WorldWideScience

Sample records for the next step device

  1. Proceedings of the international workshop on engineering design of next step reversed field pinch devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, D.B. (comp.)

    1987-11-01

    These Proceedings contain the formal contributed papers, the workshop papers and workshop summaries presented at the International Workshop on Engineering Design of Next Step RFP Devices held at Los Alamos, July 13-17, 1987. Contributed papers were presented at formal sessions on the topics: (1) physics overview (3 papers); (2) general overview (3 papers); (3) front-end (9 papers); (4) computer control and data acquisition (1 paper); (5) magnetics (5 papers); and (6) electrical design (9 papers). Informal topical workshop sessions were held on the topics: (1) RFP physics (9 papers); (2) front-end (7 papers); (3) magnetics (3 papers); and (4) electrical design (1 paper). This volume contains the summaries written by the Chairmen of each of the informal topical workshop sessions. The papers in these Proceedings represent a significant review of the status of the technical base for the engineering design of the next step RFP devices being developed in the US, Europe, and Japan, as of this date.

  2. Robotics: the next step?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes; Kuipers, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Robotic systems were introduced 15 years ago to support complex endoscopic procedures. The technology is increasingly used in gastro-intestinal surgery. In this article, literature on experimental- and clinical research is reviewed and ergonomic issues are discussed. Methods: literature

  3. Moral transhumanism: the next step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennison, Michael N

    2012-08-01

    Although transhumanism offers hope for the transcendence of human biological limitations, it generates many intrinsic and consequential ethical concerns. The latter include issues such as the exacerbation of social inequalities and the exponentially increasing technological capacity to cause harm. To mitigate these risks, many thinkers have initiated investigations into the possibility of moral enhancement that could limit the power disparities facilitated by biotechnological enhancement. The arguments often focus on whether moral enhancement is morally permissible, or even obligatory, and remain largely in the realm of the hypothetical. This paper proposes that psilocybin may represent a viable, practical option for moral enhancement and that its further research in the context of moral psychology could comprise the next step in the development of moral transhumanism.

  4. Social mobility: the next steps

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, P; Cleal, Paul; Shephard, Gillian; Milburn, Alan; Johnston, David; Attwood, Tom; Carrie, Anne Marie; Guy, Christian; Williams, Catriona; Hamilton, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission was formally tasked by Ministers to give its view on what further steps the UK government could reasonably take to improve social mobility.The Commission advised opportunities for low paid workers to move up the career ladder, for young people to move from school to employment, and for disadvantaged youngsters to get support in their earliest years should be Ministers’ top priorities if they are to make headway on tackling the UK’s stagnating l...

  5. Software architecture : The next step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Oquendo, F; Warboys, B; Morrison, R

    2004-01-01

    This position paper makes the following claims that, in our opinion, are worthwhile to discuss at the workshop. 1) The first phase of software architecture research, where the key concepts are components and connectors, has matured the technology to a level where industry adoption is wide-spread and

  6. Interactive Video, The Next Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, L. R.; Wold-Brennon, R.; Cooper, S. K.; Brinkhuis, D.

    2012-12-01

    Video has the ingredients to reach us emotionally - with amazing images, enthusiastic interviews, music, and video game-like animations-- and it's emotion that motivates us to learn more about our new interest. However, watching video is usually passive. New web-based technology is expanding and enhancing the video experience, creating opportunities to use video with more direct interaction. This talk will look at an Educaton and Outreach team's experience producing video-centric curriculum using innovative interactive media tools from TED-Ed and FlixMaster. The Consortium for Ocean Leadership's Deep Earth Academy has partnered with the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) to send educators and a video producer aboard three deep sea research expeditions to the Juan de Fuca plate to install and service sub-seafloor observatories. This collaboration between teachers, students, scientists and media producers has proved a productive confluence, providing new ways of understanding both ground-breaking science and the process of science itself - by experimenting with new ways to use multimedia during ocean-going expeditions and developing curriculum and other projects post-cruise.

  7. Next Step for STEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Claire [CTSI; Bremner, Brenda [CTSI

    2013-08-09

    The Siletz Tribal Energy Program (STEP), housed in the Tribe’s Planning Department, will hire a data entry coordinator to collect, enter, analyze and store all the current and future energy efficiency and renewable energy data pertaining to administrative structures the tribe owns and operates and for homes in which tribal members live. The proposed data entry coordinator will conduct an energy options analysis in collaboration with the rest of the Siletz Tribal Energy Program and Planning Department staff. An energy options analysis will result in a thorough understanding of tribal energy resources and consumption, if energy efficiency and conservation measures being implemented are having the desired effect, analysis of tribal energy loads (current and future energy consumption), and evaluation of local and commercial energy supply options. A literature search will also be conducted. In order to educate additional tribal members about renewable energy, we will send four tribal members to be trained to install and maintain solar panels, solar hot water heaters, wind turbines and/or micro-hydro.

  8. Developing and validating advanced divertor solutions on DIII-D for next-step fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Hill, D. N.; Leonard, A. W.; Allen, S. L.; Stangeby, P. C.; Thomas, D.; Unterberg, E. A.; Abrams, T.; Boedo, J.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Buchenauer, D.; Bykov, I.; Canik, J. M.; Chrobak, C.; Covele, B.; Ding, R.; Doerner, R.; Donovan, D.; Du, H.; Elder, D.; Eldon, D.; Lasa, A.; Groth, M.; Guterl, J.; Jarvinen, A.; Hinson, E.; Kolemen, E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Lore, J.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A.; Meyer, B.; Moser, A. L.; Nygren, R.; Owen, L.; Petrie, T. W.; Porter, G. D.; Rognlien, T. D.; Rudakov, D.; Sang, C. F.; Samuell, C.; Si, H.; Schmitz, O.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Wampler, W.; Wang, H.; Watkins, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    A major challenge facing the design and operation of next-step high-power steady-state fusion devices is to develop a viable divertor solution with order-of-magnitude increases in power handling capability relative to present experience, while having acceptable divertor target plate erosion and being compatible with maintaining good core plasma confinement. A new initiative has been launched on DIII-D to develop the scientific basis for design, installation, and operation of an advanced divertor to evaluate boundary plasma solutions applicable to next step fusion experiments beyond ITER. Developing the scientific basis for fusion reactor divertor solutions must necessarily follow three lines of research, which we plan to pursue in DIII-D: (1) Advance scientific understanding and predictive capability through development and comparison between state-of-the art computational models and enhanced measurements using targeted parametric scans; (2) Develop and validate key divertor design concepts and codes through innovative variations in physical structure and magnetic geometry; (3) Assess candidate materials, determining the implications for core plasma operation and control, and develop mitigation techniques for any deleterious effects, incorporating development of plasma-material interaction models. These efforts will lead to design, installation, and evaluation of an advanced divertor for DIII-D to enable highly dissipative divertor operation at core density (n e/n GW), neutral fueling and impurity influx most compatible with high performance plasma scenarios and reactor relevant plasma facing components (PFCs). This paper highlights the current progress and near-term strategies of boundary/PMI research on DIII-D.

  9. [The next step for population policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Acevedo, G

    1998-01-01

    In modern and postmodern societies, age has been transformed into a symbol of isolation, sadness, poverty, physical and mental inactivity, and economic and emotional burden for families, societies, and nations. Humanity has struggled to postpone death through medical advances and greater life expectancy. Declines in mortality and fertility lead inexorably to demographic aging. In Mexico, as in many other societies, poverty is concentrated at the beginning and end of life. While it has undeniably been an achievement to add years to life, social and cultural changes in response to demographic aging and greater life expectancy have not occurred. The additional years have not been accompanied by social actions that provide the elderly with a dignified and tranquil life free from want. In 1965, Mexico's population over 65 years of age was 1.7 million, accounting for 4.6% of the population, life expectancy was 57.9 years, and the total fertility rate was 6.9. In 1995, 4.4% of the population was over 65 years of age and the total fertility rate was 2.8. By 2030, a projected 17 million, or 13.1%, will be over 65 years old. The future demographic profile is the result of societal desires for better health, longer life, and fewer children living in better circumstances. The great challenge of the next century will be to create strategies, policies, and programs to attend to population aging. Collective awareness must be created of the material and other needs of the elderly, and the sociopolitical system must adapt in response.

  10. Media Literacy, Congratulations! Now, the Next Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Media Literacy Education has definitely come a long way. The author remembers mentioning Media Literacy at a Prix Jeunesse presentation in New York City in the early-mid 1990s-- all the participants looked at him as a weirdo and politely ignored his comment on the necessity for TV producers to include or at least reflect upon media…

  11. Next step, the Tour de France?

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    The penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour de France, the Annecy-Semnoz time-trial, has already been won – by a CERN staff member!     In keeping with tradition, the organisers of the Tour de France organise another race, the Étape du Tour, which is open to the general public and follows the actual route of an official stage of the Tour proper. This year, the chosen venue was Annecy and its neighbouring mountain, Le Semnoz, which played host to 11,000 cycling enthusiasts from all parts. This penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour will be raced by the professionals on 20 July. The public race was won by Nicolas Roux, an experienced cyclist and member of CERN’s GS-IS Group, who devoured the 128-km course in just 4 hours and 15 minutes, nine seconds ahead of cycling champion Julien Absalon. “I just managed to overhaul Julien Absalon 500 m before the finishing line,” Nicolas recounts. “It was a fantastic race!” Come rain o...

  12. Integrated Modelling - the next steps (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. V.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated modelling (IM) has made considerable advances over the past decade but it has not yet been taken up as an operational tool in the way that its proponents had hoped. The reasons why will be discussed in Session U17. This talk will propose topics for a research and development programme and suggest an institutional structure which, together, could overcome the present obstacles. Their combined aim would be first to make IM into an operational tool useable by competent public authorities and commercial companies and, in time, to see it evolve into the modelling equivalent of Google Maps, something accessible and useable by anyone with a PC or an iphone and an internet connection. In a recent study, a number of government agencies, water authorities and utilities applied integrated modelling to operational problems. While the project demonstrated that IM could be used in an operational setting and had benefit, it also highlighted the advances that would be required for its widespread uptake. These were: greatly improving the ease with which models could be a) made linkable, b) linked and c) run; developing a methodology for applying integrated modelling; developing practical options for calibrating and validating linked models; addressing the science issues that arise when models are linked; extending the range of modelling concepts that can be linked; enabling interface standards to pass uncertainty information; making the interface standards platform independent; extending the range of platforms to include those for high performance computing; developing the concept of modelling components as web services; separating simulation code from the model’s GUI, so that all the results from the linked models can be viewed through a single GUI; developing scenario management systems so that that there is an audit trail of the version of each model and dataset used in each linked model run. In addition to the above, there is a need to build a set of integrated

  13. Global Coordination: What are the Next Steps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergel, David; Williams, Robert

    2016-10-01

    From the transit expeditions of 1761 to JWST, ALMA, and the SKA, international projects have played an important role in driving astronomy and heliophysics. Over the past two decades, the increasing complexity and cost of new facilities, the constrained amount of funding available from individual sources, and the rapidly increasing volume of data produced by newer facilities have made international collaboration on large ground- and space-based facilities essential to moving the fields forward. As international cooperation becomes commonplace, data-sharing policies have become ever more important. All IAU members have a stake in the policy decisions made by nations and various scientific consortiums concerning data access and international collaborations. This focus meeting provided a forum to discuss how to improve coordination of global strategic planning in astronomy, astrophysics, and heliophysics in order to maximize the scientific return from research facilities.

  14. Virtualization, The next step for online services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Piroska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization allows sharing and allocating the hardware resources to more virtual machines thus increasing their usage rate. There are multiple solutions available today such as VMware vSphere, Microsoft Hyper-V, Xen Server and Red Hat KVM each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Choosing the right virtualization solution largely depends on the used applications and their resources requirements. The comparative analysis of the available virtualization solutions shows that it is essential to establish performance criteria’s and minimum and maximum resources usage thresholds over a given period of time. The coexistence of different services in different virtual machines that use different amount of resources allows a more efficient use of the available hardware resources.

  15. Embodied cognition: Taking the next step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel M Willems

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a large amount of empirical studies related to ‘embodied cognition’. While interesting and valuable, there is something dissatisfying with the current state of affairs in this research domain. Hypotheses tend to be underspecified, testing in general terms for embodied versus disembodied processing. The lack of specificity of current hypotheses can easily lead to an erosion of the embodiment concept, and result in a situation in which essentially any effect is taken as positive evidence. Such erosion is not helpful to the field and does not do justice to the importance of embodiment. Here we want to take stock, and formulate directions for how it can be studied in a more fruitful fashion. As an example we will describe few example studies that have investigated the role of sensori-motor systems in the coding of meaning (‘embodied semantics’. Instead of focusing on the dichotomy between embodied and disembodied theories, we suggest that the field move forward and ask how and when sensori-motor systems and behavior are involved in cognition.

  16. Combined SRCT & FXCT - The next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Acres, R. G.; Winnett, A.; Wang, F.

    2016-03-01

    One of the goals in developing synchrotron radiation x-ray computed tomography (SRCT) for biomedical specimens, is allowing particular tissues and cell types to be marked in the images. This is equivalent to the staining in histology, which enables researchers to visualise and measure tissue structure and biochemical processes within the specimen. Some progress in this direction for SRCT is being made, using a variety of contrast agents that alter the natural x-ray attenuation of the marked tissue [1]. However there are limits to the usefulness of these attenuation altering techniques. Often high concentrations of potentially disruptive chemicals are required with reduced compatibility for in-vivo studies. Another image highlighting technique which might prove more sensitive is x-ray fluorescence imaging. In this case usually endogenous elemental markers are visualised. We would like to develop a lower resolution, but wider field of view means of three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence imaging compatible with SRCT. We have previously proposed a technique in which x-ray fluorescence CT (FXCT) and SRCT data can be collected simultaneously [2]. This work resulted in proof of concept modelling, and a simple experiment test system. We show data here which demonstrate a two-dimensional (2-D) reconstruction of an iodine fluorescence map from a phantom. Measurements were performed with a fixed beam modulating mask using the Imaging and Medical beam line (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron. Fluorescence data was obtained during a CT scan using a single point detector, while transmission data was simultaneously collected using an area detector. A maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (MLEM) iterative algorithm was used to reconstruct the fluorescence map. We report on technique development and now believe compressive sensing (CS) imaging techniques suit SRCT and may overcome the issues encountered so far in combining SRCT and FXCT.

  17. The Next Step: LogoWriter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papert, Seymour

    1986-01-01

    Describes features and uses of LogoWriter, a revised and expanded version of Logo. With LogoWriter, a student can not only command the turtle to draw pictures but also (because of a built-in word processor) can add text to the screen. (JN)

  18. Doctor of Professional Counseling: The Next Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Stephen; Cade, Rochelle; Locke, Don W.

    2012-01-01

    Professional doctorates have been established in the allied health professions by clinicians seeking the highest levels of independent practice. Allied health professional doctorates include nursing practice (DNP), occupational therapy (OTD), psychology (PsyD), social work (DSW), and marriage and family therapy (DMFT). Lessons learned from the…

  19. Multi-User Interactive TV: the Next Step in Personalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brandenburg, Ray; van Deventer, M. Oskar; Karagiannis, Georgios; Schenk, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years there has been an increasing trend towards personalization in the TV world. IMS-based IPTV is a good example of a highly personalized IPTV architecture, featuring an advanced identity management subsystem. This article studies a next step in the personalization of the

  20. The next step in biology: a periodic table?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Pawan K

    2007-08-01

    Systems biology is an approach to explain the behaviour of a system in relation to its individual components. Synthetic biology uses key hierarchical and modular concepts of systems biology to engineer novel biological systems. In my opinion the next step in biology is to use molecule-to-phenotype data using these approaches and integrate them in the form a periodic table. A periodic table in biology would provide chassis to classify, systematize and compare diversity of component properties vis-a-vis system behaviour. Using periodic table it could be possible to compute higher- level interactions from component properties. This paper examines the concept of building a bio-periodic table using protein fold as the fundamental unit.

  1. Evaluation of an Electrostatic Dust Removal System with Potential Application in Next-Step Fusion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, F. Q. L.; John, B.; Skinner, C. H.; Roquemore, L.; Calle, C.

    2010-11-01

    The ability to manage inventories of dust will become increasingly important as fusion devices become larger and operate with a higher duty cycle. An electrostatic dust conveyor, originally developed to remove dust from solar panels on planetary rovers, has been tested for applicability to fusion devices. It consists of a spiral pattern of three indium tin oxide traces on a glass substrate that is biased to produce a surface electrostatic traveling wave. A digital microscope measured the particle size distribution before and after operation. The transport efficiency for different particle sizes of tungsten, carbon from an NSTX tile, fine glass spheres, and sand versus given different pre-charge voltages, pre-charge durations, driving amplitudes, and driving frequencies, will be presented. The results will be used to determine the optimal settings for a dust conveyor demonstration on NSTX.

  2. EDITORIAL: Towards the next node in downsized devices Towards the next node in downsized devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-02-01

    Over the past 50 years, one notable trend in the progress of electronics technology has been the steady scaling down in physical size, widely known as Moore's Law. Over the next ten years the ability to continue miniaturizing devices within the existing technological framework faces some fundamental obstacles, and alternatives to traditional CMOS architectures are being investigated. Carbon nanotubes, the wonder material first discovered by Iijima in 1991 [1], have been proposed as a possible means of continuing the trend to down-size devices. This has initiated research into the thermal properties of carbon nanotubes that may affect device performance [2], as well as new synthesis techniques that allow control over the diameter and chirality [3], which are physical characteristics of carbon nanotubes that influence their electronic properties. Carbon nanotubes have been touted as a host of device challenges since their discovery, but an application with truly commercial benefits is yet to be devised. Although the vast potential in carbon nanotube applied research may not yet have tapped into the cashflow from mainstream commerce, the role they have played so far in advancing our understanding of the fundamental properties of systems at the nanoscale remains priceless. Germanium and silicon nanowires are also possible candidates to infiltrate electronic devices. Means of refining fabrication processes and enhancing transport properties in these materials [4, 5] is already a hot topic of research. Electron-beam-induced deposition is one approach that is now widely adopted for fabricating three-dimensional structures for nanoscale devices. However, despite the merits of convenience and versatility, the potential applications of electron-beam-induced deposition are still limited by the problem of impurities introduced by the process. The review published in Nanotechnology [6] at the end of last year presents a user-oriented overview of electron

  3. Agroforestry—The Next Step in Sustainable and Resilient Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Heron Wilson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture faces the unprecedented task of feeding a world population of 9 billion people by 2050 while simultaneously avoiding harmful environmental and social effects. One effort to meet this challenge has been organic farming, with outcomes that are generally positive. However, a number of challenges remain. Organic yields lag behind those in conventional agriculture, and greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching remain somewhat problematic. In this paper, we examine current organic and conventional agriculture systems and suggest that agroforestry, which is the intentional combination of trees and shrubs with crops or livestock, could be the next step in sustainable agriculture. By implementing systems that mimic nature’s functions, agroforestry has the potential to remain productive while supporting a range of ecosystem services. In this paper, we outline the common practices and products of agroforestry as well as beneficial environmental and social effects. We address barriers to agroforestry and explore potential options to alter policies and increase adoption by farmers. We conclude that agroforestry is one of the best land use strategies to contribute to food security while simultaneously limiting environmental degradation.

  4. The NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT): NASA's Next Step for U.S. Deep Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.; Patterson, Michael J.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project is developing next generation ion propulsion technologies to enhance the performance and lower the costs of future NASA space science missions. This is being accomplished by producing Engineering Model (EM) and Prototype Model (PM) components, validating these via qualification-level and integrated system testing, and preparing the transition of NEXT technologies to flight system development. The project is currently completing one of the final milestones of the effort, that is operation of an integrated NEXT Ion Propulsion System (IPS) in a simulated space environment. This test will advance the NEXT system to a NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 (i.e., operation of a prototypical system in a representative environment), and will confirm its readiness for flight. Besides its promise for upcoming NASA science missions, NEXT may have excellent potential for future commercial and international spacecraft applications.

  5. A microfluidic device for preparing next generation DNA sequencing libraries and for automating other laboratory protocols that require one or more column chromatography steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Swee Jin; Phan, Huan; Gerry, Benjamin Michael; Kuhn, Alexandre; Hong, Lewis Zuocheng; Min Ong, Yao; Poon, Polly Suk Yean; Unger, Marc Alexander; Jones, Robert C; Quake, Stephen R; Burkholder, William F

    2013-01-01

    Library preparation for next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) remains a key bottleneck in the sequencing process which can be relieved through improved automation and miniaturization. We describe a microfluidic device for automating laboratory protocols that require one or more column chromatography steps and demonstrate its utility for preparing Next Generation sequencing libraries for the Illumina and Ion Torrent platforms. Sixteen different libraries can be generated simultaneously with significantly reduced reagent cost and hands-on time compared to manual library preparation. Using an appropriate column matrix and buffers, size selection can be performed on-chip following end-repair, dA tailing, and linker ligation, so that the libraries eluted from the chip are ready for sequencing. The core architecture of the device ensures uniform, reproducible column packing without user supervision and accommodates multiple routine protocol steps in any sequence, such as reagent mixing and incubation; column packing, loading, washing, elution, and regeneration; capture of eluted material for use as a substrate in a later step of the protocol; and removal of one column matrix so that two or more column matrices with different functional properties can be used in the same protocol. The microfluidic device is mounted on a plastic carrier so that reagents and products can be aliquoted and recovered using standard pipettors and liquid handling robots. The carrier-mounted device is operated using a benchtop controller that seals and operates the device with programmable temperature control, eliminating any requirement for the user to manually attach tubing or connectors. In addition to NGS library preparation, the device and controller are suitable for automating other time-consuming and error-prone laboratory protocols requiring column chromatography steps, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation.

  6. The next step: intelligent digital assistance for clinical operating rooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miehle Juliana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of new technologies, the surgical working environment becomes increasingly complex and comprises many medical devices that have to be taken cared of. However, the goal is to reduce the workload of the surgical team to allow them to fully focus on the actual surgical procedure. Therefore, new strategies are needed to keep the working environment manageable. Existing research projects in the field of intelligent medical environments mostly concentrate on workflow modeling or single smart features rather than building up a complete intelligent environment. In this article, we present the concept of intelligent digital assistance for clinical operating rooms (IDACO, providing the surgeon assistance in many different situations before and during an ongoing procedure using natural spoken language. The speech interface enables the surgeon to concentrate on the surgery and control the technical environment at the same time, without taking care of how to interact with the system. Furthermore, the system observes the context of the surgery and controls several devices autonomously at the appropriate time during the procedure.

  7. Lunar Station: The Next Logical Step in Space Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Robert Bruce; Harper, Lynn; Newfield, Mark; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the product of the efforts of sixteen nations over the course of several decades. It is now complete, operational, and has been continuously occupied since November of 20001. Since then the ISS has been carrying out a wide variety of research and technology development experiments, and starting to produce some pleasantly startling results. The ISS has a mass of 420 metric tons, supports a crew of six with a yearly resupply requirement of around 30 metric tons, within a pressurized volume of 916 cubic meters, and a habitable volume of 388 cubic meters. Its solar arrays produce up to 84 kilowatts of power. In the course of developing the ISS, many lessons were learned and much valuable expertise was gained. Where do we go from here? The ISS offers an existence proof of the feasibility of sustained human occupation and operations in space over decades. It also demonstrates the ability of many countries to work collaboratively on a very complex and expensive project in space over an extended period of time to achieve a common goal. By harvesting best practices and lessons learned, the ISS can also serve as a useful model for exploring architectures for beyond low-­- earth-­-orbit (LEO) space development. This paper will explore the concept and feasibility for a Lunar Station. The Station concept can be implemented by either putting the equivalent capability of the ISS down on the surface of the Moon, or by developing the required capabilities through a combination of delivered materials and equipment and in situ resource utilization (ISRU). Scenarios that leverage existing technologies and capabilities as well as capabilities that are under development and are expected to be available within the next 3-­5 years, will be examined. This paper will explore how best practices and expertise gained from developing and operating the ISS and other relevant programs can be applied to effectively developing Lunar Station.

  8. The Next Step in the Evolution of the RBV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    This essay addresses the role of transaction cost economics (TCE) inadvancing the resource-based view. In particular, it is argued that TCE hasthe potential to remedy a number of weak spots in the RBV, such as theabsence of attention in the RBV to the interaction between value creation andvalue...

  9. JIMM: the next step for mission-level models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, Jamieson; Kurker, Robert G.; Nalepka, Joseph P.

    2001-09-01

    The (Simulation Based Acquisition) SBA process is one in which the planning, design, and test of a weapon system or other product is done through the more effective use of modeling and simulation, information technology, and process improvement. This process results in a product that is produced faster, cheaper, and more reliably than its predecessors. Because the SBA process requires realistic and detailed simulation conditions, it was necessary to develop a simulation tool that would provide a simulation environment acceptable for doing SBA analysis. The Joint Integrated Mission Model (JIMM) was created to help define and meet the analysis, test and evaluation, and training requirements of a Department of Defense program utilizing SBA. Through its generic nature of representing simulation entities, its data analysis capability, and its robust configuration management process, JIMM can be used to support a wide range of simulation applications as both a constructive and a virtual simulation tool. JIMM is a Mission Level Model (MLM). A MLM is capable of evaluating the effectiveness and survivability of a composite force of air and space systems executing operational objectives in a specific scenario against an integrated air and space defense system. Because MLMs are useful for assessing a system's performance in a realistic, integrated, threat environment, they are key to implementing the SBA process. JIMM is a merger of the capabilities of one legacy model, the Suppressor MLM, into another, the Simulated Warfare Environment Generator (SWEG) MLM. By creating a more capable MLM, JIMM will not only be a tool to support the SBA initiative, but could also provide the framework for the next generation of MLMs.

  10. CTB: Next steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, W.

    1996-11-01

    The arms control world has focused on finally achieving the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban (CTB) Treaty, a task that was accomplished in September with great agony. Completion of the treaty was welcome news. But it is a flawed instrument in that India a {open_quotes}threshold{close_quotes} nuclear weapon state, has said that it will never sign it. Ultimately that could be fatal to the treaty because India is one of the 44 states that must ratify it before it can enter into force. However, It is possible that India might sign and ratify the CTB within a few years, if the nuclear weapon states get serious about the nuclear disarmament commitment they made more than 25 years ago in Article VI of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and if the CTB is amended to meet India`s objections. Despite uncertainties regarding the long-range fate of the treaty, the CTB has immediate value. The Vienna Law of Treaties provides that signatories to a treaty must {open_quotes}refrain from acts which would defeat the object and purposes{close_quotes} of the treaty, pending its entry into force. In short, no nuclear tests.

  11. Next Steps in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    and September 2012. 5 Cited by Deutsche Presse-Agentur, September 16, 2013, but not seen in any other press report. 6 Jason Rezaian, “Iranian...include Shi’a components as well. 11 Anne Barnard, “In Syrian Victory, Hezbollah Risks Broader Fight,” The New York Times, June 6, 2013, A1; Karl

  12. The cost management organization: the next step for materiel management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuweiler, R C

    1997-06-01

    With Materiel Management's transition over the last decade from simple logistics to analysis and cost management, it has gained recognition as a key part of the management team responsible for supplies, equipment, standards, and associated processes to identify, purchase, store, distribute, issue, and dispose of supplies and equipment. The materiel manager's job consists of putting the right product in the right place at the right time and in the right quantity at the best total delivered cost. In this context, Materiel Management has made powerful impacts to lower costs associated with: Distribution--costs have been lowered by actively adopting advanced supply channel management techniques such as primary suppliers, JIT, stockless programs, case cart/custom kit/procedure based delivery systems, modified stockless programs as well as margin management through cost plus, flat fee, or margins paid per activity. Cost of goods--lowered through aggregated purchasing in the forms of regional and national purchasing alliances and local capitation or other gain/risk share programs. Internal process costs--lowered by out-sourcing and/or integrating supplier processes and personnel into operations via partnership approaches. We have also reduced transactional costs through EDI transaction sets and the emerging use of the inter and intranet/electronic commerce, procurement cards, and evaluated receipt settlement processes. De-layering--We have lowered the operating costs of Materiel Management overhead by re-design/re-engineering, resulting in reduced management and greater front line authority. Quality--We have learned to identify and respond to customer and supplier needs by using quality improvement tools and ongoing measurement and monitoring techniques. Through this we have identified the waste of non-beneficial products and services. We have adopted supplier certification measurers to ensure quality is built into processes and outcomes. With so much already accomplished

  13. Radiolabeled immunotherapy in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treatment : the next step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, Andreas; van de Wiele, Christophe; Dierckx, Rudi A.

    Radiolabeled immunotherapy (RIT) is becoming a significant step forward in the treatment management of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). In this state-of-the-art review article, general details, practical and health economic aspects, and next steps of RIT in NHL are reviewed from the existing literature

  14. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD THE NEXT STEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL CW; CONLEY SF; HILDEBRAND RD; CUNNINGHAM DE; R_D_Doug_Hildebrand@rl.gov; DeVon_E_Cunningham@rl.gov

    2010-01-21

    Historically, the groundwater monitoring activities at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State have been very "people intensive." Approximately 1500 wells are sampled each year by field personnel or "samplers." These individuals have been issued pre-printed forms showing information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from 2 official electronic databases: the Hanford Well information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and other personnel posted the collected information onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. A pilot project for automating this extremely tedious process was lauched in 2008. Initially, the automation was focused on water-level measurements. Now, the effort is being extended to automate the meta-data associated with collecting groundwater samples. The project allowed electronic forms produced in the field by samplers to be used in a work flow process where the data is transferred to the database and electronic form is filed in managed records - thus eliminating manually completed forms. Elimating the manual forms and streamlining the data entry not only improved the accuracy of the information recorded, but also enhanced the efficiency and sampling capacity of field office personnel.

  15. Taking the Next Step - Implementing a Currency Transaction Development Levy

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, Sony; Hillman, David; Spratt, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    As we approach the half-way point for the achievement of many of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) the spotlight is shining ever more intently on the urgent need for new sources of revenue to pay for them. With the first international development duty launched, in the form of the ‘pilot’ solidarity levy on air travel, the momentum needs to continue to the implementation in quick succession of a second such initiative to provide another long term predictable source of addi...

  16. Wind Powering America: The Next Steps in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Jennifer L. [North Carolina Solar Center; Scanlin, Dennis [Appalachian State University; Quinlan, Paul [North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association

    2013-06-18

    The goal of this project is to apply the WPA’s proactive outreach strategy to the problem of educating the public about the likely transmission infrastructure developments concomitant to the significant development of wind energy resources in North Carolina. Given the lead time to develop significant new transmission infrastructure (5-10 years), it is critical to begin this outreach work today, so that wind resources can be developed to adequately meet the 20% by 2030 goal in the mid- to long-term (10-20 years). The project team planned to develop a transmission infrastructure outreach campaign for North Carolina by: (1) convening a utility interest group (UIG) of the North Carolina Wind Working Group (NC WWG) consisting of electric utilities in the state and the Southeast; and (2) expanding outreach to local and state government officials in North Carolina.

  17. The 2012 School Psychology Futures Conference: Accomplishments and next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamruz-Smith, Susan; Harrison, Patti L.; Cummings, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    The major national and international school psychology organizations hosted the 2012 School Psychology Futures Conference during the fall of 2012. The conference was designed to provide an opportunity for school psychologists to plan their future roles in better supporting children, families, and schools. The 2012 conference, titled "School…

  18. The next step: detailed assessment of an adult glaucoma patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Burton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The glaucomas are a group of progressive optic neuropathies associated with characteristic structural changes at the optic nerve head (cupping and corresponding visual field defects. The main modifiable risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy is increased intraocular pressure (IOP. The aims of assessment are:accurate diagnosisidentification of the cause of increased IOP, if applicablequantification of the level of glaucoma damage and functional impairment.

  19. Next Steps in the Evolution of Human Spaceflight Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmain, Clint; Niemann, Chris; McGregor, Darrell

    2011-01-01

    Train before you fly has always been a watchword at NASA, and consequently, NASA has been conducting training for human spaceflight missions for longer than it has been involved in the actual conduct of human spaceflight missions. Throughout that time, NASA s approach to human spaceflight training has continuously evolved to keep pace with the technology of the modern world, but the approach to training itself has not changed significantly. Today, there are more tools and technologies that enable learning than ever before. This paper intends to review the challenges of human spaceflight training and how modern technology and an updated approach could improve that training. The Spaceflight Training Management Office (DA7) within the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) has been investigating the current training of instructors, flight controllers and astronauts in order to identify where a new approach to training and training management may be necessary to improve the efficacy of the training provided. Through this investigation, the DA7 team has identified potential areas of improvement within International Space Station (ISS) training in a wide range of areas, including the delivery of training, the structure of the training program, the concept of what is considered training, and the management of that training. The ISS is an operational program with an established training paradigm. As such, the implementation of these concepts will be met with several challenges that may prevent or preclude them from being adopted. These challenges include demonstrating return-on-investment (ROI) and overcoming cultural or technological obstacles. This report will delve into the possible improvement areas for training, the future training concepts that are being considered, and the challenges associated with implementation. The paper will include concepts for utilization of Web 2.0 technologies, electronic learning, digital media, and other technologies in the development

  20. The Next Step towards a Function Markup Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Kopp, S.; Marsella, S.C.; Pelachaud, C.; Vilhjálmson, H.; Prendinger, H.; Lester, J.; Ishizuka, M.

    2008-01-01

    In order to enable collaboration and exchange of modules for generating multimodal communicative behaviours of robots and virtual agents, the SAIBA initiative envisions the definition of two representation languages. One of these is the Function Markup Language (FML). This language specifies the

  1. Three Years After: Next Steps in the War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Vietnam. Mr. Jenkins has a B.A. in fine arts and an M.A. in history, both from UCLA. He studied at the University of Guanajuato in Mexico and in the...hangs over the American economy . Much of the original leadership of al Qaeda remains intact and can communicate publicly as well as clandestinely. A...costs of their violent acts. We should help dramatize their in- ability to govern to the benefit of their societies. For example, in Iran the economy

  2. Progress and Next Steps in the BIOPROTA Collaborative Forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sanchez, Danyl [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 40, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Smith, G. [GMS Abingdon Ltd, Tamarisk, Radley Road, Abingdon, OX14 3PP (United Kingdom); Smith, K. [RadEcol Consulting Ltd, Fell View, Middletown, Cumbria, CA22 2UG (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    BIOPROTA is an international collaborative forum, started in 2002, designed to support resolution of key issues in the biosphere aspects of assessments of the long-term impact of potential contaminant releases associated with solid radioactive waste disposal. The focus is on the application of good science to provide a good understanding of relevant biosphere system processes and address important uncertainties. This in turn supports decision making related to waste management and the appropriate allocation of resources to solve problems. Membership includes regulators, operators, technical support organisations and academic institutions from North America, Europe and Asia. Member organisations have representation on a Sponsoring Committee, currently chaired by Danyl Perez-Sanchez (CIEMAT) and supported by a Technical Secretariat. Given the long time frames which are required to be addressed in post-closure assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities, thousands of years or even longer, the range of assessment issues is very large. In essence, they boil down to being related to the scope for environmental change and the behaviour of humans and ecosystems in response to such change, including their contribution to the change itself. This requires consideration of climate change, landscape evolution, the dynamics of ecosystems, and then, the behaviour of radionuclides within those changing systems and the ways by which their presence may give rise to radiation exposure. It is multi-disciplinary but has an important focus on radioecology. The forum is tailored to enable opportunities for sharing, reviewing and interpretation of information used in assessments. This includes methods for system characterisation and description, modelling of system evolution subject to assumptions for environmental change, exposure modelling according to those possibilities for evolution, and data to support all the assessment assumptions and model parameter selection. The

  3. The Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlvaine, J. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Saunders, S. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Bordelon, E. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Baden, S. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Elam, L. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

  4. The requirements of a next step large steady state tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeschitz, G.; Barabaschi, P.; Federici, G.; Ioki, K.; Ladd, P.; Mukhovatov, V.; Sugihara, M.; Tivey, R.; ITER-JCT; Home Team

    2000-06-01

    After a decision by the ITER parties to investigate the possibility of designing a reduced cost version of ITER several possible machine layouts with different aspect ratios were studied. Relatively early in this process it became clear that there is no significant cost difference between different aspect ratios and that there is a maximum realistically possible aspect ratio for a machine with 6 m major radius and rather high plasma shaping. Following this study a machine with an intermediate aspect ratio (3.1) called the ITER Fusion Energy Advanced Tokamak (ITER FEAT) was chosen as the basis for the outline design of a reduced cost ITER. Several potential steady state scenarios can be investigated in ITER FEAT, i.e. monotonic or reversed shear at full or reduced minor radius. In addition, so-called hybrid discharges, are feasible where a mixture of inductive and non-inductive current drive as well as bootstrap current allows long pulse discharges of the order of 2500 s. The βN values and H factors required for these discharges are in the same range as those observed on present machines, which provides confidence that such discharges can be studied in ITER FEAT. However, due to uncertainties in physics knowledge, for example the current drive efficiency off-axis, it is impossible at present to generate a completely self-consistent scenario taking all boundary conditions, for example engineering or heating system constraints, into account. In addition, all of these regimes have a potential problem with divertor operation compatibility (low edge density) and with helium exhaust which has to be addressed in existing experiments. For the engineering design of the in-vessel components and for the balance of the plant there is practically no difference between inductive (500 s) and steady state operation. However, the choice of heating systems and the distribution of power between them will be strongly influenced by the envisaged steady state scenarios.

  5. Digital and customized lingual orthodontics: The next step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh Kothari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that lingual orthodontics offers the most aesthetic solution to treat all kinds of malocclusions with full 3 dimensional control of the dentition & complete invisibility. Unfortunately the lingual approach has always been considered the more difficult and cumbersome way to treat patients. With the introduction of CAD CAM appliances we have reached an era of more predictable treatment planning and execution in lingual orthodontics, thus enabling lingual treatments to be a part of every orthodontic practice in India. Digital planning and customised approach makes lingual orthodontics more user friendly and Predictable.

  6. Translation of Nutritional Genomics into Nutrition Practice: The Next Step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Chiara; Adamski, Melissa M

    2017-04-06

    Genetics is an important piece of every individual health puzzle. The completion of the Human Genome Project sequence has deeply changed the research of life sciences including nutrition. The analysis of the genome is already part of clinical care in oncology, pharmacology, infectious disease and, rare and undiagnosed diseases. The implications of genetic variations in shaping individual nutritional requirements have been recognised and conclusively proven, yet routine use of genetic information in nutrition and dietetics practice is still far from being implemented. This article sets out the path that needs to be taken to build a framework to translate gene-nutrient interaction studies into best-practice guidelines, providing tools that health professionals can use to understand whether genetic variation affects nutritional requirements in their daily clinical practice.

  7. Translation of Nutritional Genomics into Nutrition Practice: The Next Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Murgia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetics is an important piece of every individual health puzzle. The completion of the Human Genome Project sequence has deeply changed the research of life sciences including nutrition. The analysis of the genome is already part of clinical care in oncology, pharmacology, infectious disease and, rare and undiagnosed diseases. The implications of genetic variations in shaping individual nutritional requirements have been recognised and conclusively proven, yet routine use of genetic information in nutrition and dietetics practice is still far from being implemented. This article sets out the path that needs to be taken to build a framework to translate gene–nutrient interaction studies into best-practice guidelines, providing tools that health professionals can use to understand whether genetic variation affects nutritional requirements in their daily clinical practice.

  8. Translation of Nutritional Genomics into Nutrition Practice: The Next Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Chiara; Adamski, Melissa M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetics is an important piece of every individual health puzzle. The completion of the Human Genome Project sequence has deeply changed the research of life sciences including nutrition. The analysis of the genome is already part of clinical care in oncology, pharmacology, infectious disease and, rare and undiagnosed diseases. The implications of genetic variations in shaping individual nutritional requirements have been recognised and conclusively proven, yet routine use of genetic information in nutrition and dietetics practice is still far from being implemented. This article sets out the path that needs to be taken to build a framework to translate gene–nutrient interaction studies into best-practice guidelines, providing tools that health professionals can use to understand whether genetic variation affects nutritional requirements in their daily clinical practice. PMID:28383492

  9. The next step in biology: A periodic table?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... In my opinion, a bio-periodic table could be defined as a tabular arrangement of unique biological elements that, in combinations, produce distinct higher-level properties of the system. This paper examines the possibility of using 'protein fold' as building block of a molecular periodic table. Before we delve ...

  10. Colloquial French 2 the next step in language learning

    CERN Document Server

    Broady, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    Do you know French already and want to go a stage further? If you're planning a visit to France, need to brush up your French for work, or are simply doing a course, Colloquial French 2 is the ideal way to refresh your knowledge of the language and to extend your skills.Colloquial French 2 is designed to help those involved in self-study, and structured to give you the opportunity to listen to and read lots of modern, everyday French. It has been developed to work systematically on reinforcing and extending your grasp of French grammar and vocabulary.Key features of Colloquial French 2 include

  11. Colloquial French 2 the next step in language learning

    CERN Document Server

    Broady, Elspeth

    2014-01-01

    Do you know French already and want to go a stage further? If you''re planning a visit to France, need to brush up your French for work, or are simply doing a course, Colloquial French 2 is the ideal way to refresh your knowledge of the language and to extend your skills.Colloquial French 2 is designed to help those involved in self-study, and structured to give you the opportunity to listen to and read lots of modern, everyday French. It has been developed to work systematically on reinforcing and extending your grasp of French grammar and vocabulary.Key features of Colloquial French 2 includ

  12. Nanoformulated antibiotics: the next step for pathogenic bacteria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saúde, Amanda Caroline Marques; Cherobim, Mariana Dornelles; Amaral, André Corrêa; Dias, Simoní Campos; Franco, Octávio Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The resistance of infectious bacteria to current antibiotics is a worldwide problem. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of nanostructured molecules against pathogens as an innovative methodology for the development of novel drugs. Currently, 95% of properties limited pharmacies applicability such as low solubility, short half-life in the circulatory system, toxicity associated to controlled release and immunogenicity. Furthermore, nanobiotechnology provides a different perspective for modifying these properties and allows innovative drug development. In this context, this review aims to describe different methods, polymers, and drugs used to obtain and analyze nanostructures associated with antibiotics as an unconventional and innovative tool for bacterial control. Biotechnology provides a different perspective for modifying drug properties and allows innovative drug development. This review describes nanostructures in association with antibiotics as an unconventional and innovative tool for bacterial control.

  13. E-waste: the growing global problem and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacock, Michelle; Kelly, Carol Bain; Suk, William A

    2016-03-01

    In many low- and middle-income countries, handling and disposal of discarded electrical or electronic equipment (EEE) is frequently unregulated. e-Waste contains hazardous constituents such as lead, mercury, and chromium, certain chemicals in plastics, and flame retardants. There is increasing concern about health effects related to contamination in air, soil, and water for people working and living at or near informal e-waste processing sites, especially to the most vulnerable populations, pregnant women and children. The observed adverse health effects and increasing number of e-waste sites make protecting human health and the environment from e-waste contamination an expanding challenge. Through international cooperation, awareness can be elevated about the harm that e-waste processing poses to human health. Here we discuss how international researchers, public health practitioners, and policymakers can employ solutions to reduce e-waste exposures.

  14. Lymphatic Vascular Regeneration : The Next Step in Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huethorst, Eline; Krebber, Merle M; Fledderus, Joost O; Gremmels, Hendrik; Xu, Yan Juan; Pei, Jiayi; Verhaar, Marianne C; Cheng, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays a crucial role in interstitial fluid drainage, lipid absorption, and immunological defense. Lymphatic dysfunction results in lymphedema, fluid accumulation, and swelling of soft tissues, as well as a potentially impaired immune response. Lymphedema significantly reduces

  15. Working Consumers: The Next Step in Marketing Theory?

    OpenAIRE

    Cova, Bernard; Dalli, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    In marketing and consumer research, consumers have been increasingly theorised as producers. However, these theorisations do not take all facets of consumers’ productive role into account. This paper mobilises both post-Marxist economics and post-Maussian socio-economics to develop the concept of working consumer. This concept depicts consumers who, through their immaterial labour, add cultural and affective value to market offerings. In so doing consumers increase the value of market offerin...

  16. Sociocultural Systems: The Next Step in Army Cultural Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Durkheim , and Weber, the correspondence perspective presumes a duality between social structure and culture (ideology) and how culture relates to...Émile Durkheim (1965) has a mimetic conception of religious ideas—they are the symbolic representations of social arrangements. Because religion...its own difficulties. Durkheim is criticized for taking a “reductionistic attitude toward belief in God” (Godlove, 1989, p. 185; see also Phillips

  17. Turing's next steps: the mechanochemical basis of morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jonathon; Grill, Stephan W; Bois, Justin S

    2011-06-01

    Nearly 60 years ago, Alan Turing showed theoretically how two chemical species, termed morphogens, diffusing and reacting with each other can generate spatial patterns. Diffusion plays a crucial part in transporting chemical signals through space to establish the length scale of the pattern. When coupled to chemical reactions, mechanical processes - forces and flows generated by motor proteins - can also define length scales and provide a mechanochemical basis for morphogenesis. forces and flows generated by motor proteins - can also define length scales and provide a mechanochemical basis for morphogenesis.

  18. Systems and software quality the next step for industrialisation

    CERN Document Server

    Wieczorek, Martin; Bons, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Software and systems quality is playing an increasingly important role in the growth of almost all - profit and non-profit - organisations. Quality is vital to the success of enterprises in their markets. Most small trade and repair businesses use software systems in their administration and marketing processes. Every doctor's surgery is managing its patients using software. Banking is no longer conceivable without software. Aircraft, trucks and cars use more and more software to handle their increasingly complex technical systems. Innovation, competition and cost pressure are always present i

  19. Taking the Next Step: Ways Forward for Coaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Andrew; Collins, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Coaching is no longer a subset of physical education or sport psychology but is rather an established vocation for research. In reaching such a position, we argue that a broad range of epistemologies have been used to investigate coaching such as sociology and cognitive psychology. However there is danger that, in the search for new ground,…

  20. Prevention of chronic kidney disease : The next step forward!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, PE; Gansevoort, RT

    The incidence of end stage renal disease in patients who have not experienced a classic primary renal disease is dramatically increasing. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in these patients is due to diabetes, mostly type 2, hypertension and generalised atherosclerosis. As these patients are frequently

  1. Blockchain: The Evolutionary Next Step for ICT E-Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pin Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blockchain technology, while still challenged with key limitations, is a transformative Information and Communications Technology (ICT that has changed our notion of trust. Improved efficiencies for agricultural sustainable development has been demonstrated when ICT-enabled farms have access to knowledge banks and other digital resources. UN FAO-recommended ICT e-agricultural infrastructure components are a confluence of ICT and blockchain technology requirements. When ICT e-agricultural systems with blockchain infrastructure are immutable and distributed ledger systems for record management, baseline agricultural environmental data integrity is safeguarded for those who participate in transparent data management. This paper reviewed blockchain-based concepts associated with ICT-based technology. Moreover, a model ICT e-agriculture system with a blockchain infrastructure is proposed for use at the local and regional scale. To determine context specific technical and social requirements of blockchain technology for ICT e-agriculture systems, an evaluation tool is presented. The proposed system and tool can be evaluated and applied to further developments of e-agriculture systems.

  2. Next-Step Spherical Torus Experiment and Spherical Torus Strategy in the Fusion Energy Development Path

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ono; M. Peng; C. Kessel; C. Neumeyer; J. Schmidt; J. Chrzanowski; D. Darrow; L. Grisham; P. Heitzenroeder; T. Jarboe; C. Jun; S. Kaye; J. Menard; R. Raman; T. Stevenson; M. Viola; J. Wilson; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2003-10-27

    A spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path which is complementary to proposed tokamak burning plasma experiments such as ITER is described. The ST strategy focuses on a compact Component Test Facility (CTF) and higher performance advanced regimes leading to more attractive DEMO and Power Plant scale reactors. To provide the physics basis for the CTF an intermediate step needs to be taken which we refer to as the ''Next Step Spherical Torus'' (NSST) device and examine in some detail herein. NSST is a ''performance extension'' (PE) stage ST with the plasma current of 5-10 MA, R = 1.5 m, and Beta(sub)T less than or equal to 2.7 T with flexible physics capability. The mission of NSST is to: (1) provide a sufficient physics basis for the design of CTF, (2) explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction/high performance regimes, which can then be utilized by CTF, DEMO, and Power Plants, and (3) contribute to the general plasma/fusion science of high beta toroidal plasmas. The NSST facility is designed to utilize the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (or similar) site to minimize the cost and time required for the design and construction.

  3. The next step to creating a more efficient form of paperless contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet, Gerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Joint Applied Project The purpose of this project is to explore the early years of paper-procurement and chart the progression to paperless contracting. This will be followed by the Department of Defense's next step to further improve procurement software and user interface. This will be contrasted against the Army's further refinement of their enterprise system that only removes the paper from the otherwise archaic procurement system. The author, a contracting officer whose background in...

  4. Space Drive Physics: Introduction and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, M. G.

    Research toward the visionary goal of propellantless ``space drives'' is introduced, covering key physics issues and a listing of roughly 2-dozen approaches. The targeted advantage of a space drive is to circumvent the propellant constraints of rockets and the maneuvering limits of light sails by using the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space for propulsion. At present, the scientific foundations from which to engineer a space drive have not been discovered and, objectively, might be impossible. Although no propulsion breakthroughs appear imminent, the subject has matured to where the relevant questions have been broached and are beginning to be answered. The critical make-break issues include; conservation of momentum, uncertain sources of reaction mass, and the net-external thrusting requirement. Note: space drives are not necessarily faster- than-light devices. Speed limits are a separate, unanswered issue. Relevant unsolved physics includes; the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, coupling of gravitation and electromagnetism, and the nature of the quantum vacuum. The propulsion approaches span mostly stages 1 through 3 of the scientific method (defining the problem, collecting data, and articulating hypotheses), while some have matured to stage 4 (testing hypotheses). Nonviable approaches include `stiction drives,' `gyroscopic antigravity,' and `lifters.' No attempt is made to gauge the prospects of the remaining approaches. Instead, a list of next-step research questions is derived from the examination of these goals, unknowns, and concepts.

  5. Evolution of the Baseline ISS ECLSS Technologies: The Next Logical Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Bagdigian, Bob; Perry, Jay; Lewis, John; Williams, Dave

    2004-01-01

    The baseline Environmental Control and Life Support Systems which are currently deployed on the International Space Station or planned to be launched in Node 3 are based on technologies selected in the early 1990's. While they are generally meeting or exceeding requirements for supporting the ISS crew, lessons learned from years of on orbit and ground testing, new advances in technology state of the art, and requirements for future manned missions prompt consideration of the next logical step to enhance these systems to increase performance, robustness, reliability, and reduce on-orbit and logistical resource requirements. This paper discusses the current state of the art in ISS ECLSS technologies, and possible areas for enhancement/improvement. Potential utilization of the ISS as a testbed for on-orbit checkout of selected technology improvements is also addressed.

  6. Next steps in the Energy Frontier - Hadron colliders workshop at LPC@FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    With the observation of the Standard Model Higgs boson, the high energy physics community is investigating possible next steps for entering into a new era in particle physics. The aim of this workshop is to bring together physics, instrumentation/detector and accelerator experts to present, outline and discuss all aspects needed for the next steps in the energy frontier. The workshop will focus on the lessons learned with 7 and 8 TeV LHC, physics requirements and subsequent detector technologies for HL-LHC, as well as development needs for future 100 TeV proton collider. The goal is to identify synergies and common approaches where further collaboration between various initiatives could be fruitful. The discovery potential for a future 100 TeV proton collider will depend on the detector / instrumentation capabilities in order to explore the highest energy and phenomena. Many of these detection capabilities will need further studies such as muon detection at several 10s of TeV range, calorimeters capable of me...

  7. Global seismic inversion as the next standard step in the processing sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maver, Kim G.; Hansen, Lars S.; Jepsen, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Klaus B.

    1998-12-31

    Seismic inversion of post stack seismic data has until recently been regarded as a reservoir oriented method since the standard inversion techniques rely on extensive well control and a detailed user derived input model. Most seismic inversion techniques further requires a stable wavelet. As a consequence seismic inversion is mainly utilised in mature areas focusing of specific zones only after the seismic data has been interpreted and is well understood. By using an advanced 3-D global technique, seismic inversion is presented as the next standard step in the processing sequence. The technique is robust towards noise within the seismic data, utilizes a time variant wavelet, and derives a low frequency model utilizing the stacking velocities and only limited well control. 4 figs.

  8. The FREYA project at VENUS-F - the next step towards MYRRHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasa, A.; Baeten, P.; Kochetkov, A.; Uyttenhove, W.; Vittiglio, G.; Wagemans, J. [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Mercatali, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bianchini, G.; Carta, M.; Fabrizio, V.; Peluso, V. [ENEA, C.R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese, 301-00060 S. Maria di Galeria (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    number of in-pile sections and heterogeneous elements inside and around the active zone, the next cores will be step by step modified by loading new materials and perturbations with the aim to assemble a MYRRHA mock-up. (authors)

  9. Next Generation, Si-Compatible Materials and Devices in the Si-Ge-Sn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-09

    Photoluminescence from Ge1-x-ySixSny, ternaries and LEDs: Synthesis of light emitting Ge1-x-ySixSny, materials with tunable wavelengths over a wide range in the...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0044 Next generation, Si-compatible materials and devices in the Si-Ge-Sn system John Kouvetakis ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY Final...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Next generation, Si-compatible materials and devices in the Si-Ge-Sn system 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0208 5b. GRANT

  10. Next Steps in Attachment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  11. Next Steps in Attachment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  12. Development of real time diagnostics and feedback algorithms for JET in view of the next step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murari, A.; Barana, O. [Consorzio RFX Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padua (Italy); Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Piccolo, F.; Sartori, F. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Assoc., Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom); Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Laborde, L.; Moreau, D. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Albanese, R. [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. Mediterranea RC (Italy); Arena, P.; Bruno, M. [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ.di Catania (Italy); Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M. [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. Napoli Federico Napoli (Italy); Crisanti, F. [Associazone EURATOM ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Luna, E. de la; Sanchez, J. [Associacion EURATOM CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Real time control of many plasma parameters will be an essential aspect in the development of reliable high performance operation of Next Step Tokamaks. The main prerequisites for any feedback scheme are the precise real-time determination of the quantities to be controlled, requiring top quality and highly reliable diagnostics, and the availability of robust control algorithms. A new set of real time diagnostics was recently implemented on JET to prove the feasibility of determining, with high accuracy and time resolution, the most important plasma quantities. With regard to feedback algorithms, new model-based controllers were developed to allow a more robust control of several plasma parameters. Both diagnostics and algorithms were successfully used in several experiments, ranging from H-mode plasmas to configuration with ITBs (internal thermal barriers). Since elaboration of computationally heavy measurements is often required, significant attention was devoted to non-algorithmic methods like Digital or Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Networks. The real time hardware and software adopted architectures are also described with particular attention to their relevance to ITER. (authors)

  13. The next step for stress research in primates: To identify relationships between glucocorticoid secretion and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehner, Jacinta C; Bergman, Thore J

    2017-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are hormones that mediate the energetic demands that accompany environmental challenges. It is therefore not surprising that these metabolic hormones have come to dominate endocrine research on the health and fitness of wild populations. Yet, several problems have been identified in the vertebrate research that also apply to the non-human primate research. First, glucocorticoids should not be used as a proxy for fitness (unless a link has previously been established between glucocorticoids and fitness for a particular population). Second, stress research in behavioral ecology has been overly focused on "chronic stress" despite little evidence that chronic stress hampers fitness in wild animals. Third, research effort has been disproportionately focused on the causes of glucocorticoid variation rather than the fitness consequences. With these problems in mind, we have three objectives for this review. We describe the conceptual framework behind the "stress concept", emphasizing that high glucocorticoids do not necessarily indicate a stress response, and that a stress response does not necessarily indicate an animal is in poor health. Then, we conduct a comprehensive review of all studies on "stress" in wild primates, including any study that examined environmental factors, the stress response, and/or fitness (or proxies for fitness). Remarkably, not a single primate study establishes a connection between all three. Finally, we provide several recommendations for future research in the field of primate behavioral endocrinology, primarily the need to move beyond identifying the factors that cause glucocorticoid secretion to additionally focus on the relationship between glucocorticoids and fitness. We believe that this is an important next step for research on stress physiology in primates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fusion-power demonstration. [Next step beyond MFTF-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-03-29

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment.

  15. Taking the Next Step: Confronting the Legacies of Slavery at Historic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Linnea; Wickens, K. Allison; Jecha, Jackie; Powell, Linda; Hawkins, Callie; Flanagan, Candra

    2017-01-01

    "Slavery is the ground zero of race relations," declared James and Lois Horton in their groundbreaking book, "Slavery and Public History." Engaging the history and legacy of slavery is a crucial step in understanding current U.S. society especially race relations. Historic sites that have connections to slavery have begun to…

  16. Adjustable Speed Drives in the Next Decade. Future Steps in Industry and Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Paul; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    The main trends for the next decade within the multi-disciplinarian field of adjustable speed drives are discussed, and a number of topics are especially addressed in this paper. The topics include market development over the last decade, historical development in power converter volume and weight......, future drive demands, power converter architecture, interfacing to the grid, motor types, and control principles. Furthermore, some of the possibilities and trends related to decentral ?intelligence? and Internet connection are discussed....

  17. A Test Device Module of the Step Motor Driver for HANARO CAR Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Yun-Taek; Doo, Seung-Gyu; Shin, Jin-Won; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Young-San; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Kyoo; Lee, Choong-Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The brand-new control system is reliable and has advantages compared with the old control system, and the installed system covers all functional operations of old system. Nevertheless, packaged RTP systems do not include a step motor or driver, and it is necessary to develop a proper test device to check the step motor and driver without using the RTP system. In particular, the operation of a CAR (Control Absorber Rod) requires many complicated procedures. Occasionally, it takes significant time to prepare for a field test. In this work, a test device module for a step motor diver is shown to emulate a HANARO CAR operation, and the test device system architecture, operational principle, and experiment results are presented. A commercial 8-bit μ-processor is applied to implement the device. A portable test device for HANARO CAR operation is presented. An 8-bit μ-controller is used to emulate a HANARO CAR operation. The digital interface, as well as the functional operation, of the test device module matches that of the currently used driver. This device can be used to check the functional validity of the step motor and driver.

  18. Final repository searching in Germany - what are the next steps?; Endlagerstandortsuche in Deutschland. Wie geht's weiter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neles, Julia Mareike [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany). Bereich Nukleartechnik und Anlagensicherheit

    2016-07-01

    Up to now (2016) the question of final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes is still open in Germany. The Commission of radioactive waste disposal has finalized its report including recommendations for the further process. The next step will be the site selection procedure based on a ''white map''. The protest of several Federal states and communities against repository sites in their region is already developing.

  19. Improving selectivity of the Baltic cod pelagic trawl fishery: Experiments to assess the next step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Tschernij, Vesa; Holst, René

    2010-01-01

    or present legislation and that were developed to meet requirements of increased selectivity performance. A standard nominal 135 mm diamond mesh codend, a codend with two nominal 125 mm bottom windows, and a codend with a nominal 125 mm nominal top window were tested using the covered codend method. A Danish...... and a Swedish commercial vessel were used for the sea trials to account for potential differences between vessels. Potential differences among the three gear variants were assessed by a two-step mixed effects model. The codend catch weight was found to have a significant effect on the selectivity in some cases...

  20. Getting Ahead Three Steps to Take Your Career to the Next Level

    CERN Document Server

    Garfinkle, Joel A

    2011-01-01

    A leading executive coach pinpoints three vital traits necessary to advance your career In Getting Ahead, one of the top 50 executive coaches in the United States, Joel Garfinkle reveals his signature model for mastering three skills to take your career to the next level: Perception, Visibility, and Influence. The PVI-model of professional advancement will teach you to: (1) Actively promote yourself as an asset and valuable person inside the organization, (2) Increase your visibility to gain others' recognition and appreciation for your efforts and (3) Become a person of influence who makes ke

  1. Trends in Mobile Computing: State-of-the-Art and Next Steps

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Computing is moving to the edge of the network. It is becoming increasingly personal and allowing people to enjoy and express themselves in unprecedented ways. The same development allows professionals and enterprises to increase quality and productivity through improved mobility. The seminar discusses the underlying technical and societal trends and the state-of-the-art of mobile computing. Examples of current developments include the transformation of mobile devices into servers, augmented reality in mobile devices and the opportunities offered by wireless sensor networks. The fusion of the physical and digital worlds enabled by mobile computing is driving industry and society to adopt new uses of digital technologies and causing the focus of development to shift from hardware products to new services. Bio:Since 2004 Prof. Jan Bosch is working as Vice President and Head of the Software and Application Technology Laboratory of Nokia Research Centre in Helsinki, Finland. The Software & Application Tec...

  2. NASA's Commercial Crew Program, The Next Step in U.S. Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Thomas, Rayelle E.

    2013-01-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is leading NASA's efforts to develop the next U.S. capability for crew transportation and rescue services to and from the International Space Station (ISS) by the mid-decade timeframe. The outcome of this capability is expected to stimulate and expand the U.S. space transportation industry. NASA is relying on its decades of human space flight experience to certify U.S. crewed vehicles to the ISS and is doing so in a two phase certification approach. NASA Certification will cover all aspects of a crew transportation system, including development, test, evaluation, and verification; program management and control; flight readiness certification; launch, landing, recovery, and mission operations; sustaining engineering and maintenance/upgrades. To ensure NASA crew safety, NASA Certification will validate technical and performance requirements, verify compliance with NASA requirements, validate the crew transportation system operates in appropriate environments, and quantify residual risks.

  3. Hepatitis B virus: Where do we stand and what is the next step for eradication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HB) virus (HBV) infection, which causes liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, is endemic worldwide. Hepatitis B vaccines became commercially available in the 1980s. The World Health Organization recommended the integration of the HB vaccine into the national immunisation programs in all countries. HBV prevention strategies are classified into three groups: (1) universal vaccination alone; (2) universal vaccination with screening of pregnant women plus HB immune globulin (HBIG) at birth; and (3) selective vaccination with screening of pregnant women plus HBIG at birth. Most low-income countries have adopted universal vaccine programs without screening of pregnant women. However, HB vaccines are not widely used in low-income countries. The Global Alliance for Vaccine and Immunization was launched in 2000, and by 2012, the global coverage of a three-dose HB vaccine had increased to 79%. The next challenges are to further increase the coverage rate, close the gap between recommendations and routine practices, approach high-risk individuals, screen and treat chronically infected individuals, and prevent breakthrough infections. To eradicate HBV infections, strenuous efforts are required to overcome socioeconomic barriers to the HB vaccine; this task is expected to take several decades to complete. PMID:25083074

  4. The Mussel Watch California pilot study on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs): synthesis and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, Keith A.; Dodder, Nathan G.; Weisberg, Stephen B.; Gregorio, Dominic; Bishop, Jonathan S.; Klosterhaus, Susan; Alvarez, David A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Kimbrough, Kimani L.; Lauenstein, Gunnar G.

    2014-01-01

    A multiagency pilot study on mussels (Mytilus spp.) collected at 68 stations in California revealed that 98% of targeted contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) were infrequently detectable at concentrations ⩽1 ng/g. Selected chemicals found in commercial and consumer products were more frequently detected at mean concentrations up to 470 ng/g dry wt. The number of CECs detected and their concentrations were greatest for stations categorized as urban or influenced by storm water discharge. Exposure to a broader suite of CECs was also characterized by passive sampling devices (PSDs), with estimated water concentrations of hydrophobic compounds correlated with Mytilus concentrations. The results underscore the need for focused CEC monitoring in coastal ecosystems and suggest that PSDs are complementary to bivalves in assessing water quality. Moreover, the partnership established among participating agencies led to increased spatial coverage, an expanded list of analytes and a more efficient use of available resources.

  5. Next Steps: Water Technology Advances (Research)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will focus on contaminants and their impact on health, adequate removal of contaminants from various water systems, and water and resource recovery within treatment systems. It will develop the next generation of technological advances to provide guidance in support ...

  6. Taking the Plunge: Next Steps in Engaged Learning: Project Kaleidoscope-Connecticut Conference of Independent Colleges Conference for Science Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Jennifer

    2010-09-01

    College and university science educators from across Connecticut gathered at Yale's West Campus in April 2010 for a Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) program entitled "Taking the Plunge: Next Steps in Engaged Learning." Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and co-sponsored by the Connecticut Conference of Independent Colleges (CCIC) and Yale's McDougal Graduate Teaching Center, the event was the latest in a PKAL series of one-day conferences aimed at equipping science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) instructors with effective approaches to engaging students and training future scientists.

  7. High efficient waste-to-energy in Amsterdam: getting ready for the next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murer, Martin J; Spliethoff, Hartmut; de Waal, Chantal M W; Wilpshaar, Saskia; Berkhout, Bart; van Berlo, Marcel A J; Gohlke, Oliver; Martin, Johannes J E

    2011-10-01

    Waste-to-energy (WtE) plants are traditionally designed for clean and economical disposal of waste. Design for output on the other hand was the guideline when projecting the HRC (HoogRendement Centrale) block of Afval Energie Bedrijf Amsterdam. Since commissioning of the plant in 2007, operation has continuously improved. In December 2010, the block's running average subsidy efficiency for one year exceeded 30% for the first time. The plant can increase its efficiency even further by raising the steam temperature to 480°C. In addition, the plant throughput can be increased by 10% to reduce the total cost of ownership. In order to take these steps, good preparation is required in areas such as change in heat transfer in the boiler and the resulting higher temperature upstream of the super heaters. A solution was found in the form of combining measured data with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Suction and acoustic pyrometers are used to obtain a clear picture of the temperature distribution in the first boiler pass. With the help of the CFD model, the change in heat transfer and vertical temperature distribution was predicted. For the increased load, the temperature is increased by 100°C; this implies a higher heat transfer in the first and second boiler passes. Even though the new block was designed beyond state-of-the art in waste-to-energy technology, margins remain for pushing energy efficiency and economy even further.

  8. Focused particle beam nano-machining: the next evolution step towards simulation aided process prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Harald

    2015-02-06

    During the last decade, focused ion beam processing has been developed from traditionally used Ga(+) liquid ion sources towards higher resolution gas field ion sources (He(+) and Ne(+)). Process simulations not only improve the fundamental understanding of the relevant ion-matter interactions, but also enable a certain predictive power to accelerate advances. The historic 'gold' standard in ion-solid simulations is the SRIM/TRIM Monte Carlo package released by Ziegler, Ziegler and Biersack 2010 Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 268 1818-23. While SRIM/TRIM is very useful for a myriad of applications, it is not applicable for the understanding of the nanoscale evolution associated with ion beam nano-machining as the substrate does not evolve with the sputtering process. As a solution for this problem, a new, adapted simulation code is briefly overviewed and finally addresses these contributions. By that, experimentally observed Ne(+) beam sputter profiles can be explained from a fundamental point of view. Due to their very good agreement, these simulations contain the potential for computer aided optimization towards predictable sputter processes for different nanotechnology applications. With these benefits in mind, the discussed simulation approach represents an enormous step towards a computer based master tool for adaptable ion beam applications in the context of industrial applications.

  9. Breaking the deadlock: public health policy coordination as the next step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Nicole F; Burlone, Nathalie

    2007-11-01

    Recent public health crises have revealed the extent to which coordinated government activity is crucial for ensuring the efficacy of public policies aimed at protecting, maintaining and improving the health of the population. The need for coherent and effective interventions in many areas of human activity always comes up against the challenges related to the division of responsibilities, power and jurisdictions inherent in public administration. The recently initiated renewal of public health structures in Canada opens up new possibilities for public health and could foster better coordination of public health efforts. This paper shows, however, that the eventual broadening of the traditional mandate of Canadian public health to include the social (non-medical) aspects of health and the articulation of healthy public policies requires intervention at the central policy level. We offer practical observations about the need to foster better policy coordination across sectors of governments, with a view to contributing to the emergence of a comprehensive public health policy in Canada.

  10. Reaching the Next Generation of College Students via Their Digital Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmeyer, S. J.; De Paor, D. G.; Bentley, C.

    2015-12-01

    Current college students attended school during a decade in which many school districts banned cellphones from the classroom or even from school grounds. These students are used to being told to put away their mobile devices and concentrate on traditional classroom activities such as watching PowerPoint presentations or calculating with pencil and paper. However, due to a combination of parental security concerns and recent education research, schools are rapidly changing policy and embracing mobile devices for ubiquitous learning opportunities inside and outside of the classroom. Consequently, many of the next generation of college students will have expectations of learning via mobile technology. We have developed a range of digital geology resources to aid mobile-based geoscience education at college level, including mapping on iPads and other tablets, "crowd-sourced" field projects, augmented reality-supported asynchronous field classes, 3D and 4D split-screen virtual reality tours, macroscopic and microscopic gigapixel imagery, 360° panoramas, assistive devices for inclusive field education, and game-style educational challenges. Class testing of virtual planetary tours shows modest short-term learning gains, but more work is needed to ensure long-term retention. Many of our resources rely on the Google Earth browser plug-in and application program interface (API). Because of security concerns, browser plug-ins in general are being phased out and the Google Earth API will not be supported in future browsers. However, a new plug-in-free API is promised by Google and an alternative open-source virtual globe called Cesium is undergoing rapid development. It already supports the main aspects of Keyhole Markup Language and has features of significant benefit to geoscience, including full support on mobile devices and sub-surface viewing and touring. The research team includes: Heather Almquist, Stephen Burgin, Cinzia Cervato, Filis Coba, Chloe Constants, Gene

  11. Dolphin Therapy: The Playful Way to Work toward the Next Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermer, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    More than 400 children with a physical and/or mental challenge visit the Curacao Dolphin Therapy and Research Center (CDTC) for dolphin-assisted therapy every year. Dolphin therapy appears to be the right approach for many children. With the help of these special and very social animals, it is easier to make contact with the children. It motivates…

  12. The Urban Environmental Monitoring/100 Cities Project: Legacy of the First Phase and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Wentz, Elizabeth A.; Brazel, Anthony; Netzband, Maik; Moeller, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) project, now known as the 100 Cities Project, at Arizona State University (ASU) is a baseline effort to collect and analyze remotely sensed data for 100 urban centers worldwide. Our overarching goal is to use remote sensing technology to better understand the consequences of rapid urbanization through advanced biophysical measurements, classification methods, and modeling, which can then be used to inform public policy and planning. Urbanization represents one of the most significant alterations that humankind has made to the surface of the earth. In the early 20th century, there were less than 20 cities in the world with populations exceeding 1 million; today, there are more than 400. The consequences of urbanization include the transformation of land surfaces from undisturbed natural environments to land that supports different forms of human activity, including agriculture, residential, commercial, industrial, and infrastructure such as roads and other types of transportation. Each of these land transformations has impacted, to varying degrees, the local climatology, hydrology, geology, and biota that predate human settlement. It is essential that we document, to the best of our ability, the nature of land transformations and the consequences to the existing environment. The focus in the UEM project since its inception has been on rapid urbanization. Rapid urbanization is occurring in hundreds of cities worldwide as population increases and people migrate from rural communities to urban centers in search of employment and a better quality of life. The unintended consequences of rapid urbanization have the potential to cause serious harm to the environment, to human life, and to the resulting built environment because rapid development constrains and rushes decision making. Such rapid decision making can result in poor planning, ineffective policies, and decisions that harm the environment and the quality of human life

  13. Preventing Overdiagnosis and Overtreatment: Just the Next Step in the Evolution of Breast Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Rita A; Wong, Jasmine M; Esserman, Laura J

    2015-06-01

    The problem of overdiagnosis and overtreatment has been highlighted in breast cancer and many other cancer types, most notably prostate cancer. Addressing this problem presents an opportunity to continue the evolution of breast cancer care. Advances in technology, such as molecular subtyping, have increased the understanding of breast cancer biology and the range of associated behavior, and have provided tools that allow greater personalization of treatment. This article identifies 3 areas of breast cancer care where opportunity currently exists to refine management strategies and help decrease overtreatment and overdiagnosis: the use of adjuvant-external beam radiation in invasive breast cancer, the application of aggressive treatment for all ductal carcinoma in situ, and the authors' approach to breast cancer screening. Personalizing treatment based on patient and tumor characteristics holds promise for minimizing harms and maximizing benefits. This approach will allow continual improvement and ultimately result in providing the right treatment for each patient. Copyright © 2015 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  14. Posttranslational modifications of proteins in type 1 diabetes: the next step in finding the cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Jessica L; Overbergh, Lut; Purcell, Anthony W; Mathieu, Chantal

    2012-08-01

    The overall role of modification of β-cell antigens in type 1 diabetes has not been elucidated and was the focus of a recent workshop on posttranslational modification of proteins in type 1 diabetes. The prevailing opinion of the workshop attendees was that novel insights into the mechanism of loss of immune tolerance might be gained and that novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches could be developed for type 1 diabetes if protein modifications were shown to play a critical role in the disease.

  15. Is 'virtual histology' the next step after the 'virtual autopsy'? Magnetic resonance microscopy in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thali, M J; Dirnhofer, R; Becker, R; Oliver, W; Potter, K

    2004-10-01

    The study aimed to validate magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) studies of forensic tissue specimens (skin samples with electric injury patterns) against the results from routine histology. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are fast becoming important tools in clinical and forensic pathology. This study is the first forensic application of MRM to the analysis of electric injury patterns in human skin. Three-dimensional high-resolution MRM images of fixed skin specimens provided a complete 3D view of the damaged tissues at the site of an electric injury as well as in neighboring tissues, consistent with histologic findings. The image intensity of the dermal layer in T2-weighted MRM images was reduced in the central zone due to carbonization or coagulation necrosis and increased in the intermediate zone because of dermal edema. A subjacent blood vessel with an intravascular occlusion supports the hypothesis that current traveled through the vascular system before arcing to ground. High-resolution imaging offers a noninvasive alternative to conventional histology in forensic wound analysis and can be used to perform 3D virtual histology.

  16. Taking the moral hazard out of banking: the next fundamental step in financial reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Masera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The path between financial meltdown and moral hazard in banking is, at best, narrow and impervious. During the financial crisis, public support became the standard response to save the banks in difficulty, heightening and broadening the moral hazard issue: subordinated/senior debt holders and large depositors were bailed out and equity holders were partially sheltered. In the Eurozone, the implicit promise to bail-out governments in difficulty has encouraged SIFIs and other financial operators to speculate on the yield differential between sovereigns and the ECB money market interest rates. The policy framework proposed here is two-pronged: the EFSF should evolve to permit more flexible and wide-ranging interventions, and be able to manage sovereign debt restructuring; with respect to SIFIs, very early corporate, market and supervisory responses are suggested. Intervention of supervisory authorities with mandatory (special powers would occur before the threshold of non-viability and, on a gone-concern basis, in terms of a European resolution procedure.

  17. BCNTB bioinformatics: the next evolutionary step in the bioinformatics of breast cancer tissue banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadaleta, Emanuela; Pirrò, Stefano; Dayem Ullah, Abu Zafer; Marzec, Jacek; Chelala, Claude

    2017-10-09

    Here, we present an update of Breast Cancer Now Tissue Bank bioinformatics, a rich platform for the sharing, mining, integration and analysis of breast cancer data. Its modalities provide researchers with access to a centralised information gateway from which they can access a network of bioinformatic resources to query findings from publicly available, in-house and experimental data generated using samples supplied from the Breast Cancer Now Tissue Bank. This in silico environment aims to help researchers use breast cancer data to their full potential, irrespective of any bioinformatics barriers. For this new release, a complete overhaul of the IT and bioinformatic infrastructure underlying the portal has been conducted and a host of novel analytical modules established. We developed and adopted an automated data selection and prioritisation system, expanded the data content and included tissue and cell line data generated from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, designed a host of novel analytical modalities and enhanced the query building process. Furthermore, the results are presented in an interactive format, providing researchers with greater control over the information on which they want to focus. Breast Cancer Now Tissue Bank bioinformatics can be accessed at http://bioinformatics.breastcancertissuebank.org/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-28

    The Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps report, published by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) provides an overview of the current state of alternative aviation fuels, based upon findings from recent peer-reviewed studies, scientific working groups, and BETO stakeholder input provided during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Workshop.

  19. Next step in the ongoing arms race between myxoma virus and wild rabbits in Australia is a novel disease phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J.; Cattadori, Isabella M.; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G.; Dodds, Jeff W.; Brooks, Jason W.; Kennett, Mary J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2017-01-01

    In host–pathogen arms races, increases in host resistance prompt counteradaptation by pathogens, but the nature of that counteradaptation is seldom directly observed outside of laboratory models. The best-documented field example is the coevolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) in European rabbits. To understand how MYXV in Australia has continued to evolve in wild rabbits under intense selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis, we compared the phenotypes of the progenitor MYXV and viral isolates from the 1950s and the 1990s in laboratory rabbits with no resistance. Strikingly, and unlike their 1950s counterparts, most virus isolates from the 1990s induced a highly lethal immune collapse syndrome similar to septic shock. Thus, the next step in this canonical case of coevolution after a species jump has been further escalation by the virus in the face of widespread host resistance. PMID:28808019

  20. Next step in the ongoing arms race between myxoma virus and wild rabbits in Australia is a novel disease phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Cattadori, Isabella M; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G; Dodds, Jeff W; Brooks, Jason W; Kennett, Mary J; Holmes, Edward C; Read, Andrew F

    2017-08-29

    In host-pathogen arms races, increases in host resistance prompt counteradaptation by pathogens, but the nature of that counteradaptation is seldom directly observed outside of laboratory models. The best-documented field example is the coevolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) in European rabbits. To understand how MYXV in Australia has continued to evolve in wild rabbits under intense selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis, we compared the phenotypes of the progenitor MYXV and viral isolates from the 1950s and the 1990s in laboratory rabbits with no resistance. Strikingly, and unlike their 1950s counterparts, most virus isolates from the 1990s induced a highly lethal immune collapse syndrome similar to septic shock. Thus, the next step in this canonical case of coevolution after a species jump has been further escalation by the virus in the face of widespread host resistance.

  1. First steps towards the realization of a double layer perceptron based on organic memristive devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Emelyanov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Memristors are widely considered as promising elements for the efficient implementation of synaptic weights in artificial neural networks (ANNs since they are resistors that keep memory of their previous conductive state. Whereas demonstrations of simple neural networks (e.g., a single-layer perceptron based on memristors already exist, the implementation of more complicated networks is more challenging and has yet to be reported. In this study, we demonstrate linearly nonseparable combinational logic classification (XOR logic task using a network implemented with CMOS-based neurons and organic memrisitive devices that constitutes the first step toward the realization of a double layer perceptron. We also show numerically the ability of such network to solve a principally analogue task which cannot be realized by digital devices. The obtained results prove the possibility to create a multilayer ANN based on memristive devices that paves the way for designing a more complex network such as the double layer perceptron.

  2. Preliminary design of a Tandem-Mirror-Next-Step facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damm, C.C.; Doggett, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1980-12-18

    The Tandem-Mirror-Next-Step (TMNS) facility is designed to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of a tandem-mirror reactor. The facility is based on a deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning, tandem-mirror device with a fusion power output of 245 MW. The fusion power density in the central cell is 2.1 MW/m/sup 3/, with a resultant neutron wall loading of 0.5 MW/m/sup 2/. Overall machine length is 116 m, and the effective central-cell length is 50.9 m. The magnet system includes end cells with yin-yang magnets to provide magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and thermal-barrier cells to help achieve a plasma Q of 4.7 (where Q = fusion power/injected power). Neutral beams at energies up to 200 keV are used for plasma heating, fueling, and barrier pumping. Electron cyclotron resonant heating at 50 and 100 GHz is used to control the electron temperature in the barriers. Based on the resulting engineering design, the overall cost of the facility is estimated to be just under $1 billion. Unresolved physics issues include central-cell ..beta..-limits against MHD ballooning modes (the assumed reference value of ..beta.. exceeds the current theory-derived limit), and the removal of thermalized ..cap alpha..-particles from the plasma.

  3. What Are the Next Steps in Designing an Orthosis for Paraplegic Subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Although the HGO has better functional performance than other available orthoses, the subjects are more willing to use the RGO. The new design of orthoses must allow easy donning and doffing by the users, have enough stability during walking and standing, and enable the patients to change the alignment of the orthosis to suit their needs.

  4. Comprehensive Interpretive Plans: The Next Step in Visitor Centeredness and Business Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koke, Judy

    2008-01-01

    For this author, the in-depth conversation about Comprehensive Interpretive Plans (CIP) began at an AAM Task Force meeting in May of 2004. Building on that initial discussion, the author explores the reasons, costs and benefits of engaging in the CIP development process, and makes the case for the museum field to develop proficiency in this…

  5. From single-species advice to mixed-species management: taking the next step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Reeves, S.A.; Patterson, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    Fishery management advice has traditionally been given on a stock-by-stock basis. Recent problems in implementing this advice, particularly for the demersal fisheries of the North Sea, have highlighted the limitations of the approach. In the long term, it would be desirable to give advice...... a recent approach used to address these problems. The approach takes the single-species advice for each species in the fishery as a starting point, then attempts to resolve it into consistent catch or effort advice using fleet-disaggregated catch forecasts in combination with explicitly stated management...... priorities for each stock. Results are presented for the groundfish fisheries of the North Sea, and these show that the development of such approaches will also require development of the ways in which catch data are collected and compiled. (C) 2004 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea...

  6. A truly international lunar base as the next logical step for human spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Richard

    Recent fora (e.g. the ISECG’s Global Exploration Roadmap) have highlighted a human mission to Mars as the long term goal for space exploration, with intermediate stages such as missions to the Moon and/or to asteroids. But actually a human mission to Mars will not be feasible before several decades, whereas in the meantime robotic missions will be able to provide an enormous amount of information on the history and the environment of the red planet, at a rather moderate cost. And if we consider missions to asteroids, introducing a human in the loop will require a considerably higher complexity and cost than using robots, with no significant additional benefit. The only sensible and feasible objective of a near-term human spaceflight program would be the edification of a lunar base, under the condition that this base is built as a true international venture. Science will not be the main driver; it has to be acknowledged from the beginning that the true main goal will be peace and a nucleus of international cooperation between the big countries. The ISS in the 1990’s had illustrated a calmed relation between the USA, together with Europe, Canada and Japan, and Russia. A lunar base should be the symbol of a similar calmed relation between the same partners and China. For the benefit of all humankind this extra continent, the Moon, will be used only for peaceful purposes, like Antarctica today, and will not become the theatre or the stake of conflicts. The financial cost of that venture will be high, but not that high if it is compared with the cost of recent wars; so let us go to the Moon, OK, but let us get there together.

  7. 75 FR 29359 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Tamiami Trail Modifications: Next Steps Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Tamiami Trail (U.S. Highway 41.... Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to construct modifications to U.S. Highway 41 (Tamiami Trail) that were... within the Park and the ecological connectivity between the Park and the Water Conservation Areas'' (2009...

  8. XML at the ADC: Steps to a Next Generation Data Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, E.; Gass, J.; Blackwell, J.; Thomas, B.; Holmes, B.; Cheung, C. Y.

    The staff of the Astronomical Data Center at GSFC (ADC, http://adc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is involved in a research project to define the XML format for the metadata of an astronomical repository and for large data tables. In the process, an XML tool box is being developed for importation, enhancement, and distribution of published data and their metadata documents. There is now a working draft Document Type Definition (DTD, http://messier.gsfc.nasa.gov/xml/dataset.dtd) which specifies the required elements of content and their attributes. The documentation for each data set will be viewable in several different styles via eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT, (http://www.w3.org/TR/xslt) scripts. The ADC is actively creating designs for the flow of data through automated pipelines from authors and journal presses into an XML archive, as well as data retrieval through the web via the XML Query Language.

  9. The Next Step: A Study on Resiliency in Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    53 1 Introduction Success is never final. John Wooden UCLA Basketball Head Coach, 10 Time NCAA Champion The historic success of...strength of personality and political skills more than “a reliable, resilient process” to institutionalize the role of the JFACC.47 The Air Force

  10. Popular Religiosity in Indonesia Today: The Next Step after ‘Islam Kultural’?

    OpenAIRE

    Noor, Farish A.

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of popular Islam is seen everywhere in the Muslim world today, and expresses itself via a host of means ranging from fashion to architecture as well as new cultural norms that are deemed Islamic. In the case of Indonesia, the expansive growth of the ‘halal market’--pioneered by Islamic fashion and cosmetics-- has been a powerful variable factor, accounting for the emergence of a new Indonesian Muslim middle-class that has aspirations for upward social mobility as well as social...

  11. Advancing the conversation: next steps for lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ) health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Blake W; Morris, Martin; Nguyen, Tony; Siegel, John; Vardell, Emily

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, librarians in various sectors have been moving forward a conversation on the distinct information needs and information-seeking behavior of our lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ) patrons and how well the profession recognizes and meets those needs. Health sciences librarianship has been slower than other areas of the profession in creating an evidence base covering the needs of its LGBTQ patrons, with, until recently, only very limited literature on this subject. LGBTQ health sciences librarianship is now starting to attract new interest, with librarians working together to bring this emerging specialization to the attention of the broader professional community. In this paper, the authors report on a dedicated panel discussion that took place at the 2016 joint annual meeting of the Medical Library Association and Canadian Health Libraries Association/Association des bibliothèques de la santé du Canada in Toronto, Ontario, Canada; discuss subsequent reflections; and highlight the emerging role for health sciences librarians in providing culturally competent services to the LGBTQ population. Recommendations are also provided for establishing a tool kit for LGBTQ health sciences librarianship from which librarians can draw. We conclude by highlighting the importance of critically reflective practice in health sciences librarianship in the context of LGBTQ health information.

  12. Advancing the conversation: next steps for lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ) health sciences librarianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Blake W.; Morris, Martin; Nguyen, Tony; Siegel, John; Vardell, Emily

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, librarians in various sectors have been moving forward a conversation on the distinct information needs and information-seeking behavior of our lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ) patrons and how well the profession recognizes and meets those needs. Health sciences librarianship has been slower than other areas of the profession in creating an evidence base covering the needs of its LGBTQ patrons, with, until recently, only very limited literature on this subject. LGBTQ health sciences librarianship is now starting to attract new interest, with librarians working together to bring this emerging specialization to the attention of the broader professional community. In this paper, the authors report on a dedicated panel discussion that took place at the 2016 joint annual meeting of the Medical Library Association and Canadian Health Libraries Association/Association des bibliothèques de la santé du Canada in Toronto, Ontario, Canada; discuss subsequent reflections; and highlight the emerging role for health sciences librarians in providing culturally competent services to the LGBTQ population. Recommendations are also provided for establishing a tool kit for LGBTQ health sciences librarianship from which librarians can draw. We conclude by highlighting the importance of critically reflective practice in health sciences librarianship in the context of LGBTQ health information. PMID:28983195

  13. Patient-centered hand hygiene: the next step in infection prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Timothy; Abusalem, Said; Coty, Mary-Beth; Bingham, James

    2012-05-01

    Hand hygiene has been recognized as the most important means of preventing the transmission of infection, and great emphasis has been placed on ways to improve hand hygiene compliance by health care workers (HCWs). Despite increasing evidence that patients' flora and the hospital environment are the primary source of many infections, little effort has been directed toward involving patients in their own hand hygiene. Most previous work involving patients has included patients as monitors or auditors of hand hygiene practices by their HCWs. This article reviews the evidence on the benefits of including patients more directly in hand hygiene initiatives, and uses the framework of patient-centered safety initiatives to provide recommendations for the timing and implementation of patient hand hygiene protocols. It also addresses key areas for further research, practice guideline development, and implications for training of HCWs. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Automated experimentation in Walden 3.0: The next step in profiling, predicting, control and surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martijn van Otterlo

    2014-01-01

    .... Instead of bringing forward Orwell's 1984 dystopia in the privacy domain as is typically done, I sketch how current developments might be better studied in the context of Skinner's utopian novel Walden Two...

  15. Elusive Critical Elements of Transformative Risk Assessment Practice and Interpretation: Is Alternatives Analysis the Next Step?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Royce A

    2015-11-01

    This article argues that "game-changing" approaches to risk analysis must focus on "democratizing" risk analysis in the same way that information technologies have democratized access to, and production of, knowledge. This argument is motivated by the author's reading of Goble and Bier's analysis, "Risk Assessment Can Be a Game-Changing Information Technology-But Too Often It Isn't" (Risk Analysis, 2013; 33: 1942-1951), in which living risk assessments are shown to be "game changing" in probabilistic risk analysis. In this author's opinion, Goble and Bier's article focuses on living risk assessment's potential for transforming risk analysis from the perspective of risk professionals-yet, the game-changing nature of information technologies has typically achieved a much broader reach. Specifically, information technologies change who has access to, and who can produce, information. From this perspective, the author argues that risk assessment is not a game-changing technology in the same way as the printing press or the Internet because transformative information technologies reduce the cost of production of, and access to, privileged knowledge bases. The author argues that risk analysis does not reduce these costs. The author applies Goble and Bier's metaphor to the chemical risk analysis context, and in doing so proposes key features that transformative risk analysis technology should possess. The author also discusses the challenges and opportunities facing risk analysis in this context. These key features include: clarity in information structure and problem representation, economical information dissemination, increased transparency to nonspecialists, democratized manufacture and transmission of knowledge, and democratic ownership, control, and interpretation of knowledge. The chemical safety decision-making context illustrates the impact of changing the way information is produced and accessed in the risk context. Ultimately, the author concludes that although

  16. Now for the Hard Stuff: Next Steps in ECB Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preskill, Hallie

    2014-01-01

    Though several excellent literature reviews and research syntheses have been conducted, and thoughtful frameworks and models have been proposed, I believe it is time for the evaluation field to tackle the "hard stuff" of evaluation capacity building (ECB). This entails engaging staff in ECB activities, building the evaluation capacity of…

  17. Thermally Self-Healing Polymeric Materials : The Next Step to Recycling Thermoset Polymers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Youchun; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We developed thermally self-healing polymeric materials on the basis of furan-functionalized, alternating thermosetting polyketones (PK-furan) and bis-maleimide by using the Diels-Alder (DA) and Retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) reaction sequence. PK-furan can be easily obtained under mild conditions by the

  18. Vaccination strategies against highly pathogenic arenaviruses: the next steps toward clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olschläger

    Full Text Available Vaccination is one of the most valuable weapons against infectious diseases and has led to a significant reduction in mortality and morbidity. However, for most viral hemorrhagic fevers caused by arenaviruses, no prophylactic vaccine is available. This is particularly problematic as these diseases are notoriously difficult to diagnose and treat. Lassa fever is globally the most important of the fevers caused by arenaviruses, potentially affecting millions of people living in endemic areas, particularly in Nigeria. Annually, an estimated 300,000 humans are infected and several thousands succumb to the disease. The successful development of the vaccine "Candid#1" against Junin virus, the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, proved that an effective arenavirus vaccine can be developed. Although several promising studies toward the development of a Lassa fever vaccine have been published, no vaccine candidate has been tested in human volunteers or patients. This review summarizes the immunology and other aspects of existing experimental arenavirus vaccine studies, discusses the reasons for the lack of a vaccine, and proposes a plan for overcoming the final hurdles toward clinical trials.

  19. Taking the Next Step: From ’Unmanned’ to True Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    QH-60C, with the ultimate goal of putting three DASH units on all its 240 FRAM -I and FRAM -II destroyers. In January 1965 the Navy began to use the...are currently not pursuing” (Chief of Naval Operations Strategic Studies Group, Overview , accessed at: < http://www.usnwc.edu/About/Chief-Naval

  20. The sphere project: next steps in moving toward a rights-based approach to humanitarian assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Helen; Vanrooyen, Michael; Gruskin, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Since the Sphere Project was launched in 1997, it has sought to integrate principles of human rights norms with adherence to technical standards. While the Sphere Handbook has evolved as both a field tool and a resource for articulating human rights, it does not fully offer a rights-based approach to humanitarian assistance. In the handbook's current edition, its Humanitarian Charter asserts and affirms human rights principles, but the technical Minimum Standards Section that follows has yet to truly embody a rights-based approach; that is, it does not clarify how to operationalize human rights in the field, particularly with respect to the health sector. Using human rights documents, the Sphere documents, and existing, published literature in the field of humanitarian practice and human rights, this article provides critical commentary and suggests how strengthening the link between rights and standards, as well as rhetoric and action, can advance the Sphere Project beyond its current applicability as a handbook of technical standards in the field to operationalizing an effective rights-based approach to humanitarian aid.

  1. Mobile phones: the next step towards healthcare delivery in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Sherwin I; Rashmi, M R; Vasanthi, Agalya P; Joseph, Suchitha Maria; Rodrigues, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%). Text messaging (SMS) was used by only 70 (14%) of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%), were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98%) of our respondents, 424 (89%) preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75%) were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian context.

  2. Mobile phones: the next step towards healthcare delivery in rural India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin I DeSouza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. OBJECTIVES: To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. METHODS: This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. RESULTS: The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%. Text messaging (SMS was used by only 70 (14% of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%, were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98% of our respondents, 424 (89% preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75% were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. CONCLUSION: The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian

  3. Concurrent Engineering Working Group White Paper Distributed Collaborative Design: The Next Step in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Karpati, Gabriel; McGuire, Melissa; Panek, John; Warfield, Keith; Borden, Chester

    2011-01-01

    As aerospace missions grow larger and more technically complex in the face of ever tighter budgets, it will become increasingly important to use concurrent engineering methods in the development of early conceptual designs because of their ability to facilitate rapid assessments and trades of performance, cost and schedule. To successfully accomplish these complex missions with limited funding, it is essential to effectively leverage the strengths of individuals and teams across government, industry, academia, and international agencies by increased cooperation between organizations. As a result, the existing concurrent engineering teams will need to increasingly engage in distributed collaborative concurrent design. The purpose of this white paper is to identify a near-term vision for the future of distributed collaborative concurrent engineering design for aerospace missions as well as discuss the challenges to achieving that vision. The white paper also documents the advantages of creating a working group to investigate how to engage the expertise of different teams in joint design sessions while enabling organizations to maintain their organizations competitive advantage.

  4. The next step in coastal numerical models: spectral/hp element methods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskilsson, Claes; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Sherwin, Spencer J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we outline the application of spectral/hp element methods for modelling nonlinear and dispersive waves. We present one- and two-dimensional test cases for the shallow water equations and Boussinesqtype equations – including highly dispersive Boussinesq-type equations.......In this paper we outline the application of spectral/hp element methods for modelling nonlinear and dispersive waves. We present one- and two-dimensional test cases for the shallow water equations and Boussinesqtype equations – including highly dispersive Boussinesq-type equations....

  5. A New Graduate-Level Seminar to Prepare Students for the Next Step in Their Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kelly L.; Matthaei, James; Pfaendtner, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Many new Ph.D.s are not prepared for a competitive interview process in seeking a first job. The University of Washington (UW) designed the Distinguished Young Scholars Seminar (DYSS) to rectify this problem with three goals: simulate a visit associated with many interviews and a one-hour seminar; make UW graduate students aware of where they fit…

  6. Using Comparison of Multiple Strategies in the Mathematics Classroom: Lessons Learned and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kelley; Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2017-01-01

    Comparison is a fundamental cognitive process that can support learning in a variety of domains, including mathematics. The current paper aims to summarize empirical findings that support recommendations on using comparison of multiple strategies in mathematics classrooms. We report the results of our classroom-based research on using comparison…

  7. Taking the Next Step: Connecting Teacher Education, Research on Teaching, and Programme Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Michael W.; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma

    2008-01-01

    We cite four disconnections among teacher education programmes, research on teaching, and programme assessment that contribute to a paucity of systematically collected evidence and the inability of teacher educators to fully address the "outcomes question" [Cochran-Smith, M. (2003). Assessing assessment in teacher education.…

  8. The Next Step to Creating a More Efficient Form of Paperless Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    direction. At Oracle , they “Try to look at needs out in the future…skating to where the puck will be.” Customer Relationship Management ( CRM ...23 B. SAP..................................................................................................................23 C. ORACLE ...Registration CECOM Communications - Electronics Command CRM Customer Relationship Management CS Customer Service DAASC Defense Automatic

  9. The next step toward GMP-grade production of engineered immune cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kierkels, Guido J J; Straetemans, Trudy; de Witte, Moniek A; Kuball, Jürgen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314079645

    Removing less potent T cell subsets as well as poorly- or non-engineered cells can optimize effectiveness of engineered T cell therapy against cancer. We have recently described a novel, GMP-ready method for the purification of engineered immune cells that might further boost the clinical success of

  10. The next step in real time data processing for large scale physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Paramesvaran, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC represents one of the most challenging scientific environments for real time data analysis and processing. The steady increase in instantaneous luminosity will result in the CMS detector producing around 150 TB/s of data, only a small fraction of which is useful for interesting Physics studies. During 2015 the CMS collaboration will be completing a total upgrade of its Level 1 Trigger to deal with these conditions. In this talk a description of the major components of this complex system will be described. This will include a discussion of custom-designed electronic processing boards, built to the uTCA specification with AMC cards based on Xilinx 7 FPGAs and a network of high-speed optical links. In addition, novel algorithms will be described which deliver excellent performance in FPGAs and are combined with highly stable software frameworks to ensure a minimal risk of downtime. This upgrade is planned to take data from 2016. However a system of parallel running has been developed that will ...

  11. Collaborative learning: A next step in the training of peer support providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronise, Rita

    2016-09-01

    This column explores how peer support provider training is enhanced through collaborative learning. Collaborative learning is an approach that draws upon the "real life" experiences of individual learners and encompasses opportunities to explore varying perspectives and collectively construct solutions that enrich the practice of all participants. This description draws upon published articles and examples of collaborative learning in training and communities of practice of peer support providers. Similar to person-centered practices that enhance the recovery experience of individuals receiving services, collaborative learning enhances the experience of peer support providers as they explore relevant "real world" issues, offer unique contributions, and work together toward improving practice. Three examples of collaborative learning approaches are provided that have resulted in successful collaborative learning opportunities for peer support providers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Turning tumour cells into antigen presenting cells: The next step to improve cancer immunotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Charette, Marie; Marabelle, Aurélien; Houot, Roch

    2016-11-01

    Downregulation/loss of the antigen presentation is a major immune escape mechanism in cancer. It allows tumour cells to become 'invisible' and avoid immune attack by antitumour T cells. In tumour harbouring properties of professional antigen presenting cells (i.e. tumour B cells in lymphoma), downregulation/loss of the antigen presentation may also prevent direct priming of naïve T cells by tumour cells. Here, we review treatments that may induce/restore antigen presentation by the tumour cells. These treatments may increase the generation of antitumour T cells and/or their capacity to recognise and eliminate tumour cells. By forcing tumour cells to present their antigens, these treatments may sensitise patients to T cell-based immunotherapies, including checkpoint inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Moving Toward Quantifying Reliability - The Next Step in a Rapidly Maturing PV Industry: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah; Sample, Tony; Wohlgemuth, John; Zhou, Wei; Bosco, Nick; Althaus, Joerg; Phillips, Nancy; Deceglie, Michael; Flueckiger, Chris; Hacke, Peter; Miller, David; Kempe, Michael; Yamamichi, Masaaki; Kondo, Michio

    2015-12-07

    Some may say that PV modules are moving toward being a simple commodity, but most major PV customers ask: 'How can I minimize chances of a module recall?' Or, 'How can I quantify the added value of a 'premium' module?' Or, 'How can I assess the value of an old PV system that I'm thinking of purchasing?' These are all questions that PVQAT (the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force) and partner organizations are working to answer. Defining standard methods for ensuring minimal acceptable quality of PV modules, differentiating modules that provide added value in the toughest of environments, and creating a process (e.g. through IECRE [1]) that can follow a PV system from design through installation and operation are tough tasks, but having standard approaches for these will increase confidence, reduce costs, and be a critical foundation of a mature PV industry. This paper summarizes current needs for new tests, some challenges for defining those tests, and some of the key efforts toward development of international standards, emphasizing that meaningful quantification of reliability (as in defining a service life prediction) must be done in the context of a specific product with design parameters defined through a quality management system.

  14. High aspect-ratio MEMS devices for the next generation of THz/MHz passive components

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorentino, G.

    2015-01-01

    The realization of efficient passive devices directly on chip represents one of the most intriguing challenges in IC fabrication processes. The performance of such devices are intrinsically determined by physical parameters that cannot be easily scaled, making the on-chip integration of such components a complex task to solve. To pursue the envisioned scaling towards the realization of more compact and fast electronic devices, it is then clear that new, engineered materials and innovative dev...

  15. Endoscopic non-technical skills team training: The next step in quality assurance of endoscopy training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharoo, Manmeet; Haycock, Adam; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether novel, non-technical skills training for Bowel Cancer Screening (BCS) endoscopy teams enhanced patient safety knowledge and attitudes. METHODS: A novel endoscopy team training intervention for BCS teams was developed and evaluated as a pre-post intervention study. Four multi-disciplinary BCS teams constituting BCS endoscopist(s), specialist screening practitioners, endoscopy nurses and administrative staff (A) from English BCS training centres participated. No patients were involved in this study. Expert multidisciplinary faculty delivered a single day’s training utilising real clinical examples. Pre and post-course evaluation comprised participants’ patient safety awareness, attitudes, and knowledge. Global course evaluations were also collected. RESULTS: Twenty-three participants attended and their patient safety knowledge improved significantly from 43%-55% (P ≤ 0.001) following the training intervention. 12/41 (29%) of the safety attitudes items significantly improved in the areas of perceived patient safety knowledge and awareness. The remaining safety attitude items: perceived influence on patient safety, attitudes towards error management, error management actions and personal views following an error were unchanged following training. Both qualitative and quantitative global course evaluations were positive: 21/23 (91%) participants strongly agreed/agreed that they were satisfied with the course. Qualitative evaluation included mandating such training for endoscopy teams outside BCS and incorporating team training within wider endoscopy training. Limitations of the study include no measure of increased patient safety in clinical practice following training. CONCLUSION: A novel comprehensive training package addressing patient safety, non-technical skills and adverse event analysis was successful in improving multi-disciplinary teams’ knowledge and safety attitudes. PMID:25516665

  16. Regionalization of surgical services in central Florida: the next step in acute care surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Ernest F J; Rudloff, Beth; Noon, Charles; Behn, Bruce

    2010-09-01

    There is a national loss of access to surgeons for emergencies. Contributing factors include reduced numbers of practicing general surgeons, superspecialization, reimbursement issues, emphasis on work and life balance, and medical liability. Regionalizing acute care surgery (ACS), as exists for trauma care, represents a potential solution. The purpose of this study is to assess the financial and resources impact of transferring all nontrauma ACS cases from a community hospital (CH) to a trauma center (TC). We performed a case mix and financial analysis of patient records with ACS for a rural CH located near an urban Level I TC. ACS patients were analyzed for diagnosis, insurance status, procedures, and length of stay. We estimated physician reimbursement based on evaluation and management codes and procedural CPT codes. Hospital revenues were based on regional diagnosis-related group rates. All third-party remuneration was set at published Medicare rates; self-pay was set at nil. Nine hundred ninety patients were treated in the CH emergency department with 188 potential surgical diseases. ACS was necessary in 62 cases; 25.4% were uninsured. Extrapolated to 12 months, 248 patients would generate new TC physician revenue of >$155,000 and hospital profits of >$1.5 million. CH savings for call pay and other variable costs are >$100,000. TC operating room volume would only increase by 1%. Regionalization of ACS to TCs is a viable option from a business perspective. Access to care is preserved during an approaching crisis in emergency general surgical coverage. The referring hospital is relieved of an unfavorable payer mix and surgeon call problems. The TC receives a new revenue stream with limited impact on resources by absorbing these patients under its fixed costs, saving the CH variable costs.

  17. We Must Take the Next Steps Towards Safe, Routine Space Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, six in a half generations of airplanes in a century. Some of the topics include: 1) Enterprise goals; 2) Generations of Reusable Launch Vehicles; 3) Space Transportation Across NASA; 4) Three Tiered Implementation Approach for Future Space Transportation Technology; 5) Develop a Comprehensive, Agency Level Space Transportation Plan That Will Enable NASA's Strategic Plan; 6) Timeline for Addressing NASA's Needs; 7) Significant 2nd Generation Technology Drivers; 8) Example Large Scale Ground Demonstrations; and 9) Example Pathfinder Demonstrations. The paper also includes various aircraft designs and propulsion system technology.

  18. A Risk Management Process for Consumers: The Next Step in Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cleeff, A.

    2010-01-01

    Simply by using information technology, consumers expose themselves to considerable security risks. Because no technical or legal solutions are readily available, and awareness programs have limited impact, the only remedy is to develop a risk management process for consumers. Consumers need to

  19. Next steps in using accessory minerals to date the evolution of silicic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, 238U-230Th-206Pb isotopic dating of accessory minerals using the high spatial resolution and sensitivity of ion microprobe analysis has provided new insights into the longevity and thermochemical evolution of silicic magmas, but has also created new questions about the generation, differentiation, and construction of silicic magma chambers. An important conclusion from in situ dating is that accessory minerals such as zircon and allanite in silicic magmas may be 10's to 100's of thousands of years older than their age of eruption. Whether these relatively "old" crystals are derived from long-lived crystal-rich magma reservoirs or inherited due to remelting of frozen intrusions remains a difficult question to answer because long-lived centers of magmatism are characteristically dynamic and are open systems. Nevertheless, not all rhyolites from loci of repeated silicic magmatism carry a dominant "cargo" of antecrystic zircon (or other accessory minerals). Crystal-poor high-silica rhyolites from Coso volcanic field, eastern California, contain a bimodal population of young zircon that yield 238U-230Th ages concordant with their respective late Pleistocene 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages, and a population of Mesozoic zircon that are obvious xenocrysts derived from wallrocks. Rhyolites erupted from La Primavera caldera, Mexico, contain zircon and chevkinite that yield 238U-230Th ages that are within 10's of k.y. of their corresponding eruption ages between ca. 125-85 ka. Antecrysts from intrusions related to older episodes of rhyolitic magmatism appear absent or exceedingly rare. The relatively short timescales between crystallization and eruption suggest that these rhyolites, unlike otherwise similar rhyolites from other systems, were tapped shortly after highly effective differentiation and/or reheating. It is apparent that zircon ages alone are insufficient for resolving the thermochemical and differentiation histories of silicic magmas, and need to be

  20. Indicator disease-guided testing for HIV--the next step for Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazzard, B; Clumeck, N; d'Arminio Monforte, A

    2008-01-01

    with sexually transmitted diseases should be offered an HIV test, as should patients with certain types of cancers and laboratory abnormalities. Governments should consider adopting opt-out testing for pregnant women. These recommendations should be considered for implementation by all types of health......HIV should preferably be diagnosed in its earlier stages. To optimize the chances of doing so, HIV testing in patients presenting with one of several indicator diseases and conditions is recommended. Patients presenting with tuberculosis and other AIDS-defining conditions should be tested. Patients...

  1. Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Generation 1 and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Cynthia Gutierrez

    2008-01-01

    The Multidisciplinary Analysis & Optimization Working Group (MDAO WG) of the Systems Analysis Design & Optimization (SAD&O) discipline in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) project completed three major milestones during Fiscal Year (FY)08: "Requirements Definition" Milestone (1/31/08); "GEN 1 Integrated Multi-disciplinary Toolset" (Annual Performance Goal) (6/30/08); and "Define Architecture & Interfaces for Next Generation Open Source MDAO Framework" Milestone (9/30/08). Details of all three milestones are explained including documentation available, potential partner collaborations, and next steps in FY09.

  2. High aspect-ratio MEMS devices for the next generation of THz/MHz passive components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorentino, G.

    2015-01-01

    The realization of efficient passive devices directly on chip represents one of the most intriguing challenges in IC fabrication processes. The performance of such devices are intrinsically determined by physical parameters that cannot be easily scaled, making the on-chip integration of such

  3. Next generation Associative Memory devices for the FTK tracking processor of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Andreani, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Beccherle, B; Beretta, M; Citterio, M; Crescioli, F; Colombo, A; Giannetti, P; Liberali, V; Shojaii, J; Stabile, A

    2013-01-01

    The AMchip is a VLSI device that implements the associative memory function, a special content addressable memory specifically designed for high energy physics applications and first used in the CDF experiment at Tevatron. The 4th generation of AMchip has been developed for the core pattern recognition stage of the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor: a hardware processor for online reconstruction of particle trajectories at the ATLAS experiment at LHC. We present the architecture, design considerations, power consumption and performance measurements of the 4th generation of AMchip. We present also the design innovations toward the 5th generation and the first prototype results.

  4. Commentary: Implications, Themes, and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama Hall, Gordon C.

    2011-01-01

    The author presents a commentary on a special issue of the "Journal of College Counseling". The articles included in the issue describe the mental health needs and counseling center utilization patterns of the diverse population of college students. The establishment of the Center for Collegiate Mental Health has created the opportunity to study…

  5. Development of real-time diagnostics and feedback algorithms for JET in view of the next step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murari, A [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padua (Italy); Joffrin, E [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Felton, R [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Assoc., Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Mazon, D [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Zabeo, L [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Assoc., Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Albanese, R [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. Mediterranea RC, Loc. Feo di Vito, I-89060, RC (Italy); Arena, P [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. di Catania (Italy); Ambrosino, G [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples (Italy); Ariola, M [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Barana, O [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padua (Italy); Bruno, M [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. di Catania (Italy); Laborde, L [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Moreau, D [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Piccolo, F [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Assoc., Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sartori, F [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Assoc., Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Crisanti, F [Associazone EURATOM ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Luna, E de la [Associacion EURATOM CIEMAT para Fusion, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, J [Associacion EURATOM CIEMAT para Fusion, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    Real-time control of many plasma parameters will be an essential aspect in the development of reliable high performance operation of next step tokamaks. The main prerequisites for any feedback scheme are the precise real-time determination of the quantities to be controlled, requiring top quality and highly reliable diagnostics, and the availability of robust control algorithms. A new set of real-time diagnostics was recently implemented on JET to prove the feasibility of determining, with high accuracy and time resolution, the most important plasma quantities. Some of the signals now routinely provided in real time at JET are: (i) the internal inductance and the main confinement quantities obtained by calculating the Shafranov integrals from the pick-up coils with 2 ms time resolution; (ii) the electron temperature profile, from electron cyclotron emission every 10 ms; (iii) the ion temperature and plasma toroidal velocity profiles, from charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, provided every 50 ms; and (iv) the safety factor profile, derived from the inversion of the polarimetric line integrals every 2 ms. With regard to feedback algorithms, new model-based controllers were developed to allow a more robust control of several plasma parameters. With these new tools, several real-time schemes were implemented, among which the most significant is the simultaneous control of the safety factor and the plasma pressure profiles using the additional heating systems (LH, NBI, ICRH) as actuators. The control strategy adopted in this case consists of a multi-variable model-based technique, which was implemented as a truncated singular value decomposition of an integral operator. This approach is considered essential for systems like tokamak machines, characterized by a strong mutual dependence of the various parameters and the distributed nature of the quantities, the plasma profiles, to be controlled. First encouraging results were also obtained using non

  6. Next Step in Chronic Kidney Disease Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Ivanov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers are the basis of renoprotection therapy in chronic kidney disease. Parallel to decrease of glomerular filtration rate, there is an increase in the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, and the number of functio­ning nephrons reduces, which requires a change of treatment regimen. Reducing the risk of cardiovascular events on the background of increased hypertension probably dictates the need for a priority administration of sympatholytics, calcium channel blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers withdrawal. ARAMONEL formula: ARAMONEL — AR(BA(CEIMO(xonidineNE(bivololL(ercandipine is changed to MNELD — M(oxonidineNE(bivololL(ercandipineD(iuretic that is used by us in recent years. Combined use of torsemide and xipamide is allowed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers withdrawal requires evidence, which may be obtained in STOP-ACEi trial.

  7. Next Step Mobile: Strategy, Services, & PRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2012-01-01

    As emerging information technologies have driven demand for new library communication channels, there has been increased interest in the use of mobile tools to promote interaction, expand outreach, market programs, and enhance the library experience. Libraries today are at widely different levels of mobile engagement, a gap poised to grow as…

  8. Next steps in propositional horn contraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available not opted for this choice.) Our start- ing point for defining Horn e-contraction is in terms of Del- grande’s definition of e-remainder sets. Definition 3.1 (Horn e-Remainder Sets) For a belief setH , X ∈ H ↓e Φ iff (i) X ⊆ H , (ii) X 6|= Φ, and (iii...) for every X ′ s.t. X ⊂ X ′ ⊆ H , X ′ |= Φ. We refer to the elements of H ↓eΦ as the Horn e-remainder sets of H w.r.t. Φ. It is easy to verify that all Horn e-remainder sets are belief sets. Also, H ↓eΦ = ∅ iff |= Φ. We now proceed to define selection...

  9. Direct Taxation in the Eu: The Common Corporate Tax Base as the Next Sub-Step towards Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Herzig

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Common Corporate Tax Base (CCTB as an interim alternative to the proposal of a Council directive on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB. The CCCTB concept does not only include common rules for determining the tax base like the CCTB but also the steps of consolidation and subsequent formula apportionment. Therefore, the paper starts by showing that particularly these second and third steps of the CCCTB project meet fierce political opposition from several Member States and do leave leeway for tax planning. Afterwards, the CCCTB proposal's approach to common rules for determining the tax base is evaluated, i.e. tested for its suitability as a point of departure for drafting a CCTB. Finally, various other aspects of the proposal are examined in light of a CCTB without consolidation.

  10. Evening electronic device use: The effects on alertness, sleep and next-day physical performance in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Maddison J; Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian; Halson, Shona; Miller, Joanna; Dunican, Ian; Clarke, Michael; Goodman, Carmel; Eastwood, Peter

    2017-02-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different types of tasks performed with or without an electronic device (tablet) on pre-sleep alertness, subsequent sleep quality and next-day athletic performance. Eight highly trained netball players attended a sleep laboratory for pre-sleep testing, polysomnographic sleep monitoring and next-day physical performance testing on 5 separate occasions (1 familiarisation and 4 experimental sessions). For 2 h prior to bedtime, athletes completed cognitively stimulating tasks (puzzles) or passive tasks (reading) with or without a tablet. Sleepiness tended to be greater after reading compared to completing puzzles without a tablet (d = 0.80), but not with a tablet. Melatonin concentration increased more so after reading compared to completing puzzles on a tablet (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in sleep quality or quantity or next-day athletic performance between any of the conditions. These data suggest that using a tablet for 2 h prior to sleep does not negatively affect subsequent sleep or next-day performance in athletes.

  11. Liquid as template for next generation micro devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmet, Jerome; Haquette, Henri; Laux, Edith; Keppner, Herbert [HES-SO ARC, Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquees, La Chaux de Fonds (Switzerland); Gorodyska, Ganna; Textor, Marcus [ETHZ, BioInterfaceGroup, Zuerich (Switzerland); Durante, Guido Spinola; Portuondo-Campa, Erwin; Knapp, Helmut [CSEM Centre Suisse d' Electronique et de Microtechnique SA, Alpnach (Switzerland); Bitterli, Roland; Noell, Wilfried, E-mail: Jerome.Charmet@he-arc.c [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute of Microengineering, Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems laboratory, Rue Jaquet Droz 1, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2009-08-01

    Liquids have fascinated generations of scientists and engineers. Since ancient Greece, the perfect natural shape of liquids has been used to create optical systems. Nowadays, the natural shape of liquid is used in the fabrication of microlens arrays that rely on the melting of glass or photoresist to generate high quality lenses. However shrinkage normally associated to the liquid to solid phase transition will affect the initial shape and quality of the liquid structure. In this contribution, a novel fabrication technique that enables the encapsulation and replication of liquid templates without affecting their natural shape is presented. The SOLID (SOlid on LIquid Deposition) process allows for a transparent solid film to be deposited and grown onto a liquid template (droplet, film, line) in a way that the liquid shapes the overgrowing solid layer. The resulting configuration of the SOLID devices is chemically and mechanically stable and is the base of a huge variety of new micro-nano systems in the field of microfluidics, biomedical devices and micro-optics among others. The SOLID process enables in a one step process the encapsulation of liquid microlenses, fluidics channels, drug reservoir or any naturally driven liquid structure. The phenomenon and solid-liquid interface resulting from the SOLID process is new and still unexploited. The solid layer used for the SOLID process chosen in this paper is poly-para-xylylene called Parylene, a transparent biocompatible polymer with excellent mechanical and chemical properties. Moreover, as the solid layer is growing over a liquid template, atomically smooth surfaces channels can be obtained. The polymerization of Parylene does not exert stress and does not change the shape of the liquid; this latter aspect is particularly interesting for manufacturing naturally driven liquid structures. In this paper the authors explore the limits of this new method by testing different designs of SOLID encapsulated structures and

  12. Next Steps Forward in Understanding Martian Surface and Subsurface Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Brandi L.

    2017-09-01

    The presence of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and perchlorate (ClO4-), which have been detected on Mars, has significant implications for chemistry and astrobiology. These oxidants can increase the reactivity of the Martian soil, accelerate the decomposition of organic molecules, and depress the freezing point of water. The study by Crandall et al. "Can Perchlorates be Transformed to Hydrogen Peroxide Products by Cosmic Rays on the Martian Surface" reveals a new formation mechanism by which hydrogen peroxide and other potential oxidants can be generated via irradiation of perchlorate by cosmic rays. This study represents an important next step in developing a full understanding of Martian surface and subsurface chemistry, particularly with respect to degradation of organic molecules and potential biosignatures.

  13. A two-step annealing process for enhancing the ferroelectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) devices

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jihoon

    2015-01-01

    We report a simple two-step annealing scheme for the fabrication of stable non-volatile memory devices employing poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer thin-films. The proposed two-step annealing scheme comprises the crystallization of the ferroelectric gamma-phase during the first step and enhancement of the PVDF film dense morphology during the second step. Moreover, when we extended the processing time of the second step, we obtained good hysteresis curves down to 1 Hz, the first such report for ferroelectric PVDF films. The PVDF films also exhibit a coercive field of 113 MV m-1 and a ferroelectric polarization of 5.4 μC cm-2. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  14. A novel measuring device for step gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Shen, Xueping; Zou, Lingding; Gao, Hongtang; Ye, Xiaoyou

    2014-08-01

    Combining laser interferometric comparator with high precision inductance sensor, a novel measuring device for step gauge was developed. A high precision laser interferometer system was used for a length standard; a zero-crossing trigger signal of inductance sensor output voltage was used for the aiming signal. In order to improve the measuring accuracy, several high precision sensors were installed to measure environmental parameters for compensating the laser wavelength according to the Edlén empirical equation. A rotating mechanism was designed. Two key problems, probe obstacle avoidance and aiming repeatability, were solved. Experimental analysis of the contact force and speed of influence on measuring probe repeatability, and a segmented control method of the movement speed was established. The experiment indicates that the system has a high accuracy of measurement, which can be used for contact measurement of other one dimension length standard.

  15. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    In early June 2013, severe flooding hit Central and Eastern Europe, causing extensive damage, in particular along the Danube and Elbe main watersheds. The situation was particularly severe in Eastern Germany, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Based on the Post Event Review Capability (PERC) approach, developed by Zurich Insurance's Flood Resilience Program to provide independent review of large flood events, we examine what has worked well (best practice) and opportunities for further improvement. The PERC overall aims to thoroughly examine aspects of flood resilience, flood risk management and catastrophe intervention in order to help build back better after events and learn for future events. As our research from post event analyses shows a lot of losses are in fact avoidable by taking the right measures pre-event and these measures are economically - efficient with a return of 4 Euro on losses saved for every Euro invested in prevention on average (Wharton/IIASA flood resilience alliance paper on cost benefit analysis, Mechler et al. 2014) and up to 10 Euros for certain countries. For the 2013 flood events we provide analysis on the following aspects and in general identify a number of factors that worked in terms of reducing the loss and risk burden. 1. Understanding risk factors of the Central European Floods 2013 We review the precursors leading up to the floods in June, with an extremely wet May 2013 and an atypical V-b weather pattern that brought immense precipitation in a very short period to the watersheds of Elbe, Donau and partially the Rhine in the D-A-CH countries and researched what happened during the flood and why. Key questions we asked revolve around which protection and risk reduction approaches worked well and which did not, and why. 2. Insights and recommendations from the post event review The PERC identified a number of risk factors, which need attention if risk is to be reduced over time. • Yet another "100-year flood" - risk

  16. Recent progress in nanostructured next-generation field emission devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Gaurav; Lahiri, Indranil

    2014-08-01

    Field emission has been known to mankind for more than a century, and extensive research in this field for the last 40-50 years has led to development of exciting applications such as electron sources, miniature x-ray devices, display materials, etc. In the last decade, large-area field emitters were projected as an important material to revolutionize healthcare and medical devices, and space research. With the advent of nanotechnology and advancements related to carbon nanotubes, field emitters are demonstrating highly enhanced performance and novel applications. Next-generation emitters need ultra-high emission current density, high brightness, excellent stability and reproducible performance. Novel design considerations and application of new materials can lead to achievement of these capabilities. This article presents an overview of recent developments in this field and their effects on improved performance of field emitters. These advancements are demonstrated to hold great potential for application in next-generation field emission devices.

  17. Clinical data related to breast reconstruction; looking back on the 21th century and forward to the next steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jecan Cristian Radu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast reconstruction after breast cancer surgery represents a positive step in restoring a women’s idea of self by reestablishing her feminine features and confidence, thus improving essential aesthetic and emotional aspects. Regarded as the cornerstone in breast cancer management, the surgical treatment has come a long way since 1884 when W.S. Halsted performed the first radical mastectomy- a disfiguring procedure which was conducted until the late 70s when owing to contemporary advancements it was surpassed by modified radical mastectomies and other far less invasive approaches. Either performed in an immediate or a delayed fashion breast reconstruction can be achieved not only through alloplastic procedures using expander/ implant prosthesis but also through autologous tissue transfers wisely harvested from different parts of the body or through methods that combine the two. When planning a breast reconstruction, after the oncologist formally rules out any form of residual cancer, one must take into consideration several critical factors that will eventually condition the technique election process for example the possible local or systemic adjuvant therapy. Although a “one size fits all” breast reconstruction procedure has yet to prevail, the extensive volume of published literature regarding this matter enables a well-experienced plastic surgeon to proceed with careful procedural selection allowing for the best possible results.

  18. Quantifying Reliability - The Next Step for a Rapidly Maturing PV Industry and China's Role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-10-14

    PV customers wish to know how long their PV modules will last, but quantitatively predicting service life is difficult because of the large number of ways that a module can fail, the variability of the use environment, the cost of the testing, and the short product development time, especially when compared with the long desired lifetime. China should play a key role in developing international standards because China manufactures most of the world's PV modules. The presentation will describe the steps that need to be taken to create a service life prediction within the context of a defined bill of materials, process window and use environment. Worldwide standards for cost-effective approaches to service-life predictions will be beneficial to both PV customers and manufacturers since the consequences of premature module failure can be disastrous for both.

  19. Integrated concept development of next-step helical-axis advanced stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmer, Felix

    2016-04-13

    With the increasing energy demand of mankind and the transformation of our society towards sustainability, nuclear fusion by magnetic confinement is a promising option for the sustainable electricity supply in the future. In view of these prospects this thesis focuses on the concept development of next-step helical-axis advanced stellarator (HELIAS) burning-plasma devices. The HELIAS-line is the continued development of the prototype optimised stellarator Wendelstein 7-X which started operation in 2015. For the integrated concept development of such devices, the approach taken in this work encompasses detailed physics and engineering considerations while also including economic aspects. Starting with physics considerations, the properties of plasma transport and confinement of 3D stellarator configurations are discussed due to their critical importance for the device design. It becomes clear that current empirical confinement time scalings are not sufficient to predict the confinement in future stellarator devices. Therefore, detailed 1D transport simulations are carried out to reduce the uncertainties regarding confinement. Beyond the well-validated neoclassical approach, first attempts are made to include results from state-of-the-art turbulence simulations into the 1D transport simulations to further enhance the predictive capabilities. Next, for the systematic development of consistent design points, stellarator-specific models are developed and implemented in the well-established European systems code PROCESS. This allows a consistent description of an entire HELIAS fusion power plant including physics, engineering, and economic considerations. With the confidence obtained from a verification study, systems studies are for the first time applied for a HELIAS power-plant which shows that the available design window is constrained by the beta-limit. Furthermore, an economic comparison of an exemplary design point to an ''equivalent'' tokamak

  20. A neuronal device for the control of multi-step computations

    OpenAIRE

    Zylberberg, Ariel D; Paz, Luciano; Roelfsema, Pieter R; Dehaene, Stanislas; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    We describe the operation of a neuronal device which embodies the computational principles of the `paper-and-pencil' machine envisioned by Alan Turing. The network is based on principles of cortical organization. We develop a plausible solution to implement pointers and investigate how neuronal circuits may instantiate the basic operations involved in assigning a value to a variable (i.e., x=5), in determining whether two variables have the same value and in retrieving the value of a given va...

  1. Group Health Coaching: Strengths, Challenges, and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q.; Manning, Linda; Elam, Roy; Moore, Margaret; Frates, Elizabeth Pegg; Duskey, Heidi; Anderson, Chelsea; Curtis, Rebecca L.; Masemer, Susan; Lawson, Karen

    2013-01-01

    There is great need for cost effective approaches to increase patient engagement and improve health and well-being. Health and wellness coaching has recently demonstrated great promise, but the majority of studies to date have focused on individual coaching (ie, one coach with one client). Newer initiatives are bringing a group coaching model from corporate leadership development and educational settings into the healthcare arena. A group approach potentially increases cost-effective access to a larger number of clients and brings the possible additional benefit of group support. This article highlights some of the group coaching approaches currently being conducted across the United States. The group coaching interventions included in this overview are offered by a variety of academic and private sector institutions, use both telephonic and in-person coaching, and are facilitated by professionally trained health and wellness coaches as well as trained peer coaches. Strengths and challenges experienced in these efforts are summarized, as are recommendations to address those challenges. A working definition of “Group Health and Wellness Coaching” is proposed, and important next steps for research and for the training of group coaches are presented. PMID:24416678

  2. Graphene resistive random memory — the promising memory device in next generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Feng; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-03-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61574083 and 61434001), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB352101), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0200404), the National Key Project of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2011ZX02403-002), Special Fund for Agroscientic Research in the Public Interest of China (Grant No. 201303107), the Independent Research Program of Tsinghua University, China (Grant No. 2014Z01006), and Advanced Sensor and Integrated System Lab of Tsinghua University Graduate School at Shenzhen, China (Grant No. ZDSYS20140509172959969).

  3. Placing the power of real options analysis into the hands of natural resource managers - taking the next step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Rohan; Howden, Mark; Hayman, Peter

    2013-07-30

    This paper explores heuristic methods with potential to place the analytical power of real options analysis into the hands of natural resource managers. The complexity of real options analysis has led to patchy or ephemeral adoption even by corporate managers familiar with the financial-market origins of valuation methods. Intuitively accessible methods for estimating the value of real options have begun to evolve, but their evaluation has mostly been limited to researcher-driven applications. In this paper we work closely with Bush Heritage Australia to evaluate the potential of real options analysis to support the intuitive judgement of conservation estate managers in covenanting land with uncertain future conservation value due to climate change. The results show that modified decision trees have potential to estimate the option value of covenanting individual properties while time and ongoing research resolves their future conservation value. Complementing this, Luehrman's option space has potential to assist managers with limited budgets to increase the portfolio value of multiple properties with different conservation attributes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A neuronal device for the control of multi-step computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel D Zylberberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the operation of a neuronal device which embodies the computational principles of the `paper-and-pencil' machine envisioned by Alan Turing. The network is based on principles of cortical organization. We develop a plausible solution to implement pointers and investigate how neuronal circuits may instantiate the basic operations involved in assigning a value to a variable (i.e., x=5, in determining whether two variables have the same value and in retrieving the value of a given variable to be accessible to other nodes of the network. We exemplify the collective function of the network in simplified arithmetic and problem solving (blocks-world tasks. Received: 14 June 2013, Accepted: 9 July 2013; Edited by: G. B. Mindlin; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.050006Cite as: A Zylberberg, L Paz, P R Roelfsema, S Dehaene, M Sigman, Papers in Physics 5, 050006 (2013

  6. Next Steps to Implement Renewable Energy Project on the Makah Indian Naiton for the Pacific North West Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Wilde, Coyote Energy, Inc.

    2005-12-30

    The two year feasibility project was conducted to determine if the Makah reservation wind resource is viable for commercial generation and to investigate the viability and implementaiton of a tribal utility company capable of conducting energy business on the reservation.

  7. Expression of OCT4A: The First Step to the Next Stage of Urothelial Bladder Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Jóźwicki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OCT4 (octamer-binding transcription factor is a transcription factor responsible for maintaining the pluripotent properties of embryonic stem cells. In this paper, we present the results of studies to investigate the role of the OCT4 splicing variant in urothelial bladder cancer and the relationship between the OCT4 phenotype and the morphological parameters of tumor malignancy. Ninety patients who received a cystectomy for bladder cancer were enrolled. The expression of OCT4 protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The ratio of OCT4-positive cells was the lowest in pT1 (pathological assessment (p—tumor extent confined to mucosa (T1 tumors and the highest in pTis (non-papillary tumor extent confined to urothelium and pT2 (tumor extent including muscularis propria tumors. Information about the percentage of OCT4A-positive tumor cells could facilitate choosing the treatment mode in borderline pTis–pT1 (crossing the border of the basement membrane; the first stage of progression and pT1–pT2 (crossing the border of the muscularis propria; the second stage of progression cases: a higher percentage of OCT4A-positive cells should support more radical therapy. A significantly higher percentage of cases with moderate OCT4 intensity was found in metastasizing (the third stage of progression cases with >2 positive lymph nodes. The percentage of OCT4-positive cells was significantly higher for cancers with a high grade, higher non-classic differentiation number and greater aggressiveness of invasion. The differentiation, maturation and aggressiveness of tumor invasion appear to depend on the expression of the OCT4 phenotype in cancer cells, similar to the successive stages of malignancy progression in urothelial cancer.

  8. Next steps in access and availability of opioids for the treatment of cancer pain: reaching the tipping point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, J; Radbruch, L; Torode, J; Cherny, N I

    2013-12-01

    The reports of the Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI) project to evaluate the availability and accessibility of opioids for the management of cancer pain in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East, together with the previous 2010 European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO)/European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) report from Europe, have provided critical data in demonstrating the deficiencies in many countries throughout the world. Formulary deficiencies and over-regulation are pandemic and must be addressed. This process is challenging and will require concerted and sustained efforts by clinical leaders and advocacy groups partnering with international and regional organizations and, of course, with national governments and their competent authorities. There is a growing international expertise and infrastructure to coordinate advocacy and strategic planning based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Model of Education, Policy Reform and Medication Availability.

  9. The next step in the treatment of persistent temporomandibular joint pain following arthrocentesis: a retrospective study of 18 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emes, Y; Arpınar, I Ş; Oncü, B; Aybar, B; Aktaş, I; Al Badri, N; Atalay, B; Işsever, H; Yalçın, S

    2014-07-01

    Temporomandibular joint disorders affect a big portion of the population. There are a variety of treatment methods currently in use. Conservative treatment modalities are followed by more invasive approaches like arthrocentesis or arthroscopy. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of intra-articular tenoxicam injection and arthrocentesis plus viscosupplementation on patients in which a previous arthrocentesis plus viscosupplementation has failed to relieve pain and restore function. The study group consists of 18 TMJs in 16 patients (15 female and 1 male) and the patients were randomly divided into two groups as the arthrocentesis plus viscosupplementation group (n: 8) and tenoxicam injection (n: 10). 20 mg of tenoxicam was injected to the upper compartments of 10 joints without arthrocentesis. The other 8 joints were treated with a second arthrocentesis and sodium hyaluronate injection. VAS scores and maximum mouth opening with and without assistance were recorded in the post operative first week, first month and third month. The results show that there is little benefit in using relatively conservative methods once an arthrocentesis together with viscosupplementation has failed to relieve the patients pain. It is concluded that more invasive procedures should be considered for the patients who do not benefit from arthrocentesis. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Next Steps in Developing the Triple Helix Model: A Brief Introduction to National Open Innovation System (NOIS Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Santonen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of beliefs on open innovation, online social networks and Web 2.0, we propose a new type of approach based on people-to-people interaction to support national innovation activities. With the aim of generating new ideas, our National Open Innovation System (NOIS combines two rival innovation sources: (1 technology and social foresight research, and (2 customer needs and experiences (i.e. customer orientation strategy, while following the principles of latest incarnation of Triple Helix model. The resulting NOIS is an effective and comprehensive open innovation structure where university students and senior citizens are engaged as a significant resource for the business community, in order to fulfil the national innovation strategy as defined by the government.

  11. Studying bubble-induced methane emissions from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf: the next step towards a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, D.; Shakhova, N. E.; Semiletov, I. P.; Yusupov, V.; Salomatin, A.; Leifer, I.

    2015-12-01

    Destabilization of subsea permafrost results in increasing permeability for gaseous methane long preserved in seabed deposits within and beneath permafrost. This process manifests as extensive methane ebullition, driving significantly elevated methane aqueous concentrations - up to three orders higher than atmospheric equilibrium. In places, bubbles release as a vigorous flow that often reach the surface; on echograms, such bubble plums create specific flare-like images. To detect, map, monitor, and analyze bubble-induced methane fluxes, in summer 2011 and 2012, sonar data were gathered over extensive seep fields in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) in frame of International Siberian Shelf Study (ISSS). To measure the bubble screen backscattering strength, the acoustic sensors were calibrated using a target ("ideal" sphere) provided by the manufacturer (SIMRAD). To establish a relationship between the backscattering strength of bubbles releasing from the seafloor and methane flux rate, an in-situ calibration using engineered seeps was performed. To apportion fraction of bubbles reaching the sea surface and assess remaining gaseous content of bubbles, in winter 2011-2013, direct in-situ observations of bubbles, ascending from the seafloor, were performed using high-speed high-resolution video camera. Results of inter-calibration between engineered quantitative in-situ calibrations and qualitative calibration recommended by manufacturer were applied to evaluate bubble-induced methane fluxes observed in the ESAS in summer 2011 and 2012.

  12. Managing the Innovation Process: Infusing Data Analytics into the Undergraduate Business Curriculum (Lessons Learned and Next Steps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    The designing of a new, potentially disruptive, curricular program, is not without challenges; however, it can be rewarding for students, faculty, and employers and serve as a template for other academics to follow. To be effective, the new data analytics program should be driven by business input and academic leadership that incorporates…

  13. Thin film complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) device using a single-step deposition of the channel layer

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2014-04-14

    We report, for the first time, the use of a single step deposition of semiconductor channel layer to simultaneously achieve both n-and p-type transport in transparent oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). This effect is achieved by controlling the concentration of hydroxyl groups (OH-groups) in the underlying gate dielectrics. The semiconducting tin oxide layer was deposited at room temperature, and the maximum device fabrication temperature was 350C. Both n and p-type TFTs showed fairly comparable performance. A functional CMOS inverter was fabricated using this novel scheme, indicating the potential use of our approach for various practical applications.

  14. Summary of small group discussions: Regional themes and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Turner

    2013-01-01

    At the conclusion of the workshop, a breakout group session discussed common themes that had emerged regarding forest degradation monitoring in the Southeast Asia region. The participants were also asked to list any important issues that may not have been sufficiently addressed during the workshop and that may require further discussion, and recommendations for next...

  15. Ba-hexaferrite Films for Next Generation Microwave Devices (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris,V.; Chen, Z.; Chen, Y.; Yoon, S.; Sakai, T.; Geiler, A.; Yang, A.; He, Y.; Ziemer, K.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Next generation magnetic microwave devices require ferrite films to be thick (>300 {mu}m), self-biased (high remanent magnetization), and low loss in the microwave and millimeter wave bands. Here we examine recent advances in the processing of thick Ba-hexaferrite (M-type) films using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), liquid-phase epitaxy, and screen printing. These techniques are compared and contrasted as to their suitability for microwave materials processing and industrial production. Recent advances include the PLD growth of BaM on wide-band-gap semiconductor substrates and the development of thick, self-biased, low-loss BaM films by screen printing.

  16. What's Next After You Say Hello: First Steps in Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, William F.; Pringle, Ernest M.

    2005-01-01

    In most cultures wisdom, knowledge, and experience are prized assets. Those who possess them are held in high regard and are expected to share them with the next generation. So it is in the world of information technology (IT). Veteran IT professionals are often charged with identifying and developing future IT leaders, while future leaders often…

  17. Design scoping study of the 12T Yin-Yang magnet system for the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    The overall objective of this engineering study was to determine the feasibility of designing a Yin-Yang magnet capable of producing a peak field in the windings of 12T for the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS) program. As part of this technical study, a rough order of magnitude (ROM) cost estimate of the winding for this magnet was undertaken. The preferred approach to the winding design of the TMNS plug coil utilizes innovative design concepts to meet the structural, electrical and thermodynamic requirements of the magnet system. Structurally, the coil is radially partitioned into four sections, preventing the accumulation of the radial loads and reacting them into the structural case. To safely dissipate the 13.34 GJ of energy stored in each Yin-Yang magnet, the winding has been electrically subdivided into parallel or nested coils, each having its own power supply and protection circuitry. This arrangement effectively divides the total stored energy of the coils into manageable subsystems. The windings are cooled with superfluid helium II, operated at 1.8K and 1.2 atmospheres. The superior cooling capabilities of helium II have enabled the overall winding envelope to be minimized, providing a current density of 2367 A/CM/sup 2/, excluding substructure.

  18. Polyacrylamide Ferrogels with Magnetite or Strontium Hexaferrite: Next Step in the Development of Soft Biomimetic Matter for Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Safronov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic biosensors are an important part of biomedical applications of magnetic materials. As the living tissue is basically a “soft matter.” this study addresses the development of ferrogels (FG with micron sized magnetic particles of magnetite and strontium hexaferrite mimicking the living tissue. The basic composition of the FG comprised the polymeric network of polyacrylamide, synthesized by free radical polymerization of monomeric acrylamide (AAm in water solution at three levels of concentration (1.1 M, 0.85 M and 0.58 M to provide the FG with varying elasticity. To improve FG biocompatibility and to prevent the precipitation of the particles, polysaccharide thickeners—guar gum or xanthan gum were used. The content of magnetic particles in FG varied up to 5.2 wt % depending on the FG composition. The mechanical properties of FG and their deformation in a uniform magnetic field were comparatively analyzed. FG filled with strontium hexaferrite particles have larger Young’s modulus value than FG filled with magnetite particles, most likely due to the specific features of the adhesion of the network’s polymeric subchains on the surface of the particles. FG networks with xanthan are stronger and have higher modulus than the FG with guar. FG based on magnetite, contract in a magnetic field 0.42 T, whereas some FG based on strontium hexaferrite swell. Weak FG with the lowest concentration of AAm shows a much stronger response to a field, as the concentration of AAm governs the Young’s modulus of ferrogel. A small magnetic field magnetoimpedance sensor prototype with Co68.6Fe3.9Mo3.0Si12.0B12.5 rapidly quenched amorphous ribbon based element was designed aiming to develop a sensor working with a disposable stripe sensitive element. The proposed protocol allowed measurements of the concentration dependence of magnetic particles in gels using magnetoimpedance responses in the presence of magnetite and strontium hexaferrite ferrogels

  19. Beyond the Black-White Binary of U.S. Race Relations: A Next Step in Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Courtney T.

    2017-01-01

    Many if not most people in the academy as well as the public sphere tend to regard race and racism in the United States in terms of a default frame of reference (i.e., a paradigm): the black-white binary. Although this frame is constructive as well as compelling, it displays serious liabilities. This article outlines, for religious educators, nine…

  20. Literature review : Use of family history for primary paediatric care as the next step towards use of genomics in healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syurina, Elena V.; Hens, Kristien; Feron, Frans J M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many childhood-onset diseases and developmental disorders have a strong genetic basis. However, up till now, the knowledge of this genetic component within multifactorial diseases is not frequently used in paediatric practice. A good family history collection can facilitate the link

  1. Integrated, multi-scale, spatial-temporal cell biology--A next step in the post genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rick

    2016-03-01

    New microscopic approaches, high-throughput imaging, and gene editing promise major new insights into cellular behaviors. When coupled with genomic and other 'omic information and "mined" for correlations and associations, a new breed of powerful and useful cellular models should emerge. These top down, coarse-grained, and statistical models, in turn, can be used to form hypotheses merging with fine-grained, bottom up mechanistic studies and models that are the back bone of cell biology. The goal of the Allen Institute for Cell Science is to develop the top down approach by developing a high throughput microscopy pipeline that is integrated with modeling, using gene edited hiPS cell lines in various physiological and pathological contexts. The output of these experiments and models will be an "animated" cell, capable of integrating and analyzing image data generated from experiments and models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Next steps for meeting the needs of people with severe mental illness in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, C

    2017-08-01

    The explicit inclusion of mental health within the Sustainable Development Goals is a welcome development, borne out of powerful advocacy using public health, economic and human rights arguments. As funding comes on line for scale-up of evidence-based mental health care by task-sharing with primary care, it is time to take stock about care for people affected by severe mental illness (SMI). The existing evidence base for task shared care for SMI provides an imperative to get started, but is skewed towards relatively more affluent and urban populations in middle-income countries where specialist mental health professionals provide most of the care. Randomised, controlled trials and rigorous implementation research on task shared service models are underway which will go some way to improving understanding of the quality, safety, effectiveness and acceptability of more widely generalisable care for people with SMI. A sub-group of people with SMI have more complex and long-term needs for care, with a high risk of homelessness, imprisonment and human rights violations as family and social supports become overwhelmed. Case studies from non-governmental organisations provide examples of holistic approaches to rehabilitation, recovery and empowerment of people with SMI, but rigorous comparative studies are needed to identify the most efficient, effective and scalable approaches to care. Health system constraints are emerging as the over-riding barriers to successful task-sharing, highlighting a need to develop and evaluate chronic care models for people with SMI that succeed in reducing premature mortality, improving wellbeing and achieving better social outcomes. Addressing these evidence gaps is essential if task-sharing mental health care is going to deliver on its promise of promoting recovery for the full range of people affected by SMI.

  3. Plasma-material Interactions in Current Tokamaks and their Implications for Next-step Fusion Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, G.; Skinner, C.H.; Brooks, J.N.; Coad, J.P.; Grisolia, C. [and others

    2001-01-10

    The major increase in discharge duration and plasma energy in a next-step DT [deuterium-tritium] fusion reactor will give rise to important plasma-material effects that will critically influence its operation, safety, and performance. Erosion will increase to a scale of several centimeters from being barely measurable at a micron scale in today's tokamaks. Tritium co-deposited with carbon will strongly affect the operation of machines with carbon plasma-facing components. Controlling plasma wall interactions is critical to achieving high performance in present-day tokamaks and this is likely to continue to be the case in the approach to practical fusion reactors. Recognition of the important consequences of these phenomena has stimulated an internationally coordinated effort in the field of plasma-surface interactions supporting the Engineering Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and significant progress has been made in better under standing these issues. This paper reviews the underlying physical processes and the existing experimental database of plasma-material interactions both in tokamaks and laboratory simulation facilities for conditions of direct relevance to next-step fusion reactors. Two main topical groups of interactions are considered: (i) erosion/redeposition from plasma sputtering and disruptions, including dust and flake generation, (ii) tritium retention and removal. The use of modeling tools to interpret the experimental results and make projections for conditions expected in future devices is explained. Outstanding technical issues and specific recommendations on potential R and D [Research and Development] avenues for their resolution are presented.

  4. Don Bloch's vision for Collaborative Family Health Care: Progress and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, C J

    2015-06-01

    Don Bloch is the central figure in the origin story for the field of collaborative family health care; the journal Families, Systems, & Health; and for the Collaborative Family Healthcare Association (CFHA). He exerted extraordinary intellectual and practical leadership for all 3. He convened a national working session in 1994 that took stock of the field and set out next steps, one of which was to create the interprofessional organization dedicated to collaborative family health care that is now CFHA. As part of honoring Don Bloch's contributions to the field and this journal, this article sets out tenets of his original vision and traces next steps toward this vision generated by national groups between 1994 and 2014, showing what is the same or different over these 20 years, and especially what this means for the field going forward. Precepts of Don Bloch's original vision are drawn from his writings, including the briefing papers he prepared for the national Wingspread group convened in 1994, which also set out next steps for the field. These steps are then compared with next developmental steps for the field generated by CFHA conference attendees in 2004 and again in 2014, after reviewing the history of the organization and the field. Much of Don Bloch's vision has remained relevant to health care transformation, with a number of areas showing significant accomplishment and acceptance, whereas others remain aspirational, and a few others arguably being more difficult to achieve now than when Don articulated them. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The Only Constant Is Change: Next Generation Materials and Medical Device Design for Physical and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knothe Tate, Melissa L; Fath, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Cell health and cell network patency dictate human physical and mental health throughout life. Cutting edge multiscale imaging and mapping of cell to organ structure and function is unravelling the remarkable plasticity of cellular networks, from bone to brain. Insights from these studies will enable the development of next generation implants to replace, repair and reprogram cellular networks, for promotion of mental and physical health. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Next Steps for "Big Data" in Education: Utilizing Data-Intensive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Data-informed instructional methods offer tremendous promise for increasing the effectiveness of teaching, learning, and schooling. Yet-to-be-developed data science approaches have the potential to dramatically advance instruction for every student and to enhance learning for people of all ages. Next steps that emerged from a recent National…

  7. Next steps for a Green Economy Working Group in Kazakhstan. Notes from the Astana Green Economy Dialogue, 24-26 November 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospanova, Saule; Wilson, Emma; Bass, Steve

    2013-01-15

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan, national concerns over today’s economic, social and environmental challenges have translated into sustainable development policy and initiatives such as the Astana Green Bridge Initiative. The Government of Kazakhstan has developed the Green Bridge Partnership Programme (GBPP), with the support of international organizations, for possible adoption at the Rio+20 World Sustainable Development Conference in June 2012. This programme offers opportunities for 'greening' the economy, with a focus on aspirations for regional and international technology cooperation and finance. it also offers potential for enhancing public participation in decision-making, and harmonising policies and practices across European, Asian and Pacific regions. A range of other initiatives are also ongoing within Kazakhstan, and it is important for those promoting these initiatives to join forces and engage in dialogue. The Astana Green Economy Dialogue, held from 24th to 26th November 2011, organised by IIED and the Kazakhstan Ministry for the Environment and supported by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) and the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), brought together a range of stakeholders from government, civil society and industry to discuss the notion of the green economy and how it can be applied and developed in Kazakhstan. The dialogue had a particular focus on the energy sector given its relevance. Oil-producing states face a global challenge to play their part in establishing economic systems that reduce climate change and other environmental burdens, and to produce higher societal value from limited natural resources. This short report summarises the key observations and ideas discussed at the workshop, with recommendations for next steps and follow up. It is meant to provide a record of the discussions that took place at this dialogue and provides a foundation for further work.

  8. (Near-Infrared) Fluorescence-Guided Surgery Under Ambient Light Conditions: A Next Step to Embedment of the Technology in Clinical Routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Nynke S; Miwa, Mitsuharu; KleinJan, Gijs H; Sato, Takayuki; Maeda, Yoshiki; van Akkooi, Alexander C J; Horenblas, Simon; Karakullukcu, Baris; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2016-08-01

    In open surgery procedures, after temporarily dimming the lights in the operation theatre, the Photo Dynamic Eye (PDE) fluorescence camera has, amongst others, been used for fluorescence-guided sentinel node (SN) biopsy procedures. To improve the clinical utility and logistics of fluorescence-guided surgery, we developed and evaluated a prototype modified PDE (m-PDE) fluorescence camera system. The m-PDE works under ambient light conditions and includes a white light mode and a pseudo-green-colored fluorescence mode (including a gray-scaled anatomical background). Twenty-seven patients scheduled for SN biopsy for (head and neck) melanoma (n = 16), oral cavity (n = 6), or penile (n = 5) cancer were included. The number and location of SNs were determined following an indocyanine green-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid injection and preoperative imaging. Intraoperatively, fluorescence guidance was used to visualize the SNs. The m-PDE and conventional PDE were compared head-to-head in a phantom study, and in seven patients. In the remaining 20 patients, only the m-PDE was evaluated. Phantom study: The m-PDE was superior over the conventional PDE, with a detection sensitivity of 1.20 × 10(-11) M (vs. 3.08 × 10(-9) M) ICG in human serum albumin. In the head-to-head clinical comparison (n = 7), the m-PDE was also superior: (i) SN visualization: 100 versus 81.4 %; (ii) transcutaneous SN visualization: 40.7 versus 22.2 %; and (iii) lymphatic duct visualization: 7.4 versus 0 %. Findings were further underlined in the 20 additionally included patients. The m-PDE enhanced fluorescence imaging properties compared with its predecessor, and provides a next step towards routine integration of real-time fluorescence guidance in open surgery.

  9. IUD in first-trimester abortion: immediate intrauterine contraceptive devices insertion vs delayed insertion following the next menstruation bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Grapsa, Anastasia; Tsagias, Nikolaos; Pinidis, Petros; Liberis, Anastasios; Ammari, Alexandros; Grapsas, Xenofon; Galazios, Georgios; Liberis, Vasileios

    2014-07-01

    Approximately 21 days after an abortion, ovulation occurs in 50 % of women. Installation of an IUD directly after induced or spontaneous abortion offers immediate contraceptive protection. The purpose of the present study was to weigh up contraceptive safety and adverse reactions of IUD inserted directly after first-trimester abortion under general or paracervical anesthesia as against the fitting of IUD in the days of the next menstrual cycle without anesthesia. During the period May 1987 to October 2010, 73 women (Group A) underwent an immediate post-abortion insertion IUD after a first-trimester spontaneous or induced abortion under general or local paracervical anesthesia and 69 participants (Group B) received IUD during the next menstrual cycle without anesthesia. Questionnaires were completed by all the women of the study with respect to the effects of IUD. The women were examined every 3 months for 1 year after the fitting of the IUD in the out-patient department of the University Obstetrics Gynecological Department of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece. The demographic characteristics of the women of the two groups were similar. The age of the women ranged between 19 and 44 years, while 61.98 % were women with one or two children and 38.02 % were women with three or more children. During the first menstrual cycles, with the exception of vaginal hemorrhages (5 %) and adnexitis (1 %), no serious adverse reactions were noted. During the transvaginal ultrasonography checks in both groups, no observation was made of any dislocation of the IUD, except for two cases in the subgroup of those women with paracervical anesthesia and one case in the women of Group B. As concerns the questionnaire with regard to the women's subjective evaluation of IUD, satisfactory answers were given. There were no differences between the two groups either with respect to the security of the supplied contraceptive methods or to the development of side effects.

  10. Silicon on ferroelectic insulator field effect transistor (SOF-FET) a new device for the next generation ultra low power circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Sakhi, Azzedin D.

    Field effect transistors (FETs) are the foundation for all electronic circuits and processors. These devices have progressed massively to touch its final steps in sub-nanometer level. Left and right proposals are coming to rescue this progress. Emerging nano-electronic devices (resonant tunneling devices, single-atom transistors, spin devices, Heterojunction Transistors rapid flux quantum devices, carbon nanotubes, and nanowire devices) took a vast share of current scientific research. Non-Si electronic materials like III-V heterostructure, ferroelectric, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and other nanowire based designs are in developing stage to become the core technology of non-classical CMOS structures. FinFET present the current feasible commercial nanotechnology. The scalability and low power dissipation of this device allowed for an extension of silicon based devices. High short channel effect (SCE) immunity presents its major advantage. Multi-gate structure comes to light to improve the gate electrostatic over the channel. The new structure shows a higher performance that made it the first candidate to substitute the conventional MOSFET. The device also shows a future scalability to continue Moor's Law. Furthermore, the device is compatible with silicon fabrication process. Moreover, the ultra-low-power (ULP) design required a subthreshold slope lower than the thermionic-emission limit of 60mV/ decade (KT/q). This value was unbreakable by the new structure (SOI-FinFET). On the other hand most of the previews proposals show the ability to go beyond this limit. However, those pre-mentioned schemes have publicized a very complicated physics, design difficulties, and process non-compatibility. The objective of this research is to discuss various emerging nano-devices proposed for ultra-low-power designs and their possibilities to replace the silicon devices as the core technology in the future integrated circuit. This thesis proposes a novel design that exploits the

  11. REACH: next step to a sound chemicals management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wielen, Arnold

    2007-12-01

    REACH is the new European Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It entered into force on 1st June 2007 to streamline and improve the former legislative framework on new and on existing chemical substances of the European Union. Companies which manufacture or import more than 1 tonne of a substance per year will be required to register the substance at the new EU Chemicals Agency located in Helsinki. REACH places greater responsibility on industry to manage the risks that chemicals may pose to the health and the environment and to provide safety information that will be passed down the supply chain. In principle, REACH applies to all chemicals as such, as components in preparations and as used in articles. REACH is a radical step forward in the EU chemicals management. The onus will move from the authorities to industry. In addition, REACH will allow the further evaluation of substances where there are grounds for concern, foresees an authorisation system for the use of substances of very high concern and a system of restrictions, where applicable, for substances of concern. The Authorisation system will require companies to switch progressively to safer alternatives where a suitable alternative exists. Current use restrictions will remain under REACH system.

  12. Comparison and evaluation between 3D-bolus and step-bolus, the assistive radiotherapy devices for the patients who had undergone modified radical mastectomy surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Won Seok; Park, Kwang Woo; Shin, Dong Bong; Kim, Jong Dae; Kim, Sei Joon; Ha, Jin Sook; Jeon, Mi Jin; Cho, Yoojin; Jung, Inho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to compare and evaluate between the efficiency of two respective devices, 3D-bolus and step-bolus when the devices were used for the treatment of patients whose chest walls were required to undergo the electron beam therapy after the surgical procedure of modified radical mastectomy, MRM. The treatment plan of reverse hockey stick method, using the photon beam and electron beam, had been set for six breast cancer patients and these 6 breast cancer patients were selected to be the subjects for this study. The prescribed dose of electron beam for anterior chest wall was set to be 180 cGy per treatment and both the 3D-bolus, produced using 3D printer(CubeX, 3D systems, USA) and the self-made conventional step-bolus were used respectively. The surface dose under 3D-bolus and step-bolus was measured at 5 measurement spots of iso-center, lateral, medial, superior and inferior point, using GAFCHROMIC EBT3 film (International specialty products, USA) and the measured value of dose at 5 spots was compared and analyzed. Also the respective treatment plan was devised, considering the adoption of 3D-bolus and stepbolus and the separate treatment results were compared to each other. The average surface dose was 179.17 cGy when the device of 3D-bolus was adopted and 172.02 cGy when step-bolus was adopted. The average error rate against the prescribed dose of 180 cGy was -(minus) 0.47% when the device of 3D-bolus was adopted and it was -(minus) 4.43% when step-bolus was adopted. It was turned out that the maximum error rate at the point of iso-center was 2.69%, in case of 3D-bolus adoption and it was 5,54% in case of step-bolus adoption. The maximum discrepancy in terms of treatment accuracy was revealed to be about 6% when step-bolus was adopted and to be about 3% when 3D-bolus was adopted. The difference in average target dose on chest wall between 3D-bolus treatment plan and step-bolus treatment plan was shown to be insignificant as the difference was only 0

  13. FIRE, A Next Step Option for Magnetic Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, D.M.

    2002-09-12

    The next major frontier in magnetic fusion physics is to explore and understand the strong nonlinear coupling among confinement, MHD stability, self-heating, edge physics, and wave-particle interactions that is fundamental to fusion plasma behavior. The Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) Design Study has been undertaken to define the lowest cost facility to attain, explore, understand, and optimize magnetically confined fusion-dominated plasmas. The FIRE is envisioned as an extension of the existing Advanced Tokamak Program that could lead to an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The FIRE activities have focused on the physics and engineering assessment of a compact, high-field tokamak with the capability of achieving Q approximately equal to 10 in the ELMy H-mode for a duration of about 1.5 plasma current redistribution times (skin times) during an initial burning-plasma science phase, and the flexibility to add Advanced Tokamak hardware (e.g., lower-hybrid current drive) later. The configuration chosen for FIRE is similar to that of ARIES-RS, the U.S. Fusion Power Plant study utilizing an Advanced Tokamak reactor. The key ''Advanced Tokamak'' features are: strong plasma shaping, double-null pumping divertors, low toroidal field ripple (<0.3%), internal control coils, and space for wall stabilization capabilities. The reference design point is R subscript ''o'' = 2.14 m, a = 0.595 m, B subscript ''t''(R subscript ''o'') = 10 T, I subscript ''p'' = 7.7 MA with a flattop time of 20 s for 150 MW of fusion power. The baseline magnetic fields and pulse lengths can be provided by wedged BeCu/OFHC toroidal-field (TF) coils and OFHC poloidal-field (PF) coils that are pre-cooled to 80 K prior to the pulse and allowed to warm up to 373 K at the end of the pulse. A longer-term goal of FIRE is to explore Advanced Tokamak regimes sustained by noninductive current drive

  14. Cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: assessment, management and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegkos, Thomas; Kitas, George; Dimitroulas, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality which cannot be fully explained by traditional CV risk factors; cumulative inflammatory burden and antirheumatic medication-related cardiotoxicity seem to be important contributors. Despite the acknowledgment and appreciation of CV disease burden in RA, optimal management of individuals with RA represents a challenging task which remains suboptimal. To address this need, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) published recommendations suggesting the adaptation of traditional risk scores by using a multiplication factor of 1.5 if two of three specific criteria are fulfilled. Such guidance requires proper coordination of several medical specialties, including general practitioners, rheumatologists, cardiologists, exercise physiologists and psychologists to achieve a desirable result. Tight control of disease activity, management of traditional risk factors and lifestyle modification represent, amongst others, the most important steps in improving CV disease outcomes in RA patients. Rather than enumerating studies and guidelines, this review attempts to critically appraise current literature, highlighting future perspectives of CV risk management in RA. PMID:27247635

  15. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator; Dufera, Hiz [Project Manager; Montagna, Deb [Business Point of Contact

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  16. CCLC Commission on the Future: An Update. Increasing College Preparation and Completion through Concurrent Enrollment--The Next Steps. 2020 Vision: Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, R.

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the initial report of the League's Commission on the Future (COTF), there have been many reports written and the California Community Colleges have taken many steps to improve student success and completion. However, there is still much to do. This paper will provide a brief assessment of where we are--in relation to…

  17. The operational definition of a functional local public health agency: the next strategic step in the quest for identity and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenihan, Patrick; Welter, Christina; Chang, Carol; Gorenflo, Grace

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, the National Association of County and City Health Officials embarked on a quest to clarify, in a uniform way, the functions of governmental local public health agencies. Over the next 3 years, a diverse group of local health department officials and their partners developed an Operational Definition of a Functional Local Health Department, which included 45 standards matched to the 10 Essential Services. These standards serve as the first comprehensive and uniform articulation of local health department activities for which 250 prototype metrics have subsequently been developed. This article articulates the historical and policy significance of the Operational Definition, the methodological development of the recently published prototype metrics, and presents ideas for use of the metric tool especially in light of current accreditation and quality improvement initiatives.

  18. The Next Step in Understanding Impaired Reactive Balance Control in People With Stroke: The Role of Defective Early Automatic Postural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kam, D. de; Roelofs, J.M.B.; Bruijnes, A.; Geurts, A.C.; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Postural muscle responses are often impaired after stroke. We aimed to identify the contribution of deficits in very early postural responses to poorer reactive balance capacity, with a particular focus on reactive stepping as a key strategy for avoiding falls. METHODS: A

  19. Supersymmetry: the Next Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, Michael E

    2002-12-16

    I describe the picture by which supersymmetry--the possible symmetry of Nature that converts fermions to bosons and vice versa--accounts for the next stage of physics beyond the Standard Model. I then survey the future experimental program implied by this theory, in which the spectrum of particles associated with supersymmetry will be determined with precision.

  20. The Next Great Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, K. V.

    2007-12-01

    Earth science --- when defined as the study of all biological, chemical, and physical processes that interact to define the behavior of the Earth system --- has direct societal relevance equal to or greater than that any other branch of science. However, "geology", "geoscience", and "Earth science" departments are contracting at many universities and even disappearing at some. This irony speaks volumes about the limitations of the traditional university structure that partitions educational and research programs into specific disciplines, each housed in its own department. Programs that transcend disciplinary boundaries are difficult to fit into the traditional structure and are thus highly vulnerable to threats such as chronic underfunding by university administrations, low enrollments in more advanced subjects, and being largely forgotten during capital campaigns. Dramatic improvements in this situation will require a different way of thinking about earth science programs by university administrations. As Earth scientists, our goal must not be to protect "traditional" geology departments, but rather to achieve a sustainable programmatic future for broader academic programs that focus on Earth evolution from past, present, and future perspectives. The first step toward meeting this goal must be to promote a more holistic definition of Earth science that includes modes of inquiry more commonly found in engineering and social science departments. We must think of Earth science as a meta-discipline that includes core components of physics, geology, chemistry, biology, and the emerging science of complexity. We must recognize that new technologies play an increasingly important role in our ability to monitor global environmental change, and thus our educational programs must include basic training in the modes of analysis employed by engineers as well as those employed by scientists. One of the most important lessons we can learn from the engineering community is the

  1. The Next Computer Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Abraham

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the future trends in the use of the computer in our society, suggesting that computing is now entering a new phase in which it will grow exponentially more powerful, flexible, and sophisticated in the next decade. Describes some of the latest breakthroughs in computer hardware and software technology. (TW)

  2. Description of the effort sharing approaches as presented in the Ecofys' policy brief The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Hagemann, M.; Fekete, H. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The paper 'The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030' explains how setting 2030 targets will reinvigorate the ETS and will put EU emissions on track to limit global temperature increase below two degrees Celsius (2C). The paper describes four key findings for EU policymakers engaged in preparing EU energy and climate measures for 2030 and for the longer term. This document aims to provide background information on the effort sharing approaches, as presented in fore-mentioned paper.

  3. Measurement Development in Reflective Supervision: History, Methods, and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Angela M.; Heller, Sherryl Scott

    2016-01-01

    This issue of the "ZERO TO THREE" journal provides a snapshot of the current state of measurement of reflective supervision within the infant-family field. In this article, the authors introduce the issue by providing a brief history of the development of reflective supervision in the field of infant mental health, with a specific focus…

  4. The NEXT experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIaz, J; Yahlali, N; Ball, M; Carcel, S; Cervera, A; Gil, A [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (Centro mixto UV-CSIC), Apdo. de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain) (Spain); Barata, J A S; Borges, F I G M; Conde, C A N; Dias, T H V T; Fernandes, L M P; Freitas, E D C [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal); Calvo, E [Instituto de Fisica de Altas EnergIas, IFAE, Barcelona (Spain); Carmona, J M; Cebrian, S; Dafni, T; Galan, J [U. Zaragoza (Spain); Cid, X [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ferrer-Ribas, E [CEA, IRFU, Saclay (France); Gil, I, E-mail: jose.diaz@uv.e [CIEMAT (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay measurements are the most promising experiments both to reveal the Majorana nature of the neutrino and to set a value for its mass. The NEXT project propose to build a High pressure Xenon TPC in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Huesca, Spain) to measure double-beta decay of {sup 136}Xe, both normal and neutrinoless, with a source mass of 100 kg of enriched xenon.

  5. Carbon Capture and Storage: Progress and Next Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Two years after the G8 leaders commitment to the broad deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) by 2020, significant progress has been made towards commercialisation of CCS technologies. Yet the 2008 Hokkaido G8 recommendation to launch 20 large-scale CCS demonstration projects by 2010 remains a challenge and will require that governments and industry accelerate the pace toward achieving this critical goal. This is one of the main findings of a new report by the International Energy Agency (IEA), the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF), and the Global CCS Institute, to be presented to G8 leaders at their June Summit in Muskoka, Canada.

  6. Next step in policy transitions: Diffusion of pilot projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vreugdenhil, H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available of half-wild naturally present grazers such as horses. In Beuningen, CFR has first been applied in a pilot project within the framework of the EU-Interreg IIIb project ?Freude am Fluss? (Peters et al. 2006). The pilot is undertaken in the policy...

  7. Just Diagnosed: Next Steps After Testing Positive for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and reduces the amount of HIV in the body. ART can’t cure HIV, but it helps people ... damaged immune system makes it hard for the body to fight off infections. ... the better. ART is recommended as soon as possible for everyone ...

  8. SSWR Water Systems Project 2: Next Steps – Technology Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for protecting America’s water resources under the Clean Water Act (CWA) and for ensuring that the Nation’s drinking water is safe under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Further, it is the responsibility of EPA to conduct research and analyses t...

  9. The Next Step in Deployment of Computer Based Procedures For Field Workers: Insights And Results From Field Evaluations at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L.; Bly, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    The paper-based procedures currently used for nearly all activities in the commercial nuclear power industry have a long history of ensuring safe operation of the plants. However, there is potential to greatly increase efficiency and safety by improving how the human operator interacts with the procedures. One way to achieve these improvements is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). A CBP system offers a vast variety of improvements, such as context driven job aids, integrated human performance tools (e.g., placekeeping, correct component verification, etc.), and dynamic step presentation. The latter means that the CBP system could only display relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the operator down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the operator’s workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. The research team at the Idaho National Laboratory has developed a prototype CBP system for field workers, which has been evaluated from a human factors and usability perspective in four laboratory studies. Based on the results from each study revisions were made to the CBP system. However, a crucial step to get the end users' (e.g., auxiliary operators, maintenance technicians, etc.) acceptance is to put the system in their hands and let them use it as a part of their everyday work activities. In the spring 2014 the first field evaluation of the INL CBP system was conducted at a nuclear power plant. Auxiliary operators conduct a functional test of one out of three backup air compressors each week. During the field evaluation activity, one auxiliary operator conducted the test with the paper-based procedure while a second auxiliary operator

  10. TMS field modelling-status and next steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielscher, Axel

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, an increasing number of studies used geometrically accurate head models and finite element (FEM) or finite difference methods (FDM) to estimate the electric field induced by non-invasive neurostimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial...... (www.simnibs.de) that allows for the automatic creation of accurate head models from structural and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) (Windhoff et al., 2011). This enables us to perform field calculations for multiple subjects, as required in neuroscientific studies. We substantially...... will start by summarizing the key findings on how the individual brain anatomy shapes the electric field induced by TMS (Thielscher et al., 2011; Opitz, 2011). The putative link between the modeling results and basic physiological TMS effects is highlighted. I will then introduce the novel features of Sim...

  11. Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlvaine, J.; Saunders, S.; Bordelon, E.; Baden, S.; Elam, L.; Martin, E.

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

  12. Next Steps for Transforming Education at National Defense University

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    could and should be a humanist approach that emphasizes the importance of meeting the student’s full range of needs: emotional, spiritual, physical...The New Censor- ship: Institutional Review Boards,” Supreme Court Review 271 (2004). 15 Tom Bartlett, “Social- Psychology Researchers Are Very

  13. Combined Space and Water Heating: Next Steps to Improved Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Huelman, P. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-07-13

    A combined space- and water-heating (combi) system uses a high-efficiency direct-vent burner that eliminates safety issues associated with natural draft appliances. Past research with these systems shows that using condensing water heaters or boilers with hydronic air handling units can provide both space and water heating with efficiencies of 90% or higher. Improved controls have the potential to reduce complexity and improve upon the measured performance. This project demonstrates that controls can significantly benefit these first-generation systems. Laboratory tests and daily load/performance models showed that the set point temperature reset control produced a 2.1%–4.3% (20–40 therms/year) savings for storage and hybrid water heater combi systems operated in moderate-load homes. The full modulation control showed additional savings over set point control (in high-load homes almost doubling the savings: 4%–5% over the no-control case). At the time of installation the reset control can be implemented for $200–$400, which would provide paybacks of 6–25 years for low-load houses and 3–15 years for high-load houses. Full modulation implementation costs would be similar to the outdoor reset and would provide paybacks of 5-½–20 years for low-load houses and 2-½–10 years for high-load houses.

  14. Precision medicine in pediatric oncology: Lessons learned and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Rajen J; Prensner, John R; Everett, Jessica; Parsons, D Williams; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2017-03-01

    The maturation of genomic technologies has enabled new discoveries in disease pathogenesis as well as new approaches to patient care. In pediatric oncology, patients may now receive individualized genomic analysis to identify molecular aberrations of relevance for diagnosis and/or treatment. In this context, several recent clinical studies have begun to explore the feasibility and utility of genomics-driven precision medicine. Here, we review the major developments in this field, discuss current limitations, and explore aspects of the clinical implementation of precision medicine, which lack consensus. Lastly, we discuss ongoing scientific efforts in this arena, which may yield future clinical applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Strategic Forum. Number 283, December 2013. Next Steps in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    4604579067382861808984.html>. 4 Iranian scholars, interview by author, February and September 2012. 5 Cited by Deutsche Presse-Agentur, September 16, 2013...components as well. 11 Anne Barnard, “In Syrian Victory, Hezbollah Risks Broader Fight,” The New York Times, June 6, 2013, A1; Karl Vick, “The Fall

  16. Emergency Medicine Resident Rotations Abroad: Current Status and Next Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Morris, MD, MPH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: International rotations for residents are increasingly popular, but there is a dearth of evidence to demonstrate that these rotations are safe and that residents have appropriate training and support to conduct them. Methods: A survey was sent to all U.S. emergency medicine (EM residencies with publicly available e-mail addresses. The survey documents and examines the training and support that emergency medicine residents are offered for international rotations and the frequency of adverse safety events. Results: 72.5% of program director responded that their residents are participating in rotations abroad. However, only 15.4% of programs reported offering training specific to working abroad. The results point to an increased need for specific training and insurance coverage. Conclusion: Oversight of international rotations should be improved to guarantee safety and education benefit.

  17. Combined Space and Water Heating: Next Steps to Improved Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, B. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Huelman, P. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-07-13

    A combined space- and water-heating (combi) system uses a high-efficiency direct-vent burner that eliminates safety issues associated with natural draft appliances. Past research with these systems shows that using condensing water heaters or boilers with hydronic air handling units can provide both space and water heating with efficiencies of 90% or higher. Improved controls have the potential to reduce complexity and improve upon the measured performance. This project demonstrates that controls can significantly benefit these first-generation systems. Laboratory tests and daily load/performance models showed that the set point temperature reset control produced a 2.1%-4.3% (20-40 therms/year) savings for storage and hybrid water heater combi systems operated in moderate-load homes.

  18. Charting the way forward to better quality health care: how do we get there and what are the next steps? Recommendations from the Salzburg Global Seminar on making health care better in low- and middle-income economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, M Rashad; Mensah-Abrampah, Nana; Sax, Sylvia; Leatherman, Sheila; Agins, Bruce; Barker, Pierre; Kelley, Edward; Heiby, James R; Lotherington, John

    2012-12-01

    In April 2012, the Salzburg Global Seminar (SGS) brought together 58 health leaders from 33 countries to review experiences in improving the quality and safety of health-care services in low- and middle-income countries, synthesize lessons learned from those experiences, discuss challenges and opportunities and recommend next steps to stimulate improvement in such countries. This work summarizes the seminar's key results, expressed as five shared challenges and five lessons learned. The seminar featured a series of interactive sessions with an all-teach, all-learn approach. Session topics were: introduction to the seminar, journey to date, challenges that lie ahead, overcoming the issues of confusion, sustaining execution, strengthening leadership and policy, the role of quality improvement in health systems strengthening and setting the agenda for learning and next steps. Key lessons from the SGS include reducing terminology and methodology confusion, strengthening the learning agenda, embracing improvement science as a means for strengthening health-care systems, developing leadership in improving health care and ensuring that health-care systems focus on patients and communities. A call to action was developed by SGS participants and presented at the 65th World Health Assembly in Geneva. There is an inarguable need to move improvement in health care to a new level to attain and exceed the Millennium Development Goals. The challenges can be overcome through concerted action of key stakeholders and the application of scientifically grounded management methods to enable the reliable implementation of high-impact interventions for every patient every time needed.

  19. Method and Device for Speed Change by the Epicyclic Gear Train with Stepped-Planet Gear Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malashchenko Volodymyr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes new method and device for continuously variable speed change management via compound epicyclic gearing with composite planet gears and closed circuit hydrosystem, when the speed control element is either outer ring gear (annulus or the carrier or sun gear. In each case, the control element connected to closed circuit hydrosystem and can be in motion or immovable depending on the bandwidth of hydrosystem’s regulating throttle. We had held theoretical research and received graphic dependences between velocities of driving, control and driven elements by means of computer programing.

  20. Stepping on obstacles with a sensory substitution device on the lower leg: practice without vision is more beneficial than practice with vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Lorena; Travieso, David; Barrientos, Antonio; Jacobs, David M

    2014-01-01

    Practice is essential for an adapted use of sensory substitution devices. Understanding the learning process is therefore a fundamental issue in this field of research. This study presents a novel sensory substitution device worn on the lower leg and uses the device to study learning. The device includes 32 vibrotactile actuators that each vibrate as a function of the distance to the nearest surface in a particular direction. Participants wearing the device were asked to approach an object and to step on the object. Two 144-trial practice conditions were compared in a pretest-practice-posttest design. Participants in the first condition practiced with vibrotactile stimulation while blindfolded. Participants in the second condition practiced with vibrotactile stimulation along with normal vision. Performance was relatively successful, both types of practice led to improvements in performance, and practice without vision led to a larger reduction in the number of errors than practice with vision. These results indicate that distance-based sensory substitution is promising in addition to the more traditional light-intensity-based sensory substitution and that providing appropriate sensorimotor couplings is more important than applying the stimulation to highly sensitive body parts. The observed advantage of practice without vision over practice with vision is interpreted in terms of the guidance hypothesis of feedback and learning.

  1. Hacking the next generation

    CERN Document Server

    Dhanjani, Nitesh; Hardin, Brett

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of rich Internet applications, the explosion of social media, and the increased use of powerful cloud computing infrastructures, a new generation of attackers has added cunning new techniques to its arsenal. For anyone involved in defending an application or a network of systems, Hacking: The Next Generation is one of the few books to identify a variety of emerging attack vectors. You'll not only find valuable information on new hacks that attempt to exploit technical flaws, you'll also learn how attackers take advantage of individuals via social networking sites, and abuse

  2. Development of a Ground Test and Analysis Protocol to Support NASA's NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program is a public-private partnership model that seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities to support extensive human spaceflight missions around and beyond cislunar space. NASA first issued the Phase 1 NextSTEP Broad Agency Announcement to U.S. industries in 2014, which called for innovative cislunar habitation concepts that leveraged commercialization plans for low Earth orbit. These habitats will be part of the Deep Space Gateway (DSG), the cislunar space station planned by NASA for construction in the 2020s. In 2016, Phase 2 of the NextSTEP program selected five commercial partners to develop ground prototypes. A team of NASA research engineers and subject matter experts have been tasked with developing the ground test protocol that will serve as the primary means by which these Phase 2 prototype habitats will be evaluated. Since 2008, this core test team has successfully conducted multiple spaceflight analog mission evaluations utilizing a consistent set of operational products, tools, methods, and metrics to enable the iterative development, testing, analysis, and validation of evolving exploration architectures, operations concepts, and vehicle designs. The purpose of implementing a similar evaluation process for the NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts is to consistently evaluate the different commercial partner ground prototypes to provide data-driven, actionable recommendations for Phase 3.

  3. When Will We Ever Learn? The After Action Review, Lessons Learned and the Next Steps in Training and Educating the Homeland Security Enterprise for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    the past is not exclusive to the U.S. Army or the U.S. homeland security enterprise. A precursor to the AAR was established at Boeing in 1969 when it...instituted Project Homework. This initiative was an attempt to compare the problem-ridden 737 and 747 plane programs with the 707 and 727 programs...techniques, and procedures necessary to effectively integrate KM into the operations of brigades, divisions, and corps.”77 This field manual represents the

  4. Crossing the Next Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, R.; Menard, J.; Brooks, J.; Doerner, R.; Gates, D.; Fu, G.-Y.; Gorelenkov, N.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kramer, G.; Kugel, H.; Majeski, R.; Ono, M.; Skinner, C.; Strachan, J.; Harris, J.; Maingi, R.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.; Valanju, P.; Nygren, R.; Ulrickson, M.; Ruzic, D.; Sabbagh, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2007-11-01

    The plasma-material interface is the next frontier in fusion science. ITER's approaches to heat flux and tritium retention do not extrapolate to Demo. Defining questions at this frontier include: Can extremely high radiated-power fraction be consistent with high confinement and low Zeff? Can magnetic flux expansion or edge ergodization reduce heat loads sufficiently? Can tungsten survive with acceptable core radiation and tritium retention? Can liquid metals more effectively handle high heat flux, off-normal loads and tritium exhaust? Answers must be integrated with high-performance, fully steady state plasma operation, avoiding ELMs and eliminating disruptions. The vehicle to cross this frontier is a high-power-density plasma with long pulses, excellent diagnostic access, flexible first wall, divertor, heating, current drive and plasma control systems, extensive deuterium and trace tritium operation, and the ability to test a range of plasma-facing materials at reactor-relevant temperature.

  5. Direct printed metal devices - The next level of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing applications in the orthodontic care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Graf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the whole world gets more digital, so do we. This article provides a basic know-how for the CAD/CAM-workflow for metallic orthodontic appliances. Demonstrating step-by-step how to design the appliance on a digital cast and laser-melting (3D metal printing it, till the final result, without any physical models.

  6. Usability of an internet-based platform (Next.Step) for adolescent weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Pedro; Fonseca, Helena; Gaspar, Pedro; Gaspar, Filomena

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluates the usability perception of an e-therapeutic platform (supported by electronic processes and communication), aiming to promote the behavior change and to improve the adolescent health status through increased and interactive contact between the adolescent and the clinical staff. This was a correlational study with a sample of 48 adolescents (12-18 years) who attended a Pediatric Obesity Clinic between January and August of 2012. Participants were invited to access, during 24 weeks, the e-therapeutic multidisciplinary platform (Next.Step) in addition to the standard treatment program. A usability questionnaire was administered and the platform performance and utilization indicators were analyzed. The users' perception of satisfaction, efficiency, and effectiveness regarding the Next.Step platform was clearly positive. However, only 54.17% of the enrolled adolescents accessed the platform, with a mean task-completion rate of 14.55% (SD=18.853). The higher the number of the platform consulted resources, the greater the tendency to enjoy the platform, to consider it exciting and quick, to consider that the time spent in it was useful, to consider the access to information easy, and to login easier. Post-intervention assessment revealed a significant reduction in anthropometric and behavioral variables, including body mass index z-score, waist circumference percentile, hip circumference, and weekly screen time. These results highlight the importance of information and communication technologies in the health information access and the healthcare provision. Despite the limited adherence rate, platform users expressed a positive overall perception of its usability and presented a positive anthropometric and behavioral progress. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Usability of an internet-based platform (Next.Step for adolescent weight management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sousa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The current study evaluates the usability perception of an e-therapeutic platform (supported by electronic processes and communication, aiming to promote the behavior change and to improve the adolescent health status through increased and interactive contact between the adolescent and the clinical staff. METHODS: This was a correlational study with a sample of 48 adolescents (12-18 years who attended a Pediatric Obesity Clinic between January and August of 2012. Participants were invited to access, during 24 weeks, the e-therapeutic multidisciplinary platform (Next.Step in addition to the standard treatment program. A usability questionnaire was administered and the platform performance and utilization indicators were analyzed. RESULTS: The users' perception of satisfaction, efficiency, and effectiveness regarding the Next.Step platform was clearly positive. However, only 54.17% of the enrolled adolescents accessed the platform, with a mean task-completion rate of 14.55% (SD = 18.853. The higher the number of the platform consulted resources, the greater the tendency to enjoy the platform, to consider it exciting and quick, to consider that the time spent in it was useful, to consider the access to information easy, and to login easier. Post-intervention assessment revealed a significant reduction in anthropometric and behavioral variables, including body mass index z-score, waist circumference percentile, hip circumference, and weekly screen time. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the importance of information and communication technologies in the health information access and the healthcare provision. Despite the limited adherence rate, platform users expressed a positive overall perception of its usability and presented a positive anthropometric and behavioral progress.

  8. Novel cancer immunotherapy agents with survival benefit: recent successes and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Padmanee; Wagner, Klaus; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Allison, James P.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved two novel immunotherapy agents, sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab, which showed a survival benefit for patients with metastatic prostate cancer and melanoma, respectively. The mechanisms by which these agents provide clinical benefit are not completely understood. However, knowledge of these mechanisms will be crucial for probing human immune responses and tumour biology in order to understand what distinguishes responders from non-responders. The following next steps are necessary: first, the development of immune-monitoring strategies for the identification of relevant biomarkers; second, the establishment of guidelines for the assessment of clinical end points; and third, the evaluation of combination therapy strategies to improve clinical benefit. PMID:22020206

  9. Progress in palliative care in Israel: comparative mapping and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentur, Netta; Emanuel, Linda L; Cherney, Nathan

    2012-02-20

    Palliative care was established rapidly in some countries, while in other countries its establishment has taken a different trajectory. This paper identifies core steps in developing a medical specialty and examines those taken by Israel as compared with the US and England for palliative care. It considers the next steps Israel may take.Palliative care aims to provide quality of life for those with serious illnesses by attending to the illness-prompted physical, mental, social, and spiritual needs of patients and their families. It has ancient roots in medicine; its modern iteration began against the backdrop of new cures and life-sustaining technology which challenged conceptions of how to respect the sanctity of life.The first modern hospice was created by Saunders; it provided proof that palliative care works, and this has occurred in Israel as well (the first step). Another key step is usually skills development among clinicians; in Israel, few education and training opportunities exist so far. Specialty recognition also has not yet occurred in Israel. Service development remains limited and a major shortage of services exists, compared to the US. Research capacity in Israel is also limited. Policy to develop and sustain palliative care in Israel is underway; in 2009, the Ministry of Health established policy for implementing palliative care. However, it still lacks a financially viable infrastructure.We conclude that palliative care in Israel is emerging but has far to go. Adequate resource allocation, educational guidelines, credentialed manpower and specialty leadership are the key factors that palliative care development in Israel needs.

  10. Progress in palliative care in Israel: comparative mapping and next steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentur Netta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Palliative care was established rapidly in some countries, while in other countries its establishment has taken a different trajectory. This paper identifies core steps in developing a medical specialty and examines those taken by Israel as compared with the US and England for palliative care. It considers the next steps Israel may take. Palliative care aims to provide quality of life for those with serious illnesses by attending to the illness-prompted physical, mental, social, and spiritual needs of patients and their families. It has ancient roots in medicine; its modern iteration began against the backdrop of new cures and life-sustaining technology which challenged conceptions of how to respect the sanctity of life. The first modern hospice was created by Saunders; it provided proof that palliative care works, and this has occurred in Israel as well (the first step. Another key step is usually skills development among clinicians; in Israel, few education and training opportunities exist so far. Specialty recognition also has not yet occurred in Israel. Service development remains limited and a major shortage of services exists, compared to the US. Research capacity in Israel is also limited. Policy to develop and sustain palliative care in Israel is underway; in 2009, the Ministry of Health established policy for implementing palliative care. However, it still lacks a financially viable infrastructure. We conclude that palliative care in Israel is emerging but has far to go. Adequate resource allocation, educational guidelines, credentialed manpower and specialty leadership are the key factors that palliative care development in Israel needs.

  11. Emerging Trends in Phosphorene Fabrication towards Next Generation Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanabalan, Sathish Chander; Ponraj, Joice Sophia; Guo, Zhinan; Li, Shaojuan; Bao, Qiaoliang; Zhang, Han

    2017-06-01

    The challenge of science and technology is to design and make materials that will dominate the future of our society. In this context, black phosphorus has emerged as a new, intriguing two-dimensional (2D) material, together with its monolayer, which is referred to as phosphorene. The exploration of this new 2D material demands various fabrication methods to achieve potential applications- this demand motivated this review. This article is aimed at supplementing the concrete understanding of existing phosphorene fabrication techniques, which forms the foundation for a variety of applications. Here, the major issue of the degradation encountered in realizing devices based on few-layered black phosphorus and phosphorene is reviewed. The prospects of phosphorene in future research are also described by discussing its significance and explaining ways to advance state-of-art of phosphorene-based devices. In addition, a detailed presentation on the demand for future studies to promote well-systemized fabrication methods towards large-area, high-yield and perfectly protected phosphorene for the development of reliable devices in optoelectronic applications and other areas is offered.

  12. What is the most relevant standard of success in assisted reproduction? The next step to improving outcomes of IVF : consider the whole treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, EMEW; Macklon, NS; Fauser, BCJM

    Changing the way in which successful IVF treatment is defined offers a tool to improve efficacy while reducing costs and complications of treatment. Crucial to this paradigm shift is the move away from considering outcomes in terms of the single IVF cycle, and towards the started IVF treatment as a

  13. Towards the next chapter

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN.   That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...

  14. The way to collisions, step by step

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    While the LHC sectors cool down and reach the cryogenic operating temperature, spirits are warming up as we all eagerly await the first collisions. No reason to hurry, though. Making particles collide involves the complex manoeuvring of thousands of delicate components. The experts will make it happen using a step-by-step approach.

  15. The Next Generation EMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavjee, Karim; Mirza, Kashif; Martin, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical/health record (EMR) usage in North America has increased significantly in the last half decade. But there is widespread dissatisfaction with the technologies that are currently available in the market place. Our hypothesis is that EMR vendors and the market place alone cannot solve the issue of poor technology. We propose an architecture for the next generation of electronic records that solves current concerns of end users and addresses the needs of additional stakeholders, including health system funders, patients, researchers and guideline implementers. By including additional stakeholders, we believe that additional resources, competencies and functionality can be unleashed to solve the larger problems of the current generation of EMRs. The architecture also addresses future requirements that are likely to arise from technological developments such as mobile apps and PHRs and from innovations in medicine, including genomics, artificial intelligence and personalized medicine. The paper makes a call to action for informatics researchers to play a greater role in R&D on EMRs.

  16. If you want to get a job done, you need the right tools: Next steps for the UN Convention to Combat Desertification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulmin, Camilla

    2006-10-15

    Is the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) bringing the right set of tools to the task of addressing the problems facing dryland peoples around the world? Many of the challenges that face the drylands are not addressed by the current CCD toolkit. Three principal areas where attention should now be focused are working closely with the Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) to identify strategies to help the drylands adapt to climate change, engaging with the changing aid architecture, and securing rights to land and natural resources for dryland populations.

  17. Draft program plan for TNS: The Next Step after the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. Part II. R and D needs assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.

    1977-12-01

    The information contained in this document represents the brief but intensive efforts of the Oak Ridge TNS Program Team to answer the following questions: (1) Is there an adequate basis of R and D support for the TNS program as a central, ambitious goal for the fusion program. (2) What are the principal gaps in the current and projected R and D program. (3) What must be done to permit operation of TNS in the mid 1980s. The findings of our preliminary study provide these answers to the questions: (1) The physics and technology base does exist from which to start the TNS design as a central fusion program goal. (2) We have specific recommendations for new emphasis in certain physics and technology areas to minimize R and D program gaps. (3) TNS conceptual design must be started now, and a close look at organizing the fusion program around a TNS project is an essential need to support operation in the mid 1980s.

  18. Estimating heterotrophic respiration at large scales: Challenges, approaches, and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Epron, Daniel; Harden, Jennifer W.; Harmon, Mark E.; Hoffman, Forrest; Kumar, Jitendra; McGuire, Anthony David; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrophic respiration (HR), the aerobic and anaerobic processes mineralizing organic matter, is a key carbon flux but one impossible to measure at scales significantly larger than small experimental plots. This impedes our ability to understand carbon and nutrient cycles, benchmark models, or reliably upscale point measurements. Given that a new generation of highly mechanistic, genomic-specific global models is not imminent, we suggest that a useful step to improve this situation would be the development of “Decomposition Functional Types” (DFTs). Analogous to plant functional types (PFTs), DFTs would abstract and capture important differences in HR metabolism and flux dynamics, allowing modelers and experimentalists to efficiently group and vary these characteristics across space and time. We argue that DFTs should be initially informed by top-down expert opinion, but ultimately developed using bottom-up, data-driven analyses, and provide specific examples of potential dependent and independent variables that could be used. We present an example clustering analysis to show how annual HR can be broken into distinct groups associated with global variability in biotic and abiotic factors, and demonstrate that these groups are distinct from (but complementary to) already-existing PFTs. A similar analysis incorporating observational data could form the basis for future DFTs. Finally, we suggest next steps and critical priorities: collection and synthesis of existing data; more in-depth analyses combining open data with rigorous testing of analytical results; using point measurements and realistic forcing variables to constrain process-based models; and planning by the global modeling community for decoupling decomposition from fixed site data. These are all critical steps to build a foundation for DFTs in global models, thus providing the ecological and climate change communities with robust, scalable estimates of HR.

  19. Bird strike and electrocutions at power lines, communication towers, and wind turbines: state of the art and state of the science - next steps toward mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert M. Manville II

    2005-01-01

    Migratory birds suffer considerable human-caused mortality from structures built to provide public services and amenities. Three such entities are increasing nationwide: communication towers, power lines, and wind turbines. Communication towers have been growing at an exponential rate over at least the past 6 years. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is especially...

  20. Back to business: a next step in the field of oral history: the usefulness of oral history for leadership and organizational research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, S.; Kroeze, R.

    2012-01-01

    Business organizations and elites are often neglected in oral history as a result of the dominant assumption that elites have ample opportunity to be heard. We argue, however, that researching corporations and elites is very interesting for oral historians. This contention is supported by the four

  1. Chronically ill patients' self-management abilities to maintain overall well-being: What is needed to take the next step in the primary care setting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Although widespread problems in patient-professional interaction and insufficient support of patients' self-management abilities have been recognized, research investigating the relationships among care quality, productive interaction, and self-management abilities to

  2. Chronically ill patients' self-management abilities to maintain overall well-being: what is needed to take the next step in the primary care setting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Background: Although widespread problems in patient–professional interaction and insufficient support of patients’self-management abilities have been recognized, research investigating the relationships among care quality, productiveinteraction, and self-management

  3. 'Sedentary behaviour counselling': the next step in lifestyle counselling in primary care; pilot findings from the Rapid Assessment Disuse Index (RADI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuval, Kerem; DiPietro, Loretta; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Barlow, Carolyn E; Morrow, Jay; Goldsteen, Robert; Kohl, Harold W

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence emphasises a relationship between prolonged sitting and increased risk for cardiometabolic disorders and premature death irrespective of the protective effects of physical activity. Primary care physicians have the potential to play a key role in modifying patients' sedentary behaviour alongside physical activity. A pilot study examining sedentary behaviour and physical activity counselling in a primary care clinic. A total of 157 patients completed a detailed survey related to lifestyle counselling received from their primary care physician. We analysed these responses to describe counselling practices within the 5A framework, and to examine correlates (ie, patients' demographics, sedentary behaviour and physical activity and clinical variables) related to receiving counselling. A total of 10% received general advice to decrease sitting time, in comparison with 53% receiving general physical activity counselling. None, however, received a written plan pertaining to sedentary behaviour whereas 14% received a written physical activity prescription. Only 2% were provided with specific strategies for sedentary behaviour change in comparison with 10% for physical activity change. Multivariable analysis revealed that patients who were obese were more likely to receive counselling to decrease sitting (OR=7.0; 95% CI 1.4 to 35.2). In comparison, higher odds for receiving physical activity counselling were associated with being younger, aged 40-59 years (OR=2.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 5.4); and being a non-smoker (OR=6.1; 95% CI 1.3 to 28.4). This study is the first to assess sedentary behaviour counselling practices in primary care and such practices appear to be infrequent. Future research should attempt to establish a 'knowledge base' to inform development of sedentary behaviour interventions, which should be followed by testing feasibility, efficacy, and subsequent effectiveness of these programmes in a clinical setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  4. The Next Generation Photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Dennis Thomas; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2005-09-12

    This dissertation will elucidate the design, construction, theory, and operation of the Next Generation Photoinjector (NGP). This photoinjector is comprised of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell symmetrized S-band photocathode radio frequency (rf) electron gun and a single emittance-compensation solenoidal magnet. This photoinjector is a prototype for the Linear Coherent Light Source X-ray Free Electron Laser operating in the 1.5 {angstrom} range. Simulations indicate that this photoinjector is capable of producing a 1nC electron bunch with transverse normalized emittance less than 1 {pi} mm mrad were the cathode is illuminated with a 10 psec longitudinal flat top pulse. Using a Gaussian longitudinal laser profile with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 10 psec, simulation indicates that the NGP is capable of producing a normalized rms emittance of 2.50 {pi} mm mrad at 1 nC. Using the removable cathode plate we have studied the quantum efficiency (QE) of both copper and magnesium photo-cathodes. The Cu QE was found to be 4.5 x 10{sup -5} with a 25% variation in the QE across the emitting surface of the cathode, while supporting a field gradient of 125 MV/m. At low charge, the transverse normalized rms emittance, {epsilon}{sub n,rms}, produced by the NGP is {epsilon}{sub n,rms} = 1.2 {pi} mm mrad for Q{sub T} = 0.3 nC. The 95% electron beam bunch length was measured to 10.9 psec. The emittance due to the finite magnetic field at the cathode has been studied. The scaling of this magnetic emittance term as a function of cathode magnetic field was found to be 0.01 {pi} mm mrad per Gauss. The 1.6 cell rf gun has been designed to reduce the dipole field asymmetry of the longitudinal accelerating field. Low level rf measurements show that this has in fact been accomplished, with an order of magnitude decrease in the dipole field. High power beam studies also show that the dipole field has been decreased. An upper limit of the intrinsic non-reducible thermal emittance of a

  5. Palliative care for patients with Parkinson’s disease: an interdisciplinary review and next step model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su KG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kimmy G Su,1 Julie H Carter,1 Keiran K Tuck,2 Tony Borcich,3 Linda A Bryans,4 Lisa L Mann,1 Jennifer L Wilhelm,5 Erik K Fromme6 1Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, 2The Oregon Clinic-Neurology, 3Parkinson’s Resources of Oregon, 4Northwest Clinic for Voice and Swallowing, Oregon Health and Science University, 5Rehabilitation Services, Oregon Health & Science University, 6Palliative Care Section, OHSU Knight Cancer Institute, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Late stage Parkinson’s and Parkinson-plus patients have increased needs beyond motor symptom management that cannot be fully addressed in a typical neurology clinic visit. Complicating matters are the concurrent increasing emotional and physical demands on caregivers, which, if addressed, further stretch clinic time constraints. The complex and extensive patient and caregiver needs warrant a dedicated clinic to provide the necessary interdisciplinary care. In contrast to a typical model where the neurology clinician refers the patient to various ancillary treatment groups resulting in multiple separate clinic visits, the interdisciplinary model supports direct communication between the different disciplines during the clinic visit, allowing for a more coordinated response that takes into account multiple perspectives. Such an interdisciplinary model has been utilized in neurologic disorders with complex end-stage disease needs, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with notable improvement in quality of life and survival. The Oregon Health & Science University Parkinson Center and Movement Disorders Clinic has developed an interdisciplinary clinic called Next Step composed of neurology clinicians, a physical therapist, a speech pathologist, a social worker, and a nursing coordinator. The clinic focuses on palliative care issues, including complex late stage motor symptoms, nonmotor symptoms, and quality of life goals of both the patient and caregiver(s. This article

  6. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  7. Analysis of plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) medical devices for infusion and artificial nutrition: comparison and optimization of the extraction procedures, a pre-migration test step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Lise; Cueff, Régis; Bourdeaux, Daniel; Breysse, Colette; Sautou, Valérie

    2015-02-01

    Medical devices (MDs) for infusion and enteral and parenteral nutrition are essentially made of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The first step in assessing patient exposure to these plasticizers, as well as ensuring that the MDs are free from di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), consists of identifying and quantifying the plasticizers present and, consequently, determining which ones are likely to migrate into the patient's body. We compared three different extraction methods using 0.1 g of plasticized PVC: Soxhlet extraction in diethyl ether and ethyl acetate, polymer dissolution, and room temperature extraction in different solvents. It was found that simple room temperature chloroform extraction under optimized conditions (30 min, 50 mL) gave the best separation of plasticizers from the PVC matrix, with extraction yields ranging from 92 to 100% for all plasticizers. This result was confirmed by supplemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) and gravimetric analyses. The technique was used on eight marketed medical devices and showed that they contained different amounts of plasticizers, ranging from 25 to 36% of the PVC weight. These yields, associated with the individual physicochemical properties of each plasticizer, highlight the need for further migration studies.

  8. Time-domain diffuse optics: towards next generation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, Davide; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Arridge, Simon; Martelli, Fabrizio; Tosi, Alberto; Boso, Gianluca; Farina, Andrea; Durduran, Turgut; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Pifferi, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Diffuse optics is a powerful tool for clinical applications ranging from oncology to neurology, but also for molecular imaging, and quality assessment of food, wood and pharmaceuticals. We show that ideally time-domain diffuse optics can give higher contrast and a higher penetration depth with respect to standard technology. In order to completely exploit the advantages of a time-domain system a distribution of sources and detectors with fast gating capabilities covering all the sample surface is needed. Here, we present the building block to build up such system. This basic component is made of a miniaturised source-detector pair embedded into the probe based on pulsed Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) as sources and Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) or Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as detectors. The possibility to miniaturized and dramatically increase the number of source detectors pairs open the way to an advancement of diffuse optics in terms of improvement of performances and exploration of new applications. Furthermore, availability of compact devices with reduction in size and cost can boost the application of this technique.

  9. Registration of Multi-Level Property Rights in 3D in The Netherlands: Two Cases and Next Steps in Further Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantien Stoter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the first 3D cadastral registration in The Netherlands, accomplished in March 2016. The solution was sought within the current cadastral, organisational, and technical frameworks to obtain a deeper knowledge on the optimal way of implementing 3D registration, while avoiding discussions between experts from different domains. The article presents the developed methodology to represent legal volumes in an interactive 3D visualisation that can be registered in the land registers. The source data is the 3D Building Information Model (BIM. The methodology is applied to two cases: (1 the case of the railway station in Delft, resulting in the actual 3D registration in 2016; and (2 a building complex in Amsterdam, improving the Delft-case and providing the possibility to describe a general workflow from design data to a legal document. An evaluation provides insights for an improved cadastral registration of multi-level property rights. The main conclusion is that in specific situations, a 3D approach has important advantages for cadastral registration over a 2D approach. Further study is needed to implement the solution in a standardised and uniform way, from registration to querying and updating in the future, and to develop a formal registration process accordingly.

  10. Simulations of the Neutral-beam-induced Rotation, Radial Electric Field, and Flow Shearing Rate in Next-step Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.V. Budny

    2002-08-13

    Toroidal rotation of plasmas in present tokamaks is beneficial for increasing the stability to wall-induced MHD and appears to reduce the anomalous transport associated with micro-turbulence. This paper calculates the toroidal rotation expected from neutral-beam injection in the proposed FIRE and ITER-FEAT tokamak reactors. Self-consistent burning plasmas for these tokamaks have been constructed using the TRANSP plasma analysis code. Neutral-beam injection has been proposed for FIRE and ITER-FEAT. The neutral-beam-induced torques are computed, and assumptions for the anomalous transport of toroidal angular momentum are used to calculate the toroidal rotation profiles. The central Mach numbers are about 3-8%. The ratio of the rotation speed to the Alfvin speed is less than 1%. Assuming neoclassical poloidal rotation and force balance, the radial electric field and flow shearing rate are calculated. Peak shearing rates near the outboard edge are in the 10-100 krad/s range.

  11. Foreign remedies: what the experience of other nations can tell us about next steps in reforming U.S. health care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rochefort, David A; Donnelly, Kevin P

    2012-01-01

    "The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act marked a watershed in U.S. health policy, but controversy over its passage rages on, and much uncertainty surrounds the law's transformation from blueprint into operational program...

  12. Soft-Body Muscles for Evolved Virtual Creatures: The Next Step on a Bio-Mimetic Path to Meaningful Morphological Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessin, Dan; Risi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    In the past, evolved virtual creatures (EVCs) have been developed with rigid, segmented bodies, and with soft bodies, but never before with a combination of the two. In nature, however, creatures combining a rigid skeleton and non-rigid muscles are some of the most complex and successful examples...

  13. The EuCARD2 Future Magnets Program for Particle Accelerator High-Field Dipoles : Review of Results and Next Steps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, Lucio; Badel, Arnaud; Bajas, Hugues; Bajko, Marta; Ballarino, Amalia; Barth, Christian; Betz, Ulrich; Bottura, Luca; Broggi, Francesco; Chiuchiolo, Antonella; Dhalle, Marc; Durante, Maria; Fazilleau, Philippe; Fleiter, Jerome; Gao, Peng; Goldacker, Wilfried; Kario, Anna; Kirby, Glyn; Haro, E.; Himbele, J.; Lorin, C.; Murtomaki, J.; Van Nugteren, Jeroen; Petrone, Carlo; De Rijk, Gijs; Ruuskanen, J.; Senatore, Carmine; Statera, Marco; Stenvall, Antti; Tixador, Pascal; Yang, Yifeng; Usoskin, Alexander; Zangenberg, Nikolaj

    The EuCARD2 collaboration aims at the development of a 10 kA-class superconducting, high current density cable suitable for accelerator magnets, to be tested in small coils and magnets capable to deliver 3-5 T when energized in stand-alone mode, and 15-18 T when inserted in a 12-13 T background

  14. Understanding the association between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries: Next steps for research and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M; Kim, Rockli; Krishna, Aditi; McGovern, Mark; Aguayo, Victor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-11-01

    Stunting, caused by experiences of chronic nutritional deprivation, affects approximately 25% of children under age five globally (i.e., 156 million children). In this review, evidence of a relationship between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries is summarized, and issues for further research are discussed. We focus on studies that measured low height-for-age among children less than 5 years old as the exposure and gross/fine motor skills, psychosocial competencies, cognitive abilities, or schooling and learning milestones as the outcomes. This review highlights three key findings. First, the variability in child development tools and metrics used among studies and the differences in the timing and frequency of the assessments complicate comparisons across study findings. Second, considerable evidence from across many countries supports an association between stunting and poor child development despite methodological differences and heterogeneity in the magnitude of associations. Further, effect sizes differ by developmental domain with greater associations shown for cognitive/schooling outcomes. How stunting influences child development, which domains of child development are more affected, and how the various domains of child development influence one another require further experimental research to test causal pathways. Finally, there is mixed evidence of the additive effect of nutrition + stimulation interventions on child development. However, understanding best methods for improving child developmental outcomes - either through nutrition programs or through integrated nutrition + psychosocial stimulation programs (or nutrition + other program interventions) - is a key area of further inquiry. Given that nearly 40% of children under age five suffer from loss of developmental potential - for which stunting is likely one of the key risk factors - reductions in stunting could have tremendous implications for child development

  15. Initial Steps Toward Next-Generation, Waveform-Based, Three-Dimensional Models and Metrics to Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    propagation effects by splitting apart the longer period surface waves from the shorter period, depth-sensitive Pnl waves. Problematic, or high-error... Pnl waves. Problematic, or high-error, stations and paths were further analyzed to identify systematic errors with unknown sensor responses and...frequency Pnl components and slower, longer period surface waves. All cut windows are fit simultaneously, allowing equal weighting of phases that may be

  16. CBT in the prevention of psychosis and other severe mental disorders in patients with an at risk mental state: A review and proposed next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, Mark; van den Berg, David; Ising, Helga

    2017-08-28

    Patients with an 'At risk mental state' (ARMS) for developing psychosis can be treated successfully with CBT to postpone and prevent the transition to a first psychotic episode. A characteristic of individuals that meet ARMS criteria is that they are still open for multiple explanations for extraordinary experiences. CBT aims to normalize extraordinary experiences with education and to prevent delusional explanations. The treatment is not only effective, but also cost-saving in averting psychosis as well as in reducing disability adjusted life years at 18- and 48-month follow-up. Profiling within the ARMS group results in a personalized treatment. The screening and early treatment for ARMS fulfills all the criteria of the World Health Organization and is ready to be routine screening and treatment in mental health care. At the same time, ARMS patients are complex patients with multi-morbid disorders. Especially childhood trauma is associated to ARMS status, together with co-morbid PTSD, depression, substance abuse and anxiety disorders. Psychotic symptoms appear to be severity markers in other non-psychotic disorders. Preventing psychosis in ARMS patients should be broadened to also address other disorders and aim to reduce chronicity of psychopathology and improve social functioning in general. Several mechanisms play a part in psychopathology in ARMS patients such as stress sensitivity as a result of adverse experiences, dopamine sensitivity that is associated with salience and aggravates several cognitive biases, dissociation mediating between trauma and hallucinations, and low self-esteem and self-stigma. New avenues to treat the complexity of ARMS patients will be proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Next Step in School Choice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew Ladner

    2016-01-01

    ...: private-school tuition, tutoring from certified tutors, individual public-school courses, online programs, community college and university tuition, standardized testing fees, curriculum costs...

  18. Comparison of a state of the art Si IGBT and next generation fast switching devices in a 4 kW boost converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-01-01

    , switching transition measurements for switching loss calculations and electrical power measurements in a boost converter. Using SiC switching devices, switching energies can be reduced by almost 70% and the forward voltages of such devices are much lower compared to the IGBT which then reduce the conduction......This paper gives a comprehensive comparison of two promising silicon carbide (SiC) switching devices, i.e. normally-off SiC MOSFET and a normally-on SiC JFET, as alternatives to a conventional state of the art Si IGBT. The comparison uses datasheet information to determine conduction losses...... losses. This reduction in semiconductor losses can increase overall converter efficiencies up to 0.4% at 20kHz or enable high frequency operation up to 100 kHz which then reduces the size and weight of the inductor by more than 75% while still achieving efficiencies over 98.3 %....

  19. Novel CAD/CAM rapid prototyping of next-generation biomedical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Anand

    An aging population with growing healthcare needs demands multifaceted tools for diagnosis and treatment of health conditions. In the near-future, drug-administration devices, implantable devices/sensors, enhanced prosthesis, artificial and unique functional tissue constructs will become increasingly significant. Conventional technologies for mass-produced implants do not adequately take individual patient anatomy into consideration. Development of novel CAD/CAM rapid prototyping techniques may significantly accelerate progress of these devices for next-generation patient-care. In this dissertation, several novel rapid prototyping techniques have been introduced for next-generation biomedical applications. Two-photon polymerization was developed to microfabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering, microneedles for drug-delivery and ossicular replacement prostheses. Various photoplymers were evaluated for feasibility, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and surface properties. Laser direct write using MDW was utilized for developing microstructures of bioceramics such as hydroxyapatite, and viable mammalian osteosarcoma cells. CAD/CAM laser micromachining (CLM) was developed to engineer biointerfaces as surface recognition regions for differential adherence of cells and growth into tissue-like networks. CLM was also developed for engineering multi-cellular vascular networks. Cytotoxic evaluations and growth studies demonstrated VEGF-induced proliferation of HAAE-1 human aortic endothelial cells with inhibition of HA-VSMC human aortic smooth muscle cells. Finally, piiezoelectric inkjet printing was developed for controlled administration of natural and synthetic adhesives to overcome several problems associated with conventional tissue bonding materials, and greatly improve wound-repair in next generation eye repair, fracture fixation, organ fixation, wound closure, tissue engineering, and drug delivery devices.

  20. The apeNEXT project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belletti, F.; Bodin, F.; Boucaud, Ph.; Cabibbo, N.; Lonardo, A.; de Luca, S.; Lukyanov, M.; Micheli, J.; Morin, L.; Pene, O.; Pleiter, D.; Rapuano, F.; Rossetti, D.; Schifano, S. F.; Simma, H.; Tripiccione, R.; Vicini, P.; apeNEXT Collaboration

    2006-04-01

    Numerical simulations in theoretical high-energy physics (Lattice QCD) require huge computing resources. Several generations of massively parallel computers optimised for these applications have been developed within the APE (array processor experiment) project. Large prototype systems of the latest generation, apeNEXT, are currently being assembled and tested. This contribution explains how the apeNEXT architecture is optimised for Lattice QCD, provides an overview of the hardware and software of apeNEXT, and describes its new features, like the SPMD programming model and the C compiler.

  1. Next-to-next-to-eikonal corrections in the CGC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Armesto, Néstor [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE,Universidade de Santiago de Compostela,E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Beuf, Guillaume [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Moscoso, Alexis [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE,Universidade de Santiago de Compostela,E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2016-01-19

    We extend the study of corrections to the eikonal approximation that was initiated in ref. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP07(2014)068 to higher orders. These corrections associated with the finite width of the target are investigated and the gluon propagator in background field is calculated at next-to-next-to-eikonal accuracy. The result is then applied to the single inclusive gluon production cross section at central rapidities and the single transverse spin asymmetry with a transversely polarized target, in pA collisions, in order to analyze these observables beyond the eikonal limit. The next-to-next-to-eikonal corrections to the unpolarized cross section are non-zero and provide the first corrections to the usual k{sub ⊥}-factorized expression. In contrast, the eikonal and next-to-next-to-eikonal contributions to the single transverse spin asymmetry vanish, while the next-to-eikonal ones are non-zero.

  2. Step count accuracy and reliability of two activity tracking devices in people after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Samuel D; Holzapfel, Simon D; Fulk, George; Bosch, Pamela Rogers

    2017-10-01

    The increasing popularity of activity tracking devices presents an opportunity to monitor physical activity in patients after stroke. We sought to determine the reliability and accuracy of the Garmin Vivofit and Fitbit Zip for adults after stroke. Twenty-four participants with stroke-induced hemiparesis wore a Fitbit Zip on the nonparetic hip and Garmin Vivofits on both wrists during a 6-minute walk test to determine the accuracy of the devices against video-determined step counts. Participants also wore the devices during two trials of exactly 50 steps to determine the reliability of the devices. Fitbit Zip showed excellent reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.974) and accuracy (4.2% error) for participants who walked faster than 0.35 m/s. Garmin Vivofit (nonparetic side) had excellent reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.964) but poor accuracy (≤-16.0%) for all participants. Garmin Vivofit (paretic side) had excellent reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.858) and accuracy (-4.0% error) for faster walkers (>0.48 m/s) but poor accuracy (-68.2%) for slower walkers. Fitbit Zip was more accurate and reliable for persons with stroke than Garmin Vivofit, but slower walking speeds were associated with greater undercounting of steps for both devices. The Fitbit Zip is appropriate for counting steps in adults poststroke who range from household to community ambulators.

  3. Emerging technologies to measure neighborhood conditions in public health: implications for interventions and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, M; Nelson, E J; Werner, K; Shacham, E; Elliott, M; Ratnapradipa, K; Lian, M; McVay, A

    2016-06-23

    Adverse neighborhood conditions play an important role beyond individual characteristics. There is increasing interest in identifying specific characteristics of the social and built environments adversely affecting health outcomes. Most research has assessed aspects of such exposures via self-reported instruments or census data. Potential threats in the local environment may be subject to short-term changes that can only be measured with more nimble technology. The advent of new technologies may offer new opportunities to obtain geospatial data about neighborhoods that may circumvent the limitations of traditional data sources. This overview describes the utility, validity and reliability of selected emerging technologies to measure neighborhood conditions for public health applications. It also describes next steps for future research and opportunities for interventions. The paper presents an overview of the literature on measurement of the built and social environment in public health (Google Street View, webcams, crowdsourcing, remote sensing, social media, unmanned aerial vehicles, and lifespace) and location-based interventions. Emerging technologies such as Google Street View, social media, drones, webcams, and crowdsourcing may serve as effective and inexpensive tools to measure the ever-changing environment. Georeferenced social media responses may help identify where to target intervention activities, but also to passively evaluate their effectiveness. Future studies should measure exposure across key time points during the life-course as part of the exposome paradigm and integrate various types of data sources to measure environmental contexts. By harnessing these technologies, public health research can not only monitor populations and the environment, but intervene using novel strategies to improve the public health.

  4. Spin-charge-family theory is offering next step in understanding elementary particles and fields and correspondingly universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoč Borštnik, Norma Susana

    2017-05-01

    More than 40 years ago the standard model made a successful new step in understanding properties of fermion and boson fields. Now the next step is needed, which would explain what the standard model and the cosmological models just assume: a. The origin of quantum numbers of massless one family members. b. The origin of families. c. The origin of the vector gauge fields. d. The origin of the Higgses and Yukawa couplings. e. The origin of the dark matter. f. The origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry. g. The origin of the dark energy. h. And several other open problems. The spin-charge-family theory, a kind of the Kaluza-Klein theories in (d = (2n - 1) + 1)-space-time, with d = (13 + 1) and the two kinds of the spin connection fields, which are the gauge fields of the two kinds of the Clifford algebra objects anti-commuting with one another, may provide this much needed next step. The talk presents: i. A short presentation of this theory. ii. The review over the achievements of this theory so far, with some not published yet achievements included. iii. Predictions for future experiments.

  5. EDITORIAL: The next photonic revolution The next photonic revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials is a follow-up to the second European Topical Meeting of the NANOMETA series of meetings (see www.nanometa.org) which took place on 5-8 January 2009, in Seefeld, Austria. The main idea of the first NANOMETA meeting held in 2007 was to bring together the mature community of microwave electrical engineers with the emerging community of photonics researchers interested in the physics of light coupled to nanostructures. In recent years the research landscape has shifted dramatically. A wider proliferation of nanofabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanoimprint and focused ion beam milling, diagnostics techniques such as near-field scanning imaging, cathodoluminescence with nanoscale resolution and micro-spectrometry, and the availability of affordable broadband and ultrafast optical sources, have moved the research focus of the NANOMETA community to the optical domain. Quite naturally the ideas of the nonlinearity of materials and the coherency of light in the nanoscale realm have been widely discussed. Driven by the dream of untapped device and material functionality, nonlinear and switchable nanophotonic devices and photonic metamaterials, along with the concept of tailoring the electromagnetic space with metamaterials, appear to be the main avenues along which the subject will develop in the coming years. Indeed, in the last 20 years photonics has played a key role in creating the world as we know it, with enormous beneficial social impact worldwide. It is impossible to imagine modern society without the globe-spanning broadband internet and mobile telephony made possible by the implementation of optical fibre core networks, optical disc data storage (underpinned by the development of compact semiconductor lasers), modern image display technologies and laser-assisted manufacturing. We now anticipate that the next photonic revolution will continue to grow, explosively fuelled by a new

  6. The next big accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Cramer, J G

    2002-01-01

    Accelerator physics in the US has been devastated by the cancellation of two high-energy physics colliders facilities. However there are future plans. A suggestion is made to build the new collider in the Australian outback.

  7. The Next Arms Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    sharp internal political crises, economic transforma- tion, social instability, demographic decline, and the collapse of conventional military power. The...continued domestic stability, the government may need to siphon resources from the military in favor of social spending programs. Finally, the...an open pool-type light-wa- ter reactor (22.5 MWth) built by the Argentine firm INVAP ( Investigaciones Aplicadas), was in- augurated in 1998. Its fuel

  8. Raising the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper-Owen, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Amy Morris Homans had a vision that graduates of the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics and Wellesley College would make physical education a well-respected profession. The professional preparation received by her students equipped them to be educators, administrators, and future leaders of physical education. The purpose of this essay is to…

  9. The next scientific revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tony

    2010-11-01

    For decades, computer scientists have tried to teach computers to think like human experts. Until recently, most of those efforts have failed to come close to generating the creative insights and solutions that seem to come naturally to the best researchers, doctors, and engineers. But now, Tony Hey, a VP of Microsoft Research, says we're witnessing the dawn of a new generation of powerful computer tools that can "mash up" vast quantities of data from many sources, analyze them, and help produce revolutionary scientific discoveries. Hey and his colleagues call this new method of scientific exploration "machine learning." At Microsoft, a team has already used it to innovate a method of predicting with impressive accuracy whether a patient with congestive heart failure who is released from the hospital will be readmitted within 30 days. It was developed by directing a computer program to pore through hundreds of thousands of data points on 300,000 patients and "learn" the profiles of patients most likely to be rehospitalized. The economic impact of this prediction tool could be huge: If a hospital understands the likelihood that a patient will "bounce back," it can design programs to keep him stable and save thousands of dollars in health care costs. Similar efforts to uncover important correlations that could lead to scientific breakthroughs are under way in oceanography, conservation, and AIDS research. And in business, deep data exploration has the potential to unearth critical insights about customers, supply chains, advertising effectiveness, and more.

  10. LOBSTER - The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Arne

    2016-04-01

    Since 1997 K.U.M. GmbH designs and manufactures Ocean Bottom Seismometer. During the last three years we designed a new instrument which is presented here. Higher resolution, higher accuracy and less power consumption led to an unique instrument, the worlds smallest broadband longterm OBS. Key data are: 32 bit, 143dB, 300mW, 120 sec, 200kg deployment weight, size of half a palette.

  11. I(sup STAR), NASA's Next Step in Air-Breathing Propulsion for Space Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, John J.; McArthur, Craig; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a strategic plan for future activities in space. A primary goal of this plan is to make drastic improvements in the cost and safety of earth to low-earth-orbit transportation. One approach to achieving this goal is through the development of highly reusable, highly reliable space transportation systems analogous to the commercial airline system. In the year 2000, NASA selected the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine as the next logical step towards this goal. NASA will develop a complete flight-weight, pump-fed engine system under the Integrated System Test of an Airbreathing Rocket (I(sup STAR)) Project. The objective of this project is develop a reusable engine capable of self-powering a vehicle through the air-augmented rocket, ramjet and scramjet modes required in all RBCC based operational vehicle concepts. The project is currently approved and funded to develop the engine through ground test demonstration. Plans are in place to proceed with flight demonstration pending funding approval. The project is in formulation phase and the Preliminary Requirements Review has been completed. The engine system and vehicle have been selected at the conceptual level. The I(sup STAR) engine concept is based on an air-breathing flowpath downselected from three configurations evaluated in NASA's Advanced Reusable Technology contract. The selected flowpath features rocket thrust chambers integrated into struts separating modular flowpath ducts, a variable geometry inlet, and a thermally choked throat. The engine will be approximately 220 inches long and 79 inches wide and fueled with a hydrocarbon fuel using liquid oxygen as the primary oxidizer candidate. The primary concept for the pump turbine drive is pressure-fed catalyzed hydrogen peroxide. In order to control costs, the flight demonstration vehicle will be launched from a B-52 aircraft. The vehicle concept is based on the Air

  12. The apeNEXT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, F. [IRISA/INRIA, Campus Universite de Beaulieu, Rennes (France); Boucaud, Ph. [LPT, University of Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Cabibbo, N. [INFN, Sezione di Rome (Italy); Di Carlo, F. [INFN, Sezione di Rome (Italy); De Pietri, R. [Physics Department, University of Parma and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Parma (Italy); Di Renzo, F. [Physics Department, University of Parma and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Parma (Italy); Errico, W. [INFN, di Pisa (Italy); Kaldass, H. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany); Lonardo, A. [INFN, Sezione di Rome (Italy); De Luca, S. [INFN, Sezione di Rome (Italy); Micheli, J. [LPT, University of Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Morenas, V. [LPC, Universite Blaise Pascal and IN2P3, Clermont (France); Pene, O. [LPT, University of Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Pleiter, D. [NIC/DESY Zeuthen (Germany); Paschedag, N. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany); Rapuano, F. [Physics Department, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Rossetti, D. [INFN, Sezione di Rome (Italy); Sartori, L. [INFN, di Pisa (Italy); Schifano, F. [INFN, di Pisa (Italy); Simma, H. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany); Tripiccione, R. [Physics Deparment, University of Ferrara (Italy); Vicini, P. [INFN, Sezione di Rome (Italy)

    2005-03-15

    In this talk I report on the status of the apeNEXT project. apeNEXT is the last of a family of parallel computers designed, in a research environment, to provide multi-teraflops computing power to scientists involved in heavy numerical simulations. The architecture and the custom chip are optimized for Lattice QCD (LQCD) calculations but the favourable price performance ratio and the good efficiency for other kind of calculations make it a quite interesting tool for a large class of scientific problems.

  13. Sealed Orifice Laparoscopic or Endoscopic (SOLE) Surgery: technology and technique convergence for next-step colorectal surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, R A

    2012-02-01

    The new avenue of minimally invasive surgery, referred to as single-incision\\/access laparoscopy, is often presented as an alternative to standard multiport approaches, whereas in fact it is more usefully perceived as a complementary modality. The emergence of the technique can be of greater use both to patients and to the colorectal specialty if its principles can be merged into next-stage evolution by synergy with more conventional practice. In particular, rather than device specificity, what is needed is convergence of capability that can be applied by the same surgeon in differing scenarios depending on the individualized patient and disease characteristics. We detail here the global applicability of a simple access device construct that allows the provision of simple and complex single-port laparoscopy as well as contributing to multiport laparoscopic and transanal resections in a manner that is reliable, reproducible, ergonomical and economical.

  14. Multi-step Variable Height Photolithography for Valved Multilayer Microfluidic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Kara; White, Adam K; Fordyce, Polly M

    2017-01-27

    Microfluidic systems have enabled powerful new approaches to high-throughput biochemical and biological analysis. However, there remains a barrier to entry for non-specialists who would benefit greatly from the ability to develop their own microfluidic devices to address research questions. Particularly lacking has been the open dissemination of protocols related to photolithography, a key step in the development of a replica mold for the manufacture of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices. While the fabrication of single height silicon masters has been explored extensively in literature, fabrication steps for more complicated photolithography features necessary for many interesting device functionalities (such as feature rounding to make valve structures, multi-height single-mold patterning, or high aspect ratio definition) are often not explicitly outlined. Here, we provide a complete protocol for making multilayer microfluidic devices with valves and complex multi-height geometries, tunable for any application. These fabrication procedures are presented in the context of a microfluidic hydrogel bead synthesizer and demonstrate the production of droplets containing polyethylene glycol (PEG diacrylate) and a photoinitiator that can be polymerized into solid beads. This protocol and accompanying discussion provide a foundation of design principles and fabrication methods that enables development of a wide variety of microfluidic devices. The details included here should allow non-specialists to design and fabricate novel devices, thereby bringing a host of recently developed technologies to their most exciting applications in biological laboratories.

  15. The apeNEXT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, F.; Boucaud, P.; Cabibbo, N.; Calvayrac, F.; Della Morte, M.; De Pietri, R.; De Riso, P.; Di Carlo, F.; Di Renzo, F.; Errico, W.; Frezzotti, R.; Gensch, U.; Giorgino, T.; Guagnelli, M.; Herve, N.; Kaldass, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lukyanov, M.; Magazzu, G.; Micheli, J.; Morenas, V.; Mori, L.; Palombi, F.; Paschedag, N.; Pene, O.; Petronzio, R.; Pleiter, D.; Rapuano, F.; Rossetti, D.; Sartori, L.; Simma, H.; Schifano, F.; Tripiccione, R.; Vicini, P

    2002-03-01

    apeNEXT is a new generation APE processor, optimized for LGT simulations. The new project follows the basic ideas of previous APE machines and develops simple and cheap parallel systems with multi-Tflops processing power. This paper describes the main features of this new development.

  16. The Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States 2013) were released almost two years ago. Work tied to the NGSS, their adoption, and implementation continues to move forward around the country. Stephen L. Pruitt, senior vice president, science, at Achieve, an independent, nonpartisan, nonprofit education reform organization that was a lead…

  17. Next Generation AT-Cut Quartz Crystal Sensing Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Matko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Generally, AT-cut quartz crystals have a limited scope of use when it comes to high-precision measurement of very small impedance changes due to their nonlinear frequency-temperature characteristics in the range between 0 °C and 50 °C. The new method improving quartz oscillator frequency-temperature characteristic compensation is switching between two impedance loads. By modifying the oscillator circuit with two logic switches and two impedance loads, the oscillator can switch oscillation between two resonance frequencies. The difference in resonance frequencies compensates the frequency-temperature characteristics influence as well as the influence of offset and quartz crystal ageing. The experimental results show that the new approach using the switching method highly improves second-to-second frequency stability from ±0.125 Hz to ±0.00001 Hz and minute-to-minute frequency stability from 0.1 Hz to 0.0001 Hz, which makes the high-precision measurement of aF and fH changes possible.

  18. Next Generation AT-Cut Quartz Crystal Sensing Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matko, Vojko

    2011-01-01

    Generally, AT-cut quartz crystals have a limited scope of use when it comes to high-precision measurement of very small impedance changes due to their nonlinear frequency-temperature characteristics in the range between 0 °C and 50 °C. The new method improving quartz oscillator frequency-temperature characteristic compensation is switching between two impedance loads. By modifying the oscillator circuit with two logic switches and two impedance loads, the oscillator can switch oscillation between two resonance frequencies. The difference in resonance frequencies compensates the frequency-temperature characteristics influence as well as the influence of offset and quartz crystal ageing. The experimental results show that the new approach using the switching method highly improves second-to-second frequency stability from ±0.125 Hz to ±0.00001 Hz and minute-to-minute frequency stability from 0.1 Hz to 0.0001 Hz, which makes the high-precision measurement of aF and fH changes possible. PMID:22163858

  19. School Foodservice: The Next Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Patricia L.

    1998-01-01

    Examines trends identified in the American School Food Service Association's research-based "1998-2000 Strategic Plan." Forecasters are projecting that student enrollments will rise over the next five years, labor shortages will continue, competition from fast-food providers is increasing, food-service providers' roles are expanding, and…

  20. A new device for step-down inhibitory avoidance task--effects of low and high frequency in a novel device for passive inhibitory avoidance task that avoids bioimpedance variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba Filho, Gilvan Luiz; Zenki, Kamila Cagliari; Kalinine, Eduardo; Baggio, Suelen; Pettenuzzo, Letícia; Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; Weis, Simone Nardin; Calcagnotto, Maria Elisa; Onofre de Souza, Diogo

    2015-01-01

    Step-down inhibitory avoidance task has been widely used to evaluate aversive memory, but crucial parameters inherent to traditional devices that may influence the behavior analysis (as stimulus frequency, animal's bioimpedance) are frequently neglected. We developed a new device for step-down inhibitory avoidance task by modifying the shape and distribution of the stainless steel bars in the box floor where the stimuli are applied. The bars are 2 mm wide, with rectangular shape, arranged in pairs at intervals of 1cm from the next pairs. Each pair makes an electrical dipole where the polarity inverts after each pulse. This device also presents a component that acquires and records the exact current received by the animal foot and precisely controls the frequency of stimulus applied during the entire experiment. Different from conventional devices, this new apparatus increases the contact surface with bars and animal's paws, allowing the electric current pass through the animal's paws only, drastically reducing the influence of animal's bioimpedance. The analysis of recorded data showed that the current received by the animal was practically the same as applied, independent of the animal's body composition. Importantly, the aversive memory was observed at specific stimuli intensity and frequency (0.35 or 0.5 mA at 62 and 125 Hz but not at 0.20 mA or 20 Hz). Moreover, with this device it was possible to observe the well-known step-down inhibitory avoidance task memory impairment induced by guanosine. This new device offers a substantial improvement for behavioral analysis in step-down inhibitory avoidance task and allows us to precisely compare data from different animals with distinct body composition.

  1. A new device for step-down inhibitory avoidance task--effects of low and high frequency in a novel device for passive inhibitory avoidance task that avoids bioimpedance variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvan Luiz Borba Filho

    Full Text Available Step-down inhibitory avoidance task has been widely used to evaluate aversive memory, but crucial parameters inherent to traditional devices that may influence the behavior analysis (as stimulus frequency, animal's bioimpedance are frequently neglected.We developed a new device for step-down inhibitory avoidance task by modifying the shape and distribution of the stainless steel bars in the box floor where the stimuli are applied. The bars are 2 mm wide, with rectangular shape, arranged in pairs at intervals of 1cm from the next pairs. Each pair makes an electrical dipole where the polarity inverts after each pulse. This device also presents a component that acquires and records the exact current received by the animal foot and precisely controls the frequency of stimulus applied during the entire experiment.Different from conventional devices, this new apparatus increases the contact surface with bars and animal's paws, allowing the electric current pass through the animal's paws only, drastically reducing the influence of animal's bioimpedance. The analysis of recorded data showed that the current received by the animal was practically the same as applied, independent of the animal's body composition. Importantly, the aversive memory was observed at specific stimuli intensity and frequency (0.35 or 0.5 mA at 62 and 125 Hz but not at 0.20 mA or 20 Hz. Moreover, with this device it was possible to observe the well-known step-down inhibitory avoidance task memory impairment induced by guanosine.This new device offers a substantial improvement for behavioral analysis in step-down inhibitory avoidance task and allows us to precisely compare data from different animals with distinct body composition.

  2. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR. PART 7 - FUNCTIONING OF THE DECOMMISSIONING DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to achieve the device functioning steps for the commissioning of the horizontal fuel channels of calandria vessel. The dismantling of the fuel channel is performed by one device which shall provide radiation protection during the stages of decommissioning, ensuring radiation protection of the workers. For the decommissioning operation design shall be taken to ensure all aspects of security, environmental protection during decommissioning operation steps and creating and implementing work procedures resulting from developed decommissioning plan. The fuel channel decommissioning device is designed for dismantling and extraction of the fuel channel and its components. The decommissioning operation consists of following major steps: platform with device positioning to the fuel channel to be dismantled; coupling and locking the device at the fuel channel; unblock, extract and store the channel closure plug; unblock, extract and store the channel shield plug; block and cut the middle and the end of the pressure tube; block, extract and store the end fitting; block, extract and store the half of pressure tube; mounting of the extended closing plug. The operations steps are performed by the Cutting and Extraction Device and by the extraction actuator from the device handling elements assembly. After each step of dismantling is necessary the confirmation its finalization in order to perform the next operation step. The dismantling operation steps of the fuel channel components are repeated for all the 380 channels of the reactor, from the front of calandria side (plane R as well as the rear side (plane R'.

  3. Is Silicene the Next Graphene?

    OpenAIRE

    Voon, L. C. Lew Yan; Guzmán-Verri, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews silicene, a relatively new allotrope of silicon, which can also be viewed as the silicon version of graphene. Graphene is a two-dimensional material with unique electronic properties qualitatively different from those of standard semiconductors such as silicon. While many other two-dimensional materials are now being studied, our focus here is solely on silicene. We first discuss its synthesis and the challenges presented. Next, a survey of some of its physical properties...

  4. Modified precision lingual bonding technique: A step-wise approach with torque angulation device-bracket positioning device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaline Tina Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Contemporary preadjusted edgewise appliance is all about the precision in bracket design, prescription and positioning in addition to the orthodontist's skill and training. However, achieving it is a bigger challenge as the anatomy of the lingual surface of a tooth is uneven, dissimilar, and moreover the tooth alignment on the lingual surface is variant. Thus, the need for an accurate method of bracket positioning with predetermined torque and angulation incorporated in the brackets according to the patients' need is of key importance. Materials and Methods: A TAD-BPD machine used to enhance the accuracy of bracket positioning and bioplast accurate tray transfer technique was used. Results: A step-wise procedures in bracket positioning and fabricating an indirect bonding tray for lingual orthodontics using the torque angulation device-bracket positioning device. Conclusions: This technique facilitated unhindered bonding even in severely crowded cases and easy rebonding during mid-treatment stages.

  5. SYSTEMATIZATION OF THE BASIC STEPS OF THE STEP-AEROBICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Korovljev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of the powerful sport industry, in front of us appeared a lot of new opportunities for creating of the new programmes of exercising with certain requisites. One of such programmes is certainly step-aerobics. Step-aerobics can be defined as a type of aerobics consisting of the basic aerobic steps (basic steps applied in exercising on stepper (step bench, with a possibility to regulate its height. Step-aerobics itself can be divided into several groups, depending on the following: type of music, working methods and adopted knowledge of the attendants. In this work, the systematization of the basic steps in step-aerobics was made on the basis of the following criteria: steps origin, number of leg motions in stepping and relating the body support at the end of the step. Systematization of the basic steps of the step-aerobics is quite significant for making a concrete review of the existing basic steps, thus making creation of the step-aerobics lesson easier

  6. Proceedings of 1999 U.S./Japan Workshop (99FT-05) On High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NYGREN,RICHARD E.; STAVROS,DIANA T.

    2000-06-01

    The 1999 US-Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions in Next Step Fusion Devices was held at the St. Francis Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 1-4, 1999. There were 42 presentations as well as discussion on technical issues and planning for future collaborations. The participants included 22 researchers from Japan and the United States as well as seven researchers from Europe and Russia. There have been important changes in the programs in both the US and Japan in the areas of plasma surface interactions and plasma facing components. The US has moved away from a strong focus on the ITER Project and has introduced new programs on use of liquid surfaces for plasma facing components, and operation of NSTX has begun. In Japan, the Large Helical Device began operation. This is the first large world-class confinement device operating in a magnetic configuration different than a tokamak. In selecting the presentations for this workshop, the organizers sought a balance between research in laboratory facilities or confinement devices related to plasma surface interactions and experimental research in the development of plasma facing components. In discussions about the workshop itself, the participants affirmed their preference for a setting where ''work-in-progress'' could be informally presented and discussed.

  7. The two-nucleon system at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evgeny Epelbaum; Walter Gloeckle; Ulf-G. Meissner

    2005-01-01

    We consider the two-nucleon system at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N{sup 3}LO) in chiral effective field theory. The two--nucleon potential at N{sup 3}LO consists of one-, two- and three-pion exchanges and a set of contact interactions with zero, two and four derivatives. In addition, one has to take into account various isospin--breaking and relativistic corrections. We employ spectral function regularization for the multi--pion exchanges. Within this framework, it is shown that the three-pion exchange contribution is negligibly small. The low--energy constants (LECs) related to pion-nucleon vertices are taken consistently from studies of pion-nucleon scattering in chiral perturbation theory. The total of 26 four--nucleon LECs has been determined by a combined fit to some np and pp phase shifts from the Nijmegen analysis together with the nn scattering length.

  8. A HIGH SENSITIVE MICROWAVE MEASURING DEVICE OF THE MOISTURE CONTENT IN THE NON-POLAR DIELECTRIC LIQUIDS BASED ON AN INHOMOGENEOUS STEP COAXIAL RESONATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rudakov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Objective is to create a moisture meter for non-polar liquid dielectrics with low volumetric moisture content of more than 10‑3 %. Methodology. Moisture measuring is based on dielcometric method. It is implemented as a resonant method of determining a capacitance measuring transducer. Measuring transducer capacitive type has a working and parasitic capacitance. It was suggested the definition of moisture on four of resonance frequencies: when the measuring transducer is turned off, one by one filled with air, «dry» and investigated liquid, to determine the parasitic capacitance of the measuring generator, and the parasitic capacitance of the measuring transducer and humidity. Measurement frequency was increased up to microwave range to increase the sensitivity. Measuring transducer with distributed parameters representing a step heterogeneous coaxial resonator is used by. This measuring transducer has a zero stray capacitance, because the potential electrode has a galvanic connection with an external coaxial electrode. Inductive ties loop is used to neglect parasitic capacitance of the measuring generator, and to increase the quality factor of the system. Measuring moisture is reduced to measuring the two frequencies of resonance frequency and «dry» and investigated liquid. Resonant characteristics transducer in a step inhomogeneous coaxial resonator have been investigated to determine the quality factor of filled with air and transformer oil, and experiments to measure the moisture content in transformer oil have been conducted. Results. Measuring transducer of distributed type is developed and researched – it is step inhomogeneous coaxial resonator. It has a smaller geometric length and larger scatter of the first and second resonant frequencies. Expression is obtained for determination of moisture on the basis of two resonant frequencies. The formula of the two frequencies to determine the moisture is correct. Resonant

  9. Report on achievement in developing an ultra low loss power element technology. Survey on practical application of the next generation power semiconductor devices; 1998 nendo choteisonshitsu denryoku soshi gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Jisedai power handotai device jitsuyoka chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Trends were surveyed for development of an ultra low loss power element. Performance improvement has been progressed on power semiconductor elements by using Si as the raw material, but loss reduction has come close to the physical limit. SiC is expected of possibility to go beyond this limit. SiC is so very excellent that its band gap is two to three times greater, insulation breakdown electric field is 7.5 times higher, temperature to become a true semiconductor is three to four times higher than those of Si. The wide gap can reduce high temperature leaking current in p-n junctions, and the increased authenticity temperature can increase the upper limit for operation temperature. The insulation breakdown strength being higher by one digit can reduce the drift layer thickness, and is expected to dramatically reduce the loss. The problem is that high quality crystals have not been obtained to date. One of the promising application fields is electric vehicle. The device currently using the power element in the largest scale is used in frequency converting stations to link the 50-Hz power network in the eastern part of Japan to the 60-Hz network in the western part of Japan. Surveys were carried out on the Sakuma frequency converting station and the New Shinano substation. (NEDO)

  10. The Next Generation Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bely, Pierre-Yves (Editor); Burrows,, Christopher J. (Editor); Illingworth,, Garth D.

    1989-01-01

    In Space Science in the Twenty-First Century, the Space Science Board of the National Research Council identified high-resolution-interferometry and high-throughput instruments as the imperative new initiatives for NASA in astronomy for the two decades spanning 1995 to 2015. In the optical range, the study recommended an 8 to 16-meter space telescope, destined to be the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and to complement the ground-based 8 to 10-meter-class telescopes presently under construction. It might seem too early to start planning for a successor to HST. In fact, we are late. The lead time for such major missions is typically 25 years, and HST has been in the making even longer with its inception dating back to the early 1960s. The maturity of space technology and a more substantial technological base may lead to a shorter time scale for the development of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Optimistically, one could therefore anticipate that NGST be flown as early as 2010. On the other hand, the planned lifetime of HST is 15 years. So, even under the best circumstances, there will be a five year gap between the end of HST and the start of NGST. The purpose of this first workshop dedicated to NGST was to survey its scientific potential and technical challenges. The three-day meeting brought together 130 astronomers and engineers from government, industry and universities. Participants explored the technologies needed for building and operating the observatory, reviewed the current status and future prospects for astronomical instrumentation, and discussed the launch and space support capabilities likely to be available in the next decade. To focus discussion, the invited speakers were asked to base their presentations on two nominal concepts, a 10-meter telescope in space in high earth orbit, and a 16-meter telescope on the moon. The workshop closed with a panel discussion focused mainly on the scientific case, siting, and the

  11. Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y. [eds.

    1996-12-01

    This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage.

  12. The Next Generation Science Standards: The Features and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in January of 2010, the Carnegie Corporation of New York funded a two-step process to develop a new set of state developed science standards intended to prepare students for college and career readiness in science. These new internationally benchmarked science standards, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were completed in…

  13. Linear coupling dependence on intensity and a next step towards a feedback (MD1850)

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Gasior, Marek; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Olexa, Jakub; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Valuch, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Transverse coupling has proven to be an important variable to control beam dynamics and performance in the LHC. In this report, we present the first measurement of transverse coupling vs beam intensity. The analysis shows no dependency within the experimental uncertainties. This study was made possible with the new implementation of an AC-dipole-like excitation using the ADT. It provides the functionality to excite a single bunch in a train. The demonstration of this functionality is also an important step towards creating an automatic coupling correction tool for the LHC. Transverse coupling has been observed to vary with time at injection. In this report, a quantitative measurement of the coupling as a function of time after ramp-down is presented. Turn-by-turn data was also acquired to compare the performance of the new DOROS system to the standard BPMs.

  14. Defining excellence: next steps for practicing clinicians seeking to prevent diagnostic error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul N; Klein, Julie R

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released its report on diagnostic errors in September, 2015. The report highlights the urgency of reducing errors and calls for system-level intervention and changes in our basic clinical interactions. Using the report's controversial definition of diagnostic error as a starting point, we introduce the issues and the potential impact on practicing physicians. We report a case used to illustrate this in an academic conference. Finally, we turn to the challenge of integrating these ideas into the traditional peer-review process. We argue that the medical community must evolve from understanding diagnostic failures to redesigning the diagnostic process. We should see errors as steps toward diagnostic excellence and reliable processes that minimize the risk of mislabeling and harm.

  15. Defining excellence: next steps for practicing clinicians seeking to prevent diagnostic error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul N. Foster

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Medicine (IOM released its report on diagnostic errors in September, 2015. The report highlights the urgency of reducing errors and calls for system-level intervention and changes in our basic clinical interactions. Using the report’s controversial definition of diagnostic error as a starting point, we introduce the issues and the potential impact on practicing physicians. We report a case used to illustrate this in an academic conference. Finally, we turn to the challenge of integrating these ideas into the traditional peer-review process. We argue that the medical community must evolve from understanding diagnostic failures to redesigning the diagnostic process. We should see errors as steps toward diagnostic excellence and reliable processes that minimize the risk of mislabeling and harm.

  16. The next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Miao, HaiXing; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Hammond, Giles; Paik, Ho Jung; Fafone, Viviana; Rocchi, Alessio; Blair, Carl; Ma, YiQiu; Qin, JiaYi; Page, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy which will be required after the current ground based detectors have completed their initial observations, and probably achieved the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The next detectors will need to have greater sensitivity, while also enabling the world array of detectors to have improved angular resolution to allow localisation of signal sources. Sect. 1 of this paper begins by reviewing proposals for the next ground based detectors, and presents an analysis of the sensitivity of an 8 km armlength detector, which is proposed as a safe and cost-effective means to attain a 4-fold improvement in sensitivity. The scientific benefits of creating a pair of such detectors in China and Australia is emphasised. Sect. 2 of this paper discusses the high performance suspension systems for test masses that will be an essential component for future detectors, while sect. 3 discusses solutions to the problem of Newtonian noise which arise from fluctuations in gravity gradient forces acting on test masses. Such gravitational perturbations cannot be shielded, and set limits to low frequency sensitivity unless measured and suppressed. Sects. 4 and 5 address critical operational technologies that will be ongoing issues in future detectors. Sect. 4 addresses the design of thermal compensation systems needed in all high optical power interferometers operating at room temperature. Parametric instability control is addressed in sect. 5. Only recently proven to occur in Advanced LIGO, parametric instability phenomenon brings both risks and opportunities for future detectors. The path to future enhancements of detectors will come from quantum measurement technologies. Sect. 6 focuses on the use of optomechanical devices for obtaining enhanced sensitivity, while sect. 7 reviews a range of quantum measurement options.

  17. Shear-Wave Splitting in a Critical Crust: the Next Step Biréfringence des ondes transversales dans les croûtes critiques : la prochaine étape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crampin S.

    2006-12-01

    -organized criticality. The next step is to employ these techniques to model, monitor, and predict the effects of changing conditions on the deformation of the rockmass. On pourrait avancer que l'anisotropie dans la biréfringence des ondes transversales n'a pas répondu à ses promesses initiales, à savoir ouvrir une nouvelle voie dans la compréhension des phénomènes de fissures et de contraintes dans la croûte terrestre. Dans cet article sont présentés deux développements révélés récemment, qui paraissent raviver ces premiers espoirs et apportent des opportunités nouvelles pour le contrôle, la modélisation et même la prévision des déformations (avant fracture dans les roches microfracturées et saturées de fluides. Ainsi, un modèle de poroélasticité (APE développé récemment concerne l'évolution sous contraintes des roches microfracturées et saturées en fluide et reproduit une large gamme de phénomènes, qui seraient autrement inexpliqués ou dissociés, et semble être une bonne approximation au premier ordre de l'évolution des roches microfracturées et saturées en fluide. Puisque les paramètres qui contrôlent à petite échelle la déformation (avant fracture contrôlent aussi la biréfringence des ondes transversales, il apparaît que l'évolution des roches microfracturées et saturées peut être aussi directement contrôlée par cette biréfringence et que la réponse à des changements futurs peut être prédite par l'APE. Le bon usage de la modélisation de l'APE et des observations de la biréfringence des ondes transversales implique que la plupart des roches soient proches d'un stade de fracturation critique associé à une percolation limite, situation où la résistance aux contraintes transversales disparaît et où les fractures transversales peuvent se propager. Ceci corrobore une autre hypothèse concernant la mise en situation critique spontanée des roches in situ. La conséquence de cette identification est que la physique à petite

  18. Building the Next Bioethics Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Alexander M

    2017-05-01

    At every moment, somewhere in the world, a group of men and women are sitting around a table deliberating about an ethical issue posed by medicine and research, whether as a research ethics committee; a hospital or clinical ethics committee; a stem-cell review committee; a gene transfer research committee; a biobank ethics committee; an ethics advisory committee for a medical or nursing association or nongovernmental organization; a state, provincial, national, or intergovernmental bioethics committee; or an ad hoc panel examining a particular development or case. However, the last national committee in the United States, the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, held its final meeting at the end of August 2016 and closed its doors. Should we regret its departure? I believe that the United States would benefit from having another national bioethics advisory body, but I do not think that the commission should simply have continued under a new president in the same form. Instead, looking at the experience of that commission and its six predecessors-who they were, how they worked, the functions they served, and the problems they experienced-we can derive some useful ideas for anyone planning to build the next commission. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  19. CERN The next 50 years

    CERN Document Server

    Maiani, Luciano

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from CERN is a 14 TeV proton-proton collider that is at the cutting edge of technology, and is a heartening sign of both the public's support for basic science in Europe and beyond, and the determination of European countries to stay at the forefront of particle physics. Realization of this project started some 50 years ago. Now for the next 50 years, particle phycists not only at CERN are planning a new generation of experiments that will push the high-energy boundary back even further. At CERN, a high-energy electron-positron linear collider, such as the 3-5 TeV Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) project is being considered. At Fermilab, focus is on a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) that would take physicists into the 200 TeV region. These two possibilities could be among the long-term goals of the global accelerator network, which would keep the world's particle physicists busy until 2050.

  20. Measuring perceptions related to e-cigarettes: Important principles and next steps to enhance study validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Laura A; Creamer, MeLisa R; Breland, Alison B; Giachello, Aida Luz; Kaufman, Annette; Kong, Grace; Pechacek, Terry F; Pepper, Jessica K; Soule, Eric K; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2018-04-01

    Measuring perceptions associated with e-cigarette use can provide valuable information to help explain why youth and adults initiate and continue to use e-cigarettes. However, given the complexity of e-cigarette devices and their continuing evolution, measures of perceptions of this product have varied greatly. Our goal, as members of the working group on e-cigarette measurement within the Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) network, is to provide guidance to researchers developing surveys concerning e-cigarette perceptions. We surveyed the 14 TCORS sites and received and reviewed 371 e-cigarette perception items from seven sites. We categorized the items based on types of perceptions asked, and identified measurement approaches that could enhance data validity and approaches that researchers may consider avoiding. The committee provides suggestions in four areas: (1) perceptions of benefits, (2) harm perceptions, (3) addiction perceptions, and (4) perceptions of social norms. Across these 4 areas, the most appropriate way to assess e-cigarette perceptions depends largely on study aims. The type and number of items used to examine e-cigarette perceptions will also vary depending on respondents' e-cigarette experience (i.e., user vs. non-user), level of experience (e.g., experimental vs. established), type of e-cigarette device (e.g., cig-a-like, mod), and age. Continuous formative work is critical to adequately capture perceptions in response to the rapidly changing e-cigarette landscape. Most important, it is imperative to consider the unique perceptual aspects of e-cigarettes, building on the conventional cigarette literature as appropriate, but not relying on existing conventional cigarette perception items without adjustment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Step Detection Robust against the Dynamics of Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan-hee; Choi, Suji; Lee, Myeong-jin

    2015-10-26

    A novel algorithm is proposed for robust step detection irrespective of step mode and device pose in smartphone usage environments. The dynamics of smartphones are decoupled into a peak-valley relationship with adaptive magnitude and temporal thresholds. For extracted peaks and valleys in the magnitude of acceleration, a step is defined as consisting of a peak and its adjacent valley. Adaptive magnitude thresholds consisting of step average and step deviation are applied to suppress pseudo peaks or valleys that mostly occur during the transition among step modes or device poses. Adaptive temporal thresholds are applied to time intervals between peaks or valleys to consider the time-varying pace of human walking or running for the correct selection of peaks or valleys. From the experimental results, it can be seen that the proposed step detection algorithm shows more than 98.6% average accuracy for any combination of step mode and device pose and outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms.

  2. ISECG Mission Scenarios and Their Role in Informing Next Steps for Human Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Christopher J.; Mongrard, Olivier; Satoh, Naoki; Goodliff, Kandyce; Seaman, Calvin H.; Troutman, Patrick; Martin, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) was established in response to The Global Exploration Strategy (GES): The Framework for Coordination developed by fourteen space agencies* and released in May 2007. This GES Framework Document recognizes that preparing for human space exploration is a stepwise process, starting with basic knowledge and culminating in a sustained human presence in deep space. ISECG has developed several optional global exploration mission scenarios enabling the phased transition from human operations in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) to human missions beyond LEO leading ultimately to human missions to cis-lunar space, the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, Mars and its environs. Mission scenarios provide the opportunity for judging various exploration approaches in a manner consistent with agreed international goals and strategies. Each ISECG notional mission scenario reflects a series of coordinated human and robotic exploration missions over a 25-year horizon. Mission scenarios are intended to provide insights into next steps for agency investments, following on the success of the ISS. They also provide a framework for advancing the definition of Design Reference Missions (DRMs) and the concepts for capabilities contained within. Each of the human missions contained in the scenarios has been characterized by a DRM which is a top level definition of mission sequence and the capabilities needed to execute that mission. While DRMs are generally destination focused, they will comprise capabilities which are reused or evolved from capabilities used at other destinations. In this way, an evolutionary approach to developing a robust set of capabilities to sustainably explore our solar system is defined. Agencies also recognize that jointly planning for our next steps, building on the accomplishments of ISS, is important to ensuring the robustness and sustainability of any human

  3. Geometrical Alignment of Multiple Fabrication Steps for Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett; Macka, Mirek

    2017-11-21

    Three main fabrication steps for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) were fully integrated with accurate geometrical alignment between the individual steps in a simple and rapid manner. A wax printer for creating hydrophobic barriers was integrated with an inexpensive (ca. $300) electronic craft plotter/cutter for paper cutting, followed by colorimetric reagent deposition using technical pens. The principal shortcoming in the lack of accurate and precise alignment of the features created by these three individual fabrication steps was addressed in this work by developing appropriate alignment procedures during the multistep fabrication process. The wax printing step was geometrically aligned with the following cutting and plotting (deposition) steps in a highly accurate and precise manner using optical scanning function of the plotter/cutter based on registration marks printed on the paper using the wax printer and scanned by the plotter/cutter. The accuracy and precision of alignment in a two-dimensional plane were quantified by cutting and plotting cross-shaped features and measuring their center coordinates relative to wax printed reference lines. The average accuracy along the X- and Y-axis was 0.12 and 0.16 mm for cutting and 0.19 and 0.17 mm for plotting, respectively. The potential of this approach was demonstrated by fabricating μPADs for instrument-free determination of cobalt in waters using distance-based readout, with excellent precision (%RSD = 5.7) and detection limit (LOD) of 2.5 ng and 0.5 mg/L (mass and concentration LODs, respectively).

  4. Incentivising innovation in antibiotic drug discovery and development: progress, challenges and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkin, Victoria L; Renwick, Matthew J; Kelly, Ruth; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-11-01

    Political momentum and funding for combatting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) continues to build. Numerous major international and national initiatives aimed at financially incentivising the research and development (R&D) of antibiotics have been implemented. However, it remains unclear how to effectively strengthen the current set of incentive programmes to further accelerate antibiotic innovation. Based on a literature review and expert input, this study first identifies and assesses the major international, European Union, US and UK antibiotic R&D funding programmes. These programmes are then evaluated across market and public health criteria necessary for comprehensively improving the antibiotic market. The current set of incentive programmes are an important initial step to improving the economic feasibility of antibiotic development. However, there appears to be a lack of global coordination across all initiatives, which risks duplicating efforts, leaving funding gaps in the value chain and overlooking important AMR goals. This study finds that incentive programmes are overly committed to early-stage push funding of basic science and preclinical research, while there is limited late-stage push funding of clinical development. Moreover, there are almost no pull incentives to facilitate transition of antibiotic products from early clinical phases to commercialisation, focus developer concentration on the highest priority antibiotics and attract large pharmaceutical companies to invest in the market. Finally, it seems that antibiotic sustainability and patient access requirements are poorly integrated into the array of incentive mechanisms.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 1 November 2017; doi:10.1038/ja.2017.124.

  5. Galvanizing action: conclusions and next steps for mainstreaming zinc interventions in public health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth H; Baker, Shawn K

    2009-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the foregoing reviews of the impact of different intervention strategies designed to enhance zinc nutrition, including supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification or modification. Current evidence indicates a beneficial impact of such interventions on zinc status and zinc-related functional outcomes. Preventive zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory tract infection among young children, decreases mortality of children over 12 months of age, and increases growth velocity. Therapeutic zinc supplementation during episodes of diarrhea reduces the duration and severity of illness. Zinc fortification increases zinc intake and total absorbed zinc, and recent studies are beginning to confirm a positive impact of zinc fortification on indicators of population zinc status. To assist with the development of zinc intervention programs, more information is needed on the prevalence of zinc deficiency in different countries, and rigorous evaluations of the effectiveness of large-scale zinc intervention programs should be planned. Recommended steps for scaling up zinc intervention programs, with or without other micronutrients, are described. In summary, there is now clear evidence of the benefit of selected interventions to reduce the risk of zinc deficiency, and a global commitment is urgently needed to conduct systematic assessments of population zinc status and to develop interventions to control zinc deficiency in the context of existing public health and nutrition programs.

  6. Status of the apeNEXT project

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, R.; Boucaud, Philippe; Cabibbo, N.; Di Carlo, F.; De Pietri, R.; Di Renzo, F.; Errico, W.; Fucci, A.; Guagnelli, M.; Kaldass, H.; Lonardo, A.; de Luca, S.; Micheli, J.; Morenas, V.; Pene, O.; Petronzio, R.; Palombi, F.; Pleiter, D.; Paschedag, N.; Rapuano, F.; De Riso, P.; Rossetti, D.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Sartori, L.; Schifano, F.; Simma, H.; Tripiccione, R.; Vicini, P.; Boucaud, Ph.; 10.1016/S0920-5632(03)01755-9

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of the apeNEXT project. Aim of this project is the development of the next generation of APE machines which will provide multi-teraflop computing power. Like previous machines, apeNEXT is based on a custom designed processor, which is specifically optimized for simulating QCD. We discuss the machine design, report on benchmarks, and give an overview on the status of the software development.

  7. Status of the apeNEXT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R.; Bodin, F.; Boucaud, Ph.; Cabibbo, N.; Di Carlo, F.; De Pietri, R.; Di Renzo, F.; Errico, W.; Fucci, A.; Guagnelli, M.; Kaldass, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lucad, S. de; Micheli, J.; Morenas, V.; Pene, O.; Petronzio, R.; Palombi, F.; Pleiter, D.; Paschedag, N.; Rapuano, F.; De Riso, P.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Sartori, L.; Schifano, F.; Simma, H.; Tripiccione, R.; Vicini, P

    2003-05-01

    We present the current status of the apeNEXT project. Aim of this project is the development of the next generation of APE machines which will provide multi-teraflop computing power. Like previous machines, apeNEXT is based on a custom designed processor, which is specifically optimized for simulating QCD. We discuss the machine design, report on benchmarks, and give an overview on the status of the software development.

  8. Testing of next-generation nonlinear calibration based non-uniformity correction techniques using SWIR devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, McKenna R.; Wickert, Mark A.

    2017-05-01

    A known problem with infrared imaging devices is their non-uniformity. This non-uniformity is the result of dark current, amplifier mismatch as well as the individual photo response of the detectors. To improve performance, non-uniformity correction (NUC) techniques are applied. Standard calibration techniques use linear, or piecewise linear models to approximate the non-uniform gain and off set characteristics as well as the nonlinear response. Piecewise linear models perform better than the one and two-point models, but in many cases require storing an unmanageable number of correction coefficients. Most nonlinear NUC algorithms use a second order polynomial to improve performance and allow for a minimal number of stored coefficients. However, advances in technology now make higher order polynomial NUC algorithms feasible. This study comprehensively tests higher order polynomial NUC algorithms targeted at short wave infrared (SWIR) imagers. Using data collected from actual SWIR cameras, the nonlinear techniques and corresponding performance metrics are compared with current linear methods including the standard one and two-point algorithms. Machine learning, including principal component analysis, is explored for identifying and replacing bad pixels. The data sets are analyzed and the impact of hardware implementation is discussed. Average floating point results show 30% less non-uniformity, in post-corrected data, when using a third order polynomial correction algorithm rather than a second order algorithm. To maximize overall performance, a trade off analysis on polynomial order and coefficient precision is performed. Comprehensive testing, across multiple data sets, provides next generation model validation and performance benchmarks for higher order polynomial NUC methods.

  9. Modeling the Stepping Process of Negative Lightning Stepped Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Cooray

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A physical model based on the mechanism observed in experimental investigations is introduced to describe the formation of negative leader steps. Starting with a small length of a space leader located at the periphery of the negative streamer system of the stepped leader, the model simulates the growth and the subsequent formation of the leader step. Based on the model, the step length, the step forming time, and the propagation speed of stepped leaders as a function of the prospective return stroke peak current are estimated. The results show that the step length and the leader speed increase with increasing prospective return stroke current. The results also show that the speed of the stepped leader increases as it approaches the ground. For prospective return stroke currents in the range of 15 kA–60 kA, the step lengths lie within the range 5 m–100 m, the step forming times lie within the range 10 μs–250 μs, and the leader speed lies within the range 105 m/s −1.5 × 106 m/s. The results obtained are in reasonable agreement with the experimental observations.

  10. ICARUS mission, next step of coronal exploration after Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Velli, Marco; Maksimovic, Milan; Balikhin, Mikhael; Dudok de Wit, Thierry; Kretzschmar, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    The primary scientific goal of ICARUS (Investigation of Coronal AcceleRation and heating Up to the Sun), a mother-daughter satellite mission, will be to determine how the magnetic _field and plasma dynamics in the outer solar atmosphere give rise to the corona, the solar wind and the entire heliosphere. Reaching this goal will be a Rosetta-stone step, with results broadly applicable within the fields of space plasma physics and astrophysics. Within ESA's Cosmic Vision roadmap, these science goals address Theme 2: How does the solar system work ?" by investigating basic processes occurring From the Sun to the edge of the Solar System". ICARUS will not only advance our understanding of the plasma environment around our the Sun, but also of the numerous magnetically active stars with hot plasma coronae. ICARUS I will perform the first-ever direct in situ measurements of electromagnetic fields, particle acceleration, wave activity, energy distribution and flows directly in the regions where the solar wind emerges from the coronal plasma. ICARUS I will have a perihelion at 1 Solar radius from its surface, it will cross the region where the major energy deposition occurs. The polar orbit of ICARUS I will enable crossing the regions where both the fast and slow wind are generated. It will probe local characteristics of the plasma and provide unique information about the physical processes involved in the creation of the solar wind. ICARUS II will observe this region using remote-sensing instruments, providing simultaneous information about regions crossed by ICARUS I and the solar atmosphere below as observed by solar telescopes. It will thus provide bridges for understanding the magnetic links between the heliosphere and the solar atmosphere. Such information is crucial to our understanding of the plasma physics and electrodynamics of the solar atmosphere. ICARUS II will also play a very important relay role, enabling the radio-link with ICARUS I. It will receive

  11. Development of fluidic device in SIT for Korean Next Generation Reactor I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hyun; Lee, Joon; Bae, Yoon Young; Park, Jong Kyun

    1999-07-01

    The KNGR is to install a Fluidic Device at the bottom of the inner space of the SIT (Safety Injection Tank) to control the flow rate of safety injection coolant from SIT during LBLOCA. During the past two years, a scale model test to obtain the required flow characteristics of the device under the KNGR specific conditions has been performed using the experience and existing facility of AEA Technology (UK) with appropriate modifications. The performance verification test is to be performed this year to obtain optimum characteristics and design data of full size fluidic device. The purpose of the model test was to check the feasibility of developing the device and to produce a generic flow characteristic data. The test was performed in approximately 1/7 scale in terms of flow rate with full height and pressure. This report presents the details ofsystem performance requirements for the device, design procedure for the fluidic device to be used, test facility and test method. The time dependent flow, pressure and Euler number are presented as characteristics curves and the most stable and the most effective flow control characteristic parameters were recommended through the evaluation. A method to predict the size of the fluidic device is presented. And a sizing algorithm, which can be used to conveniently determine the major geometric data of the device for various operating conditions, and a FORTRAN program to produce the prediction of performance curves have been developed. (author). 32 refs., 15 tabs., 47 figs.

  12. WEARABLE ELECTRONICS IN THE NEXT YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRINIOTAKIS George

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘Wearable Technologies’, ‘Wearable Electronics’, or ‘Smart Garments’, is associated to those clothing and soft or hard accessories which integrate electronic components, or which are made of smart textiles. Smart textiles research represents a new model for generating creative and novel solutions for integrating electronics into unusual environments and will result in new discoveries that push the boundaries of science forward. Last few years there are several hundreds or maybe thousands of research teams that works and develop such materials and products. But the key driver of the success of the wearable electronics is the acceptance from the end user. It is estimates that only for the next three years the sales in the wearable will be almost multiply by ten times. The flexible wearable computer industry's patent applications arrived at 429 in the second quarter of 2014, up 27.7% year on year, and witnessed a record high in the report's tracking period starting from the first quarter of 2012. The market has already in the shelf commercial products as wristbands (Fitness/well-being/sports devices, smart jewels, smart watches, mobile health devices, tech clothing, and augmented reality glasses. The recently developed enabling technologies eliminates the barriers and help the scientists and developers to launch new types of "wearable". The life style of a large share of population, the low cost of 3D printing for rapid prototyping locally, the large available platforms, the lower cost of sensors and components give a an impetus for large scale of products. In the same time the direct ordering channels to manufacturers of components facilitates the small producers and the scientists for prototype development. In this article we identify key challenges for the success of the wearable and we provide an outlook over the field and a prediction for the near future.

  13. Development of next generation consumable technologies for chemical mechanical planarization of copper/low K devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Jason J.

    Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) has become the key planarization technology for the fabrication of ultra large-scale integration (ULSI) silicon devices that contain sub-quarter micron metal and dielectric lines. The rapid integration of copper as the interconnect material into IC production has placed a high demand on Cu CMP slurry development. Key issues in CMP today include reduction of surface defectivity and enhancement of planarization efficiency. More specifically, the polished surface should be free of defects such as scratches, pits, corrosion spots, trench copper loss, and residue particles. This dissertation will explore the use of Abrasive Free and Novel Abrasive systems as a plausible solution for the planarization Cu/low K devices. For copper/low K CMP, one of the most promising strategies to accomplishing these goals is an Abrasive-Free Process (AFP). By eliminating abrasive particles from the process, either free or fixed to the pad, it has been anticipated and realized that defects such as severe scratching, particle contamination and slurry instability via particle aggregation or settling will be significantly reduced. In addition, with proper formulation, an abrasive free process can also yield an excellent over polishing window and desired step function of pressure for material removal rate. Coupled with a supramolecular design, some of the characteristic advantages seen in abrasive containing systems, such as step height reduction efficiency, can be realized without the side effects often introduced from solid particles. The second portion of this dissertation deals with the use of novel hydrophobic particles such as diamond and boron nitride. Hydrophobic particles have received much less attention because of issues related to the stability when placed in an aqueous media as well as the inability of the particles to interact with the abraded material. In general the ability of the hydrophobic particle to interact with the oxidized or

  14. One-step synthesis of chitosan-silica hybrid microspheres in a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wenjie; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Jianhong; Luo, Guangsheng

    2010-12-01

    This article describes a simple microfluidic method to fabricate chitosan-silica hybrid microspheres in one step. We dissolved tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into a chitosan/acetic acid aqueous solution to form a chitosan-silica sol, and then emulsified it in an organic phase mainly containing n-octanol and an organic base triotylamine (TOA) via a co-axial microfluidic device. The formed aqueous droplets were solidified because of the extraction of acetic acid and water to the organic phase. The simple method presented has the advantages of controllable sphere diameter, narrow size distribution and good sphericity. The porous structures of the microspheres were displayed by SEM images. It is found that the inner and surface structures can be controlled by adjusting the solidification reagent component. Furthermore, we chemically grafted bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the microspheres. The existence of silica in the chitosan spheres can enhance both of mechanical intensity and protein loading capacity of the microspheres.

  15. The impact of the conversion of incandescent bulbs to the LED light source in traffic signals in Houston : a step toward sustainable control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    With the slowing of the American economy since 2008, it has become imperative that municipalities : identify areas in which costs can be reduced while still providing needed services to its constituents. The : use of traffic signals equipped with lig...

  16. MIXMETER - the final steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, P.S. [Melverley Consultants Ltd (United Kingdom); Parry, S.J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology; Shires, G.L. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). TH Huxley School of Environment

    1999-07-01

    The MIXMETER multiphase flow meter has been in development since 1992 by Imperial College, London, through a project sponsored by the UK Offshore Supplies Office (OSO) and a consortium of oil companies. During the final stage of this development in 1997 a 3 inch (75mm) Production Prototype meter was built by the licensees, Jiskoot Autocontrol Ltd, and has since been tested under The National Engineering Laboratory (NEL) 'Multiflow' programme. Tests in the vertical orientation (upward flow) have also been performed together with heavy oil tests at the Texaco Flow Facility in Humble, Texas. Key aspects of these tests are discussed. An important element of the NEL tests was to assess the performance of the meter when salt concentration of the water phase varies. These results are discussed together with a novel technique for enhancement of the dual energy gamma system to allow salt concentration to be measured and the necessary corrections to be performed without the need for additional equipment. (author)

  17. Bringing mask repair to the next level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, K.; Wolff, K.; Steigerwald, H.; Auth, N.; Spies, P.; Oster, J.; Schneider, H.; Budach, M.; Hofmann, T.; Waiblinger, M.

    2014-10-01

    Mask repair is an essential step in the mask manufacturing process as the extension of 193nm technology and the insertion of EUV are drivers for mask complexity and cost. The ability to repair all types of defects on all mask blank materials is crucial for the economic success of a mask shop operation. In the future mask repair is facing several challenges. The mask minimum features sizes are shrinking and require a higher resolution repair tool. At the same time mask blanks with different new mask materials are introduced to optimize optical performance and long term durability. For EUV masks new classes of defects like multilayer and phase defects are entering the stage. In order to achieve a high yield, mask repair has to cover etch and deposition capabilities and must not damage the mask. These challenges require sophisticated technologies to bring mask repair to the next level. For high end masks ion-beam based and e-based repair technologies are the obvious choice when it comes to the repair of small features. Both technologies have their pro and cons. The scope of this paper is to review and compare the performance of ion-beam based mask repair to e-beam based mask repair. We will analyze the limits of both technologies theoretically and experimentally and show mask repair related performance data. Based on this data, we will give an outlook to future mask repair tools.

  18. On the Convexity of Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    The main result of this paper is the convexity of Step out - Step in (SoSi) sequencing games, a class of relaxed sequencing games first analyzed by Musegaas, Borm, and Quant (2015). The proof makes use of a polynomial time algorithm determining the value and an optimal processing order for an

  19. Intelligent hearing aids: the next revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao Zhang; Mustiere, Fred; Micheyl, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    The first revolution in hearing aids came from nonlinear amplification, which allows better compensation for both soft and loud sounds. The second revolution stemmed from the introduction of digital signal processing, which allows better programmability and more sophisticated algorithms. The third revolution in hearing aids is wireless, which allows seamless connectivity between a pair of hearing aids and with more and more external devices. Each revolution has fundamentally transformed hearing aids and pushed the entire industry forward significantly. Machine learning has received significant attention in recent years and has been applied in many other industries, e.g., robotics, speech recognition, genetics, and crowdsourcing. We argue that the next revolution in hearing aids is machine intelligence. In fact, this revolution is already quietly happening. We will review the development in at least three major areas: applications of machine learning in speech enhancement; applications of machine learning in individualization and customization of signal processing algorithms; applications of machine learning in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical tests. With the advent of the internet of things, the above developments will accelerate. This revolution will bring patient satisfactions to a new level that has never been seen before.

  20. Next Generation Solar Cells Based on Graded Bandgap Device Structures Utilising Rod-Type Nano-Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imyhamy M. Dharmadasa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current solar cells under research and development utilise mainly one absorber layer limiting the photon harvesting capabilities. In order to develop next generation solar cells, research should move towards effective photon harvesting methods utilising low-cost solar energy materials. This will lead to reduce the $W−1 figure for direct solar energy conversion to electrical energy. In this work, a graded bandgap solar cell has been designed to absorb all photons from the UV, visible and IR regions. In addition, impurity PV effect and impact ionisation have been incorporated to enhance charge carrier creation within the same device. This new design has been experimentally tested using the most researched MOCVD grown GaAs/AlGaAs system, in order to confirm its validity. Devices with high Voc ~ 1175 mV and the highest possible FF ~ (0.85–0.87 have been produced, increasing the conversion efficiency to ~20% within only two growth runs. These devices were also experimentally tested for the existence of impurity PV effect and impact ionisation. The devices are PV active in complete darkness producing over 800 mV, Voc indicating the harvesting of IR radiation from the surroundings through impurity PV effect. The quantum efficiency measurements show over 140% signal confirming the contribution to PV action from impact ionisation. Since the concept is successfully proven, the low-cost and scalable electrodeposited semiconducting layers are used to produce graded bandgap solar cell structures. The utilisation of nano- and micro-rod type materials in graded bandgap devices are also presented and discussed in this paper. Preliminary work on glass/FTO/n-ZnS/n-CdS/n-CdTe/Au graded bandgap devices show 10%–12% efficient devices indicating extremely high Jsc values ~48 mA·cm−2, showing the high potential of these devices in achieving higher efficiencies. The detailed results on these low-cost and novel graded bandgap devices are presented in a separate

  1. Cuba: The Next Unanticipated Anticipated Strategic Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorrell, Tim

    2005-01-01

    ...; and the current Bush administration with the global war on terrorism (GWOT). Cuba, specifically post-Castro Cuba, could very well trigger the next unanticipated crisis even though the writing is on the...

  2. The Next Generation of ABA Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R

    2014-10-01

    The imbalance of supply and demand for behavior analytic services will change in the near future. Behavior analysts, who want to survive in an increasing competitive marketplace, will need to show quality results and better results than the next behavior analyst. Trumpet Behavioral Health is a company designed to infuse scientific research with clinical practices. In the years ahead, look to companies like Trumpet as role models of the next generation of autism service providers.

  3. Considerations for the Next Revision of STRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sandra K.; Handler, Louis M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2016-01-01

    Development of NASAs Software Defined Radio architecture, the Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS), was initiated in 2004 with a goal of reducing the cost, risk and schedule when implementing Software Defined Radios (SDR) for NASA space missions. Since STRS was first flown in 2012 on three Software Defined Radios on the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed, only minor changes have been made to the architecture. Multiple entities have since implemented the architecture and have provided significant feedback for consideration for the next revision of the standard. The focus for the first set of updates to the architecture is items that enhance application portability. Items that require modifications to existing applications before migrating to the updated architecture will only be considered if there is compelling reasons to make the change. The significant suggestions that were further evaluated for consideration include expanding and clarifying the timing Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), improving handle name and identification (ID) definitions and use, and multiple items related to implementation of STRS Devices. In addition to ideas suggested while implementing STRS, SDR technology has evolved significantly and this impact to the architecture needs to be considered. These include incorporating cognitive concepts - learning from past decisions and making new decisions that the radio can act upon. SDRs are also being developed that do not contain a General Purpose Module which is currently required for the platform to be STRS compliant. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the comments received, provide a summary of the evaluation considerations, and examine planned dispositions

  4. Optical and electrical characterizations of a single step ion beam milling mesa devices of chloride passivated PbS colloidal quantum dots based film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hechster, Elad, E-mail: elad.hechster@gmail.com; Sarusi, Gabby [Electro-Optics Engineering Unit and Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 84100 Israel (Israel); Shapiro, Arthur; Lifshitz, Efrat [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Solid State Institute, Russel Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion – Israel Institute of technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel)

    2016-07-15

    Colloidal Quantum Dots (CQDs) are of increasing interest, thanks to their quantum size effect that gives rise to their usage in various applications, such as biological tagging, solar cells and as the sensitizing layer of night vision devices. Here, we analyze the optical absorbance of chloride passivated PbS CQDs as well as revealing a correlation between their photoluminescence and sizes distribution, using theoretical models and experimental results from the literature. Next, we calculate the CQDs resistivity as a film. Although resistivity can be calculated from sheet resistance measurement using four point probes, such measurement is usually carried-out on the layer’s surface that in most cases has dangling bonds and surface states, which might affect the charges flow and modify the resistivity. Therefore; our approach, which was applied in this work, is to extract the actual resistivity from measurements that are performed along the film’s thickness (z-direction). For this intent, we fabricated gold capped PbS mesas devices using a single step Ion Beam Milling (IBM) process where we milled the gold and the PbS film continually, and then measured the vertical resistance. Knowing the mesas’ dimensions, we calculate the resistivity. To the best of our knowledge, no previous work has extracted, vertically, the resistivity of chloride passivated PbS CQDs using the above method.

  5. Defining excellence: next steps for practicing clinicians seeking to prevent diagnostic error

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Paul N.; Klein, Julie R.

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released its report on diagnostic errors in September, 2015. The report highlights the urgency of reducing errors and calls for system-level intervention and changes in our basic clinical interactions. Using the report?s controversial definition of diagnostic error as a starting point, we introduce the issues and the potential impact on practicing physicians. We report a case used to illustrate this in an academic conference. Finally, we turn to the challenge o...

  6. Technical Readiness of CTBT Monitoring Regime and Next Steps for Entry into Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, L.

    2016-12-01

    2016 marks the 20th anniversary of the opening for signature of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The strength of the CTBT lies in the fact that it is supported by a solid and proven verification regime. Made up of 337 monitoring facilities (using seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide technologies) as well as 250 communication facilities, the International Monitoring System has global reach and is approximately 90% complete. Significant opportunities to the further build-up of the IMS network are being realized and technological advancements are being pursued in earnest. This represents an unprecedented achievement in the history of multilateral verification. The timely detection of the 4 announced nuclear tests by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is proof of the effectiveness and utility of our data. Following the most recent DPRK nuclear test in January of this year, States were provided with automated and reviewed data on the event well within the short timelines provided for by the Treaty. Despite the advances in monitoring and detection capability, the CTBT has not yet become international law. The Treaty has 183 States Signatories and 164 ratifying States, but will not enter into force until the remaining 8 so-called "Annex 2" States complete their ratification procedures. This presentation will reflect on the de facto benefits that the Treaty has already brought, but also on the challenges that remain, both in terms of ensuring that the verification regime keeps pace with developments in science and technology and in securing a de jure global ban on nuclear testing.

  7. Alkaline RFC Space Station prototype - 'Next step Space Station'. [Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, I. M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell, a candidate technology for the Space Station's energy storage system, is described. An advanced development program was initiated to design, manufacture, and integrate a regenerative fuel cell Space Station prototype (RFC SSP). The RFC SSP incorporates long-life fuel cell technology, increased cell area for the fuel cells, and high voltage cell stacks for both units. The RFC SSP's potential for integration with the Space Station's life support and propulsion systems is discussed.

  8. One-Step Fabrication of a Microfluidic Device with an Integrated Membrane and Embedded Reagents by Multimaterial 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Smejkal, Petr; Macdonald, Niall P; Guijt, Rosanne M; Breadmore, Michael C

    2017-04-18

    One of the largest impediments in the development of microfluidic-based smart sensing systems is the manufacturability of integrated, complex devices. Here we propose multimaterial 3D printing for the fabrication of such devices in a single step. A microfluidic device containing an integrated porous membrane and embedded liquid reagents was made by 3D printing and applied for the analysis of nitrate in soil. The manufacture of the integrated, sealed device was realized as a single print within 30 min. The body of the device was printed in transparent acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and contained a 400 μm wide structure printed from a commercially available composite filament. The composite filament can be turned into a porous material through dissolution of a water-soluble material. Liquid reagents were integrated by briefly pausing the printing before resuming for sealing the device. The devices were evaluated by the determination of nitrate in a soil slurry containing zinc particles for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite using the Griess reagent. Using a consumer digital camera, the linear range of the detector response ranged from 0 to 60 ppm, covering the normal range of nitrate in soil. To ensure that the sealing of the reagent chamber is maintained, aqueous reagents should be avoided. When using the nonaqueous reagent, the multimaterial device containing the Griess reagent could be stored for over 4 days but increased the detection range to 100-500 ppm. Multimaterial 3D printing is a potentially new approach for the manufacture of microfluidic devices with multiple integrated functional components.

  9. 75 FR 54403 - U.S. National Climate Assessment Objectives, Proposed Topics, and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Climate Assessment (NCA), a project of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, by engaging people who are.... Analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use... change. The approach that is envisioned for this NCA is a comprehensive assessment of climate change...

  10. United States Health Care Reform: Progress to Date and Next Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obama, Barack

    2016-08-02

    The Affordable Care Act is the most important health care legislation enacted in the United States since the creation of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. The law implemented comprehensive reforms designed to improve the accessibility, affordability, and quality of health care. To review the factors influencing the decision to pursue health reform, summarize evidence on the effects of the law to date, recommend actions that could improve the health care system, and identify general lessons for public policy from the Affordable Care Act. Analysis of publicly available data, data obtained from government agencies, and published research findings. The period examined extends from 1963 to early 2016. The Affordable Care Act has made significant progress toward solving long-standing challenges facing the US health care system related to access, affordability, and quality of care. Since the Affordable Care Act became law, the uninsured rate has declined by 43%, from 16.0% in 2010 to 9.1% in 2015, primarily because of the law's reforms. Research has documented accompanying improvements in access to care (for example, an estimated reduction in the share of nonelderly adults unable to afford care of 5.5 percentage points), financial security (for example, an estimated reduction in debts sent to collection of $600-$1000 per person gaining Medicaid coverage), and health (for example, an estimated reduction in the share of nonelderly adults reporting fair or poor health of 3.4 percentage points). The law has also begun the process of transforming health care payment systems, with an estimated 30% of traditional Medicare payments now flowing through alternative payment models like bundled payments or accountable care organizations. These and related reforms have contributed to a sustained period of slow growth in per-enrollee health care spending and improvements in health care quality. Despite this progress, major opportunities to improve the health care system remain. Policy

  11. Perspectives on Next Steps in Classification of Orofacial Pain – Part 2: Role of psychosocial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Justin; Raphael, Karen G.; Benoliel, Rafael; Ceusters, Werner; Michelotti, Ambra; Ohrbach, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper was initiated by a symposium, in which the present authors contributed, organised by the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network in March 2013. The purpose of the paper is to review the status of biobehavioural research – both quantitative and qualitative – related to orofacial pain with respect to the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of orofacial pain conditions, and how this information can optimally be used for developing a structured orofacial pain classification system for research. In particular, we address: representation of psychosocial entities in classification systems, use of qualitative research to identify and understand the full scope of psychosocial entities and their interaction, and the usage of classification system for guiding treatment. We then provide recommendations for addressing these problems, including how ontological principles can inform this process. PMID:26257252

  12. Knowledge Based Artificial Augmentation Intelligence Technology: Next Step in Academic Instructional Tools for Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Dale; LaPierre, Martin; Kebritchi, Mansureh

    2017-01-01

    With augmented intelligence/knowledge based system (KBS) it is now possible to develop distance learning applications to support both curriculum and administrative tasks. Instructional designers and information technology (IT) professionals are now moving from the programmable systems era that started in the 1950s to the cognitive computing era.…

  13. Perinatal Risks and Childhood Premorbid Indicators of Later Psychosis: Next Steps for Early Psychosocial Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy H; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Tronick, Ed; Seidman, Larry J

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia and affective psychoses are debilitating disorders that together affect 2%-3% of the adult population. Approximately 50%-70% of the offspring of parents with schizophrenia manifest a range of observable difficulties including socioemotional, cognitive, neuromotor, speech-language problems, and psychopathology, and roughly 10% will develop psychosis. Despite the voluminous work on premorbid vulnerabilities to psychosis, especially on schizophrenia, the work on premorbid intervention approaches is scarce. While later interventions during the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis, characterized primarily by attenuated positive symptoms, are promising, the CHR period is a relatively late phase of developmental derailment. This article reviews and proposes potential targets for psychosocial interventions during the premorbid period, complementing biological interventions described by others in this Special Theme issue. Beginning with pregnancy, parents with psychoses may benefit from enhanced prenatal care, social support, parenting skills, reduction of symptoms, and programs that are family-centered. For children at risk, we propose preemptive early intervention and cognitive remediation. Empirical research is needed to evaluate these interventions for parents and determine whether interventions for parents and children positively influence the developmental course of the offspring. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Creating a Pilot Educational Psychiatry Website: Opportunities, Barriers, and Next Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; O'Connor, Ryan; Franzen, Jamie; Snow, Caitlin; Boland, Robert; Kitts, Robert

    2015-11-05

    While medical students and residents may be utilizing websites as online learning resources, medical trainees and educators now have the opportunity to create such educational websites and digital tools on their own. However, the process and theory of building educational websites for medical education have not yet been fully explored. To understand the opportunities, barriers, and process of creating a novel medical educational website. We created a pilot psychiatric educational website to better understand the options, opportunities, challenges, and processes involved in the creation of a psychiatric educational website. We sought to integrate visual and interactive Web design elements to underscore the potential of such Web technology. A pilot website (PsychOnCall) was created to demonstrate the potential of Web technology in medical and psychiatric education. Creating an educational website is now technically easier than ever before, and the primary challenge no longer is technology but rather the creation, validation, and maintenance of information for such websites as well as translating text-based didactics into visual and interactive tools. Medical educators can influence the design and implementation of online educational resources through creating their own websites and engaging medical students and residents in the process.

  15. Perspectives on next steps in classification of oro-facial pain - part 1: role of ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceusters, W; Michelotti, A; Raphael, K G; Durham, J; Ohrbach, R

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to review existing principles of oro-facial pain classifications and to specify design recommendations for a new system that would reflect recent insights in biomedical classification systems, terminologies and ontologies. The study was initiated by a symposium organised by the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network in March 2013, to which the present authors contributed. The following areas are addressed: problems with current classification approaches, status of the ontological basis of pain disorders, insufficient diagnostic aids and biomarkers for pain disorders, exploratory nature of current pain terminology and classification systems, and problems with prevailing classification methods from an ontological perspective. Four recommendations for addressing these problems are as follows: (i) develop a hypothesis-driven classification structure built on principles that ensure to our best understanding an accurate description of the relations among all entities involved in oro-facial pain disorders; (ii) take into account the physiology and phenomenology of oro-facial pain disorders to adequately represent both domains including psychosocial entities in a classification system; (iii) plan at the beginning for field-testing at strategic development stages; and (iv) consider how the classification system will be implemented. Implications in relation to the specific domains of psychosocial factors and biomarkers for inclusion into an oro-facial pain classification system are described in two separate papers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Achieving Equity in Physical Activity Participation: ACSM Experience and Next Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Rebecca E; Brown, David R; Dorn, Joan; Barkley, Lisa; Torgan, Carol; Whitt-Glover, Melicia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Keith, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    There is clear and consistent evidence that regular physical activity is an important component of healthy lifestyles and fundamental to promoting health and preventing disease. Despite the known benefits of physical activity participation, many people in the United States remain inactive. More specifically, physical activity behavior is socially patterned with lower participation rates among women; racial/ethnic minorities; sexual minority youth; individuals with less education; persons with physical, mental, and cognitive disabilities; individuals >65 yr of age; and those living in the southeast region of the United States. Many health-related outcomes follow a pattern that is similar to physical activity participation. In response to the problem of inequities in physical activity and overall health in the United States, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) has developed a national roadmap that supports achieving health equity through a physically active lifestyle. The actionable, integrated pathways that provide the foundation of ACSM's roadmap include the following: 1) communication-raising awareness of the issue and magnitude of health inequities and conveying the power of physical activity in promoting health equity; 2) education-developing educational resources to improve cultural competency for health care providers and fitness professionals as well as developing new community-based programs for lay health workers; 3) collaboration-building partnerships and programs that integrate existing infrastructures and leverage institutional knowledge, reach, and voices of public, private, and community organizations; and 4) evaluation-ensuring that ACSM attains measurable progress in reducing physical activity disparities to promote health equity. This article provides a conceptual overview of these four pathways of ACSM's roadmap, an understanding of the challenges and advantages of implementing these components, and the organizational and economic

  17. Building an Interdisciplinary Research Program in Water Conservation: Approach, preliminary findings, and next steps

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, David E.; Endter-Wada, Joanna; Caplan, Arthur; Glenn, Diana T.; Ballard, Guy; Henderson, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Effective urban water conservation programs must harness a synergy of new technologies, public policies, social cost pricing, information dissemination, citizen engagement, and coordinated actions across decision making scales. Together, these factors affect the volume of water an individual user ultimately saves and the overall success of a conservation program or programs. Over the past 18 months, we have started building an interdisciplinary research program in urban water conservation to ...

  18. A Glance over Youth Footballers (Soccer Injury Profile: Next Step Required to Be Professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatija Bahdur

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Youth football players are a special population of players. These developmental years play a key role in talent development and can build a good foundation for future success. Correct and age-appropriate training methods are essential for youth players, not just for development with regard to performance but also with regard to preventing injuries. Injuries sustained during the teenage years can create chronic problems for the player. This population is special because it is during these years that players undergo physical maturation, undergoing the changes within the body that is essential for the transition for child to adult. The rate and manner of physical maturation varies in each individual and planning around these changes is essential. Training loads, rest, and training types must be individualised to maximise progression as a player and prevent injury. The lower limbs are most susceptible to injury with the thighs, knee, ankles, groin and calf identified as common injury sites. In order to prevent injury, it is important to implement correct injury prevention methods and enhance the support and education of youth coaches in this regard.

  19. Getting Competitive: Competitive Intelligence Is a Smart next Step for Information Pros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Cynthia Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Competitive Intelligence (CI) has become an attractive concept for Library and Information Science professionals, as information and research functions have become commoditized by end users, and financial, competitive, and performance pressures increase the need to demonstrate value. In the current competitive and cost-cutting environment,…

  20. A model for quality of life measures in patients with dementia: Lawron's next step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Bosboom-van der Hurk, P.R.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of drugs that are claimed to improve cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer's disease raises the question of whether these drugs also influence dementia patients' quality of life (QOL). We describe a hierarchic model of QOL of dementia patients,

  1. Distributed Experiments in Design Sciences, a Next Step in Design Observation Studies?

    CERN Document Server

    Kriesi, Carlo; Aalto-Setala, Laura; Anvik, Anders; Balters, Stephanie; Baracchi, Alessia; Jensen, Bisballe Matilde; Bjorkli, Leif Erik; Buzzaccaro, Nicolo; Cortesi, Dario; D'Onghia, Francesco; Dosi, Clio; Franchini, Giulia; Fuchs, Matt; Gerstenberg, Achim; Hansen, Erik; Hiekkanen, Karri Matias; Hyde, David; Ituarte, Inigo; Kalasniemi, Jani; Kurikka, Joona; Lanza, Irene; Laurila, Anssi; Lee, Tik Ho; Lonvik, Siri; Mansikka-Aho, Anniina; Nordberg, Markus; Oinonen, Paivi; Pedrelli, Luca; Pekuri, Anna; Rane, Enna; Reime, Thov; Repokari, Lauri; Ronningen, Martin; Rowlands, Stephanie; Sjoman, Heikki; Slattsveen, Kristoffer; Strachan, Andy; Stromstad, Kirsti; Suren, Stian; Tapio, Peter; Utriainen, Tuuli; Vignoli, Matteo; Vijaykumar, Saurabh; Welo, Torgeir; Wulvik, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes and proposes a new method for conducting globally distributed design research. Instead of using e.g. a software we tried out a completely analogue approach: Five carefully prepared packages, containing all the necessary materials and instructions for a design challenge, were sent out to supervisors in Norway, Finland, Italy, and Australia. These local supervisors then conducted the egg-drop exercise with students that are part of an international course held at CERN. As the task is conducted according to a previously tested protocol, the results gathered with this new method can then be benchmarked with this available data. This new approach to globally conducted engineering design activities avoids local bias and enables for gathering large amounts of diverse data points. One can also think of a research community where every member can send out one experiment per year and, in return, receives data points from across the world. Based on the feedback from the supervisors we can say that ...

  2. Adaptive Pathways: Possible Next Steps for Payers in Preparation for Their Potential Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vella Bonanno

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Medicines receiving a conditional marketing authorization through Medicines Adaptive Pathways to Patients (MAPPs will be a challenge for payers. The “introduction” of MAPPs is already seen by the European Medicines Agency (EMA as a fait accompli, with payers not consulted or involved. However, once medicines are approved through MAPPs, they will be evaluated for funding by payers through different activities. These include Health Technology Assessment (HTA with often immature clinical data and high uncertainty, financial considerations, and negotiations through different types of agreements, which can require monitoring post launch. Payers have experience with new medicines approved through conditional approval, and the fact that MAPPs present additional challenges is a concern from their perspective. There may be some activities where payers can collaborate. The final decisions on whether to reimburse a new medicine via MAPPs will have more variation than for medicines licensed via conventional processes. This is due not only to increasing uncertainty associated with medicines authorized through MAPPs but also differences in legal frameworks between member states. Moreover, if the financial and side-effect burden from the period of conditional approval until granting full marketing authorization is shifted to the post-authorization phase, payers may have to bear such burdens. Collection of robust data during routine clinical use is challenging along with high prices for new medicines during data collection. This paper presents the concept of MAPPs and possible challenges. Concerns and potential ways forward are discussed and a number of recommendations are presented from the perspective of payers.

  3. Somali Piracy: The Next Iteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lehr

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the escalation of acts of maritime piracy emanating from the coast of Somalia, comparing them to the wave of aerial hijackings in the 1960s and 1970s in terms of demands, including political demands. The advantages for the pirates to gang up with land-based al-Shabaab terrorists are discussed and likely developments sketched.

  4. Microanalytic Assessment of Self-Regulated Learning During Clinical Reasoning Tasks: Recent Developments and Next Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Timothy J; Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R

    2016-11-01

    Helping medical educators obtain and use assessment data to assist medical students, residents, and physicians in reducing diagnostic errors and other forms of ineffective clinical practice is of critical importance. Self-Regulated Learning-Microanalytic Assessment and Training is an assessment-to-intervention framework designed to address this need by generating data about trainees' strategic processes (e.g., focusing on clinical task procedures), regulatory processes (e.g., planning how to do a task), and motivational processes (e.g., increasing confidence for performing a task) as they perform clinical activities. In this article, the authors review several studies that have used an innovative assessment approach, called self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalysis, to generate data about how trainees regulate their thinking and actions during clinical reasoning tasks. Across the studies, initial findings revealed that medical students often do not exhibit strategic thinking and action during clinical reasoning practice tasks even though some regulatory processes (e.g., planning) are predictive of important medical education outcomes. Further, trainees' motivation beliefs, strategic thinking, and self-evaluative judgments tend to shift rapidly during clinical skills practice and may also vary across different parts of a patient encounter. Collectively, these findings underscore the value of dynamically assessing trainees' SRL as they complete clinical tasks. The findings also set the stage for exploring how medical educators can best use SRL microanalytic assessment data to guide remedial practices and the provision of feedback to trainees. Implications and future research directions for connecting assessments to intervention in medical education are discussed.

  5. Skill Transfer and Virtual Training for IND Response Decision-Making: Project Summary and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    Lincoln Laboratory MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LEXINGTON, MASSACHUSETTS Technical Report 1209 Skill Transfer and Virtual ...specifically authorized by the U.S. Government may violate any copyrights that exist in this work. Skill Transfer and Virtual Training for IND Response... Commission DO TheiOc~ ome.ll!J tlank you for your ,.lp In thJn.klng 1~ !heir tom’Tluntt(s nHds. el’ld say tn.y wf$h tMy had the buOget IO<IOI~YOU CUt\\IU I

  6. Zephyr - the next generation prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, G.; Landberg, L.; Nielsen, Torben Skov

    2001-01-01

    Two of the most successful short-term prediction models (and the only ones in operational use at utilities) are going to be merged into one: the Risø model, developed by Landberg and the Wind Power Prediction Tool WPPT, developed at the Department of Mathematical Modelling IMM of the Danish...... Technical University. This paper will describe a new project funded by the Danish Ministry of Energy where the largest Danish utilities (Elkraft, Elsam, Eltra and SEAS) are participating. Two advantages can be achieved by combining the effort: The software architecture will be state-of-the-art, using...... the Java2TM platform and Enterprise Java Beans technology, and it will ensure that the best forecasts are given on all prediction horizons from the short range (0-9 hours) to the long range (36-48 hours). This is because the IMM approach uses online data and advanced statistical methods, which...

  7. Lasers: The next fifty years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kärtner, Franz; Pollnau, Markus; Ueda, Ken-ichi; van Driel, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of the laser — the first coherent radiation source in the optical domain. This anniversary of this historic development is being celebrated this year through “Laserfest‿ in which the Optical Society is a major partner. The laser enabled a straightforward

  8. Campus Governance - The Next Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Harold L.

    In our society, the majority of the population is under 25, and the value orientation of this group is replacing the old one of the Protestant Ethic. Work is deemphasized and fulfillment stressed; joy is substituted for guilt. The campus has, however, not moved an iota toward this new ethic, and much of student protest revolves around that. During…

  9. The next generation is here

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    This year the CERN Accelerator School returned to Austria after an interval of ten years and organized its Basic Accelerator Physics course together with the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) in Baden, near Vienna, from 12-24 September, 2004. The Introductory level course is particularly important since, for most of the participants, it is the first opportunity to discover the various aspects of accelerator physics. The school was a resounding success with 95 students of more than 20 different nationalities attending. This particularly high attendance is very satisfying and confirms the strong interest in accelerator physics among young scientists. Feedback from the students praised the expertise of the lecturers, the high standard of the lectures as well as the pleasant environment and excellent organization. In addition to the intensive work programme of 33 lectures, three seminars, five tutorials, a poster session where students could present their own work, and seven hours of guided and private study,...

  10. Next step in antibiotic stewardship: Pharmacist-provided penicillin allergy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugkaeva, Z; Crago, J S; Yasnogorodsky, M

    2017-08-01

    Penicillin allergy limits therapeutic options for patients but often disappears over time, leaving patients erroneously labelled allergic and leading to the utilization of broad-spectrum and more expensive antibiotics. Penicillin allergy can be effectively assessed via skin testing. To improve patient access to penicillin allergy testing by implementing a pharmacist-provided service in a hospital setting. Beta-lactams remain a mainstream therapy for many infections due to their effectiveness, low side effects and affordability. Typically, patient access to penicillin allergy testing is limited by the availability of allergy specialists, who traditionally perform such testing. A pharmacist-provided penicillin allergy testing service was implemented at our hospital in 2015 and became a powerful antibiotic stewardship tool. Removing penicillin allergy from patient profiles significantly expanded therapeutic options, expedited discharges and reduced costs of care. Pharmacists can expand patient access to penicillin allergy testing. Pharmacist-provided penicillin allergy testing permitted optimized antibiotic treatment and expedited discharges. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The next generation of PCPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petten, P.; Mitskopoulos, M. [Kudu Pumps, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Kudu Pump has developed a progressing cavity pump (PCP) which incorporates unique equipment features and designs for multiple applications and well conditions. This presentation provided details of current thermal projects where the proven artificial lift alternative has demonstrated distinct advantages. The projects include 14 steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells in the Athabasca deposit, 1 cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) well in the Cold Lake deposit, and 1 CSS well in the Peace River deposit. Each case study was presented with reference to installation, performance and lessons learned. The operation procedures were described in terms of standard completion, the drive system, and the patented high temperature seal. The PCP has undergone developmental testing and product improvement. Additional projects involving the use of the PCP are planned for 2008 for the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River deposits, plus an additional steam flood project in California. tab., figs.

  12. TRAC PAC : the next generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    The Transportation and Civil Engineering (TRAC) PAC is a toolkit of instructional aids originally built in 1994 to attract middle and high school students to the transportation field. Since that time, users have noted difficulties arising from the PA...

  13. Is nitrogen the next carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battye, William; Aneja, Viney P.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2017-09-01

    Just as carbon fueled the Industrial Revolution, nitrogen has fueled an Agricultural Revolution. The use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and the cultivation of nitrogen-fixing crops both expanded exponentially during the last century, with most of the increase occurring after 1960. As a result, the current flux of reactive, or fixed, nitrogen compounds to the biosphere due to human activities is roughly equivalent to the total flux of fixed nitrogen from all natural sources, both on land masses and in the world's oceans. Natural fluxes of fixed nitrogen are subject to very large uncertainties, but anthropogenic production of reactive nitrogen has increased almost fivefold in the last 60 years, and this rapid increase in anthropogenic fixed nitrogen has removed any uncertainty on the relative importance of anthropogenic fluxes to the natural budget. The increased use of nitrogen has been critical for increased crop yields and protein production needed to keep pace with the growing world population. However, similar to carbon, the release of fixed nitrogen into the natural environment is linked to adverse consequences at local, regional, and global scales. Anthropogenic contributions of fixed nitrogen continue to grow relative to the natural budget, with uncertain consequences.

  14. Ethics for the next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Philip J.

    2006-01-01

    Reports of gross misconduct like plagiarism and the falsification and fabrication of data in the hallowed halls of academe and research laboratories are becoming increasingly common in the US. Researchers suggest that the higher education institutions need to become more involved than they have been on educating graduate students about ethical…

  15. Algeria: The Next Fundamentalist State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    ARCO , suggesting a desire to move ahead in privatization in certain areas. While the energy sector is probably a highly attractive field of...within the state structure. THE "SANT’ EGIDIO" BREAKTHROUGH A new variable entered the Algerian political scene with two extraor - dinary meetings

  16. Lyme disease: the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael B Stricker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Raphael B Stricker, Lorraine JohnsonInternational Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Although Lyme disease remains a controversial illness, recent events have created an unprecedented opportunity to make progress against this serious tick-borne infection. Evidence presented during the legally mandated review of the restrictive Lyme guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA has confirmed the potential for persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, as well as the complicating role of tick-borne coinfections such as Babesia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella species associated with failure of short-course antibiotic therapy. Furthermore, renewed interest in the role of cell wall-deficient (CWD forms in chronic bacterial infection and progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of biofilms has focused attention on these processes in chronic Lyme disease. Recognition of the importance of CWD forms and biofilms in persistent B. burgdorferi infection should stimulate pharmaceutical research into new antimicrobial agents that target these mechanisms of chronic infection with the Lyme spirochete. Concurrent clinical implementation of proteomic screening offers a chance to correct significant deficiencies in Lyme testing. Advances in these areas have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease in the coming decade.Keywords: Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, L-forms, cysts, biofilms, proteomics

  17. Lyme disease: the next decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Raphael B; Johnson, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Although Lyme disease remains a controversial illness, recent events have created an unprecedented opportunity to make progress against this serious tick-borne infection. Evidence presented during the legally mandated review of the restrictive Lyme guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has confirmed the potential for persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, as well as the complicating role of tick-borne coinfections such as Babesia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella species associated with failure of short-course antibiotic therapy. Furthermore, renewed interest in the role of cell wall-deficient (CWD) forms in chronic bacterial infection and progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of biofilms has focused attention on these processes in chronic Lyme disease. Recognition of the importance of CWD forms and biofilms in persistent B. burgdorferi infection should stimulate pharmaceutical research into new antimicrobial agents that target these mechanisms of chronic infection with the Lyme spirochete. Concurrent clinical implementation of proteomic screening offers a chance to correct significant deficiencies in Lyme testing. Advances in these areas have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease in the coming decade. PMID:21694904

  18. Planning for the next generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, C

    1992-01-01

    Poverty, illiteracy, and lack of government commitment or ability to solve social ills translates into rapid population growth in central American isthmus countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and even Costa Rica and Panama. The social conditions in Panama and Costa Rica lead to better family planning (FP). Educational and health resources are lacking for the rest of the countries. High birth and infant mortality rates and political unrest contribute to the total fertility rate in Honduras of 5.4 children/woman, the growth rate in Nicaragua of 3.4%, and the contraceptive use rate f 23% among married women in Guatemala and 27% in Nicaragua. The population of El Salvador is expected to double to 11 million in 25 years. FP efforts are being threatened in Costa Rica and Panama due to the doubling of the poor population since 1983 and the cutbacks in government spending for FP. For every North American woman who dies of maternal mortality, 134 die in Central America. Today the power of the Catholic Church is offset by the government population policy and programs of private organizations. Improvements have been made in Costa Rica in maternal and child health services and FP; life expectancy for children has increased 22 years in Honduras; and total fertility is under 3 children/woman in Panama. Private organizations have taken the lead in FP programs. Although population policy is part of development, national governments still lack the political will to solve the problems of access to basic health care and education, better water and sewers, and good food and jobs. The civil wars in Nicaragua and El Salvador and insurgency in Guatemala have diverted resources for health care, housing, and education. The gross national products in each of these countries is US$910/person/year. FP funds must compete with education, health care, and other basic services for government spending. The systems for FP have been established, but the political will is missing

  19. The Next-Generation Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Ed; Ihrig, Weldon

    2002-01-01

    Describes a planning framework that provides the technical foundation necessary to support Web-based relationships and applications in higher education. The framework enables delivery of information, tools, and services to all of a university's constituents. (EV)

  20. Beware the next big thing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkinshaw, Julian

    2014-05-01

    Innovative management ideas that bubble up in other companies pose a perennial quandary for leaders: Should you attempt to borrow new ideas, and if so, which ones and how? Even the most promising practices can be disastrous if they're transplanted into the wrong company, writes Julian Birkinshaw of London Business School. Broadly speaking, there are two ways to borrow from innovative companies, he argues. The first, observe and apply, is the most commonly used approach for adopting new management ideas. It can and does work well, but only under Limited sets of circumstances: when the observed practice easily stands alone or involves just a small constellation of supporting behaviors (think of GE's well-regarded succession-planning process) and when a company's management model or way of thinking is very similar to the originator's (think of two software firms that both use the Agile development approach). The second method is to extract a management practice's essential principle-its underlying logic-and ask a series of questions to determine if it is right for your firm, including: How is your company different from the originating firm? Are the goals of the practice important to your organization? Many management innovations are launched with great fanfare, only to fade in popularity. With careful analysis, you can avoid falling prey to this hype cycle. And even if it turns out that a borrowed idea isn't right for you, the analysis will help you better understand your own management models and sharpen your practices.

  1. Game theory : The next stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper surveys some recent developments in (non-cooperative) game theory and provides an outlook on the near future of that theory. In particular, attention is focused on the limitations inherent in normative game theory and on attempts to construct a behavioral version of the theory that

  2. Libraries: The Next Hundred Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Bonfield

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Usually when we discuss the future of libraries, we’re talking about a year or two in the future, maybe up to ten. We look at forward-thinking libraries like NC State, or Darien Public Library in Connecticut, or maybe the initiative Nate Hill is helping to lead in Chattanooga. But for this article, I’m interested in [...

  3. Aesthetics for the next millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellin, S A

    1997-10-01

    The approach of a new millenium provides us, as rhinoplasty surgeons, the opportunity to reflect on where we are and where we are going. Aesthetically, there are several trends that are evident today. The first is the desire for a natural, unoperated appearance to the final rhinoplasty result. Second, is that our patient population continues to be more racially diverse; Caucasian normative standards of facial analysis are no longer sufficient. What is required is a broader understanding of ethnically specific facial features. Third, the standard values of facial and nasal analysis are derived from population means. If we desire to create beauty, these standards may not be adequate. Beauty is an ill-defined concept that is obvious to the observer and recognized cross-culturally, however, it is difficult to quantify. To consistently achieve beautiful rhinoplasty results, we must start with an understanding of what our aesthetic ideals should be. This has yet to be satisfactorily defined for all racial groups and remains a challenge for the future.

  4. Fan Cart: The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamore, Brian

    2016-01-01

    For years the fan cart has provided physics students with an excellent resource for exploring fundamental mechanics concepts such as acceleration, Newton's laws, impulse, momentum, work-energy, and energy conversions. "The Physics Teacher" has even seen some excellent do-it-yourself (DIY) fan carts and activities. If you are interested…

  5. Hypercars: The next industrial revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovins, Amory B.; Barnett, John W.; Lovins, L. Hunter

    1996-01-01

    The auto industry -- one-seventh of the GNP, and the highest expression of the Iron Age -- is about to trigger the biggest transformation in industrial structure since the microchip. Ultralight cars molded from net-shape advanced composites can be several-fold lighter than present steel cars, yet safer, sportier, and more comfortable, durable, and beautiful. Modern hybrid-electric drives boost efficiency approximately 1.3-1.5x in heavy steel cars, but approximately 5-20x in ultralight, very slippery plafforms. Synergistically combined into ultralight-hybrid 'hypercars,' these elements can yield state-of-the-shelf family cars that average 150-300+ mi/gal -- twice that with state-of-the-art technologies -- yet can also be superior in all other respects, probably including cost: carbon-fiber monocoques can actually be cheaper to mass-produce that steel unibodies. Designing cars more like aircraft and less like tanks requires not only an approximately 400-500 kg curb mass and very low air and road drag, but also an aerospace philosophy of engineering integration. Mass, cost, and complexity turn out to compound with heavy hybrids but to decompound with ultralight hybrids, owing partly to radical simplification. Excellent aerodynamics, preferable including advanced techniques for passive boundary-layer control, will be the key to successful design integration. Transforming automaking is a competitive and environmental imperative, could form the nucleus of a green industrial Renaissance, and would enhance national security by, among other things, saving as much oil as OPEC now extracts. However, this transformation faces serious cultural barriers. For example, hypercars will be more like computers with wheels than like cars with chips -- they'll have an order of magnitude more code than today's cars -- but Detroit is not a software culture. Just the transition from stamped and welded steel to integrated and adhesive-joined synthetics is difficult enough. Nonetheless

  6. Holography: The Next Disruptive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    rapidly changing technological advances in holography and how it could transform the Army’s in-theater tactics as well as training and...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 2 Part I of this report will focus on materials and chemistries investigated for these...Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency partnered with Zebra Imaging to produce a prototype of the ZScape Motion Display for a real-time streaming

  7. The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030. Reviving the EU emissions trading system and bringing EU greenhouse gas emissions on a 2C track. Policy brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Gilbert, A.; Hagemann, M.; Fekete, H.; Lam, Long; De Vos, R. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    This paper explains how setting 2030 targets will reinvigorate the ETS and will put EU emissions on track to limit global temperature increase below two degrees Celsius (2C). This paper describes four key findings for EU policymakers engaged in preparing EU energy and climate measures for 2030 and for the longer term. The European Commission estimates that by 2020, the companies participating in the ETS will have accumulated a surplus of 1.5 to 2.3 billion allowances, which may be banked and used beyond 2020. This is about the same size as the annual emissions budget of ETS companies (just below 2 billion tonnes). Applying equity principles to the global distribution of efforts in reaching the 2C goal, an indicative 'fair' EU contribution would be a reduction of EU greenhouse gas emissions by around 49% (median of a full range from 39 to 79%) by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The 2030 targets can be set in a way to also accommodate the surplus expected until 2020. If the entire surplus of allowances from the ETS were to be used after 2020, the 2030 target has to become around 7 percentage points more stringent to compensate for that. Alternatively, the trajectory of the target from 2021 to 2030 could be set to compensate for the surplus. In addition, a more ambitious trajectory towards 2030 would cast its shadow on the mitigation in the period 2013-2020. It would strengthen the ETS, in conjunction with any other ETS recalibration options such as shifting the auctioning ('backloading') or cancelling allowances before 2020.

  8. Health, comfort, energy use and sustainability issues related to the use of biobased building materials : to what extent are the effects supported by science and data? : what are next steps to take?

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, de, J.A.G.M.; Wijk, van, C.A.P.; Voort, van der, M.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of wood, the use of natural (biobased) materials (based on hemp, flax, straw or other natural resources) is still limited. Nevertheless, many benefits are attributed to these materials in terms of a healthier and more comfortable indoor climate. Other potential benefits of natural insulation materials that are often mentioned are energy savings and reduced environmental impact. This report focuses on the empirical support for these claims, identifies research gaps and sugge...

  9. Health, comfort, energy use and sustainability issues related to the use of biobased building materials : to what extent are the effects supported by science and data? : what are next steps to take?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Wijk, van C.A.P.; Voort, van der M.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of wood, the use of natural (biobased) materials (based on hemp, flax, straw or other natural resources) is still limited. Nevertheless, many benefits are attributed to these materials in terms of a healthier and more comfortable indoor climate. Other potential benefits of natural

  10. Security in the Cache and Forward Architecture for the Next Generation Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristofi, G. C.; Hadjicostis, C. N.; Raychaudhuri, D.

    The future Internet architecture will be comprised predominately of wireless devices. It is evident at this stage that the TCP/IP protocol that was developed decades ago will not properly support the required network functionalities since contemporary communication profiles tend to be data-driven rather than host-based. To address this paradigm shift in data propagation, a next generation architecture has been proposed, the Cache and Forward (CNF) architecture. This research investigates security aspects of this new Internet architecture. More specifically, we discuss content privacy, secure routing, key management and trust management. We identify security weaknesses of this architecture that need to be addressed and we derive security requirements that should guide future research directions. Aspects of the research can be adopted as a step-stone as we build the future Internet.

  11. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IPv4, the workhorse protocol of the currently popular TePI. IP protocol suite, is fast becoming obsolete. The exponen- tial growth of the Internet is the main reason that has required the creation of the next generation of Internet. Protocol- IPv6. IPv6 is much more flexible and promises to take care of the address space and ...

  12. Optimizing the next generation optical access networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaya Fernández, Ferney Orlando; Soto, Ana Cardenas; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    Several issues in the design and optimization of the next generation optical access network (NG-OAN) are presented. The noise, the distortion and the fiber optic nonlinearities are considered to optimize the video distribution link in a passive optical network (PON). A discussion of the effect of...

  13. Digital project management the complete step-by-step guide to a successful launch

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Taylor

    2016-01-01

    The digital world is growing and changing at a rate that can seem overwhelming to those project managers who have to keep up with it to build customer-facing solutions and applications. It's rare for project managers working in this field to be provided with much direction or a process by which to carry out a project, and there has been next to nothing available specific to these types of projects in the literary marketplace. Digital Project Management: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide to a Successful Launch was developed to fill this gap by providing the knowledge, best practices and proven steps to consistently managing these types of project successfully from end-to-end now, and in the future with just minor adjustments to adapt to changes in technology.

  14. The quest for the next information processing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welser, Jeffrey J. [IBM and SRC-NRI (United States); Bourianoff, George I. [Intel Corporation (United States); Zhirnov, Victor V.; Cavin, Ralph Keary [Semiconductor Research Corporation, Research Operations (United States)], E-mail: cavin@src.org

    2008-01-15

    Fundamental physical considerations indicate that the scaling of devices that use electron charge as the information carrier will limit within the next one to two decades. The Nanoelectronics Research Initiative (NRI), a joint industry-government program, has been developed to fund university research seeking devices that utilize alternative physical information carriers or non-equilibrium switching mechanisms to continue the historical cost and performance trends of information technology. Three research centers have been established to pursue five research vectors that have been identified as critical to the effort to replace the electronic switch. A brief history and rationale for NRI is given and the projects currently underway are described in the context of the five research vectors.

  15. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    internet. 2. New Features in IPv6. Harsha Srinath. IPv4, the workhorse protocol of the currently popular TePI. IP protocol suite, is fast becoming obsolete. The exponen- ... required the creation of the next generation of Internet. Protocol-IPv6. ..... using multiple access providers across the same interface to have separate ...

  16. Probable Value for the Next Sunspot Minimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Mabel Silbergleit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gumbel’s first distribution is applied to smoothed monthly mean sunspot numbers for solar cycles 10 to 24. According to that, the next minimum for solar cycle 24-25 transition would be the deepest solar minimum of the last 150 years. This study provides an additional insight about changes in the Sun which are currently happening.

  17. Educating the next generation of nature entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judith C. Jobse; Loes Witteveen; Judith Santegoets; Daan van der Linde

    2015-01-01

    With this paper, it is illustrated that a focus on entrepreneurship training in the nature and wilderness sector is relevant for diverse organisations and situations. The first curricula on nature entrepreneurship are currently being developed. In this paper the authors describe a project that focusses on educating the next generation of nature entrepreneurs, reflect...

  18. The next-generation ARC middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appleton, O.; Cameron, D.; Cernak, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) is a light-weight, non-intrusive, simple yet powerful Grid middleware capable of connecting highly heterogeneous computing and storage resources. ARC aims at providing general purpose, flexible, collaborative computing environments suitable for a range of uses...... the next-generation ARC middleware, implemented as Web Services with the aim of standard-compliant interoperability....

  19. Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; Harris, Christopher J.; DeBarger, Angela Haydel

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards embody a new vision for science education grounded in the idea that science is both a body of knowledge and a set of linked practices for developing knowledge. The authors describe strategies that they suggest school and district leaders consider when designing strategies to support NGSS implementation.

  20. Convergence: Human Intelligence The Next 100 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    How might human intelligence evolve over the next 100 years? This issue paper explores that idea. First, the paper summarizes five emerging perspectives about human intelligence: Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory, Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, Ellen Langer's mindfulness theory, David Perkins' learnable…

  1. Stationary Optical Concentrator Designs and Wafer Scale Monolithic Integration of Semiconductor Devices for Next Generation Photovoltaic Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Min

    A major barrier in utilizing solar energy for large scale deployment is the cost of the photovoltaic (PV) systems. Several approaches have been used for the cost reduction such as by modifying PV system designs in addition to enhancing the efficiency of solar cells. Due to the high cost of materials, minimizing the use of solar cells such as in concentrator type systems is highly attractive for reducing the cost of the PV modules by focusing the incident light onto the PV cell. However concentrator PV systems (CPV) require constant tracking of the sun and hence are complex in design and expensive to operate, except in limited situations such as large scale PV power plants. It is desirable to design new concentrator type systems that do not require continuous tracking of the sun. These systems could ultimately reduce the PV system cost to a minimum while maximizing the power conversion efficiency. In this thesis we propose a simple design for a stationary concentrator photovoltaic (SCPV) system that could significantly reduce the cost of generating electricity using PV devices. Using optical ray tracing simulations, we have been able to design SCPV systems that could reduce the PV module cost by 2--10 times without compromising on the power conversion efficiency of the system. Another alternative approach for sustainable high efficiency PV system design is to develop low cost PV cells for terrestrial applications. To meet the demands of low cost and large scale production, larger and thinner (or flexible) substrates are required. We demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating monolithic interconnected PV devices at the wafer scale (2 inch wafers). In this study, GaSb PV cells grown on semi-insulating GaAs were used as the model material. Crucial device fabrication steps such as a selective etching process have been developed that is necessary for isolating individual devices on the wafer and interconnecting them with sub-micron scale accuracy. Selective etching of

  2. Alkaline earth stannates: The next silicon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Ismail-Beigi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor materials are being used in an increasingly diverse array of applications, with new device concepts being proposed each year for solar cells, flat-panel displays, sensors, memory, and spin transport. This rapid progress of invention outpaces the development of new semiconductor materials with the required properties and performance. In many applications, high carrier mobility at room temperature is required in addition to specific functional properties critical to the device concept. We review recent developments on high mobility stannate perovskite oxide materials and devices.

  3. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 3. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol - IPv4 and its Shortcomings. Harsha Srinath. General Article Volume 8 Issue 3 March 2003 pp 33-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol - New Features in IPv6. Harsha Srinath. General Article Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Pacific Association for Clinical Training (PACT): lessons learned and next steps in developing a sustainable continuing health professionals education system in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenconsejo-Lum, Lee E; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Palafox, Neal A

    2007-03-01

    In response to the 1998 Institute of Medicine report, "Pacific Partnerships for Health ", acknowledging the need for the continuing education of health workers in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) jurisdictions, the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) awarded a grant (1999-2003) to the University of Washington for a continuing education project in the Pacific. When shortfalls in HRSA funding threatened continuation of the program, Pacific advocates aggressively made a case for refunding of this important project. In 2003, HRSA announced competitive funding for a new program for continuing education. The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health (DFMCH) at the University of Hawai'i (UH), John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) was awarded the HRSA Cooperative Agreement to run from September 2003 through August 2007, creating PACT the Pacific Association for Clinical Training. PACT assembled a professional, community-based advisory board, most of whom were indigenous Pacific Islanders, and conducted a continuing clinical education needs assessment in every jurisdiction, subsequently developing and delivering programs utilizing distance education relevant to the needs of each USAPI jurisdiction. Priority health areas included diabetes, oral health and geriatrics, as mandated by HRSA. This report describes the processes, accomplishments, challenges and lessons learned from the project. PACT needs assessment reports for each jurisdiction and an executive summary are published as Original Articles in this issue of Pacific Health Dialog. As funding for PACT comes to an end, it is clear that much work remains to be done in the region. "Continuing clinical education" is only one part of a continuum of human resources for health (HRH) workforce development. Continued USAPI regional, U.S. national and international collaboration and resources are needed to achieve the ultimate goal of improved health and health care delivery

  6. The Next Step: Showing a Common History of Treatment for Minorities, Women and Gays in Media Content, Newsrooms and Journalism Schools; A Proposal for Further Research and Suggestions for a Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Lisa

    This paper argues for discussion on the idea that "multi-culturalism" programs at universities, and particularly in journalism programs, should include exposure to gay/lesbian/bisexual issues in addition to material about minorities and women. The paper's premise is that blacks, women, and gays have received similarly shoddy,…

  7. What are the next steps? Legal perspectives on Mexico's general climate change law; Cuales son los siguientes pasos? Perspectivas juridicas sobre la ley general de cambio climatico de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This publication is part of a project to strengthen legal capacities in Mexico, to analyze and propose alternatives that facilitate climate change mitigation and the transition to a low carbon economy. It started as an initiative of the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (Semarnat). This project focuses on the creation of legal capacities for climate mitigation because, while Mexico has accomplished remarkable achievements in the development of climate policies, this progress has not been matched in the development of legal capacities regarding climate change. In regard to progress on climate policy, Mexico has developed the long-term National Climate Change Strategy (2007) and Special Climate Change Program (2009-2012), completed economic projections of climate change costs - such as the inaction costs estimated in the study Economy of Climate Change in Mexico, and generated and disseminated climate information - for example, 1. Mexico has already submitted four National Communications on Climate Change and is preparing a Fifth to submit to the UNFCCC. 2 However, until the recent promulgation of the General Law on Climate Change on June, 2012, developments in the legal field to complement the efforts to address and cope with climate change in Mexico were far behind developments in other areas at the national level. [Spanish] Esta publicacion forma parte de un proyecto para el fortalecimiento de capacidades nacionales en el area juridica, para analizar y proponer alternativas que faciliten la mitigacion del cambio climatico y la transicion de Mexico a una economia baja en carbono y surgio a iniciativa de la Subsecretaria de Planeacion y Politica Ambiental de la Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (Semarnat). Nos enfocamos en la creacion de capacidades juridicas porque mientras que en Mexico habiamos visto logros muy importantes en areas como la definicion de politicas publicas de accion climatica; la cuantificacion de los costos del

  8. Step Detection Robust against the Dynamics of Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan-hee Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm is proposed for robust step detection irrespective of step mode and device pose in smartphone usage environments. The dynamics of smartphones are decoupled into a peak-valley relationship with adaptive magnitude and temporal thresholds. For extracted peaks and valleys in the magnitude of acceleration, a step is defined as consisting of a peak and its adjacent valley. Adaptive magnitude thresholds consisting of step average and step deviation are applied to suppress pseudo peaks or valleys that mostly occur during the transition among step modes or device poses. Adaptive temporal thresholds are applied to time intervals between peaks or valleys to consider the time-varying pace of human walking or running for the correct selection of peaks or valleys. From the experimental results, it can be seen that the proposed step detection algorithm shows more than 98.6% average accuracy for any combination of step mode and device pose and outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms.

  9. The Next Step: Managing Your District's Technology Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereus, Stephen C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses benefits and especially risks involved with educational technology: unexpected costs; possible negative effects on student achievement; legal, ethical, and security issues; and resistance to change. Success ensues from providing leadership and vision, updating technology planning, evaluating alternatives, setting standards, involving…

  10. Low Cost Production of InGaN for Next-Generation Photovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick M. Sbrockey, Shangzhu Sun, Gary S. Tompa,

    2012-07-09

    The goal of this project is to develop a low-cost and low-energy technology for production of photovoltaic devices based on InGaN materials. This project builds on the ongoing development by Structured Materials Industries (SMI), of novel thin film deposition technology for Group III-Nitride materials, which is capable of depositing Group-III nitride materials at significantly lower costs and significantly lower energy usage compared to conventional deposition techniques. During this project, SMI demonstrated deposition of GaN and InGaN films using metalorganic sources, and demonstrated compatibility of the process with standard substrate materials and hardware components.

  11. International Geophysical Year - the Next 50 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, R. W.

    2006-05-01

    Today we benefit from the inquisitive nature of men who pioneered geophysical science coordinated during the first International Geophysical Year. The first IGY was created to attract a new breed of scientist, less interested in polar exploration, and more interested in expansion of cross-disciplinary sciences: earth and space exploration. Today we are fragmented and shall experience a new breed of middle-scientist who shall work in-between, who are less interested in narrow research and more interested in expansion of interdisciplinary earth and space science solutions. The IPY, the IYPE, the IHY and the eGY programs and participating scientists and citizens, typify the narrowing, fragmented academics and national scientists of 2006. These same groups of qualified men shall awaken to their successful integration of cross-discipline advancements predicted for the next 50 years. The author describes what's next for the geophysical scientist and what he must do to succeed in the new internationally competitive environment.

  12. Planning for the Next Global Pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G.P. Ross

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to mitigate human and financial losses as a result of future global pandemics, we must plan now. As the Ebola virus pandemic declines, we must reflect on how we have mismanaged this recent international crisis and how we can better prepare for the next global pandemic. Of great concern is the increasing frequency of pandemics occurring over the last few decades. Clearly, the window of opportunity to act is closing. This editorial discusses many issues including priority emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases; the challenges of meeting international health regulations; the strengthening of global health systems; global pandemic funding; and the One Health approach to future pandemic planning. We recommend that the global health community unites to urgently address these issues in order to avoid the next humanitarian crisis.

  13. Mobile location services over the next generation IP core network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thongthammachart, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning

    2003-01-01

    network is changing from circuit-switched to packet-switched technology and evolving to an IP core network based on IPv6. The IP core network will allow all IP devices to be connected seamlessly. Due to the movement detection mechanism of Mobile IPv6, mobile terminals will periodically update....... The concept of mobile location services over the next generation IP networks is described. We also discuss the effectiveness of the short-range wireless network regarding a mobile user's position inside buildings and hotspot areas....

  14. Steps in Researching the Music in Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2007-01-01

    The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy.......The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy....

  15. Development of an efficient DC-DC SEPIC converter using wide bandgap power devices for high step-up applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-bayati, Ali M. S.; Alharbi, Salah S.; Alharbi, Saleh S.; Matin, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    A highly efficient high step-up dc-dc converter is the major requirement in the integration of low voltage renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic panel module and fuel cell stacks, with a load or utility. This paper presents the development of an efficient dc-dc single-ended primary-inductor converter (SEPIC) for high step-up applications. Three SEPIC converters are designed and studied using different combinations of power devices: a combination based on all Si power devices using a Si-MOSFET and a Si-diode and termed as Si/Si, a combination based on a hybrid of Si and SiC power devices using the Si-MOSFET and a SiC-Schottky diode and termed as Si/SiC, and a combination based on all SiC power devices using a SiC-MOSFET and the SiC-Schottky diode and termed as SiC/SiC. The switching behavior of the Si-MOSFET and SiC-MOSFET is characterized and analyzed within the different combinations at the converter level. The effect of the diode type on the converter's overall performance is also discussed. The switching energy losses, total power losses, and the overall performance effciency of the converters are measured and reported under different switching frequencies. Furthermore, the potential of the designed converters to operate efficiently at a wide range of input voltages and output powers is studied. The analysis and results show an outstanding performance efficiency of the designed SiC/SiC based converter under a wide range of operating conditions.

  16. New photolithography stepping machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Markle, D. [Ultratech Stepper Inc. (United States)

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  17. The Next Linear Collider: NLC2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Burke et al.

    2002-01-14

    Recent studies in elementary particle physics have made the need for an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider able to reach energies of 500 GeV and above with high luminosity more compelling than ever [1]. Observations and measurements completed in the last five years at the SLC (SLAC), LEP (CERN), and the Tevatron (FNAL) can be explained only by the existence of at least one particle or interaction that has not yet been directly observed in experiment. The Higgs boson of the Standard Model could be that particle. The data point strongly to a mass for the Higgs boson that is just beyond the reach of existing colliders. This brings great urgency and excitement to the potential for discovery at the upgraded Tevatron early in this decade, and almost assures that later experiments at the LHC will find new physics. But the next generation of experiments to be mounted by the world-wide particle physics community must not only find this new physics, they must find out what it is. These experiments must also define the next important threshold in energy. The need is to understand physics at the TeV energy scale as well as the physics at the 100-GeV energy scale is now understood. This will require both the LHC and a companion linear electron-positron collider. A first Zeroth-Order Design Report (ZDR) [2] for a second-generation electron-positron linear collider, the Next Linear Collider (NLC), was published five years ago. The NLC design is based on a high-frequency room-temperature rf accelerator. Its goal is exploration of elementary particle physics at the TeV center-of-mass energy, while learning how to design and build colliders at still higher energies. Many advances in accelerator technologies and improvements in the design of the NLC have been made since 1996. This Report is a brief update of the ZDR.

  18. Towards the Next Generation Air Quality Modeling System ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is one of the most widely used air quality model worldwide; it is employed for both research and regulatory applications at major universities and government agencies for improving understanding of the formation and transport of air pollutants. It is noted, however, that air quality issues and climate change assessments need to be addressed globally recognizing the linkages and interactions between meteorology and atmospheric chemistry across a wide range of scales. Therefore, an effort is currently underway to develop the next generation air quality modeling system (NGAQM) that will be based on a global integrated meteorology and chemistry system. The model for prediction across scales-atmosphere (MPAS-A), a global fully compressible non-hydrostatic model with seamlessly refined centroidal Voronoi grids, has been chosen as the meteorological driver of this modeling system. The initial step of adapting MPAS-A for the NGAQM was to implement and test the physics parameterizations and options that are preferred for retrospective air quality simulations (see the work presented by R. Gilliam, R. Bullock, and J. Herwehe at this workshop). The next step, presented herein, would be to link the chemistry from CMAQ to MPAS-A to build a prototype for the NGAQM. Furthermore, the techniques to harmonize transport processes between CMAQ and MPAS-A, methodologies to connect the chemis

  19. The next decade for clinical medical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Per H

    2014-11-08

    This issue's editorial is an invited commentary authored by Per H. Halvorsen.* It discusses an essential question for clinically practicing medical physicists: How are external factors likely to change the way we practice our profession in the next decade? The topic is both timely and essential, as the AAPM is actively engaged in developing guidance on many related aspects. This editorial sets the framework and provides the personal observations of an individual who has led the AAPM's Professional Council for the past six years. 

  20. Next-Generation Beneficial Microbes: The Case of Akkermansia muciniphila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice D. Cani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders associated with obesity and cardiometabolic disorders are worldwide epidemic. Among the different environmental factors, the gut microbiota is now considered as a key player interfering with energy metabolism and host susceptibility to several non-communicable diseases. Among the next-generation beneficial microbes that have been identified, Akkermansia muciniphila is a promising candidate. Indeed, A. muciniphila is inversely associated with obesity, diabetes, cardiometabolic diseases and low-grade inflammation. Besides the numerous correlations observed, a large body of evidence has demonstrated the causal beneficial impact of this bacterium in a variety of preclinical models. Translating these exciting observations to human would be the next logic step and it now appears that several obstacles that would prevent the use of A. muciniphila administration in humans have been overcome. Moreover, several lines of evidence indicate that pasteurization of A. muciniphila not only increases its stability but more importantly increases its efficacy. This strongly positions A. muciniphila in the forefront of next-generation candidates for developing novel food or pharma supplements with beneficial effects. Finally, a specific protein present on the outer membrane of A. muciniphila, termed Amuc_1100, could be strong candidate for future drug development. In conclusion, as plants and its related knowledge, known as pharmacognosy, have been the source for designing drugs over the last century, we propose that microbes and microbiomegnosy, or knowledge of our gut microbiome, can become a novel source of future therapies.

  1. LDRD Report: Topological Design Optimization of Convolutes in Next Generation Pulsed Power Devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyr, Eric C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); von Winckel, Gregory John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kouri, Drew Philip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardiner, Thomas Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ridzal, Denis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shadid, John N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Sean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This LDRD project was developed around the ambitious goal of applying PDE-constrained opti- mization approaches to design Z-machine components whose performance is governed by elec- tromagnetic and plasma models. This report documents the results of this LDRD project. Our differentiating approach was to use topology optimization methods developed for structural design and extend them for application to electromagnetic systems pertinent to the Z-machine. To achieve this objective a suite of optimization algorithms were implemented in the ROL library part of the Trilinos framework. These methods were applied to standalone demonstration problems and the Drekar multi-physics research application. Out of this exploration a new augmented Lagrangian approach to structural design problems was developed. We demonstrate that this approach has favorable mesh-independent performance. Both the final design and the algorithmic performance were independent of the size of the mesh. In addition, topology optimization formulations for the design of conducting networks were developed and demonstrated. Of note, this formulation was used to develop a design for the inner magnetically insulated transmission line on the Z-machine. The resulting electromagnetic device is compared with theoretically postulated designs.

  2. Toward the Next Generation of Air Quality Monitoring Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Angel; Reuben, Aaron; Shindell, Drew; deSherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an initiative to bridge the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution with the needs of policymakers and stakeholders to design the "next generation" of air quality indicators. As a first step this initiative assesses current monitoring and modeling associated with a number of important pollutants with an eye toward identifying knowledge gaps and scientific needs that are a barrier to reducing air pollution impacts on human and ecosystem health across the globe. Four outdoor air pollutants were considered e particulate matter, ozone, mercury, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) e because of their clear adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health and because of the availability of baseline data for assessment for each. While other papers appearing in this issue will address each pollutant separately, this paper serves as a summary of the initiative and presents recommendations for needed investments to provide improved measurement, monitoring, and modeling data for policyrelevant indicators. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable enhanced public policy responses to air pollution by linking improved data and measurement methods to decision-making through the development of indicators that can allow policymakers to better understand the impacts of air pollution and, along with source attribution based on modeling and measurements, facilitate improved policies to solve it. The development of indicators represents a crucial next step in this process.

  3. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Angel; Reuben, Aaron; Shindell, Drew; de Sherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces an initiative to bridge the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution with the needs of policymakers and stakeholders to design thenext generation” of air quality indicators. As a first step this initiative assesses current monitoring and modeling associated with a number of important pollutants with an eye toward identifying knowledge gaps and scientific needs that are a barrier to reducing air pollution impacts on human and ecosystem health across the globe. Four outdoor air pollutants were considered - particulate matter, ozone, mercury, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) - because of their clear adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health and because of the availability of baseline data for assessment for each. While other papers appearing in this issue will address each pollutant separately, this paper serves as a summary of the initiative and presents recommendations for needed investments to provide improved measurement, monitoring, and modeling data for policy-relevant indicators. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable enhanced public policy responses to air pollution by linking improved data and measurement methods to decision-making through the development of indicators that can allow policymakers to better understand the impacts of air pollution and, along with source attribution based on modeling and measurements, facilitate improved policies to solve it. The development of indicators represents a crucial next step in this process.

  4. Technology for the Next-Generation-Mobile User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagi, Greg

    The current mobile-handset market is a vital and growing one, being driven by technology advances, including increased bandwidth and processing performance, as well as reduced power consumption and improved screen technologies. The 3G/4G handsets of today are multimedia internet devices with increased screen size, HD video and gaming, interactive touch screens, HD camera and camcorders, as well as incredible social, entertainment, and productivity applications. While mobile-technology advancements to date have made us more social in many ways, new advancements over the next decade will bring us to the next level, allowing mobile users to experience new types of "virtual" social interactions with all the senses. The mobile handsets of the future will be smart autonomous-lifestyle devices with a multitude of incorporated sensors, applications and display options, all designed to make your life easier and more productive! With future display media, including 3D imaging, virtual interaction and conferencing will be possible, making every call feel like you are in the same room, providing an experience far beyond today's video conferencing technology. 3D touch-screen with integrated image-projection technologies will work in conjunction with gesturing to bring a new era of intuitive mobile device applications, interaction, and information sharing. Looking to the future, there are many challenges to be faced in delivering a smart mobile companion device that will meet the user demands. One demand will be for the availability of new and compelling services, and features on the "mobile companion". These mobile companions will be more than just Internet devices, and will function as on-the-go workstations, allowing users to function as if they were sitting in front of their computer in the office or at home. The massive amounts of data that will be transmitted through, to and from these mobile companions will require immense improvements in system performance, including

  5. NextGEOSS: The Next Generation Data Hub For Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja Bye, Bente; De Lathouwer, Bart; Catarino, Nuno; Concalves, Pedro; Trijssenaar, Nicky; Grosso, Nuno; Meyer-Arnek, Julian; Goor, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    The Group on Earth observation embarked on the next 10 year phase with an ambition to streamline and further develop its achievements in building the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The NextGEOSS project evolves the European vision of GEOSS data exploitation for innovation and business, relying on the three main pillars of engaging communities, delivering technological developments and advocating the use of GEOSS, in order to support the creation and deployment of Earth observation based innovative research activities and commercial services. In this presentation we will present the NextGEOSS concept, a concept that revolves around providing the data and resources to the users communities, together with Cloud resources, seamlessly connected to provide an integrated ecosystem for supporting applications. A central component of NextGEOSS is the strong emphasis put on engaging the communities of providers and users, and bridging the space in between.

  6. 2001 Report on the Next Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronnberg, J; Breidenbach; Burke, D; Corlett, J; Dombeck, T; Markiewicz, T

    2001-08-28

    Recent studies in elementary particle physics have made the need for an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider able to reach energies of 500 GeV and above with high luminosity more compelling than ever [1]. Observations and measurements completed in the last five years at the SLC (SLAC), LEP (CERN), and the Tevatron (FNAL) can be explained only by the existence of at least one particle or interaction that has not yet been directly observed in experiment. The Higgs boson of the Standard Model could be that particle. The data point strongly to a mass for the Higgs boson that is just beyond the reach of existing colliders. This brings great urgency and excitement to the potential for discovery at the upgraded Tevatron early in this decade, and almost assures that later experiments at the LHC will find new physics. But the next generation of experiments to be mounted by the world-wide particle physics community must not only find this new physics, they must find out what it is. These experiments must also define the next important threshold in energy. The need is to understand physics at the TeV energy scale as well as the physics at the 100-GeV energy scale is now understood. This will require both the LHC and a companion linear electron-positron collider.

  7. The Next Linear Collider Design: NLC 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Alberta

    2001-08-21

    Recent studies in elementary particle physics have made the need for an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider able to reach energies of 500 GeV and above with high luminosity more compelling than ever. Observations and measurements completed in the last five years at the SLC (SLAC), LEP (CERN), and the Tevatron (FNAL) can be explained only by the existence of at least one particle or interaction that has not yet been directly observed in experiment. The Higgs boson of the Standard Model could be that particle. The data point strongly to a mass for the Higgs boson that is just beyond the reach of existing colliders. This brings great urgency and excitement to the potential for discovery at the upgraded Tevatron early in this decade, and almost assures that later experiments at the LHC will find new physics. But the next generation of experiments to be mounted by the world-wide particle physics community must not only find this new physics, they must find out what it is. These experiments must also define the next important threshold in energy. The need is to understand physics at the TeV energy scale as well as the physics at the 100-GeV energy scale is now understood. This will require both the LHC and a companion linear electron-positron collider.

  8. Multi-step resistive switching behavior of Li-doped ZnO resistance random access memory device controlled by compliance current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng; Tang, Jian-Fu; Su, Hsiu-Hsien; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Huang, Chih-Yu; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    The multi-step resistive switching (RS) behavior of a unipolar Pt/Li0.06Zn0.94O/Pt resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is investigated. It is found that the RRAM device exhibits normal, 2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors under different compliance currents. The transport mechanism within the device is investigated by means of current-voltage curves, in-situ transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect (normal RS behavior) or Li+ ion diffusion (2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors) under high electric fields.

  9. Multi-step resistive switching behavior of Li-doped ZnO resistance random access memory device controlled by compliance current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Mathematic and Physical Sciences, R.O.C. Air Force Academy, Kaohsiung 820, Taiwan (China); Tang, Jian-Fu; Su, Hsiu-Hsien [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hong, Cheng-Shong; Huang, Chih-Yu [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Chu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: chusy@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-28

    The multi-step resistive switching (RS) behavior of a unipolar Pt/Li{sub 0.06}Zn{sub 0.94}O/Pt resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is investigated. It is found that the RRAM device exhibits normal, 2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors under different compliance currents. The transport mechanism within the device is investigated by means of current-voltage curves, in-situ transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect (normal RS behavior) or Li{sup +} ion diffusion (2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors) under high electric fields.

  10. The Complexity of One-Step Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of one-step equations from a cognitive load theory perspective uncovers variation within one-step equations. The complexity of one-step equations arises from the element interactivity across the operational and relational lines. The higher the number of operational and relational lines, the greater the complexity of the equations.…

  11. Towards the Next International Lunar Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, Vidvuds

    2016-07-01

    The idea of an International Lunar Decade (ILD) germinated in work underway in the International Lunar Working Group (ILEWG) coordinated by ESA starting before 2000. Envisioned was an International Geophysical Year (IGY) inspired global collaborative undertaking to better understand the Moon, its origins and resources as a step towards lunar development and possible human settlement. By 2006 the ILD idea had evolved sufficiently that the ILEWG endorsed it and endorsement was also received from COSPAR [1] The Planetary Society under the leadership of Louis Friedman championed the ILD idea, received a grant from the Secure World Foundation to promote it at various conferences as well as to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). Friedman made a presentation about ILD to COPUOS in February, 2007 [2]. Despite positive interest in the idea no member state of COPUOS chose to promote it. The ILD agenda was adopted by ILEWG and largely fulfilled by the member space agencies in the decade from 2007-2014, but without UN endorsement as a global initiative. In 2013 an idea for an International Lunar Decade took hold among a group of space activists that included ideas for an International Lunar Research Park [3], an International Lunar Geophysical Year and other elements including an article published by V. Beldavs in the Space Review on January 14, 2014 [4]. These various thought streams were brought to focus at the conference "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space", November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii that resulted in the International Lunar Decade Declaration [3] and the formation of the working group (ILDWG) to promote implementation of ILD. In 2015 numerous organizations and influential persons were approached and informed about the idea of a framework for international collaboration sustained over a decade to gain an understanding of the Moon and its resources and to develop the technologies and

  12. SAW device implementation of a weighted stepped chirp code signal for direct sequence spread spectrum communications systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S E; Malocha, D C

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a new weighted stepped chirp code signal for direct sequence spread spectrum (DS/SS) communications systems. This code signal uses the truncated cosine series functions as the chip functions, and it is the result of discretizing a continuous wave (CW) chirp that results in enhanced performance versus a pseudonoise (PN) code and equivalent performance and easier implementation than a CW chirp. This code signal will be shown to have improved compression ratio (CR) and peak sidelobe level (PSL) versus a PN code with identical code length and chip length. It also will be shown to have a similar CR and PSL compared to a CW chirp with identical pulse length and frequency deviation. The code signal is implemented on surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that will be used as the code generator at the transmitter and the correlator at the receiver. The design considerations for the SAW device implementation of the code signal are discussed, including the effects of intersymbol interference. Experimental data is presented and compared to the predicted results for 8 different SAW devices examining the effects of code length (9 or 13 chips), weighting (uniform, cosine-squared, and Hamming), and sampling on the performance of the code signal.

  13. Haemostatic resuscitation in trauma: the next generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensballe, Jakob; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Johansson, Pär I

    2016-12-01

    To discuss the recent developments in and evolvement of next generation haemostatic resuscitation in bleeding trauma. Mortality from major trauma is a worldwide problem, and massive haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Development of coagulopathy further increases trauma mortality emphasizing that coagulopathy is a key target in the phase of bleeding. The pathophysiology of coagulopathy in trauma reflects at least three distinct mechanisms that may be present isolated or coexist: acute traumatic coagulopathy, coagulopathy associated with the lethal triad, and consumptive coagulopathy. The concepts of 'damage control surgery' and 'damage control resuscitation' have been developed to ensure early control of bleeding and coagulopathy to improve outcome in bleeding trauma. Haemostatic resuscitation aims at controlling coagulopathy and consists of a ratio driven strategy aiming at 1 : 1 : 1, using tranexamic acid according to CRASH-2, and applying haemostatic monitoring enabling a switch to a goal-directed approach when bleeding slows. Haemostatic resuscitation is the mainstay of trauma resuscitation and is associated with improved survival. The next generation of haemostatic resuscitation aims at applying a ratio 1 : 1 : 1 driven strategy while using antifibrinolytics, haemostatic monitoring and avoiding critical fibrinogen deficiency by substitution.

  14. SLR data for the next ITRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillak, Stanislaw; Lejba, Pawel

    2013-04-01

    The determination of the new International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) have to include all significant effects in the SLR data in the long time period. The presented analysis was based on the results of coordinates determination for the most SLR stations in the period 1983-2011. The geocentric coordinates were computed separately for each station by means of NASA Goddard's GEODYN-II program from monthly arcs of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites. These station positions and velocities were transformed to the North, East and vertical components in the reference to ITRF2008 and these components were the base for further analysis. The coordinates for each arc were only accepted if the number of the normal points per SLR station was greater than 50. The results of this analysis show several important systematic biases which should be included in the new ITRF. First of all the SLR stations accuracy is stable from January 1997 up to now and only these data should be used in the new ITRF. The earlier data especially before 1993 have too large biases mainly due to results from only one LAGEOS satellite. The positions for the period 1993-1996 have too large variations for the most stations. The systematic biases are the next problem which should be included in the next ITRF. The problem is especially important for the most accurate stations Zimmerwald (7810) and Herstmoceux (7840), both stations had jump in vertical component due to change interval counter to event timer, 2.5 cm in February 2006 and 1.0 cm in February 2007, respectively. The ITRF coordinates should be determined separately for the data before and after jump. The several systematic biases for the other stations e.g. Matera, Monument Peak, Grasse, Wettzell should be take into account. The comparison with the GPS positions transformed to the SLR reference point is the best verification. The position change due to earthquake is the next important task. The effect of the Concepcion station (7405) position

  15. Next Stop in the Study Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.W.; Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2003-01-01

    Metro; a web based resource organizing a collection of guided tours by applying a metro map metaphor. The Study Metro aims at teaching academic writing to students at university level. This paper shortly introduces the Study Metro and more thoroughly describes the interactive Freewriting Module......This paper presents a web based interactive tool designed to teach freewriting - a well known writing technique useful to everyone producing text - through step-by-step instructions and interactive feedback which is not possible in face-to-face teaching. The Freewriting Module is part of the Study....... It is argued that the Freewriting Module, being designed for a digital medium, offers a unique potential for giving individual process feedback on the student's writing. Positive feedback from a group of students has shown that our work serves as a common reference regarding writing issues...

  16. Water Cycle Missions for the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The global water cycle describes the circulation of water as a vital and dynamic substance in its liquid, solid, and vapor phases as it moves through the atmosphere, oceans and land. Life in its many forms exists because of water, and modern civilization depends on learning how to live within the constraints imposed by the availability of water. The scientific challenge posed by the need to observe the global water cycle is to integrate in situ and space-borne observations to quantify the key water-cycle state variables and fluxes. The vision to address that challenge is a series of Earth observation missions that will measure the states, stocks, flows, and residence times of water on regional to global scales followed by a series of coordinated missions that will address the processes, on a global scale, that underlie variability and changes in water in all its three phases. The accompanying societal challenge is to foster the improved use of water data and information as a basis for enlightened management of water resources, to protect life and property from effects of extremes in the water cycle. A major change in thinking about water science that goes beyond its physics to include its role in ecosystems and society is also required. Better water-cycle observations, especially on the continental and global scales, will be essential. Water-cycle predictions need to be readily available globally to reduce loss of life and property caused by water-related natural hazards. Building on the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space , and the 2012 Chapman Conference on Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle, a workshop was held in April 2013 to gather wisdom and determine how to prepare for the next generation of water cycle missions in support of the second Earth Science Decadal Survey. This talk will present the outcomes of the workshop including the intersection between

  17. Taking structure searches to the next dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafferhans, Andrea; Rost, Burkhard

    2014-07-08

    Structure comparisons are now the first step when a new experimental high-resolution protein structure has been determined. In this issue of Structure, Wiederstein and colleagues describe their latest tool for comparing structures, which gives us the unprecedented power to discover crucial structural connections between whole complexes of proteins in the full structural database in real time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Organic Solvent and Surfactant Resistant Paper-Fluidic Devices Fabricated by One-Step Embossing of Nonwoven Polypropylene Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Ho Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, we report a physical method for the fabrication of organic solvent and surfactant-resistant barriers on paper-based fluidic devices. When nonwoven polypropylene sheet is embossed with a steel mold, the embossed region acts as a physical barrier that can prevent the flow of liquids. Embossed polypropylene barriers not only block water, but also block organic solvents and surfactants, which are known to be difficult to handle on previous paper-based devices. Various amounts of embossing pressures were tested to determine the minimum embossing pressure required for leakproof barrier formation. The compatibility of the barrier was also investigated with several surfactants and organic solvents. As a demonstration, a lysis buffer, which was known to leak through wax-printed barriers, was used to detect Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to report a one-step fabrication method of paper-fluidic devices capable of handling surfactants and organic solvents, including alcohols.

  19. A look into the crystal ball: The next 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Helmut

    1994-01-01

    The PTTI Planning Meeting was born at about the same time as the atomic definition of the unit of time, the second. This use of the cesium resonance was made possible by advances in quantum electronics during the preceding decade which resulted in commercial availability of cesium, rubidium, and hydrogen clocks and frequency standards. Twenty-five years later these types of clocks still are the backbone of time and frequency applications; together with a variety of crystal oscillators, transmitters, and receivers, as well as signal distribution, conditioning and switching systems, atomic clocks are an essential part of the infrastructure of modern navigation and communication technology. The next 25 years undoubtedly will see a pervasive expansion of PTTI into the infrastructure that supports and leverages industrial, social, environmental, defense, and even individual human activities. Speculation as to what capabilities, services, and personal conveniences may become available will be limited by two factors: the degree to which existing device concepts can be made more affordable and reliable, and the ability to miniaturize for purposes of compatibility with electronic integration. With regard to the latter, history teaches us that the required technological breakthrough is unlikely to originate in existing technology; thus, we may expect a paradigm shift in PTTI device concepts not unlike the shift in the 1960s from vacuum tubes to semiconductors.

  20. Steps to Developing the New Orleans Strategic Energy Plan (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation was given by NREL's Elizabeth Doris (Brown) to the New Orleans City Council in January 2008. NREL was funded by DOE to provide technical assistance to New Orleans after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The presentation provides an overview of strategic energy planning, case studies, and suggested next steps for implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy into the city's rebuilding efforts.

  1. Cognitive Systems Engineering: The Next 30 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Cognitive Systems Engineering. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the challenges and future directions of Cognitive Systems Engineering for the next 30 years. I intended to present the work we have been doing with the Aviation Safety program and Space Human Factors Engineering project on Work Domain Analysis and some areas of Research Focus. Specifically, I intend to focus on the shift on the need to understand and model attention in mixed-initiative systems, the need for methods which can generate results to be used in trade-off decisions, and the need to account for a range of human behavior in the design.

  2. A novel video game--based device for measuring stepping performance and fall risk in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, Daniel; Lord, Stephen R; Verhoef, Paulien; Smith, Stuart T

    2011-06-01

    To determine whether a dance mat test of choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) is reliable and can detect differences in fall risk in older adults. Randomized order, crossover comparison. Balance laboratory, medical research institute, and retirement village. Older (mean age, 78.87±5.90y; range, 65-90y) independent-living people (N=47) able to walk in place without assistance. Not applicable. Reaction (RT), movement, and response times of dance pad--based stepping tests, Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA) score, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) score, time to complete the Trail Making Test (TMT) A+B, Fall Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) score, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale score, and Incidental and Planned Exercise Questionnaire (IPEQ) incidental IPEQ activity subscore. Test-retest reliability of the dance mat CSRT response time was high (intraclass correlation coefficient model 3,k=.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], .82-.94; Ptime and measures of fall risk (PPA: r=.42; 95% CI, .15-.63; P1) had significantly slower response times than people with low/mild fall-risk scores (PPA score time (1180±195 vs 1031±145ms; P=0.017). The new dance mat device is a valid and reliable tool for assessing stepping ability and fall risk in older community-dwelling people. Because it is highly portable, it can be used in clinic settings and the homes of older people as both an assessment and training device. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. New Space Industries for the Next Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, D. V., Jr. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    New Space Industries For the Next Millennium is a final report of the findings from the New Space Industries Workshop held in Washington, DC, in February 1998. The primary purpose of this workshop was to identify what must be done to develop new markets, and to generate plans, milestones and new organizational relationships designed to facilitate the goal of space development. This document provides a summary report on the results of that workshop and is not intended as a statement of NASA or government policy. Previous studies had shown great potential for the development of new markets in space (e.g., travel and entertainment, space solar power, satellite and space transfer services, research and development in space, space manufacturing, and space resources), and a great need for coordination and formation of infrastructures (e.g., space transportation, space business parks, and space utilities), to facilitate the growth of new space businesses. The New Space Industries Workshop brought together government, academia, and industry participants from several previous studies and other professionals interested in the development of space for commercial purposes. Their participation provided input into the role of government and industry in space development as well as the technology needs that will enable space development. The opening of the frontier of space, not just to government missions but to private individuals and commercial business, is a challenge of overarching importance. It is our hope that the workshop and this final report continue in earnest the process of identifying and overcoming the barriers to large-scale public access and development of space in the early years of the next century.

  4. Perspectives and Peptides of the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Kim A.

    Shortly after their discovery, antimicrobial peptides from prokaryotes and eukaryotes were recognized as the next potential generation of pharmaceuticals to treat antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections and septic shock, to preserve food, or to sanitize surfaces. Initial research focused on identifying the spectrum of antimicrobial agents, determining the range of antimicrobial activities against bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens, and assessing the antimicrobial activity of synthetic peptides versus their natural counterparts. Subsequent research then focused on the mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity in model membrane systems not only to identify the mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity in microorganisms but also to discern differences in cytotoxicity for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Recent, contemporary work now focuses on current and future efforts to construct hybrid peptides, peptide congeners, stabilized peptides, peptide conjugates, and immobilized peptides for unique and specific applications to control the growth of microorganisms in vitro and in vivo.

  5. MoonNEXT: A European Mission to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Koschny, D.; Crawford, I.; Falcke, H.; Kempf, S.; Lognonne, P.; Ricci, C.; Houdou, B.; Pradier, A.

    2008-09-01

    rover, if shown to be feasible, would provide mobility for geochemical measurements, which is essential if geological units are to be examined in context. In the region around the South pole of the Moon investigations into excavated material related to the Aitken basin will require mobility to access the blocky ejecta fields associated with ~100m diameter craters. Mobility could also provide a means for the deployment of a network of short period seismometers for studies of regolith properties and the meteorite flux. The separation of the rover from the lander would provide a baseline for radio interferometry, which could provide the first ever image of the sky at wavelengths inaccessible from the Earth. MoonNEXT and the International Lunar Network In early 2008 NASA presented the concept of the International Lunar Network (ILN) this would comprise a network of several landers, provided by various countries and international agencies, which would be distributed at various locations across the surface of the Moon. Each of these landers would include a package for making geophysical measurements and their combined data set would provide detail on the internal structure and history of the Moon which is only possible through a globally distributed network. The proposed landing site, scientific instrument package and mission timescale for MoonNEXT mean that it is well suited as a European node to the ILN. Summary and Conclusions MoonNEXT is an ESA mission to the Lunar South Pole. MoonNEXT prepares the way for future exploration activities through technology demonstratin and characterisation of the landing site and its environment. In addition MoonNEXT addresses fundamental science questions relating to geophysics, geochemistry and the lunar environment. As a stand alone mission MoonNEXT provides a valuable step in the exploration and understanding of the Moon. This mission is also potentially an important European contribution to the International Lunar Network.

  6. What is the next innovation after the internet of things?

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Hung

    2017-01-01

    The world had witnessed several generations of the Internet. Starting with the Fixed Internet, then the Mobile Internet, scientists now focus on many types of research related to the "Thing" Internet (or Internet of Things). The question is "what is the next Internet generation after the Thing Internet?" This paper envisions about the Tactile Internet which could be the next Internet generation in the near future. The paper will introduce what is the tactile internet, why it could be the next...

  7. Strategic Concepts for the Development of Chinese Education and Human Resources for the Next Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Education and Society, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the strategic concepts for the development of Chinese education and human resources for the next 50 years. These concepts include: (a) Strategic Choice: Human Resources Are the Most Important Resource Development; (b) Strategic Targets: Realize the "Three Steps" of Education and the "Two Promotions" of…

  8. Building Scientific Community Support for the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S. M.; Awad, A. A.; Robeck, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards offer an opportunity to teach Earth and space science in ways that are closer to how scientists practice, and more relevant to students and to societal issues. However, the level of scientific community involvement required to capitalize on this opportunity is high. Building on the results of the Summit Meeting on the Implementation of the NGSS at the State Level , this presentation proposes a set of mechanisms and practices by which the NGSS Earth and space science community can support NGSS implementation at the national, state and local levels. Based on work with summit attendees, classroom teachers, informal educators and undergraduate faculty, this presentation proposes ways to build a network of practitioners with shared communication, approaches and resources. A set of mechanisms whereby the community can build relationships and share practices will be described, along with an emerging set of strategies for supporting groups as they take the first steps into implementation.

  9. Nanoscale integration is the next frontier for nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Nanoscale integration of materials and structures is the next critical step to exploit the promise of nanomaterials. Many novel and fascinating properties have been revealed for nanostructured materials. But if nanotechnology is to live up to its promise we must incorporate these nanoscale building blocks into functional systems that connect to the micro- and macroscale world. To do this we will inevitably need to understand and exploit the resulting combined unique properties of these integrated nanosystems. Much science waits to be discovered in the process. Nanoscale integration extends from the synthesis and fabrication of individual nanoscale building blocks, to the assembly of these building blocks into composite structures, and finally to the formation of complex functional systems. As illustrated in Figure 1, the building blocks may be homogeneous or heterogeneous, the composite materials may be nanocomposite or patterned structures, and the functional systems will involve additional combinations of materials. Nanoscale integration involves assembling diverse nanoscale materials across length scales to design and achieve new properties and functionality. At each stage size-dependent properties, the influence of surfaces in close proximity, and a multitude of interfaces all come into play. Whether the final system involves coherent electrons in a quantum computing approach, the combined flow of phonons and electrons for a high efficiency thermoelectric micro-generator, or a molecular recognition structure for bio-sensing, the combined effects of size, surface, and interface will be critical. In essence, one wants to combine the novel functions available through nanoscale science to achieve unique multi-functionalities not available in bulk materials. Perhaps the best-known example of integration is that of combining electronic components together into very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI). The integrated circuit has revolutionized electronics in many

  10. The Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James William

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a 4 to 11 MW offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It basically consists of two wave reflectors focusing the waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power......'s first offshore wave energy converter. During this period an extensive measuring program has established the background for optimal design of the structure and regulation of the power take off system. Planning for full scale deployment of a 7 MW unit within the next 2 years is in progress. The prototype...

  11. The Next Technology Revolution - Nano Electronic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlik, Iwona

    2004-03-01

    Nanotechnology is a revolutionary engine that will engender enormous changes in a vast majority of today's industries and markets, while potentially creating whole new industries. The impact of nanotechnology is particularly significant in the electronics industry, which is constantly driven by the need for higher performance, increased functionality, smaller size and lower cost. Nanotechnology can influence many of the hundreds of components that are typically assembled to manufacture modern electronic devices. Motorola manufactures electronics for a wide range of industries and communication products. In this presentation, the typical components of a cellular phone are outlined and technology requirements for future products, the customer benefits, and the potential impact of nanotechnology on many of the components are discussed. Technology needs include reliable materials supply, processes for high volume production, experimental and simulation tools, etc. For example, even routine procedures such as failure characterization may require the development of new tools for investigating nano-scale phenomena. Business needs include the development of an effective, high volume supply chain for nano-materials and devices, disruptive product platforms, and visible performance impact on the end consumer. An equally significant long-term industry need is the availability of science and engineering graduates with a multidisciplinary focus and a deep understanding of the fundamentals of nano-technology, that can harness the technology to create revolutionary products.

  12. Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Testing (SSADT) for Photovoltaic (PV) Devices and Cells (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Suh, C.; Jones, W.

    2010-10-01

    Presentation on step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) for photovoltaics (PV). Developed are a step-stress degradation test (SSADT) for PV reliability tests and a lifetime prediction model for PV products.

  13. The "Next Generation Science Standards" and the Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"), due to be released this spring, represents a revolutionary step toward establishing modern, national K-12 science education standards. Based on the recommendations of the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting…

  14. RNA nanomedicines: the next generation drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manu Smriti; Peer, Dan

    2016-06-01

    RNA therapeutics could represent the next generation personalized medicine. The variety of RNA molecules that can inhibit the expression of any mRNA using, for example, RNA interference (RNAi) strategies, or increase the expression of a given protein using modified mRNA together with new gene editing strategies open new avenues for manipulating the fate of diseased cells while leaving healthy cells untouched. In addition, these therapeutic RNA molecules can maximize the treatment of diseases and minimize its adverse effects. Yet, the promise of RNA therapeutics is hindered by the lack of efficient delivery strategies to selectively target these molecules into specific cells. Herein, we will focus on the challenges and opportunities of the delivery of therapeutic RNAi molecules into cancer cells with special emphasis on solid tumors. Solid tumors represent more than 80 percent of cancers and some are very challenging to treat, not merely due to physiological barriers but also since the tumor microenvironment (TME) is a complex milieu of accessory cells besides the cancerous cells. In this review, we will highlight various limiting factors to successful delivery, current clinical achievements and future outlook focusing on RNAi therapeutics to the TME. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparing for the next influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullers, Jonathan A

    2008-10-01

    There are 3 requirements for an influenza virus to cause a pandemic. It must be antigenically novel, cause severe disease, and transmit easily from human to human. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype currently circulating in bird populations in Asia, Africa, and Europe have met 2 of these criteria, and there is significant concern that these viruses will be the cause of the next pandemic. International efforts to prepare for a possible pandemic are underway. Priorities for pandemic planning include surveillance of influenza viruses in wild bird populations and at the avian-human interface, research into factors affecting the pathogenicity of these strains, stockpiling effective antivirals for use as a stopgap until an appropriate vaccine can be developed and distributed, and gaining an improved understanding of the utility of nonpharmaceutical interventions to slow or prevent the spread of these viruses within humans. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years towards readying the world for such an event, there is more work to be done. Physicians and hospitals can begin by educating themselves on the problem and developing a pandemic plan for their own practice or organization.

  16. Memristor: the illusive device

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-05-03

    The memristor (M) is considered to be the fourth two-terminal passive element in electronics, alongside the resistor (R), the capacitor (C), and the inductor (L). Its existence was postulated in 1971 but its first implementation was reported in 2008. Where was it hiding all that time and what can we do with it? Come and learn how the memristor completes the roster of electronic devices much like a missing particle that physicists seek to complete their tableaus.

  17. Creating a Content Strategy for Mobile Devices in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Students' access to smartphones continues to grow. Use of tablets and e-readers continues to grow in the classroom. Whenever a large purchase of mobile devices is made for education, the very next question asked is, "Now what?" It is the planning for and using of the devices as part of an overall approach to the curriculum, locally, that…

  18. Neuromodulation: advances in the next decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Russell J

    2010-06-01

    Many nervous system disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, mood disorders) involve neurotransmitters as well as electrical activity. Pharmacologic treatment does not target the precise location(s) where neurotransmitter imbalances occur. Additionally, non-neuronal cells in the brain--notably astrocytes--influence neuronal activity through both electrical and neurochemical modulation of nearby neurons. Precise monitoring/recording and modulating/stimulating (both electrical and neurochemical) can optimize therapy in specific disorders and specific patients. Carbon-fiber microelectrodes (5 microm diameter) in freely moving rodents have shown that dopamine release is heterogeneous within various regions in the nucleus accumbens, a region involved in many mood disorders. Because neurons are only several microns in diameter (axons, dendrites, and synaptic clefts smaller still), ultramicroelectrodes will be essential to selectively monitor/modulate the cell body, the axon, or at the intracellular level. Nanoelectrode arrays can monitor both electrical activity and dopamine in real time with submicron resolution, and stimulate neurons with equal precision. Computational models indicate that precise monitoring/modulating (electrically and neurochemically) at the subnucleus or neuron level will be necessary to restore normal firing patterns and neurotransmitter levels in many brain disorders. Endovascular techniques can introduce ultramicroelectrodes (0.5 micron or smaller) into the brain via capillaries; such electrodes can stimulate/record neuronal tissue with a response virtually identical to extra-vascular microelectrodes. Within the next decade, hundreds if not thousands of submicron-sized monitoring/modulating electrodes can be placed wherever needed to restore brain function to normal. The term "neuromodulation" will likely replace deep brain stimulation (DBS) as both neurochemistry and electrical activity are included in the therapeutic modalities.

  19. Mars via the Moon the next giant leap

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2016-01-01

    MOMENTUM IS BUILDING for a return to the Moon. NASA’s international partners on the International Space Station are in favor of returning to the lunar surface, as are India and China. The horizon goal may be Mars, but the political, funding and the technological and medical infeasibility of such an objective means the next logical step is a return to the Moon. While much has been learned about the Moon over the years, we don’t understand its resource wealth potential and the technologies to exploit those resources have yet to be developed, but there are a number of companies that are developing these capabilities. And, with the discovery of water in the lunar polar regions, plans are in the works to exploit these resources for fuel for transportation operations in cis-lunar space and in low Earth orbit (LEO). The time has come for commercial enterprise to lead the way back to the lunar surface. Embarking on such a venture requires little in the way of new technologies. We don’t need to develop super-fas...

  20. The matrix element method at next-to-leading order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John M.; Giele, Walter T.; Williams, Ciaran

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an extension of the matrix element method to next-to-leading order in perturbation theory, for electro-weak final states. To accomplish this we have developed a method to calculate next-to-leading order weights on an event-by-event basis. This allows for the definition of next-to-leading order likelihoods in exactly the same fashion as at leading order, thus extending the matrix element method to next-to-leading order. A welcome by-product of the method is the straightforward and efficient generation of unweighted next-to-leading order events. As examples of the application of our next-to-leading order matrix element method we consider the measurement of the mass of the Z boson and also the search for the Higgs boson in the four lepton channel.

  1. Selective atomic-level etching using two heating procedures, infrared irradiation and ion bombardment, for next-generation semiconductor device manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, K.; Miyoshi, N.; Kobayashi, H.; Miura, M.; Kurihara, M.; Maeda, K.; Negishi, N.; Sonoda, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Yasui, N.; Izawa, M.; Ishii, Y.; Okuma, K.; Saldana, T.; Manos, J.; Ishikawa, K.; Hori, M.

    2017-05-01

    The demand for precisely controlled etching is increasing as semiconductor device geometries continue to shrink. To fulfill this demand, cyclic atomic level/layer etching will become one of the key technologies in semiconductor device manufacturing at nanometer dimensions. This review describes recent trends in semiconductor devices and some of the latest results on cyclic atomic-level etching. In particular, it focuses on two types of cyclic etching that use different heating procedures: infrared irradiation for isotropic etching and Ar+ ion bombardment for anisotropic etching. It describes how an inductively-coupled-plasma down-flow etching apparatus with infrared lamps can be used for isotropic cyclic etching. The isotropic cyclic etching of SiN involves the formation and thermal desorption of ammonium hexafluorosilicate-based surface modified layers. This method features high selectivity with respect to SiO2, atomic-level control of the amount of SiN etching, and isotropic etched features. On the other hand, the anisotropic cyclic etching with Ar+ ion bombardment uses a microwave electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma etching apparatus. The anisotropic process for poly Si is composed of cyclic repetitions of chlorine adsorption and Ar+ ion bombardment. The anisotropic process for SiN is composed of cyclic repetitions involving an adsorption step using hydrofluorocarbon chemistry and a desorption step using Ar+ ion bombardment. Potential applications of these isotropic/anisotropic cyclic etching processes are described.

  2. Roe v. Wade. Into the next millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, A C

    1998-01-01

    In order to take the fight for reproductive rights into the next millennium, women in the US must be reminded of what life was like for women when contraception and abortion were illegal, and the silent majority of women who accept that abortion is a private decision must be marshalled to express their views politically. In the US, abortion was allowed until the mid- to late-1800s when Protestant leaders feared that Protestant births were being outnumbered by births to Irish Roman Catholic immigrants. There was only minimal organized opposition to abortion during the period when it was illegal and millions of women were dying as a result. An estimated 30,000 women died each year of illegal abortion in the US, and by the 1960s, illegal abortion was the greatest killer of women of reproductive age. Organized medicine, which witnessed these tragedies, never rallied to assure women quality reproductive health care. In fact, one of the first projects of the American Medical Association (AMA) was an anti-abortion campaign designed to put competitors out of business. The AMA waited until 1937 to endorse contraception and until the late 1960s to make efforts to legalize abortion. In 1997, the AMA again abandoned women by supporting the ban on late-term abortions. Pro-choice forces should prioritize the promotion of technological advances that will allow women to control conception and abortion. The means of achieving medical abortion and emergency contraception should be available in every physician's office and should be covered by every health insurance scheme. Reproductive health advocates must also work to inspire honesty about sex and sexuality in our sexually-obsessed, sexually-repressed society. Sex education in Denmark has nearly obliterated adolescent pregnancy and led to an 80% decline in the abortion rate over 30 years. In the US, nearly half of women have an abortion, and anti-abortion advocates should face the reality that their wives, daughters, mothers, and

  3. Plutonium Recycle: The Fateful Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, J. Gustave; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Calls attention to the fact that if the Atomic Energy Commission proceeds with its plans to authorize the nuclear power industry to use plutonium as a fuel in commercial nuclear reactors around the country, this will result in a dramatic escalation in the risks posed by nuclear power. (PEB)

  4. The Matrix Element Method at Next-to-Leading Order

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John M.; Giele, Walter T.; Williams, Ciaran

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the matrix element method to next-to-leading order in perturbation theory. To accomplish this we have developed a method to calculate next-to-leading order weights on an event-by-event basis. This allows for the definition of next-to-leading order likelihoods in exactly the same fashion as at leading order, thus extending the matrix element method to next-to-leading order. A welcome by-product of the method is the straightforward and efficient generation of...

  5. Important step towards the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The TI2 tunnel, one of the two tunnels that will transfer protons from the SPS to the LHC, broke through into the LEP/LHC ring on 15 May. TI2 will carry clockwise-moving protons from under the Laboratory's West Area to Point 2, future home of the ALICE experiment. It is coming up to 16:00 on 15 May and a group of some 50 people, fully kitted out in boots, helmets, and masks is intently watching a point on the wall in front of them. They are down in the LEP/LHC tunnel waiting for civil engineers to excavate the last few centimetres separating them from the TI2 transfer tunnel. The noise of machines begins, and just five minutes later the wall comes tumbling down. The excavator breaks through right on target, bringing a two-year project to a happy conclusion. Later, the survey team published the outstanding result that the tunnel junction was made within 6 millimetres of target. TI2 measures 2648 metres in length and three metres in diameter. Around 32,000 cubic metres of rock have been excavated to make it, so...

  6. The Stair-Step Atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a model of a generic atom that is used to represent the movement of electrons from lower to higher levels and vice-versa due to excitation and de-excitation of the atom. As the process of de-excitation takes place, photons represented by colored ping-pong balls are emitted, indicating the emission of light. (MDH)

  7. Improvements on non-equilibrium and transport Green function techniques: The next-generation TRANSIESTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papior, Nick Rübner; Lorente, Nicolás; Frederiksen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We present novel methods implemented within the non-equilibrium Green function code (NEGF) TRANSIESTA based on density functional theory (DFT). Our flexible, next-generation DFT–NEGF code handles devices with one or multiple electrodes (Ne≥1) with individual chemical potentials and electronic tem...

  8. Safeguards Envelope: The First Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Metcalf; Jean Ragusa; Robert Bean

    2008-03-01

    The possibility exists for real time accountancy and assay of nuclear materials as they move through a reprocessing facility. This project aims to establish working parameters and local figures of merit to identify possible diversion in real time with minimal operational impact. Factors such as pH, NOX gas concentration, flow speeds and radiation fields are rarely taken into account in safeguards methodologies and will be included to increase the confidence of location and assay of nuclear materials. An adaptable, real data model is being created of the contactors of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility and will be analyzed using the appropriate modeling codes. This model will then be subjected to three, diversion scenarios and a figure of merit methodology will be utilized to create the operational parameters under which these diversion scenarios would be detected. This analysis for figure of merit methodology will include statistical fluctuations, operator error, and a rudimentary analysis of transient conditions. The long term goal of the project includes expansion universally over the plant, methods of detection without requiring access to proprietary information, and an evaluation of the requirements for future figure of merit methodologies.

  9. The Value of Step-by-Step Risk Assessment for Unmanned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    The new European legislation expected in 2018 or 2019 will introduce a step-by-step process for conducting risk assessments for unmanned aircraft flight operations. This is a relatively simple approach to a very complex challenge. This work compares this step-by-step process to high fidelity risk...

  10. Conserving the Future. Wildlife Refuges and the Next Generation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For the past 18 months, the National Wildlife Refuge System has worked to create a vision that will guide the management of the Refuge System during the next decade...

  11. Closed-loop artificial pancreas systems: physiological input to enhance next-generation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudva, Yogish C; Carter, Rickey E; Cobelli, Claudio; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda

    2014-01-01

    To provide an understanding of both the preclinical and clinical aspects of closed-loop artificial pancreas systems, we provide a discussion of this topic as part of this two-part Bench to Clinic narrative. Here, the Bench narrative provides an in-depth understanding of insulin-glucose-glucagon physiology in conditions that mimic the free-living situation to the extent possible in type 1 diabetes that will help refine and improve future closed-loop system algorithms. In the Clinic narrative, Doyle and colleagues compare and evaluate technology used in current closed-loop studies to gain further momentum toward outpatient trials and eventual approval for widespread use.

  12. Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas Systems: Physiological Input to Enhance Next-Generation Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kudva, Yogish C.; Carter, Rickey E.; Cobelli, Claudio; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda

    2014-01-01

    To provide an understanding of both the preclinical and clinical aspects of closed-loop artificial pancreas systems, we provide a discussion of this topic as part of this two-part Bench to Clinic narrative. Here, the Bench narrative provides an in-depth understanding of insulin-glucose-glucagon physiology in conditions that mimic the free-living situation to the extent possible in type 1 diabetes that will help refine and improve future closed-loop system algorithms. In the Clinic narrative, ...

  13. Enhancing User Experience in Next Generation Mobile Devices Using Eye Tracking as a Biometric Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Per

    Electroencephalography (EEG), Galvanic Skin Conductance (GSR), Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability as well as Face Expression Detection – and in much more detail Eye Tracking. A simple framework for relating eye movements and pupil dilations to the visual processing system and to the attentional networks is suggested...

  14. A novel material for next generation MEMS and Sensor Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will work with the University of Maryland to design a single tank etching cell Etch porous silicon under different conditions and develop a method to characterize...

  15. Beyond Graphene: Advanced 2D Electronic and Optoelectronic Crystals and Devices for Next Generation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-25

    growth, and copper and nickel were the best choices for extensive graphene growth due to low cost and carbon solubility at 1000C. Graphene growth...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The discovery of graphene , made of an individual atomic-thick layer of carbon, could be considered as a defining point in...2013 31-May-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Beyond Graphene : Advanced 2D Electronic and Optoelectronic Crystals

  16. A Low-Power Asynchronous Step-Down DC-DC Converter for Implantable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Terkawi Hasib, Omar; Sawan, M; Savaria, Y

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present a fully integrated asynchronous step-down switched capacitor dc-dc conversion structure suitable for supporting ultra-low-power circuits commonly found in biomedical implants. The proposed converter uses a fully digital asynchronous state machine as the heart of the control circuitry to generate the drive signals. To minimize the switching losses, the asynchronous controller scales the switching frequency of the drive signals according to the loading conditions. It also turns on additional parallel switches when needed and has a backup synchronous drive mode. This circuit regulates load voltages from 300 mV to 1.1 V derived from a 1.2-V input voltage. A total of 350 pF on-chip capacitance was implemented to support a maximum of 230-μ W load power, while providing efficiency up to 80%. The circuit validating the proposed concepts was fabricated in 0.13- μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. Experimental test results confirm the expected functionality and performance of the proposed circuit.

  17. THE NEXT GENERATION TRANSIT SURVEY PROTOTYPING PHASE

    OpenAIRE

    McCormac, J.; Pollacco, D.; The NGTS Consortium

    2014-01-01

    El Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) es un nuevo sondeo d e exoplanetas transitantes de campo amplio que tiene como objetivo descubrir exoplanetas del tama ̃no d e Neptuno y super-Tierras entorno a estrellas brillantes ( V < 13) cercanas. NGTS consiste de un arreglo de 12 telescopios o perados rob ́oticamente observando en la banda de 600 − 900 nm. NGTS sondear ́a m ́as de cinco veces el n ́umero de estre llas, con V < 13, que Kepler y por lo tanto proveer ́a los objetivos m ́as brillante...

  18. Designing Energy Conversion Systems for the Next Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan N. Vukosavić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable growth in energy consumption requires transition to clean and green energy sources and energy systems. Environment friendly and renewable energy systems deal with electrical energy and rely on efficient electrical power converters. High power electronics is the key technology to deal with the next generation of electrical energy systems. The door to future breakthroughs in high power electronics is opened by major improvement in semiconductor power devices and their packaging technologies. New materials allow for much higher junction temperatures and higher operating voltages. Most importantly, advanced power semiconductor devices and novel converter topology open the possibility to increase the energy efficiency of power conversion and reduce the amount of heat. Although the waste heat created by high power converters can be put to use by adding on to heating systems, this option is not always available and the conversion losses are mostly wasted. At the same time, wasted heat is a form of pollution that threatens the environment. Another task for high power converters is efficient harvesting of renewable energy sources, such as the wind energy and the sun. Intermittent in nature, they pose a difficult task to power converter topology and controls. Eventually, high power converters are entering power distribution and transmission networks. With their quick reaction, with fast communication between the grid nodes and with advanced controllability of high power converters, a number of innovations can be introduced, facilitating the power system control and allowing for optimizations and loss reduction. Coined smart grid, this solution comprises two key elements, and these are intelligent controls and large static power converters. At virtually no cost, smart grids allow for a better utilization of available resources and it enlarges the stable operating range of the transmission systems. Therefore, it is of interest to review the

  19. High-Luminosity LHC moves to the next phase

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    This week saw several meetings vital for the medium-term future of CERN.    From Monday to Wednesday, the Resource Review Board, RRB, that oversees resource allocation in the LHC experiments, had a series of meetings. Thursday then saw the close-out meeting for the Hi-Lumi LHC design study, which was partially funded by the European Commission. These meetings focused on the High Luminosity upgrade for the LHC, which responds to the top priority of the European Strategy for Particle Physics adopted by the CERN Council in 2013. This upgrade will transform the LHC into a facility for precision studies, the logical next step for the high-energy frontier of particle physics. It is a challenging upgrade, both for the LHC and the detectors. The LHC is already the highest luminosity hadron collider ever constructed, generating up to a billion collisions per second at the heart of the detectors. The High Luminosity upgrade will see that number rise by a factor of five from 2025. For the detectors...

  20. Development of the Next Generation Type Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Tachihara, Satoru; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Ueoka, Terumi; Soejima, Fujito; Teranishi, Hiromitsu

    According to NASA, an astronaut living on the International Space Station (ISS) requires approximately 7 kg of water per day. This includes 2 kg of drinking water as well as sanitary fresh water for hand washing, gargling, etc. This water is carried to the space station from the earth, so when more people are staying on the space station, or staying for a longer period of time, the cost of transporting water increases. Accordingly, water is a valuable commodity, and restrictions are applied to such activities as brushing teeth, washing hair, and washing clothes. The life of an astronaut in space is not necessarily a healthy one. JAXA has experience in the research of water recovery systems. Today, utilizing knowledge learned through experiences living on the space station and space shuttles, and taking advantage of the development of new materials for device construction, it is possible to construct a new water recovery system. Therefore, JAXA and New Medican Tech Corporation (NMT) have created a system for collaborative development. Based on the technologies of both companies, we are proceeding to develop the next generation of water recovery devices in order to contribute to safe, comfortable, and healthy daily life for astronauts in space. The goal of this development is to achieve a water purification system based on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that can perform the following functions. • Preprocessing that removes ammonia and breaks down organic matter contained in urine. • Post-processing that adds minerals and sterilizes the water. • Online TOC measurement for monitoring water quality. • Functions for measuring harmful substances. The RO membrane is an ultra-low-pressure type membrane with a 0.0001 micron (0.1 nanometer) pore size and an operating pressure of 0.4 to 0.6 MPa. During processing with the RO membrane, nearly all of the minerals contained in the cleaned water are removed, resulting in water that is near the quality of deionized water

  1. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle

    CERN Multimedia

    Franck Close

    2008-01-01

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

  2. The Double Bind: The next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcom, Lindsey E.; Malcom, Shirley M.

    2011-01-01

    In this foreword, Shirley Malcom and Lindsey Malcom speak to the history and current status of women of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. As the author of the seminal report "The Double Bind: The Price of Being a Minority Woman in Science", Shirley Malcom is uniquely poised to give us an insightful…

  3. Rucio, the next-generation Data Management system in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, C; Beermann, T; Garonne, V; Goossens, L; Lassnig, M; Nairz, A; Vigne, R

    2016-01-01

    Rucio is the next-generation of Distributed Data Management (DDM) system benefiting from recent advances in cloud and "Big Data" computing to address HEP experiments scaling requirements. Rucio is an evolution of the ATLAS DDM system Don Quijote 2 (DQ2), which has demonstrated very large scale data management capabilities with more than 160 petabytes spread worldwide across 130 sites, and accesses from 1,000 active users. However, DQ2 is reaching its limits in terms of scalability, requiring a large number of support staff to operate and being hard to extend with new technologies. Rucio addresses these issues by relying on new technologies to ensure system scalability, cover new user requirements and employ new automation framework to reduce operational overheads. This paper shows the key concepts of Rucio, details the Rucio design, and the technology it employs, the tests that were conducted to validate it and finally describes the migration steps that were conducted to move from DQ2 to Rucio.

  4. Vision-21: Space Travel for the Next Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The papers from this symposium, that was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on April 3-4, 1990, are presented. The theme selected for the symposium was space travel for the next millennium. It was hoped that the participants would allow their focus to consider possible advances in technologies for space travel not just for currently envisioned projects, but for possibilities beyond the next generation and the next thousand years. About half of the contributed papers focussed on propulsion and the other half on other issues related to space travel.

  5. Next-to-Next-to-Leading-Order QCD Corrections to the Hadronic Width of Pseudoscalar Quarkonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Feng; Jia, Yu; Sang, Wen-Long

    2017-12-01

    We compute the next-to-next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the hadronic decay rates of the pseudoscalar quarkonia, at the lowest order in velocity expansion. The validity of nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization for inclusive quarkonium decay process, for the first time, is verified to relative order αs2. As a by-product, the renormalization group equation of the leading NRQCD four-fermion operator O1(1S0 ) is also deduced to this perturbative order. By incorporating this new piece of correction together with available relativistic corrections, we find that there exists severe tension between the state-of-the-art NRQCD predictions and the measured ηc hadronic width and, in particular, the branching fraction of ηc→γ γ . NRQCD appears to be capable of accounting for ηb hadronic decay to a satisfactory degree, and our most refined prediction is Br(ηb→γ γ )=(4.8 ±0.7 )×10-5.

  6. Assessing Progress, Impact, and Next Steps in Rolling Out Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in 14 Priority Countries in Eastern and Southern Africa through 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    countries' decisions about next steps.

  7. The Two-loop Soft Anomalous Dimension Matrix and Resummation at Next-to-next-to Leading Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mert Aybat, S.; /SUNY, Stony Brook; Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC; Sterman, George; /SUNY, Stony Brook

    2006-09-08

    We extend the resummation of dimensionally-regulated amplitudes to next-to-next-to-leading poles. This requires the calculation of two-loop anomalous dimension matrices for color mixing through soft gluon exchange. Remarkably, we find that they are proportional to the corresponding one-loop matrices. Using the color generator notation, we reproduce the two-loop single-pole quantities H{sup (2)} introduced by Catani for quark and gluon elastic scattering. Our results also make possible threshold and a variety of other resummations at next-to-next-to leading logarithm. All of these considerations apply to 2 {yields} n processes with massless external lines.

  8. The next generation: the value of reminding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Colin M; Pottruff, Molly M; Forrin, Noah D; Masson, Michael E J

    2012-07-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the influence of repeated processing in the context of the generation effect. In both experiments, participants studied words once or twice. Once-studied words either were read or were generated from a definition. Twice-studied words were read both times, generated both times, or read once and generated once. Free recall was best (in order of decreasing performance) after generating twice, after generating plus reading, and finally after generating once; any generation was better than purely reading. Recognition showed a similar pattern, except that the benefit of generating twice was not as striking as in recall and that reading plus generating was just as effective as generating twice. The overall pattern of results is accounted for by a simple model in which a second encoding results in a reminding of the first encoding, and this additional encoding supports subsequent recollection. This reminding is, consequently, more effective in recall than in recognition, and it operates in accordance with the principles of transfer-appropriate processing.

  9. Drugs, Devices, and the FDA: Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail A. Van Norman, MD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 150 years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has evolved from a small division of the U.S. Patent Office to 1 of the largest consumer protection agencies in the world. Its mission includes ensuring that new medical treatments reach the public as quickly as possible while simultaneously ensuring that new treatments are both safe and effective. In the face of urgent consumer need, the FDA has faced criticism that its processes are too lengthy and costly and that the time to new drug release is significantly longer in the United States than in other Western countries. Calls from the public to loosen FDA regulations to facilitate more rapid approval of drugs and devices have been countered by the occurrence of patient harm and deaths after some approved drugs have reached the marketplace. New drug and device approval in the United States take an average of 12 and 7 years, respectively, from pre-clinical testing to approval. Costs for development of medical devices run into millions of dollars, and a recent study suggests that the entire cost for a new drug is in excess of $1 billion. For investigators seeking approval for new drugs and devices, FDA processes can be formidable. This 2-part series is intended to provide an overview of the steps involved in bringing new drugs and devices through the FDA process. Part 1 concerns the process of new drug approvals. Part 2 continues with approval of medical devices.

  10. A description of next-step switching versus augmentation practices for outpatients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder enrolled in an academic specialty clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakostas, George I; Petersen, Timothy J; Green, Cassandra; Iosifescu, Dan V; Yeung, Albert S; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Fava, Maurizio; Posternak, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    There is a paucity of naturalistic studies from depression specialty clinics describing the next-step (augmentation versus switching) practices of clinicians for outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) resistant to an antidepressant trial of adequate dose and duration. Eighty-five MDD outpatients enrolled in one of two specialty clinics, who had not achieved remission after a first adequate prospective antidepressant trial conducted at the clinic underwent either augmentation (n = 36) or switching (n=49) of their antidepressant regimen. Outcome was defined with the use of the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) Scale. Nonresponders (CGI-I>3) following the first antidepressant trial were more likely to have their treatment switched than patients who experienced incomplete response (CGI-I1) (67.2% versus 28.5%, p = 0.001). Incomplete responders during the first trial who went on to receive augmentation had higher remission rates (60.0% versus 0%, p=0.01), lower endpoint depression severity scores (1.8 +/- 1.1 versus 3.3 +/- 0.8, p = 0.01) and greater clinical improvement scores (1.6 +/- 1.1 versus 3.0 +/- 0.0, p=0.03) than incomplete responders who had their antidepressant regimen switched. Although nonresponders to the first treatment who were switched experienced greater symptom improvement than nonresponders who were augmented (2.7 +/- 1.1 versus 3.4 +/- 1.2, p=0.03), there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between these two groups with respect to remission rates (18.6% versus 14.2%, respectively) and endpoint depressive severity (3.0 +/- 1.4 versus 3.4 +/- 1.4, respectively). In this nonrandomized, naturalistic treatment setting, nonresponders to an adequate, prospective antidepressant trial were more likely to have their antidepressant regimen switched, while patients with incomplete response during the first trial were more likely to have their regimen augmented. In addition, patients with incomplete response who had their treatment augmented had

  11. Internet-based intervention programme for obese adolescents and their families (Next.Step): research protocol of a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Pedro; Fonseca, Helena; Gaspar, Pedro; Gaspar, Filomena

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the design and rationale of a controlled trial that aims to determine the effectiveness of an intervention programme in which the internet is used. Adolescent obesity is a major health problem, there being urgency to find effective interventions that induce behavioural change. The inclusion of the internet in the intervention may improve adolescents' adherence to the weight management programme and lead to adoption of healthier lifestyles. A clinical trial with a control group (non-randomized). Participants are adolescents with appointments at a paediatric obesity clinic (Portugal). Sample size was calculated according to the power analysis. The experimental group will follow the standard treatment protocol and receive free access to the e-therapeutic platform. The control group will follow the standard treatment protocol and join a waiting list. Intervention length will be 36 weeks (24 weeks of direct intervention with a follow-up for 12 weeks). This study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Health (Lisbon, Portugal) in January 2012 and funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology (Portugal) in December 2012. The results of this research will promote reflection on new approaches directed to treat adolescent obesity and on the promotion of healthy behaviours. We expect to gather empirical evidence of the intervention programme effectiveness. The expectations lie on the population health gains, empowerment in decision-making and adoption of healthier lifestyles. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Epilepsy Forewarning Using A Hand-Held Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, LM

    2005-02-21

    Over the last decade, ORNL has developed and patented a novel approach for forewarning of a large variety of machine and biomedical events. The present implementation uses desktop computers to analyze archival data. This report describes the next logical step in this effort, namely use of a hand-held device for the analysis.

  13. Developing the next generation of potential entrepreneurs: co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Developing the next generation of potential entrepreneurs: co-operation between schools and businesses? ... people to learn about the entrepreneurial process. The majority of people who will start businesses in future ... enhance the entrepreneurship development process. Youth entrepreneurial learnership programme.

  14. Next logical steps in forest pathology activities for Guam, Saipan, Yap, Palau, Pohnpei, and Kosrae [Chapter X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil G. Cannon; Francis Ruegorong; Puis Liegel; Victor Guerrero; Robert L. Schlub; Leonard Sigrah; Maxon Nithan; Blair Charley; Sara M. Ashiglar; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; Bob Gavenda; Katie Friday; Erick Waguk; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Gibson Santos; Rodasio Samuel

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the forest pathology trip that occurred during September of 2013, advances were made on several important fronts, and future activities were also identified as critical for addressing threats to forest health in Micronesia. The purpose of this chapter is to list and briefly describe each of these activities.

  15. De Novo Sequencing of Top-Down Tandem Mass Spectra: A Next Step towards Retrieving a Complete Protein Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyatkina, Kira

    2017-02-08

    De novo sequencing of tandem (MS/MS) mass spectra represents the only way to determine the sequence of proteins from organisms with unknown genomes, or the ones not directly inscribed in a genome-such as antibodies, or novel splice variants. Top-down mass spectrometry provides new opportunities for analyzing such proteins; however, retrieving a complete protein sequence from top-down MS/MS spectra still remains a distant goal. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art on this subject, and enhance our previously developed Twister algorithm for de novo sequencing of peptides from top-down MS/MS spectra to derive longer sequence fragments of a target protein.

  16. A Next-Generation Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe Beamline for In Situ Studies of Energy Materials and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maser, Jong [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lai, Barry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Buonassisi, Toni [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Cai, Zhonghou [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Si [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finney, Lydia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jacobsen, Chris [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Preissner, Curt [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Roehrig, Chris [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rose, Volker [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shu, Deming [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vine, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vogt, Stefan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-08-20

    The Advanced Photon Source is developing a suite of new X-ray beamlines to study materials and devices across many length scales and under real conditions. One of the flagship beamlines of the APS upgrade is the In Situ Nanoprobe (ISN) beamline, which will provide in situ and operando characterization of advanced energy materials and devices under varying temperatures, gas ambients, and applied fields, at previously unavailable spatial resolution and throughput. Examples of materials systems include inorganic and organic photovoltaic systems, advanced battery systems, fuel cell components, nanoelectronic devices, advanced building materials and other scientifically and technologically relevant systems. To characterize these systems at very high spatial resolution and trace sensitivity, the ISN will use both nanofocusing mirrors and diffractive optics to achieve spots sizes as small as 20 nm. Nanofocusing mirrors in Kirkpatrick–Baez geometry will provide several orders of magnitude increase in photon flux at a spatial resolution of 50 nm. Diffractive optics such as zone plates and/or multilayer Laue lenses will provide a highest spatial resolution of 20 nm. Coherent diffraction methods will be used to study even small specimen features with sub-10 nm relevant length scale. A high-throughput data acquisition system will be employed to significantly increase operations efficiency and usability of the instrument. The ISN will provide full spectroscopy capabilities to study the chemical state of most materials in the periodic table, and enable X-ray fluorescence tomography. In situ electrical characterization will enable operando studies of energy and electronic devices such as photovoltaic systems and batteries. We also describe the optical concept for the ISN beamline, the technical design, and the approach for enabling a broad variety of in situ studies. Furthermore, we discuss the application of hard X-ray microscopy to study defects in multi-crystalline solar

  17. Improving access and systems of care for evidence-based childhood obesity treatment: Conference key findings and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfley, Denise E; Staiano, Amanda E; Altman, Myra; Lindros, Jeanne; Lima, Angela; Hassink, Sandra G; Dietz, William H; Cook, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    To improve systems of care to advance implementation of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for childhood obesity treatment (i.e., clinicians offer/refer children with obesity to intensive, multicomponent behavioral interventions of >25 h over 6 to 12 months to improve weight status) and to expand payment for these services. In July 2015, 43 cross-sector stakeholders attended a conference supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, American Academy of Pediatrics Institute for Healthy Childhood Weight, and The Obesity Society. Plenary sessions presenting scientific evidence and clinical and payment practices were interspersed with breakout sessions to identify consensus recommendations. Consensus recommendations for childhood obesity treatment included: family-based multicomponent behavioral therapy; integrated care model; and multidisciplinary care team. The use of evidence-based protocols, a well-trained healthcare team, medical oversight, and treatment at or above the minimum dose (e.g., >25 h) are critical components to ensure effective delivery of high-quality care and to achieve clinically meaningful weight loss. Approaches to secure reimbursement for evidence-based obesity treatment within payment models were recommended. Continued cross-sector collaboration is crucial to ensure a unified approach to increase payment and access for childhood obesity treatment and to scale up training to ensure quality of care. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. Improving Access and Systems of Care for Evidence-Based Childhood Obesity Treatment: Conference Key Findings and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfley, Denise E.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Altman, Myra; Lindros, Jeanne; Lima, Angela; Hassink, Sandra G.; Dietz, William H.; Cook, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To improve systems of care to advance implementation of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for childhood obesity treatment (i.e. clinicians offer/refer children with obesity to intensive, multicomponent behavioral interventions of >25 hours over 6–12 months to improve weight status) and to expand payment for these services. Methods In July 2015, forty-three cross-sector stakeholders attended a conference supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, American Academy of Pediatrics Institute for Healthy Childhood Weight, and The Obesity Society. Plenary sessions presenting scientific evidence and clinical and payment practices were interspersed with breakout sessions to identify consensus recommendations. Results Consensus recommendations for childhood obesity treatment included: family-based multicomponent behavioral therapy; integrated care model; and multi-disciplinary care team. The use of evidence-based protocols, a well-trained healthcare team, medical oversight, and treatment at or above the minimum dose (e.g. >25 hours) are critical components to ensure effective delivery of high-quality care and to achieve clinically meaningful weight loss. Approaches to secure reimbursement for evidence-based obesity treatment within payment models were recommended. Conclusion Continued cross-sector collaboration is crucial to ensure a unified approach to increase payment and access for childhood obesity treatment and to scale-up training to ensure quality of care. PMID:27925451

  19. Partnering with K-12 Education in Building Healthy, Sustainable, and Competitive Regions: A California Policy Symposium. Proceedings Summary & Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jeff; McKoy, Deborah; Alex, Ken; Mitchell, Connie; Moore, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    On December 6, 2012, UC Berkeley's Center for Cities & Schools, in collaboration with the California Department of Education, California Department of Public Health, Governor's Office of Planning and Research, Strategic Growth Council, and Health in All Policies Task Force, brought together leaders from across California to discuss the…

  20. Hybrid Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube TiO2 Electrode Material for Next Generation Energy Storage Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Marler, Sydney

    2016-01-01

    Current supercapacitors present several distinct limitations that severely inhibit the efficiency, power, and electrical capacitance of energy storage devices. Supercapacitors present an exciting prospect that has countless applications in renewable energy storage and modern day electronic devices. In recent years the exciting development of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has presented an advantage in electrode development. CNTs, however beneficial for their increased electrode surface area, have severe limitations regarding conductivity and electrode density. Creating a nanocomposite hybrid out of a transition metal-oxide and carbon nanotube array would help the current limitations of the modern supercapacitor. TiO2 was chosen for its common occurrence in everyday materials and promising capacitance levels. A multi-walled carbon nanotube array was grown on a SiO2 precursor via CCVD. The transition metal oxide was then deposited via RF Sputtering methods to a MWCNT array. Recharge tests and characterization were con...

  1. Future of ocean resources: The next 25 years

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A

    The ocean's non-living resources being least exploited have remained nearly inexhaustible. Among the possible mineable mineral resources during the next few decades are: (1) Biological deposits such as coral (e.g. Lakshadweep) and oyster beds...

  2. Doing what works literacy strategies for the next level

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Judy Tilton

    2013-01-01

    Doing What Works: Literacy Strategies for the Next Level will assist educators as they support students in the mastery of vocabulary, comprehension, and study skills required by the Common Core State Standards.

  3. The next bit thing in physics is huge and costly

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The price of exploring inner space went up. An international consortium of physicists proposed the next big thing in physics: the International Linear Collider and it would cost about $ 6.7 billion. (1 page)

  4. NIMROD simulations and physics assessment of possible designs for a next generation Steady Inductive Helicity Injection HIT device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, James; Morgan, Kyle; Grubb, Isaac; Jarboe, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus - Steady Inductive 3 (HIT-SI3) experiment forms and maintains spheromaks via Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI) using discrete injectors that inject magnetic helicity via a non-axisymmetric perturbation and drive toroidally symmetric current. Newer designs for larger SIHI-driven spheromaks incorporate a set of injectors connected to a single external manifold to allow more freedom for the toroidal structure of the applied perturbation. Simulations have been carried out using the NIMROD code to assess the effectiveness of various imposed mode structures and injector schema in driving current via Imposed Dynamo Current Drive (IDCD). The results are presented here for varying flux conserver shapes on a device approximately 1.5 times larger than the current HIT-SI3 experiment. The imposed mode structures and spectra of simulated spheromaks are analyzed in order to examine magnetic structure and stability and determine an optimal regime for IDCD sustainment in a large device. The development of scaling laws for manifold operation is also presented, and simulation results are analyzed and assessed as part of the development path for the large scale device.

  5. An improved protocol and a new grinding device for extraction of genomic DNA from microorganisms by a two-step extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S S; Chen, D; Lu, Q

    2012-05-21

    Current protocols to extract genomic DNA from microorganisms are still laborious, tedious and costly, especially for the species with thick cell walls. In order to improve the effectiveness of extracting DNA from microbial samples, a novel protocol, defined as two-step extraction method, along with an improved tissue-grinding device, was developed. The protocol included two steps, disruption of microbial cells or spores by grinding the sample together with silica sand in a new device and extraction of DNA with an effective buffer containing cell lysis chemicals. The device was prepared by using a commercial electric mini-grinder, adapted with a grinding stone, and a sample cup processed by lathing from a polytetrafluoroethylene rod. We tested the method with vegetative cells of four microbial species and two microbial spores that have thick cell walls and are therefore hard to process; these included Escherichia coli JM109, Bacillus subtilis WB600, Sacchromyces cerevisiae INVSc1, Trichoderma viride AS3.3711, and the spores of S. cerevisiae and T. viride, respectively, representing Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, filamentous fungi. We found that this new method and device extracted usable quantities of genomic DNA from the samples. The DNA fragments that were extracted exceeded 23 kb. The target sequences up to about 5 kb were successfully and exclusively amplified by PCR using extracted DNA as the template. In addition, the DNA extraction was finalized within 1.5 h. Thus, we conclude that this two-step extraction method is an effective and improved protocol for extraction of genomic DNA from microbial samples.

  6. The intrauterine device today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, J E

    1993-10-01

    The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is effective and reversible and has a high continuation rate. It can also be used within 7 days postcoitus. Developed separately by Richter, Grafenberg, and Ota between 1909 and 1934, the IUD gained popularity in the 1960s and 1970s with the introduction of the Margulies Spiral, the Lippes Loop, the Birnberg Bow, and the Dalkon Shield. The last proved dangerous, and the IUD became unpopular. The 4 IUDs which are available in Canada include the TCu-380S (GYNE T Slimline), the TCu-200, the NOVA-T, and the Progestasert. All are T shaped and medicated (copper or progesterone). The 1st and 3rd can be left in situ for 10 years; the 2nd, for 4 years; and the 4th, for 1 year. The NOVA-T has a copper wire with a silver core and is inserted with a unique pull-push technique. The Progestasert, which contains 38 mg of progesterone, releases 65 mcg of the hormone daily. The best candidate for IUD use is parous, but not pregnant, is in a stable monogamous relationship, and has a healthy reproductive tract and no history of ectopic pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, pelvic inflammatory disease, undiagnosed genital bleeding, endometrial or cervical neoplasia, abnormal endometrial anatomy, compromised immune system, allergy to copper, or Wilson's Disease. The only infection related to the IUD is that associated with insertion. Such an infection is polymicrobial and involves the endogenous, cervicovaginal flora (primarily anaerobes). It is usually asymptomatic and contained by the immune system. 200 mg of Doxycycline can be given orally as a prophylactic 1 hour prior to insertion. A nonprescription, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drug, also taken 1 hour before the procedure, will prevent pain and a vasovagal reaction. Paracervical anesthesia should be used. If the depth of the uterus is less than 6 cm or greater than 10 cm, another form of contraception should be used. Although little research is being done in Canada on new IUDs

  7. NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers ... interaction has always been important to me, but working with these patients in Zambia lit a fire ...

  8. The energy cost for the step-to-step transition in amputee walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.H.P.; Pollman, E.; Groenewold, M.; Wiggerts, H.; Polomski, W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the increased energy cost of amputee gait could be accounted for by an increase in the mechanical work dissipated during the step-to-step transition in walking. Eleven transtibial amputees (AMP) and 11 age-matched controls (CO) walked at both

  9. The Hydroacoustics of Beveled Steps and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    landing gear . ’s &v If we consider the unsteady flow over a forward facing step we can identify three origins of turbulence. 1) Upstream turbulence...phased array consists of Panasonic WM-64PNT electret microphones arranged in a spiral fashion on a circular carbon - fiber disk (Fig. 11(a)). These

  10. Seasat performance evaluation - The first two steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lame, D. B.; Born, G. H.; Dunne, J. A.; Spear, A. J.; Yamarone, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Seasat, the satellite dedicated to the study of the oceans using microwave sensors, collected a data set containing information on sea surface winds, sea surface temperatures, wave heights, wave directions, internal waves, currents, tides, the marine geoid, and atmospheric water content. The first two steps of the performance evaluation of the satellite have been completed: (1) the engineering assessment and (2) the sensor evaluation. The results are encouraging for the performance of the instruments and the first level of data processing algorithms.

  11. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  12. Automatic single-step quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe sample preparation devices for analysis of pesticide residues in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jishi; He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Xu, Yaping; Peng, Yi; Liu, Xiaowei

    2017-10-27

    In this research, the manual two-step QuEChERS approach has been streamlined and automated into a one-step method using a cleanup tube fitted within an extraction tube. A novel automatic QuEChERS combination have been developed to simplify the QuEChERS procedures and improve sample preparation efficiency. This combination integrates QuEChERS procedures into a single run via the use of a vortex vibration-centrifuge device and a centrifuge filtration tube. To validate the efficiency of our automatic QuEChERS device, 270 pesticides were analyzed in plant origined foods including celery, tomatoes, leeks, eggplants, grapes, corn, green tea, and soybean oil using this automatic platform. The results were then compared with those obtained using the manual QuEChERS method. Different parameters were validated and compared including recovery, linearity, repeatability and limits of quantification (LOQ). Satisfactory results, comparable to results obtained using the manual QuEChERS method were obtained. The average recoveries ranged between 70% and 120% for most pesticides with associated relative standard deviations (RSDs) 0.990 within a linearity range of 2-500μg/kg. Compared to manual QuEChERS, this novel automatic QuEChERS device and combination could significantly improve the sample preparation efficiency for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Preliminary thoughts on the data acquisition for the next generation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preliminary thoughts about the data acquisition system to be developed for the next generation of large area silicon tracker are presented in this paper. This paper describes the set of data delivered by these tracking systems, and the various stages of processing and data flow transmission from the front-end chip sitting on ...

  14. The Road to 2012: Looking Towards the Next Two Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Now storms of salt and pesticides swirl up from the receding shoreline, contaminat- ing the land and afflicting millions of Usbeks with gastritis ...the nutritional 237 The Road to 2012: Looking Tozvai, the Next Two Decades and neuroendo,:rine aspects of aging, and if we develop ways to re- pair

  15. The Eight-Step Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Army has adapted extremely well to repeated deployments in the last 10 years. All things come with tradeoffs though, and one relative...weakness that has resulted from a decade of frequent deployments is the lessened ability of the Army’s junior leaders to prepare for and conduct training... The Army needs to look at ways to train leaders to conduct training, and the eight-step training model is a proven and effective method to accomplish

  16. Designs and Architectures for the Next Generation of Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Shyang Liao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic solar cells show great promise as an economically and environmentally friendly technology to utilize solar energy because of their simple fabrication processes and minimal material usage. However, new innovations and breakthroughs are needed for organic solar cell technology to become competitive in the future. This article reviews research efforts and accomplishments focusing on three issues: power conversion efficiency, device stability and processability for mass production, followed by an outlook for optimizing OSC performance through device engineering and new architecture designs to realize next generation organic solar cells.

  17. The stair-step approach in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakyan, Hayk

    2018-01-01

    This book is intended as a teacher’s manual and as an independent-study handbook for students and mathematical competitors. Based on a traditional teaching philosophy and a non-traditional writing approach (the stair-step method), this book consists of new problems with solutions created by the authors. The main idea of this approach is to start from relatively easy problems and “step-by-step” increase the level of difficulty toward effectively maximizing students' learning potential. In addition to providing solutions, a separate table of answers is also given at the end of the book. A broad view of mathematics is covered, well beyond the typical elementary level, by providing more in depth treatment of Geometry and Trigonometry, Number Theory, Algebra, Calculus, and Combinatorics.

  18. Accuracy of the first step of the dermatoscopic 2-step algorithm for pigmented skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschandl, Philipp; Rosendahl, Cliff; Kittler, Harald

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the frequency of misclassifications of equivocal pigmented lesions according to the first step of the dermatoscopic 2-step algorithm. 707 consecutive cases from 553 patients of central Europe and Australia were included in the study. Dermatoscopic images were evaluated in a blinded fashion for the presence of features described in the 2-step algorithm to determine their melanocytic or non-melanocytic origin. Mucosal, genital and non-pigmented lesions were excluded. The sensitivity of the first step was 97.1% for patients from Australia and 96.8% for patients from central Europe. The specificity was 33.6% for Australian patients and 67.9% for European patients. The most common reasons for misclassification were the presence of a pigmented network in a non-melanocytic lesion (n=68, 25.2%) and the absence of dermatoscopic features of melanocytic and non-melanocytic lesions in 69 (25.6%) non-melanocytic lesions. The first step of the dermatoscopic 2-step algorithm, if applied consistently, has high sensitivity but low specificity. Many non-melanocytic lesions, especially solar lentigines and seborrheic keratoses, are wrongly classified as melanocytic. The worse performance of the first step algorithm in Australian patients is probably due to a higher rate of solar lentigines in patients with severely sun-damaged skin.

  19. The role of STEP in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Pradeep; Zhang, Yongfang; Venkitaramani, Deepa V; Xu, Jian; Lombroso, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ), the putative causative agent in Alzheimer's disease, is known to affect glutamate receptor trafficking. Previous studies have shown that Aβ downregulates the surface expression of N-methyl D-aspartate type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) by the activation of STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase 61 (STEP₆₁). More recent findings confirm that STEP₆₁ plays an important role in Aβ-induced NMDAR endocytosis. STEP levels are elevated in human AD prefrontal cortex and in the cortex of several AD mouse models. The increase in STEP₆₁ levels and activity contribute to the removal of GluN1/GluN2B receptor complexes from the neuronal surface membranes. The elevation of STEP₆₁ is due to disruption in the normal degradation of STEP₆₁ by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Here, we briefly discuss additional studies in support of our hypothesis that STEP₆₁ contributes to aspects of the pathophysiology in Alzheimer's disease. Exogenous application of Aβ-enriched conditioned medium (7PA2-CM) to wild-type cortical cultures results in a loss of GluN1/GluN2B subunits from neuronal membranes. Abeta-mediated NMDAR internalization does not occur in STEP knock-out cultures, but is rescued by the addition of active TAT-STEP to the cultures prior to Aβ treatment.

  20. One-Step Cartilage Repair Technique as a Next Generation of Cell Therapy for Cartilage Defects: Biological Characteristics, Preclinical Application, Surgical Techniques, and Clinical Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Cai, You-Zhi; Lin, Xiang-Jin

    2016-07-01

    To provide a comprehensive overview of the basic science rationale, surgical technique, and clinical outcomes of 1-step cartilage repair technique used as a treatment strategy for cartilage defects. A systematic review was performed in the main medical databases to evaluate the several studies concerning 1-step procedures for cartilage repair. The characteristics of cell-seed scaffolds, behavior of cells seeded into scaffolds, and surgical techniques were also discussed. Clinical outcomes and quality of repaired tissue were assessed using several standardized outcome assessment tools, magnetic resonance imaging scans, and biopsy histology. One-step cartilage repair could be divided into 2 types: chondrocyte-matrix complex (CMC) and autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC), both of which allow a simplified surgical approach. Studies with Level IV evidence have shown that 1-step cartilage repair techniques could significantly relieve symptoms and improve functional assessment (P step cartilage repair technique, with its potential for effective, homogeneous distribution of chondrocytes and multipotent stem cells on the surface of the cartilage defect, is able to regenerate hyaline-like cartilage tissue, and it could be applied to cartilage repair by arthroscopy. Level IV, systematic review of Level II and IV studies. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.