIOPROTA is an international collaborative forum, started in 2002, designed to support resolution of key issues in the biosphere aspects of assessments of the long-term impact of potential contaminant releases associated with solid radioactive waste disposal. The focus is on the application of good science to provide a good understanding of relevant biosphere system processes and address important uncertainties. This in turn supports decision making related to waste management and the appropriate allocation of resources to solve problems. Membership includes regulators, operators, technical support organisations and academic institutions from North America, Europe and Asia. Member organisations have representation on a Sponsoring Committee, currently chaired by Danyl Perez-Sanchez (CIEMAT) and supported by a Technical Secretariat. Given the long time frames which are required to be addressed in post-closure assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities, thousands of years or even longer, the range of assessment issues is very large. In essence, they boil down to being related to the scope for environmental change and the behaviour of humans and ecosystems in response to such change, including their contribution to the change itself. This requires consideration of climate change, landscape evolution, the dynamics of ecosystems, and then, the behaviour of radionuclides within those changing systems and the ways by which their presence may give rise to radiation exposure. It is multi-disciplinary but has an important focus on radioecology. The forum is tailored to enable opportunities for sharing, reviewing and interpretation of information used in assessments. This includes methods for system characterisation and description, modelling of system evolution subject to assumptions for environmental change, exposure modelling according to those possibilities for evolution, and data to support all the assessment assumptions and model parameter selection. The

  5. The Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlvaine, J. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Saunders, S. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Bordelon, E. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Baden, S. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Elam, L. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

  6. The Next Step in Somalia: Exploiting Victory Post-Mogadishu

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    United States. The force was also provided a complete array of equipment to include weapons, body armor and the R21 MkII “Casper” armoured vehicle.47...interdict Al Shabab finances would be to reduce international donations to their fundraising cells. These cells are hidden within the Somali expatriate

  7. Translation of Nutritional Genomics into Nutrition Practice: The Next Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Murgia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetics is an important piece of every individual health puzzle. The completion of the Human Genome Project sequence has deeply changed the research of life sciences including nutrition. The analysis of the genome is already part of clinical care in oncology, pharmacology, infectious disease and, rare and undiagnosed diseases. The implications of genetic variations in shaping individual nutritional requirements have been recognised and conclusively proven, yet routine use of genetic information in nutrition and dietetics practice is still far from being implemented. This article sets out the path that needs to be taken to build a framework to translate gene–nutrient interaction studies into best-practice guidelines, providing tools that health professionals can use to understand whether genetic variation affects nutritional requirements in their daily clinical practice.

  8. Empirical Green's function analysis: Taking the next step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    An extension of the empirical Green's function (EGF) method is presented that involves determination of source parameters using standard EGF deconvolution, followed by inversion for a common attenuation parameter for a set of colocated events. Recordings of three or more colocated events can thus be used to constrain a single path attenuation estimate. I apply this method to recordings from the 1995-1996 Ridgecrest, California, earthquake sequence; I analyze four clusters consisting of 13 total events with magnitudes between 2.6 and 4.9. I first obtain corner frequencies, which are used to infer Brune stress drop estimates. I obtain stress drop values of 0.3-53 MPa (with all but one between 0.3 and 11 MPa), with no resolved increase of stress drop with moment. With the corner frequencies constrained, the inferred attenuation parameters are very consistent; they imply an average shear wave quality factor of approximately 20-25 for alluvial sediments within the Indian Wells Valley. Although the resultant spectral fitting (using corner frequency and ??) is good, the residuals are consistent among the clusters analyzed. Their spectral shape is similar to the the theoretical one-dimensional response of a layered low-velocity structure in the valley (an absolute site response cannot be determined by this method, because of an ambiguity between absolute response and source spectral amplitudes). I show that even this subtle site response can significantly bias estimates of corner frequency and ??, if it is ignored in an inversion for only source and path effects. The multiple-EGF method presented in this paper is analogous to a joint inversion for source, path, and site effects; the use of colocated sets of earthquakes appears to offer significant advantages in improving resolution of all three estimates, especially if data are from a single site or sites with similar site response.

  9. Linked environmental data. The next step for environmental information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menger, Matthias; Ackermann, Patrick; Linse, Andreas; Bandholtz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Environment Agency (UBA) in Germany as one Competent Authority of the European Member States involved with the assessment and authorisation of chemicals, pesticides, biozides and medicals, has a wide expertise of complex information systems. Having timely, comprehensive and reliable information on the environmental relevant properties (e.g. of chemical substances and preparations) is of immense importance for all sections dealing with environmental protection issues. Regarding the reality of available information systems in each environmental section, and moreover in each section itself, there has been developed several specific approaches to gather, store and search its relevant data. This makes sense due to each section has its own requirements, different user groups (industry and authorities or just authorities or scientific partners etc.), different budgets to bring technology 'on the road', and different (legally obligatory) procedures to handle the data and information of such systems. Nevertheless, there several strong reasons to look for a Linked Environmental Data infrastructure - at least internally in one authority itself: - Overcome the mostly separated systems; - Explore the potential of data silos in several environmental sections; - Efficiency/effectiveness in data gathering, assessment, results, budgets..; - sharing of knowledge, i.e. use of specific prepared information of specially intended information systems; - timelyness of data/information; - best data/information from most competent partner/section; - gain from already available systems and their data/information; - speed up developments and availability of data/information. Of course there are also several points which might be a huge obstacle to Linked Environmental Data (LED), e.g. confidential business data. This leads already to the distinction between 'Open LED' and 'Non-Open LED'. Nevertheless, the potential benefits and the possibilities offered via the modern information

  10. Linked environmental data. The next step for environmental information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menger, Matthias; Ackermann, Patrick; Linse, Andreas [Federal Environemnt Agency, Dessau (Germany); Bandholtz, Thomas [innoQ GmbH, Monheim (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Federal Environment Agency (UBA) in Germany as one Competent Authority of the European Member States involved with the assessment and authorisation of chemicals, pesticides, biozides and medicals, has a wide expertise of complex information systems. Having timely, comprehensive and reliable information on the environmental relevant properties (e.g. of chemical substances and preparations) is of immense importance for all sections dealing with environmental protection issues. Regarding the reality of available information systems in each environmental section, and moreover in each section itself, there has been developed several specific approaches to gather, store and search its relevant data. This makes sense due to each section has its own requirements, different user groups (industry and authorities or just authorities or scientific partners etc.), different budgets to bring technology 'on the road', and different (legally obligatory) procedures to handle the data and information of such systems. Nevertheless, there several strong reasons to look for a Linked Environmental Data infrastructure - at least internally in one authority itself: - Overcome the mostly separated systems; - Explore the potential of data silos in several environmental sections; - Efficiency/effectiveness in data gathering, assessment, results, budgets..; - sharing of knowledge, i.e. use of specific prepared information of specially intended information systems; - timelyness of data/information; - best data/information from most competent partner/section; - gain from already available systems and their data/information; - speed up developments and availability of data/information. Of course there are also several points which might be a huge obstacle to Linked Environmental Data (LED), e.g. confidential business data. This leads already to the distinction between 'Open LED' and 'Non-Open LED'. Nevertheless, the potential benefits and the possibilities

  11. Live and trending: the next step for public health campaigns?

    OpenAIRE

    Dheepa Jeyapalan; Amy Jo Vassallo; Becky Freeman

    2017-01-01

    Marketing strategies used by large corporations are rapidly evolving, through the development of novel technologies and multiple marketing channels favoured by young consumers. Formerly small-scale marketing approaches, such as providing free samples at local events, may now have a global reach when paired with live streaming on popular social media sites. The regulation of these live streaming platforms is hugely challenging and likely to remain so in the foreseeable future. To ensure that ‘...

  12. Sociocultural Systems: The Next Step in Army Cultural Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    chapters in her conclusion of the anthology, pulling together overarching themes for the reader. She discusses multiple perspectives for defining and...driver pulling up to a gas pump is likely to be low on gas) or knowing the implication of a particular set of activities (we know that shopping in...relevance to civilian and military helpers. These are referred to by anthropologists as gatekeepers, culture brokers, and (my term) goalies . They are

  13. Live and trending: the next step for public health campaigns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheepa Jeyapalan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing strategies used by large corporations are rapidly evolving, through the development of novel technologies and multiple marketing channels favoured by young consumers. Formerly small-scale marketing approaches, such as providing free samples at local events, may now have a global reach when paired with live streaming on popular social media sites. The regulation of these live streaming platforms is hugely challenging and likely to remain so in the foreseeable future. To ensure that ‘unhealthy’ messages are not the only content seen by social media users, public health campaigns should invest in similar technologies in disseminating health promoting messages.

  14. Combined SRCT and FXCT – The next steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, C.; Acres, R.G.; Winnett, A.; Wang, F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals in developing synchrotron radiation x-ray computed tomography (SRCT) for biomedical specimens, is allowing particular tissues and cell types to be marked in the images. This is equivalent to the staining in histology, which enables researchers to visualise and measure tissue structure and biochemical processes within the specimen. Some progress in this direction for SRCT is being made, using a variety of contrast agents that alter the natural x-ray attenuation of the marked tissue [1]. However there are limits to the usefulness of these attenuation altering techniques. Often high concentrations of potentially disruptive chemicals are required with reduced compatibility for in-vivo studies. Another image highlighting technique which might prove more sensitive is x-ray fluorescence imaging. In this case usually endogenous elemental markers are visualised. We would like to develop a lower resolution, but wider field of view means of three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence imaging compatible with SRCT. We have previously proposed a technique in which x-ray fluorescence CT (FXCT) and SRCT data can be collected simultaneously [2]. This work resulted in proof of concept modelling, and a simple experiment test system. We show data here which demonstrate a two-dimensional (2-D) reconstruction of an iodine fluorescence map from a phantom. Measurements were performed with a fixed beam modulating mask using the Imaging and Medical beam line (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron. Fluorescence data was obtained during a CT scan using a single point detector, while transmission data was simultaneously collected using an area detector. A maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (MLEM) iterative algorithm was used to reconstruct the fluorescence map. We report on technique development and now believe compressive sensing (CS) imaging techniques suit SRCT and may overcome the issues encountered so far in combining SRCT and FXCT

  15. Lymphatic Vascular Regeneration : The Next Step in Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huethorst, Eline; Krebber, Merle M; Fledderus, Joost O; Gremmels, Hendrik; Xu, Yan Juan; Pei, Jiayi; Verhaar, Marianne C; Cheng, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays a crucial role in interstitial fluid drainage, lipid absorption, and immunological defense. Lymphatic dysfunction results in lymphedema, fluid accumulation, and swelling of soft tissues, as well as a potentially impaired immune response. Lymphedema significantly reduces

  16. A solar economy in the American Southwest: Critical next steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualetti, Martin J.; Haag, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Like many other sub-tropical deserts in the world, the southwestern U.S. has high rates of solar insolation. However, meaningful development there, especially in solar-rich Arizona, has been slow. This article addresses why this is so by concentrating on one critical contributor to success-workforce development. To identify shortcomings and needed changes, we used a survey of the significant solar firms operating in Arizona to ask three questions: Does a gap exist between existing and desired levels of solar engineering education and training? What skills should new graduates possess when entering the solar energy workforce? What course of study is considered important in the education of solar energy employees? We found that a stronger solar economy in Arizona will not depend, at least initially, on advanced graduate training in engineering, but on a broad-based Bachelor's level degree program that complements engineering studies with a strong emphasis on verbal and written communication, as well as business and teaming abilities. Non-technical skills and project management are at least as valuable as solar training. Given the high public awareness of Arizona's solar resource, a stronger solar future there should help stimulate similar progress elsewhere, both in the U.S. and abroad. - Research Highlights: →We conducted a quantitative and qualitative survey of solar companies in Arizona. →Non-technical skills and project management are at least as valuable as solar training. →Universities need to expand 'integrated solar energy training' that adds several non-technical themes to the traditional engineering emphasis. →More aggressive action is needed to promote local solar development, including leadership, feed-in tariffs, and favorable legislation and policies.

  17. Systems and software quality the next step for industrialisation

    CERN Document Server

    Wieczorek, Martin; Bons, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Software and systems quality is playing an increasingly important role in the growth of almost all - profit and non-profit - organisations. Quality is vital to the success of enterprises in their markets. Most small trade and repair businesses use software systems in their administration and marketing processes. Every doctor's surgery is managing its patients using software. Banking is no longer conceivable without software. Aircraft, trucks and cars use more and more software to handle their increasingly complex technical systems. Innovation, competition and cost pressure are always present i

  18. Taking the Next Step: Ways Forward for Coaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Andrew; Collins, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Coaching is no longer a subset of physical education or sport psychology but is rather an established vocation for research. In reaching such a position, we argue that a broad range of epistemologies have been used to investigate coaching such as sociology and cognitive psychology. However there is danger that, in the search for new ground,…

  19. Blockchain: The Evolutionary Next Step for ICT E-Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pin Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blockchain technology, while still challenged with key limitations, is a transformative Information and Communications Technology (ICT that has changed our notion of trust. Improved efficiencies for agricultural sustainable development has been demonstrated when ICT-enabled farms have access to knowledge banks and other digital resources. UN FAO-recommended ICT e-agricultural infrastructure components are a confluence of ICT and blockchain technology requirements. When ICT e-agricultural systems with blockchain infrastructure are immutable and distributed ledger systems for record management, baseline agricultural environmental data integrity is safeguarded for those who participate in transparent data management. This paper reviewed blockchain-based concepts associated with ICT-based technology. Moreover, a model ICT e-agriculture system with a blockchain infrastructure is proposed for use at the local and regional scale. To determine context specific technical and social requirements of blockchain technology for ICT e-agriculture systems, an evaluation tool is presented. The proposed system and tool can be evaluated and applied to further developments of e-agriculture systems.

  20. The six P’s of the next step in electronic patient records in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel-Verkerke, Margreet B.; Stegwee, Robert A.; Spil, Antonius A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a decade of Electronic Patient Record development. During the study a second question was added: How to take the next step in the Netherlands? This paper describes the developments but the main results create a framework for the future situation. The USE

  1. Next-Step Spherical Torus Experiment and Spherical Torus Strategy in the Fusion Energy Development Path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Peng, M.; Kessel, C.; Neumeyer, C.; Schmidt, J.; Chrzanowski, J.; Darrow, D.; Grisham, L.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Jarboe, T.; Jun, C.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Raman, R.; Stevenson, T.; Viola, M.; Wilson, J.; Woolley, R.; Zatz, I.

    2003-01-01

    A spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path which is complementary to proposed tokamak burning plasma experiments such as ITER is described. The ST strategy focuses on a compact Component Test Facility (CTF) and higher performance advanced regimes leading to more attractive DEMO and Power Plant scale reactors. To provide the physics basis for the CTF an intermediate step needs to be taken which we refer to as the ''Next Step Spherical Torus'' (NSST) device and examine in some detail herein. NSST is a ''performance extension'' (PE) stage ST with the plasma current of 5-10 MA, R = 1.5 m, and Beta(sub)T less than or equal to 2.7 T with flexible physics capability. The mission of NSST is to: (1) provide a sufficient physics basis for the design of CTF, (2) explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction/high performance regimes, which can then be utilized by CTF, DEMO, and Power Plants, and (3) contribute to the general plasma/fusion science of high beta toroidal plasmas. The NSST facility is designed to utilize the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (or similar) site to minimize the cost and time required for the design and construction

  2. Safety analysis and evaluation of the next fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shigetada; Honda, Tsutomu; Ohmura, Hiroshi; Kawai, Masayoshi; Shimizu, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki; Nakahara, Katsuhiko; Seki, Yasushi.

    1988-12-01

    As a part of safety evaluation, a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been attempted for the Next Fusion Device system. Among the various events related to safety, a number of representative events have been selected for assessment, from the events in normal operation state, repair and maintenance state and accidental state. In the first chapter, in order to conduct the probabilistic risk assessment of the whole Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER), the data base required for the analysis was investigated in 1.1, the results on the failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), accident sequence, radioactive inventory leakage flow path, event tree analysis (ETA) and fault tree analysis (FTA) were summarized in 1.2 to 1.5, respectively. Based on these results, accident initiating events were evaluated in 1.6, and overall risk was assessed in 1.7 and the tasks for the future were summarized in 1.8. It is important to analyze and evaluate various events during normal operations, repair and maintenance and accidents. However, due to the large uncertainties in the modeling of phenomena or the data base, there are many events for which realistic analyses are difficult. Three such events were selected and studied in chapter two. In 2.1, the temperature rise in the reactor structure after the Loss-of-Coolant-Accident caused by the decay heat under various heat removal conditions were investigated. In 2.2, the radiation dose of personnel during repair and maintenance period caused by the release of activated dust were estimated. Lastly, in 2.3 tritium behavior in the stainless steel first wall and graphite armour were studied. (author)

  3. Design innovations of the next-step spherical torus experiment and spherical torus development path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Kessel, C.; Peng, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path is complementary to the tokamak burning plasma experiment such as ITER as it focuses toward the compact Component Test Facility (CTF) and higher toroidal beta regimes to improve the design of DEMO and a Power Plant. To support the ST development path, one option of a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) device is examined. NSST is a 'performance extension' (PE) stage ST with a plasma current of 5 - 10 MA, R = 1.5, B T ≤ 2.7 T with flexible physics capability to 1) Provide a sufficient physics basis for the design of the CTF, 2) Explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction/high performance regimes, which can then be utilized by CTF, DEMO, and Power Plants, 3) Contribute to the general plasma/fusion science of high β toroidal plasmas. The NSST facility is designed to utilize the TFTR site to minimize the cost and time required for the construction. (author)

  4. The Scientific Prototype - a proposed next step for the American MFE effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2013-10-01

    The Scientific prototype is the only logical next step for the American magnetic fusion effort. This poster is divided into two parts. The first is a description of the scientific prototype, a tokamak about the size of TFTR, JET and JT-60, but which runs steady state in DT and breeds its own tritium. The second is an examination of other proposed approaches for American MFE and why none constitute a viable alternative. W. Manheimer, J. Fusion Energy, 32, 419-421, 2013.

  5. Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS): Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, R.; Loughney, J.; van den Bosch, S.; Hancock, R.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Loughney, J.; van den Bosch, S.

    The Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS) working group is considering protocols for signaling information about a data flow along its path in the network. The NSIS suite of protocols is envisioned to support various signaling applications that need to install and/or manipulate such state in the network.

  6. Space Drive Physics: Introduction and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, M. G.

    Research toward the visionary goal of propellantless ``space drives'' is introduced, covering key physics issues and a listing of roughly 2-dozen approaches. The targeted advantage of a space drive is to circumvent the propellant constraints of rockets and the maneuvering limits of light sails by using the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space for propulsion. At present, the scientific foundations from which to engineer a space drive have not been discovered and, objectively, might be impossible. Although no propulsion breakthroughs appear imminent, the subject has matured to where the relevant questions have been broached and are beginning to be answered. The critical make-break issues include; conservation of momentum, uncertain sources of reaction mass, and the net-external thrusting requirement. Note: space drives are not necessarily faster- than-light devices. Speed limits are a separate, unanswered issue. Relevant unsolved physics includes; the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, coupling of gravitation and electromagnetism, and the nature of the quantum vacuum. The propulsion approaches span mostly stages 1 through 3 of the scientific method (defining the problem, collecting data, and articulating hypotheses), while some have matured to stage 4 (testing hypotheses). Nonviable approaches include `stiction drives,' `gyroscopic antigravity,' and `lifters.' No attempt is made to gauge the prospects of the remaining approaches. Instead, a list of next-step research questions is derived from the examination of these goals, unknowns, and concepts.

  7. Next steps in the Energy Frontier - Hadron colliders workshop at LPC@FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    With the observation of the Standard Model Higgs boson, the high energy physics community is investigating possible next steps for entering into a new era in particle physics. The aim of this workshop is to bring together physics, instrumentation/detector and accelerator experts to present, outline and discuss all aspects needed for the next steps in the energy frontier. The workshop will focus on the lessons learned with 7 and 8 TeV LHC, physics requirements and subsequent detector technologies for HL-LHC, as well as development needs for future 100 TeV proton collider. The goal is to identify synergies and common approaches where further collaboration between various initiatives could be fruitful. The discovery potential for a future 100 TeV proton collider will depend on the detector / instrumentation capabilities in order to explore the highest energy and phenomena. Many of these detection capabilities will need further studies such as muon detection at several 10s of TeV range, calorimeters capable of me...

  8. Global seismic inversion as the next standard step in the processing sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maver, Kim G.; Hansen, Lars S.; Jepsen, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Klaus B.

    1998-12-31

    Seismic inversion of post stack seismic data has until recently been regarded as a reservoir oriented method since the standard inversion techniques rely on extensive well control and a detailed user derived input model. Most seismic inversion techniques further requires a stable wavelet. As a consequence seismic inversion is mainly utilised in mature areas focusing of specific zones only after the seismic data has been interpreted and is well understood. By using an advanced 3-D global technique, seismic inversion is presented as the next standard step in the processing sequence. The technique is robust towards noise within the seismic data, utilizes a time variant wavelet, and derives a low frequency model utilizing the stacking velocities and only limited well control. 4 figs.

  9. Comparison between a pumped-limiter and a divertor for the next step machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.F.A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents a simple description of the physics issues which influence the conceptual design of a pumped-limiter and single-null poloidal divertor in a next step, long burn tokamak of NET/INTOR scale. Predicted performance of the limiter and divertor are compared in regard to localised recycling, sputtering of the plasma collection surfaces, penetration of sputtered impurities into the fusion plasma, surface power loading and exhaust of helium ash. It is concluded that the performance of the divertor is superior and that it can be predicted with a reasonable degree of confidence. The viability of the limiter remains in doubt but the concept cannot be rejected at the present time

  10. Potential Next Steps for the New Orleans City Council Energy Efficiency Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.

    2011-09-01

    This document is adapted from an actual February 2008 deliverable memo and report delivered by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the Department of Energy Project Officer in February of 2008. In January 2008, the New Orleans Utility Committee requested review, commentary, and suggestions for Utility Committee next steps related to the Energy Efficiency Resolution (the Resolution) passed by the City Council in December 2007. The suggestions are reprinted here as: (1) An illustration of opportunities for other local governments for the development and implementation of effective energy efficiency ordinances and resolutions; and (2) An example of the type of policy technical assistance that DOE/NREL provides to communities. For more information on the strategy for delivering assistance, please see: www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/48689.pdf. Based on experience in other communities and energy efficiency policies and programs, NREL found the Resolution to be a solid framework for increasing the responsible use of energy efficiency and reaping the associated economic and environmental benefits in the city of New Orleans. The remainder of this document provides the requested suggestions for next steps in implementing the word and spirit of the resolution. These suggestions integrate the extensive work of other entities, including the New Orleans Mayor's office, the New Orleans Energy Advisory Committee, the Energy Efficiency Initiative, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency. In general, three actions were suggested for funding mechanisms, two for near-term successes, and two for longer-term success.

  11. The FREYA project at VENUS-F - the next step towards MYRRHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasa, A.; Baeten, P.; Kochetkov, A.; Uyttenhove, W.; Vittiglio, G.; Wagemans, J. [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Mercatali, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bianchini, G.; Carta, M.; Fabrizio, V.; Peluso, V. [ENEA, C.R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese, 301-00060 S. Maria di Galeria (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    number of in-pile sections and heterogeneous elements inside and around the active zone, the next cores will be step by step modified by loading new materials and perturbations with the aim to assemble a MYRRHA mock-up. (authors)

  12. NextSTEP Hybrid Life Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextSTEP Phase I Hybrid Life Support Systems (HLSS) effort assessed options, performance, and reliability for various mission scenarios using contractor-developed...

  13. Elise - the next step in development of induction heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.; Bangerter, R.O.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.; Peters, C.; Pickrell, J.; Reginato, L.; Seidl, P.; Yu, S.

    1994-11-01

    LBL, with the participation of LLNL and industry, proposes to build Elise, an electric-focused accelerator as the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction linac powerful enough to implode or open-quotes driveclose quotes inertial-confinement fusion targets. Elise will be at full driver scale in several important parameters-most notably line charge density (a function of beam size), which was not explored in earlier experiments. Elise will be capable of accelerating and electrostatically focusing four parallel, full-scale ion beams and will be designed to be extendible, by successive future construction projects, to meet the goal of the USA DOE Inertial Fusion Energy program (IFE). This goal is to address all remaining issues in heavy-ion IFE except target physics, which is currently the responsibility of DOE Defense Programs, and the target chamber. Thus Elise is the first step of a program that will provide a solid foundation of data for further progress toward a driver, as called for in the National Energy Strategy and National Energy Policy Act

  14. Advanced Electric Propulsion NextSTEP BAA Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the AES Advanced Electric Propulsion Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) activity is to...

  15. Next Steps in Attachment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  16. Next Steps in Attachment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  17. Army Business Transformation - Next Steps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    As a follow-on to the Army Science Board 2005 Summer Study on Best Practices, the Army Science Board was tasked to identify areas where alternative approaches and application of transforming practices...

  18. Working together in future: next steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, S.

    2001-01-01

    Some questions about public trust have to find answers: the language of safety, how much is enough, how much is too much for stake holder interaction, how do you deal with the issue of responding, i.e. demonstrating action on issues when the licensing decision is not what public groups want, how do you measure the success of consultations, what are the indicators for trust, benchmarking and measuring public perceptions, need for consistency of approach (can determine public confidence by differences between countries) are so many questions that could help for next steps. (N.C.)

  19. Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charania, A.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as one such candidate for consideration. A marketing roadmap is presented that reveals the potential benefits of SSP to both the space community and the global populace at large. Recognizing that scientific efficiency itself has no constituency large enough to persuade entities to outlay funds for such projects, a holistic approach is taken to positioning SSP. This includes the scientific, engineering, exploratory, economic, political, and development capabilities of the system. SSP can be seen as both space exploration related and a resource project for undeveloped nations. Coupling these two non-traditional areas yields a broader constituency for the project that each one alone could generate. Space exploration is many times seen as irrelevant to the condition of the populace of the planet from which the money comes for such projects. When in this new century, billions of people on the planet still have never made a phone call or even have access to clean water, the origins of this skepticism can be understandable. An area of concern is the problem of not living up to the claims of overeager program marketers. Just as the ISS may never live up to the claims of its advocates in terms of space research, any SSP program must be careful in not promising utopian global solutions to any future energy starved world. Technically, SSP is a very difficult problem, even harder than creating the ISS, yet the promise it can hold for both space exploration and Earth development can lead to a renaissance of the relevance of space to the lives of the citizens of the world.

  20. Next Generation, Si-Compatible Materials and Devices in the Si-Ge-Sn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-09

    and conclusions The work initially focused on growth of next generation Ge1-ySny alloys on Ge buffered Si wafers via UHV CVD depositions of Ge3H8...Abstract The work initially focused on growth of next generation Ge1-ySny alloys on Ge buffered Si wafers via UHV CVD depositions of Ge3H8, SnD4. The...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0044 Next generation, Si -compatible materials and devices in the Si - Ge -Sn system John Kouvetakis ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY Final

  1. Creating the next steps to care: Maternal heath, improvisation, and Fulani women in Niamey, Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    On paper, Niger's maternal healthcare system is extensively outlined by policies which assure access to certain services and create hierarchical referral chains. In practice it remains intensely improvisational: actors in the system must frequently make up the next steps to giving and receiving care, often outside the existing policies and procedures. Although population health in Niger has improved since the recently enacted gratuité des soins policy (which guarantees free access to certain material and child health services), care on the ground is still dictated by difficult circumstances and scarce resources. Health workers often lack the required medications and supplies; nevertheless, they must find ways to deliver services. Patients seeking maternal health services are frequently dissatisfied with the care they receive and so move forward of their own volition, by negotiating with health workers or by looking for services elsewhere. This research builds on recent scholarly work on improvisation, and asks us to further look at the ways that improvisation can be informed by the identity of the actors. Examining case studies of women from the Fulani ethnic group illustrates how particular cultural differences can inform improvisation. Analysing improvisation can also have policy implications; identifying typical points of departure from the official maternal health care system can reveal points where Niger can bolster its commitment to a universally high quality of care.

  2. Development of real time diagnostics and feedback algorithms for JET in view of the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murari, A.; Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Piccolo, F.; Sartori, F.; Murari, A.; Barana, O.; Albanese, R.; Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Laborde, L.; Moreau, D.; Arena, P.; Bruno, M.; Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M.; Crisanti, F.; Luna, E. de la; Sanchez, J.

    2004-01-01

    Real time control of many plasma parameters will be an essential aspect in the development of reliable high performance operation of Next Step Tokamaks. The main prerequisites for any feedback scheme are the precise real-time determination of the quantities to be controlled, requiring top quality and highly reliable diagnostics, and the availability of robust control algorithms. A new set of real time diagnostics was recently implemented on JET to prove the feasibility of determining, with high accuracy and time resolution, the most important plasma quantities. With regard to feedback algorithms, new model-based controllers were developed to allow a more robust control of several plasma parameters. Both diagnostics and algorithms were successfully used in several experiments, ranging from H-mode plasmas to configuration with internal transport barriers. Since elaboration of computationally heavy measurements is often required, significant attention was devoted to non-algorithmic methods like Digital or Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Networks. The real time hardware and software adopted architectures are also described with particular attention to their relevance to ITER. (authors)

  3. Development of real time diagnostics and feedback algorithms for JET in view of the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murari, A.; Barana, O.; Murari, A.; Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Piccolo, F.; Sartori, F.; Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Laborde, L.; Moreau, D.; Albanese, R.; Arena, P.; Bruno, M.; Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M.; Crisanti, F.; Luna, E. de la; Sanchez, J.

    2004-01-01

    Real time control of many plasma parameters will be an essential aspect in the development of reliable high performance operation of Next Step Tokamaks. The main prerequisites for any feedback scheme are the precise real-time determination of the quantities to be controlled, requiring top quality and highly reliable diagnostics, and the availability of robust control algorithms. A new set of real time diagnostics was recently implemented on JET to prove the feasibility of determining, with high accuracy and time resolution, the most important plasma quantities. With regard to feedback algorithms, new model-based controllers were developed to allow a more robust control of several plasma parameters. Both diagnostics and algorithms were successfully used in several experiments, ranging from H-mode plasmas to configuration with ITBs (internal thermal barriers). Since elaboration of computationally heavy measurements is often required, significant attention was devoted to non-algorithmic methods like Digital or Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Networks. The real time hardware and software adopted architectures are also described with particular attention to their relevance to ITER. (authors)

  4. Development of real time diagnostics and feedback algorithms for JET in view of the next step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murari, A.; Barana, O. [Consorzio RFX Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padua (Italy); Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Piccolo, F.; Sartori, F. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Assoc., Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom); Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Laborde, L.; Moreau, D. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Albanese, R. [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. Mediterranea RC (Italy); Arena, P.; Bruno, M. [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ.di Catania (Italy); Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M. [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. Napoli Federico Napoli (Italy); Crisanti, F. [Associazone EURATOM ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Luna, E. de la; Sanchez, J. [Associacion EURATOM CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Real time control of many plasma parameters will be an essential aspect in the development of reliable high performance operation of Next Step Tokamaks. The main prerequisites for any feedback scheme are the precise real-time determination of the quantities to be controlled, requiring top quality and highly reliable diagnostics, and the availability of robust control algorithms. A new set of real time diagnostics was recently implemented on JET to prove the feasibility of determining, with high accuracy and time resolution, the most important plasma quantities. With regard to feedback algorithms, new model-based controllers were developed to allow a more robust control of several plasma parameters. Both diagnostics and algorithms were successfully used in several experiments, ranging from H-mode plasmas to configuration with ITBs (internal thermal barriers). Since elaboration of computationally heavy measurements is often required, significant attention was devoted to non-algorithmic methods like Digital or Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Networks. The real time hardware and software adopted architectures are also described with particular attention to their relevance to ITER. (authors)

  5. A truly international lunar base as the next logical step for human spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, R.

    2018-06-01

    A human mission to Mars has been highlighted as the long term goal for space exploration, with intermediate stages such as missions to the Moon and/or to asteroids, but a human mission to Mars will not be feasible before several decades. For the time being the major ambitious accomplishment in the field of human spaceflight is the International Space Station but a human spaceflight programme which would be restricted to Low Earth orbit (LEO) has indeed little interest. Thus the next step in the field of human exploration should be the definition of a new exploration programme beyond LEO, built within a long term perspective. We must acknowledge that science is not the main driver of human space exploration and that the main success of the ISS is to have allowed its partners to work together. The main goal of a new human exploration programme will be to promote international cooperation between the major space-faring countries. The only sensible and feasible objective of a near/mid-term human spaceflight programme should be the edification of a lunar base, under the condition that this base is built as a truly international venture. The ISS in the 1990s had illustrated a calmed relation between the USA, together with Europe, Canada and Japan, and Russia; a lunar base would be the symbol of a similar calmed relation between the same partners and China, and possibly others such as India. For the benefit of all humankind this extra continent, the Moon, should be used only for peaceful purposes like Antarctica today, and should not become the theatre or the stake of conflicts. Such a programme is technically feasible and financially affordable in a rather short term. So let us go to the Moon, but let us get there together.

  6. Next steps in the development of ecological soil clean-up values for metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentsel, Randall; Fairbrother, Anne

    2014-07-01

    This special series in Integrated Environmental Assessment Management presents the results from 6 workgroups that were formed at the workshop on Ecological Soil Levels-Next Steps in the Development of Metal Clean-Up Values (17-21 September 2012, Sundance, Utah). This introductory article presents an overview of the issues assessors face when conducting risk assessments for metals in soils, key US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) documents on metals risk assessment, and discusses the importance of leveraging from recent major terrestrial research projects, primarily to address Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances (REACH) requirements in Europe, that have significantly advanced our understanding of the behavior and toxicity of metals in soils. These projects developed large data sets that are useful for the risk assessment of metals in soil environments. The workshop attendees met to work toward developing a process for establishing ecological soil clean-up values (Eco-SCVs). The goal of the workshop was to progress from ecological soil screening values (Eco-SSLs) to final clean-up values by providing regulators with the methods and processes to incorporate bioavailability, normalize toxicity thresholds, address food-web issues, and incorporate background concentrations. The REACH data sets were used by workshop participants as case studies in the development of the ecological standards for soils. The workshop attendees discussed scientific advancements in bioavailability, soil biota and wildlife case studies, soil processes, and food-chain modeling. In addition, one of the workgroups discussed the processes needed to frame the topics to gain regulatory acceptance as a directive or guidance by Canada, the USEPA, or the United States. © 2013 SETAC.

  7. Methane emissions from the global oil and gas supply chain: recent advances and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala Araiza, D.; Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Knighton, W. B.; Johnson, M.; Tyner, D. R.; Hamburg, S.

    2017-12-01

    A wide body of research has characterized methane emissions from the oil and gas system in the US. In contrast, empirical data is limited for other significant oil and gas producing regions across the world. As a consequence, measuring and characterizing methane emissions across global oil and gas operations will be crucial to the design of effective mitigation strategies. Several countries have announced pledges to reduce methane emissions from this system (e.g., North America, Climate and Clean Air Coalition [CCAC] ministers). In the case of Canada, the federal government recently announced regulations supporting a 40-45% reduction of methane emissions from the oil and gas production systems. For these regulations to be effective, it is critical to understand the current methane emission patterns. We present results from a coordinated multiscale (i.e., airborne-based, ground-based) measurement campaign in Alberta, Canada. We use empirically derived emission estimates to characterize site-level emissions and derive an emissions distribution. Our work shows that many major sources of emissions are unmeasured or underreported. Consistent with previous studies in the US, a small fraction of sites disproportionately account for the majority of emissions: roughly 20% of sites accounted for 75% of emissions. An independent airborne-based regional estimate was 40% lower than the ground-based regional estimate, but not statistically different. Finally, we summarize next steps as part of the CCAC Oil and Gas Methane Study: ongoing work that is targeting oil and gas sectors/production regions with limited empirical data on methane emissions. This work builds on the approach deployed in quantifying methane emissions from the oil and gas supply chain in the US, underscoring the commitment to transparency of the collected data, external review, deployment of multiple methodologies, and publication of results in peer-reviewed journals.

  8. The next step for stress research in primates: To identify relationships between glucocorticoid secretion and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehner, Jacinta C; Bergman, Thore J

    2017-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are hormones that mediate the energetic demands that accompany environmental challenges. It is therefore not surprising that these metabolic hormones have come to dominate endocrine research on the health and fitness of wild populations. Yet, several problems have been identified in the vertebrate research that also apply to the non-human primate research. First, glucocorticoids should not be used as a proxy for fitness (unless a link has previously been established between glucocorticoids and fitness for a particular population). Second, stress research in behavioral ecology has been overly focused on "chronic stress" despite little evidence that chronic stress hampers fitness in wild animals. Third, research effort has been disproportionately focused on the causes of glucocorticoid variation rather than the fitness consequences. With these problems in mind, we have three objectives for this review. We describe the conceptual framework behind the "stress concept", emphasizing that high glucocorticoids do not necessarily indicate a stress response, and that a stress response does not necessarily indicate an animal is in poor health. Then, we conduct a comprehensive review of all studies on "stress" in wild primates, including any study that examined environmental factors, the stress response, and/or fitness (or proxies for fitness). Remarkably, not a single primate study establishes a connection between all three. Finally, we provide several recommendations for future research in the field of primate behavioral endocrinology, primarily the need to move beyond identifying the factors that cause glucocorticoid secretion to additionally focus on the relationship between glucocorticoids and fitness. We believe that this is an important next step for research on stress physiology in primates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Corporate restructuring of the global energy industry, the next steps: the case of gas in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, K.; Soerensen, E.S.

    2000-01-01

    The European energy sector will undergo a wave of restructuring and reorganization in the next 12 to 36 months. Deregulation at both the EU and national levels provides a catalyst, creating a range of new commercial forces that will require actors fundamentally to reappraise their business strategies. Companies will look for efficiency gains, economies of scale and scope, new approaches to risk management and a strategic positioning in the pan-European market. This will result in far-reaching structural changes in the industry, leading to a small number of large, vertically integrated energy companies with a wide spread of geographical interests. In this paper, we analyse these trends with reference to the European gas industry. (orig.)

  10. Taking the Next Step: Confronting the Legacies of Slavery at Historic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Linnea; Wickens, K. Allison; Jecha, Jackie; Powell, Linda; Hawkins, Callie; Flanagan, Candra

    2017-01-01

    "Slavery is the ground zero of race relations," declared James and Lois Horton in their groundbreaking book, "Slavery and Public History." Engaging the history and legacy of slavery is a crucial step in understanding current U.S. society especially race relations. Historic sites that have connections to slavery have begun to…

  11. Final repository searching in Germany - what are the next steps?; Endlagerstandortsuche in Deutschland. Wie geht's weiter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neles, Julia Mareike [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany). Bereich Nukleartechnik und Anlagensicherheit

    2016-07-01

    Up to now (2016) the question of final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes is still open in Germany. The Commission of radioactive waste disposal has finalized its report including recommendations for the further process. The next step will be the site selection procedure based on a ''white map''. The protest of several Federal states and communities against repository sites in their region is already developing.

  12. Getting Ahead Three Steps to Take Your Career to the Next Level

    CERN Document Server

    Garfinkle, Joel A

    2011-01-01

    A leading executive coach pinpoints three vital traits necessary to advance your career In Getting Ahead, one of the top 50 executive coaches in the United States, Joel Garfinkle reveals his signature model for mastering three skills to take your career to the next level: Perception, Visibility, and Influence. The PVI-model of professional advancement will teach you to: (1) Actively promote yourself as an asset and valuable person inside the organization, (2) Increase your visibility to gain others' recognition and appreciation for your efforts and (3) Become a person of influence who makes ke

  13. A Test Device Module of the Step Motor Driver for HANARO CAR Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Yun-Taek; Doo, Seung-Gyu; Shin, Jin-Won; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Young-San; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Kyoo; Lee, Choong-Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The brand-new control system is reliable and has advantages compared with the old control system, and the installed system covers all functional operations of old system. Nevertheless, packaged RTP systems do not include a step motor or driver, and it is necessary to develop a proper test device to check the step motor and driver without using the RTP system. In particular, the operation of a CAR (Control Absorber Rod) requires many complicated procedures. Occasionally, it takes significant time to prepare for a field test. In this work, a test device module for a step motor diver is shown to emulate a HANARO CAR operation, and the test device system architecture, operational principle, and experiment results are presented. A commercial 8-bit μ-processor is applied to implement the device. A portable test device for HANARO CAR operation is presented. An 8-bit μ-controller is used to emulate a HANARO CAR operation. The digital interface, as well as the functional operation, of the test device module matches that of the currently used driver. This device can be used to check the functional validity of the step motor and driver.

  14. Next-generation DNA sequencing of HEXA: a step in the right direction for carrier screening

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Jodi D; Greger, Valerie; Strovel, Erin T; Blitzer, Miriam G; Umbarger, Mark A; Kennedy, Caleb; Bishop, Brian; Saunders, Patrick; Porreca, Gregory J; Schienda, Jaclyn; Davie, Jocelyn; Hallam, Stephanie; Towne, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is the prototype for ethnic-based carrier screening, with a carrier rate of ∼1/27 in Ashkenazi Jews and French Canadians. HexA enzyme analysis is the current gold standard for TSD carrier screening (detection rate ∼98%), but has technical limitations. We compared DNA analysis by next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) plus an assay for the 7.6 kb deletion to enzyme analysis for TSD carrier screening using 74 samples collected from participants at a TSD family conference. ...

  15. From supervision to resolution: next steps on the road to European banking union

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Véron; Guntram B. Wolff

    2013-01-01

    Listen to the press conference call. The European Council has outlined the creation of a Single Resolution Mechanism (SRM), complementing the Single Supervisory Mechanism. The thinking on the SRM’s legal basis, design and mission is still preliminary and depends on other major initiatives, including the European Stability Mechanism’s involvement in bank recapitalisations and the Bank Recovery and Resolution (BRR) Directive. The SRM should also not be seen as the final step creating Europe’s f...

  16. Trends in Mobile Computing: State-of-the-Art and Next Steps

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Computing is moving to the edge of the network. It is becoming increasingly personal and allowing people to enjoy and express themselves in unprecedented ways. The same development allows professionals and enterprises to increase quality and productivity through improved mobility. The seminar discusses the underlying technical and societal trends and the state-of-the-art of mobile computing. Examples of current developments include the transformation of mobile devices into servers, augmented reality in mobile devices and the opportunities offered by wireless sensor networks. The fusion of the physical and digital worlds enabled by mobile computing is driving industry and society to adopt new uses of digital technologies and causing the focus of development to shift from hardware products to new services. Bio:Since 2004 Prof. Jan Bosch is working as Vice President and Head of the Software and Application Technology Laboratory of Nokia Research Centre in Helsinki, Finland. The Software & Application Tec...

  17. Present and next steps of the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.J.; Yamauchi, T.; Sugimoto, M.

    2000-01-01

    The JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL has successfully been lased to produce a 0.3 kW FEL light and 100 kW or larger electron beam output in quasi continuous wave operation in 1999. The 1 kW class output as our present program goal will be achieved to improve the optical out coupling method in the FEL optical resonator, the electron gun, and the electron beam optics in the JAERI FEL driver. As our next 5 year program goal is the 100 kW class FEL light and a few tens MW class electron beam output in average, quasi continuous wave operation of the light and electron beam will be planned in the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL facility. Conceptual design options needed for such a very high power operation and shorter wavelength light sources will be discussed to improve and to upgrade the exciting facility. (author)

  18. Aerospace Concurrent Engineering Design Teams: Current State, Next Steps and a Vision for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Karpati, Gabriel; McGuire, Melissa; Borden, Chester; Panek, John; Warfield, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Over the past sixteen years, government aerospace agencies and aerospace industry have developed and evolved operational concurrent design teams to create novel spaceflight mission concepts and designs. These capabilities and teams, however, have evolved largely independently. In today's environment of increasingly complex missions with limited budgets it is becoming readily apparent that both implementing organizations and today's concurrent engineering teams will need to interact more often than they have in the past. This will require significant changes in the current state of practice. This paper documents the findings from a concurrent engineering workshop held in August 2010 to identify the key near term improvement areas for concurrent engineering capabilities and challenges to the long-term advancement of concurrent engineering practice. The paper concludes with a discussion of a proposed vision for the evolution of these teams over the next decade.

  19. NASA's Commercial Crew Program, The Next Step in U.S. Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Thomas, Rayelle E.

    2013-01-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is leading NASA's efforts to develop the next U.S. capability for crew transportation and rescue services to and from the International Space Station (ISS) by the mid-decade timeframe. The outcome of this capability is expected to stimulate and expand the U.S. space transportation industry. NASA is relying on its decades of human space flight experience to certify U.S. crewed vehicles to the ISS and is doing so in a two phase certification approach. NASA Certification will cover all aspects of a crew transportation system, including development, test, evaluation, and verification; program management and control; flight readiness certification; launch, landing, recovery, and mission operations; sustaining engineering and maintenance/upgrades. To ensure NASA crew safety, NASA Certification will validate technical and performance requirements, verify compliance with NASA requirements, validate the crew transportation system operates in appropriate environments, and quantify residual risks.

  20. The next step in a development of negative ion beam plasma neutraliser for ITER NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulygin, V.M.; Dlougach, E.D.; Gorbunov, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    Injectors of deuterium atom beams developing for ITER plasma heating and current drive are based on the negative ion acceleration and further neutralization with a gas target. The maximal efficiency of a gas stripping process is 60%. The replacement of the gas neutralizer by plasma one must increase the neutral yield to 80%. The experimental study overview of the microwave discharge in a multi-cusp magnetic system chosen as a base device for Plasma Neutralizer realization and the design development for ITER Neutral Beam Injectors are presented. The experimental results achieved at a plasma neutralizer model PNX-U is discussed. Plasma confinement, gas flows, ionization degree were investigated. The plasma in the volume 0.5m 3 with density n e ∼ 10 18 m -3 has been achieved at power density 80kW/m 3 in operation with Argon. (author)

  1. Next-generation DNA sequencing of HEXA: a step in the right direction for carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jodi D; Greger, Valerie; Strovel, Erin T; Blitzer, Miriam G; Umbarger, Mark A; Kennedy, Caleb; Bishop, Brian; Saunders, Patrick; Porreca, Gregory J; Schienda, Jaclyn; Davie, Jocelyn; Hallam, Stephanie; Towne, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is the prototype for ethnic-based carrier screening, with a carrier rate of ∼1/27 in Ashkenazi Jews and French Canadians. HexA enzyme analysis is the current gold standard for TSD carrier screening (detection rate ∼98%), but has technical limitations. We compared DNA analysis by next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) plus an assay for the 7.6 kb deletion to enzyme analysis for TSD carrier screening using 74 samples collected from participants at a TSD family conference. Fifty-one of 74 participants had positive enzyme results (46 carriers, five late-onset Tay-Sachs [LOTS]), 16 had negative, and seven had inconclusive results. NGS + 7.6 kb del screening of HEXA found a pathogenic mutation, pseudoallele, or variant of unknown significance (VUS) in 100% of the enzyme-positive or obligate carrier/enzyme-inconclusive samples. NGS detected the B1 allele in two enzyme-negative obligate carriers. Our data indicate that NGS can be used as a TSD clinical carrier screening tool. We demonstrate that NGS can be superior in detecting TSD carriers compared to traditional enzyme and genotyping methodologies, which are limited by false-positive and false-negative results and ethnically focused, limited mutation panels, respectively, but is not ready for sole use due to lack of information regarding some VUS. PMID:24498621

  2. Next Steps: Water Technology Advances (Research)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will focus on contaminants and their impact on health, adequate removal of contaminants from various water systems, and water and resource recovery within treatment systems. It will develop the next generation of technological advances to provide guidance in support ...

  3. The Mussel Watch California pilot study on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs): synthesis and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, Keith A.; Dodder, Nathan G.; Weisberg, Stephen B.; Gregorio, Dominic; Bishop, Jonathan S.; Klosterhaus, Susan; Alvarez, David A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Kimbrough, Kimani L.; Lauenstein, Gunnar G.

    2014-01-01

    A multiagency pilot study on mussels (Mytilus spp.) collected at 68 stations in California revealed that 98% of targeted contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) were infrequently detectable at concentrations ⩽1 ng/g. Selected chemicals found in commercial and consumer products were more frequently detected at mean concentrations up to 470 ng/g dry wt. The number of CECs detected and their concentrations were greatest for stations categorized as urban or influenced by storm water discharge. Exposure to a broader suite of CECs was also characterized by passive sampling devices (PSDs), with estimated water concentrations of hydrophobic compounds correlated with Mytilus concentrations. The results underscore the need for focused CEC monitoring in coastal ecosystems and suggest that PSDs are complementary to bivalves in assessing water quality. Moreover, the partnership established among participating agencies led to increased spatial coverage, an expanded list of analytes and a more efficient use of available resources.

  4. Neutronics activities for next generation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Neutronic activities for the next generation devices are the subject of this paper. The main activities include TFCX and FPD blanket/shield studies, neutronic aspects of ETR/INTOR critical issues, and neutronics computational modules for the tokamak system code and tandem mirror reactor system code. Trade-off analyses, optimization studies, design problem investigations and computational models development for reactor parametric studies carried out for these activities are summarized

  5. Taking the Plunge: Next Steps in Engaged Learning: Project Kaleidoscope-Connecticut Conference of Independent Colleges Conference for Science Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Jennifer

    2010-09-01

    College and university science educators from across Connecticut gathered at Yale's West Campus in April 2010 for a Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) program entitled "Taking the Plunge: Next Steps in Engaged Learning." Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and co-sponsored by the Connecticut Conference of Independent Colleges (CCIC) and Yale's McDougal Graduate Teaching Center, the event was the latest in a PKAL series of one-day conferences aimed at equipping science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) instructors with effective approaches to engaging students and training future scientists.

  6. Enhancing Advocacy for Eye Care at National Levels: What Steps to Take for the Next Decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu, Muhammad Mansur; Al Rajhi, Abdulaziz; Qureshi, Mohammed Babar; Gersbeck, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness by the year 2020-(VISION 2020- The Right to Sight), established in 1999, is a partnership of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), governments, bilateral organizations, corporate bodies and the World Health Organization. The goal is to eliminate the major causes of avoidable blindness by the year 2020. Significant progress has been made in the last decade. For example, the adoption of three major World Health Assembly resolutions (WHA 56.26, 59.25 and 62.1) requesting governments to increase support and funding for the prevention of blindness and eye care. Additionally, the approval of the VISION 2020 declaration, development of plans and establishment of prevention of blindness committees and a designation of a coordinator by most participating countries represent other major achievements. Furthermore there has been increased political and professional commitment to the prevention of visual impairment and an increase in the provision of high-quality, sustainable eye care. Most of these achievements have been attributed to the advocacy efforts of VISION 2020 at the international level. The full success of this global initiative will likely depend on the extent to which the WHA resolutions are implemented in each country. However, most ratifying countries have not moved forward with implementation of these resolutions. To date, only few countries have shown consistent government support and funding for eye care pursuant to the resolutions. One of the main reasons for this may be inadequate and inappropriate advocacy for eye care at the national level. As such it is believed that the success of VISION 2020 in the next decade will depend on intense advocacy campaigns at national levels. This review identified some of the countries and health programs that have had fruitful advocacy efforts, to determine the factors that dictated success. The review highlights the factors of successful advocacy in two

  7. Focused particle beam nano-machining: the next evolution step towards simulation aided process prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plank, Harald

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, focused ion beam processing has been developed from traditionally used Ga + liquid ion sources towards higher resolution gas field ion sources (He + and Ne + ). Process simulations not only improve the fundamental understanding of the relevant ion–matter interactions, but also enable a certain predictive power to accelerate advances. The historic ‘gold’ standard in ion–solid simulations is the SRIM/TRIM Monte Carlo package released by Ziegler, Ziegler and Biersack 2010 Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 268 1818–23. While SRIM/TRIM is very useful for a myriad of applications, it is not applicable for the understanding of the nanoscale evolution associated with ion beam nano-machining as the substrate does not evolve with the sputtering process. As a solution for this problem, a new, adapted simulation code is briefly overviewed and finally addresses these contributions. By that, experimentally observed Ne + beam sputter profiles can be explained from a fundamental point of view. Due to their very good agreement, these simulations contain the potential for computer aided optimization towards predictable sputter processes for different nanotechnology applications. With these benefits in mind, the discussed simulation approach represents an enormous step towards a computer based master tool for adaptable ion beam applications in the context of industrial applications. (viewpoint)

  8. Mars Sample Return: The Next Step Required to Revolutionize Knowledge of Martian Geological and Climatological History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The capability of scientific instrumentation flown on planetary orbiters and landers has made great advances since the signature Viking mission of the seventies. At some point, however, the science return from orbital remote sensing, and even in situ measurements, becomes incremental, rather than revolutionary. This is primarily caused by the low spatial resolution of such measurements, even for landed instrumentation, the incomplete mineralogical record derived from such measurements, the inability to do the detailed textural, mineralogical and compositional characterization needed to demonstrate equilibrium or reaction paths, and the lack of chronological characterization. For the foreseeable future, flight instruments will suffer from this limitation. In order to make the next revolutionary breakthrough in understanding the early geological and climatological history of Mars, samples must be available for interrogation using the full panoply of laboratory-housed analytical instrumentation. Laboratory studies of samples allow for determination of parageneses of rocks through microscopic identification of mineral assemblages, evaluation of equilibrium through electron microbeam analyses of mineral compositions and structures, determination of formation temperatures through secondary ion or thermal ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS or TIMS) analyses of stable isotope compositions. Such details are poorly constrained by orbital data (e.g. phyllosilicate formation at Mawrth Vallis), and incompletely described by in situ measurements (e.g. genesis of Burns formation sediments at Meridiani Planum). Laboratory studies can determine formation, metamorphism and/or alteration ages of samples through SIMS or TIMS of radiogenic isotope systems; a capability well-beyond flight instrumentation. Ideally, sample return should be from a location first scouted by landers such that fairly mature hypotheses have been formulated that can be tested. However, samples from clastic

  9. The next generation mass storage devices - Physical principles and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Gai, S.

    2014-04-01

    The amount of digital data today has been increasing at a phenomenal rate due to the widespread digitalisation service in almost every industry. The need to store such ever-increasing data aggressively triggers the requirement to augment the storage capacity of the conventional storage technologies. Unfortunately, the physical limitations that conventional forms face have severely handicapped their potential to meet the storage need from both consumer and industry point of view. The focus has therefore been switched into the development of the innovative data storage technologies such as scanning probe memory, nanocrystal memory, carbon nanotube memory, DNA memory, and organic memory. In this paper, we review the physical principles of these emerging storage technologies and their superiorities as the next generation data storage device, as well as their respective technical challenges on further enhancing the storage capacity. We also compare these novel technologies with the mainstream data storage means according to the technology roadmap on areal density.

  10. Latest developments in image processing for the next generation of devices with a view on DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murari, A.; Vega, J.; Mazon, D.; Arena, P.; Craciunescu, T.; Gabellieri, L.; Gelfusa, M.; Pacella, D.; Palazzo, S.; Romano, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pattern recognition methods have been successfully applied to retrieve frames in massime databases. ► The technology of Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNNs) has been upgraded to solve space variant problem. ► The CNNs have then been successfully applied to various tasks, from the real time hot spot detection to the automatic identification of instabilities. ► The method of the optical flow permits to derive information about the speed of the objects moving in the frames of a single camera. ► Since the next generation of devices will emit a lot of SXR radiation, also from the edge, new technologies (Gas Electron Multiplier detectors and policapillary lenses) are being developed to perform imaging over this region of the spectrum for a global view of the entire plasma column. - Abstract: In magnetic confinement fusion devices the use of cameras, both visible and infrared, has increased very significantly in the last years. The large amount of data (in the range of tens of Gbytes per shot) and the difficulty of the analysis tasks (ambiguity, ill posed problems, etc.), require new solutions. The technology of Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNNs) has been successfully applied to various tasks, from the real time hot spot detection to the automatic identification of instabilities. The accuracy obtained is comparable to the one of more traditional serial algorithms but the CCNs guarantee deterministic computational times independently from the image contents. Moreover the latest developments have allowed obtaining these results also in the case of space variant image analysis, without compromising the computational speed (of the order of ten thousand frames per second). The method of the optical flow permits to derive information about the speed of the objects moving in the frames of a single camera. The results of previous applications have been so successful that the approach has been extended to videos in compressed format (MPEG) to reduce the

  11. A two-step annealing process for enhancing the ferroelectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) devices

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jihoon; Kurra, Narendra; AlMadhoun, M. N.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    We report a simple two-step annealing scheme for the fabrication of stable non-volatile memory devices employing poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer thin-films. The proposed two-step annealing scheme comprises the crystallization

  12. Following the Yellow Brick Road: Next Steps in the Synthesis of Pediatric Bioethics and Child Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhagen, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The Symposium on "The Interface of Child Rights and Pediatric Bioethics in the Clinical Setting" brought together a diverse group of pediatric bioethicists and child rights advocates to explore how the junction of these disciplines could inform their respective work. In retrospect, it is clear how the diversity of personal histories, professional disciplines, knowledge, experience, language, culture, and politics of the participants influenced the outcomes of the Symposium and provided both challenges and opportunities for further collaboration. Several themes emerged from the meeting, including the relevance of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the role of the family, and consideration of the best interests of the child to complex medical decision-making; research ethics; and the applicability of the principles of bioethics and child rights to the social determinants of health. This essay poses questions related to each of these themes that can serve as a framework for further collaboration. It concludes with a statement by Da Silva and his coauthors that the CRC and the principles of child rights can provide "increased conceptual clarity and a widely endorsed language that can assist pediatric bioethicists in clinical, organizational, and international consultations, as well as in education and policy development."

  13. THE DECISION TO RECOMMEND YUCCA MOUNTAIN AND THE NEXT STEPS TOWARD LICENSED REPOSITORY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, L. H.

    2002-01-01

    After more than 20 years of carefully planned and reviewed scientific field work by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey, and numerous other organizations, Secretary of Energy Abraham concluded in January that the Yucca Mountain site is suitable, within the meaning of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, for development as a permanent nuclear waste and spent fuel repository. In February, the Secretary recommended to the President that the site be developed for licensed disposal of these wastes, and the President transmitted this recommendation to Congress. This paper summarizes key technical and national interest considerations that provided the basis for the recommendation. It also discusses the program's near-term plans for repository development if Congress designates the site

  14. The triad enters its fourth decade: The next steps in U.S. strategic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.

    1990-01-01

    There is a distinct correlation between development and deployment of US deterrent systems - our strategic triad- and the incentive for potential adversaries to engagin in meaningful arms control discussions. The USSR has, and will retain, enormous strategic strength and conventional forces with attendant moderization programs under way. If the threat diminishes, it will do so slowly. While the strategic forces on which the US relies for deterrence account for only a small percentage of the DOD budget, they but a great deal of deterrence. Continued modernization of the strategic triad is essential as restructuring goes on in the wake of impending arms control agreements

  15. Dolphin Therapy: The Playful Way to Work toward the Next Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermer, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    More than 400 children with a physical and/or mental challenge visit the Curacao Dolphin Therapy and Research Center (CDTC) for dolphin-assisted therapy every year. Dolphin therapy appears to be the right approach for many children. With the help of these special and very social animals, it is easier to make contact with the children. It motivates…

  16. The Urban Environmental Monitoring/100 Cities Project: Legacy of the First Phase and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Wentz, Elizabeth A.; Brazel, Anthony; Netzband, Maik; Moeller, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) project, now known as the 100 Cities Project, at Arizona State University (ASU) is a baseline effort to collect and analyze remotely sensed data for 100 urban centers worldwide. Our overarching goal is to use remote sensing technology to better understand the consequences of rapid urbanization through advanced biophysical measurements, classification methods, and modeling, which can then be used to inform public policy and planning. Urbanization represents one of the most significant alterations that humankind has made to the surface of the earth. In the early 20th century, there were less than 20 cities in the world with populations exceeding 1 million; today, there are more than 400. The consequences of urbanization include the transformation of land surfaces from undisturbed natural environments to land that supports different forms of human activity, including agriculture, residential, commercial, industrial, and infrastructure such as roads and other types of transportation. Each of these land transformations has impacted, to varying degrees, the local climatology, hydrology, geology, and biota that predate human settlement. It is essential that we document, to the best of our ability, the nature of land transformations and the consequences to the existing environment. The focus in the UEM project since its inception has been on rapid urbanization. Rapid urbanization is occurring in hundreds of cities worldwide as population increases and people migrate from rural communities to urban centers in search of employment and a better quality of life. The unintended consequences of rapid urbanization have the potential to cause serious harm to the environment, to human life, and to the resulting built environment because rapid development constrains and rushes decision making. Such rapid decision making can result in poor planning, ineffective policies, and decisions that harm the environment and the quality of human life

  17. Taking the moral hazard out of banking: the next fundamental step in financial reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Masera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The path between financial meltdown and moral hazard in banking is, at best, narrow and impervious. During the financial crisis, public support became the standard response to save the banks in difficulty, heightening and broadening the moral hazard issue: subordinated/senior debt holders and large depositors were bailed out and equity holders were partially sheltered. In the Eurozone, the implicit promise to bail-out governments in difficulty has encouraged SIFIs and other financial operators to speculate on the yield differential between sovereigns and the ECB money market interest rates. The policy framework proposed here is two-pronged: the EFSF should evolve to permit more flexible and wide-ranging interventions, and be able to manage sovereign debt restructuring; with respect to SIFIs, very early corporate, market and supervisory responses are suggested. Intervention of supervisory authorities with mandatory (special powers would occur before the threshold of non-viability and, on a gone-concern basis, in terms of a European resolution procedure.

  18. Fractional laser therapy – the next step in alleviating the symptoms of skin aging (own observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Halbina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Skin aging is a natural process of the skin, which accelerates in menopause and is additionally intensified by accumulating effects of repeated exposure to solar UV radiation and other external factors. Anti-aging skin treatment and constant improvement of its methods have become an important area of current research. The need to apply effective skin anti-aging methods that minimize traumatization resulted in the development of fractional laser technology delivering a laser beam to microscopic column skin zones in order to achieve skin photo-remodeling.

  19. Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-28

    The Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps report, published by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) provides an overview of the current state of alternative aviation fuels, based upon findings from recent peer-reviewed studies, scientific working groups, and BETO stakeholder input provided during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Workshop.

  20. Next step in the ongoing arms race between myxoma virus and wild rabbits in Australia is a novel disease phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J.; Cattadori, Isabella M.; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G.; Dodds, Jeff W.; Brooks, Jason W.; Kennett, Mary J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2017-01-01

    In host–pathogen arms races, increases in host resistance prompt counteradaptation by pathogens, but the nature of that counteradaptation is seldom directly observed outside of laboratory models. The best-documented field example is the coevolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) in European rabbits. To understand how MYXV in Australia has continued to evolve in wild rabbits under intense selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis, we compared the phenotypes of the progenitor MYXV and viral isolates from the 1950s and the 1990s in laboratory rabbits with no resistance. Strikingly, and unlike their 1950s counterparts, most virus isolates from the 1990s induced a highly lethal immune collapse syndrome similar to septic shock. Thus, the next step in this canonical case of coevolution after a species jump has been further escalation by the virus in the face of widespread host resistance. PMID:28808019

  1. Preliminary design of a Tandem-Mirror-Next-Step facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, C.C.; Doggett, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The Tandem-Mirror-Next-Step (TMNS) facility is designed to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of a tandem-mirror reactor. The facility is based on a deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning, tandem-mirror device with a fusion power output of 245 MW. The fusion power density in the central cell is 2.1 MW/m 3 , with a resultant neutron wall loading of 0.5 MW/m 2 . Overall machine length is 116 m, and the effective central-cell length is 50.9 m. The magnet system includes end cells with yin-yang magnets to provide magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and thermal-barrier cells to help achieve a plasma Q of 4.7 (where Q = fusion power/injected power). Neutral beams at energies up to 200 keV are used for plasma heating, fueling, and barrier pumping. Electron cyclotron resonant heating at 50 and 100 GHz is used to control the electron temperature in the barriers. Based on the resulting engineering design, the overall cost of the facility is estimated to be just under $1 billion. Unresolved physics issues include central-cell β-limits against MHD ballooning modes (the assumed reference value of β exceeds the current theory-derived limit), and the removal of thermalized α-particles from the plasma

  2. First steps towards the realization of a double layer perceptron based on organic memristive devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Emelyanov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Memristors are widely considered as promising elements for the efficient implementation of synaptic weights in artificial neural networks (ANNs since they are resistors that keep memory of their previous conductive state. Whereas demonstrations of simple neural networks (e.g., a single-layer perceptron based on memristors already exist, the implementation of more complicated networks is more challenging and has yet to be reported. In this study, we demonstrate linearly nonseparable combinational logic classification (XOR logic task using a network implemented with CMOS-based neurons and organic memrisitive devices that constitutes the first step toward the realization of a double layer perceptron. We also show numerically the ability of such network to solve a principally analogue task which cannot be realized by digital devices. The obtained results prove the possibility to create a multilayer ANN based on memristive devices that paves the way for designing a more complex network such as the double layer perceptron.

  3. First steps towards the realization of a double layer perceptron based on organic memristive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, A. V.; Lapkin, D. A.; Demin, V. A.; Erokhin, V. V.; Battistoni, S.; Baldi, G.; Dimonte, A.; Korovin, A. N.; Iannotta, S.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    Memristors are widely considered as promising elements for the efficient implementation of synaptic weights in artificial neural networks (ANNs) since they are resistors that keep memory of their previous conductive state. Whereas demonstrations of simple neural networks (e.g., a single-layer perceptron) based on memristors already exist, the implementation of more complicated networks is more challenging and has yet to be reported. In this study, we demonstrate linearly nonseparable combinational logic classification (XOR logic task) using a network implemented with CMOS-based neurons and organic memrisitive devices that constitutes the first step toward the realization of a double layer perceptron. We also show numerically the ability of such network to solve a principally analogue task which cannot be realized by digital devices. The obtained results prove the possibility to create a multilayer ANN based on memristive devices that paves the way for designing a more complex network such as the double layer perceptron.

  4. Systems Analysis of a Compact Next Step Burning Plasma Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Meade, D.; Neumeyer, C.

    2002-01-01

    A new burning plasma systems code (BPSC) has been developed for analysis of a next step compact burning plasma experiment with copper-alloy magnet technology. We consider two classes of configurations: Type A, with the toroidal field (TF) coils and ohmic heating (OH) coils unlinked, and Type B, with the TF and OH coils linked. We obtain curves of the minimizing major radius as a function of aspect ratio R(A) for each configuration type for typical parameters. These curves represent, to first order, cost minimizing curves, assuming that device cost is a function of major radius. The Type B curves always lie below the Type A curves for the same physics parameters, indicating that they lead to a more compact design. This follows from that fact that a high fraction of the inner region, r < R-a, contains electrical conductor material. However, the fact that the Type A OH and TF magnets are not linked presents fewer engineering challenges and should lead to a more reliable design. Both the Type A and Type B curves have a minimum in major radius R at a minimizing aspect ratio A typically above 2.8 and at high values of magnetic field B above 10 T. The minimizing A occurs at larger values for longer pulse and higher performance devices. The larger A and higher B design points also have the feature that the ratio of the discharge time to the current redistribution time is largest so that steady-state operation can be more realistically prototyped. A sensitivity study is presented for the baseline Type A configuration showing the dependence of the results on the parameters held fixed for the minimization study

  5. Reaching the Next Generation of College Students via Their Digital Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmeyer, S. J.; De Paor, D. G.; Bentley, C.

    2015-12-01

    Current college students attended school during a decade in which many school districts banned cellphones from the classroom or even from school grounds. These students are used to being told to put away their mobile devices and concentrate on traditional classroom activities such as watching PowerPoint presentations or calculating with pencil and paper. However, due to a combination of parental security concerns and recent education research, schools are rapidly changing policy and embracing mobile devices for ubiquitous learning opportunities inside and outside of the classroom. Consequently, many of the next generation of college students will have expectations of learning via mobile technology. We have developed a range of digital geology resources to aid mobile-based geoscience education at college level, including mapping on iPads and other tablets, "crowd-sourced" field projects, augmented reality-supported asynchronous field classes, 3D and 4D split-screen virtual reality tours, macroscopic and microscopic gigapixel imagery, 360° panoramas, assistive devices for inclusive field education, and game-style educational challenges. Class testing of virtual planetary tours shows modest short-term learning gains, but more work is needed to ensure long-term retention. Many of our resources rely on the Google Earth browser plug-in and application program interface (API). Because of security concerns, browser plug-ins in general are being phased out and the Google Earth API will not be supported in future browsers. However, a new plug-in-free API is promised by Google and an alternative open-source virtual globe called Cesium is undergoing rapid development. It already supports the main aspects of Keyhole Markup Language and has features of significant benefit to geoscience, including full support on mobile devices and sub-surface viewing and touring. The research team includes: Heather Almquist, Stephen Burgin, Cinzia Cervato, Filis Coba, Chloe Constants, Gene

  6. BepiColombo — The Next Step of Mercury Exploration with Two Orbiting Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhoff, J.

    2018-05-01

    BepiColombo is a joint project between ESA and JAXA. The mission consists of two orbiters — the Mercury Planetary Orbiter and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter. From dedicated orbits, the spacecraft will be studying the planet and its environment.

  7. 75 FR 29359 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Tamiami Trail Modifications: Next Steps Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... and for the purpose of restoring habitat within the Park and the ecological connectivity between the... create 2.2 miles of ecological connectivity and better distribute flows in the western area of the 11... of ecological connectivity and moderately reduce the adverse effects of high velocity discharges...

  8. The Strengthening Nuclear Security Implementation initiative: evolution, status and next steps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dal, B.; Herbach, J.; Luongo, K.N.

    2015-01-01

    The "Strengthening Nuclear Security Implementation" initiative broke new ground at the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit in the effort to harmonize and strengthen the global nuclear security regime. This report discusses the significance of the initiative, the importance of expanding its signatories, and

  9. The US Network of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers: Development, Progress, and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, T. Charles; Rose, John W.; Roalstad, Shelly; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Aaen, Gregory; Belman, Anita; Chitnis, Tanuja; Gorman, Mark; Krupp, Lauren; Lotze, Timothy E.; Ness, Jayne; Patterson, Marc; Rodriguez, Moses; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Browning, Brittan; Graves, Jennifer; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Benson, Leslie; Harris, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases in the pediatric population have received an increasing level of attention by clinicians and researchers. The low incidence of these diseases in children creates a need for the involvement of multiple clinical centers in research efforts. The Network of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers was created initially in 2006 to improve the diagnosis and care of children with demyelinating diseases. In 2010, the Network shifted its focus to multicenter research while continuing to advance the care of patients. The Network has obtained support from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health. The Network will continue to serve as a platform for conducting impactful research in pediatric demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. This article provides a description of the history and development, organization, mission, research priorities, current studies, and future plans of the Network. PMID:25270659

  10. A truly international lunar base as the next logical step for human spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Richard

    Recent fora (e.g. the ISECG’s Global Exploration Roadmap) have highlighted a human mission to Mars as the long term goal for space exploration, with intermediate stages such as missions to the Moon and/or to asteroids. But actually a human mission to Mars will not be feasible before several decades, whereas in the meantime robotic missions will be able to provide an enormous amount of information on the history and the environment of the red planet, at a rather moderate cost. And if we consider missions to asteroids, introducing a human in the loop will require a considerably higher complexity and cost than using robots, with no significant additional benefit. The only sensible and feasible objective of a near-term human spaceflight program would be the edification of a lunar base, under the condition that this base is built as a true international venture. Science will not be the main driver; it has to be acknowledged from the beginning that the true main goal will be peace and a nucleus of international cooperation between the big countries. The ISS in the 1990’s had illustrated a calmed relation between the USA, together with Europe, Canada and Japan, and Russia. A lunar base should be the symbol of a similar calmed relation between the same partners and China. For the benefit of all humankind this extra continent, the Moon, will be used only for peaceful purposes, like Antarctica today, and will not become the theatre or the stake of conflicts. The financial cost of that venture will be high, but not that high if it is compared with the cost of recent wars; so let us go to the Moon, OK, but let us get there together.

  11. From single-species advice to mixed-species management: taking the next step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Reeves, S.A.; Patterson, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    Fishery management advice has traditionally been given on a stock-by-stock basis. Recent problems in implementing this advice, particularly for the demersal fisheries of the North Sea, have highlighted the limitations of the approach. In the long term, it would be desirable to give advice...... that accounts for mixed-fishery effects, but in the short term there is a need for approaches to resolve the conflicting management advice for different species within the same fishery, and to generate catch or effort advice that accounts for the mixed-species nature of the fishery. This paper documents...... a recent approach used to address these problems. The approach takes the single-species advice for each species in the fishery as a starting point, then attempts to resolve it into consistent catch or effort advice using fleet-disaggregated catch forecasts in combination with explicitly stated management...

  12. Persistent Identifiers for Field Expeditions: A Next Step for the US Oceanographic Research Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, Robert; Carbotte, Suzanne; Chandler, Cynthia; Smith, Shawn; Stocks, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Oceanographic research cruises are complex affairs, typically requiring an extensive effort to secure the funding, plan the experiment, and mobilize the field party. Yet cruises are not typically published online as first-class digital objects with persistent, citable identifiers linked to the scientific literature. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; info@rvdata.us) program maintains a master catalog of oceanographic cruises for the United States research fleet, currently documenting over 6,000 expeditions on 37 active and retired vessels. In 2015, R2R started routinely publishing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for each completed cruise. Cruise DOIs, in turn, are linked to related persistent identifiers where available including the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) for members of the science party, the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) for physical specimens collected during the cruise, the Open Funder Registry (FundRef) codes that supported the experiment, and additional DOIs for datasets, journal articles, and other products resulting from the cruise. Publishing a persistent identifier for each field expedition will facilitate interoperability between the many different repositories that hold research products from cruises; will provide credit to the investigators who secured the funding and carried out the experiment; and will facilitate the gathering of fleet-wide altmetrics that demonstrate the broad impact of oceanographic research.

  13. Achieving the Desired Transformation: Thoughts on Next Steps for Outcomes-Based Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Eric S; Batalden, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Since the introduction of the outcomes-based medical education (OBME) movement, progress toward implementation has been active but challenging. Much of the angst and criticism has been directed at the approaches to assessment that are associated with outcomes-based or competency frameworks, particularly defining the outcomes. In addition, these changes to graduate medical education (GME) are concomitant with major change in health care systems--specifically, changes to increase quality and safety while reducing cost. Every sector, from medical education to health care delivery and financing, is in the midst of substantial change and disruption.The recent release of the Institute of Medicine's report on the financing and governance of GME highlights the urgent need to accelerate the transformation of medical education. One source of continued tension within the medical education community arises from the assumption that the much-needed increases in value and improvement in health care can be achieved by holding the current educational structures and architecture of learning in place while concomitantly withdrawing resources. The authors of this Perspective seek to reframe the important and necessary debate surrounding the current challenges to implementing OBME. Building on recent change and service theories (e.g., Theory U and coproduction), they propose several areas of redirection, including reexamination of curricular models and greater involvement of learners, teachers, and regulators in cocreating new training models, to help facilitate the desired transformation in medical education.

  14. Elise - The next step in development of induction heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.; Bangerter, R.O.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.; Peters, C.; Pickrell, J.; Reginato, L.; Seidl, P.; Yu, S.; Deadeick, F.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the main features of Elise, a future electric-focused accelerator proposed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research Program is to develop accelerators for fusion energy production. The Elise accelerator would be capable of accelerating and electrostatically focusing four parallel, full-scale ion beams and would be designed to be extendible so as to meet this goal. (TEC). 3 refs., 3 figs

  15. VICI (Venus In Situ Composition Investigations): The Next Step in Understanding Venus Climate Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, L. S.; Garvin, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Venus provides a natural laboratory to explore an example of terrestrial planet evolution that may be cosmically ubiquitous. By better understanding the composition of the Venus atmosphere and surface, we can better constrain the efficiency of the Venusian greenhouse. VICI is a proposed NASA New Frontiers mission that delivers two landers to Venus on two separate Venus fly-bys. Following six orbital remote sensing missions to Venus (since 1978), VICI would be the first mission to land on the Venus surface since 1985, and the first U.S. mission to enter the Venus atmosphere in 49 years. The four major VICI science objectives are: Atmospheric origin and evolution: Understand the origin of the Venus atmosphere, how it has evolved, including how recently Venus lost its oceans, and how and why it is different from the atmospheres of Earth and Mars, through in situ measurements of key noble gases, nitrogen, and hydrogen. Atmospheric composition and structure: Reveal the unknown chemical processes and structure in Venus' deepest atmosphere that dominate the current climate through two comprehensive, in situ vertical profiles. Surface properties and geologic evolution: For the first time ever, explore the tessera from the surface, specifically to test hypotheses of ancient content-building cycles, erosion, and links to past climates using multi-point mineralogy, elemental chemistry, imaging and topography. Surface-atmosphere interactions: Characterize Venus' surface weathering environment and provide insight into the sulfur cycle at the surface-atmosphere interface by integrating rich atmospheric composition and structure datasets with imaging, surface mineralogy, and elemental rock composition. VICI is designed to study Venus' climate history through detailed atmospheric composition measurements not possible on earlier missions. In addition, VICI images the tessera surface during descent enabling detailed topography to be generated. Finally, VICI makes multiple elemental

  16. The next step in gene delivery: molecular engineering of adeno-associated virus serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhui; Faust, Susan M; Rabinowitz, Joseph E

    2011-05-01

    Delivery is at the heart of gene therapy. Viral DNA delivery systems are asked to avoid the immune system, transduce specific target cell types while avoiding other cell types, infect dividing and non-dividing cells, insert their cargo within the host genome without mutagenesis or to remain episomal, and efficiently express transgenes for a substantial portion of a lifespan. These sought-after features cannot be associated with a single delivery system, or can they? The Adeno-associated virus family of gene delivery vehicles has proven to be highly malleable. Pseudotyping, using AAV serotype 2 terminal repeats to generate designer shells capable of transducing selected cell types, enables the packaging of common genomes into multiple serotypes virions to directly compare gene expression and tropism. In this review the ability to manipulate this virus will be examined from the inside out. The influence of host cell factors and organism biology including the immune response on the molecular fate of the viral genome will be discussed as well as differences in cellular trafficking patterns and uncoating properties that influence serotype transduction. Re-engineering the prototype vector AAV2 using epitope insertion, chemical modification, and molecular evolution not only demonstrated the flexibility of the best-studied serotype, but now also expanded the tool kit for molecular modification of all AAV serotypes. Current AAV research has changed its focus from examination of wild-type AAV biology to the feedback of host cell/organism on the design and development of a new generation of recombinant AAV delivery vehicles. This article is part of a Special Section entitled "Special Section: Cardiovascular Gene Therapy". Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Advancing the conversation: next steps for lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ health sciences librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake W. Hawkins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, librarians in various sectors have been moving forward a conversation on the distinct information needs and information-seeking behavior of our lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ patrons and how well the profession recognizes and meets those needs. Health sciences librarianship has been slower than other areas of the profession in creating an evidence base covering the needs of its LGBTQ patrons, with, until recently, only very limited literature on this subject. LGBTQ health sciences librarianship is now starting to attract new interest, with librarians working together to bring this emerging specialization to the attention of the broader professional community. In this paper, the authors report on a dedicated panel discussion that took place at the 2016 joint annual meeting of the Medical Library Association and Canadian Health Libraries Association/Association des bibliothèques de la santé du Canada in Toronto, Ontario, Canada; discuss subsequent reflections; and highlight the emerging role for health sciences librarians in providing culturally competent services to the LGBTQ population. Recommendations are also provided for establishing a tool kit for LGBTQ health sciences librarianship from which librarians can draw. We conclude by highlighting the importance of critically reflective practice in health sciences librarianship in the context of LGBTQ health information.

  18. Advancing the conversation: next steps for lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ) health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Blake W; Morris, Martin; Nguyen, Tony; Siegel, John; Vardell, Emily

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, librarians in various sectors have been moving forward a conversation on the distinct information needs and information-seeking behavior of our lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ) patrons and how well the profession recognizes and meets those needs. Health sciences librarianship has been slower than other areas of the profession in creating an evidence base covering the needs of its LGBTQ patrons, with, until recently, only very limited literature on this subject. LGBTQ health sciences librarianship is now starting to attract new interest, with librarians working together to bring this emerging specialization to the attention of the broader professional community. In this paper, the authors report on a dedicated panel discussion that took place at the 2016 joint annual meeting of the Medical Library Association and Canadian Health Libraries Association/Association des bibliothèques de la santé du Canada in Toronto, Ontario, Canada; discuss subsequent reflections; and highlight the emerging role for health sciences librarians in providing culturally competent services to the LGBTQ population. Recommendations are also provided for establishing a tool kit for LGBTQ health sciences librarianship from which librarians can draw. We conclude by highlighting the importance of critically reflective practice in health sciences librarianship in the context of LGBTQ health information.

  19. Patient-centered hand hygiene: the next step in infection prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Timothy; Abusalem, Said; Coty, Mary-Beth; Bingham, James

    2012-05-01

    Hand hygiene has been recognized as the most important means of preventing the transmission of infection, and great emphasis has been placed on ways to improve hand hygiene compliance by health care workers (HCWs). Despite increasing evidence that patients' flora and the hospital environment are the primary source of many infections, little effort has been directed toward involving patients in their own hand hygiene. Most previous work involving patients has included patients as monitors or auditors of hand hygiene practices by their HCWs. This article reviews the evidence on the benefits of including patients more directly in hand hygiene initiatives, and uses the framework of patient-centered safety initiatives to provide recommendations for the timing and implementation of patient hand hygiene protocols. It also addresses key areas for further research, practice guideline development, and implications for training of HCWs. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermally Self-Healing Polymeric Materials : The Next Step to Recycling Thermoset Polymers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Youchun; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We developed thermally self-healing polymeric materials on the basis of furan-functionalized, alternating thermosetting polyketones (PK-furan) and bis-maleimide by using the Diels-Alder (DA) and Retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) reaction sequence. PK-furan can be easily obtained under mild conditions by the

  1. Preoperative radio-chemotherapy for rectal cancer: Forecasting the next steps through ongoing and forthcoming studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crehange, G.; Maingon, P.; Bosset, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Protracted preoperative radio-chemotherapy with a 5-FU-based scheme, or a short course of preoperative radiotherapy without chemotherapy, are the standard neo-adjuvant treatments for resectable stage II-III rectal cancer. Local failure rates are low and reproducible, between 6 and 15% when followed with a 'Total Meso-rectal Excision'. Nevertheless, the therapeutic strategy needs to be improved: distant metastatic recurrence rates remain stable around 30 to 35%, while both sphincter and sexual sequels are still significant. The aim of the present paper was to analyse the ongoing trials listed on the following search engines: the Institut National du Cancer in France, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Health in the United States, and the major cooperative groups. Keywords for the search were: 'rectal cancer', 'preoperative radiotherapy', 'phase II-III', 'preoperative chemotherapy', 'adjuvant chemotherapy' and 'surgery'. Twenty-three trials were selected and classified in different groups, each of them addressing a question of strategy: (1) place of adjuvant chemotherapy; (2) optimization of preoperative radiotherapy; (3) evaluation of new radiosensitization protocols and/or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy; (4) optimization of techniques and timing of surgery; (5) place of radiotherapy for non resectable or metastatic tumors. (authors)

  2. Non-dairy probiotic beverages: the next step into human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawkowski, D; Chikindas, M L

    2013-06-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. The two main genera of microorganisms indicated as sources of probiotic bacteria are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Historically used to produce fermented dairy products, certain strains of both genera are increasingly utilised to formulate other functional foods. As the consumers' understanding of the role of probiotics in health grows, so does the popularity of food containing them. The result of this phenomenon is an increase in the number of probiotic foods available for public consumption, including a rapidly-emerging variety of probiotic-containing non-dairy beverages, which provide a convenient way to improve and maintain health. However, the composition of non-dairy probiotic beverages can pose specific challenges to the survival of the health conferring microorganisms. To overcome these challenges, strain selection and protection techniques play an integral part in formulating a stable product. This review discusses non-dairy probiotic beverages, characteristics of an optimal beverage, and commonly used probiotic strains, including spore-forming bacteria. It also examines the most recent developments in probiotic encapsulation technology with focus on nano-fibre formation as a means of protecting viable cells. Utilising bacteria's natural armour or creating barrier mechanisms via encapsulation technology will fuel development of stable non-dairy probiotic beverages.

  3. Capability and Technology Performance Goals for the Next Step in Affordable Human Exploration of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Taminger, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    The capability for living off the land, commonly called in-situ resource utilization, is finally gaining traction in space exploration architectures. Production of oxygen from the Martian atmosphere is called an enabling technology for human return from Mars, and a flight demonstration to be flown on the Mars 2020 robotic lander is in development. However, many of the individual components still require technical improvements, and system-level trades will be required to identify the best combination of technology options. Based largely on work performed for two recent roadmap activities, this paper defines the capability and technology requirements that will need to be achieved before this game-changing capability can reach its full potential.

  4. Mobile phones: the next step towards healthcare delivery in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Sherwin I; Rashmi, M R; Vasanthi, Agalya P; Joseph, Suchitha Maria; Rodrigues, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%). Text messaging (SMS) was used by only 70 (14%) of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%), were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98%) of our respondents, 424 (89%) preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75%) were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian context.

  5. Mobile Phones: The Next Step towards Healthcare Delivery in Rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Sherwin I.; Rashmi, M. R.; Vasanthi, Agalya P.; Joseph, Suchitha Maria; Rodrigues, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. Objectives To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. Methods This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. Results The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%). Text messaging (SMS) was used by only 70 (14%) of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%), were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98%) of our respondents, 424 (89%) preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75%) were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. Conclusion The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian context. PMID

  6. Mobile phones: the next step towards healthcare delivery in rural India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin I DeSouza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. OBJECTIVES: To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. METHODS: This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. RESULTS: The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%. Text messaging (SMS was used by only 70 (14% of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%, were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98% of our respondents, 424 (89% preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75% were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. CONCLUSION: The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian

  7. CAWSES (Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System) Science: Progress thus far and the next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallamraju, D.; Kozyra, J.; Basu, S.

    Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System CAWSES is the current program of Scientific Committee for Solar Terrestrial Physics SCOSTEP for 2004 - 2008 The main aim of CAWSES is to bring together scientists from various nations to address the coupled and global nature of the Sun-Earth System phenomena Towards that end CAWSES provides a platform for international cooperation in observations data analysis theory and modeling There has been active international participation thus far with endorsement of the national CAWSES programs in some countries and many scientists around the globe actively volunteering their time in this effort The CAWSES Science Steering Group has organized the CAWSES program into five Themes for better execution of its science Solar Influence on Climate Space Weather Science and Applications Atmospheric Coupling Processes Space Climatology and Capacity Building and Education CAWSES will cooperate with International programs that focus on the Sun-Earth system science and at the same time compliment the work of programs whose scope is beyond the realm of CAWSES This talk will briefly review the science goals of CAWSES provide salient results from different Themes with emphasis on those from the Space Weather Theme This talk will also indicate the next steps that are being planned in this program and solicit inputs from the community for the science efforts to be carried out in the future

  8. Concurrent Engineering Working Group White Paper Distributed Collaborative Design: The Next Step in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Karpati, Gabriel; McGuire, Melissa; Panek, John; Warfield, Keith; Borden, Chester

    2011-01-01

    As aerospace missions grow larger and more technically complex in the face of ever tighter budgets, it will become increasingly important to use concurrent engineering methods in the development of early conceptual designs because of their ability to facilitate rapid assessments and trades of performance, cost and schedule. To successfully accomplish these complex missions with limited funding, it is essential to effectively leverage the strengths of individuals and teams across government, industry, academia, and international agencies by increased cooperation between organizations. As a result, the existing concurrent engineering teams will need to increasingly engage in distributed collaborative concurrent design. The purpose of this white paper is to identify a near-term vision for the future of distributed collaborative concurrent engineering design for aerospace missions as well as discuss the challenges to achieving that vision. The white paper also documents the advantages of creating a working group to investigate how to engage the expertise of different teams in joint design sessions while enabling organizations to maintain their organizations competitive advantage.

  9. Identifying knowledge gaps for gene drive research to control invasive animal species: The next CRISPR step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Moro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive animals have been linked to the extinctions of native wildlife, and to significant agricultural financial losses or impacts. Current approaches to control invasive species require ongoing resources and management over large geographic scales, and often result in the short-term suppression of populations. New and innovative approaches are warranted. Recently, the RNA guided gene drive system based on CRISPR/Cas9 is being proposed as a potential gene editing tool that could be used by wildlife managers as a non-lethal addition or alternative to help reduce pest animal populations. While regulatory control and social acceptance are crucial issues that must be addressed, there is an opportunity now to identify the knowledge and research gaps that exist for some important invasive species. Here we systematically determine the knowledge gaps for pest species for which gene drives could potentially be applied. We apply a conceptual ecological risk framework within the gene drive context within an Australian environment to identify key requirements for undertaking work on seven exemplar invasive species in Australia. This framework allows an evaluation of the potential research on an invasive species of interest and within a gene drive and risk context. We consider the currently available biological, genetic and ecological information for the house mouse, European red fox, feral cat, European rabbit, cane toad, black rat and European starling to evaluate knowledge gaps and identify candidate species for future research. We discuss these findings in the context of future thematic areas of research worth pursuing in preparation for a more formal assessment of the use of gene drives as a novel strategy for the control of these and other invasive species. Keywords: Invasive species, Gene drive, CRISPR, Pest management, Islands

  10. Evaluating stakeholder management performance using a stakeholder report card: the next step in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvey, Donna; Fottler, Myron D; Slovensky, Donna J

    2002-01-01

    In the highly competitive health care environment, the survival of an organization may depend on how well powerful stakeholders are managed. Yet, the existing strategic stakeholder management process does not include evaluation of stakeholder management performance. To address this critical gap, this paper proposes a systematic method for evaluation using a stakeholder report card. An example of a physician report card based on this methodology is presented.

  11. Nutrition and public health in medical education in the UK: reflections and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, Jonathan; Wallace, Megan

    2018-04-30

    Doctors play an important role in the identification of nutritional disorders and as advocates for a healthy diet, and although the key tenets of good nutrition education for medical students have been discussed, reports on implementation are sparse. The present commentary responds to a gap in UK medical students' understanding of nutrition and public health and suggests ways to improve it. We review literature about nutrition education in medical schools and discuss a 6-week elective in public health nutrition for medical students. We discuss suggested competencies in nutrition and compare means of students' confidence and knowledge before and after. A nutrition and public health elective in a UK medical school, discussing advocacy, motivational interviewing, supplements, nutritional deficits, parenteral nutrition, obesity services. We utilised multidisciplinary teaching approaches including dietitians, managers and pharmacists, and students implemented a public health activity in a local school. Fifteen final-year medical students were enrolled; sixty school pupils participated in the public health activity. The students were not confident in nutrition competencies before and were taught less than European counterparts. Students enjoyed the course, had improved knowledge, and felt more confident in interviewing and prescribing supplements. Feedback from the local school was positive. Students in our UK medical school were not confident in their required competencies within the confines of the current educational programme. An elective course can improve medical students' knowledge. Similar courses could be implemented in other medical schools to improve nutrition and public health knowledge and practice in future doctors.

  12. The Next Step to Creating a More Efficient Form of Paperless Contracting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sweet, Gerald L

    2008-01-01

    .... The author, a contracting officer whose background includes programming, business administration, management information systems, geographic information systems, and systems design, will explore...

  13. The Written Corrective Feedback Debate: Next Steps for Classroom Teachers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Language teachers spend much of their time providing corrective feedback on students' writing in hope of helping them improve grammatical accuracy. Turning to research for guidance, however, can leave practitioners with few concrete answers as to the effectiveness of written corrective feedback (CF). Debate in the literature continues, reflecting…

  14. The next step in coastal numerical models: spectral/hp element methods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskilsson, Claes; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Sherwin, Spencer J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we outline the application of spectral/hp element methods for modelling nonlinear and dispersive waves. We present one- and two-dimensional test cases for the shallow water equations and Boussinesqtype equations – including highly dispersive Boussinesq-type equations....

  15. Next steps in determining the overall sustainability of perennial bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial bioenergy crops are being developed and evaluated in the United States to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Accurate accounting of upstream and downstream greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is necessary to measure the overall carbon intensity of new biofuel feedstocks. For example, c...

  16. The Next Steps in Our Understanding of Gene-Peer Interplay: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S. Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The studies included in this special issue on gene-peer interplay in child and adolescent outcomes can uniformly be described as cutting edge and methodologically sophisticated. When viewed together, they all but conclusively document the presence and importance of gene-peer interplay in child and adolescent outcomes. Nevertheless, more work on…

  17. Next-Generation Multifunctional Electrochromic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guofa; Wang, Jiangxin; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-08-16

    during the daytime. Energy can also be stored in the smart windows during the daytime simultaneously and be discharged for use in the evening. These results reveal that the electrochromic devices have potential applications in a wide range of areas. We hope that this Account will promote further efforts toward fundamental research on electrochromic materials and the development of new multifunctional electrochromic devices to meet the growing demands for next-generation electronic systems.

  18. HIGH PERFORMANCE ADVANCED TOKAMAK REGIMES FOR NEXT-STEP EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREENFIELD, C.M.; MURAKAMI, M.; FERRON, J.R.; WADE, M.R.; LUCE, T.C.; PETTY, C.C.; MENARD, J.E; PETRIE, T.W.; ALLEN, S.L.; BURRELL, K.H.; CASPER, T.A; DeBOO, J.C.; DOYLE, E.J.; GAROFALO, A.M; GORELOV, Y.A; GROEBNER, R.J.; HOBIRK, J.; HYATT, A.W; JAYAKUMAR, R.J; KESSEL, C.E; LA HAYE, R.J; JACKSON, G.L; LOHR, J.; MAKOWSKI, M.A.; PINSKER, R.I.; POLITZER, P.A.; PRATER, R.; STRAIT, E.J.; TAYLOR, T.S; WEST, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 Advanced Tokamak (AT) research in DIII-D seeks to provide a scientific basis for steady-state high performance operation in future devices. These regimes require high toroidal beta to maximize fusion output and poloidal beta to maximize the self-driven bootstrap current. Achieving these conditions requires integrated, simultaneous control of the current and pressure profiles, and active magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability control. The building blocks for AT operation are in hand. Resistive wall mode stabilization via plasma rotation and active feedback with non-axisymmetric coils allows routine operation above the no-wall beta limit. Neoclassical tearing modes are stabilized by active feedback control of localized electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). Plasma shaping and profile control provide further improvements. Under these conditions, bootstrap supplies most of the current. Steady-state operation requires replacing the remaining Ohmic current, mostly located near the half-radius, with noninductive external sources. In DIII-D this current is provided by ECCD, and nearly stationary AT discharges have been sustained with little remaining Ohmic current. Fast wave current drive is being developed to control the central magnetic shear. Density control, with divertor cryopumps, of AT discharges with edge localized moding (ELMing) H-mode edges facilitates high current drive efficiency at reactor relevant collisionalities. A sophisticated plasma control system allows integrated control of these elements. Close coupling between modeling and experiment is key to understanding the separate elements, their complex nonlinear interactions, and their integration into self-consistent high performance scenarios. Progress on this development, and its implications for next-step devices, will be illustrated by results of recent experiment and simulation efforts

  19. Collaborative learning: A next step in the training of peer support providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronise, Rita

    2016-09-01

    This column explores how peer support provider training is enhanced through collaborative learning. Collaborative learning is an approach that draws upon the "real life" experiences of individual learners and encompasses opportunities to explore varying perspectives and collectively construct solutions that enrich the practice of all participants. This description draws upon published articles and examples of collaborative learning in training and communities of practice of peer support providers. Similar to person-centered practices that enhance the recovery experience of individuals receiving services, collaborative learning enhances the experience of peer support providers as they explore relevant "real world" issues, offer unique contributions, and work together toward improving practice. Three examples of collaborative learning approaches are provided that have resulted in successful collaborative learning opportunities for peer support providers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Moving Toward Quantifying Reliability - The Next Step in a Rapidly Maturing PV Industry: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah; Sample, Tony; Wohlgemuth, John; Zhou, Wei; Bosco, Nick; Althaus, Joerg; Phillips, Nancy; Deceglie, Michael; Flueckiger, Chris; Hacke, Peter; Miller, David; Kempe, Michael; Yamamichi, Masaaki; Kondo, Michio

    2015-12-07

    Some may say that PV modules are moving toward being a simple commodity, but most major PV customers ask: 'How can I minimize chances of a module recall?' Or, 'How can I quantify the added value of a 'premium' module?' Or, 'How can I assess the value of an old PV system that I'm thinking of purchasing?' These are all questions that PVQAT (the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force) and partner organizations are working to answer. Defining standard methods for ensuring minimal acceptable quality of PV modules, differentiating modules that provide added value in the toughest of environments, and creating a process (e.g. through IECRE [1]) that can follow a PV system from design through installation and operation are tough tasks, but having standard approaches for these will increase confidence, reduce costs, and be a critical foundation of a mature PV industry. This paper summarizes current needs for new tests, some challenges for defining those tests, and some of the key efforts toward development of international standards, emphasizing that meaningful quantification of reliability (as in defining a service life prediction) must be done in the context of a specific product with design parameters defined through a quality management system.

  1. Endoscopic non-technical skills team training: the next step in quality assurance of endoscopy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharoo, Manmeet; Haycock, Adam; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan

    2014-12-14

    To investigate whether novel, non-technical skills training for Bowel Cancer Screening (BCS) endoscopy teams enhanced patient safety knowledge and attitudes. A novel endoscopy team training intervention for BCS teams was developed and evaluated as a pre-post intervention study. Four multi-disciplinary BCS teams constituting BCS endoscopist(s), specialist screening practitioners, endoscopy nurses and administrative staff (A) from English BCS training centres participated. No patients were involved in this study. Expert multidisciplinary faculty delivered a single day's training utilising real clinical examples. Pre and post-course evaluation comprised participants' patient safety awareness, attitudes, and knowledge. Global course evaluations were also collected. Twenty-three participants attended and their patient safety knowledge improved significantly from 43%-55% (P ≤ 0.001) following the training intervention. 12/41 (29%) of the safety attitudes items significantly improved in the areas of perceived patient safety knowledge and awareness. The remaining safety attitude items: perceived influence on patient safety, attitudes towards error management, error management actions and personal views following an error were unchanged following training. Both qualitative and quantitative global course evaluations were positive: 21/23 (91%) participants strongly agreed/agreed that they were satisfied with the course. Qualitative evaluation included mandating such training for endoscopy teams outside BCS and incorporating team training within wider endoscopy training. Limitations of the study include no measure of increased patient safety in clinical practice following training. A novel comprehensive training package addressing patient safety, non-technical skills and adverse event analysis was successful in improving multi-disciplinary teams' knowledge and safety attitudes.

  2. Endoscopic non-technical skills team training: The next step in quality assurance of endoscopy training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharoo, Manmeet; Haycock, Adam; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether novel, non-technical skills training for Bowel Cancer Screening (BCS) endoscopy teams enhanced patient safety knowledge and attitudes. METHODS: A novel endoscopy team training intervention for BCS teams was developed and evaluated as a pre-post intervention study. Four multi-disciplinary BCS teams constituting BCS endoscopist(s), specialist screening practitioners, endoscopy nurses and administrative staff (A) from English BCS training centres participated. No patients were involved in this study. Expert multidisciplinary faculty delivered a single day’s training utilising real clinical examples. Pre and post-course evaluation comprised participants’ patient safety awareness, attitudes, and knowledge. Global course evaluations were also collected. RESULTS: Twenty-three participants attended and their patient safety knowledge improved significantly from 43%-55% (P ≤ 0.001) following the training intervention. 12/41 (29%) of the safety attitudes items significantly improved in the areas of perceived patient safety knowledge and awareness. The remaining safety attitude items: perceived influence on patient safety, attitudes towards error management, error management actions and personal views following an error were unchanged following training. Both qualitative and quantitative global course evaluations were positive: 21/23 (91%) participants strongly agreed/agreed that they were satisfied with the course. Qualitative evaluation included mandating such training for endoscopy teams outside BCS and incorporating team training within wider endoscopy training. Limitations of the study include no measure of increased patient safety in clinical practice following training. CONCLUSION: A novel comprehensive training package addressing patient safety, non-technical skills and adverse event analysis was successful in improving multi-disciplinary teams’ knowledge and safety attitudes. PMID:25516665

  3. Regionalization of surgical services in central Florida: the next step in acute care surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Ernest F J; Rudloff, Beth; Noon, Charles; Behn, Bruce

    2010-09-01

    There is a national loss of access to surgeons for emergencies. Contributing factors include reduced numbers of practicing general surgeons, superspecialization, reimbursement issues, emphasis on work and life balance, and medical liability. Regionalizing acute care surgery (ACS), as exists for trauma care, represents a potential solution. The purpose of this study is to assess the financial and resources impact of transferring all nontrauma ACS cases from a community hospital (CH) to a trauma center (TC). We performed a case mix and financial analysis of patient records with ACS for a rural CH located near an urban Level I TC. ACS patients were analyzed for diagnosis, insurance status, procedures, and length of stay. We estimated physician reimbursement based on evaluation and management codes and procedural CPT codes. Hospital revenues were based on regional diagnosis-related group rates. All third-party remuneration was set at published Medicare rates; self-pay was set at nil. Nine hundred ninety patients were treated in the CH emergency department with 188 potential surgical diseases. ACS was necessary in 62 cases; 25.4% were uninsured. Extrapolated to 12 months, 248 patients would generate new TC physician revenue of >$155,000 and hospital profits of >$1.5 million. CH savings for call pay and other variable costs are >$100,000. TC operating room volume would only increase by 1%. Regionalization of ACS to TCs is a viable option from a business perspective. Access to care is preserved during an approaching crisis in emergency general surgical coverage. The referring hospital is relieved of an unfavorable payer mix and surgeon call problems. The TC receives a new revenue stream with limited impact on resources by absorbing these patients under its fixed costs, saving the CH variable costs.

  4. APNs taking the next step: disseminating practice information via effective poster presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Janet

    2013-02-10

    Advanced practice nurses (APNs) have a responsibility to share information from projects and research with other professionals. Poster presentations offer a way to visually share the information to a wide audience. Key elements include title, objective/purpose, data collection, results, analysis, implications for nursing, and appropriate references.

  5. The Next Step in Educational Program Budgets and Information Resource Management: Integrated Data Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, Edward M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the role that information resource management (IRM) plays in educational program-oriented budgeting (POB), and presents a theoretical IRM model. Highlights include design considerations for integrated data systems; database management systems (DBMS); and how POB data can be integrated to enhance its value and use within an educational…

  6. A Risk Management Process for Consumers: The Next Step in Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cleeff, A.

    2010-01-01

    Simply by using information technology, consumers expose themselves to considerable security risks. Because no technical or legal solutions are readily available, and awareness programs have limited impact, the only remedy is to develop a risk management process for consumers. Consumers need to

  7. Indicator disease-guided testing for HIV--the next step for Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazzard, B; Clumeck, N; d'Arminio Monforte, A

    2008-01-01

    with sexually transmitted diseases should be offered an HIV test, as should patients with certain types of cancers and laboratory abnormalities. Governments should consider adopting opt-out testing for pregnant women. These recommendations should be considered for implementation by all types of health......HIV should preferably be diagnosed in its earlier stages. To optimize the chances of doing so, HIV testing in patients presenting with one of several indicator diseases and conditions is recommended. Patients presenting with tuberculosis and other AIDS-defining conditions should be tested. Patients...

  8. High aspect-ratio MEMS devices for the next generation of THz/MHz passive components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorentino, G.

    2015-01-01

    The realization of efficient passive devices directly on chip represents one of the most intriguing challenges in IC fabrication processes. The performance of such devices are intrinsically determined by physical parameters that cannot be easily scaled, making the on-chip integration of such

  9. What next steps in nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.

    1991-01-01

    Following the political changes in Czechoslovakia in the late 1989, preparation of a new energy policy began in the second half of 1990. The principles of this new policy include an increase in the share of electricity in the energy balance, based on an increase in the contribution of nuclear power plants. This new nuclear policy should be oriented to the use of state-of-the-art technologies from world's foremost manufacturers such as Framatome, Siemens-KWU, ABB - Combustion Engineering, Mitsubishi and Westinghouse. In February 1991, companies associated in a consortium, viz. the Czech Power Company, the Slovak Power Company, the Czechoslovak Uranium Industry and Energoprojekt, sent the world manufacturers a preliminary invitation of tenders. The bids are now being evaluated by the Belgian company Belgatom and by the Czechoslovak company Energoprojekt. The completion of the feasibility study is conditional on the decision concerning the siting of a new nuclear power plant. (Z.S.). 1 tab

  10. Next Step Mobile: Strategy, Services, & PRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2012-01-01

    As emerging information technologies have driven demand for new library communication channels, there has been increased interest in the use of mobile tools to promote interaction, expand outreach, market programs, and enhance the library experience. Libraries today are at widely different levels of mobile engagement, a gap poised to grow as…

  11. Next steps in propositional horn contraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available not opted for this choice.) Our start- ing point for defining Horn e-contraction is in terms of Del- grande’s definition of e-remainder sets. Definition 3.1 (Horn e-Remainder Sets) For a belief setH , X ∈ H ↓e Φ iff (i) X ⊆ H , (ii) X 6|= Φ, and (iii...) for every X ′ s.t. X ⊂ X ′ ⊆ H , X ′ |= Φ. We refer to the elements of H ↓eΦ as the Horn e-remainder sets of H w.r.t. Φ. It is easy to verify that all Horn e-remainder sets are belief sets. Also, H ↓eΦ = ∅ iff |= Φ. We now proceed to define selection...

  12. Direct Taxation in the Eu: The Common Corporate Tax Base as the Next Sub-Step towards Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Herzig

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Common Corporate Tax Base (CCTB as an interim alternative to the proposal of a Council directive on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB. The CCCTB concept does not only include common rules for determining the tax base like the CCTB but also the steps of consolidation and subsequent formula apportionment. Therefore, the paper starts by showing that particularly these second and third steps of the CCCTB project meet fierce political opposition from several Member States and do leave leeway for tax planning. Afterwards, the CCCTB proposal's approach to common rules for determining the tax base is evaluated, i.e. tested for its suitability as a point of departure for drafting a CCTB. Finally, various other aspects of the proposal are examined in light of a CCTB without consolidation.

  13. Institutionalizing policy-level health impact assessment in Europe: is coupling health impact assessment with strategic environmental assessment the next step forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John; Parry, Jayne; Scully, Edward

    2005-06-01

    European Union (EU) Member States are interested in using health impact assessment (HIA) as a means of safeguarding their obligations to protect human health under the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam. However, several have encountered difficulties institutionalizing HIA with the policy-making process. As a consequence, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has suggested coupling HIA with strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Traditionally, the incorporation of HIA into other forms of impact assessment has been resisted, for fear of losing its focus on health issues to environmental concerns, and compromising its social model of health with the introduction of biophysical indicators. But can these fears be substantiated? In this paper, we investigate the grounds for such concerns by reviewing the relevant policy documents and departmental guidelines of four non-European countries that have considered the use of integrated assessment. We found that the case for associating HIA with SEA in Europe is strong, and offers potential solutions to problems of screening, theoretical framework, causal pathways and ready entry to the policy process. Coupling HIA with SEA may thus be the next step forward in a longer journey towards institutionalizing HIA as an independent policy-linked device.

  14. Free Modal Algebras Revisited: The Step-by-Step Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio; Jibladze, Mamuka

    2012-01-01

    We review the step-by-step method of constructing finitely generated free modal algebras. First we discuss the global step-by-step method, which works well for rank one modal logics. Next we refine the global step-by-step method to obtain the local step-by-step method, which is applicable beyond

  15. Evening electronic device use: The effects on alertness, sleep and next-day physical performance in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Maddison J; Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian; Halson, Shona; Miller, Joanna; Dunican, Ian; Clarke, Michael; Goodman, Carmel; Eastwood, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different types of tasks performed with or without an electronic device (tablet) on pre-sleep alertness, subsequent sleep quality and next-day athletic performance. Eight highly trained netball players attended a sleep laboratory for pre-sleep testing, polysomnographic sleep monitoring and next-day physical performance testing on 5 separate occasions (1 familiarisation and 4 experimental sessions). For 2 h prior to bedtime, athletes completed cognitively stimulating tasks (puzzles) or passive tasks (reading) with or without a tablet. Sleepiness tended to be greater after reading compared to completing puzzles without a tablet (d = 0.80), but not with a tablet. Melatonin concentration increased more so after reading compared to completing puzzles on a tablet (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in sleep quality or quantity or next-day athletic performance between any of the conditions. These data suggest that using a tablet for 2 h prior to sleep does not negatively affect subsequent sleep or next-day performance in athletes.

  16. Graphene resistive random memory — the promising memory device in next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xue-Feng; Zhao Hai-Ming; Yang Yi; Ren Tian-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Graphene-based resistive random access memory (GRRAM) has grasped researchers’ attention due to its merits compared with ordinary RRAM. In this paper, we briefly review different types of GRRAMs. These GRRAMs can be divided into two categories: graphene RRAM and graphene oxide (GO)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) RRAM. Using graphene as the electrode, GRRAM can own many good characteristics, such as low power consumption, higher density, transparency, SET voltage modulation, high uniformity, and so on. Graphene flakes sandwiched between two dielectric layers can lower the SET voltage and achieve multilevel switching. Moreover, the GRRAM with rGO and GO as the dielectric or electrode can be simply fabricated. Flexible and high performance RRAM and GO film can be modified by adding other materials layer or making a composite with polymer, nanoparticle, and 2D materials to further improve the performance. Above all, GRRAM shows huge potential to become the next generation memory. (topical reviews)

  17. Energy market reform - lessons learned and next steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, G.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will be based on the World Energy Council's recently published report, Energy Market Reform: Lessons Learned and Next Steps with Special Emphasis on the Energy Access Problems of Developing Countries. The report draws on practical lessons from past studies carried out by the World Energy Council and on current experiences on the desirable architecture of market reforms in electricity and natural gas. The approach of the study was not to further deepen the analysis or to provide technical recommendations but rather, to build a debate guided by the common thread of energy security and end-user e mpowerment , highlighting the possible areas of conflict of interest and the broad solutions that might be chosen depending on the local circumstances for different parts of the energy chains. The ambition was to identify key concerns and to initiate a debate on possible answers.(author)

  18. Serious Games for Health: Features, Challenges, Next Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Moderators Fran C; Burke, Lauren C; Hodent, Participants Celia; Evans, Michael A; Lane, H Chad; Schell, Jesse

    2014-10-01

    As articles in this journal have demonstrated over the past 3 years, serious game development continues to flourish as a vehicle for formal and informal health education. How best to characterize a "serious" game remains somewhat elusive in the literature. Many researchers and practitioners view serious games as capitalizing on computer technology and state-of-the-art video graphics as an enjoyable means by which to provide and promote instruction and training, or to facilitate attitude change among its players. We invited four distinguished researchers and practitioners to further discuss with us how they view the characteristics of serious games for health, how those characteristics differ from those for academic purposes, the challenges posed for serious game development among players of different ages, and next steps for the development and empirical examination of the effectiveness of serious games for players' psychological and physical well-being.

  19. Liquid as template for next generation micro devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmet, Jerome; Haquette, Henri; Laux, Edith; Keppner, Herbert; Gorodyska, Ganna; Textor, Marcus; Durante, Guido Spinola; Portuondo-Campa, Erwin; Knapp, Helmut; Bitterli, Roland; Noell, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    Liquids have fascinated generations of scientists and engineers. Since ancient Greece, the perfect natural shape of liquids has been used to create optical systems. Nowadays, the natural shape of liquid is used in the fabrication of microlens arrays that rely on the melting of glass or photoresist to generate high quality lenses. However shrinkage normally associated to the liquid to solid phase transition will affect the initial shape and quality of the liquid structure. In this contribution, a novel fabrication technique that enables the encapsulation and replication of liquid templates without affecting their natural shape is presented. The SOLID (SOlid on LIquid Deposition) process allows for a transparent solid film to be deposited and grown onto a liquid template (droplet, film, line) in a way that the liquid shapes the overgrowing solid layer. The resulting configuration of the SOLID devices is chemically and mechanically stable and is the base of a huge variety of new micro-nano systems in the field of microfluidics, biomedical devices and micro-optics among others. The SOLID process enables in a one step process the encapsulation of liquid microlenses, fluidics channels, drug reservoir or any naturally driven liquid structure. The phenomenon and solid-liquid interface resulting from the SOLID process is new and still unexploited. The solid layer used for the SOLID process chosen in this paper is poly-para-xylylene called Parylene, a transparent biocompatible polymer with excellent mechanical and chemical properties. Moreover, as the solid layer is growing over a liquid template, atomically smooth surfaces channels can be obtained. The polymerization of Parylene does not exert stress and does not change the shape of the liquid; this latter aspect is particularly interesting for manufacturing naturally driven liquid structures. In this paper the authors explore the limits of this new method by testing different designs of SOLID encapsulated structures and

  20. Draft program plan for TNS: The Next Step after the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. Part IV. Program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.B.

    1977-02-01

    In this fourth part of the four-part TNS Draft Program Plan, project engineering concerns are considered. The TNS Project is first broken down into the major time and functional periods of feasibility study, preconceptual design, conceptual design, and line item construction, while the elements of the project are organized into an administrative work breakdown structure. With the aid of these two classifying schemes, the project tasks are described in terms of schedule, estimated cost, type of funding, and proposed type of participant. The initial constraints of completion data, anticipated scientific inputs, and budget procedures are used to develop a two-phase project in which the facilities are authorized first and the device 2 years later. This specific mechanism is fundamental to the construction of the schedule and should be reconsidered when the completion and initiation dates are reformulated

  1. A two-step annealing process for enhancing the ferroelectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) devices

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jihoon

    2015-01-01

    We report a simple two-step annealing scheme for the fabrication of stable non-volatile memory devices employing poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer thin-films. The proposed two-step annealing scheme comprises the crystallization of the ferroelectric gamma-phase during the first step and enhancement of the PVDF film dense morphology during the second step. Moreover, when we extended the processing time of the second step, we obtained good hysteresis curves down to 1 Hz, the first such report for ferroelectric PVDF films. The PVDF films also exhibit a coercive field of 113 MV m-1 and a ferroelectric polarization of 5.4 μC cm-2. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  2. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    In early June 2013, severe flooding hit Central and Eastern Europe, causing extensive damage, in particular along the Danube and Elbe main watersheds. The situation was particularly severe in Eastern Germany, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Based on the Post Event Review Capability (PERC) approach, developed by Zurich Insurance's Flood Resilience Program to provide independent review of large flood events, we examine what has worked well (best practice) and opportunities for further improvement. The PERC overall aims to thoroughly examine aspects of flood resilience, flood risk management and catastrophe intervention in order to help build back better after events and learn for future events. As our research from post event analyses shows a lot of losses are in fact avoidable by taking the right measures pre-event and these measures are economically - efficient with a return of 4 Euro on losses saved for every Euro invested in prevention on average (Wharton/IIASA flood resilience alliance paper on cost benefit analysis, Mechler et al. 2014) and up to 10 Euros for certain countries. For the 2013 flood events we provide analysis on the following aspects and in general identify a number of factors that worked in terms of reducing the loss and risk burden. 1. Understanding risk factors of the Central European Floods 2013 We review the precursors leading up to the floods in June, with an extremely wet May 2013 and an atypical V-b weather pattern that brought immense precipitation in a very short period to the watersheds of Elbe, Donau and partially the Rhine in the D-A-CH countries and researched what happened during the flood and why. Key questions we asked revolve around which protection and risk reduction approaches worked well and which did not, and why. 2. Insights and recommendations from the post event review The PERC identified a number of risk factors, which need attention if risk is to be reduced over time. • Yet another "100-year flood" - risk

  3. Transport Imaging for the Study of Quantum Scattering Phenomena in Next Generation Semiconductor Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bradley, Frank M

    2005-01-01

    ...) and highly efficient solar cells. A novel technique has been developed utilizing direct imaging of electron/hole recombination via an optical microscope and a high sensitivity charge coupled device coupled to a scanning electron...

  4. Draft program plan for TNS: the next step after the tokamak fusion test reactor. Part I. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    1977-10-01

    A draft program plan for TNS has been prepared which consists of two basic parts--an R and D Needs Assessment and a Project Plan with schedules and necessary implementation steps. In this brief but intensive effort, questions concerning (1) the present basis for the TNS program, (2) the principal gaps in the supporting program, and (3) the necessary actions to be taken to implement the TNS program were examined. The study supported the thesis that the physics and technology bases do exist from which to start the TNS design as a central fusion program goal. Specific recommendations are made to emphasize those physics, technology, and engineering areas in which there are program gaps. In the project engineering study, a basic schedule with close support from the R and D program is developed from which recommendations on administrative actions and areas for further elucidation are made. This document presents in summary form the findings of the study, the development of the principal theses, and the recommendation to ERDA-DMFE

  5. Disease-responsive drug delivery: the next generation of smart delivery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanakule, Prinda; Roy, Krishnendu

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of highly potent and cytotoxic drugs, it is increasingly critical that they be targeted and released only in cells of diseased tissues, while sparing physiologically normal neighbors. Simple ligand-based targeting of drug carriers, although promising, cannot always provide the required specificity to achieve this since often normal cells also express significant levels of the targeted receptors. Therefore, stimuli-responsive delivery systems are being explored to allow drug release from nano- and microcarriers and implantable devices, primarily in the presence of physiological or disease-specific pathophysiological signals. Designing smart biomaterials that respond to temperature or pH changes, protein and ligand binding, disease-specific degradation, e.g. enzymatic cleavage, has become an integral part of this approach. These strategies are used in combination with nano- and microparticle systems to improve delivery efficiency through several routes of administration, and with injectable or implantable systems for long term controlled release. This review focuses on recent developments in stimuli-responsive systems, their physicochemical properties, release profiles, efficacy, safety and biocompatibility, as well as future perspectives.

  6. The European Space Agency and the European Union: The Next Step on the Road to the Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Christian Hoerber

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the outlook, the main questions considered in this article are whether a European position on a genuine common space policy is developing. If so, why is this happening now?; and what kind of potentials do these developments hold for the European integration process as a whole? This article will approach these questions through an analysis of past European collaboration in space affairs. It will describe the recent process of closer involvement between European Space Agency (ESA and the European Union (EU. It will identify the motivations underlying this process. It will also try to gauge the strategic potential of an intensification of the coordination of national space efforts in ESA and the involvement of the EU. In the conclusion, the ever closer relationship between the EU and ESA will be considered against the larger picture of European politics and the ongoing process of European integration

  7. Quantifying Reliability - The Next Step for a Rapidly Maturing PV Industry and China's Role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-10-14

    PV customers wish to know how long their PV modules will last, but quantitatively predicting service life is difficult because of the large number of ways that a module can fail, the variability of the use environment, the cost of the testing, and the short product development time, especially when compared with the long desired lifetime. China should play a key role in developing international standards because China manufactures most of the world's PV modules. The presentation will describe the steps that need to be taken to create a service life prediction within the context of a defined bill of materials, process window and use environment. Worldwide standards for cost-effective approaches to service-life predictions will be beneficial to both PV customers and manufacturers since the consequences of premature module failure can be disastrous for both.

  8. Change in energy market in order to make the next cultural step; Umbruch im Energiemarkt als das Erklimmen einer neuen Kulturstufe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Franz [mpc management project coaching, Esslingen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The upcoming radical change in energy market will be more than complete shift to renewables. It will change the usage of energy. Up to now we lived in an ''energy paradise''. Without a thought about the needs of the next generations we reduced the storages of fossil fuels. In the future we will use only energy offered by the sun - directly or indirectly (e.g. wind energy) - or energy we stored before. We will have to make the next cultural step. We have to cope the extremely volatility of energy production. It is similar to the times, when we made the change from hunters and gatherers to tillers and stockbreeders: They had to learn how to manage the volatile offering of water and to store harvest. (orig.)

  9. The scientific prototype, the only reasonable next step for the American MFE program; or why FESAC will never solicit my advice again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2014-10-01

    The scientific prototype is a tokamak which builds on what has been accomplished in TFTR, JET and JT-60. Instead of attempting to advance the plasma parameters, or investigate a new confinement configuration, it takes the tokamak plasma parameters already achieved (or actually nearly already achieved), Q about 1 and run it at steady state or high duty cycle in a DT plasma. It is very much a nuclear device requiring all of the safeguards of any nuclear device. It is an important step forward for either pure fusion or fusion breeding, and it is difficult to see how fusion can advance very far with out the knowledge the scientific prototype would provide. The poster will be divided into two parts. The first part examines options other than the scientific prototype and shows why they should be rejected. The second part explains the scientific prototype in somewhat more detail.

  10. Recent progress in nanostructured next-generation field emission devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Gaurav; Lahiri, Indranil

    2014-01-01

    Field emission has been known to mankind for more than a century, and extensive research in this field for the last 40–50 years has led to development of exciting applications such as electron sources, miniature x-ray devices, display materials, etc. In the last decade, large-area field emitters were projected as an important material to revolutionize healthcare and medical devices, and space research. With the advent of nanotechnology and advancements related to carbon nanotubes, field emitters are demonstrating highly enhanced performance and novel applications. Next-generation emitters need ultra-high emission current density, high brightness, excellent stability and reproducible performance. Novel design considerations and application of new materials can lead to achievement of these capabilities. This article presents an overview of recent developments in this field and their effects on improved performance of field emitters. These advancements are demonstrated to hold great potential for application in next-generation field emission devices. (topical review)

  11. Recent progress in nanostructured next-generation field emission devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Gaurav; Lahiri, Indranil

    2014-08-01

    Field emission has been known to mankind for more than a century, and extensive research in this field for the last 40-50 years has led to development of exciting applications such as electron sources, miniature x-ray devices, display materials, etc. In the last decade, large-area field emitters were projected as an important material to revolutionize healthcare and medical devices, and space research. With the advent of nanotechnology and advancements related to carbon nanotubes, field emitters are demonstrating highly enhanced performance and novel applications. Next-generation emitters need ultra-high emission current density, high brightness, excellent stability and reproducible performance. Novel design considerations and application of new materials can lead to achievement of these capabilities. This article presents an overview of recent developments in this field and their effects on improved performance of field emitters. These advancements are demonstrated to hold great potential for application in next-generation field emission devices.

  12. Group Health Coaching: Strengths, Challenges, and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q.; Manning, Linda; Elam, Roy; Moore, Margaret; Frates, Elizabeth Pegg; Duskey, Heidi; Anderson, Chelsea; Curtis, Rebecca L.; Masemer, Susan; Lawson, Karen

    2013-01-01

    There is great need for cost effective approaches to increase patient engagement and improve health and well-being. Health and wellness coaching has recently demonstrated great promise, but the majority of studies to date have focused on individual coaching (ie, one coach with one client). Newer initiatives are bringing a group coaching model from corporate leadership development and educational settings into the healthcare arena. A group approach potentially increases cost-effective access to a larger number of clients and brings the possible additional benefit of group support. This article highlights some of the group coaching approaches currently being conducted across the United States. The group coaching interventions included in this overview are offered by a variety of academic and private sector institutions, use both telephonic and in-person coaching, and are facilitated by professionally trained health and wellness coaches as well as trained peer coaches. Strengths and challenges experienced in these efforts are summarized, as are recommendations to address those challenges. A working definition of “Group Health and Wellness Coaching” is proposed, and important next steps for research and for the training of group coaches are presented. PMID:24416678

  13. Group health coaching: strengths, challenges, and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Colin; Wolever, Ruth Q; Manning, Linda; Elam, Roy; Moore, Margaret; Frates, Elizabeth Pegg; Duskey, Heidi; Anderson, Chelsea; Curtis, Rebecca L; Masemer, Susan; Lawson, Karen

    2013-05-01

    There is great need for cost effective approaches to increase patient engagement and improve health and well-being. Health and wellness coaching has recently demonstrated great promise, but the majority of studies to date have focused on individual coaching (ie, one coach with one client). Newer initiatives are bringing a group coaching model from corporate leadership development and educational settings into the healthcare arena. A group approach potentially increases cost-effective access to a larger number of clients and brings the possible additional benefit of group support. This article highlights some of the group coaching approaches currently being conducted across the United States. The group coaching interventions included in this overview are offered by a variety of academic and private sector institutions, use both telephonic and in-person coaching, and are facilitated by professionally trained health and wellness coaches as well as trained peer coaches. Strengths and challenges experienced in these efforts are summarized, as are recommendations to address those challenges. A working definition of "Group Health and Wellness Coaching" is proposed, and important next steps for research and for the training of group coaches are presented.

  14. Integrated concept development of next-step helical-axis advanced stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmer, Felix

    2016-04-13

    With the increasing energy demand of mankind and the transformation of our society towards sustainability, nuclear fusion by magnetic confinement is a promising option for the sustainable electricity supply in the future. In view of these prospects this thesis focuses on the concept development of next-step helical-axis advanced stellarator (HELIAS) burning-plasma devices. The HELIAS-line is the continued development of the prototype optimised stellarator Wendelstein 7-X which started operation in 2015. For the integrated concept development of such devices, the approach taken in this work encompasses detailed physics and engineering considerations while also including economic aspects. Starting with physics considerations, the properties of plasma transport and confinement of 3D stellarator configurations are discussed due to their critical importance for the device design. It becomes clear that current empirical confinement time scalings are not sufficient to predict the confinement in future stellarator devices. Therefore, detailed 1D transport simulations are carried out to reduce the uncertainties regarding confinement. Beyond the well-validated neoclassical approach, first attempts are made to include results from state-of-the-art turbulence simulations into the 1D transport simulations to further enhance the predictive capabilities. Next, for the systematic development of consistent design points, stellarator-specific models are developed and implemented in the well-established European systems code PROCESS. This allows a consistent description of an entire HELIAS fusion power plant including physics, engineering, and economic considerations. With the confidence obtained from a verification study, systems studies are for the first time applied for a HELIAS power-plant which shows that the available design window is constrained by the beta-limit. Furthermore, an economic comparison of an exemplary design point to an ''equivalent'' tokamak

  15. A neuronal device for the control of multi-step computations

    OpenAIRE

    Zylberberg, Ariel D; Paz, Luciano; Roelfsema, Pieter R; Dehaene, Stanislas; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    We describe the operation of a neuronal device which embodies the computational principles of the `paper-and-pencil' machine envisioned by Alan Turing. The network is based on principles of cortical organization. We develop a plausible solution to implement pointers and investigate how neuronal circuits may instantiate the basic operations involved in assigning a value to a variable (i.e., x=5), in determining whether two variables have the same value and in retrieving the value of a given va...

  16. COPDESS (Coalition for Publishing Data in the Earth & Space Sciences): An Update on Progress and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Kerstin; Hanson, Brooks; Sallans, Andrew; Elger, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    The Coalition for Publishing Data in the Earth and Space Sciences (http://www.copdess.org/) formed in October 2014 to provide an organizational framework for Earth and space science publishers and data facilities to jointly implement and promote common policies and procedures for the publication and citation of data across Earth Science journals. Since inception, it has worked to develop and promote adoption of data citation standards (e.g. FORCE11 Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles), integrate community tools and services for greater discovery and adoption (e.g. COPDESS Directory of Repositories, https://copdessdirectory.osf.io/), and connect with related community efforts for greater transparency in research community (e.g. the Transparency and Openness Promotion Guidelines, http://cos.io/top). Following a second COPDESS workshop in Fall 2015, COPDESS is undertaking several concrete steps to increase participation and integration of efforts more deeply into the publishing and data facility workflows and to expand international participation. This talk will focus on details of specific initiatives, collection of feedback, and a call for new members. Specifically, we will present progress on the development of guidelines that aim to standardize publishers' recommended best practices by establishing "Best practices for best practices" that will allow a journal or data facility to tailor these practices to the sub-disciplines that they serve. COPDESS will further work to advance implementation of these best practices through increased outreach to and education of editors and authors. COPDESS plans to offer a Town Hall meeting at the EGU General Assembly as a forum for further information and discussion.

  17. Plasma-material interactions in current tokamaks and their implications for next step fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Skinner, C.H.; Brooks, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The major increase in discharge duration and plasma energy in a next step DT fusion reactor will give rise to important plasma-material effects that will critically in influence its operation, safety and performance. Erosion will increase to a scale of several centimetres from being barely measurable at a micron scale in today's tokamaks. Tritium co-deposited with carbon will strongly affect the operation of machines with carbon plasma facing components. Controlling plasma-wall interactions is critical to achieving high performance in present day tokamaks, and this is likely to continue to be the case in the approach to practical fusion reactors. Recognition of the important consequences of these phenomena stimulated an internationally co-ordinated effort in the part of plasma-surface interactions supporting the Engineering Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project (ITER), and significant progress has been made in better understanding these issues. The paper reviews the underlying physical processes and the existing experimental database of plasma-material inter actions both in tokamaks and laboratory simulation facilities for conditions of direct relevance to next step fusion reactors. Two main topical groups of interaction are considered: (i) erosion/redeposition from plasma sputtering and disruptions, including dust and flake generation and (ii) tritium retention and removal. The use of modelling tools to interpret the experimental results and make projections for conditions expected in future devices is explained. Outstanding technical issues and specific recommendations on potential R and D avenues for their resolution are presented. (author)

  18. Plasma-material interactions in current tokamaks and their implications for next-step fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Skinner, C.H.; Brooks, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The major increase in discharge duration and plasma energy in a next-step DT fusion reactor will give rise to important plasma-material effects that will critically influence its operation, safety and performance. Erosion will increase to a scale of several cm from being barely measurable at a micron scale in today's tokamaks. Tritium co-deposited with carbon will strongly affect the operation of machines with carbon plasma-facing components. Controlling plasma wall interactions is critical to achieving high performance in present-day tokamaks and this is likely to continue to be the case in the approach to practical fusion reactors. Recognition of the important consequences of these phenomena has stimulated an internationally co-ordinated effort in the field of plasma-surface interactions supporting the engineering design activities of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor project (ITER) and significant progress has been made in better understanding these issues. This paper reviews the underlying physical processes and the existing experimental database of plasma-material interactions both in tokamaks and laboratory simulation facilities for conditions of direct relevance to next-step fusion reactors. Two main topical groups of interactions are considered: (i) erosion/re-deposition from plasma sputtering and disruptions, including dust and flake generation, (ii) tritium retention and removal. The use of modelling tools to interpret the experimental results and make projections for conditions expected in future devices is explained. Outstanding technical issues and specific recommendations on potential R and D avenues for their resolution are presented. (orig.)

  19. Major achievements of the European shield blanket R and D during the ITER EDA, and their relevance for future next step machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daenner, W. E-mail: daenner@ipp.mpg.de; Cardella, A.; Jones, L.; Lorenzetto, P.; Maisonnier, D.; Malavasi, G.; Peacock, A.; Rodgers, E.; Tavassoli, F

    2000-11-01

    In the frame of the international thermonuclear experimental reactors (ITER) collaboration, the European home team (EU HT) has committed significant efforts on the R and D for the Shield Blanket. This paper summarises the main achievements of this programme, which have been obtained over the last 7 years. The depth of R and D extends from generic activities up to the manufacture of prototypes, but has, in accordance with the design progress, reached different stages of maturity for the various components. New ITER options being considered since early 1998 have not made these activities irrelevant. With few exceptions, the results are still applicable for less ambitious next step machines, or transferable to components with similar functions or requirements.

  20. Next Steps to Implement Renewable Energy Project on the Makah Indian Naiton for the Pacific North West Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Wilde, Coyote Energy, Inc.

    2005-12-30

    The two year feasibility project was conducted to determine if the Makah reservation wind resource is viable for commercial generation and to investigate the viability and implementaiton of a tribal utility company capable of conducting energy business on the reservation.

  1. Expression of OCT4A: The First Step to the Next Stage of Urothelial Bladder Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Jóźwicki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OCT4 (octamer-binding transcription factor is a transcription factor responsible for maintaining the pluripotent properties of embryonic stem cells. In this paper, we present the results of studies to investigate the role of the OCT4 splicing variant in urothelial bladder cancer and the relationship between the OCT4 phenotype and the morphological parameters of tumor malignancy. Ninety patients who received a cystectomy for bladder cancer were enrolled. The expression of OCT4 protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The ratio of OCT4-positive cells was the lowest in pT1 (pathological assessment (p—tumor extent confined to mucosa (T1 tumors and the highest in pTis (non-papillary tumor extent confined to urothelium and pT2 (tumor extent including muscularis propria tumors. Information about the percentage of OCT4A-positive tumor cells could facilitate choosing the treatment mode in borderline pTis–pT1 (crossing the border of the basement membrane; the first stage of progression and pT1–pT2 (crossing the border of the muscularis propria; the second stage of progression cases: a higher percentage of OCT4A-positive cells should support more radical therapy. A significantly higher percentage of cases with moderate OCT4 intensity was found in metastasizing (the third stage of progression cases with >2 positive lymph nodes. The percentage of OCT4-positive cells was significantly higher for cancers with a high grade, higher non-classic differentiation number and greater aggressiveness of invasion. The differentiation, maturation and aggressiveness of tumor invasion appear to depend on the expression of the OCT4 phenotype in cancer cells, similar to the successive stages of malignancy progression in urothelial cancer.

  2. The role of nanomaterials in redox-based supercapacitors for next generation energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Sánchez, Beatriz Mendoza; Dobson, Peter J.; Grant, Patrick S.

    2011-03-01

    The development of more efficient electrical storage is a pressing requirement to meet future societal and environmental needs. This demand for more sustainable, efficient energy storage has provoked a renewed scientific and commercial interest in advanced capacitor designs in which the suite of experimental techniques and ideas that comprise nanotechnology are playing a critical role. Capacitors can be charged and discharged quickly and are one of the primary building blocks of many types of electrical circuit, from microprocessors to large-sale power supplies, but usually have relatively low energy storage capability when compared with batteries. The application of nanostructured materials with bespoke morphologies and properties to electrochemical supercapacitors is being intensively studied in order to provide enhanced energy density without comprising their inherent high power density and excellent cyclability. In particular, electrode materials that exploit physical adsorption or redox reactions of electrolyte ions are foreseen to bridge the performance disparity between batteries with high energy density and capacitors with high power density. In this review, we present some of the novel nanomaterial systems applied for electrochemical supercapacitors and show how material morphology, chemistry and physical properties are being tailored to provide enhanced electrochemical supercapacitor performance.

  3. Addressing Health Care Disparities and Increasing Workforce Diversity: The Next Step for the Dental, Medical, and Public Health Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Dennis A.; Lassiter, Shana L.

    2006-01-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of our nation is projected to change drastically in the coming decades. It is therefore important that the health professions improve their efforts to provide culturally competent care to all patients. We reviewed literature concerning health care disparities and workforce diversity issues—particularly within the oral health field—and provide a synthesis of recommendations to address these issues. This review is highly relevant to both the medical and public health professions, because they are facing similar disparity and workforce issues. In addition, the recent establishment of relationships between oral health and certain systemic health conditions will elevate oral health promotion and disease prevention as important points of intervention in the quest to improve our nation’s public health. PMID:17077406

  4. Managing the Innovation Process: Infusing Data Analytics into the Undergraduate Business Curriculum (Lessons Learned and Next Steps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    The designing of a new, potentially disruptive, curricular program, is not without challenges; however, it can be rewarding for students, faculty, and employers and serve as a template for other academics to follow. To be effective, the new data analytics program should be driven by business input and academic leadership that incorporates…

  5. Thin film complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) device using a single-step deposition of the channel layer

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2014-04-14

    We report, for the first time, the use of a single step deposition of semiconductor channel layer to simultaneously achieve both n-and p-type transport in transparent oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). This effect is achieved by controlling the concentration of hydroxyl groups (OH-groups) in the underlying gate dielectrics. The semiconducting tin oxide layer was deposited at room temperature, and the maximum device fabrication temperature was 350C. Both n and p-type TFTs showed fairly comparable performance. A functional CMOS inverter was fabricated using this novel scheme, indicating the potential use of our approach for various practical applications.

  6. What's Next After You Say Hello: First Steps in Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, William F.; Pringle, Ernest M.

    2005-01-01

    In most cultures wisdom, knowledge, and experience are prized assets. Those who possess them are held in high regard and are expected to share them with the next generation. So it is in the world of information technology (IT). Veteran IT professionals are often charged with identifying and developing future IT leaders, while future leaders often…

  7. Systematic literature review of integrated community case management and the private sector in Africa: Relevant experiences and potential next steps

    OpenAIRE

    Phyllis Awor; Jane Miller; Stefan Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite substantial investments made over the past 40 years in low income countries, governments cannot be viewed as the principal health care provider in many countries. Evidence on the role of the private sector in the delivery of health services is becoming increasingly available. In this study, we set out to determine the extent to which the private sector has been utilized in providing integrated care for sick children under 5 years of age with community–acquired malaria, pneu...

  8. Successes and failures of sixty years of vector control in French Guiana: what is the next step?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Yanouk; Chaney, Sarah C; Guidez, Amandine; Habchi-Hanriot, Nausicaa; Talaga, Stanislas; Wang, Lanjiao; Dusfour, Isabelle

    2018-03-12

    Since the 1940s, French Guiana has implemented vector control to contain or eliminate malaria, yellow fever, and, recently, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Over time, strategies have evolved depending on the location, efficacy of the methods, development of insecticide resistance, and advances in vector control techniques. This review summarises the history of vector control in French Guiana by reporting the records found in the private archives of the Institute Pasteur in French Guiana and those accessible in libraries worldwide. This publication highlights successes and failures in vector control and identifies the constraints and expectations for vector control in this French overseas territory in the Americas.

  9. Successes and failures of sixty years of vector control in French Guiana: what is the next step?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanouk Epelboin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1940s, French Guiana has implemented vector control to contain or eliminate malaria, yellow fever, and, recently, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Over time, strategies have evolved depending on the location, efficacy of the methods, development of insecticide resistance, and advances in vector control techniques. This review summarises the history of vector control in French Guiana by reporting the records found in the private archives of the Institute Pasteur in French Guiana and those accessible in libraries worldwide. This publication highlights successes and failures in vector control and identifies the constraints and expectations for vector control in this French overseas territory in the Americas.

  10. Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Waste to Yucca Mountain: The Next Step in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, Robin L.; Lechel, David J.

    2003-01-01

    In the U.S. Department of Energy's ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada,'' the Department states that certain broad transportation-related decisions can be made. These include the choice of a mode of transportation nationally (mostly legal-weight truck or mostly rail) and in Nevada (mostly rail, mostly legal-weight truck, or mostly heavy-haul truck with use of an associated intermodal transfer station), as well as the choice among alternative rail corridors or heavy-haul truck routes with use of an associated intermodal transfer station in Nevada. Although a rail line does not service the Yucca Mountain site, the Department has identified mostly rail as its preferred mode of transportation, both nationally and in the State of Nevada. If mostly rail is selected for Nevada, the Department would then identify a preference for one of the rail corridors in consultation with affected stakeholders, particularly the State of Nevada. DOE would then select the rail corridor and initiate a process to select a specific rail alignment within the corridor for the construction of a rail line. Five proposed rail corridors were analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement. The assessment considered the impacts of constructing a branch rail line in the five 400-meter (0.25mile) wide corridors. Each corridor connects the Yucca Mountain site with an existing mainline railroad in Nevada

  11. A Golden Opportunity: The Next Steps in U.S.-Indian Relations. Strategic Forum, Number 182, July 2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holzman, John

    2001-01-01

    .... The administration inherited policies that restrict high technology and military exports to Indian, mandate that the United States vote against some development loans to India from the World Bank...

  12. Systematic literature review of integrated community case management and the private sector in Africa: Relevant experiences and potential next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awor, Phyllis; Miller, Jane; Peterson, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Despite substantial investments made over the past 40 years in low income countries, governments cannot be viewed as the principal health care provider in many countries. Evidence on the role of the private sector in the delivery of health services is becoming increasingly available. In this study, we set out to determine the extent to which the private sector has been utilized in providing integrated care for sick children under 5 years of age with community-acquired malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea. We reviewed the published literature for integrated community case management (iCCM) related experiences within both the public and private sector. We searched PubMed and Google/Google Scholar for all relevant literature until July 2014. The search terms used were "malaria", "pneumonia", "diarrhoea", "private sector" and "community case management". A total of 383 articles referred to malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea in the private sector. The large majority of these studies (290) were only malaria related. Most of the iCCM-related studies evaluated introduction of only malaria drugs and/or diagnostics into the private sector. Only one study evaluated the introduction of drugs and diagnostics for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea in the private sector. In contrast, most iCCM-related studies in the public sector directly reported on community case management of 2 or more of the illnesses. While the private sector is an important source of care for children in low income countries, little has been done to harness the potential of this sector in improving access to care for non-malaria-associated fever in children within the community. It would be logical for iCCM programs to expand their activities to include the private sector to achieve higher population coverage. An implementation research agenda for private sector integrated care of febrile childhood illness needs to be developed and implemented in conjunction with private sector intervention programs.

  13. Polyacrylamide Ferrogels with Magnetite or Strontium Hexaferrite: Next Step in the Development of Soft Biomimetic Matter for Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Safronov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic biosensors are an important part of biomedical applications of magnetic materials. As the living tissue is basically a “soft matter.” this study addresses the development of ferrogels (FG with micron sized magnetic particles of magnetite and strontium hexaferrite mimicking the living tissue. The basic composition of the FG comprised the polymeric network of polyacrylamide, synthesized by free radical polymerization of monomeric acrylamide (AAm in water solution at three levels of concentration (1.1 M, 0.85 M and 0.58 M to provide the FG with varying elasticity. To improve FG biocompatibility and to prevent the precipitation of the particles, polysaccharide thickeners—guar gum or xanthan gum were used. The content of magnetic particles in FG varied up to 5.2 wt % depending on the FG composition. The mechanical properties of FG and their deformation in a uniform magnetic field were comparatively analyzed. FG filled with strontium hexaferrite particles have larger Young’s modulus value than FG filled with magnetite particles, most likely due to the specific features of the adhesion of the network’s polymeric subchains on the surface of the particles. FG networks with xanthan are stronger and have higher modulus than the FG with guar. FG based on magnetite, contract in a magnetic field 0.42 T, whereas some FG based on strontium hexaferrite swell. Weak FG with the lowest concentration of AAm shows a much stronger response to a field, as the concentration of AAm governs the Young’s modulus of ferrogel. A small magnetic field magnetoimpedance sensor prototype with Co68.6Fe3.9Mo3.0Si12.0B12.5 rapidly quenched amorphous ribbon based element was designed aiming to develop a sensor working with a disposable stripe sensitive element. The proposed protocol allowed measurements of the concentration dependence of magnetic particles in gels using magnetoimpedance responses in the presence of magnetite and strontium hexaferrite ferrogels

  14. Beyond the Black-White Binary of U.S. Race Relations: A Next Step in Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Courtney T.

    2017-01-01

    Many if not most people in the academy as well as the public sphere tend to regard race and racism in the United States in terms of a default frame of reference (i.e., a paradigm): the black-white binary. Although this frame is constructive as well as compelling, it displays serious liabilities. This article outlines, for religious educators, nine…

  15. Promoting Safe, Secure, and Peaceful Growth of Nuclear Energy: Next Steps for Russia and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bunn, Matthew G.; Vyacheslav P. Kuznetzov

    2010-01-01

    Russia, the United States and other countries must cooperate to enable large-scale growth of nuclear energy around the world while achieving even higher standards of safety, security, and nonproliferation than are in place today. This will require building a new global framework for nuclear energy, including new or strengthened global institutions. The Belfer Center's Managing the Atom (MTA) Project and the Russian Research Center's Kurchatov Institute developed these and additional recommend...

  16. CINCH-II project. Next step in the coordination of education in nuclear- and radiochemistry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Jan; Cuba, Vaclav; Nemec, Mojmir

    2013-01-01

    Any of the potential options for the nuclear power – both the renaissance, if any, or the phase out – will require significant numbers of the respective specialists, amongst others the nuclear and/or radiochemists. In parallel, a significant demand exists for these specialists in non-energy fields, such as environmental protection, radiopharmacy, nuclear medicine, biology, authorities, etc. Since the numbers of staff in teaching and the number of univerzities with facilities licensed for the work with open sources of ionizing radiation has decreased on or sometimes even below the critical level, coordination and collaboration are required to maintain the necessary teaching and training capabilities. The CINCH-II project, aiming at the Coordination of education and training In Nuclear CHemistry in Europe, will be a direct continuation of the CINCH-I project which, among others, identified the EuroMaster in Nuclear Chemistry quality label recognized and guaranteed by the European Chemistry Thematic Network Association as an optimum common mutual recognition system in the field of education in Nuclear Chemistry in Europe, surveyed the status of Nuclear Chemistry in industry / the needs of the end-users, developed an efficient system of education/training compact modular courses, or developed and tested two electronic tools as a basis of a future efficient distance learning system. In the first part of this paper, the achievements of the CINCH-I project will be described. This description will cover both the status review and the development activities of this Collaboration. In the status review field, the results of a detailed survey of the universities and curricula in nuclear- and radiochemistry in Europe and Russia will be presented. Another survey mapped the nuclear- and radiochemistry in industry – specifically the training and education needs of the end users. In the development activities field, the main achievements of the CINCH-project will be presented

  17. Gas flushing through hyper-acidic crater lakes: the next steps within a reframed monitoring time window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouwet, Dmitri

    2016-04-01

    Tracking variations in the chemical composition, water temperature and pH of brines from peak-activity crater lakes is the most obvious way to forecast phreatic activity. Volcano monitoring intrinsically implies a time window of observation that should be synchronised with the kinetics of magmatic processes, such as degassing and magma intrusion. To decipher "how much time ago" a variation in degassing regime actually occurred before eventually being detected in a crater lake is key, and depends on the lake water residence time. The above reasoning assumes that gas is preserved as anions in the lake water (SO4, Cl, F anions), in other words, that scrubbing of acid gases is complete and irreversible. Less is true. Recent work has confirmed, by direct MultiGas measurement from evaporative plumes, that even the strongest acid in liquid medium (i.e. SO2) degasses from hyper-acidic crater lakes. The less strong acid HCl has long been recognised as being more volatile than hydrophyle in extremely acidic solutions (pH near 0), through a long-term steady increase in SO4/Cl ratios in the vigorously evaporating crater lake of Poás volcano. We now know that acidic gases flush through hyper-acidic crater lake brines, but we don't know to which extend (completely or partially?), and with which speed. The chemical composition hence only reflects a transient phase of the gas flushing through the lake. In terms of volcanic surveillance this brings the advantage that the monitoring time window is definitely shorter than defined by the water chemistry, but yet, we do not know how much shorter. Empirical experiments by Capaccioni et al. (in press) have tried to tackle this kinetic problem for HCl degassing from a "lab-lake" on the short-term (2 days). With this state of the art in mind, two new monitoring strategies can be proposed to seek for precursory signals of phreatic eruptions from crater lakes: (1) Tracking variations in gas compositions, fluxes and ratios between species in

  18. Diagnosing 'male' depression in men diagnosed with prostate cancer: the next step in effective translational psycho-oncology interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Christie, David R H

    2014-09-01

    Depression in men diagnosed with prostate cancer is associated with several adverse outcomes. However, some data suggest that standard methods of assessing depression in males via the criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) may omit several extra key symptoms of male depression. Therefore, this study tested the comparative effects of standard MDD-based diagnostic criteria for depression and criteria for 'male depression' in a sample of men diagnosed with prostate cancer. 191 men diagnosed with prostate cancer completed a postal survey questionnaire containing questions about background variables, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression (PHQ9) and the Gotland Male Depression Scale (GMDS). Comparisons were made of the relative prevalence of depression according to these scales, plus a scale that combined the PHQ9 and GMDS extra items for male depression Although there were significant correlations between total PHQ9 and GMDS scores, over one-third of variance in the GMDS was not accounted for by the PHQ9, and sensitivity of the PHQ9 against the GMDS showed that about 24% of those patients identified as depressed on the GMDS would not be similarly identified on the PHQ9. Different prevalence rates from the two scales suggested that they were assessing different sets of symptoms of depression. A combined PHQ9-GMDS scale of 15 items was used to produce a profile of male depression in these patients. Adequate and reliable assessment of depression in men diagnosed with prostate cancer may require use of additional symptoms to those listed for MDD, and treatment planning and delivery could be more precise and effective using this methodology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Taking the Next Step: Using Water Quality Data in a Decision Support System for County, State, and Federal Land Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K. S.; Williams, M. W.

    2004-12-01

    Each passing year amplifies the demands placed on communities across the US in terms of population growth, increased tourism, and stresses resulting from escalated use. The conflicting concerns of recreational users, local citizens, environmentalists, and traditional economic interests cause land managers to contend with controversial decisions regarding development and protection of watersheds. Local history and culture, politics, economic goals, and science are all influential factors in land use decision making. Here we report on a scientific study to determine the sensitivity of alpine areas, and the adaptation of this study into a decision support framework. We use water quality data as an indicator of ecosystem health across a variety of alpine and subalpine landscapes, and input this information into a spatially-based decision support tool that planners can use to make informed land use decisions. We develop this tool in a case study in San Juan County, Colorado, a site chosen because its largest town, Silverton, is a small mountain community experiencing a recent surge in tourism and development, and its fragile high elevation locale makes it more sensitive to environmental changes. Extensive field surveys were conducted in priority drainages throughout the county to map the spatial distribution and aerial extent of landscape types during the summers of 2003 and 2004. Surface water samples were collected and analyzed for inorganic and organic solutes, and water quality values were associated with different land covers to enable sensitivity analysis at the landscape scale. Water quality results for each watershed were entered into a module linked to a geographic information system (GIS), which displays maps of sensitive areas based on criteria selected by the user. The decision support system initially incorporates two major water quality parameters: acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and nitrate (NO3-) concentration, and several categories of sensitivity were

  20. Literature review : Use of family history for primary paediatric care as the next step towards use of genomics in healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syurina, Elena V.; Hens, Kristien; Feron, Frans J M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many childhood-onset diseases and developmental disorders have a strong genetic basis. However, up till now, the knowledge of this genetic component within multifactorial diseases is not frequently used in paediatric practice. A good family history collection can facilitate the link

  1. Integrated, multi-scale, spatial-temporal cell biology--A next step in the post genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rick

    2016-03-01

    New microscopic approaches, high-throughput imaging, and gene editing promise major new insights into cellular behaviors. When coupled with genomic and other 'omic information and "mined" for correlations and associations, a new breed of powerful and useful cellular models should emerge. These top down, coarse-grained, and statistical models, in turn, can be used to form hypotheses merging with fine-grained, bottom up mechanistic studies and models that are the back bone of cell biology. The goal of the Allen Institute for Cell Science is to develop the top down approach by developing a high throughput microscopy pipeline that is integrated with modeling, using gene edited hiPS cell lines in various physiological and pathological contexts. The output of these experiments and models will be an "animated" cell, capable of integrating and analyzing image data generated from experiments and models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design scoping study of the 12T Yin-Yang magnet system for the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The overall objective of this engineering study was to determine the feasibility of designing a Yin-Yang magnet capable of producing a peak field in the windings of 12T for the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS) program. As part of this technical study, a rough order of magnitude (ROM) cost estimate of the winding for this magnet was undertaken. The preferred approach to the winding design of the TMNS plug coil utilizes innovative design concepts to meet the structural, electrical and thermodynamic requirements of the magnet system. Structurally, the coil is radially partitioned into four sections, preventing the accumulation of the radial loads and reacting them into the structural case. To safely dissipate the 13.34 GJ of energy stored in each Yin-Yang magnet, the winding has been electrically subdivided into parallel or nested coils, each having its own power supply and protection circuitry. This arrangement effectively divides the total stored energy of the coils into manageable subsystems. The windings are cooled with superfluid helium II, operated at 1.8K and 1.2 atmospheres. The superior cooling capabilities of helium II have enabled the overall winding envelope to be minimized, providing a current density of 2367 A/CM 2 , excluding substructure

  3. General characteristics and assessment of the scientific/technical feasibility of the next major device in the tokamak fusion program. Summary of the US contributions to the INTOR workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Gilleland, J.R.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1979-09-01

    A substantial physics and technology data base for INTOR exists today, and this data base will be expanded over the next few years by currently planned programs. However, certain crucial information will not be developed by currently planned programs. Much of this missing information could be developed on the INTOR time scale by the expansion and/or acceleration of existing R and D programs and by the establishment of new R and D programs. On this basis, it is concluded that it is scientifically and technologically feasible to undertake the construction of an INTOR-like device to operate in the early 1990s, provided that the supporting R and D effort is expanded immediately to provide an adequate data base within the next few years in a few critical areas. Furthermore, it is concluded that the construction of an INTOR-like device to operate in the early 1990s is the appropriate next major step in the development of fusion power

  4. Mobile Device Accuracy for Step Counting Across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modave, François; Guo, Yi; Bian, Jiang; Gurka, Matthew J; Parish, Alice; Smith, Megan D; Lee, Alexandra M; Buford, Thomas W

    2017-06-28

    Only one in five American meets the physical activity recommendations of the Department of Health and Human Services. The proliferation of wearable devices and smartphones for physical activity tracking has led to an increasing number of interventions designed to facilitate regular physical activity, in particular to address the obesity epidemic, but also for cardiovascular disease patients, cancer survivors, and older adults. However, the inconsistent findings pertaining to the accuracy of wearable devices for step counting needs to be addressed, as well as factors known to affect gait (and thus potentially impact accuracy) such as age, body mass index (BMI), or leading arm. We aim to assess the accuracy of recent mobile devices for counting steps, across three different age groups. We recruited 60 participants in three age groups: 18-39 years, 40-64 years, and 65-84 years, who completed two separate 1000 step walks on a treadmill at a self-selected speed between 2 and 3 miles per hour. We tested two smartphones attached on each side of the waist, and five wrist-based devices worn on both wrists (2 devices on one wrist and 3 devices on the other), as well as the Actigraph wGT3X-BT, and swapped sides between each walk. All devices were swapped dominant-to-nondominant side and vice-versa between the two 1000 step walks. The number of steps was recorded with a tally counter. Age, sex, height, weight, and dominant hand were self-reported by each participant. Among the 60 participants, 36 were female (60%) and 54 were right-handed (90%). Median age was 53 years (min=19, max=83), median BMI was 24.1 (min=18.4, max=39.6). There was no significant difference in left- and right-hand step counts by device. Our analyses show that the Fitbit Surge significantly undercounted steps across all age groups. Samsung Gear S2 significantly undercounted steps only for participants among the 40-64 year age group. Finally, the Nexus 6P significantly undercounted steps for the group

  5. Plasma-material Interactions in Current Tokamaks and their Implications for Next-step Fusion Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Skinner, C.H.; Brooks, J.N.; Coad, J.P.; Grisolia, C.

    2001-01-01

    The major increase in discharge duration and plasma energy in a next-step DT (deuterium-tritium) fusion reactor will give rise to important plasma-material effects that will critically influence its operation, safety, and performance. Erosion will increase to a scale of several centimeters from being barely measurable at a micron scale in today's tokamaks. Tritium co-deposited with carbon will strongly affect the operation of machines with carbon plasma-facing components. Controlling plasma wall interactions is critical to achieving high performance in present-day tokamaks and this is likely to continue to be the case in the approach to practical fusion reactors. Recognition of the important consequences of these phenomena has stimulated an internationally coordinated effort in the field of plasma-surface interactions supporting the Engineering Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and significant progress has been made in better under standing these issues. This paper reviews the underlying physical processes and the existing experimental database of plasma-material interactions both in tokamaks and laboratory simulation facilities for conditions of direct relevance to next-step fusion reactors. Two main topical groups of interactions are considered: (i) erosion/redeposition from plasma sputtering and disruptions, including dust and flake generation, (ii) tritium retention and removal. The use of modeling tools to interpret the experimental results and make projections for conditions expected in future devices is explained. Outstanding technical issues and specific recommendations on potential R and D (Research and Development) avenues for their resolution are presented

  6. Plasma-material Interactions in Current Tokamaks and their Implications for Next-step Fusion Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, G.; Skinner, C.H.; Brooks, J.N.; Coad, J.P.; Grisolia, C. [and others

    2001-01-10

    The major increase in discharge duration and plasma energy in a next-step DT [deuterium-tritium] fusion reactor will give rise to important plasma-material effects that will critically influence its operation, safety, and performance. Erosion will increase to a scale of several centimeters from being barely measurable at a micron scale in today's tokamaks. Tritium co-deposited with carbon will strongly affect the operation of machines with carbon plasma-facing components. Controlling plasma wall interactions is critical to achieving high performance in present-day tokamaks and this is likely to continue to be the case in the approach to practical fusion reactors. Recognition of the important consequences of these phenomena has stimulated an internationally coordinated effort in the field of plasma-surface interactions supporting the Engineering Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and significant progress has been made in better under standing these issues. This paper reviews the underlying physical processes and the existing experimental database of plasma-material interactions both in tokamaks and laboratory simulation facilities for conditions of direct relevance to next-step fusion reactors. Two main topical groups of interactions are considered: (i) erosion/redeposition from plasma sputtering and disruptions, including dust and flake generation, (ii) tritium retention and removal. The use of modeling tools to interpret the experimental results and make projections for conditions expected in future devices is explained. Outstanding technical issues and specific recommendations on potential R and D [Research and Development] avenues for their resolution are presented.

  7. The Next Step in Understanding Impaired Reactive Balance Control in People With Stroke: The Role of Defective Early Automatic Postural Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kam, Digna; Roelofs, Jolanda M B; Bruijnes, Amber K B D; Geurts, Alexander C H; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

    2017-08-01

    Postural muscle responses are often impaired after stroke. We aimed to identify the contribution of deficits in very early postural responses to poorer reactive balance capacity, with a particular focus on reactive stepping as a key strategy for avoiding falls. A total of 34 chronic stroke survivors and 17 controls were subjected to translational balance perturbations in 4 directions. We identified the highest perturbation intensity that could be recovered without stepping (single stepping threshold [SST]) and with maximally 1 step (multiple stepping threshold [MST]). We determined onset latencies and response amplitudes of 7 leg muscles bilaterally and identified associations with balance capacity. People with stroke had a lower MST than controls in all directions. Side steps resulted in a higher lateral MST than crossover steps but were less common toward the paretic side. Postural responses were delayed and smaller in amplitude on the paretic side only. We observed the strongest associations between gluteus medius (GLUT) onset and amplitude and MST toward the paretic side ( R 2 = 0.33). Electromyographic variables were rather weakly associated with forward and backward MSTs ( R 2 = 0.10-0.22) and with SSTs ( R 2 = 0.08-0.15). Delayed and reduced paretic postural responses are associated with impaired reactive stepping after stroke. Particularly, fast and vigorous activity of the GLUT is imperative for overcoming large sideways perturbations, presumably because it facilitates the effective use of side steps. Because people with stroke often fall toward the paretic side, this finding indicates an important target for training.

  8. Challenges for single molecule electronic devices with nanographene and organic molecules. Do single molecules offer potential as elements of electronic devices in the next generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, Toshiaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2018-03-01

    Interest in utilizing organic molecules to fabricate electronic materials has existed ever since organic (molecular) semiconductors were first discovered in the 1950s. Since then, scientists have devoted serious effort to the creation of various molecule-based electronic systems, such as molecular metals and molecular superconductors. Single-molecule electronics and the associated basic science have emerged over the past two decades and provided hope for the development of highly integrated molecule-based electronic devices in the future (after the Si-based technology era has ended). Here, nanographenes (nano-sized graphene) with atomically precise structures are among the most promising molecules that can be utilized for electronic/spintronic devices. To manipulate single small molecules for an electronic device, a single molecular junction has been developed. It is a powerful tool that allows even small molecules to be utilized. External electric, magnetic, chemical, and mechanical perturbations can change the physical and chemical properties of molecules in a way that is different from bulk materials. Therefore, the various functionalities of molecules, along with changes induced by external perturbations, allows us to create electronic devices that we cannot create using current top-down Si-based technology. Future challenges that involve the incorporation of condensed matter physics, quantum chemistry calculations, organic synthetic chemistry, and electronic device engineering are expected to open a new era in single-molecule device electronic technology.

  9. Next Steps for "Big Data" in Education: Utilizing Data-Intensive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Data-informed instructional methods offer tremendous promise for increasing the effectiveness of teaching, learning, and schooling. Yet-to-be-developed data science approaches have the potential to dramatically advance instruction for every student and to enhance learning for people of all ages. Next steps that emerged from a recent National…

  10. Next steps for a Green Economy Working Group in Kazakhstan. Notes from the Astana Green Economy Dialogue, 24-26 November 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospanova, Saule; Wilson, Emma; Bass, Steve

    2013-01-15

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan, national concerns over today’s economic, social and environmental challenges have translated into sustainable development policy and initiatives such as the Astana Green Bridge Initiative. The Government of Kazakhstan has developed the Green Bridge Partnership Programme (GBPP), with the support of international organizations, for possible adoption at the Rio+20 World Sustainable Development Conference in June 2012. This programme offers opportunities for 'greening' the economy, with a focus on aspirations for regional and international technology cooperation and finance. it also offers potential for enhancing public participation in decision-making, and harmonising policies and practices across European, Asian and Pacific regions. A range of other initiatives are also ongoing within Kazakhstan, and it is important for those promoting these initiatives to join forces and engage in dialogue. The Astana Green Economy Dialogue, held from 24th to 26th November 2011, organised by IIED and the Kazakhstan Ministry for the Environment and supported by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) and the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), brought together a range of stakeholders from government, civil society and industry to discuss the notion of the green economy and how it can be applied and developed in Kazakhstan. The dialogue had a particular focus on the energy sector given its relevance. Oil-producing states face a global challenge to play their part in establishing economic systems that reduce climate change and other environmental burdens, and to produce higher societal value from limited natural resources. This short report summarises the key observations and ideas discussed at the workshop, with recommendations for next steps and follow up. It is meant to provide a record of the discussions that took place at this dialogue and provides a foundation for further work.

  11. Supporting study product use and accuracy in self-report in the iPrEx study: next step counseling and neutral assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Amico, K; McMahan, Vanessa; Goicochea, Pedro; Vargas, Lorena; Marcus, Julia L; Grant, Robert M; Liu, Albert

    2012-07-01

    The recent successes of biomedical HIV prevention approaches have sparked considerable debate over the scalability, feasibility, and acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a widespread prevention strategy for men who have sex with men and trans-gender. Anticipated difficulties with PrEP adherence and concerns about resources required to best support it have tempered enthusiasm of PrEP demonstration projects and roll-out. While no evidence-based approach for supporting PrEP use is presently available, a number of approaches have been developed in the context of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of PrEP that can provide guidance in moving forward with real world support of open label PrEP use. We present the development, implementation and evaluation of feasibility and acceptability of next-step counseling (NSC) and neutral assessment (NA), the adherence support and promotion of accurate reporting approaches used in the late phases of the iPrEx study. Evaluation of the approach from the perspective of implementers of over 15,000 NSC sessions in seven different countries with almost 2,000 iPrEx participants provided support for NSC, its brevity (averaging ~14 min per follow-up session) and overall acceptability and feasibility. NA also was generally well supported, with a majority of study staff believing this approach was feasible and acceptable; however, lower acceptability for certain aspects of NA was noted amongst staff reporting NA was different from their previous interview approach. Quantitative and qualitative data gathered from implementers were used to make modifications for supporting PrEP use in the open-label extension of iPrEx.

  12. FIRE, A Next Step Option for Magnetic Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The next major frontier in magnetic fusion physics is to explore and understand the strong nonlinear coupling among confinement, MHD stability, self-heating, edge physics, and wave-particle interactions that is fundamental to fusion plasma behavior. The Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) Design Study has been undertaken to define the lowest cost facility to attain, explore, understand, and optimize magnetically confined fusion-dominated plasmas. The FIRE is envisioned as an extension of the existing Advanced Tokamak Program that could lead to an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The FIRE activities have focused on the physics and engineering assessment of a compact, high-field tokamak with the capability of achieving Q approximately equal to 10 in the ELMy H-mode for a duration of about 1.5 plasma current redistribution times (skin times) during an initial burning-plasma science phase, and the flexibility to add Advanced Tokamak hardware (e.g., lower-hybrid current drive) later. The configuration chosen for FIRE is similar to that of ARIES-RS, the U.S. Fusion Power Plant study utilizing an Advanced Tokamak reactor. The key ''Advanced Tokamak'' features are: strong plasma shaping, double-null pumping divertors, low toroidal field ripple ( 5) for a duration of 1 to 3 current redistribution times

  13. Implications of rf current drive theory for next step steady-state tokamak design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    Two missions have been identified for a next-step tokamak experiment in the United States. The more ambitious Mission II device would be a superconducting tokamak, capable of doing long-pulse ignition demonstrations, and hopefully capable of also being able to achieve steady-state burn. A few interesting lines of approach have been identified, using a combination of logical design criteria and parametric system scans [SC85]. These include: (1) TIBER: A point-design suggested by Lawrence Livermore, that proposes a machine with the capability of demonstrating ignition, high beta (10%) and high Q (=10), using high frequency, fast-wave current drive. The TIBER topology uses moderate aspect ratio and high triangularity to achieve high beta. (2) JET Scale-up. (3) Magic5: It is argued here that an aspect ratio of 5 is a magic number for a good steady-state current drive experiment. A moderately-sized machine that achieves ignition and is capable of high Q, using either fast wave or slow wave current drive is described. (4) ET-II: The concept of a highly elongated tokamak (ET) was first proposed as a low-cost approach to Mission I, because of the possibility of achieving ohmic ignition with low-stress copper magnets. We propose that its best application is really for commercial tokamaks, using fast-wave current drive, and suggest a Mission II experiment that would be prototypical of such a reactor

  14. Trade studies of plasma elongation for next-step tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.D.; Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Reid, R.L.

    1988-09-01

    The effect of elongation on minimum-cost devices is investigated for elongations ranging from 2 to 3. The analysis, carried out with the TETRA tokamak systems code, includes the effects of elongation on both physics (plasma beta limit) and engineering (poloidal field coil currents) issues. When ignition is required, the minimum cost occurs for elongations from 2.3 to 2.9, depending on the plasma energy confinement scaling used. Scalings that include favorable plasma current dependence and/or degradation with fusion power tend to have minimum cost at higher elongation (2.5-2.9); scalings that depend primarily on size result in lower elongation (/approximately/2.3) for minimum cost. For design concepts that include steady-state current-driven operation, minimum cost occurs at an elongation of 2.3. 12 refs., 13 figs

  15. REACH: next step to a sound chemicals management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wielen, Arnold

    2007-12-01

    REACH is the new European Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It entered into force on 1st June 2007 to streamline and improve the former legislative framework on new and on existing chemical substances of the European Union. Companies which manufacture or import more than 1 tonne of a substance per year will be required to register the substance at the new EU Chemicals Agency located in Helsinki. REACH places greater responsibility on industry to manage the risks that chemicals may pose to the health and the environment and to provide safety information that will be passed down the supply chain. In principle, REACH applies to all chemicals as such, as components in preparations and as used in articles. REACH is a radical step forward in the EU chemicals management. The onus will move from the authorities to industry. In addition, REACH will allow the further evaluation of substances where there are grounds for concern, foresees an authorisation system for the use of substances of very high concern and a system of restrictions, where applicable, for substances of concern. The Authorisation system will require companies to switch progressively to safer alternatives where a suitable alternative exists. Current use restrictions will remain under REACH system.

  16. IUD in first-trimester abortion: immediate intrauterine contraceptive devices insertion vs delayed insertion following the next menstruation bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Grapsa, Anastasia; Tsagias, Nikolaos; Pinidis, Petros; Liberis, Anastasios; Ammari, Alexandros; Grapsas, Xenofon; Galazios, Georgios; Liberis, Vasileios

    2014-07-01

    Approximately 21 days after an abortion, ovulation occurs in 50 % of women. Installation of an IUD directly after induced or spontaneous abortion offers immediate contraceptive protection. The purpose of the present study was to weigh up contraceptive safety and adverse reactions of IUD inserted directly after first-trimester abortion under general or paracervical anesthesia as against the fitting of IUD in the days of the next menstrual cycle without anesthesia. During the period May 1987 to October 2010, 73 women (Group A) underwent an immediate post-abortion insertion IUD after a first-trimester spontaneous or induced abortion under general or local paracervical anesthesia and 69 participants (Group B) received IUD during the next menstrual cycle without anesthesia. Questionnaires were completed by all the women of the study with respect to the effects of IUD. The women were examined every 3 months for 1 year after the fitting of the IUD in the out-patient department of the University Obstetrics Gynecological Department of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece. The demographic characteristics of the women of the two groups were similar. The age of the women ranged between 19 and 44 years, while 61.98 % were women with one or two children and 38.02 % were women with three or more children. During the first menstrual cycles, with the exception of vaginal hemorrhages (5 %) and adnexitis (1 %), no serious adverse reactions were noted. During the transvaginal ultrasonography checks in both groups, no observation was made of any dislocation of the IUD, except for two cases in the subgroup of those women with paracervical anesthesia and one case in the women of Group B. As concerns the questionnaire with regard to the women's subjective evaluation of IUD, satisfactory answers were given. There were no differences between the two groups either with respect to the security of the supplied contraceptive methods or to the development of side effects.

  17. U.S. energy policy and next regulatory steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation examined energy policies taken in the past to develop to oil and gas activities in Alaska and examined regulatory steps that may be taken in the future. North Slope Alaska gas resources were also reviewed. The Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Act was passed in 1976, but the pipeline was not developed due to its high cost. The Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline Act was signed into law in 2004 along with a loan guarantee program and an alternate construction study. Tax bill provisions included accelerated depreciation for the pipeline as well as an enhanced oil recovery tax credit for a gas processing plant. A federal coordinator was selected to expedite reviews and actions, as well as to monitor responsibility in areas where the pipeline crosses Federal or private lands. Details of federal permitting agencies were also included. A summary of federal agency permits and approvals was provided along with details of a federal interdepartmental memorandum of understanding (MOU) and the responsibilities of the United States Department of Energy. The presentation also included outlines of technical risk management programs, support infrastructure needs, and an infrastructure upgrade study. Highway route options were discussed, as well as sites for facilities. tabs., figs

  18. Correction to “Advancing the Conversation: Next Steps for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer (LGBTQ Health Sciences Librarianship” on 105(4 October, page 325. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2017.206

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine G. Akers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrects author name in reference #11 of “Advancing the Conversation: Next Steps For Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer (LGBTQ Health Sciences Librarianship” on 105(4 October, page 325. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2017.206.

  19. Cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: assessment, management and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegkos, Thomas; Kitas, George; Dimitroulas, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality which cannot be fully explained by traditional CV risk factors; cumulative inflammatory burden and antirheumatic medication-related cardiotoxicity seem to be important contributors. Despite the acknowledgment and appreciation of CV disease burden in RA, optimal management of individuals with RA represents a challenging task which remains suboptimal. To address this need, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) published recommendations suggesting the adaptation of traditional risk scores by using a multiplication factor of 1.5 if two of three specific criteria are fulfilled. Such guidance requires proper coordination of several medical specialties, including general practitioners, rheumatologists, cardiologists, exercise physiologists and psychologists to achieve a desirable result. Tight control of disease activity, management of traditional risk factors and lifestyle modification represent, amongst others, the most important steps in improving CV disease outcomes in RA patients. Rather than enumerating studies and guidelines, this review attempts to critically appraise current literature, highlighting future perspectives of CV risk management in RA. PMID:27247635

  20. Silicon on ferroelectic insulator field effect transistor (SOF-FET) a new device for the next generation ultra low power circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Sakhi, Azzedin D.

    Field effect transistors (FETs) are the foundation for all electronic circuits and processors. These devices have progressed massively to touch its final steps in sub-nanometer level. Left and right proposals are coming to rescue this progress. Emerging nano-electronic devices (resonant tunneling devices, single-atom transistors, spin devices, Heterojunction Transistors rapid flux quantum devices, carbon nanotubes, and nanowire devices) took a vast share of current scientific research. Non-Si electronic materials like III-V heterostructure, ferroelectric, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and other nanowire based designs are in developing stage to become the core technology of non-classical CMOS structures. FinFET present the current feasible commercial nanotechnology. The scalability and low power dissipation of this device allowed for an extension of silicon based devices. High short channel effect (SCE) immunity presents its major advantage. Multi-gate structure comes to light to improve the gate electrostatic over the channel. The new structure shows a higher performance that made it the first candidate to substitute the conventional MOSFET. The device also shows a future scalability to continue Moor's Law. Furthermore, the device is compatible with silicon fabrication process. Moreover, the ultra-low-power (ULP) design required a subthreshold slope lower than the thermionic-emission limit of 60mV/ decade (KT/q). This value was unbreakable by the new structure (SOI-FinFET). On the other hand most of the previews proposals show the ability to go beyond this limit. However, those pre-mentioned schemes have publicized a very complicated physics, design difficulties, and process non-compatibility. The objective of this research is to discuss various emerging nano-devices proposed for ultra-low-power designs and their possibilities to replace the silicon devices as the core technology in the future integrated circuit. This thesis proposes a novel design that exploits the

  1. Comparison and evaluation between 3D-bolus and step-bolus, the assistive radiotherapy devices for the patients who had undergone modified radical mastectomy surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Won Seok; Park, Kwang Woo; Shin, Dong Bong; Kim, Jong Dae; Kim, Sei Joon; Ha, Jin Sook; Jeon, Mi Jin; Cho, Yoojin; Jung, Inho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to compare and evaluate between the efficiency of two respective devices, 3D-bolus and step-bolus when the devices were used for the treatment of patients whose chest walls were required to undergo the electron beam therapy after the surgical procedure of modified radical mastectomy, MRM. The treatment plan of reverse hockey stick method, using the photon beam and electron beam, had been set for six breast cancer patients and these 6 breast cancer patients were selected to be the subjects for this study. The prescribed dose of electron beam for anterior chest wall was set to be 180 cGy per treatment and both the 3D-bolus, produced using 3D printer(CubeX, 3D systems, USA) and the self-made conventional step-bolus were used respectively. The surface dose under 3D-bolus and step-bolus was measured at 5 measurement spots of iso-center, lateral, medial, superior and inferior point, using GAFCHROMIC EBT3 film (International specialty products, USA) and the measured value of dose at 5 spots was compared and analyzed. Also the respective treatment plan was devised, considering the adoption of 3D-bolus and stepbolus and the separate treatment results were compared to each other. The average surface dose was 179.17 cGy when the device of 3D-bolus was adopted and 172.02 cGy when step-bolus was adopted. The average error rate against the prescribed dose of 180 cGy was -(minus) 0.47% when the device of 3D-bolus was adopted and it was -(minus) 4.43% when step-bolus was adopted. It was turned out that the maximum error rate at the point of iso-center was 2.69%, in case of 3D-bolus adoption and it was 5,54% in case of step-bolus adoption. The maximum discrepancy in terms of treatment accuracy was revealed to be about 6% when step-bolus was adopted and to be about 3% when 3D-bolus was adopted. The difference in average target dose on chest wall between 3D-bolus treatment plan and step-bolus treatment plan was shown to be insignificant as the difference was only 0

  2. Comparison and evaluation between 3D-bolus and step-bolus, the assistive radiotherapy devices for the patients who had undergone modified radical mastectomy surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Won Seok; Park, Kwang Woo; Shin, Dong Bong; Kim, Jong Dae; Kim, Sei Joon; Ha, Jin Sook; Jeon, Mi Jin; Cho, Yoojin; Jung, Inho

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare and evaluate between the efficiency of two respective devices, 3D-bolus and step-bolus when the devices were used for the treatment of patients whose chest walls were required to undergo the electron beam therapy after the surgical procedure of modified radical mastectomy, MRM. The treatment plan of reverse hockey stick method, using the photon beam and electron beam, had been set for six breast cancer patients and these 6 breast cancer patients were selected to be the subjects for this study. The prescribed dose of electron beam for anterior chest wall was set to be 180 cGy per treatment and both the 3D-bolus, produced using 3D printer(CubeX, 3D systems, USA) and the self-made conventional step-bolus were used respectively. The surface dose under 3D-bolus and step-bolus was measured at 5 measurement spots of iso-center, lateral, medial, superior and inferior point, using GAFCHROMIC EBT3 film (International specialty products, USA) and the measured value of dose at 5 spots was compared and analyzed. Also the respective treatment plan was devised, considering the adoption of 3D-bolus and stepbolus and the separate treatment results were compared to each other. The average surface dose was 179.17 cGy when the device of 3D-bolus was adopted and 172.02 cGy when step-bolus was adopted. The average error rate against the prescribed dose of 180 cGy was -(minus) 0.47% when the device of 3D-bolus was adopted and it was -(minus) 4.43% when step-bolus was adopted. It was turned out that the maximum error rate at the point of iso-center was 2.69%, in case of 3D-bolus adoption and it was 5,54% in case of step-bolus adoption. The maximum discrepancy in terms of treatment accuracy was revealed to be about 6% when step-bolus was adopted and to be about 3% when 3D-bolus was adopted. The difference in average target dose on chest wall between 3D-bolus treatment plan and step-bolus treatment plan was shown to be insignificant as the difference was only 0

  3. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator; Dufera, Hiz [Project Manager; Montagna, Deb [Business Point of Contact

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  4. Use of Diels-Alder Chemistry for Thermoreversible Cross-Linking of Rubbers : The Next Step toward Recycling of Rubber Products?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polgar, L. M.; van Duin, M.; Broekhuis, A. A.; Picchioni, F.

    2015-01-01

    A proof of principle for the use of Diels-Alder chemistry as a thermoreversible cross-linking tool for rubber products is demonstrated. A commercial ethylene-propylene rubber grafted with maleic anhydride has been thermoreversibly cross-linked in two steps. The pending anhydride rings were first

  5. Supersymmetry: the Next Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, Michael E

    2002-12-16

    I describe the picture by which supersymmetry--the possible symmetry of Nature that converts fermions to bosons and vice versa--accounts for the next stage of physics beyond the Standard Model. I then survey the future experimental program implied by this theory, in which the spectrum of particles associated with supersymmetry will be determined with precision.

  6. The next fifty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldwell, Reg

    1995-01-01

    The General Manager of the reactor division of Centronics, a world class manufacturer of reactor control systems and radiation detectors, describes its achievements and looks forward to speculate on what the next fifty years may mean in terms of technological development. Tables are given of the locations of Centronics Fission Chambers and of reactors controlled with Centronic Detectors. (UK)

  7. Description of the effort sharing approaches as presented in the Ecofys' policy brief The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Hagemann, M.; Fekete, H. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The paper 'The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030' explains how setting 2030 targets will reinvigorate the ETS and will put EU emissions on track to limit global temperature increase below two degrees Celsius (2C). The paper describes four key findings for EU policymakers engaged in preparing EU energy and climate measures for 2030 and for the longer term. This document aims to provide background information on the effort sharing approaches, as presented in fore-mentioned paper.

  8. The Next Great Generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ideas from a new book, "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation," (by Neil Howe and William Strauss) suggesting that youth culture is on the cusp of a radical shift with the generation beginning with this year's college freshmen who are typically team oriented, optimistic, and poised for greatness on a global scale. Includes a…

  9. Thin film complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) device using a single-step deposition of the channel layer

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Wang, Zhenwei; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Wang, Q. X.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    We report, for the first time, the use of a single step deposition of semiconductor channel layer to simultaneously achieve both n-and p-type transport in transparent oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). This effect is achieved by controlling

  10. Measurement Development in Reflective Supervision: History, Methods, and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Angela M.; Heller, Sherryl Scott

    2016-01-01

    This issue of the "ZERO TO THREE" journal provides a snapshot of the current state of measurement of reflective supervision within the infant-family field. In this article, the authors introduce the issue by providing a brief history of the development of reflective supervision in the field of infant mental health, with a specific focus…

  11. Safety considerations in next step fusion design and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Recent U.S. and international design studies provide insights into the potential safety and environmental advantages of fusion as well as the development needed to realize this potential. We in the Fusion Safety Program at EG ampersand G Idaho have analyzed the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER), and the Advanced Reactor Innovative Engineering Study (ARIES). I have reviewed these three designs to determine issues related to meeting the safety and the environmental goals that guide fusion development in the U.S. The paper lists safety and environmental issues that are generic to fusion and approaches to favorably resolve each issue. The technical developments that have the highest potential of contributing to improving the safety and environmental attractiveness of fusion are identified and discussed. These developments are in the areas of low-activation materials, plasma- facing components, and plasma physics relating to off-normal plasma events and tritium burn-up. 8 refs., 7 tabs

  12. Carbon Capture and Storage: Progress and Next Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Two years after the G8 leaders commitment to the broad deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) by 2020, significant progress has been made towards commercialisation of CCS technologies. Yet the 2008 Hokkaido G8 recommendation to launch 20 large-scale CCS demonstration projects by 2010 remains a challenge and will require that governments and industry accelerate the pace toward achieving this critical goal. This is one of the main findings of a new report by the International Energy Agency (IEA), the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF), and the Global CCS Institute, to be presented to G8 leaders at their June Summit in Muskoka, Canada.

  13. SSWR Water Systems Project 2: Next Steps – Technology Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for protecting America’s water resources under the Clean Water Act (CWA) and for ensuring that the Nation’s drinking water is safe under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Further, it is the responsibility of EPA to conduct research and analyses t...

  14. Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlvaine, J.; Saunders, S.; Bordelon, E.; Baden, S.; Elam, L.; Martin, E.

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

  15. Beyond reengineering: Transformation seen as next step for companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, S.; Tey, M.

    1994-01-01

    The future of the oil and gas industry is perpetually clouded, and the authors believe its chief executive officers (CEOs) have a special need to take the time to understand where they are going to be able to meet the business transformation needs of their customers in the years ahead. The challenges facing the oil and gas business today are largely external, and even magnificently run companies that are inwardly focused will fail in a business climate that is dominated by environmental and political concerns on the one hand, and supply and demand pressures on the other. What does transformation mean? First, companies need to establish clearly how to reframe their corporate responses to the issues they face. Where are they competitive? Will they focus on upstream midstream, or downstream activities for new alliances, new products, new businesses? Second, corporations must establish how to restructure their efforts in terms of their future customers and markets, not in terms of their current products. Third, companies must develop strategies to revitalize their business through leveraging their core competencies to create new products, markets, and industries. And finally, corporations need to prepare their employees constantly to renew themselves in an industry that will be redefined at an ever-increasing rate in the future

  16. DUV light source sustainability achievements and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Yzzer; Cacouris, Ted; Raju, Kumar Raja Guvindan; Kanawade, Dinesh; Gillespie, Walt; Luo, Siqi; Mason, Eric; Manley, David; Das, Saptaparna

    2018-03-01

    Key sustainability opportunities have been executed in support of corporate initiatives to reduce the environmental footprint and decrease the running cost of DUV light sources. Previously, substantial neon savings were demonstrated over several years through optimized gas management technologies. Beyond this work, Cymer is developing the XLGR 100, a self-contained neon recycling system, to enable minimal gas consumption. The high efficiency results of the XLGR 100 in a production factory are validated in this paper. Cymer has also developed new light source modules with 33% longer life in an effort to reduce raw and associated resource consumption. In addition, a progress report is included regarding the improvements developed to reduce light source energy consumption.

  17. Combined Space and Water Heating: Next Steps to Improved Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Huelman, P. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-07-13

    A combined space- and water-heating (combi) system uses a high-efficiency direct-vent burner that eliminates safety issues associated with natural draft appliances. Past research with these systems shows that using condensing water heaters or boilers with hydronic air handling units can provide both space and water heating with efficiencies of 90% or higher. Improved controls have the potential to reduce complexity and improve upon the measured performance. This project demonstrates that controls can significantly benefit these first-generation systems. Laboratory tests and daily load/performance models showed that the set point temperature reset control produced a 2.1%–4.3% (20–40 therms/year) savings for storage and hybrid water heater combi systems operated in moderate-load homes. The full modulation control showed additional savings over set point control (in high-load homes almost doubling the savings: 4%–5% over the no-control case). At the time of installation the reset control can be implemented for $200–$400, which would provide paybacks of 6–25 years for low-load houses and 3–15 years for high-load houses. Full modulation implementation costs would be similar to the outdoor reset and would provide paybacks of 5-½–20 years for low-load houses and 2-½–10 years for high-load houses.

  18. Precision medicine in pediatric oncology: Lessons learned and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Rajen J.; Prensner, John R.; Everett, Jessica; Parsons, D. Williams; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2017-01-01

    The maturation of genomic technologies has enabled new discoveries in disease pathogenesis as well as new approaches to patient care. In pediatric oncology, patients may now receive individualized genomic analysis to identify molecular aberrations of relevance for diagnosis and/or treatment. In this context, several recent clinical studies have begun to explore the feasibility and utility of genomics-driven precision medicine. Here, we review the major developments in this field, discuss current limitations, and explore aspects of the clinical implementation of precision medicine, which lack consensus. Lastly, we discuss ongoing scientific efforts in this arena, which may yield future clinical applications. PMID:27748023

  19. TMS field modelling-status and next steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielscher, Axel

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, an increasing number of studies used geometrically accurate head models and finite element (FEM) or finite difference methods (FDM) to estimate the electric field induced by non-invasive neurostimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial...

  20. Credentialing Public Health Nurses: Current Issues and Next Steps Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhouten, Christine L; DeVance-Wilson, Crystal L; Little, Barbara Battin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to identify Public Health Nurses' (PHN) perceived motivators and barriers to seeking PHN board certification. In collaboration with the Quad Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations, PHNs from across the United States were invited to complete the PHN Certification Survey, a 14-item online questionnaire. A total of 912 surveys were completed. PHNs were motivated to seek PHN board certification by three overarching categories: professional competence, personal satisfaction, and financial incentives. Frequently cited barriers to certification were lack of knowledge of certification opportunities, being unaware of eligibility criteria, cost, perceived lack of value/reward by employer, and preparation time. Demonstrating a highly educated, competent, and reliable PHN workforce can only be achieved through ongoing professional development and credentialing. PH stakeholders (i.e., PHN organizations, employers, PHNs, etc.) need a strategic approach to address the main barriers to certification identified in this study (a) awareness of certification and eligibility criteria, and (b) recognition of the credential by employers. In addition, research on the relationship between PHN credentialing and population health outcomes is essential. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Next step in policy transitions: Diffusion of pilot projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vreugdenhil, H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available communication across actors and domains, to set the agenda and to streamline resources (Pahl-Wostl, 2006, Pawson and Tilley, 1997). Social and policy learning are realized within the pilot projects. Social learning as one outcome of pilot project.... These ask for new approaches that are first to be tested on a small scale to prevent larger policy flaws and second, are designed to allow the system for remaining adaptable (Pahl-Wostl, 2006; Pawson and Tilley, 1997). Despite these promising...

  2. Just Diagnosed: Next Steps After Testing Positive for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommending an HIV regimen. Testing for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Coinfection with another STD can cause HIV infection to advance faster and increase the risk of HIV transmission to a sexual partner. STD testing makes it possible to detect ...

  3. Next Steps for Transforming Education at National Defense University

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    on the Socratic method of open seminar discussion moderated by faculty has its advantages but falls short as a means of replicating complex...education that informs its graduate programs.29 The Socratic method alone does not constitute an optimum approach to adult education. A hybrid approach...ing methods , and pamper rather than challenge students (see table 2).3 Critics further contend that with a few excep- tions, war college classes are

  4. Combined Space and Water Heating: Next Steps to Improved Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Huelman, P. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-07-13

    A combined space- and water-heating (combi) system uses a high-efficiency direct-vent burner that eliminates safety issues associated with natural draft appliances. Past research with these systems shows that using condensing water heaters or boilers with hydronic air handling units can provide both space and water heating with efficiencies of 90% or higher. Improved controls have the potential to reduce complexity and improve upon the measured performance. This project demonstrates that controls can significantly benefit these first-generation systems. Laboratory tests and daily load/performance models showed that the set point temperature reset control produced a 2.1%-4.3% (20-40 therms/year) savings for storage and hybrid water heater combi systems operated in moderate-load homes.

  5. Next steps in research on children exposed to domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Ronald J; Feerick, Margaret M

    2003-09-01

    The papers in this special issue of Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review provided an overview of what is known about children's exposure to domestic violence, and include indications of gaps in extant research. These gaps and research needs are summarized in this conclusion. Specifically, there is need for further research in several broad areas: definition and measurement of children's exposure to domestic violence; development of research methods and statistical designs that provide detailed information and provide for evidence of intervention effectiveness; impact of domestic violence on parenting and family functioning; the role of child factors and exposure to violence factors in predicting developmental risk and resilience; medical and health consequences of exposure to violence; and the nature of child-system interaction in response to domestic violence. Research needs in these areas are discussed in greater detail, and specific questions are raised for further development.

  6. Next Place Prediction Based on Spatiotemporal Pattern Mining of Mobile Device Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the recent explosive growth of location-aware services based on mobile devices, predicting the next places of a user is of increasing importance to enable proactive information services. In this paper, we introduce a data-driven framework that aims to predict the user’s next places using his/her past visiting patterns analyzed from mobile device logs. Specifically, the notion of the spatiotemporal-periodic (STP pattern is proposed to capture the visits with spatiotemporal periodicity by focusing on a detail level of location for each individual. Subsequently, we present algorithms that extract the STP patterns from a user’s past visiting behaviors and predict the next places based on the patterns. The experiment results obtained by using a real-world dataset show that the proposed methods are more effective in predicting the user’s next places than the previous approaches considered in most cases.

  7. Next Place Prediction Based on Spatiotemporal Pattern Mining of Mobile Device Logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungjun; Lim, Junseok; Park, Jonghun; Kim, Kwanho

    2016-01-23

    Due to the recent explosive growth of location-aware services based on mobile devices, predicting the next places of a user is of increasing importance to enable proactive information services. In this paper, we introduce a data-driven framework that aims to predict the user's next places using his/her past visiting patterns analyzed from mobile device logs. Specifically, the notion of the spatiotemporal-periodic (STP) pattern is proposed to capture the visits with spatiotemporal periodicity by focusing on a detail level of location for each individual. Subsequently, we present algorithms that extract the STP patterns from a user's past visiting behaviors and predict the next places based on the patterns. The experiment results obtained by using a real-world dataset show that the proposed methods are more effective in predicting the user's next places than the previous approaches considered in most cases.

  8. The Next Step in Deployment of Computer Based Procedures For Field Workers: Insights And Results From Field Evaluations at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L.; Bly, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    The paper-based procedures currently used for nearly all activities in the commercial nuclear power industry have a long history of ensuring safe operation of the plants. However, there is potential to greatly increase efficiency and safety by improving how the human operator interacts with the procedures. One way to achieve these improvements is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). A CBP system offers a vast variety of improvements, such as context driven job aids, integrated human performance tools (e.g., placekeeping, correct component verification, etc.), and dynamic step presentation. The latter means that the CBP system could only display relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the operator down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the operator’s workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. The research team at the Idaho National Laboratory has developed a prototype CBP system for field workers, which has been evaluated from a human factors and usability perspective in four laboratory studies. Based on the results from each study revisions were made to the CBP system. However, a crucial step to get the end users' (e.g., auxiliary operators, maintenance technicians, etc.) acceptance is to put the system in their hands and let them use it as a part of their everyday work activities. In the spring 2014 the first field evaluation of the INL CBP system was conducted at a nuclear power plant. Auxiliary operators conduct a functional test of one out of three backup air compressors each week. During the field evaluation activity, one auxiliary operator conducted the test with the paper-based procedure while a second auxiliary operator

  9. RF Systems for a Proposed Next Step Option (FIRE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.D.; Swain, D.W.

    1999-04-12

    FIRE (Fusion Ignition Research Experiment) is a high-field, burning-plasma tokamak that is being studied as a possible option for future fusion research. Preliminary parameters for this machine are R0 approximately equal to 2 m, a approximately equal to 0.5 m, B0 approximately equal to 10 T, and Ip approximately equal to 6 MA. Magnetic field coils are to be made of copper and precooled with LN2 before each shot. The flat-top pulse length desired is greater than or equal to 10s. Ion cyclotron and lower hybrid rf systems will be used for heating and current drive. Present specifications call for 30 MW of ion cyclotron heating power, with 25 MW of lower hybrid power as an upgrade option.

  10. RF Systems for a Proposed Next Step Option (FIRE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.D.; Swain, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    FIRE (Fusion Ignition Research Experiment) is a high-field, burning-plasma tokamak that is being studied as a possible option for future fusion research. Preliminary parameters for this machine are R 0 approximately equal to 2 m, a approximately equal to 0.5 m, B 0 approximately equal to 10 T, and I p approximately equal to 6 MA. Magnetic field coils are to be made of copper and precooled with LN 2 before each shot. The flat-top pulse length desired is greater than or equal to 10s. Ion cyclotron and lower hybrid rf systems will be used for heating and current drive. Present specifications call for 30 MW of ion cyclotron heating power, with 25 MW of lower hybrid power as an upgrade option

  11. Next-Step scientific objectives, targets, and parameters for reversed-field-pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion energy (MFE) systems: Preliminary thoughts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; DiMarco, J.N.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this document is the quantitative definition of objectives, targets, and parameters of the Next-Step device to follow the present RFX experiment; this device is given the name RFXNS. Although developed over five years ago, much of the material distilled into the 1988 RFP tactical plan is useful in establishing the goals and parameters of RFXNS. This earlier plan established tentative parameters of an RFP next step based on: predictions of RFP ignition and commercial-reactor devices; and the assumed successful operation of highly complementary RFP experiments RFX and ZTH/CPRF. Programmatic changes and evolution that have occurred since 1988 strongly impact the role and characteristics of an RFXNS: the Los Alamos ZTH/CPRF project and fusion program was terminated in mid-construction for reasons of MFE cost savings and concept focusing; great progress has been made in launching ITER; and reactor projections for the tokamak have increased in detail and variety, but not in commercial promise and competitiveness. A brief status of and perspective from each of the above three points is necessary before the key issues and their implementation to form the basis of the RFXNS definition are given

  12. A new SOI high-voltage device with a step-thickness drift region and its analytical model for the electric field and breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiaorong; Zhang Wei; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji; Yang Shouguo; Zhan Zhan; Fu Daping

    2008-01-01

    A new SOI high-voltage device with a step-thickness drift region (ST SOI) and its analytical model for the two-dimension electric field distribution and the breakdown voltage are proposed. The electric field in the drift region is modulated and that of the buried layer is enhanced by the variable thickness SOI layer, thereby resulting in the enhancement of the breakdown voltage. Based on the Poisson equation, the expression for the two-dimension electric field distribution is presented taking the modulation effect into account, from which the RESURF (REduced SURface Field) condition and the approximate but explicit expression for the maximal breakdown voltage are derived. The analytical model can explain the effects of the device parameters, such as the step height and the step length of the SOI layer, the doping concentration and the buried oxide thickness, on the electric field distribution and the breakdown voltage. The validity of this model is demonstrated by a comparison with numerical simulations. Improvement on both the breakdown voltage and the on-resistance (R on ) for the ST SOI is obtained due to the variable thickness SOI layer

  13. Development of a Ground Test and Analysis Protocol to Support NASA's NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program is a public-private partnership model that seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities to support extensive human spaceflight missions around and beyond cislunar space. NASA first issued the Phase 1 NextSTEP Broad Agency Announcement to U.S. industries in 2014, which called for innovative cislunar habitation concepts that leveraged commercialization plans for low Earth orbit. These habitats will be part of the Deep Space Gateway (DSG), the cislunar space station planned by NASA for construction in the 2020s. In 2016, Phase 2 of the NextSTEP program selected five commercial partners to develop ground prototypes. A team of NASA research engineers and subject matter experts have been tasked with developing the ground test protocol that will serve as the primary means by which these Phase 2 prototype habitats will be evaluated. Since 2008, this core test team has successfully conducted multiple spaceflight analog mission evaluations utilizing a consistent set of operational products, tools, methods, and metrics to enable the iterative development, testing, analysis, and validation of evolving exploration architectures, operations concepts, and vehicle designs. The purpose of implementing a similar evaluation process for the NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts is to consistently evaluate the different commercial partner ground prototypes to provide data-driven, actionable recommendations for Phase 3.

  14. Hacking the next generation

    CERN Document Server

    Dhanjani, Nitesh; Hardin, Brett

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of rich Internet applications, the explosion of social media, and the increased use of powerful cloud computing infrastructures, a new generation of attackers has added cunning new techniques to its arsenal. For anyone involved in defending an application or a network of systems, Hacking: The Next Generation is one of the few books to identify a variety of emerging attack vectors. You'll not only find valuable information on new hacks that attempt to exploit technical flaws, you'll also learn how attackers take advantage of individuals via social networking sites, and abuse

  15. When Will We Ever Learn? The After Action Review, Lessons Learned and the Next Steps in Training and Educating the Homeland Security Enterprise for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    such as emergent learning , experiential learning , and sense-making. It then ties these theories and concepts together into an emergency learning ...edition, loc. 3409–3414. 107 David Kolb , Experiential Learning : Experience as the Source of Learning and Development (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice...shows us that our theory needs developing again. And the process continues. Fundamental in the Kolb model is the role of action in any learning

  16. The way to collisions, step by step

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    While the LHC sectors cool down and reach the cryogenic operating temperature, spirits are warming up as we all eagerly await the first collisions. No reason to hurry, though. Making particles collide involves the complex manoeuvring of thousands of delicate components. The experts will make it happen using a step-by-step approach.

  17. Usability of an internet-based platform (Next.Step for adolescent weight management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sousa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The current study evaluates the usability perception of an e-therapeutic platform (supported by electronic processes and communication, aiming to promote the behavior change and to improve the adolescent health status through increased and interactive contact between the adolescent and the clinical staff. METHODS: This was a correlational study with a sample of 48 adolescents (12-18 years who attended a Pediatric Obesity Clinic between January and August of 2012. Participants were invited to access, during 24 weeks, the e-therapeutic multidisciplinary platform (Next.Step in addition to the standard treatment program. A usability questionnaire was administered and the platform performance and utilization indicators were analyzed. RESULTS: The users' perception of satisfaction, efficiency, and effectiveness regarding the Next.Step platform was clearly positive. However, only 54.17% of the enrolled adolescents accessed the platform, with a mean task-completion rate of 14.55% (SD = 18.853. The higher the number of the platform consulted resources, the greater the tendency to enjoy the platform, to consider it exciting and quick, to consider that the time spent in it was useful, to consider the access to information easy, and to login easier. Post-intervention assessment revealed a significant reduction in anthropometric and behavioral variables, including body mass index z-score, waist circumference percentile, hip circumference, and weekly screen time. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the importance of information and communication technologies in the health information access and the healthcare provision. Despite the limited adherence rate, platform users expressed a positive overall perception of its usability and presented a positive anthropometric and behavioral progress.

  18. Novel cancer immunotherapy agents with survival benefit: recent successes and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Padmanee; Wagner, Klaus; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Allison, James P.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved two novel immunotherapy agents, sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab, which showed a survival benefit for patients with metastatic prostate cancer and melanoma, respectively. The mechanisms by which these agents provide clinical benefit are not completely understood. However, knowledge of these mechanisms will be crucial for probing human immune responses and tumour biology in order to understand what distinguishes responders from non-responders. The following next steps are necessary: first, the development of immune-monitoring strategies for the identification of relevant biomarkers; second, the establishment of guidelines for the assessment of clinical end points; and third, the evaluation of combination therapy strategies to improve clinical benefit. PMID:22020206

  19. Design of next step tokamak: Consistent analysis of plasma performance flux composition and poloidal field system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ane, J.M.; Grandgirard, V.; Albajar, F.; Johner, J.

    2001-01-01

    A consistent and simple approach to derive plasma scenarios for next step tokamak design is presented. It is based on successive plasma equilibria snapshots from plasma breakdown to end of ramp-down. Temperature and density profiles for each equilibrium are derived from a 2D plasma model. The time interval between two successive equilibria is then computed from the toroidal field magnetic energy balance, the resistive term of which depends on n, T profiles. This approach provides a consistent analysis of plasma performance, flux consumption and PF system, including average voltages waveforms across the PF coils. The plasma model and the Poynting theorem for the toroidal magnetic energy are presented. Application to ITER-FEAT and to M2, a Q=5 machine designed at CEA, are shown. (author)

  20. What is the most relevant standard of success in assisted reproduction? The next step to improving outcomes of IVF : consider the whole treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, EMEW; Macklon, NS; Fauser, BCJM

    Changing the way in which successful IVF treatment is defined offers a tool to improve efficacy while reducing costs and complications of treatment. Crucial to this paradigm shift is the move away from considering outcomes in terms of the single IVF cycle, and towards the started IVF treatment as a

  1. What is the most relevant standard of success in assisted reproduction? The next step to improving outcomes of IVF: consider the whole treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Heijnen, E.M.; Macklon, Nick; Fauser, Bart

    2004-01-01

    textabstractChanging the way in which successful IVF treatment is defined offers a tool to improve efficacy while reducing costs and complications of treatment. Crucial to this paradigm shift is the move away from considering outcomes in terms of the single IVF cycle, and towards the started IVF treatment as a whole. We propose the most informative end-point of success in IVF to be the term singleton birth rate per started IVF treatment (or per given time period) in the overall context of pat...

  2. Emerging technologies to power next generation mobile electronic devices using solar energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dewei JIA; Yubo DUAN; Jing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Mobile electronic devices such as MP3, mobile phones, and wearable or implanted medical devices have already or will soon become a necessity in peoples' lives.However, the further development of these devices is restricted not only by the inconvenient charging process of the power module, but also by the soaring prices of fossil fuel and its downstream chain of electricity manipulation.In view of the huge amount of solar energy fueling the world biochemically and thermally, a carry-on electricity harvester embedded in portable devices is emerging as a most noteworthy research area and engineering practice for a cost efficient solution. Such a parasitic problem is intrinsic in the next generation portable devices. This paper is dedicated to presenting an overview of the photovoltaic strategy in the chain as a reference for researchers and practitioners committed to solving the problem.

  3. Direct printed metal devices - The next level of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing applications in the orthodontic care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Graf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the whole world gets more digital, so do we. This article provides a basic know-how for the CAD/CAM-workflow for metallic orthodontic appliances. Demonstrating step-by-step how to design the appliance on a digital cast and laser-melting (3D metal printing it, till the final result, without any physical models.

  4. Segmenting the Net-Generation: Embracing the Next Level of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Russell K.

    2014-01-01

    A segmentation study is used to partition college students into groups that are more or less likely to adopt tablet technology as a learning tool. Because the college population chosen for study presently relies upon laptop computers as their primary learning device, tablet technology represents a "next step" in technology. Student…

  5. Towards the next chapter

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN.   That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...

  6. If you want to get a job done, you need the right tools: Next steps for the UN Convention to Combat Desertification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulmin, Camilla

    2006-10-15

    Is the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) bringing the right set of tools to the task of addressing the problems facing dryland peoples around the world? Many of the challenges that face the drylands are not addressed by the current CCD toolkit. Three principal areas where attention should now be focused are working closely with the Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) to identify strategies to help the drylands adapt to climate change, engaging with the changing aid architecture, and securing rights to land and natural resources for dryland populations.

  7. Emerging Trends in Phosphorene Fabrication towards Next Generation Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanabalan, Sathish Chander; Ponraj, Joice Sophia; Guo, Zhinan; Li, Shaojuan; Bao, Qiaoliang; Zhang, Han

    2017-06-01

    The challenge of science and technology is to design and make materials that will dominate the future of our society. In this context, black phosphorus has emerged as a new, intriguing two-dimensional (2D) material, together with its monolayer, which is referred to as phosphorene. The exploration of this new 2D material demands various fabrication methods to achieve potential applications- this demand motivated this review. This article is aimed at supplementing the concrete understanding of existing phosphorene fabrication techniques, which forms the foundation for a variety of applications. Here, the major issue of the degradation encountered in realizing devices based on few-layered black phosphorus and phosphorene is reviewed. The prospects of phosphorene in future research are also described by discussing its significance and explaining ways to advance state-of-art of phosphorene-based devices. In addition, a detailed presentation on the demand for future studies to promote well-systemized fabrication methods towards large-area, high-yield and perfectly protected phosphorene for the development of reliable devices in optoelectronic applications and other areas is offered.

  8. Next Steps on the Road to Zero Energy Buildings: Report on October 23-24, 2000 Meeting Held at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comer, Jerry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2000-11-01

    This report summarizes a 2-day meeting held October 23-24, 2000 at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. Approximately 60 individuals attended the meeting from the following segments: building industry; solar thermal manufacturers (solar hot water, SHW); photovoltaic manufacturers (PV); generalists (consultants and interested parties involved in renewable energy); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL); and US Department of Energy. The objectives of the meeting included: acquaint attendees with the Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB) goal; determine the most cost effective methods of incorporating solar technologies in production-built homes; identify 'make or break' areas to focus on; outline 6 month, 1 year, 5 year strategies and tactics; and create action plan with designated responsibilities. The format of the meeting was designed to maximize interaction between all attendees and to create a 'working' environment where a roadmap and action plans to support ZEB efforts would be created. Presentations the morning of the first day set the context for the discussions and breakout sessions that followed. The agenda was modified at the end of the first day of meetings to reflect the input of attendees. The revised agenda is included in the Appendix.

  9. Draft program plan for TNS: The Next Step after the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. Part II. R and D needs assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    1977-12-01

    The information contained in this document represents the brief but intensive efforts of the Oak Ridge TNS Program Team to answer the following questions: (1) Is there an adequate basis of R and D support for the TNS program as a central, ambitious goal for the fusion program. (2) What are the principal gaps in the current and projected R and D program. (3) What must be done to permit operation of TNS in the mid 1980s. The findings of our preliminary study provide these answers to the questions: (1) The physics and technology base does exist from which to start the TNS design as a central fusion program goal. (2) We have specific recommendations for new emphasis in certain physics and technology areas to minimize R and D program gaps. (3) TNS conceptual design must be started now, and a close look at organizing the fusion program around a TNS project is an essential need to support operation in the mid 1980s

  10. The next step in health behavior research: the need for ecological moderation analyses - an application to diet and physical activity at childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Van Kann, Dave Hh; de Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2014-04-17

    The ecological perspective holds that human behavior depends on the interaction of different environmental factors and personal characteristics, but it lacks validation and operationalization. In the current paper, an ecological view was adopted to examine the interactive impact of several ecological systems on children's dietary intake and physical activity at childcare or similar facilities. The ecological view was operationalized into three types of interaction: 1) interaction between types of childcare environment (physical, social, political, economic); 2) interaction between micro-systems (the childcare and home environment) in meso-systems; and 3) interaction between childcare environment and child characteristics. The predictive value of each of these interactions was tested based on a systematic review of the literature. Several studies support the hypothesis that the influence of the childcare environment on children's physical activity and diet is moderated by child characteristics (age, gender), but interaction between environmental types as well as between micro-systems is hardly examined in the field of behavioral nutrition and physical activity. Qualitative studies and general child development research provide some valuable insights, but we advocate quantitative research adopting an ecological perspective on environmental influences. Empirical studies operationalizing a true ecological view on diet and physical activity are scarce. Theorizing and assessment of interaction is advocated to become common practice rather than an exception in behavioral nutrition and physical activity research, in order to move the field forward.

  11. Material and Phonon Engineering for Next Generation Acoustic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Nai-Kuei

    This thesis presents the theoretical and experimental work related to micromachining of low intrinsic loss sapphire and phononic crystals for engineering new classes of electroacoustic devices for frequency control applications. For the first time, a low loss sapphire suspended membrane was fabricated and utilized to form the main body of a piezoelectric lateral overtone bulk acoustic resonator (LOBAR). Since the metalized piezoelectric transducer area in a LOBAR is only a small fraction of the overall resonant cavity (made out of sapphire), high quality factor (Q) overtones are attained. The experiment confirms the low intrinsic mechanical loss of the transferred sapphire thin film, and the resonators exhibit the highest Q of 5,440 at 2.8 GHz ( f·Q of 1.53.1013 Hz). This is also the highest f·Q demonstrated for aluminum-nitride-(AIN)-based Lamb wave devices to date. Beyond demonstrating a low loss device, this experimental work has laid the foundation for the future development of new micromechanical devices based on a high Q, high hardness and chemically resilient material. The search for alternative ways to more efficiently perform frequency control functionalities lead to the exploration of Phononic Crystal (PnC) structures in AIN thin films. Four unit cell designs were theoretically and experimentally investigated to explore the behavior of phononic bandgaps (PBGs) in the ultra high frequency (UHF) range: (i) the conventional square lattice with circular air scatterer, (ii) the inverse acoustic bandgap (IABG) structure, (iii) the fractal PnC, and (iv) the X-shaped PnC. Each unit cell has its unique frequency characteristic that was exploited to synthesize either cavity resonators or improve the performance of acoustic delay lines. The PBGs operate in the range of 770 MHz to 1 GHz and exhibit a maximum acoustic rejection of 40 dB. AIN Lamb wave transducers (LWTs) were employed for the experimental demonstration of the PBGs and cavity resonances. Ultra

  12. Draft program plant for TNS: The Next Step after the tokamak fusion test reactor. Part III. Project specific RD and D needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    Research and development needs for the TNS systems are described according to the following chapters: (1) tokamak system, (2) electrical power systems, (3) plasma heating systems, (4) tokamak support systems, (5) instrumentation, control, and data systems, and (6) program recommendations

  13. Back to business: a next step in the field of oral history: the usefulness of oral history for leadership and organizational research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, S.; Kroeze, R.

    2012-01-01

    Business organizations and elites are often neglected in oral history as a result of the dominant assumption that elites have ample opportunity to be heard. We argue, however, that researching corporations and elites is very interesting for oral historians. This contention is supported by the four

  14. Bird strike and electrocutions at power lines, communication towers, and wind turbines: state of the art and state of the science - next steps toward mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert M. Manville II

    2005-01-01

    Migratory birds suffer considerable human-caused mortality from structures built to provide public services and amenities. Three such entities are increasing nationwide: communication towers, power lines, and wind turbines. Communication towers have been growing at an exponential rate over at least the past 6 years. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is especially...

  15. Chronically ill patients' self-management abilities to maintain overall well-being: What is needed to take the next step in the primary care setting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Although widespread problems in patient-professional interaction and insufficient support of patients' self-management abilities have been recognized, research investigating the relationships among care quality, productive interaction, and self-management abilities to

  16. Chronically ill patients' self-management abilities to maintain overall well-being: what is needed to take the next step in the primary care setting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Background: Although widespread problems in patient–professional interaction and insufficient support of patients’self-management abilities have been recognized, research investigating the relationships among care quality, productiveinteraction, and self-management

  17. Estimating heterotrophic respiration at large scales: Challenges, approaches, and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Epron, Daniel; Harden, Jennifer W.; Harmon, Mark E.; Hoffman, Forrest; Kumar, Jitendra; McGuire, Anthony David; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrophic respiration (HR), the aerobic and anaerobic processes mineralizing organic matter, is a key carbon flux but one impossible to measure at scales significantly larger than small experimental plots. This impedes our ability to understand carbon and nutrient cycles, benchmark models, or reliably upscale point measurements. Given that a new generation of highly mechanistic, genomic-specific global models is not imminent, we suggest that a useful step to improve this situation would be the development of “Decomposition Functional Types” (DFTs). Analogous to plant functional types (PFTs), DFTs would abstract and capture important differences in HR metabolism and flux dynamics, allowing modelers and experimentalists to efficiently group and vary these characteristics across space and time. We argue that DFTs should be initially informed by top-down expert opinion, but ultimately developed using bottom-up, data-driven analyses, and provide specific examples of potential dependent and independent variables that could be used. We present an example clustering analysis to show how annual HR can be broken into distinct groups associated with global variability in biotic and abiotic factors, and demonstrate that these groups are distinct from (but complementary to) already-existing PFTs. A similar analysis incorporating observational data could form the basis for future DFTs. Finally, we suggest next steps and critical priorities: collection and synthesis of existing data; more in-depth analyses combining open data with rigorous testing of analytical results; using point measurements and realistic forcing variables to constrain process-based models; and planning by the global modeling community for decoupling decomposition from fixed site data. These are all critical steps to build a foundation for DFTs in global models, thus providing the ecological and climate change communities with robust, scalable estimates of HR.

  18. Intelligible seminar on fusion reactors. (12) Next step toward the realization of fusion reactors. Future vision of fusion energy research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Kurihara, Kenichi; Tobita, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    In the last session of this seminar the progress of research and development for the realization of fusion reactors and future vision of fusion energy research and development are summarized. The some problems to be solved when the commercial fusion reactors would be realized, (1) production of deuterium as the fuel, (2) why need the thermonuclear reactors, (3) environmental problems, and (4) ITER project, are described. (H. Mase)

  19. Work design issues in lean production from a sociotechnical systems perspective : Neo-Taylorism or the next step in sociotechnical design?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niepce, W; Molleman, E

    The similarities and differences between two paradigms, Lean Production (LP) and Sociotechnical Systems (STS) thinking, which currently compete for the attention of managers and scholars interested in improving the design of work systems, are studied in this article. In order to find the logic

  20. The Next Generation Photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Dennis Thomas; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2005-09-12

    This dissertation will elucidate the design, construction, theory, and operation of the Next Generation Photoinjector (NGP). This photoinjector is comprised of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell symmetrized S-band photocathode radio frequency (rf) electron gun and a single emittance-compensation solenoidal magnet. This photoinjector is a prototype for the Linear Coherent Light Source X-ray Free Electron Laser operating in the 1.5 {angstrom} range. Simulations indicate that this photoinjector is capable of producing a 1nC electron bunch with transverse normalized emittance less than 1 {pi} mm mrad were the cathode is illuminated with a 10 psec longitudinal flat top pulse. Using a Gaussian longitudinal laser profile with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 10 psec, simulation indicates that the NGP is capable of producing a normalized rms emittance of 2.50 {pi} mm mrad at 1 nC. Using the removable cathode plate we have studied the quantum efficiency (QE) of both copper and magnesium photo-cathodes. The Cu QE was found to be 4.5 x 10{sup -5} with a 25% variation in the QE across the emitting surface of the cathode, while supporting a field gradient of 125 MV/m. At low charge, the transverse normalized rms emittance, {epsilon}{sub n,rms}, produced by the NGP is {epsilon}{sub n,rms} = 1.2 {pi} mm mrad for Q{sub T} = 0.3 nC. The 95% electron beam bunch length was measured to 10.9 psec. The emittance due to the finite magnetic field at the cathode has been studied. The scaling of this magnetic emittance term as a function of cathode magnetic field was found to be 0.01 {pi} mm mrad per Gauss. The 1.6 cell rf gun has been designed to reduce the dipole field asymmetry of the longitudinal accelerating field. Low level rf measurements show that this has in fact been accomplished, with an order of magnitude decrease in the dipole field. High power beam studies also show that the dipole field has been decreased. An upper limit of the intrinsic non-reducible thermal emittance of a

  1. Soft-Body Muscles for Evolved Virtual Creatures: The Next Step on a Bio-Mimetic Path to Meaningful Morphological Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessin, Dan; Risi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    In the past, evolved virtual creatures (EVCs) have been developed with rigid, segmented bodies, and with soft bodies, but never before with a combination of the two. In nature, however, creatures combining a rigid skeleton and non-rigid muscles are some of the most complex and successful examples...... of life on earth. Now, for the first time, creatures with fully evolved rigid-body skeletons and soft-body muscles can be developed in the virtual world, as well. By exploiting and re-purposing the capabilities of existing soft-body simulation systems, we can evolve complex and effective simulated muscles...

  2. Foreign remedies: what the experience of other nations can tell us about next steps in reforming U.S. health care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rochefort, David A; Donnelly, Kevin P

    2012-01-01

    ...? Following an analysis of the 2010 statute, this book surveys developments in different parts of the globe to identify important lessons in health politics, policy design, and program implementation...

  3. A thick-walled sphere rotating in a uniform magnetic field: The next step to de-spin a space object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark A.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Caracciolo, Ryan A.; Peck, Mason; Leve, Frederick A.

    2017-08-01

    Modeling the interaction between a moving conductor and a static magnetic field is critical to understanding the operation of induction motors, eddy current braking, and the dynamics of satellites moving through Earth's magnetic field. Here, we develop the case of a thick-walled sphere rotating in a uniform magnetic field, which is the simplest, non-trivial, magneto-statics problem that leads to complete closed-form expressions for the resulting potentials, fields, and currents. This solution requires knowledge of all of Maxwell's time independent equations, scalar and vector potential equations, and the Lorentz force law. The paper presents four cases and their associated experimental results, making this topic appropriate for an advanced student lab project.

  4. Foreign remedies: what the experience of other nations can tell us about next steps in reforming U.S. health care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rochefort, David A; Donnelly, Kevin P

    2012-01-01

    "The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act marked a watershed in U.S. health policy, but controversy over its passage rages on, and much uncertainty surrounds the law's transformation from blueprint into operational program...

  5. Institutionalizing policy-level health impact assessment in Europe: is coupling health impact assessment with strategic environmental assessment the next step forward?

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, John; Parry, Jayne; Scully, Edward

    2005-01-01

    European Union (EU) Member States are interested in using health impact assessment (HIA) as a means of safeguarding their obligations to protect human health under the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam. However, several have encountered difficulties institutionalizing HIA with the policy-making process. As a consequence, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has suggested coupling HIA with strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Traditionally, the incorporation of HIA into o...

  6. The EuCARD2 Future Magnets Program for Particle Accelerator High-Field Dipoles : Review of Results and Next Steps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, Lucio; Badel, Arnaud; Bajas, Hugues; Bajko, Marta; Ballarino, Amalia; Barth, Christian; Betz, Ulrich; Bottura, Luca; Broggi, Francesco; Chiuchiolo, Antonella; Dhalle, Marc; Durante, Maria; Fazilleau, Philippe; Fleiter, Jerome; Gao, Peng; Goldacker, Wilfried; Kario, Anna; Kirby, Glyn; Haro, E.; Himbele, J.; Lorin, C.; Murtomaki, J.; Van Nugteren, Jeroen; Petrone, Carlo; De Rijk, Gijs; Ruuskanen, J.; Senatore, Carmine; Statera, Marco; Stenvall, Antti; Tixador, Pascal; Yang, Yifeng; Usoskin, Alexander; Zangenberg, Nikolaj

    The EuCARD2 collaboration aims at the development of a 10 kA-class superconducting, high current density cable suitable for accelerator magnets, to be tested in small coils and magnets capable to deliver 3-5 T when energized in stand-alone mode, and 15-18 T when inserted in a 12-13 T background

  7. Understanding the association between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries: Next steps for research and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M; Kim, Rockli; Krishna, Aditi; McGovern, Mark; Aguayo, Victor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-11-01

    Stunting, caused by experiences of chronic nutritional deprivation, affects approximately 25% of children under age five globally (i.e., 156 million children). In this review, evidence of a relationship between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries is summarized, and issues for further research are discussed. We focus on studies that measured low height-for-age among children less than 5 years old as the exposure and gross/fine motor skills, psychosocial competencies, cognitive abilities, or schooling and learning milestones as the outcomes. This review highlights three key findings. First, the variability in child development tools and metrics used among studies and the differences in the timing and frequency of the assessments complicate comparisons across study findings. Second, considerable evidence from across many countries supports an association between stunting and poor child development despite methodological differences and heterogeneity in the magnitude of associations. Further, effect sizes differ by developmental domain with greater associations shown for cognitive/schooling outcomes. How stunting influences child development, which domains of child development are more affected, and how the various domains of child development influence one another require further experimental research to test causal pathways. Finally, there is mixed evidence of the additive effect of nutrition + stimulation interventions on child development. However, understanding best methods for improving child developmental outcomes - either through nutrition programs or through integrated nutrition + psychosocial stimulation programs (or nutrition + other program interventions) - is a key area of further inquiry. Given that nearly 40% of children under age five suffer from loss of developmental potential - for which stunting is likely one of the key risk factors - reductions in stunting could have tremendous implications for child development

  8. Initial Steps Toward Next-Generation, Waveform-Based, Three-Dimensional Models and Metrics to Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    propagation effects by splitting apart the longer period surface waves from the shorter period, depth-sensitive Pnl waves. Problematic, or high-error... Pnl waves. Problematic, or high-error, stations and paths were further analyzed to identify systematic errors with unknown sensor responses and...frequency Pnl components and slower, longer period surface waves. All cut windows are fit simultaneously, allowing equal weighting of phases that may be

  9. Emerging Ecological Approaches to Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health in the School Context: Next Steps from a Community Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J.; Rowe, Hillary L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, ecological perspectives have become more visible in prevention, health promotion, and public health within the school context. Individually based approaches to understanding and changing behavior have been increasingly challenged by these perspectives because of their appreciation for contextual influences on individual behavior.…

  10. Tritium retention in candidate next-step protection materials: engineering key issues and research requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, G.; Andrew, P.L.; Wu, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Although a considerable volume of valuable data on the behaviour of tritium in beryllium and carbon-based armours exposed to hydrogenic fusion plasmas has been compiled over the past years both from operation of present-day tokamaks and from laboratory simulations, knowledge is far from complete and tritium inventory predictions for these materials remain highly uncertain. In this paper we elucidate the main mechanisms responsible for tritium trapping and release in next-step D-T tokamaks, as well as the applicability of some of the presently known data bases for design purposes. Owing to their strong anticipated implications on tritium uptake and release, attention is focused mainly on the interaction of tritium with neutron damage induced defects, on tritium codeposition with eroded carbon and on the effects of oxide and surface contaminants. Some preliminary quantitative estimates are presented based on most recent experimental findings and latest modelling developments as well. The influence of important working conditions such as target temperature, loading particle fluxes, erosion and redeposition rates, as well as material characteristics such as the type of morphology of the protection material (i.e. amorphous plasma-sprayed beryllium vs. solid forms), and design dependent parameters are discussed in this paper. Remaining issues which require additional effort are identified. (orig.)

  11. Next steps towards a Climate Innovation Centre in Ghana. Discussion Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Wuertenberger, L.; Akon-Yamga, G.

    2011-03-01

    A climate innovation centre is an institution aimed at enabling development through catalysing climate technology research, development, market creation and policy. This discussion paper discusses the possibilities, considerations and next steps for a Climate Innovation Centre (CIC) in Ghana based on new insights within the government of Ghana, a mapping of climate innovation in Ghana, new developments in the international climate negotiations and other multilateral processes, and analysis conducted by ECN. The conclusion is that a Climate Innovation Centre can fill significant gaps in climate resilient development in Ghana. It seems important that a Ghana CIC does not become yet another institution that focuses on basic research in the area of climate change. Rather, it should connect the dots of the Ghanaian climate innovation system and act as a knowledge facilitator, also for the private sector. Various models of climate innovation centres exist. Before choices are made for a model or a combination of models for Ghana, it is recommended to allow for a broad stakeholder process. The World Bank's infoDev programme could be a model for such a process. Such stakeholder engagement should be aligned with other policymaking processes on adaptation and low-carbon development, as well as related policy arenas, such as agriculture, transport, waste and energy.

  12. Next steps towards a Climate Innovation Centre in Ghana. Discussion Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Wuertenberger, L. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Akon-Yamga, G. [Science and Technology Policy Research Institute STEPRI, Accra (Guinea)

    2011-03-15

    A climate innovation centre is an institution aimed at enabling development through catalysing climate technology research, development, market creation and policy. This discussion paper discusses the possibilities, considerations and next steps for a Climate Innovation Centre (CIC) in Ghana based on new insights within the government of Ghana, a mapping of climate innovation in Ghana, new developments in the international climate negotiations and other multilateral processes, and analysis conducted by ECN. The conclusion is that a Climate Innovation Centre can fill significant gaps in climate resilient development in Ghana. It seems important that a Ghana CIC does not become yet another institution that focuses on basic research in the area of climate change. Rather, it should connect the dots of the Ghanaian climate innovation system and act as a knowledge facilitator, also for the private sector. Various models of climate innovation centres exist. Before choices are made for a model or a combination of models for Ghana, it is recommended to allow for a broad stakeholder process. The World Bank's infoDev programme could be a model for such a process. Such stakeholder engagement should be aligned with other policymaking processes on adaptation and low-carbon development, as well as related policy arenas, such as agriculture, transport, waste and energy.

  13. The Next White (NEW) Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monrabal, F.; et al.

    2018-04-06

    Conceived to host 5 kg of xenon at a pressure of 15 bar in the fiducial volume, the NEXT- White (NEW) apparatus is currently the largest high pressure xenon gas TPC using electroluminescent amplification in the world. It is also a 1:2 scale model of the NEXT-100 detector scheduled to start searching for $\\beta\\beta 0\

  14. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  15. What's happening in 'renewable energy developed country: Germany'. Next step our country should learn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    What's the next step our country should take? Japan could learn a lot of things such as success or failure examples from renewable energy developed country: Germany. This article reviewed present state of Feed-In Tariffs and renewable energy power in Germany. Share of renewable energy power amounted to 20% including 7.6% of wind power and 6.1% of biomass in 2011. Such trend caused increase of power cost, restructure of power system such as new installation of power transmission against north coast offshore wind power plant, and development of power storage system such as hydrogen production or pumped storage power plant. Efficient introduction of renewable energy should be planned in Japan based on appropriate share target of renewable energy share. As for nuclear power phaseout, Japan should learn German's experiences on decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear power plants, and policies of intermediate storage and final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, which needed a long time and a great cost. (T. Tanaka)

  16. The apeNEXT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belletti, F.; Bodin, F.; Boucaud, Ph.; Cabibbo, N.; Lonardo, A.; De Luca, S.; Lukyanov, M.; Micheli, J.; Morin, L.; Pene, O.; Pleiter, D.; Rapuano, F.; Rossetti, D.; Schifano, S.F.; Simma, H.; Tripiccione, R.; Vicini, P.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations in theoretical high-energy physics (Lattice QCD) require huge computing resources. Several generations of massively parallel computers optimised for these applications have been developed within the APE (array processor experiment) project. Large prototype systems of the latest generation, apeNEXT, are currently being assembled and tested. This contribution explains how the apeNEXT architecture is optimised for Lattice QCD, provides an overview of the hardware and software of apeNEXT, and describes its new features, like the SPMD programming model and the C compiler

  17. GLOBAL MONITORING OF URANIUM HEXIFLORIDE CYLINDERS NEXT STEPS IN DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTION PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, D.

    2010-06-09

    Over 40 industrial facilities world-wide use standardized uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders for transport, storage and in-process receiving in support of uranium conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication processes. UF{sub 6} is processed and stored in the cylinders, with over 50,000 tU of UF{sub 6} transported each year in these International Organization for Standardization (ISO) qualified containers. Although each cylinder is manufactured to an ISO standard that calls for a nameplate with the manufacturer's identification number (ID) and the owner's serial number engraved on it, these can be quite small and difficult to read. Recognizing that each facility seems to use a different ID, a cylinder can have several different numbers recorded on it by means of metal plates, sticky labels, paint or even marker pen as it travels among facilities around the world. The idea of monitoring movements of UF{sub 6} cylinders throughout the global uranium fuel cycle has become a significant issue among industrial and safeguarding stakeholders. Global monitoring would provide the locations, movements, and uses of cylinders in commercial nuclear transport around the world, improving the efficiency of industrial operations while increasing the assurance that growing nuclear commerce does not result in the loss or misuse of cylinders. It should be noted that a unique ID (UID) attached to a cylinder in a verifiable manner is necessary for safeguarding needs and ensuring positive ID, but not sufficient for an effective global monitoring system. Modern technologies for tracking and inventory control can pair the UID with sensors and secure data storage for content information and complete continuity of knowledge over the cylinder. This paper will describe how the next steps in development of an action plan for employing a global UF{sub 6} cylinder monitoring network could be cultivated using four primary UID functions - identification, tracking, controlling, and

  18. Global Monitoring Of Uranium Hexifloride Cylinders Next Steps In Development Of An Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, D.

    2010-01-01

    Over 40 industrial facilities world-wide use standardized uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) cylinders for transport, storage and in-process receiving in support of uranium conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication processes. UF 6 is processed and stored in the cylinders, with over 50,000 tU of UF 6 transported each year in these International Organization for Standardization (ISO) qualified containers. Although each cylinder is manufactured to an ISO standard that calls for a nameplate with the manufacturer's identification number (ID) and the owner's serial number engraved on it, these can be quite small and difficult to read. Recognizing that each facility seems to use a different ID, a cylinder can have several different numbers recorded on it by means of metal plates, sticky labels, paint or even marker pen as it travels among facilities around the world. The idea of monitoring movements of UF 6 cylinders throughout the global uranium fuel cycle has become a significant issue among industrial and safeguarding stakeholders. Global monitoring would provide the locations, movements, and uses of cylinders in commercial nuclear transport around the world, improving the efficiency of industrial operations while increasing the assurance that growing nuclear commerce does not result in the loss or misuse of cylinders. It should be noted that a unique ID (UID) attached to a cylinder in a verifiable manner is necessary for safeguarding needs and ensuring positive ID, but not sufficient for an effective global monitoring system. Modern technologies for tracking and inventory control can pair the UID with sensors and secure data storage for content information and complete continuity of knowledge over the cylinder. This paper will describe how the next steps in development of an action plan for employing a global UF 6 cylinder monitoring network could be cultivated using four primary UID functions - identification, tracking, controlling, and accounting.

  19. Emerging technologies to measure neighborhood conditions in public health: implications for interventions and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, M; Nelson, E J; Werner, K; Shacham, E; Elliott, M; Ratnapradipa, K; Lian, M; McVay, A

    2016-06-23

    Adverse neighborhood conditions play an important role beyond individual characteristics. There is increasing interest in identifying specific characteristics of the social and built environments adversely affecting health outcomes. Most research has assessed aspects of such exposures via self-reported instruments or census data. Potential threats in the local environment may be subject to short-term changes that can only be measured with more nimble technology. The advent of new technologies may offer new opportunities to obtain geospatial data about neighborhoods that may circumvent the limitations of traditional data sources. This overview describes the utility, validity and reliability of selected emerging technologies to measure neighborhood conditions for public health applications. It also describes next steps for future research and opportunities for interventions. The paper presents an overview of the literature on measurement of the built and social environment in public health (Google Street View, webcams, crowdsourcing, remote sensing, social media, unmanned aerial vehicles, and lifespace) and location-based interventions. Emerging technologies such as Google Street View, social media, drones, webcams, and crowdsourcing may serve as effective and inexpensive tools to measure the ever-changing environment. Georeferenced social media responses may help identify where to target intervention activities, but also to passively evaluate their effectiveness. Future studies should measure exposure across key time points during the life-course as part of the exposome paradigm and integrate various types of data sources to measure environmental contexts. By harnessing these technologies, public health research can not only monitor populations and the environment, but intervene using novel strategies to improve the public health.

  20. Next-to-next-to-eikonal corrections in the CGC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Armesto, Néstor [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE,Universidade de Santiago de Compostela,E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Beuf, Guillaume [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Moscoso, Alexis [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE,Universidade de Santiago de Compostela,E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2016-01-19

    We extend the study of corrections to the eikonal approximation that was initiated in ref. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP07(2014)068 to higher orders. These corrections associated with the finite width of the target are investigated and the gluon propagator in background field is calculated at next-to-next-to-eikonal accuracy. The result is then applied to the single inclusive gluon production cross section at central rapidities and the single transverse spin asymmetry with a transversely polarized target, in pA collisions, in order to analyze these observables beyond the eikonal limit. The next-to-next-to-eikonal corrections to the unpolarized cross section are non-zero and provide the first corrections to the usual k{sub ⊥}-factorized expression. In contrast, the eikonal and next-to-next-to-eikonal contributions to the single transverse spin asymmetry vanish, while the next-to-eikonal ones are non-zero.

  1. Spin-charge-family theory is offering next step in understanding elementary particles and fields and correspondingly universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankoč Borštnik, Norma Susana

    2017-01-01

    More than 40 years ago the standard model made a successful new step in understanding properties of fermion and boson fields. Now the next step is needed, which would explain what the standard model and the cosmological models just assume: a. The origin of quantum numbers of massless one family members. b. The origin of families. c. The origin of the vector gauge fields. d. The origin of the Higgses and Yukawa couplings. e. The origin of the dark matter. f. The origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry. g. The origin of the dark energy. h. And several other open problems. The spin-charge-family theory, a kind of the Kaluza-Klein theories in ( d = (2 n − 1) + 1)-space-time, with d = (13 + 1) and the two kinds of the spin connection fields, which are the gauge fields of the two kinds of the Clifford algebra objects anti-commuting with one another, may provide this much needed next step. The talk presents: i. A short presentation of this theory. ii. The review over the achievements of this theory so far, with some not published yet achievements included. iii. Predictions for future experiments. (paper)

  2. Spin-charge-family theory is offering next step in understanding elementary particles and fields and correspondingly universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoč Borštnik, Norma Susana

    2017-05-01

    More than 40 years ago the standard model made a successful new step in understanding properties of fermion and boson fields. Now the next step is needed, which would explain what the standard model and the cosmological models just assume: a. The origin of quantum numbers of massless one family members. b. The origin of families. c. The origin of the vector gauge fields. d. The origin of the Higgses and Yukawa couplings. e. The origin of the dark matter. f. The origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry. g. The origin of the dark energy. h. And several other open problems. The spin-charge-family theory, a kind of the Kaluza-Klein theories in (d = (2n - 1) + 1)-space-time, with d = (13 + 1) and the two kinds of the spin connection fields, which are the gauge fields of the two kinds of the Clifford algebra objects anti-commuting with one another, may provide this much needed next step. The talk presents: i. A short presentation of this theory. ii. The review over the achievements of this theory so far, with some not published yet achievements included. iii. Predictions for future experiments.

  3. Precision Controlled Carbon Materials for Next-Generation Optoelectronic and Photonic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-08

    engineer next-generation carbon-based optoelectronic and photonic devices with superior performance and capabilities. These devices include carbon...electronics; (4) nanostructured graphene plasmonics; and (5) polymer-nanotube conjugate chemistry . (1) Semiconducting carbon nanotube-based...applications (In Preparation, 2018). (5) Polymer-nanotube conjugate chemistry Conjugated polymers can be exploited as agents for selectively wrapping and

  4. The Seven Step Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Connie

    2017-01-01

    Many well-intended instructors use Socratic or leveled questioning to facilitate the discussion of an assigned reading. While this engages a few students, most can opt to remain silent. The seven step strategy described in this article provides an alternative to classroom silence and engages all students. Students discuss a single reading as they…

  5. The Next Arms Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    the case today. The real Chinese presence today is in the pervasive economic presence across the markets for consumer goods and food stuffs. Russia...Korea, the Philippines, Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia , and Vietnam. There is also the unresolved issue of the future of Taiwan. The spread of...investigation carried out to identify the source of the particles, it believed the particles could have been brought into the country through contaminated

  6. EDITORIAL: The next photonic revolution The next photonic revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials is a follow-up to the second European Topical Meeting of the NANOMETA series of meetings (see www.nanometa.org) which took place on 5-8 January 2009, in Seefeld, Austria. The main idea of the first NANOMETA meeting held in 2007 was to bring together the mature community of microwave electrical engineers with the emerging community of photonics researchers interested in the physics of light coupled to nanostructures. In recent years the research landscape has shifted dramatically. A wider proliferation of nanofabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanoimprint and focused ion beam milling, diagnostics techniques such as near-field scanning imaging, cathodoluminescence with nanoscale resolution and micro-spectrometry, and the availability of affordable broadband and ultrafast optical sources, have moved the research focus of the NANOMETA community to the optical domain. Quite naturally the ideas of the nonlinearity of materials and the coherency of light in the nanoscale realm have been widely discussed. Driven by the dream of untapped device and material functionality, nonlinear and switchable nanophotonic devices and photonic metamaterials, along with the concept of tailoring the electromagnetic space with metamaterials, appear to be the main avenues along which the subject will develop in the coming years. Indeed, in the last 20 years photonics has played a key role in creating the world as we know it, with enormous beneficial social impact worldwide. It is impossible to imagine modern society without the globe-spanning broadband internet and mobile telephony made possible by the implementation of optical fibre core networks, optical disc data storage (underpinned by the development of compact semiconductor lasers), modern image display technologies and laser-assisted manufacturing. We now anticipate that the next photonic revolution will continue to grow, explosively fuelled by a new

  7. Educating the next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, D.; Feltin, C.

    2004-01-01

    The INSTN, a higher education establishment, has an original place in the French and European education system. Placed within the CEA, the French nuclear research organization, it is under the supervision of the Ministries in charge of industry and of education. Originally, it was created to train engineers, technicians and researchers needed for the energy development of France, as neither universities, nor Schools of engineers had developed the necessary skills. Half a century later, the INSTN set up academic curricula organized by itself or in cooperation with Universities and High schools of engineers as well as a broad range of professional and continuous training courses, using the skills available within the CEA, other research organizations, industrial companies (EDF, Areva...) or public authorities. Moreover, on behalf of the CEA, the INSTN acts as a doctoral college, ensuring the selection, management and training of PhD students and post-doctorants. At the international level, the INSTN provides training courses aimed at foreign professionals in cooperation with the IAEA. It is also strongly involved in the education and training aspects of FP6 European projects, especially EURATOM projects, and in the Erasmus program. (author)

  8. The Next Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Carolyn Shaw

    1975-01-01

    The future status of women is envisioned as more than labor market projections of wider employment opportunities. Responsibilities of human beings such as family formation, upbringing of children, the process of human growth and development, marriage and divorce are seen as components of the second revolution. (Author/AM)

  9. The Next Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Kastrup

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to perceive the world, we need more than just raw sensory input: a subliminal paradigm of thought is required to interpret raw sensory data and, thereby, create the objects and events we perceive around ourselves. As such, the world we see reflects our own unexamined, culture-bound assumptions and expectations, which explains why every generation in history has believed that it more or less understood the world. Today, we perceive a world of objects and events outside and independent of mind, which merely reflects our current paradigm of thought. Anomalies that contradict this paradigm have been accumulated by physicists over the past couple of decades, which will eventually force our culture to move to a new paradigm. Under this new paradigm, a form of universal mind will be viewed as nature’s sole fundamental entity. In this paper, I offer a sketch of what the new paradigm may look like.

  10. The next scientific revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tony

    2010-11-01

    For decades, computer scientists have tried to teach computers to think like human experts. Until recently, most of those efforts have failed to come close to generating the creative insights and solutions that seem to come naturally to the best researchers, doctors, and engineers. But now, Tony Hey, a VP of Microsoft Research, says we're witnessing the dawn of a new generation of powerful computer tools that can "mash up" vast quantities of data from many sources, analyze them, and help produce revolutionary scientific discoveries. Hey and his colleagues call this new method of scientific exploration "machine learning." At Microsoft, a team has already used it to innovate a method of predicting with impressive accuracy whether a patient with congestive heart failure who is released from the hospital will be readmitted within 30 days. It was developed by directing a computer program to pore through hundreds of thousands of data points on 300,000 patients and "learn" the profiles of patients most likely to be rehospitalized. The economic impact of this prediction tool could be huge: If a hospital understands the likelihood that a patient will "bounce back," it can design programs to keep him stable and save thousands of dollars in health care costs. Similar efforts to uncover important correlations that could lead to scientific breakthroughs are under way in oceanography, conservation, and AIDS research. And in business, deep data exploration has the potential to unearth critical insights about customers, supply chains, advertising effectiveness, and more.

  11. LOBSTER - The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Arne

    2016-04-01

    Since 1997 K.U.M. GmbH designs and manufactures Ocean Bottom Seismometer. During the last three years we designed a new instrument which is presented here. Higher resolution, higher accuracy and less power consumption led to an unique instrument, the worlds smallest broadband longterm OBS. Key data are: 32 bit, 143dB, 300mW, 120 sec, 200kg deployment weight, size of half a palette.

  12. Project control - the next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorii, V.F.; McKinnon, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) second largest Major System Acquisition Project. We have developed an integrated planning and control system (called PACS) that we believe represents the 'Next Generation' in project control. PACS integrates technical scope, cost, and schedule information for over 50 participating organizations and produces performances measurement reports for science and engineering managers at all levels. Our 'Next Generation' project control too, PACS, has been found to be in compliance with the new DOE Project Control System Guidelines. Additionally, the nuclear utility oversight group of the Edison Electric Institute has suggested PACS be used as a model for other civilian radioactive waste management projects. A 'Next Generation' project control tool will be necessary to do science in the 21st century

  13. Sealed Orifice Laparoscopic or Endoscopic (SOLE) Surgery: technology and technique convergence for next-step colorectal surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, R A

    2012-02-01

    The new avenue of minimally invasive surgery, referred to as single-incision\\/access laparoscopy, is often presented as an alternative to standard multiport approaches, whereas in fact it is more usefully perceived as a complementary modality. The emergence of the technique can be of greater use both to patients and to the colorectal specialty if its principles can be merged into next-stage evolution by synergy with more conventional practice. In particular, rather than device specificity, what is needed is convergence of capability that can be applied by the same surgeon in differing scenarios depending on the individualized patient and disease characteristics. We detail here the global applicability of a simple access device construct that allows the provision of simple and complex single-port laparoscopy as well as contributing to multiport laparoscopic and transanal resections in a manner that is reliable, reproducible, ergonomical and economical.

  14. Comparison of a state of the art Si IGBT and next generation fast switching devices in a 4 kW boost converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives a comprehensive comparison of two promising silicon carbide (SiC) switching devices, i.e. normally-off SiC MOSFET and a normally-on SiC JFET, as alternatives to a conventional state of the art Si IGBT. The comparison uses datasheet information to determine conduction losses, swit...... losses. This reduction in semiconductor losses can increase overall converter efficiencies up to 0.4% at 20kHz or enable high frequency operation up to 100 kHz which then reduces the size and weight of the inductor by more than 75% while still achieving efficiencies over 98.3 %....

  15. The Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States 2013) were released almost two years ago. Work tied to the NGSS, their adoption, and implementation continues to move forward around the country. Stephen L. Pruitt, senior vice president, science, at Achieve, an independent, nonpartisan, nonprofit education reform organization that was a lead…

  16. Wind energy in the next millennium and the next year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, B.

    1999-01-01

    The rapid development of wind energy was once again confirmed in 1998 and everything points to the fact that this road will in the next century rapidly become the third channel of primary electricity production in the world, both in terms of annual sales and contribution of energy. In particular, a scenario for the development, of wind energy in the coming century is proposed, taking as model and minimum objective the historical development of success of wind energy should prove perfectly feasible, it is difficult to foresee in the short term the actual impact of the liberalization of electricity markets on existing inducements in favour of wind energy and even more difficult to estimate the effectiveness of new inducements more in line with this liberalization process. These difficulties may be overcome by selecting - for the long term scenario - a starting point within the next decade which is in line with the best market studies currently available and by constructing the model for variations in operational stock world-wide on the basis of a Rayleigh distribution, adjusted for the market conditions defined in the short term, in order that the future contributions defined in the short term, in order that the future contribution of wind energy might come to equal that of hydro-electricity before the end of the next century. (author)

  17. First steps in designing an all-in-one ICT-based device for persons with cognitive impairment: evaluation of the first mock-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Inga-Lill; Persson, Ann-Christine; Bartfai, Aniko

    2016-03-07

    This project Smart Assisted Living involving Informal careGivers++ (SALIG) intends to develop an ICT-based device for persons with cognitive impairment combined with remote support possibilities for significant others and formal caregivers. This paper presents the identification of the target groups' needs and requirements of such device and the evaluation of the first mock-up, demonstrated in a tablet. The inclusive design method that includes end-users in the design process was chosen. First, a scoping review was conducted in order to examine the target group's need of an ICT-based device, and to gather recommendations regarding its design and functionalities. In order to capture the users' requirements of the design and functionalities of the device three targeted focus groups were conducted. Based on the findings from the publications and the focus groups a user requirement specification was developed. After that a design concept and a first mock-up was developed in an iterative process. The mock-up was evaluated through interviews with persons with cognitive impairment, health care professionals and significant others. Data were analysed using content analysis. Several useful recommendations of the design and functionalities of the SALIG device for persons with cognitive impairment were identified. The main benefit of the mock-up was that it was a single device with a set of functionalities installed on a tablet and designed for persons with cognitive impairment. An additional benefit was that it could be used remotely by significant others and formal caregivers. The SALIG device has the potentials to facilitate everyday life for persons with cognitive impairment, their significant others and the work situation for formal caregivers. The results may provide guidance in the development of different types of technologies for the target population and for people with diverse disabilities. Further work will focus on developing a prototype to be empirically tested

  18. SYSTEMATIZATION OF THE BASIC STEPS OF THE STEP-AEROBICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Korovljev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of the powerful sport industry, in front of us appeared a lot of new opportunities for creating of the new programmes of exercising with certain requisites. One of such programmes is certainly step-aerobics. Step-aerobics can be defined as a type of aerobics consisting of the basic aerobic steps (basic steps applied in exercising on stepper (step bench, with a possibility to regulate its height. Step-aerobics itself can be divided into several groups, depending on the following: type of music, working methods and adopted knowledge of the attendants. In this work, the systematization of the basic steps in step-aerobics was made on the basis of the following criteria: steps origin, number of leg motions in stepping and relating the body support at the end of the step. Systematization of the basic steps of the step-aerobics is quite significant for making a concrete review of the existing basic steps, thus making creation of the step-aerobics lesson easier

  19. Is Amazon the next Google?

    OpenAIRE

    Budzinski, Oliver; Köhler, Karoline Henrike

    2015-01-01

    Dominant or apparently dominant internet platform increasingly become subject to both antitrust investigations and further-reaching political calls for regulation. While Google is currently in the focus of the discussion, the next candidate is already on the horizon - the ubiquitous online trading platform Amazon. Competitors and suppliers but also famous economists like Paul Krugman unite in criticizing Amazon's market power and alleged abuse of it. In this paper, we collect the multitude of...

  20. Development of a Ground Test and Analysis Protocol for NASA's NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program is a public-private partnership model that seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities to support human spaceflight missions around and beyond cislunar space. NASA first issued the Phase 1 NextSTEP Broad Agency Announcement to U.S. industries in 2014, which called for innovative cislunar habitation concepts that leveraged commercialization plans for low-Earth orbit. These habitats will be part of the Deep Space Gateway (DSG), the cislunar space station planned by NASA for construction in the 2020s. In 2016, Phase 2 of the NextSTEP program selected five commercial partners to develop ground prototypes. A team of NASA research engineers and subject matter experts (SMEs) have been tasked with developing the ground-test protocol that will serve as the primary means by which these Phase 2 prototypes will be evaluated. Since 2008, this core test team has successfully conducted multiple spaceflight analog mission evaluations utilizing a consistent set of operational tools, methods, and metrics to enable the iterative development, testing, analysis, and validation of evolving exploration architectures, operations concepts, and vehicle designs. The purpose of implementing a similar evaluation process for the Phase 2 Habitation Concepts is to consistently evaluate different commercial partner ground prototypes to provide data-driven, actionable recommendations for Phase 3. This paper describes the process by which the ground test protocol was developed and the objectives, methods, and metrics by which the NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts will be rigorously and systematically evaluated. The protocol has been developed using both a top-down and bottom-up approach. Top-down development began with the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) exploration objectives and ISS Exploration Capability Study Team (IECST) candidate flight objectives. Strategic

  1. FY 2000 report on the development of ultra low loss power element technology. Commercialization of next generation power semiconductor device; 2000 nendo choteisonshitsu denryoku soshi gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Jisedai power handotai device jitsuyoka chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the promotion of development of ultra low loss power element technology, survey was conducted on the present situation, future, etc. of various technologies/systems related to power semiconductor devices. In the industrial equipment field, it is predicted that power semiconductor devices will be increased in the field of application by enlargement of the defense field of IGBT, new MOS structure elements, etc. In the field of home appliances, possibilities are expected of switching loss reduction and electric noise reduction by making SiC high speed diode. As to the space photovoltaic power generation, SiC is expected for various semiconductors such as solar cells, FET for transmitter/amplifier of radio power electric transmission use micro waves, etc. Concerning the radio communication system plan using stratosphere platform, there are technical problems on communication equipment such as antenna and RF circuit, and the role of SiC device is expected to be large. The society where the electrification rate is 80% and fuel cell vehicles are used is a new paradigm, and it is necessary and indispensable to commercialize ultra low loss power elements using SiC. (NEDO)

  2. Self-shielding characteristics of aqueous self-cooled blankets for next generation fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, S.; Cheng, E.T.; Embrechts, M.J.

    1987-11-01

    The present study examines self-shielding characteristics for two aqueous self-cooled tritium producing driver blankets for next generation fusion devices. The aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket concept (ASCB) is a very simple blanket concept that relies on just structural material and coolant. Lithium compounds are dissolved in water to provide for tritium production. An ASCB driver blanket would provide a low technology and low temperature environment for blanket test modules in a next generation fusion reactor. The primary functions of such a blanket would be shielding, energy removal and tritium production. One driver blanket considered in this study concept relates to the one proposed for the Next European Torus (NET), while the second concept is indicative for the inboard shield design for the Engineering Test Reactor proposed by the USA (TIBER II/ETR). The driver blanket for NET is based on stainless steel for the structural material and aqueous solution, while the inboard shielding blanket for TIBER II/ETR is based on a tungsten/aqueous solution combination. The purpose of this study is to investigate self-shielding and heterogeneity effects in aqueous self-cooled blankets. It is found that no significant gains in tritium breeding can be achieved in the stainless steel blanket if spatial and energy self-shielding effects are considered, and the heterogeneity effects are also insignificant. The tungsten blanket shows a 5 percent increase in tritium production in the shielding blanket when energy and spatial self-shielding effects are accounted for. However, the tungsten blanket shows a drastic increase in the tritium breeding ratio due to heterogeneity effects. (author) 17 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Thermonuclear ignition in the next generation tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, J.

    1989-04-01

    The extrapolation of experimental rules describing energy confinement and magnetohydrodynamic - stability limits, in known tokamaks, allow to show that stable thermonuclear ignition equilibria should exist in this configuration, if the product aB t x of the dimensions by a magnetic-field power is large enough. Quantitative application of this result to several next-generation tokamak projects show that those kinds of equilibria could exist in such devices, which would also have enough additional heating power to promote an effective accessible ignition

  4. Modified precision lingual bonding technique: A step-wise approach with torque angulation device-bracket positioning device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaline Tina Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Contemporary preadjusted edgewise appliance is all about the precision in bracket design, prescription and positioning in addition to the orthodontist's skill and training. However, achieving it is a bigger challenge as the anatomy of the lingual surface of a tooth is uneven, dissimilar, and moreover the tooth alignment on the lingual surface is variant. Thus, the need for an accurate method of bracket positioning with predetermined torque and angulation incorporated in the brackets according to the patients' need is of key importance. Materials and Methods: A TAD-BPD machine used to enhance the accuracy of bracket positioning and bioplast accurate tray transfer technique was used. Results: A step-wise procedures in bracket positioning and fabricating an indirect bonding tray for lingual orthodontics using the torque angulation device-bracket positioning device. Conclusions: This technique facilitated unhindered bonding even in severely crowded cases and easy rebonding during mid-treatment stages.

  5. Nuclear reactor technology: the next 50 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sollychin, R.; Subki, H.; Adelfang, P.; Koshy, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    hybrid energy systems therefore have the potential to be a key solution to meet the energy needs of the emerging economies in the next few decades. In order to be operated as part of distributed hybrid energy systems, SMRs should be available in various power rating and be able to be engineered for multiple-applications. They should also be user-friendly, and able to be integrated easily with renewable energy systems as well as, if necessary, with adjacent energy application/storage systems. With these considerations, a number of special design requirements for SMR have been identified. The multiple-applications of the SMR may include provision of neutron utilization for industrial applications and research in the future, depending upon the needs in the region where they are built. The difference between a research reactor and such SMR may therefore become indistinct. In any case, operating and utilizing research reactor and small and/or prototype SMR can be taken as a first step in the preparation for a larger nuclear power program, as both the small nuclear systems and the large nuclear power systems require personnel with similar skills sets and the support of the same/similar infrastructure including regulatory body. A strive-for-excellence culture normally required for the operation of a large nuclear system should therefore be cultivated starting with the deployment of the small nuclear systems including the research reactors. Organization well-embedded with such culture put a strong emphasis on safety, health and environmental protection. They are disciplined and well-motivated to perform work systematically, according to plans and established procedures. They communicate effectively within the organization and with stakeholders, and have a continuous drive to improve quality. These considerations should be included in the design of SMRs and research reactors to be deployed in the next 50 years. (author)

  6. Nuclear reactor technology: the next 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollychin, R.; Subki, H.; Adelfang, P.; Koshy, T.

    2013-01-01

    hybrid energy systems therefore have the potential to be a key solution to meet the energy needs of the emerging economies in the next few decades. In order to be operated as part of distributed hybrid energy systems, SMRs should be available in various power rating and be able to be engineered for multiple-applications. They should also be user-friendly, and able to be integrated easily with renewable energy systems as well as, if necessary, with adjacent energy application/storage systems. With these considerations, a number of special design requirements for SMR have been identified. The multiple-applications of the SMR may include provision of neutron utilization for industrial applications and research in the future, depending upon the needs in the region where they are built. The difference between a research reactor and such SMR may therefore become indistinct. In any case, operating and utilizing research reactor and small and/or prototype SMR can be taken as a first step in the preparation for a larger nuclear power program, as both the small nuclear systems and the large nuclear power systems require personnel with similar skills sets and the support of the same/similar infrastructure including regulatory body. A strive-for-excellence culture normally required for the operation of a large nuclear system should therefore be cultivated starting with the deployment of the small nuclear systems including the research reactors. Organization well-embedded with such culture put a strong emphasis on safety, health and environmental protection. They are disciplined and well-motivated to perform work systematically, according to plans and established procedures. They communicate effectively within the organization and with stakeholders, and have a continuous drive to improve quality. These considerations should be included in the design of SMRs and research reactors to be deployed in the next 50 years. (author)

  7. Technology 2.0: A Commentary on Progress, Challenges, and Next Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J

    2017-11-01

    This commentary highlights the importance and promise of the innovative strategies described in the Child Maltreatment special issue on "Technology 2.0: A Focus on the Newest Technological Advances in Child Maltreatment Research." The commentary first highlights the collective advancements reflected in the articles in the special issue, with a primary focus on how the authors' work addresses a general challenge in services research that is perhaps nowhere more problematic than in the field of maltreatment. Next, the commentary extends the discussion of these articles to raise remaining gaps in our knowledge, theory, and methodology, which must be the focus of ongoing research if the true potential of technology as a service delivery vehicle is to be realized. Finally, the commentary concludes with a call for subsequent research which will be inspired by the articles in this special issue.

  8. CANDU in the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.; Torgerson, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    AECL's main product line is available today in two designs, designated as CANDU 6 and CANDU 9. Each of these is based on successfully operating pressurized-heavy-water nuclear plants. Several new CANDU stations are under construction or planned around the world. The author presents plant concepts which may evolve from today's products during the 21st century, indicating the particular development directions which might be followed by AECL product development depending on the future competitive environment, economics, and market circumstances. This study shows that the CANDU energy supply system is sufficiently flexible to be adapted into widely varying circumstances over the next century and beyond

  9. Proceedings of 1999 U.S./Japan Workshop (99FT-05) On High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NYGREN,RICHARD E.; STAVROS,DIANA T.

    2000-06-01

    The 1999 US-Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions in Next Step Fusion Devices was held at the St. Francis Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 1-4, 1999. There were 42 presentations as well as discussion on technical issues and planning for future collaborations. The participants included 22 researchers from Japan and the United States as well as seven researchers from Europe and Russia. There have been important changes in the programs in both the US and Japan in the areas of plasma surface interactions and plasma facing components. The US has moved away from a strong focus on the ITER Project and has introduced new programs on use of liquid surfaces for plasma facing components, and operation of NSTX has begun. In Japan, the Large Helical Device began operation. This is the first large world-class confinement device operating in a magnetic configuration different than a tokamak. In selecting the presentations for this workshop, the organizers sought a balance between research in laboratory facilities or confinement devices related to plasma surface interactions and experimental research in the development of plasma facing components. In discussions about the workshop itself, the participants affirmed their preference for a setting where ''work-in-progress'' could be informally presented and discussed.

  10. Proceedings of 1999 U.S./Japan Workshop (99FT-05) On High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NYGREN, RICHARD E.; STAVROS, DIANA T.

    2000-01-01

    The 1999 US-Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions in Next Step Fusion Devices was held at the St. Francis Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 1-4, 1999. There were 42 presentations as well as discussion on technical issues and planning for future collaborations. The participants included 22 researchers from Japan and the United States as well as seven researchers from Europe and Russia. There have been important changes in the programs in both the US and Japan in the areas of plasma surface interactions and plasma facing components. The US has moved away from a strong focus on the ITER Project and has introduced new programs on use of liquid surfaces for plasma facing components, and operation of NSTX has begun. In Japan, the Large Helical Device began operation. This is the first large world-class confinement device operating in a magnetic configuration different than a tokamak. In selecting the presentations for this workshop, the organizers sought a balance between research in laboratory facilities or confinement devices related to plasma surface interactions and experimental research in the development of plasma facing components. In discussions about the workshop itself, the participants affirmed their preference for a setting where ''work-in-progress'' could be informally presented and discussed

  11. Step edge Josephson junctions and high temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) gradiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, Alasdair J.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) gradiometers based on the high temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO). A step-edge Josephson junction fabrication process was developed to produce sufficiently steep (>60 deg) step-edges such that junctions exhibited RSJ-like current-voltage characteristics. The mean I C R N product of a sample of twenty step-edge junctions was 130μV. Step-edge dc SQUIDs with inductances between 67pH and 114pH were fabricated. Generally the SQUIDs had an intrinsic white flux noise in the 10-30μΦ 0 /√Hz range, with the best device, a 70pH SQUID, exhibiting a white flux noise of 5μΦ 0 /√Hz. Different first-order SQUID gradiometer designs were fabricated from single layers of YBCO. Two single-layer gradiometer (SLG) designs were fabricated on 10x10mm 2 substrates. The best balance and lowest gradient sensitivity measured for these devices were 1/300 and 308fT/cm√Hz (at 1 kHz) respectively. The larger baseline and larger flux capture area of the pick-up loops in a large area SLG design, fabricated on 30x10mm 2 substrates, resulted in significant improvements in the balance and gradient field sensitivity with 1/1000 and 50fT/cm√Hz (at 1kHz) measured respectively. To reduce the uniform field effective area of SLOs and therefore reduce the direct pick-up of environmental field noise when operated unshielded, a novel gradiometric SQUID (G-SQUID) device was developed. Fabricated from a single layer of YBCO, the G-SQUIDs with inductances of 67pH, had small uniform field effective areas of approximately 2μm 2 - more than two orders of magnitude smaller than the uniform field effective areas of conventional narrow linewidth SQUIDs of similar inductance. Two designs of G-SQUID were fabricated on 10x10mm 2 substrates. Due to their small effective areas, when cooled unshielded these devices showed no increase in their white flux noise. The best balance achieved for a G

  12. The next generation CANDU 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    AECL's product line of CANDU 6 and CANDU 9 nuclear power plants are adapted to respond to changing market conditions, experience feedback and technological development by a continuous improvement process of design evolution. The CANDU 6 Nuclear Power Plant design is a successful family of nuclear units, with the first four units entering service in 1983, and the most recent entering service this year. A further four CANDU 6 units are under construction. Starting in 1996, a focused forward-looking development program is under way at AECL to incorporate a series of individual improvements and integrate them into the CANDU 6, leading to the evolutionary development of the next-generation enhanced CANDU 6. The CANDU 6 improvements program includes all aspects of an NPP project, including engineering tools improvements, design for improved constructability, scheduling for faster, more streamlined commissioning, and improved operating performance. This enhanced CANDU 6 product will combine the benefits of design provenness (drawing on the more than 70 reactor-years experience of the seven operating CANDU 6 units), with the advantages of an evolutionary next-generation design. Features of the enhanced CANDU 6 design include: Advanced Human Machine Interface - built around the Advanced CANDU Control Centre; Advanced fuel design - using the newly demonstrated CANFLEX fuel bundle; Improved Efficiency based on improved utilization of waste heat; Streamlined System Design - including simplifications to improve performance and safety system reliability; Advanced Engineering Tools, -- featuring linked electronic databases from 3D CADDS, equipment specification and material management; Advanced Construction Techniques - based on open top equipment installation and the use of small skid mounted modules; Options defined for Passive Heat Sink capability and low-enrichment core optimization. (author)

  13. Nuclear fusion: power for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The basis of fusion reactions is outlined, with special reference to deuterium and tritium (from lithium, by neutron reaction) as reactants, and the state of research worldwide is indicated. The problems inherent in fusion reactions are discussed, plasma is defined, and the steps to be taken to generate electricity from controlled nuclear fusion are stated. Methods of plasma heating and plasma confinement are considered, leading to a description of the tokamak plasma confinement system. Devices under construction include the JET (Joint European Torus) Undertaking in the UK. Plans and possibilities for fusion reactors are discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Linear coupling dependence on intensity and a next step towards a feedback (MD1850)

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Gasior, Marek; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Olexa, Jakub; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Valuch, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Transverse coupling has proven to be an important variable to control beam dynamics and performance in the LHC. In this report, we present the first measurement of transverse coupling vs beam intensity. The analysis shows no dependency within the experimental uncertainties. This study was made possible with the new implementation of an AC-dipole-like excitation using the ADT. It provides the functionality to excite a single bunch in a train. The demonstration of this functionality is also an important step towards creating an automatic coupling correction tool for the LHC. Transverse coupling has been observed to vary with time at injection. In this report, a quantitative measurement of the coupling as a function of time after ramp-down is presented. Turn-by-turn data was also acquired to compare the performance of the new DOROS system to the standard BPMs.

  15. Report on achievement in developing an ultra low loss power element technology. Survey on practical application of the next generation power semiconductor devices; 1998 nendo choteisonshitsu denryoku soshi gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Jisedai power handotai device jitsuyoka chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Trends were surveyed for development of an ultra low loss power element. Performance improvement has been progressed on power semiconductor elements by using Si as the raw material, but loss reduction has come close to the physical limit. SiC is expected of possibility to go beyond this limit. SiC is so very excellent that its band gap is two to three times greater, insulation breakdown electric field is 7.5 times higher, temperature to become a true semiconductor is three to four times higher than those of Si. The wide gap can reduce high temperature leaking current in p-n junctions, and the increased authenticity temperature can increase the upper limit for operation temperature. The insulation breakdown strength being higher by one digit can reduce the drift layer thickness, and is expected to dramatically reduce the loss. The problem is that high quality crystals have not been obtained to date. One of the promising application fields is electric vehicle. The device currently using the power element in the largest scale is used in frequency converting stations to link the 50-Hz power network in the eastern part of Japan to the 60-Hz network in the western part of Japan. Surveys were carried out on the Sakuma frequency converting station and the New Shinano substation. (NEDO)

  16. Asking how as a next step in avoiding dualistic perspectives on occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard; Josephsson, Staffan

    2017-01-01

    In their article “Filling in the gaps: A case for enhancing Madsen and Josephsson’s assertions about occupation, situation, and inquiry”, Aldrich and Cutchin (2017) responded to our article “Engagement in occupation as an inquiring process: Exploring the situatedness of occupation” with the ambit......In their article “Filling in the gaps: A case for enhancing Madsen and Josephsson’s assertions about occupation, situation, and inquiry”, Aldrich and Cutchin (2017) responded to our article “Engagement in occupation as an inquiring process: Exploring the situatedness of occupation......” with the ambition to enhance our assertions on occupation. In this reply, we argue that their text does not address the main arguments of our article. We further argue that their response confirms that further steps in exploring the situatedness of occupation by asking how situation and occupation are related...

  17. Shear-Wave Splitting in a Critical Crust: the Next Step Biréfringence des ondes transversales dans les croûtes critiques : la prochaine étape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crampin S.

    2006-12-01

    -organized criticality. The next step is to employ these techniques to model, monitor, and predict the effects of changing conditions on the deformation of the rockmass. On pourrait avancer que l'anisotropie dans la biréfringence des ondes transversales n'a pas répondu à ses promesses initiales, à savoir ouvrir une nouvelle voie dans la compréhension des phénomènes de fissures et de contraintes dans la croûte terrestre. Dans cet article sont présentés deux développements révélés récemment, qui paraissent raviver ces premiers espoirs et apportent des opportunités nouvelles pour le contrôle, la modélisation et même la prévision des déformations (avant fracture dans les roches microfracturées et saturées de fluides. Ainsi, un modèle de poroélasticité (APE développé récemment concerne l'évolution sous contraintes des roches microfracturées et saturées en fluide et reproduit une large gamme de phénomènes, qui seraient autrement inexpliqués ou dissociés, et semble être une bonne approximation au premier ordre de l'évolution des roches microfracturées et saturées en fluide. Puisque les paramètres qui contrôlent à petite échelle la déformation (avant fracture contrôlent aussi la biréfringence des ondes transversales, il apparaît que l'évolution des roches microfracturées et saturées peut être aussi directement contrôlée par cette biréfringence et que la réponse à des changements futurs peut être prédite par l'APE. Le bon usage de la modélisation de l'APE et des observations de la biréfringence des ondes transversales implique que la plupart des roches soient proches d'un stade de fracturation critique associé à une percolation limite, situation où la résistance aux contraintes transversales disparaît et où les fractures transversales peuvent se propager. Ceci corrobore une autre hypothèse concernant la mise en situation critique spontanée des roches in situ. La conséquence de cette identification est que la physique à petite

  18. Measuring perceptions related to e-cigarettes: Important principles and next steps to enhance study validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Laura A; Creamer, MeLisa R; Breland, Alison B; Giachello, Aida Luz; Kaufman, Annette; Kong, Grace; Pechacek, Terry F; Pepper, Jessica K; Soule, Eric K; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2018-04-01

    Measuring perceptions associated with e-cigarette use can provide valuable information to help explain why youth and adults initiate and continue to use e-cigarettes. However, given the complexity of e-cigarette devices and their continuing evolution, measures of perceptions of this product have varied greatly. Our goal, as members of the working group on e-cigarette measurement within the Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) network, is to provide guidance to researchers developing surveys concerning e-cigarette perceptions. We surveyed the 14 TCORS sites and received and reviewed 371 e-cigarette perception items from seven sites. We categorized the items based on types of perceptions asked, and identified measurement approaches that could enhance data validity and approaches that researchers may consider avoiding. The committee provides suggestions in four areas: (1) perceptions of benefits, (2) harm perceptions, (3) addiction perceptions, and (4) perceptions of social norms. Across these 4 areas, the most appropriate way to assess e-cigarette perceptions depends largely on study aims. The type and number of items used to examine e-cigarette perceptions will also vary depending on respondents' e-cigarette experience (i.e., user vs. non-user), level of experience (e.g., experimental vs. established), type of e-cigarette device (e.g., cig-a-like, mod), and age. Continuous formative work is critical to adequately capture perceptions in response to the rapidly changing e-cigarette landscape. Most important, it is imperative to consider the unique perceptual aspects of e-cigarettes, building on the conventional cigarette literature as appropriate, but not relying on existing conventional cigarette perception items without adjustment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Engaging Students: The Next Level of Working on the Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    In Phillip Schlechty's best-selling book "Working on the Work", he outlined a motivational framework for improving student performance by improving the quality of schools designed for students. "Engaging Students" offers a next-step resource in which Schlechty incorporates what he's learned from the field and from the hundreds of workshops he and…

  20. The Next Generation Science Standards: The Features and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in January of 2010, the Carnegie Corporation of New York funded a two-step process to develop a new set of state developed science standards intended to prepare students for college and career readiness in science. These new internationally benchmarked science standards, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were completed in…

  1. Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y. [eds.

    1996-12-01

    This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage.

  2. Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage

  3. Galvanizing action: conclusions and next steps for mainstreaming zinc interventions in public health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth H; Baker, Shawn K

    2009-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the foregoing reviews of the impact of different intervention strategies designed to enhance zinc nutrition, including supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification or modification. Current evidence indicates a beneficial impact of such interventions on zinc status and zinc-related functional outcomes. Preventive zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory tract infection among young children, decreases mortality of children over 12 months of age, and increases growth velocity. Therapeutic zinc supplementation during episodes of diarrhea reduces the duration and severity of illness. Zinc fortification increases zinc intake and total absorbed zinc, and recent studies are beginning to confirm a positive impact of zinc fortification on indicators of population zinc status. To assist with the development of zinc intervention programs, more information is needed on the prevalence of zinc deficiency in different countries, and rigorous evaluations of the effectiveness of large-scale zinc intervention programs should be planned. Recommended steps for scaling up zinc intervention programs, with or without other micronutrients, are described. In summary, there is now clear evidence of the benefit of selected interventions to reduce the risk of zinc deficiency, and a global commitment is urgently needed to conduct systematic assessments of population zinc status and to develop interventions to control zinc deficiency in the context of existing public health and nutrition programs.

  4. Incentivising innovation in antibiotic drug discovery and development: progress, challenges and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkin, Victoria L; Renwick, Matthew J; Kelly, Ruth; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-12-01

    Political momentum and funding for combatting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) continues to build. Numerous major international and national initiatives aimed at financially incentivising the research and development (R&D) of antibiotics have been implemented. However, it remains unclear how to effectively strengthen the current set of incentive programmes to further accelerate antibiotic innovation. Based on a literature review and expert input, this study first identifies and assesses the major international, European Union, US and UK antibiotic R&D funding programmes. These programmes are then evaluated across market and public health criteria necessary for comprehensively improving the antibiotic market. The current set of incentive programmes are an important initial step to improving the economic feasibility of antibiotic development. However, there appears to be a lack of global coordination across all initiatives, which risks duplicating efforts, leaving funding gaps in the value chain and overlooking important AMR goals. This study finds that incentive programmes are overly committed to early-stage push funding of basic science and preclinical research, while there is limited late-stage push funding of clinical development. Moreover, there are almost no pull incentives to facilitate transition of antibiotic products from early clinical phases to commercialisation, focus developer concentration on the highest priority antibiotics and attract large pharmaceutical companies to invest in the market. Finally, it seems that antibiotic sustainability and patient access requirements are poorly integrated into the array of incentive mechanisms.

  5. Mechanistic evaluation of the pros and cons of digital RT-LAMP for HIV-1 viral load quantification on a microfluidic device and improved efficiency via a two-step digital protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Shen, Feng; McCalla, Stephanie E; Kreutz, Jason E; Karymov, Mikhail A; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2013-02-05

    Here we used a SlipChip microfluidic device to evaluate the performance of digital reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (dRT-LAMP) for quantification of HIV viral RNA. Tests are needed for monitoring HIV viral load to control the emergence of drug resistance and to diagnose acute HIV infections. In resource-limited settings, in vitro measurement of HIV viral load in a simple format is especially needed, and single-molecule counting using a digital format could provide a potential solution. We showed here that when one-step dRT-LAMP is used for quantification of HIV RNA, the digital count is lower than expected and is limited by the yield of desired cDNA. We were able to overcome the limitations by developing a microfluidic protocol to manipulate many single molecules in parallel through a two-step digital process. In the first step we compartmentalize the individual RNA molecules (based on Poisson statistics) and perform reverse transcription on each RNA molecule independently to produce DNA. In the second step, we perform the LAMP amplification on all individual DNA molecules in parallel. Using this new protocol, we increased the absolute efficiency (the ratio between the concentration calculated from the actual count and the expected concentration) of dRT-LAMP 10-fold, from ∼2% to ∼23%, by (i) using a more efficient reverse transcriptase, (ii) introducing RNase H to break up the DNA:RNA hybrid, and (iii) adding only the BIP primer during the RT step. We also used this two-step method to quantify HIV RNA purified from four patient samples and found that in some cases, the quantification results were highly sensitive to the sequence of the patient's HIV RNA. We learned the following three lessons from this work: (i) digital amplification technologies, including dLAMP and dPCR, may give adequate dilution curves and yet have low efficiency, thereby providing quantification values that underestimate the true concentration. Careful

  6. The NIST Step Class Library (Step Into the Future)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Figure 6. Excerpt from a STEP exclange file based on the Geometry model 1be NIST STEP Class Libary Page 13 An issue of concern in this...Scheifler, R., Gettys, J., and Newman, P., X Window System: C Library and Protocol Reference. Digital Press, Bedford, Mass, 1988. [Schenck90] Schenck, D

  7. ICARUS Mission, Next Step of Coronal Exploration after Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoselskikh, V.; Tsurutani, B.; Velli, M.; Maksimovic, M.; Balikhin, M. A.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Kretzschmar, M.

    2017-12-01

    The primary scientific goal of ICARUS, a mother-daughter satellite mission, will be to determine how the magnetic field and plasma dynamics in the outer solar atmosphere give rise to the corona, the solar wind and the heliosphere. Reaching this goal will be a Rosetta-stone step, with results broadly applicable in the fields of space plasma and astrophysics. Within ESA's Cosmic Vision roadmap, these goals address Theme 2: How does the solar system work ?" Investigating basic processes occurring from the Sun to the edge of the Solar System". ICARUS will not only advance our understanding of the plasma environment around the Sun, but also of the numerous magnetically active stars with hot plasma coronae. ICARUS I will perform the firstever direct in situ measurements of electromagnetic fields, particle acceleration, wave activity, energy distribution and flows directly in the regions where the solar wind emerges from the coronal plasma. ICARUS I will have a perihelion at 1 Solar radius from its surface, it will cross the region where the major energy deposition occurs. The polar orbit of ICARUS I will enable crossing the regions where both the fast and slow wind are generated. It will probe local characteristics of the plasma and provide unique information about the processes involved in the creation of the solar wind. ICARUS II will observe this region using remote-sensing instruments, providing simultaneous information about regions crossed by ICARUS I and the solar atmosphere below as observed by solar telescopes. It will provide bridges for understanding the magnetic links between heliosphere and solar atmosphere. Such information is crucial to understanding of the physics and electrodynamics of the solar atmosphere. ICARUS II will also play an important relay role, enabling the radio-link with ICARUS I. It will receive, collect and store information transmitted from ICARUS I during its closest approach to the Sun. It will perform preliminary data processing and

  8. Alignment of Short Reads: A Crucial Step for Application of Next-Generation Sequencing Data in Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Precision medicine or personalized medicine has been proposed as a modernized and promising medical strategy. Genetic variants of patients are the key information for implementation of precision medicine. Next-generation sequencing (NGS is an emerging technology for deciphering genetic variants. Alignment of raw reads to a reference genome is one of the key steps in NGS data analysis. Many algorithms have been developed for alignment of short read sequences since 2008. Users have to make a decision on which alignment algorithm to use in their studies. Selection of the right alignment algorithm determines not only the alignment algorithm but also the set of suitable parameters to be used by the algorithm. Understanding these algorithms helps in selecting the appropriate alignment algorithm for different applications in precision medicine. Here, we review current available algorithms and their major strategies such as seed-and-extend and q-gram filter. We also discuss the challenges in current alignment algorithms, including alignment in multiple repeated regions, long reads alignment and alignment facilitated with known genetic variants.

  9. The next generation safeguards initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobey, William

    2008-01-01

    NGSI or the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is designed to revitalize the U.S. safeguards technical base, as well as invest in human resources, and to mobilize our primary asset - the U.S. National Laboratories - as well as industry and academia to restore capabilities. While NGSI is a U.S. effort it is intended to serve as a catalyst for a much broader commitment to international safeguards in partnership with the IAEA and other countries. Initiatives over the last years include such as the Proliferation Security Initiative, UN Security Council Resolution 1540, the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism, and initiatives of the G-8 and NSG to discourage the spread of enrichment and reprocessing. NGSI augments this agenda by providing a means to strengthen the technical and political underpinnings of IAEA safeguards. Priorities and envisioned activities under NGSI are the following. (1) Cooperation with IAEA and others to promote universal adoption of safeguards agreements and the Additional Protocol including greater information sharing between member states and the IAEA, investigation of weaponization and procurement activities, and options to strengthen the state-level approach to safeguards. (2) NGSI anticipates the deployment of new types of reactors and fuel cycle facilities, as well as the need to use limited safeguards resources effectively and efficiently, especially in plants that pose the largest burden specifically complex, bulk-handling facilities. (3) NGSI will encourage a generational improvement in current safeguards technologies including improvement of precision and speed of nuclear measurements, performance of real-time process monitoring and surveillance in unattended mode, enabling in-field, pre-screening and analysis of nuclear and environmental samples, and collection, integration, analysis and archiving safeguards-relevant information from all available sources.(4) NGSI will address human capital management. Training and

  10. Trainer variability during step training after spinal cord injury: Implications for robotic gait-training device design

    OpenAIRE

    Jose A. Galvez, PhD; Amy Budovitch, PT; Susan J. Harkema, PhD; David J. Reinkensmeyer, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Robotic devices are being developed to automate repetitive aspects of walking retraining after neurological injuries, in part because they might improve the consistency and quality of training. However, it is unclear how inconsistent manual training actually is or whether stepping quality depends strongly on the trainers' manual skill. The objective of this study was to quantify trainer variability of manual skill during step training using body-weight support on a treadmill and assess factor...

  11. Status of the apeNEXT project

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, R.; Boucaud, Philippe; Cabibbo, N.; Di Carlo, F.; De Pietri, R.; Di Renzo, F.; Errico, W.; Fucci, A.; Guagnelli, M.; Kaldass, H.; Lonardo, A.; de Luca, S.; Micheli, J.; Morenas, V.; Pene, O.; Petronzio, R.; Palombi, F.; Pleiter, D.; Paschedag, N.; Rapuano, F.; De Riso, P.; Rossetti, D.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Sartori, L.; Schifano, F.; Simma, H.; Tripiccione, R.; Vicini, P.; Boucaud, Ph.; 10.1016/S0920-5632(03)01755-9

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of the apeNEXT project. Aim of this project is the development of the next generation of APE machines which will provide multi-teraflop computing power. Like previous machines, apeNEXT is based on a custom designed processor, which is specifically optimized for simulating QCD. We discuss the machine design, report on benchmarks, and give an overview on the status of the software development.

  12. Effects of walking speed on the step-by-step control of step width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Katy H; Heitkamp, Lauren N; Horne, Joscelyn S; Dean, Jesse C

    2018-02-08

    Young, healthy adults walking at typical preferred speeds use step-by-step adjustments of step width to appropriately redirect their center of mass motion and ensure mediolateral stability. However, it is presently unclear whether this control strategy is retained when walking at the slower speeds preferred by many clinical populations. We investigated whether the typical stabilization strategy is influenced by walking speed. Twelve young, neurologically intact participants walked on a treadmill at a range of prescribed speeds (0.2-1.2 m/s). The mediolateral stabilization strategy was quantified as the proportion of step width variance predicted by the mechanical state of the pelvis throughout a step (calculated as R 2 magnitude from a multiple linear regression). Our ability to accurately predict the upcoming step width increased over the course of a step. The strength of the relationship between step width and pelvis mechanics at the start of a step was reduced at slower speeds. However, these speed-dependent differences largely disappeared by the end of a step, other than at the slowest walking speed (0.2 m/s). These results suggest that mechanics-dependent adjustments in step width are a consistent component of healthy gait across speeds and contexts. However, slower walking speeds may ease this control by allowing mediolateral repositioning of the swing leg to occur later in a step, thus encouraging slower walking among clinical populations with limited sensorimotor control. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. On the Convexity of Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    The main result of this paper is the convexity of Step out - Step in (SoSi) sequencing games, a class of relaxed sequencing games first analyzed by Musegaas, Borm, and Quant (2015). The proof makes use of a polynomial time algorithm determining the value and an optimal processing order for an

  14. The bounded proof property via step algebras and step frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    We develop a semantic criterion for a specific rule-based calculus Ax axiomatizing a given logic L to have the so-called bounded proof property. This property is a kind of an analytic subformula property limiting the proof search space. Our main tools are one-step frames and one-step algebras. These

  15. Development of fluidic device in SIT for Korean Next Generation Reactor I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hyun; Lee, Joon; Bae, Yoon Young; Park, Jong Kyun

    1999-07-01

    The KNGR is to install a Fluidic Device at the bottom of the inner space of the SIT (Safety Injection Tank) to control the flow rate of safety injection coolant from SIT during LBLOCA. During the past two years, a scale model test to obtain the required flow characteristics of the device under the KNGR specific conditions has been performed using the experience and existing facility of AEA Technology (UK) with appropriate modifications. The performance verification test is to be performed this year to obtain optimum characteristics and design data of full size fluidic device. The purpose of the model test was to check the feasibility of developing the device and to produce a generic flow characteristic data. The test was performed in approximately 1/7 scale in terms of flow rate with full height and pressure. This report presents the details of system performance requirements for the device, design procedure for the fluidic device to be used, test facility and test method. The time dependent flow, pressure and Euler number are presented as characteristics curves and the most stable and the most effective flow control characteristic parameters were recommended through the evaluation. A method to predict the size of the fluidic device is presented. And a sizing algorithm, which can be used to conveniently determine the major geometric data of the device for various operating conditions, and a FORTRAN program to produce the prediction of performance curves have been developed. (author). 32 refs., 15 tabs., 47 figs

  16. Cell motility regulation on a stepped micro pillar array device (SMPAD) with a discrete stiffness gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sujin; Hong, Juhee; Lee, Junghoon

    2016-02-28

    Our tissues consist of individual cells that respond to the elasticity of their environment, which varies between and within tissues. To better understand mechanically driven cell migration, it is necessary to manipulate the stiffness gradient across a substrate. Here, we have demonstrated a new variant of the microfabricated polymeric pillar array platform that can decouple the stiffness gradient from the ECM protein area. This goal is achieved via a "stepped" micro pillar array device (SMPAD) in which the contact area with the cell was kept constant while the diameter of the pillar bodies was altered to attain the proper mechanical stiffness. Using double-step SU-8 mold fabrication, the diameter of the top of every pillar was kept uniform, whereas that of the bottom was changed, to achieve the desired substrate rigidity. Fibronectin was immobilized on the pillar tops, providing a focal adhesion site for cells. C2C12, HeLa and NIH3T3 cells were cultured on the SMPAD, and the motion of the cells was observed by time-lapse microscopy. Using this simple platform, which produces a purely physical stimulus, we observed that various types of cell behavior are affected by the mechanical stimulus of the environment. We also demonstrated directed cell migration guided by a discrete rigidity gradient by varying stiffness. Interestingly, cell velocity was highest at the highest stiffness. Our approach enables the regulation of the mechanical properties of the polymeric pillar array device and eliminates the effects of the size of the contact area. This technique is a unique tool for studying cellular motion and behavior relative to various stiffness gradients in the environment.

  17. WEARABLE ELECTRONICS IN THE NEXT YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRINIOTAKIS George

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘Wearable Technologies’, ‘Wearable Electronics’, or ‘Smart Garments’, is associated to those clothing and soft or hard accessories which integrate electronic components, or which are made of smart textiles. Smart textiles research represents a new model for generating creative and novel solutions for integrating electronics into unusual environments and will result in new discoveries that push the boundaries of science forward. Last few years there are several hundreds or maybe thousands of research teams that works and develop such materials and products. But the key driver of the success of the wearable electronics is the acceptance from the end user. It is estimates that only for the next three years the sales in the wearable will be almost multiply by ten times. The flexible wearable computer industry's patent applications arrived at 429 in the second quarter of 2014, up 27.7% year on year, and witnessed a record high in the report's tracking period starting from the first quarter of 2012. The market has already in the shelf commercial products as wristbands (Fitness/well-being/sports devices, smart jewels, smart watches, mobile health devices, tech clothing, and augmented reality glasses. The recently developed enabling technologies eliminates the barriers and help the scientists and developers to launch new types of "wearable". The life style of a large share of population, the low cost of 3D printing for rapid prototyping locally, the large available platforms, the lower cost of sensors and components give a an impetus for large scale of products. In the same time the direct ordering channels to manufacturers of components facilitates the small producers and the scientists for prototype development. In this article we identify key challenges for the success of the wearable and we provide an outlook over the field and a prediction for the near future.

  18. The primary steps of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, G.R.; Van Grondelle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The two important initial steps of photosynthesis-electron transfer and energy transfer occur with great speed and efficiency. New techniques in laser optics and genetic engineering age helping us to understand why. (author). 24 refs. 8 figs

  19. Pressure redistribution devices: what works, at what cost and what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the development and usage of pressure redistribution devices (PRDs) and their impact on the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers within the NHS. The article outlines the history of the development of these devices and discusses the reasons for a lack of substantial evidence in support of the use of these devices, their impact on the NHS on cost and perceived outcome. The article describes the typical usage profile in a 500 bed NHS hospital and concludes with a view as to how that may change in the future. Copyright © 2013 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Data Base Directions; the Next Steps. Proceedings of the Workshop of the National Bureau of Standards and the Association for Computing Machinery (Fort Lauderdale, Florida, October 29-31, 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, John L., Ed.

    To investigate the information needs of managers making decisions regarding the use of data base technology, the National Bureau of Standards and the Association for Computing Machinery held a workshop with approximately 80 experts in five major areas: auditing, evolving technology, government regulation, standards, and user experience. Results of…

  1. Bio-Inspired Photon Absorption and Energy Transfer for Next Generation Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsi, Komal

    Nature's solar energy harvesting system, photosynthesis, serves as a model for photon absorption, spectra broadening, and energy transfer. Photosynthesis harvests light far differently than photovoltaic cells. These differences offer both engineering opportunity and scientific challenges since not all of the natural photon absorption mechanisms have been understood. In return, solar cells can be a very sensitive probe for the absorption characteristics of molecules capable of transferring charge to a conductive interface. The objective of this scientific work is the advancement of next generation photovoltaics through the development and application of natural photo-energy transfer processes. Two scientific methods were used in the development and application of enhancing photon absorption and transfer. First, a detailed analysis of photovoltaic front surface fluorescent spectral modification and light scattering by hetero-structure was conducted. Phosphor based spectral down-conversion is a well-known laser technology. The theoretical calculations presented here indicate that parasitic losses and light scattering within the spectral range are large enough to offset any expected gains. The second approach for enhancing photon absorption is based on bio-inspired mechanisms. Key to the utilization of these natural processes is the development of a detailed scientific understanding and the application of these processes to cost effective systems and devices. In this work both aspects are investigated. Dye type solar cells were prepared and tested as a function of Chlorophyll (or Sodium-Copper Chlorophyllin) and accessory dyes. Forster has shown that the fluorescence ratio of Chlorophyll is modified and broadened by separate photon absorption (sensitized absorption) through interaction with nearby accessory pigments. This work used the dye type solar cell as a diagnostic tool by which to investigate photon absorption and photon energy transfer. These experiments shed

  2. Intelligent hearing aids: the next revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao Zhang; Mustiere, Fred; Micheyl, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    The first revolution in hearing aids came from nonlinear amplification, which allows better compensation for both soft and loud sounds. The second revolution stemmed from the introduction of digital signal processing, which allows better programmability and more sophisticated algorithms. The third revolution in hearing aids is wireless, which allows seamless connectivity between a pair of hearing aids and with more and more external devices. Each revolution has fundamentally transformed hearing aids and pushed the entire industry forward significantly. Machine learning has received significant attention in recent years and has been applied in many other industries, e.g., robotics, speech recognition, genetics, and crowdsourcing. We argue that the next revolution in hearing aids is machine intelligence. In fact, this revolution is already quietly happening. We will review the development in at least three major areas: applications of machine learning in speech enhancement; applications of machine learning in individualization and customization of signal processing algorithms; applications of machine learning in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical tests. With the advent of the internet of things, the above developments will accelerate. This revolution will bring patient satisfactions to a new level that has never been seen before.

  3. Strategies for the next fifty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a professional, global and unrestricted overview of the nuclear energy development and using, and the worldwide related research. The document also presents the strategies for the next half-century

  4. Cuba: The Next Unanticipated Anticipated Strategic Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorrell, Tim

    2005-01-01

    ...; and the current Bush administration with the global war on terrorism (GWOT). Cuba, specifically post-Castro Cuba, could very well trigger the next unanticipated crisis even though the writing is on the...

  5. Nuclear Knowledge to the Next Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazour, Thomas; Kossilov, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    The safe, reliable, and cost-effective operation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) requires that personnel possess and maintain the requisite knowledge, skills, and attitudes to do their jobs properly. Such knowledge includes not only the technical competencies required by the nature of the technology and particular engineering designs, but also the softer competencies associated with effective management, communication and teamwork. Recent studies have shown that there has been a loss of corporate knowledge and memory. Both explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge must be passed on to the next generation of workers in the industry to ensure a quality workforce. New and different techniques may be required to ensure timely and effective knowledge retention and transfer. The IAEA prepared a report on this subject. The main conclusions from the report regarding strategies for managing the aging workforce are included. Also included are main conclusions from the report regarding the capture an d preservation of mission critical knowledge, and the effective transfer of this knowledge to the next generation of NPP personnel. The nuclear industry due to its need for well-documented procedures, specifications, design basis, safety analyses, etc., has a greater fraction of its mission critical knowledge as explicit knowledge than do many other industries. This facilitates the task of knowledge transfer. For older plants in particular, there may be a need for additional efforts to transfer tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge to support major strategic initiatives such as plant license extensions/renewals, periodic safety reviews, major plant upgrades, and plant specific control room simulator development. The challenge in disseminating explicit knowledge is to make employees aware that it is available and provide easy access in formats and forms that are usable. Tacit knowledge is more difficult to identify and disseminate. The challenge is to identify what can be converted to

  6. 20180312 - US EPA-Unilever Collaborative Partnership: Accomplishments and Next Steps (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterating the goals of the partnership, this summarizes the accomplishments and progress made so far in the collaboration, and announces a two phase extension focused on further development of high-throughput transcriptomic platform

  7. 75 FR 77896 - Notice of Availability: Tamiami Trail Modifications: Next Steps Project, Final Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... restoring habitat within the Park and the ecological connectivity between the Park and the Water... alternative would create 2.2 miles of ecological connectivity and better distribute flows in the western area... of ecological connectivity and moderately reduce the adverse effects of high velocity discharges...

  8. IAEA and EU Review Progress on Cooperation, Agree on Next Steps at Annual Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Union (EU) reviewed progress achieved in working together on a range of nuclear activities and agreed to further enhance cooperation during their sixth annual Senior Officials Meeting in Vienna. The talks on 8 February at the IAEA’s headquarters provided a forum for exchanging views on strengthening collaboration on nuclear safety, security, safeguards, sustainable development, nuclear energy research and increasing innovation. The two organizations welcomed the fruitful cooperation and progress achieved over the past years. They agreed to deepen cooperation in several areas, particularly in the promotion of nuclear applications for sustainable development.

  9. NDT in Canada - the next 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittmer, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The theme for the Fifth Canadian Conference on Nondestructive Testing was 'NDT in Canada - The Next 20 years'. The three day conference with 42 presentations provided a short overview of NDT in Canada, a look at NDT in pipeline, materials, offshore, nuclear and training applications, and a glimpse into the next 20 years with recent advances in research and development as related to this 'hi-tech' field of work

  10. Developing School Heads as Instructional Leaders in School-Based Assessment: Challenges and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingam, Govinda Ishwar; Lingam, Narsamma

    2016-01-01

    The study explored challenges faced by school leaders in the Pacific nation of Solomon Islands in school-based assessment, and the adequacy of an assessment course to prepare them. A questionnaire including both open and closed-ended questions elicited relevant data from the school leaders. Modelling best practices in school-based assessment was…

  11. Usability of an internet‐based platform (Next.Step for adolescent weight management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sousa

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of information and communication technologies in the health information access and the healthcare provision. Despite the limited adherence rate, platform users expressed a positive overall perception of its usability and presented a positive anthropometric and behavioral progress.

  12. Physical Configuration of the Next Generation Home Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Shohei; Kakishima, Yu; Hanawa, Dai; Oguchi, Kimio

    The number of broadband users is rapidly increasing worldwide. Japan already has over 10 million FTTH users. Another trend is the rapid digitalization of home electrical equipment e. g. digital cameras and hard disc recorders. These trends will encourage the emergence of the next generation home network. In this paper, we introduce the next generation home network image and describe the five domains into which home devices can be classified. We then clarify the optimum medium with which to configure the network given the requirements imposed by the home environment. Wiring cable lengths for three network topologies are calculated. The results gained from the next generation home network implemented on the first phase testbed are shown. Finally, our conclusions are given.

  13. Perspectives on Next Steps in Classification of Orofacial Pain – Part 2: Role of psychosocial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Justin; Raphael, Karen G.; Benoliel, Rafael; Ceusters, Werner; Michelotti, Ambra; Ohrbach, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper was initiated by a symposium, in which the present authors contributed, organised by the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network in March 2013. The purpose of the paper is to review the status of biobehavioural research – both quantitative and qualitative – related to orofacial pain with respect to the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of orofacial pain conditions, and how this information can optimally be used for developing a structured orofacial pain classification system for research. In particular, we address: representation of psychosocial entities in classification systems, use of qualitative research to identify and understand the full scope of psychosocial entities and their interaction, and the usage of classification system for guiding treatment. We then provide recommendations for addressing these problems, including how ontological principles can inform this process. PMID:26257252

  14. Improving a 1 meter telescope in order to follow giant planets in a pro-am collaboration. Next step : an affordable adaptive optic system.=

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvergne, J.-L.; Colas, F.; Delcroix, M.; Lecacheux, J.

    2017-09-01

    We already have very good result with the 1 meter telescope of Pic du Midi. Our goal is to have more and more people in the team in order to make a survey has long as possible of Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune. The next step is an OA system, we want to make it work on the 1 meter telescope and also make it available on the market to help other observatories to produce high resolution images of the solar system with middle size telescopes.

  15. Knowledge Based Artificial Augmentation Intelligence Technology: Next Step in Academic Instructional Tools for Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Dale; LaPierre, Martin; Kebritchi, Mansureh

    2017-01-01

    With augmented intelligence/knowledge based system (KBS) it is now possible to develop distance learning applications to support both curriculum and administrative tasks. Instructional designers and information technology (IT) professionals are now moving from the programmable systems era that started in the 1950s to the cognitive computing era.…

  16. Beyond Backpacks and Bus Tokens: Next Steps for a District Homeless Student Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Ronald E.; Low, Justin A.; Skrla, Linda

    2015-01-01

    How policies get translated and enacted by school districts frame how students experience reforms associated with federal law. This qualitative case study of a Northern California school district explores the importance of integrating homeless student initiatives within all aspects of the district functioning. Drawing from the equity framework of…

  17. Health Information Technology: Meaningful Use and Next Steps to Improving Electronic Facilitation of Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Hayden B; Zullig, Leah L; Mendys, Phil; Ho, Michael; Trygstad, Troy; Granger, Christopher; Oakes, Megan M; Granger, Bradi B

    2016-03-15

    The use of health information technology (HIT) may improve medication adherence, but challenges for implementation remain. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of HIT as it relates to medication adherence programs, acknowledge the potential barriers in light of current legislation, and provide recommendations to improve ongoing medication adherence strategies through the use of HIT. We describe four potential HIT barriers that may impact interoperability and subsequent medication adherence. Legislation in the United States has incentivized the use of HIT to facilitate and enhance medication adherence. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) was recently adopted and establishes federal standards for the so-called "meaningful use" of certified electronic health record (EHR) technology that can directly impact medication adherence. The four persistent HIT barriers to medication adherence include (1) underdevelopment of data reciprocity across clinical, community, and home settings, limiting the capture of data necessary for clinical care; (2) inconsistent data definitions and lack of harmonization of patient-focused data standards, making existing data difficult to use for patient-centered outcomes research; (3) inability to effectively use the national drug code information from the various electronic health record and claims datasets for adherence purposes; and (4) lack of data capture for medication management interventions, such as medication management therapy (MTM) in the EHR. Potential recommendations to address these issues are discussed. To make meaningful, high quality data accessible, and subsequently improve medication adherence, these challenges will need to be addressed to fully reach the potential of HIT in impacting one of our largest public health issues.

  18. Creating a Pilot Educational Psychiatry Website: Opportunities, Barriers, and Next Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; O'Connor, Ryan; Franzen, Jamie; Snow, Caitlin; Boland, Robert; Kitts, Robert

    2015-11-05

    While medical students and residents may be utilizing websites as online learning resources, medical trainees and educators now have the opportunity to create such educational websites and digital tools on their own. However, the process and theory of building educational websites for medical education have not yet been fully explored. To understand the opportunities, barriers, and process of creating a novel medical educational website. We created a pilot psychiatric educational website to better understand the options, opportunities, challenges, and processes involved in the creation of a psychiatric educational website. We sought to integrate visual and interactive Web design elements to underscore the potential of such Web technology. A pilot website (PsychOnCall) was created to demonstrate the potential of Web technology in medical and psychiatric education. Creating an educational website is now technically easier than ever before, and the primary challenge no longer is technology but rather the creation, validation, and maintenance of information for such websites as well as translating text-based didactics into visual and interactive tools. Medical educators can influence the design and implementation of online educational resources through creating their own websites and engaging medical students and residents in the process.

  19. A step to diagnosis of sleep apnea with next generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdha Pattanaik

    2017-12-01

    Aberrant respiratory control mechanisms have been implicated in dentofacial deformities, such as long face syndrome or adenoid facies. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a potentially life-threatening condition in which the patient suffers periodic cessation of breathing during sleep and is the most important etiological factor in the long face syndrome. The symptoms include loud snoring, irregular breathing patterns and restless movements during sleep which impairs the quality of life. The aim of this study is to determine the genetic association of obstructive sleep apnea associated genes (ACE, TNF-α, IL-6, 5-HTR2A, 5-HTR2C, 5-HTT, LEPR, PPAR-γ, ADRB, and APOE with specific primers in polymerized chain reaction through an extensive genome search in Odisha population.

  20. Next Steps Toward Understanding Human Habitation of Space: Environmental Impacts and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Entry into low earth orbit and beyond causes profound shifts in environmental conditions that have the potential to influence human productivity, long term health, and even survival. We now have evidence that microgravity, radiation and/or confinement in space can lead to demonstrably detrimental changes in the cardiovascular (e.g. vessel function, orthostatic intolerance), musculoskeletal (muscle atrophy, bone loss) and nervous (eye, neurovestibular) systems of astronauts. Because of both the limited number of astronauts who have flown (especially females) and the high degree of individual variability in the human population, important unanswered questions about responses to the space environment remain: What are the sex differences with respect to specific physiological systems? Are the responses age-dependent and/or reversible after return to Earth? Do observed detrimental changes that resemble accelerated aging progress continuously over time or plateau? What are the mechanisms of the biological responses? Answering these important questions certainly demands a multi-pronged approach, and the study of multicellular model organisms (such as rodents and flies) already has provided opportunities for exploring those questions in some detail. Recent long duration spaceflight experiments with rodents show that mice in space provide a mammalian model that uniquely combines the influence of reduced gravitational loading with increased physical activity. In addition, multiple investigators have shown that ground-based models that simulate aspects of spaceflight (including rodent hind limb unloading to mimic weightlessness and exposure to ionizing radiation), cause various transient and persistent detrimental consequences in multiple physiological systems. In general, we have found that adverse skeletal effects of simulated weightlessness and space radiation when combined, can be quantitatively, if not qualitatively, different from the influence of each environmental

  1. Adaptive Pathways: Possible Next Steps for Payers in Preparation for Their Potential Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Ermisch, Michael; Godman, Brian; Martin, Antony P.; Van Den Bergh, Jesper; Bezmelnitsyna, Liudmila; Bucsics, Anna; Arickx, Francis; Bybau, Alexander; Bochenek, Tomasz; van de Casteele, Marc; Diogene, Eduardo; Eriksson, Irene; Fürst, Jurij; Gad, Mohamed; Greičiūtė-Kuprijanov, Ieva; van der Graaff, Martin; Gulbinovic, Jolanta; Jones, Jan; Joppi, Roberta; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Langner, Irene; Mardare, Ileana; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; Magnusson, Einar; Melien, Oyvind; Meshkov, Dmitry O.; Petrova, Guenka I.; Selke, Gisbert; Sermet, Catherine; Simoens, Steven; Schuurman, Ad; Ramos, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Jorge; Zara, Corinne; Zebedin-Brandl, Eva; Haycox, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Medicines receiving a conditional marketing authorization through Medicines Adaptive Pathways to Patients (MAPPs) will be a challenge for payers. The “introduction” of MAPPs is already seen by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) as a fait accompli, with payers not consulted or involved. However, once medicines are approved through MAPPs, they will be evaluated for funding by payers through different activities. These include Health Technology Assessment (HTA) with often immature clinical data and high uncertainty, financial considerations, and negotiations through different types of agreements, which can require monitoring post launch. Payers have experience with new medicines approved through conditional approval, and the fact that MAPPs present additional challenges is a concern from their perspective. There may be some activities where payers can collaborate. The final decisions on whether to reimburse a new medicine via MAPPs will have more variation than for medicines licensed via conventional processes. This is due not only to increasing uncertainty associated with medicines authorized through MAPPs but also differences in legal frameworks between member states. Moreover, if the financial and side-effect burden from the period of conditional approval until granting full marketing authorization is shifted to the post-authorization phase, payers may have to bear such burdens. Collection of robust data during routine clinical use is challenging along with high prices for new medicines during data collection. This paper presents the concept of MAPPs and possible challenges. Concerns and potential ways forward are discussed and a number of recommendations are presented from the perspective of payers. PMID:28878667

  2. Adaptive Pathways: Possible Next Steps for Payers in Preparation for Their Potential Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Ermisch, Michael; Godman, Brian; Martin, Antony P; Van Den Bergh, Jesper; Bezmelnitsyna, Liudmila; Bucsics, Anna; Arickx, Francis; Bybau, Alexander; Bochenek, Tomasz; van de Casteele, Marc; Diogene, Eduardo; Eriksson, Irene; Fürst, Jurij; Gad, Mohamed; Greičiūtė-Kuprijanov, Ieva; van der Graaff, Martin; Gulbinovic, Jolanta; Jones, Jan; Joppi, Roberta; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; Langner, Irene; Mardare, Ileana; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; Magnusson, Einar; Melien, Oyvind; Meshkov, Dmitry O; Petrova, Guenka I; Selke, Gisbert; Sermet, Catherine; Simoens, Steven; Schuurman, Ad; Ramos, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Jorge; Zara, Corinne; Zebedin-Brandl, Eva; Haycox, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Medicines receiving a conditional marketing authorization through Medicines Adaptive Pathways to Patients (MAPPs) will be a challenge for payers. The "introduction" of MAPPs is already seen by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) as a fait accompli, with payers not consulted or involved. However, once medicines are approved through MAPPs, they will be evaluated for funding by payers through different activities. These include Health Technology Assessment (HTA) with often immature clinical data and high uncertainty, financial considerations, and negotiations through different types of agreements, which can require monitoring post launch. Payers have experience with new medicines approved through conditional approval, and the fact that MAPPs present additional challenges is a concern from their perspective. There may be some activities where payers can collaborate. The final decisions on whether to reimburse a new medicine via MAPPs will have more variation than for medicines licensed via conventional processes. This is due not only to increasing uncertainty associated with medicines authorized through MAPPs but also differences in legal frameworks between member states. Moreover, if the financial and side-effect burden from the period of conditional approval until granting full marketing authorization is shifted to the post-authorization phase, payers may have to bear such burdens. Collection of robust data during routine clinical use is challenging along with high prices for new medicines during data collection. This paper presents the concept of MAPPs and possible challenges. Concerns and potential ways forward are discussed and a number of recommendations are presented from the perspective of payers.

  3. Ethics Programs and Ethical Cultures: A Next Step in Unraveling their Multi-Faceted Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Kaptein (Muel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of an ethics program is to improve the ethical culture of an organization. To date, empirical research treats at least one of these concepts as a one-dimensional construct. This paper demonstrates that by conceptualizing both constructs as multi-dimensional, a better

  4. Getting Competitive: Competitive Intelligence Is a Smart next Step for Information Pros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Cynthia Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Competitive Intelligence (CI) has become an attractive concept for Library and Information Science professionals, as information and research functions have become commoditized by end users, and financial, competitive, and performance pressures increase the need to demonstrate value. In the current competitive and cost-cutting environment,…

  5. Distributed Experiments in Design Sciences, a Next Step in Design Observation Studies?

    CERN Document Server

    Kriesi, Carlo; Aalto-Setala, Laura; Anvik, Anders; Balters, Stephanie; Baracchi, Alessia; Jensen, Bisballe Matilde; Bjorkli, Leif Erik; Buzzaccaro, Nicolo; Cortesi, Dario; D'Onghia, Francesco; Dosi, Clio; Franchini, Giulia; Fuchs, Matt; Gerstenberg, Achim; Hansen, Erik; Hiekkanen, Karri Matias; Hyde, David; Ituarte, Inigo; Kalasniemi, Jani; Kurikka, Joona; Lanza, Irene; Laurila, Anssi; Lee, Tik Ho; Lonvik, Siri; Mansikka-Aho, Anniina; Nordberg, Markus; Oinonen, Paivi; Pedrelli, Luca; Pekuri, Anna; Rane, Enna; Reime, Thov; Repokari, Lauri; Ronningen, Martin; Rowlands, Stephanie; Sjoman, Heikki; Slattsveen, Kristoffer; Strachan, Andy; Stromstad, Kirsti; Suren, Stian; Tapio, Peter; Utriainen, Tuuli; Vignoli, Matteo; Vijaykumar, Saurabh; Welo, Torgeir; Wulvik, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes and proposes a new method for conducting globally distributed design research. Instead of using e.g. a software we tried out a completely analogue approach: Five carefully prepared packages, containing all the necessary materials and instructions for a design challenge, were sent out to supervisors in Norway, Finland, Italy, and Australia. These local supervisors then conducted the egg-drop exercise with students that are part of an international course held at CERN. As the task is conducted according to a previously tested protocol, the results gathered with this new method can then be benchmarked with this available data. This new approach to globally conducted engineering design activities avoids local bias and enables for gathering large amounts of diverse data points. One can also think of a research community where every member can send out one experiment per year and, in return, receives data points from across the world. Based on the feedback from the supervisors we can say that ...

  6. Adaptive Pathways: Possible Next Steps for Payers in Preparation for Their Potential Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vella Bonanno

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Medicines receiving a conditional marketing authorization through Medicines Adaptive Pathways to Patients (MAPPs will be a challenge for payers. The “introduction” of MAPPs is already seen by the European Medicines Agency (EMA as a fait accompli, with payers not consulted or involved. However, once medicines are approved through MAPPs, they will be evaluated for funding by payers through different activities. These include Health Technology Assessment (HTA with often immature clinical data and high uncertainty, financial considerations, and negotiations through different types of agreements, which can require monitoring post launch. Payers have experience with new medicines approved through conditional approval, and the fact that MAPPs present additional challenges is a concern from their perspective. There may be some activities where payers can collaborate. The final decisions on whether to reimburse a new medicine via MAPPs will have more variation than for medicines licensed via conventional processes. This is due not only to increasing uncertainty associated with medicines authorized through MAPPs but also differences in legal frameworks between member states. Moreover, if the financial and side-effect burden from the period of conditional approval until granting full marketing authorization is shifted to the post-authorization phase, payers may have to bear such burdens. Collection of robust data during routine clinical use is challenging along with high prices for new medicines during data collection. This paper presents the concept of MAPPs and possible challenges. Concerns and potential ways forward are discussed and a number of recommendations are presented from the perspective of payers.

  7. Candu technology: the next generation now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.; Duffey, R.B.; Torgerson, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the development philosophy, direction and concepts that are being utilized by AECL to refine the CANDU reactor to meet the needs of current and future competitive energy markets. The technology development path for CANDU reactors is based on the optimization of the pressure tube concept. Because of the inherent modularity and flexibility of this basis for the core design, it is possible to provide a seamless and continuous evolution of the reactor design and performance. There is no need for a drastic shift in concept, in technology or in fuel. By continual refinement of the flow and materials conditions in the channels, the basic reactor can be thermally and operationally efficient, highly competitive and economic, and highly flexible in application. Thus, the design can build on the successful construction and operating experience of the existing plants, and no step changes in development direction are needed. This approach minimizes investor, operator and development risk but still provides technological, safety and performance advances. In today's world energy markets, major drivers for the technology development are: (a) reduced capital cost; (b) improved operation; (c) enhanced safety; and (d) fuel cycle flexibility. The drivers provide specific numerical targets. Meeting these drivers ensures that the concept meets and exceeds the customer economic, performance, safety and resource use goals and requirements, including the suitable national and international standards. This logical development of the CANDU concept leads naturally to the 'Next Generation' of CANDU reactors. The major features under development include an optimized lattice for SEU (slightly enriched uranium) fuel, light water cooling coupled with heavy water moderation, advanced fuel channels and CANFLEX fuel, optimization of plant performance, enhanced thermal and BOP (balance of plant) efficiency, and the adoption of layout and construction technology adapted from successful on

  8. Skill Transfer and Virtual Training for IND Response Decision-Making: Project Summary and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    Lincoln Laboratory MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LEXINGTON, MASSACHUSETTS Technical Report 1209 Skill Transfer and Virtual ...specifically authorized by the U.S. Government may violate any copyrights that exist in this work. Skill Transfer and Virtual Training for IND Response...lns:ull of lmme<lla:e 0 evacua!lon). but many aspects are the same (such as !’laVIng fresh water . knowing evacua:Jon routn. and tlavtng a

  9. Biopsychosocial Aspects of Weight Management in Type 1 Diabetes: a Review and Next Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kimberly A; Corbin, Karen D; Maahs, David M; Pratley, Richard; Bishop, Franziska K; Kahkoska, Anna; Hood, Korey K; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    This review aims to summarize the type 1 diabetes (T1D) and weight literature with an emphasis on barriers associated with weight management, the unique T1D-specific factors that impact weight loss success, maladaptive and adaptive strategies for weight loss, and interventions to promote weight loss. Weight gain is associated with intensive insulin therapy. Overweight and obese weight status in individuals with T1D is higher than the general population and prevalence is rising. A variety of demographic (e.g., female sex), clinical (e.g., greater insulin needs), environmental (e.g., skipping meals), and psychosocial (e.g., depression, stress) factors are associated with overweight/obese weight status in T1D. Fear of hypoglycemia is a significant barrier to engagement in physical activity. Studies evaluating adaptive weight loss strategies in people with T1D are limited. There is a growing literature highlighting the prevalence and seriousness of overweight and obesity among both youth and adults with T1D. There is an urgent need to develop evidence-based weight management guidelines and interventions that address the unique concerns of individuals with T1D and that concurrently address glycemic control.

  10. 75 FR 54403 - U.S. National Climate Assessment Objectives, Proposed Topics, and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    .../assessment/notices . Responses to this notice are not offers and cannot be accepted by the Government to form... cycles (e.g., carbon, nitrogen) (3) Land use change, land cover, and human settlements (e.g., urban...., management of forests to sequester carbon and increase resilience, [[Page 54406

  11. Anticipatory guidance in type 2 diabetes to improve disease management; next steps after basal insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric L; Frias, Juan P; Trujillo, Jennifer M

    2018-03-23

    The alarming rise in the number of people living with type 2 diabetes (T2D) presents primary care physicians with increasing challenges associated with long-term chronic disease care. Studies have shown that the majority of patients are not achieving or maintaining glycemic goals, putting them at risk of a wide range of diabetes-related complications. Disease- and self-management programs have been shown to help patients improve their glycemic control, and are likely to be of particular benefit for patients with diabetes dealing with these issues. Anticipatory guidance is an individualized, proactive approach to patient education and counseling by a health-care professional to support patients in better coping with problems before they arise. It has been shown to improve disease outcomes in a variety of chronic conditions, including diabetes. While important at all stages, anticipatory guidance may be of particular importance during changes in treatment regimens, and especially during transition to, and escalation of, insulin-based regimens. The aim of this article is to provide advice to physicians on anticipatory guidance for basal-insulin dosing, focusing on appropriate basal-insulin-dose increase and prevention of potentially deleterious basal-insulin doses, so called overbasalization. It also provides an overview of new treatment options for patients with T2D who are not well controlled on basal-insulin therapy, fixed-ratio combinations of basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, and advice on the type of anticipatory guidance needed to ensure safe and appropriate switching to these therapies.

  12. Next step in antibiotic stewardship: Pharmacist-provided penicillin allergy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugkaeva, Z; Crago, J S; Yasnogorodsky, M

    2017-08-01

    Penicillin allergy limits therapeutic options for patients but often disappears over time, leaving patients erroneously labelled allergic and leading to the utilization of broad-spectrum and more expensive antibiotics. Penicillin allergy can be effectively assessed via skin testing. To improve patient access to penicillin allergy testing by implementing a pharmacist-provided service in a hospital setting. Beta-lactams remain a mainstream therapy for many infections due to their effectiveness, low side effects and affordability. Typically, patient access to penicillin allergy testing is limited by the availability of allergy specialists, who traditionally perform such testing. A pharmacist-provided penicillin allergy testing service was implemented at our hospital in 2015 and became a powerful antibiotic stewardship tool. Removing penicillin allergy from patient profiles significantly expanded therapeutic options, expedited discharges and reduced costs of care. Pharmacists can expand patient access to penicillin allergy testing. Pharmacist-provided penicillin allergy testing permitted optimized antibiotic treatment and expedited discharges. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Next Information Revolution in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennicutt, R. C.

    2006-08-01

    The information revolution has truly revolutionized our profession, through such innovations as the astronomical data centres, electronic journals and preprint servers, and bibliographic interfaces that link these resources through instantaneous and freely available web interfaces. For most of us the effects of these innovations have been profound, changing forever the way we access the research literature, disseminate results to our colleagues, and even in the ways we carry out our research and write papers. Astronomy's efforts in this area have attracted the attention and admiration of other scientific professions as well as the information technology community. We now stand at the threshold of a second revolution, in which enormous and rich collections of astronomical observations, models, software, and tools will be accessible through a common Virtual Observatory interface. The next logical step beyond that is an integration of these VO resources with the web of astronomical literature, to provide mechanisms for quality certification of those resources, and to provide a seamless mechanism by which authors can make the results of their research available to other scientists in their most useful form. If this is done successfully its impacts on the way we conduct and disseminate our research may be as profound as those of the past decade. However this success will require cooperative approaches to information archiving and publication involving the data centres, journals, and library communities, and which incorporate or at least emulate the features of curation, provenance, quality assurance, and intellectual property protections that underlie the traditional publishing system. This talk will highlight some of the efforts being made in the VO and journal communities to make this vision a reality, and identify some of the key challenges that remain.

  14. The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030. Reviving the EU emissions trading system and bringing EU greenhouse gas emissions on a 2C track. Policy brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Gilbert, A.; Hagemann, M.; Fekete, H.; Lam, Long; De Vos, R. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    This paper explains how setting 2030 targets will reinvigorate the ETS and will put EU emissions on track to limit global temperature increase below two degrees Celsius (2C). This paper describes four key findings for EU policymakers engaged in preparing EU energy and climate measures for 2030 and for the longer term. The European Commission estimates that by 2020, the companies participating in the ETS will have accumulated a surplus of 1.5 to 2.3 billion allowances, which may be banked and used beyond 2020. This is about the same size as the annual emissions budget of ETS companies (just below 2 billion tonnes). Applying equity principles to the global distribution of efforts in reaching the 2C goal, an indicative 'fair' EU contribution would be a reduction of EU greenhouse gas emissions by around 49% (median of a full range from 39 to 79%) by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The 2030 targets can be set in a way to also accommodate the surplus expected until 2020. If the entire surplus of allowances from the ETS were to be used after 2020, the 2030 target has to become around 7 percentage points more stringent to compensate for that. Alternatively, the trajectory of the target from 2021 to 2030 could be set to compensate for the surplus. In addition, a more ambitious trajectory towards 2030 would cast its shadow on the mitigation in the period 2013-2020. It would strengthen the ETS, in conjunction with any other ETS recalibration options such as shifting the auctioning ('backloading') or cancelling allowances before 2020.

  15. Optical and electrical characterizations of a single step ion beam milling mesa devices of chloride passivated PbS colloidal quantum dots based film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hechster, Elad, E-mail: elad.hechster@gmail.com; Sarusi, Gabby [Electro-Optics Engineering Unit and Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 84100 Israel (Israel); Shapiro, Arthur; Lifshitz, Efrat [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Solid State Institute, Russel Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion – Israel Institute of technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel)

    2016-07-15

    Colloidal Quantum Dots (CQDs) are of increasing interest, thanks to their quantum size effect that gives rise to their usage in various applications, such as biological tagging, solar cells and as the sensitizing layer of night vision devices. Here, we analyze the optical absorbance of chloride passivated PbS CQDs as well as revealing a correlation between their photoluminescence and sizes distribution, using theoretical models and experimental results from the literature. Next, we calculate the CQDs resistivity as a film. Although resistivity can be calculated from sheet resistance measurement using four point probes, such measurement is usually carried-out on the layer’s surface that in most cases has dangling bonds and surface states, which might affect the charges flow and modify the resistivity. Therefore; our approach, which was applied in this work, is to extract the actual resistivity from measurements that are performed along the film’s thickness (z-direction). For this intent, we fabricated gold capped PbS mesas devices using a single step Ion Beam Milling (IBM) process where we milled the gold and the PbS film continually, and then measured the vertical resistance. Knowing the mesas’ dimensions, we calculate the resistivity. To the best of our knowledge, no previous work has extracted, vertically, the resistivity of chloride passivated PbS CQDs using the above method.

  16. Optical and electrical characterizations of a single step ion beam milling mesa devices of chloride passivated PbS colloidal quantum dots based film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechster, Elad; Sarusi, Gabby; Shapiro, Arthur; Lifshitz, Efrat

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal Quantum Dots (CQDs) are of increasing interest, thanks to their quantum size effect that gives rise to their usage in various applications, such as biological tagging, solar cells and as the sensitizing layer of night vision devices. Here, we analyze the optical absorbance of chloride passivated PbS CQDs as well as revealing a correlation between their photoluminescence and sizes distribution, using theoretical models and experimental results from the literature. Next, we calculate the CQDs resistivity as a film. Although resistivity can be calculated from sheet resistance measurement using four point probes, such measurement is usually carried-out on the layer’s surface that in most cases has dangling bonds and surface states, which might affect the charges flow and modify the resistivity. Therefore; our approach, which was applied in this work, is to extract the actual resistivity from measurements that are performed along the film’s thickness (z-direction). For this intent, we fabricated gold capped PbS mesas devices using a single step Ion Beam Milling (IBM) process where we milled the gold and the PbS film continually, and then measured the vertical resistance. Knowing the mesas’ dimensions, we calculate the resistivity. To the best of our knowledge, no previous work has extracted, vertically, the resistivity of chloride passivated PbS CQDs using the above method.

  17. The LHC's Next Big Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-01-01

    When the sun rose over America on July 4, 2012, the world of science had radically changed. The Higgs boson had been discovered. Mind you, the press releases were more cautious than that, with "a new particle consistent with being the Higgs boson" being the carefully constructed phrase of the day. But, make no mistake, champagne corks…

  18. Yemen: Preventing the Next Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    the AQAP “regional franchise .”8 Since its founding, AQAP has taken the lead on offensive terror operations against the US mainland and against US...their ground water supply by replacing food crops with the water intensive narcotic plant Qat.21 Recent estimates place the unemployment rate in Yemen...population.103 Should the Yemeni military disintegrate, the social and economic impact would be crippling given the current 35% unemployment rate.104

  19. The next generation of pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every year, the fate of the entomological world is discussed by 2,000-3,000 entomologists at the annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America (this year held in Knoxville, TN). Often, a hot topic is clearly identifiable from this meeting. This year is no exception: the major theme of the m...

  20. The next generation is here

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    This year the CERN Accelerator School returned to Austria after an interval of ten years and organized its Basic Accelerator Physics course together with the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) in Baden, near Vienna, from 12-24 September, 2004. The Introductory level course is particularly important since, for most of the participants, it is the first opportunity to discover the various aspects of accelerator physics. The school was a resounding success with 95 students of more than 20 different nationalities attending. This particularly high attendance is very satisfying and confirms the strong interest in accelerator physics among young scientists. Feedback from the students praised the expertise of the lecturers, the high standard of the lectures as well as the pleasant environment and excellent organization. In addition to the intensive work programme of 33 lectures, three seminars, five tutorials, a poster session where students could present their own work, and seven hours of guided and private study,...

  1. Zephyr - the next generation prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, G.; Landberg, L.; Nielsen, Torben Skov

    2001-01-01

    Technical University. This paper will describe a new project funded by the Danish Ministry of Energy where the largest Danish utilities (Elkraft, Elsam, Eltra and SEAS) are participating. Two advantages can be achieved by combining the effort: The software architecture will be state-of-the-art, using...... the Java2TM platform and Enterprise Java Beans technology, and it will ensure that the best forecasts are given on all prediction horizons from the short range (0-9 hours) to the long range (36-48 hours). This is because the IMM approach uses online data and advanced statistical methods, which...

  2. Algeria: The Next Fundamentalist State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    language Tamazight , or Amazighi in Arabic. The main strong- hold of Berber culture is Kabylia, the mountain region along the 17Ruedy, pp. 9-12...Movement (BCM) has emerged that has called general strikes in Kabylia in a demand for a constitutional amendment for the acceptance of Tamazight as the...second official language of the country. The state has been responsive to these demands, and has agreed to broader teaching of Tamazight , especially

  3. TASCC - the next five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.C.; Horn, D.; Ward, D.

    1984-07-01

    The Tandem Superconducting Cyclotron (TASCC) Project at Chalk River is nearing completion of Phase I construction. The accelerator facilities are described as are the major pieces of experimental equipment that will be available: the Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the on-line isotope separator, the 8π γ-ray spectrometer, and the multiparticle detector systems. Research at TASCC will focus on the study of nuclei at extremes -extremes of density, temperature, high spin, high excitation and exotic nucleonic composition. The principal experimental programs are outlined under three headings: heavy ion reaction phenomena at transitional energies, nuclear states at high excitation and angular momentum, and exotic nuclei

  4. Is nitrogen the next carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battye, William; Aneja, Viney P.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2017-09-01

    Just as carbon fueled the Industrial Revolution, nitrogen has fueled an Agricultural Revolution. The use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and the cultivation of nitrogen-fixing crops both expanded exponentially during the last century, with most of the increase occurring after 1960. As a result, the current flux of reactive, or fixed, nitrogen compounds to the biosphere due to human activities is roughly equivalent to the total flux of fixed nitrogen from all natural sources, both on land masses and in the world's oceans. Natural fluxes of fixed nitrogen are subject to very large uncertainties, but anthropogenic production of reactive nitrogen has increased almost fivefold in the last 60 years, and this rapid increase in anthropogenic fixed nitrogen has removed any uncertainty on the relative importance of anthropogenic fluxes to the natural budget. The increased use of nitrogen has been critical for increased crop yields and protein production needed to keep pace with the growing world population. However, similar to carbon, the release of fixed nitrogen into the natural environment is linked to adverse consequences at local, regional, and global scales. Anthropogenic contributions of fixed nitrogen continue to grow relative to the natural budget, with uncertain consequences.

  5. Open innovation: The next decade

    OpenAIRE

    West, Joel; Salter, Ammon; VANHAVERBEKE, Wim; Chesbrough, Henry

    2014-01-01

    We review the contribution and evolution of open innovation since the publication of Chesbrough's 2003 Open Innovation book, and suggest likely directions going forward. We link the articles of this special issue to three key trends in open innovation research: better measurement, resolving the role of appropriability and linking that research to the management and economics literature. From this, we identify other trends and suggest opportunities for future research. (C) 2014 Published by El...

  6. Lyme disease: the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael B Stricker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Raphael B Stricker, Lorraine JohnsonInternational Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Although Lyme disease remains a controversial illness, recent events have created an unprecedented opportunity to make progress against this serious tick-borne infection. Evidence presented during the legally mandated review of the restrictive Lyme guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA has confirmed the potential for persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, as well as the complicating role of tick-borne coinfections such as Babesia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella species associated with failure of short-course antibiotic therapy. Furthermore, renewed interest in the role of cell wall-deficient (CWD forms in chronic bacterial infection and progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of biofilms has focused attention on these processes in chronic Lyme disease. Recognition of the importance of CWD forms and biofilms in persistent B. burgdorferi infection should stimulate pharmaceutical research into new antimicrobial agents that target these mechanisms of chronic infection with the Lyme spirochete. Concurrent clinical implementation of proteomic screening offers a chance to correct significant deficiencies in Lyme testing. Advances in these areas have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease in the coming decade.Keywords: Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, L-forms, cysts, biofilms, proteomics

  7. Lyme disease: the next decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Raphael B; Johnson, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Although Lyme disease remains a controversial illness, recent events have created an unprecedented opportunity to make progress against this serious tick-borne infection. Evidence presented during the legally mandated review of the restrictive Lyme guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has confirmed the potential for persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, as well as the complicating role of tick-borne coinfections such as Babesia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella species associated with failure of short-course antibiotic therapy. Furthermore, renewed interest in the role of cell wall-deficient (CWD) forms in chronic bacterial infection and progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of biofilms has focused attention on these processes in chronic Lyme disease. Recognition of the importance of CWD forms and biofilms in persistent B. burgdorferi infection should stimulate pharmaceutical research into new antimicrobial agents that target these mechanisms of chronic infection with the Lyme spirochete. Concurrent clinical implementation of proteomic screening offers a chance to correct significant deficiencies in Lyme testing. Advances in these areas have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease in the coming decade. PMID:21694904

  8. Planning for the next generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, C

    1992-01-01

    Poverty, illiteracy, and lack of government commitment or ability to solve social ills translates into rapid population growth in central American isthmus countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and even Costa Rica and Panama. The social conditions in Panama and Costa Rica lead to better family planning (FP). Educational and health resources are lacking for the rest of the countries. High birth and infant mortality rates and political unrest contribute to the total fertility rate in Honduras of 5.4 children/woman, the growth rate in Nicaragua of 3.4%, and the contraceptive use rate f 23% among married women in Guatemala and 27% in Nicaragua. The population of El Salvador is expected to double to 11 million in 25 years. FP efforts are being threatened in Costa Rica and Panama due to the doubling of the poor population since 1983 and the cutbacks in government spending for FP. For every North American woman who dies of maternal mortality, 134 die in Central America. Today the power of the Catholic Church is offset by the government population policy and programs of private organizations. Improvements have been made in Costa Rica in maternal and child health services and FP; life expectancy for children has increased 22 years in Honduras; and total fertility is under 3 children/woman in Panama. Private organizations have taken the lead in FP programs. Although population policy is part of development, national governments still lack the political will to solve the problems of access to basic health care and education, better water and sewers, and good food and jobs. The civil wars in Nicaragua and El Salvador and insurgency in Guatemala have diverted resources for health care, housing, and education. The gross national products in each of these countries is US$910/person/year. FP funds must compete with education, health care, and other basic services for government spending. The systems for FP have been established, but the political will is missing

  9. The First Steps to EURISOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Following the results and recommendations of the EURISOL RTD conceptual design study performed within FP5, the EURISOL Design Study http://www.eurisol.org aims to carry out detailed engineering-oriented studies and technical prototyping work for the next-generation ISOL Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility in Europe. Such a world-class facility, complementary to the '' in-flight '' FAIR facility being constructed at GSI, is expected to come into operation in the next decade. It would provide unique world-class research opportunities in nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and other applications of radioactive beam science. The Design Study addresses the major technological problems which are expected to arise in the creation of a facility able to provide exotic ions in quantities which are orders of magnitude higher than those currently available anywhere else in the world. A feasibility study into the use of the EURISOL facility for the production of pure electron-neutrinos is an integral part of the design study, the so-called '' beta-beam '' proposal. Synergies which exist between the proposed infrastructure and other European ISOL developments - MAFF, HIE-ISOLDE, SPES, and SPIRAL2 - will be exploited to mutual advantage. Twenty institutes within Europe take part in the design study as full participants, with an additional 20 in Europe, North America and Asia collaborating in the project. In this Design Study the members of the collaboration provide specific technological expertise on superconducting linear accelerators, high-power targetry, RIB production, ion sources and beam manipulation, radiation safety and nuclear instrumentation. (author)

  10. Beware the next big thing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkinshaw, Julian

    2014-05-01

    Innovative management ideas that bubble up in other companies pose a perennial quandary for leaders: Should you attempt to borrow new ideas, and if so, which ones and how? Even the most promising practices can be disastrous if they're transplanted into the wrong company, writes Julian Birkinshaw of London Business School. Broadly speaking, there are two ways to borrow from innovative companies, he argues. The first, observe and apply, is the most commonly used approach for adopting new management ideas. It can and does work well, but only under Limited sets of circumstances: when the observed practice easily stands alone or involves just a small constellation of supporting behaviors (think of GE's well-regarded succession-planning process) and when a company's management model or way of thinking is very similar to the originator's (think of two software firms that both use the Agile development approach). The second method is to extract a management practice's essential principle-its underlying logic-and ask a series of questions to determine if it is right for your firm, including: How is your company different from the originating firm? Are the goals of the practice important to your organization? Many management innovations are launched with great fanfare, only to fade in popularity. With careful analysis, you can avoid falling prey to this hype cycle. And even if it turns out that a borrowed idea isn't right for you, the analysis will help you better understand your own management models and sharpen your practices.

  11. Game theory : The next stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper surveys some recent developments in (non-cooperative) game theory and provides an outlook on the near future of that theory. In particular, attention is focused on the limitations inherent in normative game theory and on attempts to construct a behavioral version of the theory that

  12. Power for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, L.N.

    1997-01-01

    A brief review of nuclear power world-wide shows that there is substantial installed capacity, some construction activity in Europe and good medium term prospects for growth in south-east Asia. In the longer term, the ever increasing demand for electricity and the adverse environmental effects of burning fossil-fuels, present considerable opportunities for the expansion of nuclear power. Six preconditions must be met, however, if this expansion is to take place. They are: no link with any weapons programmes; safety; openness in communication; effective waste management; economic competitiveness; financial investment. Reasons for believing all these preconditions can be met are presented. The British nuclear industry must be alert and ready to respond to the opportunities as they arise. (UK)

  13. Digital project management the complete step-by-step guide to a successful launch

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Taylor

    2016-01-01

    The digital world is growing and changing at a rate that can seem overwhelming to those project managers who have to keep up with it to build customer-facing solutions and applications. It's rare for project managers working in this field to be provided with much direction or a process by which to carry out a project, and there has been next to nothing available specific to these types of projects in the literary marketplace. Digital Project Management: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide to a Successful Launch was developed to fill this gap by providing the knowledge, best practices and proven steps to consistently managing these types of project successfully from end-to-end now, and in the future with just minor adjustments to adapt to changes in technology.

  14. Fan Cart: The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamore, Brian

    2016-01-01

    For years the fan cart has provided physics students with an excellent resource for exploring fundamental mechanics concepts such as acceleration, Newton's laws, impulse, momentum, work-energy, and energy conversions. "The Physics Teacher" has even seen some excellent do-it-yourself (DIY) fan carts and activities. If you are interested…

  15. Firewall systems: the next generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, Lynda L.

    1996-01-01

    To be competitive in today's globally connected marketplace, a company must ensure that their internal network security methodologies and supporting policies are current and reflect an overall understanding of today's technology and its resultant threats. Further, an integrated approach to information security should ensure that new ways of sharing information and doing business are accommodated; such as electronic commerce, high speed public broadband network services, and the federally sponsored National Information Infrastructure. There are many challenges, and success is determined by the establishment of a solid and firm baseline security architecture that accommodate today's external connectivity requirements, provides transitional solutions that integrate with evolving and dynamic technologies, and ultimately acknowledges both the strategic and tactical goals of an evolving network security architecture and firewall system. This paper explores the evolution of external network connectivity requirements, the associated challenges and the subsequent development and evolution of firewall security systems. It makes the assumption that a firewall is a set of integrated and interoperable components, coming together to form a `SYSTEM' and must be designed, implement and managed as such. A progressive firewall model will be utilized to illustrates the evolution of firewall systems from earlier models utilizing separate physical networks, to today's multi-component firewall systems enabling secure heterogeneous and multi-protocol interfaces.

  16. Hypercars: The next industrial revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovins, Amory B.; Barnett, John W.; Lovins, L. Hunter

    1996-01-01

    The auto industry -- one-seventh of the GNP, and the highest expression of the Iron Age -- is about to trigger the biggest transformation in industrial structure since the microchip. Ultralight cars molded from net-shape advanced composites can be several-fold lighter than present steel cars, yet safer, sportier, and more comfortable, durable, and beautiful. Modern hybrid-electric drives boost efficiency approximately 1.3-1.5x in heavy steel cars, but approximately 5-20x in ultralight, very slippery plafforms. Synergistically combined into ultralight-hybrid 'hypercars,' these elements can yield state-of-the-shelf family cars that average 150-300+ mi/gal -- twice that with state-of-the-art technologies -- yet can also be superior in all other respects, probably including cost: carbon-fiber monocoques can actually be cheaper to mass-produce that steel unibodies. Designing cars more like aircraft and less like tanks requires not only an approximately 400-500 kg curb mass and very low air and road drag, but also an aerospace philosophy of engineering integration. Mass, cost, and complexity turn out to compound with heavy hybrids but to decompound with ultralight hybrids, owing partly to radical simplification. Excellent aerodynamics, preferable including advanced techniques for passive boundary-layer control, will be the key to successful design integration. Transforming automaking is a competitive and environmental imperative, could form the nucleus of a green industrial Renaissance, and would enhance national security by, among other things, saving as much oil as OPEC now extracts. However, this transformation faces serious cultural barriers. For example, hypercars will be more like computers with wheels than like cars with chips -- they'll have an order of magnitude more code than today's cars -- but Detroit is not a software culture. Just the transition from stamped and welded steel to integrated and adhesive-joined synthetics is difficult enough. Nonetheless

  17. Holography: The Next Disruptive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Augmented Immersive Team Training project, started in fiscal year 2011, produced and transitioned the prototype of a more accurate virtual reality...holographic characteristics of a panchromatic light sensitive material for reflective autostereoscopic 3D display. EURASIP Journal on Advances in...Sonehara N. Proposal and demonstration of cached holographic 3D display system using photorefractive crystals. Journal of Crystal Growth. 2001;229:199

  18. Fabrication of micro- and nanometre-scale polymer structures in liquid crystal devices for next generation photonics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartan, Chloe C.; Salter, Patrick S.; Booth, Martin J.; Morris, Stephen M.; Elston, Steve J.

    2016-09-01

    Direct Laser Writing (DLW) by two-photon photopolymerization (TPP) enables the fabrication of micron-scale polymeric structures in soft matter systems. The technique has implications in a broad range of optics and photonics; in particular fast-switching liquid crystal (LC) modes for the development of next generation display technologies. In this paper, we report two different methodologies using our TPP-based fabrication technique. Two explicit examples are provided of voltage-dependent LC director profiles that are inherently unstable, but which appear to be promising candidates for fast-switching photonics applications. In the first instance, 1 μm-thick periodic walls of polymer network are written into a planar aligned (parallel rubbed) nematic pi-cell device containing a nematic LC-monomer mixture. The structures are fabricated when the device is electrically driven into a fast-switching nematic LC state and aberrations induced by the device substrates are corrected for by virtue of the adaptive optics elements included within the DLW setup. Optical polarizing microscopy images taken post-fabrication reveal that polymer walls oriented perpendicular to the rubbing direction promote the stability of the so-called optically compensated bend mode upon removal of the externally applied field. In the second case, polymer walls are written in a nematic LC-optically adhesive glue mixture. A polymer- LCs-polymer-slices or `POLICRYPS' template is formed by immersing the device in acetone post-fabrication to remove any remaining non-crosslinked material. Injecting the resultant series of polymer microchannels ( 1 μm-thick) with a short-pitch, chiral nematic LC mixture leads to the spontaneous alignment of a fast-switching chiral nematic mode, where the helical axis lies parallel to the glass substrates. Optimal contrast between the bright and dark states of the uniform lying helix alignment is achieved when the structures are spaced at the order of the device thickness

  19. Next Stop in the Study Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.W.; Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a web based interactive tool designed to teach freewriting - a well known writing technique useful to everyone producing text - through step-by-step instructions and interactive feedback which is not possible in face-to-face teaching. The Freewriting Module is part of the Study...

  20. Medical device registration, agreements on mutual recognition - a step forward to global harmonization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidenberger, R.Reiner

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give a short overview of some different regulations in Europe and the United States with regard to the clearance of medical devices and to give an outlook of what the Agreements on Mutual Recognition will bring in terms of Global Harmonization. Recent European legislation, the Council Directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices (Medical Device Directive, MDD), requires that all medical devices placed on the European market bear the CE marking. From 14 June 1998, medical devices fall under the scope of this European Medical Device Directive and there is a harmonization within the European market. Similar to this, but for another market, are the USA FDA requirements, Premarket Approval (PMA) and Premarket notification (510(k)). The same medical device, the same goal - a safe product - but different legislation and thus duplication of registration procedures. The European Commission is presently discussing a series of agreements with third countries, Australia, New Zealand, USA, Canada, Japan and Eastern European countries wishing to join the EU, concerning the mutual acceptance of inspection bodies and, ultimately, proof of conformity (for example reports on examination, certificates, licenses and marks of conformity) in connection with medical devices. Meanwhile agreements with Australia, New Zealand, USA and Canada came into force. (author)

  1. Pacific Association for Clinical Training (PACT): lessons learned and next steps in developing a sustainable continuing health professionals education system in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenconsejo-Lum, Lee E; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Palafox, Neal A

    2007-03-01

    In response to the 1998 Institute of Medicine report, "Pacific Partnerships for Health ", acknowledging the need for the continuing education of health workers in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) jurisdictions, the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) awarded a grant (1999-2003) to the University of Washington for a continuing education project in the Pacific. When shortfalls in HRSA funding threatened continuation of the program, Pacific advocates aggressively made a case for refunding of this important project. In 2003, HRSA announced competitive funding for a new program for continuing education. The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health (DFMCH) at the University of Hawai'i (UH), John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) was awarded the HRSA Cooperative Agreement to run from September 2003 through August 2007, creating PACT the Pacific Association for Clinical Training. PACT assembled a professional, community-based advisory board, most of whom were indigenous Pacific Islanders, and conducted a continuing clinical education needs assessment in every jurisdiction, subsequently developing and delivering programs utilizing distance education relevant to the needs of each USAPI jurisdiction. Priority health areas included diabetes, oral health and geriatrics, as mandated by HRSA. This report describes the processes, accomplishments, challenges and lessons learned from the project. PACT needs assessment reports for each jurisdiction and an executive summary are published as Original Articles in this issue of Pacific Health Dialog. As funding for PACT comes to an end, it is clear that much work remains to be done in the region. "Continuing clinical education" is only one part of a continuum of human resources for health (HRH) workforce development. Continued USAPI regional, U.S. national and international collaboration and resources are needed to achieve the ultimate goal of improved health and health care delivery

  2. Preoperative radio-chemotherapy for rectal cancer: Forecasting the next steps through ongoing and forthcoming studies; Chimioradiotherapie preoperatoire des cancers du rectum: ce que laissent presager les etudes en cours et a venir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crehange, G.; Maingon, P. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, 1, rue du Professeur-Marion, 21000 Dijon (France); Bosset, J.F. [Service d' oncologie radiotherapie, CHU Jean-Minjoz, boulevard Flemming, 25000 Besancon (France)

    2011-10-15

    Protracted preoperative radio-chemotherapy with a 5-FU-based scheme, or a short course of preoperative radiotherapy without chemotherapy, are the standard neo-adjuvant treatments for resectable stage II-III rectal cancer. Local failure rates are low and reproducible, between 6 and 15% when followed with a 'Total Meso-rectal Excision'. Nevertheless, the therapeutic strategy needs to be improved: distant metastatic recurrence rates remain stable around 30 to 35%, while both sphincter and sexual sequels are still significant. The aim of the present paper was to analyse the ongoing trials listed on the following search engines: the Institut National du Cancer in France, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Health in the United States, and the major cooperative groups. Keywords for the search were: 'rectal cancer', 'preoperative radiotherapy', 'phase II-III', 'preoperative chemotherapy', 'adjuvant chemotherapy' and 'surgery'. Twenty-three trials were selected and classified in different groups, each of them addressing a question of strategy: (1) place of adjuvant chemotherapy; (2) optimization of preoperative radiotherapy; (3) evaluation of new radiosensitization protocols and/or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy; (4) optimization of techniques and timing of surgery; (5) place of radiotherapy for non resectable or metastatic tumors. (authors)

  3. Optimizing the next generation optical access networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaya Fernández, Ferney Orlando; Soto, Ana Cardenas; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    Several issues in the design and optimization of the next generation optical access network (NG-OAN) are presented. The noise, the distortion and the fiber optic nonlinearities are considered to optimize the video distribution link in a passive optical network (PON). A discussion of the effect...

  4. Security in the Cache and Forward Architecture for the Next Generation Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristofi, G. C.; Hadjicostis, C. N.; Raychaudhuri, D.

    The future Internet architecture will be comprised predominately of wireless devices. It is evident at this stage that the TCP/IP protocol that was developed decades ago will not properly support the required network functionalities since contemporary communication profiles tend to be data-driven rather than host-based. To address this paradigm shift in data propagation, a next generation architecture has been proposed, the Cache and Forward (CNF) architecture. This research investigates security aspects of this new Internet architecture. More specifically, we discuss content privacy, secure routing, key management and trust management. We identify security weaknesses of this architecture that need to be addressed and we derive security requirements that should guide future research directions. Aspects of the research can be adopted as a step-stone as we build the future Internet.

  5. What are the next steps? Legal perspectives on Mexico's general climate change law; Cuales son los siguientes pasos? Perspectivas juridicas sobre la ley general de cambio climatico de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This publication is part of a project to strengthen legal capacities in Mexico, to analyze and propose alternatives that facilitate climate change mitigation and the transition to a low carbon economy. It started as an initiative of the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (Semarnat). This project focuses on the creation of legal capacities for climate mitigation because, while Mexico has accomplished remarkable achievements in the development of climate policies, this progress has not been matched in the development of legal capacities regarding climate change. In regard to progress on climate policy, Mexico has developed the long-term National Climate Change Strategy (2007) and Special Climate Change Program (2009-2012), completed economic projections of climate change costs - such as the inaction costs estimated in the study Economy of Climate Change in Mexico, and generated and disseminated climate information - for example, 1. Mexico has already submitted four National Communications on Climate Change and is preparing a Fifth to submit to the UNFCCC. 2 However, until the recent promulgation of the General Law on Climate Change on June, 2012, developments in the legal field to complement the efforts to address and cope with climate change in Mexico were far behind developments in other areas at the national level. [Spanish] Esta publicacion forma parte de un proyecto para el fortalecimiento de capacidades nacionales en el area juridica, para analizar y proponer alternativas que faciliten la mitigacion del cambio climatico y la transicion de Mexico a una economia baja en carbono y surgio a iniciativa de la Subsecretaria de Planeacion y Politica Ambiental de la Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (Semarnat). Nos enfocamos en la creacion de capacidades juridicas porque mientras que en Mexico habiamos visto logros muy importantes en areas como la definicion de politicas publicas de accion climatica; la cuantificacion de los costos del

  6. What are the next steps? Legal perspectives on Mexico's general climate change law; Cuales son los siguientes pasos? Perspectivas juridicas sobre la ley general de cambio climatico de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This publication is part of a project to strengthen legal capacities in Mexico, to analyze and propose alternatives that facilitate climate change mitigation and the transition to a low carbon economy. It started as an initiative of the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (Semarnat). This project focuses on the creation of legal capacities for climate mitigation because, while Mexico has accomplished remarkable achievements in the development of climate policies, this progress has not been matched in the development of legal capacities regarding climate change. In regard to progress on climate policy, Mexico has developed the long-term National Climate Change Strategy (2007) and Special Climate Change Program (2009-2012), completed economic projections of climate change costs - such as the inaction costs estimated in the study Economy of Climate Change in Mexico, and generated and disseminated climate information - for example, 1. Mexico has already submitted four National Communications on Climate Change and is preparing a Fifth to submit to the UNFCCC. 2 However, until the recent promulgation of the General Law on Climate Change on June, 2012, developments in the legal field to complement the efforts to address and cope with climate change in Mexico were far behind developments in other areas at the national level. [Spanish] Esta publicacion forma parte de un proyecto para el fortalecimiento de capacidades nacionales en el area juridica, para analizar y proponer alternativas que faciliten la mitigacion del cambio climatico y la transicion de Mexico a una economia baja en carbono y surgio a iniciativa de la Subsecretaria de Planeacion y Politica Ambiental de la Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (Semarnat). Nos enfocamos en la creacion de capacidades juridicas porque mientras que en Mexico habiamos visto logros muy importantes en areas como la definicion de politicas publicas de accion climatica; la cuantificacion de los costos del

  7. The quest for the next information processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Jeffrey J.; Bourianoff, George I.; Zhirnov, Victor V.; Cavin, Ralph Keary

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental physical considerations indicate that the scaling of devices that use electron charge as the information carrier will limit within the next one to two decades. The Nanoelectronics Research Initiative (NRI), a joint industry-government program, has been developed to fund university research seeking devices that utilize alternative physical information carriers or non-equilibrium switching mechanisms to continue the historical cost and performance trends of information technology. Three research centers have been established to pursue five research vectors that have been identified as critical to the effort to replace the electronic switch. A brief history and rationale for NRI is given and the projects currently underway are described in the context of the five research vectors.

  8. Educating the next generation of nature entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judith C. Jobse; Loes Witteveen; Judith Santegoets; Daan van der Linde

    2015-01-01

    With this paper, it is illustrated that a focus on entrepreneurship training in the nature and wilderness sector is relevant for diverse organisations and situations. The first curricula on nature entrepreneurship are currently being developed. In this paper the authors describe a project that focusses on educating the next generation of nature entrepreneurs, reflect...

  9. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    addressing, new generation internet. 2. ... required the creation of the next generation of Internet ... IPv6 standards have defined the following Extension headers ..... addresses are represented as x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x, where each x is the hexadecimal ...

  10. Sound pressure levels generated at risk volume steps of portable listening devices: types of smartphone and genres of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibbeum; Han, Woojae

    2018-05-01

    The present study estimated the sound pressure levels of various music genres at the volume steps that contemporary smartphones deliver, because these levels put the listener at potential risk for hearing loss. Using six different smartphones (Galaxy S6, Galaxy Note 3, iPhone 5S, iPhone 6, LG G2, and LG G3), the sound pressure levels for three genres of K-pop music (dance-pop, hip-hop, and pop-ballad) and a Billboard pop chart of assorted genres were measured through an earbud for the first risk volume that was at the risk sign proposed by the smartphones, as well as consecutive higher volumes using a sound level meter and artificial mastoid. The first risk volume step of the Galaxy S6 and the LG G2, among the six smartphones, had the significantly lowest (84.1 dBA) and highest output levels (92.4 dBA), respectively. As the volume step increased, so did the sound pressure levels. The iPhone 6 was loudest (113.1 dBA) at the maximum volume step. Of the music genres, dance-pop showed the highest output level (91.1 dBA) for all smartphones. Within the frequency range of 20~ 20,000 Hz, the sound pressure level peaked at 2000 Hz for all the smartphones. The results showed that the sound pressure levels of either the first volume step or the maximum volume step were not the same for the different smartphone models and genres of music, which means that the risk volume sign and its output levels should be unified across the devices for their users. In addition, the risk volume steps proposed by the latest smartphone models are high enough to cause noise-induced hearing loss if their users habitually listen to music at those levels.

  11. The next step in biology: A periodic table?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... from computer science, mathematics and engineering to solve a biological problem. ... fulfill human needs of energy, environment, health–to name a few. ... scalar process (diffusion)? Probably some more questions that merit ...

  12. Step Detection Robust against the Dynamics of Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan-hee; Choi, Suji; Lee, Myeong-jin

    2015-01-01

    A novel algorithm is proposed for robust step detection irrespective of step mode and device pose in smartphone usage environments. The dynamics of smartphones are decoupled into a peak-valley relationship with adaptive magnitude and temporal thresholds. For extracted peaks and valleys in the magnitude of acceleration, a step is defined as consisting of a peak and its adjacent valley. Adaptive magnitude thresholds consisting of step average and step deviation are applied to suppress pseudo peaks or valleys that mostly occur during the transition among step modes or device poses. Adaptive temporal thresholds are applied to time intervals between peaks or valleys to consider the time-varying pace of human walking or running for the correct selection of peaks or valleys. From the experimental results, it can be seen that the proposed step detection algorithm shows more than 98.6% average accuracy for any combination of step mode and device pose and outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:26516857

  13. Digital citizens Digital nations: the next agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. (Bert) Mulder; M.W. (Martijn) Hartog

    2015-01-01

    DIGITAL CITIZENS CREATE A DIGITAL NATION Citizens will play the lead role as they – in the next phase of the information society – collectively create a digital nation. Personal adoption of information and communication technology will create a digital infrastructure that supports individual and

  14. Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; Harris, Christopher J.; DeBarger, Angela Haydel

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards embody a new vision for science education grounded in the idea that science is both a body of knowledge and a set of linked practices for developing knowledge. The authors describe strategies that they suggest school and district leaders consider when designing strategies to support NGSS implementation.

  15. The structure of stepped surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algra, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) as far as multiple scattering effects are concerned, is discussed. The ion fractions of lithium, sodium and potassium scattered from a copper (100) surface have been measured as a function of several experimental parameters. The ratio of the intensities of the single and double scattering peaks observed in ion scattering spectroscopy has been determined and ion scattering spectroscopy applied in the multiple scattering mode is used to determine the structure of a stepped Cu(410) surface. The average relaxation of the (100) terraces of this surface appears to be very small. The adsorption of oxygen on this surface has been studied with LEIS and it is indicated that oxygen absorbs dissociatively. (C.F.)

  16. Alkaline earth stannates: The next silicon?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab, E-mail: sohrab.ismail-beigi@yale.edu; Ahn, Charles H. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structure and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Walker, Frederick J. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structure and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Cheong, Sang-Wook [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Rabe, Karin M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Semiconductor materials are being used in an increasingly diverse array of applications, with new device concepts being proposed each year for solar cells, flat-panel displays, sensors, memory, and spin transport. This rapid progress of invention outpaces the development of new semiconductor materials with the required properties and performance. In many applications, high carrier mobility at room temperature is required in addition to specific functional properties critical to the device concept. We review recent developments on high mobility stannate perovskite oxide materials and devices.

  17. Alkaline earth stannates: The next silicon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Ismail-Beigi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor materials are being used in an increasingly diverse array of applications, with new device concepts being proposed each year for solar cells, flat-panel displays, sensors, memory, and spin transport. This rapid progress of invention outpaces the development of new semiconductor materials with the required properties and performance. In many applications, high carrier mobility at room temperature is required in addition to specific functional properties critical to the device concept. We review recent developments on high mobility stannate perovskite oxide materials and devices.

  18. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 3. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol - IPv4 and its Shortcomings. Harsha Srinath. General Article Volume 8 Issue 3 March 2003 pp 33-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol - New Features in IPv6. Harsha Srinath. General Article Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Tailoring uniform gold nanoparticle arrays and nanoporous films for next-generation optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Sidra; Kuljic, Rade; Poduri, Shripriya; Dutta, Mitra; Darling, Seth B.

    2018-06-01

    High-density arrays of gold nanodots and nanoholes on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass surfaces are fabricated using a nanoporous template fabricated by the self-assembly of diblock copolymers of poly (styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) structures. By balancing the interfacial interactions between the polymer blocks and the substrate using random copolymer, cylindrical block copolymer microdomains oriented perpendicular to the plane of the substrate have been obtained. Nanoporous PS films are created by selectively etching PMMA cylinders, a straightforward route to form highly ordered nanoscale porous films. Deposition of gold on the template followed by lift off and sonication leaves a highly dense array of gold nanodots. These materials can serve as templates for the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of semiconductor nanorod arrays for next generation hybrid optoelectronic applications.

  1. Steps in Researching the Music in Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2007-01-01

    The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy.......The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy....

  2. Physics goals of the next linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Marciano, W.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Gunion, J. F. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)] [and others; NLC ZDR Design Group; NLC Physics Working Group

    1996-05-01

    We present the prospects for the next generation of high-energy physics experiments with electron-positron colliding beams. This report summarizes the current status of the design and technological basis of a linear collider of center of mass energy 500 GeV-1.5 TeV, and the opportunities for high-energy physics experiments that this machine is expected to open. 132 refs., 54 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Physics goals of the next linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, S.; Marciano, W.J.; Gunion, J. F.

    1996-05-01

    We present the prospects for the next generation of high-energy physics experiments with electron-positron colliding beams. This report summarizes the current status of the design and technological basis of a linear collider of center of mass energy 500 GeV-1.5 TeV, and the opportunities for high-energy physics experiments that this machine is expected to open. 132 refs., 54 figs., 14 tabs

  4. Nuclear safety in the next century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneley, D A [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Can nuclear plants b made safe enough to be suitable for worldwi