WorldWideScience

Sample records for thallophytic algal flora

  1. Thallophytic algal flora from a new Silurian Lagerstätte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinn, Oive

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Algae have always been the most diverse and numerous eukaryotic autotrophs in marine ecosystems. Both fossil andmolecular data point to an early Proterozoic origin for algae. Although known for their long evolutionary history, the fossil recordof algae is sparse and mainly remains of taxa with heavily calcified thalli are preserved. However, fossils of noncalcareous algae,known as extremely sporadic and occasional finds from different parts of the world, provide important insights into thepalaeobiology of algal flora in the Earth's past. Here we describe highly diverse flora of noncalcareous thallophytic algae from aSilurian age deposit.

  2. Marine algal flora of submerged Angria Bank (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.; Ambiye, V.

    Submerged Angria Bank was surveyed for the deep water marine algal flora. About 57 species were reported from this bank for the first time. Rhodophyta dominated (30 species) followed by Chlorophyta (18 species) and Phaeophyta (9 species). A few...

  3. Ecological study of algal flora of Neelum river Azad Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghari, M.K.; Leghari, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    First time ecological study of Algal Flora of Neelum River Azad Kashmir was carried out during January 1998 to July 1998. A total of 78 species belonging to 48 genera of 4 Algal groups. Cyanophyceae (16 species 20.5 % belonging to 11 genera), Choloronophycease (23 species 29.5 % belonging to 18 genera), Bacillariophyceae (37 species 47 % belonging to 17 genera), Xanthophyceae (2 species 3 % belonging to 2 genera) and 39 physico - chemical parameters were recorded. (author)

  4. Study on freshwater algal flora on the territory of the Bulgarka Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen Stoyanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the diversity of freshwater algal flora on the territory of the Bulgarka Nature Park. One hundred ninety-four species, belonging to 11 divisions were identified. The conservation value of the identified species was assessed.

  5. Deep water marine algal flora of the submerged banks off west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ambiye, V.; Untawale, A.G.

    A survey of submerged banks off India viz Cora Divh, Sessostris and Bassas de-Pedro resulted in obtaining information on the rich and diverse marine algal flora from various depths ranging from 18-70 m. A programme of onboard dredging was undertaken...

  6. DNA barcoding unmasks overlooked diversity improving knowledge on the composition and origins of the Churchill algal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Gary W; McDevit, Daniel C

    2013-03-16

    Sampling expeditions to Churchill in the Canadian subarctic were completed with the aim of compiling a molecular-assisted survey of the macroalgal flora (seaweeds) for comparison to published accounts for this area, which are based on morphological identifications. Further, because the Churchill region was covered by ice until recently (~10,000 before present), the current algal flora has had to migrate from adjacent waters into that region. We used our DNA barcode data to predict the relative contribution of the North Atlantic and North Pacific floras (Likely Source Region) in repopulating the Churchill region following the most recent glacial retreat. We processed 422 collections representing ~50 morpho-species, which is the approximate number reported for this region, and generated DNA barcode data for 346 of these. In contrast to the morpho-species count, we recovered 57 genetic groups indicating overlooked species (this despite failing to generate barcode data for six of the ~50 morpho-species). However, we additionally uncovered numerous inconsistencies between the species that are currently listed in the Churchill flora (again as a result of overlooked species diversity, but combined with taxonomic confusion) and those identified following our molecular analyses including eight new records and another 17 genetic complexes in need of further study. Based on a comparison of DNA barcode data from the Churchill flora to collections from the contiguous Atlantic and Pacific floras we estimate that minimally 21% (possibly as much as 44%) of the Churchill flora was established by migration from the Pacific region with the balance of species arriving from the Atlantic (predominantly North American populations) following the last glacial retreat. Owing to difficulties associated with the morphological identification of macroalgae, our results indicate that current comprehension of the Canadian Arctic flora is weak. We consider that morphology-based field

  7. Seasonal variation in the growth responses of some chlorophytic algal flora of the Red Sea

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    Abid Ali Ansari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in growth responses and antioxidant activities of four chlorophytic algal species, namely Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha flexuoca, Cladophora prolifera, Chaetomorpha linum was investigated. Seasonal variation in the physico-chemical characteristics of water at the study site of the Red Sea was also determined. A significant variation was observed in water quality parameters in different seasons. All the algal species show higher accumulation of photosynthetic and accessory pigments in July and October and a significant decrease in January. Higher NPK content in all the four algal species was recorded in July, however, the contents were low in other months. Total protein contents were higher in July and October. Total carbohydrates in U. lactuca and E. flexuoca were significantly higher in July but in the other two species, C. prolifera and C. linum, maximum accumulation was observed in October. Antioxidant activities in all the species were most significant in January as compared to the other months. All the chlorphytic algae show prominent growth responses and antioxidant activities and are better adapted to changing climatic conditions. Due to their prompt responses even to minor changes in aquatic environment, they can be used as ecological indicators in coastal marine ecosystems.

  8. Control of Water Pollution and Phytoplanktonic Algal Flora in Bayındır Dam Reservoir (Ankara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Atıcı

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Su kirliliğinin ve fitoplanktonik alg florasının Bayındır Baraj Gölü’nde kontrolü. Bu çalışmada Bayındır baraj gölü’nün bir plankton kepçesi ile toplanmış olan fitoplanktonik algleri Mart 2003 ve Aralık 2003 arasında incelendi. Toplam 76 fitoplankton türü saptandı. Bunların 13’ü Cyanophyta, 17’si Chlorophyta, 2’si Dinophyta, 6’sı Euglenophyta ve 38’i Bacillariophyta’ya aitti. Ayni periyotta, fiziksel ve kimyasal analizler ayrıca sürdürüldü ve türlerin bollukları ile varlıkları değerlendirildi ve böylece barajda kirliliğe toleranslı alg tiplerinin olduğu bulundu. Ayrıca, Ankara’ya içme suyu sağlayan baraj gölünün devamlılığı üzerine bazı öneriler getirildi

  9. Flora Luma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankjær, Raune; Kitel, Maggie

    2016-01-01

    Flora Luma is a plant controlled installation which detects the bioelectrical signals emitted from plants and displays them as animated light on freestanding amorphous objects.......Flora Luma is a plant controlled installation which detects the bioelectrical signals emitted from plants and displays them as animated light on freestanding amorphous objects....

  10. Algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghifard, Reza

    2013-11-01

    The world is facing energy crisis and environmental issues due to the depletion of fossil fuels and increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Growing microalgae can contribute to practical solutions for these global problems because they can harvest solar energy and capture CO2 by converting it into biofuel using photosynthesis. Microalgae are robust organisms capable of rapid growth under a variety of conditions including in open ponds or closed photobioreactors. Their reduced biomass compounds can be used as the feedstock for mass production of a variety of biofuels. As another advantage, their ability to accumulate or secrete biofuels can be controlled by changing their growth conditions or metabolic engineering. This review is aimed to highlight different forms of biofuels produced by microalgae and the approaches taken to improve their biofuel productivity. The costs for industrial-scale production of algal biofuels in open ponds or closed photobioreactors are analyzed. Different strategies for photoproduction of hydrogen by the hydrogenase enzyme of green algae are discussed. Algae are also good sources of biodiesel since some species can make large quantities of lipids as their biomass. The lipid contents for some of the best oil-producing strains of algae in optimized growth conditions are reviewed. The potential of microalgae for producing petroleum related chemicals or ready-make fuels such as bioethanol, triterpenic hydrocarbons, isobutyraldehyde, isobutanol, and isoprene from their biomass are also presented.

  11. Algal Biofuels | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    biofuels and bioproducts, Algal Research (2016) Process Design and Economics for the Production of Algal cyanobacteria, Nature Plants (2015) Acid-catalyzed algal biomass pretreatment for integrated lipid and nitrogen, we can indefinitely maintain the genetic state of the sample for future research in biofuels

  12. Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

  13. Harmful algal blooms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.; PrabhaDevi; DeSouza, L.; Verlecar, X.N.; Naik, C.G.

    as harmful algal bloom. Bloom formation is a natural process and it enhances biological productivity, but turns worrisome when caused by toxic species, leading to massive fish mortalities and hazards to human health. Incidences of'red tide' are increasing...

  14. Lichen flora of Derbyshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawksworth, D L

    1969-01-01

    The lichen flora of the central English county of Derbyshire is described and discussed. The distribution of each species is described with reference to 10 km grid squares. In areas where air pollution is severe, very few species are found, even if otherwise suitable habitants are available. Air pollution is therefore considered to be the dominant factor affecting the present lichen flora of the county. The lichen communities have been studied and nineteen unions belonging to eleven federations are recognized. Several species are discussed taxonomically. 182 references, 15 tables.

  15. The Ethiopian Flora Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demissew, Sebsebe; Brochmann, Christian; Kelbessa, Ensermu

    2011-01-01

    The account reviews and analyses the scietific projects derived from activities in connection with the Ethiopian Flora Project, including the [Ethiopian] Monocot Project, the Afro-alpine "Sky-island" project, the Vegetation and Ecological Conditions of Plantations Project, the Fire Ecology Projec...

  16. Flora of Egy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Francis

    L Boulos (Botany Department, Alexandria University) for critically reading the manuscript. REFERENCES. Abdallah M (1983) The vegetation of Gebel Elba. Unpublished report submitted to The Academy of Scientific Research and. Technology, Cairo. Abdallah M & Sa'ad FM (1975) Taxonomical studies in the flora of Egypt.

  17. Ethiopian flora project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hedberg

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available After thorough planning, an Ethiopian Flora Project has recently been initiated, financed by the Ethiopian Science and Technology Commission from a Swedish grant. The planning was effected by a working group including representatives of the Biology Department at Addis Ababa University and the Institute of Systematic Botany in Uppsala as well as some international experts selected by AETFAT, and was finalized by an Ethiopian Flora Committee. The project leader is Professor Tewolde Berhan G. Egziabher in Addis Ababa, assisted by an Ethiopian secretariat under the Director of the National Herbarium. A European counterpart secretariat, headed by the author, has also been organized with Dr I. Hedberg as co-ordinator. Collecting expeditions to insufficiently known areas, loans from the Addis Ababa Herbarium to collaborating taxonomists, and other activities inside Ethiopia are organized by the Ethiopian secretariat, whereas the Uppsala secretariat is responsible for the initiation and co-ordination of the taxonomic revisions and family accounts needed for the Flora. Collaborators for several of the roughly 200 families of Ethiopian vascular plants have already been secured, but many more remain to be covered. AETFAT members with specialist knowledge of the remaining families are requested to help fill the gaps in our list of contributors.

  18. Detection of surface algal blooms using the newly developed algorithm surface algal bloom index (SABI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawadi, Fahad

    2010-10-01

    Quantifying ocean colour properties has evolved over the past two decades from being able to merely detect their biological activity to the ability to estimate chlorophyll concentration using optical satellite sensors like MODIS and MERIS. The production of chlorophyll spatial distribution maps is a good indicator of plankton biomass (primary production) and is useful for the tracing of oceanographic currents, jets and blooms, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). Depending on the type of HABs involved and the environmental conditions, if their concentration rises above a critical threshold, it can impact the flora and fauna of the aquatic habitat through the introduction of the so called "red tide" phenomenon. The estimation of chlorophyll concentration is derived from quantifying the spectral relationship between the blue and the green bands reflected from the water column. This spectral relationship is employed in the standard ocean colour chlorophyll-a (Chlor-a) product, but is incapable of detecting certain macro-algal species that float near to or at the water surface in the form of dense filaments or mats. The ability to accurately identify algal formations that sometimes appear as oil spill look-alikes in satellite imagery, contributes towards the reduction of false-positive incidents arising from oil spill monitoring operations. Such algal formations that occur in relatively high concentrations may experience, as in land vegetation, what is known as the "red-edge" effect. This phenomena occurs at the highest reflectance slope between the maximum absorption in the red due to the surrounding ocean water and the maximum reflectance in the infra-red due to the photosynthetic pigments present in the surface algae. A new algorithm termed the surface algal bloom index (SABI), has been proposed to delineate the spatial distributions of floating micro-algal species like for example cyanobacteria or exposed inter-tidal vegetation like seagrass. This algorithm was

  19. Comparison of Acute Toxicity of Algal Metabolites Using Bioluminescence Inhibition Assay

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    Hansa Jeswani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are reported to degrade hazardous compounds. However, algae, especially cyanobacteria are known to produce secondary metabolites which may be toxic to flora, fauna and human beings. The aim of this study was selection of an appropriate algal culture for biological treatment of biomass gasification wastewater based on acute toxicity considerations. The three algae that were selected were Spirulina sp., Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium. Acute toxicity of the metabolites produced by these algal cultures was tested at the end of log phase using the standard bioluminescence inhibition assay based on Vibrio fischeri NRRLB 11174. Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium dominated by cyanobacteria such as Phormidium, Chroococcus and Oscillatoria did not release much toxic metabolites at the end of log phase and caused only about 20% inhibition in bioluminescence. In comparison, Spirulina sp. released toxic metabolites and caused 50% bioluminescence inhibition at 3/5 times dilution of the culture supernatant (EC50.

  20. FLORA OF MOLOCHNYI ESTUARY COASTS

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    Kolomiychuk V.P.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Present-day characteristic of the coastal flora of Molochnyi eastury is given, that is one of the largest estuaries in Ukraine, the shores and waters of which in 2009 became a part of the Pryazov’ya National Nature Park. The analysis of the main parameters of the flora is made. Rare component of the estuary coastal flora is characterized, further steps to conserve the nature of Pryazov’ya are proposed.

  1. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Sarisky-Reed, Valerie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  2. Advanced Algal Systems Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Research and development (R&D) on advanced algal biofuels and bioproducts presents an opportunity to sustainably expand biomass resource potential in the United States. The Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) Advanced Algal Systems Program is carrying out a long-term, applied R&D strategy to lower the costs of algal biofuel production by working with partners to develop revolutionary technologies and conduct crosscutting analyses to better understand the potential

  3. Irradiation mucositis and oral flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    1989-01-01

    This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

  4. Algal dermatitis in cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanong, Roy P E; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Curtis, Eric; Klinger, Ruth Ellen; Cichra, Mary E; Berzins, Ilze K

    2002-05-01

    Three varieties of a popular African cichlid aquarium species, Pseudotropheus zebra, from 2 tropical fish farms in east central Florida were submitted for diagnostic evaluation because of the development of multifocal green lesions. The percentage of infected fish in these populations varied from 5 to 60%. Fish were otherwise clinically normal. Microscopic examination of fresh and fixed lesions confirmed algal dermatitis, with light invasion of several internal organs in each group. A different alga was identified from each farm. Fish from farm A were infected with Chlorochytrium spp, whereas fish from farm B were infected with Scenedesmus spp. Because of the numbers of fish involved, bath treatments to remove the algae from affected fish from farm B were attempted, with different dosages of several common algaecides including copper sulfate pentahydrate, diuron, and sodium chloride. However, none of these treatments were successful, possibly because of the location of the algae under the scales and within the dermis, and also because of the sequestering effect of the granulomatous response. To our knowledge, this is the first report of algal dermatitis in ornamental cichlids, as well as the first report of Scenedesmus spp infection in any fish.

  5. Climate Change and Algal Blooms =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengpan

    Algal blooms are new emerging hazards that have had important social impacts in recent years. However, it was not very clear whether future climate change causing warming waters and stronger storm events would exacerbate the algal bloom problem. The goal of this dissertation was to evaluate the sensitivity of algal biomass to climate change in the continental United States. Long-term large-scale observations of algal biomass in inland lakes are challenging, but are necessary to relate climate change to algal blooms. To get observations at this scale, this dissertation applied machine-learning algorithms including boosted regression trees (BRT) in remote sensing of chlorophyll-a with Landsat TM/ETM+. The results show that the BRT algorithm improved model accuracy by 15%, compared to traditional linear regression. The remote sensing model explained 46% of the total variance of the ground-measured chlorophyll- a in the first National Lake Assessment conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency. That accuracy was ecologically meaningful to study climate change impacts on algal blooms. Moreover, the BRT algorithm for chlorophyll- a would not have systematic bias that is introduced by sediments and colored dissolved organic matter, both of which might change concurrently with climate change and algal blooms. This dissertation shows that the existing atmospheric corrections for Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery might not be good enough to improve the remote sensing of chlorophyll-a in inland lakes. After deriving long-term algal biomass estimates from Landsat TM/ETM+, time series analysis was used to study the relations of climate change and algal biomass in four Missouri reservoirs. The results show that neither temperature nor precipitation was the only factor that controlled temporal variation of algal biomass. Different reservoirs, even different zones within the same reservoir, responded differently to temperature and precipitation changes. These findings were further

  6. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    General information about the Flora project, the history of the scientific exploration of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, the natural vegetation, the regional diversity and endemism as reflected in the Flora, the use of wild and cultivated plants in the flora region, important scientific plant...

  7. Diatom flora of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoeman, FR

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available identity if the species presented, an illustrating them through the medium of the light, transmission and scanning electron microscopes. The latter is probably the most valuable contribution the Flora makes to diatomists...

  8. Sertula Florae Colombiae, VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Uribe Lorenzo

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available La preparación de un texto moderno que acompañe la publicación de las láminas de la Flora de la Real expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, ha hecho necesaria la recolección botánica intensiva, en las regiones que exploraron don JOSE CELESTINO MUTlS y sus compañeros.  Indispensable en algunos casos para la correcta interpretación de los icones, cuando los datos gráficos consignados por el artista son insuficientes para la determinación segura de la especie. Sólo el cotejo de la lámina con una planta viva y la posterior clasificación de ésta, ofrece seguridad en la determinación. Por otra parte, se logra así la proyección de nuestro trabajo actual en el ambiente y el medio en que se desarrolló el de Mutis y sus colaboradores.

  9. Ex situ Flora of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of living collections-based research and discovery has been a prominent feature throughout the history of evolution and advance of botanical science: such research is the core and soul of the botanical gardens. Currently, there are c. 162 Chinese botanical gardens, harboring c. 20,000 species in China. As an example of initiatives to utilize the garden cultivated flora to address plant diversity conservation and germplasm discovery for sustainable agriculture and the bio-industries, the Ex situ Flora of China project aims to catalog and document this mega-diversity of plants that are cultivated in the Chinese botanical gardens. The concept of Ex situ Flora of China is a complete new formulation of species, based on garden cultivated individuals and populations, to obtain better morphological descriptions, provide multi-purpose applicability and a fundamental data service that will support national bio-strategies and bio-industries. It emphasises integrative information, accurately collected from living collections across different Chinese botanical gardens, on biology, phenology, cultivation requirements and uses of plant resources, which are normally not available from traditional Floras based on herbarium specimens. The ex situ flora should provide better information coverage for taxonomy, biological and introduction and collection data and color photos of stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seed, as well as useful information of cultivation key points and main use of each plant. In general, the Ex situ Flora of China provides more useful information than the traditional Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. The project of Ex situ Flora of China is planned to be one of the most important initiatives of the plant diversity research platform for sustainable economic and social development in China.

  10. Algal Bloom: Boon or Bane?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Algal blooms occur in response to nutrient deplete or replete conditions. Nitrogen fixing forms proliferate under oligotrophic conditions when nutrient levels are low. Replete conditions in response to upwelling creates the most biologically...

  11. Microbial flora in orodental infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare the normal aerobic and anaerobic bacterial oral flora with flora from deep seated dental caries, gingivitis and adult periodontitis. All the samples belonging to both the control and study groups yielded microbes. Aerobe / Anaerobe ratio was high in normal flora (1.48 as compared to dental caries (0.9, gingivitis (0.72 and periodontitis (0.56. Ninety seven percent of orodental infections were polymicrobial and three or more microbes were found in 84% cases of study group as compared to 28% in controls. Streptococcus mutans and anaerobic lactobacilli were common in dental caries, Actinomyces and Peptostreptococcus spp. in gingivitis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis.

  12. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something or ...... have been mapped and it is already possible to recognize the hot-spots of biodiversity as these are linked to the centres of endemism. Determining the centres of diversity is an important and significant contribution to further conservation measures at the global level....

  13. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The objectives of this study are: to assess the significance of stabilisation of sediments by algae, in relation to the changes in hydrodynamic and sedimentological regimes arising from the construction of tidal power barrages; to identify a reliable and meaningful method of measuring the effectiveness, including duration, of algal binding on sediment stability, and to relate this method to other methods of measuring critical erosion velocity and sediment shear strength; to undertake a series of field experiments investigating the effect of algae on binding sediments and the parameters which could potentially influence such binding and to develop a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding. This report contains plates, figures and tables. (author)

  14. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The biogenic stabilisation of intertidal estuarine sediments by epipelic diatom films and the macrophyte Vaucheria was studied at three sites on the Severn Estuary. The cohesive strength meter (CSM) was developed to measure surface critical shear stress with varied algal density. A number of techniques have been used to determine the general in situ erodibility of cohesive estuarine sediments. The measurements of sediment shear strength and critical erosion velocity were investigated. Field experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of algae on binding sediments, and a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding was developed. (author)

  15. bacterial flora and antibiotic sensitivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purulent pelvic collections are common pathologies observed in contemporary gynaecological practice. They may originate from chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, from abortions or following normal deliveries. This study was designed to compare the bacterial flora in purulent pelvic collections obtained from HIV infected ...

  16. Annual report Foundation Flora Malesiana 1992

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Second Flora Malesiana Symposium — The highlight of the year was the Second Flora Malesiana Symposium. It was organized under the auspices of the Foundation Flora Malesiana (FFM) by Puslitbang Biologi of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) and the Fakultas Biologi of the Gadjah Mada

  17. Sapphire Energy - Integrated Algal Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Rebecca L. [Sapphire Energy, Inc., Columbus, NM (United States). Columbus Algal Biomass Farm; Tyler, Mike [Sapphire Energy, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-07-22

    Sapphire Energy, Inc. (SEI) is a leader in large-scale photosynthetic algal biomass production, with a strongly cohesive research, development, and operations program. SEI takes a multidiscipline approach to integrate lab-based strain selection, cultivation and harvest and production scale, and extraction for the production of Green Crude oil, a drop in replacement for traditional crude oil.. SEI’s technical accomplishments since 2007 have produced a multifunctional platform that can address needs for fuel, feed, and other higher value products. Figure 1 outlines SEI’s commercialization process, including Green Crude production and refinement to drop in fuel replacements. The large scale algal biomass production facility, the SEI Integrated Algal Biorefinery (IABR), was built in Luna County near Columbus, New Mexico (see fig 2). The extraction unit was located at the existing SEI facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico, approximately 95 miles from the IABR. The IABR facility was constructed on time and on budget, and the extraction unit expansion to accommodate the biomass output from the IABR was completed in October 2012. The IABR facility uses open pond cultivation with a proprietary harvesting method to produce algal biomass; this biomass is then shipped to the extraction facility for conversion to Green Crude. The operation of the IABR and the extraction facilities has demonstrated the critical integration of traditional agricultural techniques with algae cultivation knowledge for algal biomass production, and the successful conversion of the biomass to Green Crude. All primary unit operations are de-risked, and at a scale suitable for process demonstration. The results are stable, reliable, and long-term cultivation of strains for year round algal biomass production. From June 2012 to November 2014, the IABR and extraction facilities produced 524 metric tons (MT) of biomass (on a dry weight basis), and 2,587 gallons of Green Crude. Additionally, the IABR

  18. Algal Systems for Hydrogen Photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirardi, Maria L [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-08

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under the guidance of Drs. Michael Seibert (retired, Fellow Emeritus) and Maria Ghirardi (Fellow), led 15 years of research addressing the issue of algal H2 photoproduction. This project resulted in greatly increased rates and yields of algal hydrogen production; increased understanding of the H2 metabolism in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; expanded our knowledge of other physiological aspects relevant to sustained algal photosynthetic H2 production; led to the genetic identification, cloning and manipulation of algal hydrogenase genes; and contributed to a broader, fundamental understanding of the technical and scientific challenges to improving the conversion efficiencies in order to reach the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office’s targets. Some of the tangible results are: (i) 64 publications and 6 patents, (ii) international visibility to NREL, (iii) reinvigoration of national and international biohydrogen research, and (iv) research progress that helped stimulate new funding from other DOE and non-DOE programs, including the AFOSR and the DOE Office of Science.

  19. Bacterial flora of sturgeon fingerling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arani, A.S.; Mosahab, R.

    2008-01-01

    The study on microbial populations is a suitable tool to understand and apply control methods to improve the sanitary level of production in fish breeding and rearing centers, ensure health of sturgeon fingerlings at the time of their release into the rivers and also in the conversation and restoration of these valuable stocks in the Caspian Sea, Iran. A laboratory research based on Austin methods (Austin, B., Austin, D.A. 1993) was conducted for bacterial study on 3 sturgeon species naming A. persicus, A. stellatus and A. nudiventris during different growth stages. Bacterial flora of Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Edwardsiella, Staphylococcus, Proteus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas and Plesiomonas were determined. The factors which may induce changes in bacterial populations during different stages of fife are the followings: quality of water in rearing ponds, different conditions for growth stages, suitable time for colonization of bacterial flora in rearing pond, water temperature increase in fingerlings size and feeding condition. (author)

  20. Algal biofuels: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Gustavo B; Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production using microalgae is attractive in a number of respects. Here a number of pros and cons to using microalgae for biofuels production are reviewed. Algal cultivation can be carried out using non-arable land and non-potable water with simple nutrient supply. In addition, algal biomass productivities are much higher than those of vascular plants and the extractable content of lipids that can be usefully converted to biodiesel, triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be much higher than that of the oil seeds now used for first generation biodiesel. On the other hand, practical, cost-effective production of biofuels from microalgae requires that a number of obstacles be overcome. These include the development of low-cost, effective growth systems, efficient and energy saving harvesting techniques, and methods for oil extraction and conversion that are environmentally benign and cost-effective. Promising recent advances in these areas are highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Flora omanikud tülis / Inno Tähismaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tähismaa, Inno, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Valdusfirma AS-i Flora Kommerts kahe vähemusaktsionäri Rita Kulli ja Elar Kruusma tehingutest Flora gruppi kuuluvate AS-i Flora Vara ja AS-i Flora Liit varaga. Diagramm: Vähemusaktsionärid näitasid võimu. Lisa: Flora juhid. Vt. samas: Kalleim osa kinnisvara

  2. Lichen flora of Tomaszow Mazowiecki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydzak, J; Krysiak, K

    1970-01-01

    In Tomaszow Mazowiecki, a small town in Poland with the air highly contaminated with gases (SO/sub 2/, CS/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S), a flora of epiphytic and epilithic lichens is present. Lichens are not indicators of air pollution. They are indicators of a complex of microclimatic conditions that enable them to maintain a positive balance of assimilation and of respiratory processes in a given station within the town as well as in natural habitats. 58 references, 16 figures, 7 tables.

  3. GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COASTAL FLORA OF THE AZOV SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiychuk V. P.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative indicators of the coastal flora of the Azov Sea are presented. Geographical features of the flora of the region have been analyzed. The major endemic complexes of the flora being investigated are described.

  4. Spatiotemporal distribution of harmful algal flora in the tropical estuarine complex of Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pednekar, S.M.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Kerkar, V.

    sources, compo- sition, and consequences,” Estuaries, vol. 25, no. 4 B, pp. 704– 726, 2002. [38] H. W. Paerl, R. L. Dennis, and D. R. Whitall, “Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen: implications for nutrient over-enrich- ment of coastal waters,” Estuaries..., vol. 25, no. 4 B, pp. 677–693, 2002. [39]M.A.Mallin,M.R.McIver,H.A.Wells,D.C.Parsons,and V. L. Johnson, “Reversal of eutrophication following sewage treatment upgrades in the New River Estuary, North Car- olina,” Estuaries, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 750...

  5. Natural Vegetation of the Flora area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebsebe, Demissew; Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    A review article summarising the recent ideas about the natural vegetation in the area covered by the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea......A review article summarising the recent ideas about the natural vegetation in the area covered by the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  6. Anticancer Drugs from Marine Flora: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sithranga Boopathy, N.; Kathiresan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharide...

  7. The spatial and temporal dynamic of algal biomass associated with mangrove roots in Buenaventura bay pacific coast of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena Salamanca, Enrique Javier

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variation of biomass of mangrove associated macro algae growing on roots of Rhizophora mangle and pneumatophores of Avicennia. germinans were studied at three sampling stations in Buenaventura bay, Colombia, between November 1999 and September 2003. Eighteen species of algae were collected including nine Rhodophyceae, five Chlorophyceae and four Cyanophyta (Cyanobacteria). Four species dominated the algal flora and collectively contributed with 90 % of the total algal biomass. Bostrychia calliptera was the most dominant with 32 % of the total biomass, followed by Boodleopsis verticillata (26 %), Catenella impudica (18 %), and Caloglossa leprieurii (12 %) Algal biomass between seasons showed significant differences, with higher biomass found during the dry season compared to those of the rainy season. The algal biomass at the mouth of the estuary was significantly higher than that found in the inner areas of the estuary (annual means of 30.7 ± 10.8 vs. 13.8 ± 4.1 g m 2 respectively).Three well-defined vertical zones were observed, based on algal biomass

  8. Macromolecular synthesis in algal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, M.R.; Kikuchi, Tadatoshi

    1980-01-01

    The present paper is a review of our experimental results obtained previously on the macromolecular biosyntheses in the cells of blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans as a representative species of prokaryote, and also in those of three species of eukaryotic algae, i.e. Euglena gracilis strain Z, Chlamydomonas reinhardi, and Cyanidium caldarium. In these algal cells, the combined methods consisting of pulse-labelling using 32 P, 3 H- and 14 C-labelled precursors for macromolecules, of their chasing and of the use of inhibitors which block specifically the syntheses of macromolecules such as proteins, RNA and DNA in living cells were very effectively applied for the analyses of the regulatory mechanism in biosyntheses of macromolecules and of the mode of their assembly into the cell structure, especially organelle constituents. Rased on the results obtained thus, the following conclusions are reached: (1) the metabolic pool for syntheses of macromolecules in the cells of prokaryotic blue-green alga is limited to the small extent and such activities couple largely with the photosynthetic mechanism; (2) 70 S ribosomes in the blue-green algal cells are assembled on the surface of thylakoid membranes widely distributed in their cytoplasm; and (3) the cells of eukaryotic unicellular algae used here have biochemical characters specific for already differentiated enzyme system involving in transcription and translation machineries as the same as in higher organisms, but the control mechanism concerning with such macromolecule syntheses are different among each species. (author)

  9. NREL Algal Biofuels Projects and Partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights several algal biofuels research and development projects focused on improving the economics of the algal biofuels production process. These projects should serve as a foundation for the research efforts toward algae as a source of fuels and other chemicals.

  10. Primary production of edaphic algal communities in a Mississippi salt marsh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.J.; Moncreiff, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Primary production rates of edaphic algae associated with the sediments beneath four monospecific canopies of vascular plants were determined over an annual cycle in a Mississippi salt marsh. The edaphic algal flora was dominated by small, motile pennate diatoms. Algal production (as measured by 14 C uptake) was generally highest in spring-early summer and lowest in fall. Hourly rates ranged from a low of 1.4 mg C/m 2 in Juncus roemerianus Scheele to a high of 163 mg C/m 2 beneath the Scirpus olneyi Gray canopy. Stepwise multiple regressions identified a soil moisture index and chlorophyll a as the best environmental predictors of hourly production; light energy reaching the marsh surface and sediment and air temperature proved of little value. Adding the relative abundances of 33 diatom taxa to the set of independent variables only slightly increased R 2 ; however, virtually all variables selected were diatom taxa. R 2 was only 0.38 for the Spartina alterniflora Loisel. habitat but ranged from 0.70 to 0.87 for the remaining three vascular plant zones. Annual rates of algal production (g C/m 2 ) were estimated as follows: Juncus (28), Spartina (57), Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene (88), and Scirpus (151). The ratio of annual edaphic algal production to vascular plant net aerial production (EAP/VPP) was 10-12% for the first three habitats and 61% for Scirpus. Chlorophyll a concentrations, annual algal production rates, and EAP/VPP values were comparable to those determined in Texas, Delaware, and Massachusetts salt marshes but lower than those reported for Georgia and particularly California marshes

  11. Constraints to commercialization of algal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2013-09-10

    Production of algal crude oil has been achieved in various pilot scale facilities, but whether algal fuels can be produced in sufficient quantity to meaningfully displace petroleum fuels, has been largely overlooked. Limitations to commercialization of algal fuels need to be understood and addressed for any future commercialization. This review identifies the major constraints to commercialization of transport fuels from microalgae. Algae derived fuels are expensive compared to petroleum derived fuels, but this could change. Unfortunately, improved economics of production are not sufficient for an environmentally sustainable production, or its large scale feasibility. A low-cost point supply of concentrated carbon dioxide colocated with the other essential resources is necessary for producing algal fuels. An insufficiency of concentrated carbon dioxide is actually a major impediment to any substantial production of algal fuels. Sustainability of production requires the development of an ability to almost fully recycle the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients that are necessary for algae culture. Development of a nitrogen biofixation ability to support production of algal fuels ought to be an important long term objective. At sufficiently large scale, a limited supply of freshwater will pose a significant limitation to production even if marine algae are used. Processes for recovering energy from the algal biomass left after the extraction of oil, are required for achieving a net positive energy balance in the algal fuel oil. The near term outlook for widespread use of algal fuels appears bleak, but fuels for niche applications such as in aviation may be likely in the medium term. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microalgae to boost production of fuel oil and ease its recovery, are essential for commercialization of algal fuels. Algae will need to be genetically modified for improved photosynthetic efficiency in the long term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Anticancer drugs from marine flora: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithranga Boopathy, N; Kathiresan, K

    2010-01-01

    Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharides. The chemicals have displayed an array of pharmacological properties especially antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and antitumour activities. The phytochemicals possibly activate macrophages, induce apoptosis, and prevent oxidative damage of DNA, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. In spite of vast resources enriched with chemicals, the marine floras are largely unexplored for anticancer lead compounds. Hence, this paper reviews the works so far conducted on this aspect with a view to provide a baseline information for promoting the marine flora-based anticancer research in the present context of increasing cancer incidence, deprived of the cheaper, safer, and potent medicines to challenge the dreadful human disease.

  13. Sustainable Algal Energy Production and Environmental Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, William E. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2012-07-14

    Overall, our results confirm that wild algal species sequester a wide range of organic and metal contaminants and excess nutrients (PAHs, trace metals, and nutrients) from natural waters, and suggest parameters that could be useful in predicting uptake rates for algae growing on an algal floway or other algal growth systems in the environment or in industrial processes. The implication for various fuel production processes differ with the detailed unit operations involved, and these results will be of use in the developing of scaling experiments for various types of engineering process designs.

  14. Exploring the Utilization of Complex Algal Communities to Address Algal Pond Crash and Increase Annual Biomass Production for Algal Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Cyd E. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States).

    2014-03-25

    This white paper briefly reviews the research literature exploring complex algal communities as a means of increasing algal biomass production via increased tolerance, resilience, and resistance to a variety of abiotic and biotic perturbations occurring within harvesting timescales. This paper identifies what data are available and whether more research utilizing complex communities is needed to explore the potential of complex algal community stability (CACS) approach as a plausible means to increase biomass yields regardless of ecological context and resulting in decreased algal-based fuel prices by reducing operations costs. By reviewing the literature for what we do and do not know, in terms of CACS methodologies, this report will provide guidance for future research addressing pond crash phenomena.

  15. Flora asociada a sitios minados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisel Herrero-Hechavarría

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En Ocujal de Mayarí, provincia Holguín, se realizó una investigación con el objetivo de conocer en qué medida se recupera la biodiversidad y el endemismo por medio de la flora asociada a sitios minados, recultivados después de sustituir plantaciones de Casuarina equisetifolia. Para su ejecución se talaron en áreas minadas parcelas de Casuarina (especie pionera de 4, 6, 7 y 9 años de edad para poner en su lugar Pinus cubensis, la especie autóctona del sitio. Se realizó una medición detallada del sotobosque en las distintas parcelas replicadas de pino, en las cuales se identificaron las especies en los diferentes estratos, así como la cantidad de individuos por especie y familias, al igual que otros datos de interés: endemismo, distribución y forma vital.

  16. Climate Adaptation and Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA supports local, state and tribal efforts to maintain water quality. A key element of its efforts is to reduce excess nutrient pollution and the resulting adverse impacts, including harmful algal blooms.

  17. Detecting the Killer Toxin (Harmful Algal Blooms)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    IAEA is stepping up efforts to help countries understand the phenomenon and use more reliable methods for early detection and monitoring so as to limit harmful algal blooms (HABs) adverse effects on coastal communities everywhere.

  18. Gasification of Phycoremediation Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Sharara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been utilized in wastewater treatment strategies in various contexts. Uncontrolled algal species are a cheap and effective remediation strategy. This study investigates the thermochemical potential of wastewater treatment algae (phycoremediation as a means to produce renewable fuel streams and bio-products. Three gasification temperature levels were investigated in an auger gasification platform: 760, 860, and 960 °C. Temperature increases resulted in corresponding increases in CO and H2 concentrations in the producer gas from 12.8% and 4.7% at 760 °C to 16.9% and 11.4% at 960 °C, respectively. Condensable yields ranged between 15.0% and 16.6%, whereas char yields fell between 46.0% and 51.0%. The high ash content (40% on a dry basis was the main cause of the elevated char yields. On the other hand, the relatively high yields of condensables and a high carbon concentration in the char were attributed to the low conversion efficiency in this gasification platform. Combustion kinetics of the raw algae, in a thermogravimetric analyzer, showed three consecutive stages of weight loss: drying, devolatilization, and char oxidation. Increasing the algae gasification temperature led to increases in the temperature of peak char oxidation. Future studies will further investigate improvements to the performance of auger gasification.

  19. Tonsillar Surface Micro Flora: Does it Truly Represent Pathological Tonsillar Flora?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Syed Nadeem Ul; Ayub, Zeeshan; Ahmed, Azeema

    2017-01-01

    To determine the best method of identifying core tonsillar flora. Quasi-experimental study. ENT Department, Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from September 2013 to October 2015. Eighty-seven patients of recurrent tonsillitis undergoing tonsillectomy were included. All the patients, after being anaesthetised, had surface swabs taken from the tonsillar surface followed by tonsillar aspiration with a 5cc syringe. Following tonsillectomy, the tonsils were sent for culture of core flora. All three specimens from each patient were cultured according to established criteria. The patient population had 33 (37%) female and 54 (62%) male patients. Flora of 12 (13.8%) surface swabs and 68 (78.2%) tonsillar aspirates matched the flora cultured from core of the tonsils. Chi-square test showed this difference to be significant (p-value flora as compared to surface swabs.

  20. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Abodeely; Daniel Stevens; Allison Ray; Debor

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  1. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  2. Composition and characteristics of Libyan flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition, life forms and the distribution of plants in Libya were studied. The results show that in Libya there are 2103 species that belong to 856 genera and 155 families. The distribution among Libyan seed plants was characterized by a high proportion of herbs (annual to perennial, unlike the low number of woody (tree and shrub species; these have an important influence on the structure of floral composition. The geographic element of the flora was predominantly tropical and Mediterranean. The local plants belong to representative tropical desert flora. The presence and distribution characteristics of flora in Libya show that climate, environmental condition, ecological amplitude and adaptive capacity of the plants have a determinative influence on the floristic stock in the area studies.

  3. Changes of flora-information over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Changes in Flora-information over time can be divided into three different categories: (1) “Real changes” (species enter the region by natural dispersal or become extinct). (2) “Floristic changes” (species known from elsewhere are discovered). (3) “Taxonomic changes” (species are discovered...... to the Linnaean methods, but these methods were also applied to the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea before the end of the 18th century. An intensive activity involving floristic and taxonomic changes took place in Ethiopia and Eritrea in the 19th century, particularly before ca. 1850, after which a period....... Recent studies of the Orchidaceae family in Scandinavia has demonstrated considerable changes in our information about that family in Scandinavia during the last 50 years, both real, floristic and taxonomic changes. Similar, or even greater, changes are to be expected in the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  4. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerasimyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis Keywords: cemeteries, Odessa, flora, plants, ekobiomorphs.

  5. Flora-On: Occurrence data of the vascular flora of mainland Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Júlia; Francisco, Ana; Porto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Flora-On dataset currently includes 253,310 occurrence records for the class Embryopsidae (vascular plants), comprising data collated via the platform http://flora-on.pt/ relating to observation records of vascular plants across mainland Portugal. Observations are uploaded directly to the database primarily by experienced botanists and naturalists, typically on a weekly basis, and consist of geo-referenced data points for species (or infraspecific taxa) along with their date of observation and phenological state. The Flora-On project aims to compile and make publicly accessible chorological, ecological, morphological and photographic information for the entire vascular flora of Portugal. The project's website offers powerful query and visualization capabilities, of which we highlight the probabilistic bioclimatic and phenological queries which operate based on the empirical density distributions of species in those variables. Flora-On was created and continues to be maintained by volunteers who are Associate members of Sociedade Portuguesa de Botânica (Botanical Society of Portugal). Given its focus on research-grade and current data, the Flora-On project represents a significant contribution to the knowledge of the present distribution and status of the Portuguese flora.

  6. Contributo alla conoscenza della flora lichenica epifitica dell'Umbria

    OpenAIRE

    Ravera, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    CONTRIBUTION TO THE EPIPHYTIC LICHEN FLORA OF UMBRIA (C. ITALY). 47 species of epiphytic lichens are reported as additions to the poorly known lichen flora of Umbria. The ecology and distribution of selected species are discussed.

  7. Algal Biology Toolbox Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-08-01

    DOE-EERE's Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) works to accelerate the development of a sustainable, cost-competitive, advanced biofuel industry that can strengthen U.S. energy security, environmental quality, and economic vitality, through research, development, and demonstration projects in partnership with industry, academia, and national laboratory partners. BETO’s Advanced Algal Systems Program (also called the Algae Program) has a long-term applied research and development (R&D) strategy to increase the yields and lower the costs of algal biofuels. The team works with partners to develop new technologies, to integrate technologies at commercially relevant scales, and to conduct crosscutting analyses to better understand the potential and challenges of the algal biofuels industry. Research has indicated that this industry is capable of producing billions of gallons of renewable diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels annually. R&D activities are integrated with BETO’s longstanding effort to accelerate the commercialization of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  8. Algal recycling enhances algal productivity and settleability in Pediastrum boryanum pure cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jason B K; Craggs, Rupert J; Shilton, Andy N

    2015-12-15

    Recycling a portion of gravity harvested algae (i.e. algae and associated bacteria biomass) has been shown to improve both algal biomass productivity and harvest efficiency by maintaining the dominance of a rapidly-settleable colonial alga, Pediastrum boryanum in both pilot-scale wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP) and outdoor mesocosms. While algal recycling did not change the relative proportions of algae and bacteria in the HRAP culture, the contribution of the wastewater bacteria to the improved algal biomass productivity and settleability with the recycling was not certain and still required investigation. P. boryanum was therefore isolated from the HRAP and grown in pure culture on synthetic wastewater growth media under laboratory conditions. The influence of recycling on the productivity and settleability of the pure P. boryanum culture was then determined without wastewater bacteria present. Six 1 L P. boryanum cultures were grown over 30 days in a laboratory growth chamber simulating New Zealand summer conditions either with (Pr) or without (Pc) recycling of 10% of gravity harvested algae. The cultures with recycling (Pr) had higher algal productivity than the controls (Pc) when the cultures were operated at both 4 and 3 d hydraulic retention times by 11% and 38% respectively. Furthermore, algal recycling also improved 1 h settleability from ∼60% to ∼85% by increasing the average P. boryanum colony size due to the extended mean cell residence time and promoted formation of large algal bio-flocs (>500 μm diameter). These results demonstrate that the presence of wastewater bacteria was not necessary to improve algal productivity and settleability with algal recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Protein synthesis and intestinal flora in piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namioka, Shigeo

    1980-01-01

    Utilization of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) by the flora in piglet colon was studied by administration of 15 N-urea and 15 N-ammonium salt to aseptic piglets and to SPF piglets which had been acclimatized to a clean environment after settling of intestinal flora. Administration of 15 N-urea did not result in 15 N uptake by any tissue-constituting protein at any site of the aseptic piglets, almost all 15 N being excreted into the urine. In contrast, the tissue and skeletal muscle of the SPF piglets showed incorporated 15 N from urea. Urea was converted, by urease of the intestinal flora, into NH 3 , which was absorbed from the mucosa of the intestinal tract to reach the liver where it was synthesized into glutamic acid, followed by conversion into various amino acids. 15 N-ammonium administration produced a significant amount of 15 N even in the tissue protein of the aseptic piglets. After NPN administration, the liver protein-constituting amino acid fraction showed 15 N-labeling of almost all essential, as well as non-essential amino acids. Culture of colonic flora with 15 N-urea revealed 15 N-labeling of all amino acids that constituted bacterial cells, indicating the presence of urea recycling mediated by bacterial urease in single rumen animals.(Chiba, N.)

  10. Mariene flora en fauna te boek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.W.; Gittenberger, A.

    2006-01-01

    Het aantal boeken over de Nederlandse flora en fauna neemt gestaag toe. En ook de afgelopen jaren zijn er weer aardig wat nieuwe titels uitgekomen over het Nederlandse zeeleven. Op deze pagina's vier van die boeken. Eerder, in de Onderwatersport van april 2005, is ook al een aantal titels

  11. LACTIC FLORA-LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Colombo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The EC Regulation 2073/2005 (1 requires that food processors evaluate the capability of ready-to-use (RTE products to support the development of Listeria monocytogenes when their pH and aW values are favourable to the growth of this microorganism. It is renown that the lactic flora plays an important role in many different foods, both from a technological and a food safety standpoint. This study was aimed to observe the behaviour and the potential anti-Listeria effect of some natural lactic flora present in Italian liver patè crostini (chicken heart and liver, anchovies, onions, capers, starch, no added preservatives through the Combase Predictor – Max Growth Rate predictive software. The natural lactic flora of the crostini demonstrated a variable capability to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes which depends upon : the concentration of the lactic flora at the beginning of the shelf life period and the subsequent lag phase, the possible release of anti-Listeria substances, and the maximum growth rate.

  12. De flora van het Urbaan district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, Ton

    1999-01-01

    The urban areas in the Netherlands can be considered as a separate flora district; the so-called “Urban district”. It consists of large stony areas, with a “steppe”-like environment and a deviant climate. Characteristic for urban areas are often disturbed and trampled communities of ruderals and

  13. Globalization of flora: inviting worldwide ecosystem disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey

    2002-01-01

    Meeting the needs of expanding human populations has changed land use worldwide and presented a biodiversity crisis. Emerging related concerns are threats to native species from homogenization of world flora and the spread of exotic species by human activities (Soule 1990, United States Congress, Office of Technology Assessment 1993, Wilcove and others 1998, Soule and...

  14. Microbial Flora of Partially Processed Periwinkles (Tympantotonus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of microbial flora of partially processed periwinkles (Tympanotonus fuscatus) sold in six markets in Port Harcourt was undertaken for twelve weeks. Results show that all samples of periwinkles were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Escherichia coil, Staphepidermidis sp., Micrococcus sp., ...

  15. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease. Inhibits pathogenic enteric bacteria. Decrease luminal pH; Secrete bacteriocidal proteins; Colonization resistance; Block epithelial binding – induce MUC2. Improves epithelial and mucosal barrier integrity. Produce ...

  16. Naturalized alien flora of the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan; Essl, Franz; Lenzner, Bernd; Dawson, Wayne; Kreft, Holger; Weigelt, Patrick; Winter, Marten; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Antonova, Liubov A.; Barcelona, Julie F.; Cabezas, Francisco J.; Cárdenas, Dairon; Cárdenas-Toro, Juliana; Castaño, Nicolás; Chacón, Eduardo; Chatelain, Cyrille; Dullinger, Stefan; Ebel, Aleksandr L.; Figueiredo, Estrela; Fuentes, Nicol; Genovesi, Piero; Groom, Quentin J.; Henderson, Lesley; Inderjit,; Kupriyanov, Andrey; Masciadri, Silvana; Maurel, Noëlie; Meerman, Jan; Morozova, Olga; Moser, Dietmar; Nickrent, Daniel L.; Nowak, Pauline M.; Pagad, Shyama; Patzelt, Annette; Pelser, Pieter B.; Seebens, Hanno; Shu, Wen Sheng; Thomas, Jacob; Velayos, Mauricio; Weber, Ewald; Wieringa, Jan J.; Baptiste, María P.; Kleunen, Van Mark

    2017-01-01

    Using the recently built Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) database, containing data on the distribution of naturalized alien plants in 483 mainland and 361 island regions of the world, we describe patterns in diversity and geographic distribution of naturalized and invasive plant species,

  17. A new way of editing a flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van der W.J.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Akoègninou, A.; Yédomonhan, H.

    2010-01-01

    Modern electronic tools have become common tools of most scientists. Flora writers and other botanists producing large manuscripts with a certain fixed structure may go even further and use the so-called Mail Merge option in a word processor such as Microsoft Word™. This tool allows structuring a

  18. Anticancer Drugs from Marine Flora: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sithranga Boopathy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharides. The chemicals have displayed an array of pharmacological properties especially antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and antitumour activities. The phytochemicals possibly activate macrophages, induce apoptosis, and prevent oxidative damage of DNA, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. In spite of vast resources enriched with chemicals, the marine floras are largely unexplored for anticancer lead compounds. Hence, this paper reviews the works so far conducted on this aspect with a view to provide a baseline information for promoting the marine flora-based anticancer research in the present context of increasing cancer incidence, deprived of the cheaper, safer, and potent medicines to challenge the dreadful human disease.

  19. Does circumcision alter the periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised boys and to evaluate the effect of circumcision on alteration of periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora. Materials and Methods: Pattern of periurethral bacterial flora before and after circumcision was studied ...

  20. User's manual for the FLORA equilibrium and stability code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freis, R.P.; Cohen, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This document provides a user's guide to the content and use of the two-dimensional axisymmetric equilibrium and stability code FLORA. FLORA addresses the low-frequency MHD stability of long-thin axisymmetric tandem mirror systems with finite pressure and finite-larmor-radius effects. FLORA solves an initial-value problem for interchange, rotational, and ballooning stability

  1. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis

  2. Arctic biogeography: The paradox of the marine benthic fauna and flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, K

    1992-06-01

    The marine benthic fauna and flora that inhabit the shallow arctic sublittoral zone comprise a relatively young marine assemblage characterized by species of either Pacific or Atlantic affinity and notably few endemics. The young character of nearshore arctic communities, as well as their biogeographical composition, is largely a product of the Pleistocene glaciation. However, analysis of more recent collections and comparison between the origins of the benthic fauna and flora present some interesting paradoxes to biogeographers. One enigma is the low frequency of algal species with Pacific affinities in the Arctic, especially in the Chukchi, Beaufort and East Siberian Seas of the Eastern Arctic, which receive direct inputs of northward-flowing Pacific waters. In contrast, animal species with Pacific affinities are found throughout the nearshore regions of the Arctic, reaching their highest frequency in the marginal seas between the New Siberian Islands and the Canadian Archipelago. Organization of published and unpublished data, additional field collections, and the use of cladistics and molecular DNA techniques by systematists are a high priority for future research in reconstructing the evolution of the arctic biotic assemblage. Copyright © 1992. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Resolving Mixed Algal Species in Hyperspectral Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrube Mehrubeoglu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a lab-based hyperspectral imaging system’s response from pure (single and mixed (two algal cultures containing known algae types and volumetric combinations to characterize the system’s performance. The spectral response to volumetric changes in single and combinations of algal mixtures with known ratios were tested. Constrained linear spectral unmixing was applied to extract the algal content of the mixtures based on abundances that produced the lowest root mean square error. Percent prediction error was computed as the difference between actual percent volumetric content and abundances at minimum RMS error. Best prediction errors were computed as 0.4%, 0.4% and 6.3% for the mixed spectra from three independent experiments. The worst prediction errors were found as 5.6%, 5.4% and 13.4% for the same order of experiments. Additionally, Beer-Lambert’s law was utilized to relate transmittance to different volumes of pure algal suspensions demonstrating linear logarithmic trends for optical property measurements.

  4. Sustainability of algal biofuel production using integrated renewable energy park (IREP) and algal biorefinery approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhadra, Bobban G.

    2010-01-01

    Algal biomass can provide viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel. However, for a mature commercial industry to develop, sustainability as well as technological and economic issues pertinent to algal biofuel sector must be addressed first. This viewpoint focuses on three integrated approaches laid out to meet these challenges. Firstly, an integrated algal biorefinery for sequential biomass processing for multiple high-value products is delineated to bring in the financial sustainability to the algal biofuel production units. Secondly, an integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for amalgamating various renewable energy industries established in different locations. This would aid in synergistic and efficient electricity and liquid biofuel production with zero net carbon emissions while obviating numerous sustainability issues such as productive usage of agricultural land, water, and fossil fuel usage. A 'renewable energy corridor' rich in multiple energy sources needed for algal biofuel production for deploying IREPs in the United States is also illustrated. Finally, the integration of various industries with algal biofuel sector can bring a multitude of sustainable deliverables to society, such as renewable supply of cheap protein supplements, health products and aquafeed ingredients. The benefits, challenges, and policy needs of the IREP approach are also discussed.

  5. Algal MIPs, high diversity and conserved motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderberg, Hanna I; Danielson, Jonas Å H; Johanson, Urban

    2011-04-21

    Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) also named aquaporins form channels facilitating the passive transport of water and other small polar molecules across membranes. MIPs are particularly abundant and diverse in terrestrial plants but little is known about their evolutionary history. In an attempt to investigate the origin of the plant MIP subfamilies, genomes of chlorophyte algae, the sister group of charophyte algae and land plants, were searched for MIP encoding genes. A total of 22 MIPs were identified in the nine analysed genomes and phylogenetic analyses classified them into seven subfamilies. Two of these, Plasma membrane Intrinsic Proteins (PIPs) and GlpF-like Intrinsic Proteins (GIPs), are also present in land plants and divergence dating support a common origin of these algal and land plant MIPs, predating the evolution of terrestrial plants. The subfamilies unique to algae were named MIPA to MIPE to facilitate the use of a common nomenclature for plant MIPs reflecting phylogenetically stable groups. All of the investigated genomes contained at least one MIP gene but only a few species encoded MIPs belonging to more than one subfamily. Our results suggest that at least two of the seven subfamilies found in land plants were present already in an algal ancestor. The total variation of MIPs and the number of different subfamilies in chlorophyte algae is likely to be even higher than that found in land plants. Our analyses indicate that genetic exchanges between several of the algal subfamilies have occurred. The PIP1 and PIP2 groups and the Ca2+ gating appear to be specific to land plants whereas the pH gating is a more ancient characteristic shared by all PIPs. Further studies are needed to discern the function of the algal specific subfamilies MIPA-E and to fully understand the evolutionary relationship of algal and terrestrial plant MIPs.

  6. Algal MIPs, high diversity and conserved motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanson Urban

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs also named aquaporins form channels facilitating the passive transport of water and other small polar molecules across membranes. MIPs are particularly abundant and diverse in terrestrial plants but little is known about their evolutionary history. In an attempt to investigate the origin of the plant MIP subfamilies, genomes of chlorophyte algae, the sister group of charophyte algae and land plants, were searched for MIP encoding genes. Results A total of 22 MIPs were identified in the nine analysed genomes and phylogenetic analyses classified them into seven subfamilies. Two of these, Plasma membrane Intrinsic Proteins (PIPs and GlpF-like Intrinsic Proteins (GIPs, are also present in land plants and divergence dating support a common origin of these algal and land plant MIPs, predating the evolution of terrestrial plants. The subfamilies unique to algae were named MIPA to MIPE to facilitate the use of a common nomenclature for plant MIPs reflecting phylogenetically stable groups. All of the investigated genomes contained at least one MIP gene but only a few species encoded MIPs belonging to more than one subfamily. Conclusions Our results suggest that at least two of the seven subfamilies found in land plants were present already in an algal ancestor. The total variation of MIPs and the number of different subfamilies in chlorophyte algae is likely to be even higher than that found in land plants. Our analyses indicate that genetic exchanges between several of the algal subfamilies have occurred. The PIP1 and PIP2 groups and the Ca2+ gating appear to be specific to land plants whereas the pH gating is a more ancient characteristic shared by all PIPs. Further studies are needed to discern the function of the algal specific subfamilies MIPA-E and to fully understand the evolutionary relationship of algal and terrestrial plant MIPs.

  7. Algal Toxins Alter Copepod Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A.; Waggett, Rebecca J.; Place, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod’s feeding appendages–a “sampling beating” that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration “grazing beating” that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod’s grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod’s feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  8. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Hong

    Full Text Available Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  9. Some factors effecting algal consumption in subarctic Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Simuliidae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the factors influencing algal consumption in the mayflies Leptophlebia nebulosa, Cinygmula tarda, Baetis foemina and B. cf. bicaudatus, the plecopterans Arcynopteryx signata, Nemoura cinctipes and N. oregonensis and in the dipterans Simulium arcticum, S. venustum and S. decorum were investigated between June 1975 and June 1976 in several streams in the Canadian subarctic. Algae represented up to 65% of the gut contents of L. nebulosa but only 0--8% in the other mayflies. They were important in the plecopterans (85--90%) but less so (2--13%) in the simuliids. Most of the interspecies variability in algal consumption could be explained in terms of food availability. This factor was in turn dependent on the density and attachment characteristics of the flora and the strength of their cell wall. Feeding intensity in most species was low between October and April, reaching it peak in July and August. From 51 to 83% of intraspecies feeding variability was due to changing temperature, followed in importance by water velocity in the dipterans and food availability in the mayflies. All species in this latter group ceased feeding in the final instar stages.

  10. Observations on algal populations in an experimental maturation pond system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shillinglaw, SN

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available ?) of influent (HTE) and secondary pond. The arrows indicate the beginning of the noled algal concentration declines. 190 Water SA Vol. 3 No. 4 October 1977 intermittent presence of some factor which suppresses algal growth and/or removes algal cells from... the system at a very rapid rate. Another possibility is that an algal growth suppres sor is almost continuously present and only when the suppres sing factor is intermittently ahsent, do the algal concentrations exhihit a peak. Based on the results...

  11. HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. V.K. Umrao, VKU

    2017-01-01

    The HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS), is an international-peer reviewed, open access journal that serves as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of R & D advances and innovations in all facets of Horticultural Science (Pomology, Olericulture, Floriculture, Post Harvest Technology, Plant Biotechnology, and Medicinal & Aromatic Plants etc.) and its allied branches on an international level. HRS is officially published quarterly (March, June, September and December) every year, in Engl...

  12. Abstracts: HortFlora Res. Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Umrao, Dr. V.K.

    2014-01-01

    Overview The HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS), is an international-peer reviewed, open access journal that serves as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of R & D advances and innovations in all facets of Horticultural Science (Pomology, Olericulture, Floriculture, Post Harvest Technology, Plant Biotechnology, and Medicinal & Aromatic Plants etc.) and its allied branches on an international level. HRS is officially published quarterly (March, June, September and December) every y...

  13. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  14. Aportaciones a la flora de Galicia, VIII

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Vigide, F.; García Martínez, X.R.; Silva Pando, F.J.; González Domínguez, J.; Blanco Dios, J.B.; Rodríguez González, A.; Rial Pousa, S.; Álvarez Graña, D.; Caamaño Portela, J.L.; Pino Pérez, J.J.; Pino Pérez, R.

    2006-01-01

    Se citan 37 plantas de variado interés para la flora gallega. Se incluyen 8 novedades de carácter regional (Pteris incompleta Cav., Potentilla recta L., Myriophyllum spicatum L., Solanum sisymbrifolium Lam., Knautia integrifolia (L.) Bertol., Senecio inaequidens DC. Melica arrecta G. Kunze y Stipa clausa Trab.), 17 novedades provinciales (Vandenboschia speciosa (Willd.) G. Kunkel, Ranunculus bupleuroides Brot., Silene niceensis All., Armeria transmontana (Samp.) Lawr., Alcea rosea...

  15. Hamiguitan Range: A sanctuary for native flora

    OpenAIRE

    Amoroso, Victor B.; Aspiras, Reyno A.

    2010-01-01

    Hamiguitan Range is one of the wildlife sanctuaries in the Philippines having unique biodiversity resources that are at risk due to forest degradation and conversion of forested land to agriculture, shifting cultivation, and over-collection. Thus, it is the main concern of this research to identify and assess the endemic and endangered flora of Hamiguitan Range. Field reconnaissance and transect walk showed five vegetation types namely: agro-ecosystem, dipterocarp, montane, typical mossy and ...

  16. The flora of Oktibbeha County, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidolf, A.; McDaniel, S.; Nuttle, T.

    2002-01-01

    We surveyed the flora of Oktibbeha County, Mississippi, U.S.A., from February 1994 to 1996. Occupying 118 square kilometers in east-central Mississippi, Oktibbeha County lies among 3 physiographic regions that include, from west to east, Interior Flatwoods, Pontotoc Ridge, and Black Prairie. Accordingly, the county harbors a diverse flora. Based on field work, as well as an extensive review of published literature and herbarium records at IBE and MISSA, we recorded a total of 1,148 taxa (1,125 species, 7 hybrids, 16 infraspecific taxa) belonging to 514 genera in 160 families, over 85% of all taxa documented were native. Compared to 3 other counties in east-central Mississippi, Oktibbeha County has the second largest recorded flora. The number of state-listed (endangered, threatened, or of special concern) taxa (67) documented in this survey far exceeds that reported from any other county in the region. Three introduced species, Ilex cornuta Lindl. & Paxton, Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Carrie??re, and Nandina domestica Thunb., are reported in a naturalized state for the first time from Mississippi. We also describe 16 different plant communities belonging to 5 broad habitat categories: bottomland forests, upland forests and prairies, aquatic habitats, seepage areas, and human-influenced habitats. A detailed description of the vegetation associated with each of these communities is provided.

  17. Conjunctival bacterial flora in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmun Nahar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctival flora refers to population of microorganisms that dwell within the eyes of healthy individuals and is important in maintaining a healthy ocular surface and normal conjunctival function. Conjunctival flora may be altered by a variety of factors that include age, immunosuppression and geography. Immune function is compromised in diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to see the pattern of conjunctival bacterial flora in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. This cross sectional study was carried out in BSMMU during the period of January 2011 to December 2011. Total 500 conjunctival swabs were collected from both eyes of 50 diabetic patients attending OPD of Endocrinology Department of BSMMU and 200 non-diabetic individuals. Significant number of culture was positive in diabetic patients (64.0% compared to that of non-diabetic individuals (38.0%. Staphylococcus epidermidis was predominant in both study groups (diabetic vs non-diabetic: 41.3% vs 65.26%. Staphylococcus aureus (15.22%, Escherichia coli (6.52% and Enterobacter (8.33% were isolated in diabetic patients. Rate of positive culture in both and single eyes were higher in diabetic (28%, 36.0% than that of non-diabetic individuals (9.5%, 28.5%. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2013; 7(1: 5-8

  18. Vaginal microbial flora and outcome of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Laura; Di Vico, Augusto; Nucci, Marta; Quagliozzi, Lorena; Spagnuolo, Terryann; Labianca, Antonietta; Bracaglia, Marina; Ianniello, Francesca; Caruso, Alessandro; Paradisi, Giancarlo

    2010-04-01

    The vaginal microflora of a healthy asymptomatic woman consists of a wide variety of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and species dominated by the facultative, microaerophilic, anaerobic genus Lactobacillus. The activity of Lactobacillus is essential to protect women from genital infections and to maintain the natural healthy balance of the vaginal flora. Increasing evidence associates abnormalities in vaginal flora during pregnancy with preterm labor and delivery with potential neonatal sequelae due to prematurity and poor perinatal outcome. Although this phenomenon is relatively common, even in populations of women at low risk for adverse events, the pathogenetic mechanism that leads to complications in pregnancy is still poorly understood. This review summarizes the current knowledge and uncertainties in defining alterations of vaginal flora in non-pregnant adult women and during pregnancy, and, in particular, investigates the issue of bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis. This could help specialists to identify women amenable to treatment during pregnancy leading to the possibility to reduce the preterm birth rate, preterm premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, neonatal, puerperal and maternal-fetal infectious diseases. Vaginal ecosystem study with the detection of pathogens is a key instrument in the prevention of preterm delivery, pPROM, chorioamnionitis, neonatal, puerperal and maternal-fetal infections.

  19. The frequent shift to intermediate flora in preterm delivery cases after abnormal vaginal flora screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Takanori; Akimoto, Yumiko; Tanimoto, Hirotoshi; Teramoto, Mitsue; Teramoto, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The effect of screening and treatment for abnormal vaginal flora on the reduction of preterm deliveries remains controversial. We evaluated whether this screening and treatment reduces the preterm delivery rate for general-population pregnant women. Pregnant women of the Intervention group (n = 574) underwent the screening test and the treatment of vaginal metronidazole during the early second trimester, and those of the Control group (n = 1,161) did not. We compared the preterm delivery rate between these two groups. We also compared the profiles of vaginal flora of the preterm delivery cases with those of the pregnant women with a normal course. There was no significant difference in the preterm delivery rate between these two groups. However, in the preterm delivery cases, a frequent shift to intermediate flora was observed not before but after the screening in the Intervention group. This shift may explain why most of the previous studies failed in regard to the prevention of preterm deliveries. PMID:24762852

  20. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Chamoli Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area.

  1. [The composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, D; Lin, Y; Jiang, X; Lan, L; Zhang, W; Wang, B X

    2017-03-02

    Objective: To explore the composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora. Method: Twenty-four specimens were collected from pregnant Kunming mouse including 8 mice of early embryonic (12-13 days) gastrointestinal tissues, 8 cases of late embryonic (19-20 days)gastrointestinal tissues, 8 of late pregnancy placental tissues.The 24 samples were extracted by DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Result: The level of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actino-bacteria and Firmicutes were predominantin all specimens.The relative content of predominant bacterial phyla in each group: Proteobacteria (95.00%, 88.14%, 87.26%), Bacteroidetes(1.71%, 2.15%, 2.63%), Actino-Bacteria(1.16%, 4.10%, 3.38%), Firmicutes(0.75%, 2.62%, 2.01%). At the level of family, there were nine predominant bacterial families in which Enterobacteriaeae , Shewanel laceae and Moraxellaceae were dominant.The relative content of dominant bacterial family in eachgroup: Enterobacteriaeae (46.99%, 44.34%, 41.08%), Shewanellaceae (21.99%, 21.10%, 19.05%), Moraxellaceae (9.18%, 7.09%, 5.64%). From the species of flora, the flora from fetal gastrointestinal in early pregnancy and late pregnancy (65.44% and 62.73%) were the same as that from placenta tissue in the late pregnancy.From the abundance of bacteria, at the level of family, the same content of bacteria in three groups accounted for 78.16%, 72.53% and 65.78% respectively. Conclusion: It was proved that the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora were colonized. At the same time the bacteria are classified.

  2. Microbial bioenergetics of coral-algal interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ty N.F. Roach

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human impacts are causing ecosystem phase shifts from coral- to algal-dominated reef systems on a global scale. As these ecosystems undergo transition, there is an increased incidence of coral-macroalgal interactions. Mounting evidence indicates that the outcome of these interaction events is, in part, governed by microbially mediated dynamics. The allocation of available energy through different trophic levels, including the microbial food web, determines the outcome of these interactions and ultimately shapes the benthic community structure. However, little is known about the underlying thermodynamic mechanisms involved in these trophic energy transfers. This study utilizes a novel combination of methods including calorimetry, flow cytometry, and optical oxygen measurements, to provide a bioenergetic analysis of coral-macroalgal interactions in a controlled aquarium setting. We demonstrate that the energetic demands of microbial communities at the coral-algal interaction interface are higher than in the communities associated with either of the macroorganisms alone. This was evident through higher microbial power output (energy use per unit time and lower oxygen concentrations at interaction zones compared to areas distal from the interface. Increases in microbial power output and lower oxygen concentrations were significantly correlated with the ratio of heterotrophic to autotrophic microbes but not the total microbial abundance. These results suggest that coral-algal interfaces harbor higher proportions of heterotrophic microbes that are optimizing maximal power output, as opposed to yield. This yield to power shift offers a possible thermodynamic mechanism underlying the transition from coral- to algal-dominated reef ecosystems currently being observed worldwide. As changes in the power output of an ecosystem are a significant indicator of the current state of the system, this analysis provides a novel and insightful means to quantify

  3. Copper desorption from Gelidium algal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2007-04-01

    Desorption of divalent copper from marine algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal waste (from agar extraction industry) and a composite material (the algal waste immobilized in polyacrylonitrile) was studied in a batch system. Copper ions were first adsorbed until saturation and then desorbed by HNO(3) and Na(2)EDTA solutions. Elution efficiency using HNO(3) increases as pH decreases. At pH=1, for a solid to liquid ratio S/L=4gl(-1), elution efficiency was 97%, 95% and 88%, the stoichiometric coefficient for the ionic exchange, 0.70+/-0.02, 0.73+/-0.05 and 0.76+/-0.06 and the selectivity coefficient, 0.93+/-0.07, 1.0+/-0.3 and 1.1+/-0.3, respectively, for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. Complexation of copper ions by EDTA occurs in a molar proportion of 1:1 and the elution efficiency increases with EDTA concentration. For concentrations of 1.4, 0.88 and 0.57 mmoll(-1), the elution efficiency for S/L=4gl(-1), was 91%, 86% and 78%, respectively, for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. The S/L ratio, in the range 1-20gl(-1), has little influence on copper recovery by using 0.1M HNO(3). Desorption kinetics was very fast for all biosorbents. Kinetic data using HNO(3) as eluant were well described by the mass transfer model, considering the average metal concentration in the solid phase and the equilibrium relationship given by the mass action law. The homogeneous diffusion coefficient varied between 1.0 x 10(-7)cm(2)s(-1) for algae Gelidium and 3.0 x 10(-7)cm(2)s(-1) for the composite material.

  4. Collection and conversion of algal lipid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chieh

    Sustainable economic activities mandate a significant replacement of fossil energy by renewable forms. Algae-derived biofuels are increasingly seen as an alternative source of energy with potential to supplement the world's ever increasing demand. Our primary objective is, once the algae were cultivated, to eliminate or make more efficient energy-intensive processing steps of collection, drying, grinding, and solvent extraction prior to conversion. To overcome the processing barrier, we propose to streamline from cultivated algae to biodiesel via algal biomass collection by sand filtration, cell rupturing with ozone, and immediate transesterification. To collect the algal biomass, the specific Chlorococcum aquaticum suspension was acidified to pH 3.3 to promote agglomeration prior to sand filtration. The algae-loaded filter bed was drained of free water and added with methanol and ozonated for 2 min to rupture cell membrane to accelerate release of the cellular contents. The methanol solution now containing the dissolved lipid product was collected by draining, while the filter bed was regenerated by further ozonation when needed. The results showed 95% collection of the algal biomass from the suspension and a 16% yield of lipid from the algae, as well as restoration of filtration velocity of the sand bed via ozonation. The results further showed increased lipid yield upon cell rupturing and transesterified products composed entirely of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) compounds, demonstrating that the rupture and transesterification processes could proceed consecutively in the same medium, requiring no separate steps of drying, extraction, and conversion. The FAME products from algae without exposure to ozone were mainly of 16 to 18 carbons containing up to 3 double bonds, while those from algae having been ozonated were smaller, highly saturated hydrocarbons. The new technique streamlines individual steps from cultivated algal lipid to transesterified products and

  5. A review of algal research in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, Tobias; Kociolek, Patrick; Klaus, David

    2018-05-01

    With the continued expansion of human presence into space, typical mission durations will routinely exceed six months and extend to distances beyond the Moon. As such, sending periodic resupply vehicles, as currently provided to the International Space Station, will likely no longer be feasible. Instead, self-sustaining life support systems that recycle human waste products will become increasingly necessary, especially for planetary bases. The idea of bioregenerative life support systems using algal photobioreactors has been discussed since the beginning of the space age. In order to evaluate how such a system could be implemented, a variety of space flight studies aimed at characterizing the potential for using algae in air revitalization, water recycling, food production, and radiation shielding applications have been conducted over the years. Also, given the recent, growing interest in algal research for regenerative fuel production, food supplements, and cosmetics, many algal strains are already well documented from related terrestrial experiments. This paper reviews past algal experiments flown in space from 1960 until today. Experimental methods and results from 51 investigations utilizing either green algae (Chlorophyta), cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta), or Euglenophyta are analyzed and categorized by a variety of parameters, including size, species and duration. The collected data are summarized in a matrix that allows easy comparison between the experiments and provides important information for future life support system requirement definition and design. Similarities between experiment results are emphasized. Common problems and shortcomings are summarized and analyzed in terms of potential solutions. Finally, key research gaps, which must be closed before developing a functional life support system, are identified.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of algal biocrude production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beal, C.M.; Hebner, R.E.; Webber, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Although algal biofuels possess great potential, profitable production is quite challenging. Much of this challenge is rooted in the thermodynamic constraints associated with producing fuels with high energy, low entropy, and high exergy from dispersed materials. In this study, a preliminary thermodynamic analysis is presented that calculates the energy, entropy, and exergy of the intermediate products for algal biocrude production. These values are also used in an initial attempt to characterize the thermodynamic efficiency of that system. The production pathway is simplified by assuming ideal solutions throughout. Results for the energy and exergy efficiencies, and the first-order energy and exergy return on investment, of the system are given. The summary finding is that the first-order energy return on investment in the best case considered could be as high as 520, as compared to 1.7 × 10 −3 in the experimental unit under development. While this analysis shows that significant improvement may be possible, the ultimate thermodynamic efficiency of algal biofuels likely lies closer to the moderate case examined here, which yielded a first-order energy return on investment of 10. For perspective, the first-order energy return on investment for oil and gas production has been estimated in the literature to be ∼35. -- Highlights: ► A first-principles thermodynamic analysis was conducted for algal biocrude production. ► The energy, entropy, and exergy was determined for each intermediate product by assuming the products were ideal solutions. ► The thermodynamic properties were used to calculate the energy and exergy return on investments for three cases. ► It was determined that the energy and exergy return on investments could be as high as ∼500. ► More realistic assumptions for efficient systems yielded return on investments on the order of 10.

  7. Control of algal production in a high rate algal pond: investigation through batch and continuous experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derabe Maobe, H; Onodera, M; Takahashi, M; Satoh, H; Fukazawa, T

    2014-01-01

    For decades, arid and semi-arid regions in Africa have faced issues related to water availability for drinking, irrigation and livestock purposes. To tackle these issues, a laboratory scale greywater treatment system based on high rate algal pond (HRAP) technology was investigated in order to guide the operation of the pilot plant implemented in the 2iE campus in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Because of the high suspended solids concentration generally found in effluents of this system, the aim of this study is to improve the performance of HRAPs in term of algal productivity and removal. To determine the selection mechanism of self-flocculated algae, three sets of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and three sets of continuous flow reactors (CFRs) were operated. Despite operation with the same solids retention time and the similarity of the algal growth rate found in these reactors, the algal productivity was higher in the SBRs owing to the short hydraulic retention time of 10 days in these reactors. By using a volume of CFR with twice the volume of our experimental CFRs, the algal concentration can be controlled during operation under similar physical conditions in both reactors.

  8. NEW AND RARE PLANTS FOR THE FLORA OF CENTRAL SIBERIА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kurbatsky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Three species (Ceratophyllum submersum L., Astragalus glycyphyllos L., Centaurea apiculata Ledeb. are reported for the first time for the flora of Central Siberia and two species (Amoria hybrida (L. C. Presl, Thyselium palustre (L. Rafin. for the flora of Khakassia. New localities of four rare species (Hackelia thymifolia (DC. Johnston, Chaenorhinum minus (L. Willk. et Lange, Orobanche uralensis G. Beck, Valeriana alternifolia Ledeb. of the flora of the Republic of Khakassia are also given.

  9. Some relative notes to the diversity of the Colombian flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Piedrahita, Santiago

    2002-01-01

    Although it is impossible to calculate an exact figure, it is calculated in 35.000 the number of species of plants that conform the Colombian flora; apart from applying the concept of species it is necessary to mention the absence of an official politics that favors the investigation. The author makes a journey of the Colombian flora from geologic times until our days, including the climatological changes and the different flora types according to our thermal soils

  10. Flora of vascular plants of selected Poznań cemeteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Czarna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of 395 species of vascular flora at four rarely used cemeteries within the Poznań city was confirmed in 2010. Apart from naturally occurring species, cultivated species were noted equally. Among species appearing spontaneously between the graves, species new for the flora of Poland: Chionodoxa forbesii, Ch. luciliae, Puschkinia scilloides, new for the flora of Wielkopolska: Bidens ferulifolius, Hyacinthoides hispanica and new for the flora of Poznań: Erigeron ramosus, Lilium bulbiferum, Pimpinella nigra, Poa subcaerulea, Veronica hederifolia s.s., were recorded. Names of taxa originating from cultivation are underlined.

  11. Geographical factors of the abundance of flora in Russian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselkin, D. V.; Tretyakova, A. S.; Senator, S. A.; Saksonov, S. V.; Mukhin, V. A.; Rozenberg, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    An analysis of data on the species abundance of flora in 89 cities (urban flora) of the Russian Federation facilitated determination of its main factors. It has been revealed that the factors determining the abundance of native and alien components of urban flora vary. The city area and population number are the main factors of the total number of species and of the abundance of native species in urban flora. The diversity and participation of alien species increase in parallel with. the urbanization rate, anthropogenic transformation of the regions, and the age of cities and are in adverse correlation with the climate severity.

  12. Algal-bacterial interactions in metal contaminated floodplain sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, M.E.Y.; Greve, G.D.; Garcia-Meza, J.V.; Massieux, B.; Sprenger, W.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Breure, A.M.; Rutgers, M.; Admiraal, W.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate algal-bacterial interactions in a gradient of metal contaminated natural sediments. By means of multivariate techniques, we related the genetic structure (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE) and the physiological structure (community-level physiological profiling, CLPP) of the bacterial communities to the species composition of the algal communities and to the abiotic environmental variables, including metal contamination. The results revealed that genetic and physiological structure of the bacterial communities correlated with the species composition of the algal community, but hardly to the level of metal pollution. This must be interpreted as an indication for a strong and species-specific linkage of algal and bacterial species in floodplain sediments. Metals were, however, not proven to affect either the algal or the bacterial communities of the Dutch river floodplains. - Algal and bacterial communities in floodplain sediments are interlinked, but are not affected by metal pollution

  13. HELICOBACTER PYLORI EN LA FLORA BACTERIANA ORAL

    OpenAIRE

    Moromi Nakata, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    No hay duda de la relación existente entre enfermedades orales con otras enfermedades sistémicas. En tal contexto, las bacterias de la flora bacteriana oral, que alcanzan alrededor de 350 especies, para la mayoría de tales bacterias no se ha demostrado un rol específico, conociéndose sí una clara relación entre los Estreptococos orales (Streptococcus sanguis, Strecoccus mutans, Streptococcus sobri nus) y Actinobacillus actinomycetencomitans, entre otros, con la endocarditis bacteriana; así co...

  14. Flora y fauna crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Chávez-Silverman

    2004-01-01

    Flora & Fauna Crónica” is from the book, Killer Crónicas, which will be published by the University of Wisconsin Press in 2004. This collection of chronicles began in 2000, after Susana was awarded a fellowship by the US National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) for a project on contemporary Argentine women's poetry. She spent thirteen months in Buenos Aires where, in addition to research and writing on her official (academic) book, she began to send bilingual, punning “letters from the so...

  15. Collectors of botanical specimens from the flora area mentioned in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    Information based on all available sources about full name, nationality, profession, area and period of collection, with whom they are known to have made joint collections, herbaria in which the collections have been deposited etc., for all collectors mentioned in vol. 1-7 of the Flora of Ethiopi...

  16. FLORA LICHEN WESTERN MOUNTAINS VRANJE PLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bogdanović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lichen is a symbiotic plant built by the cells of algae and fungi hyphae. Algae are usually presented - green (Chlorophyta or blue green (Cyanophyta, a mushroom commonly found is ascomycetae and sometimes basidiomycetae. Mushrooms receive oxygen and carbohydrates from algae, and they in turn provide water, CO2 and mineral salts. Lichens are often found on trees and rocks in unpolluted environments and can be used as a bioindicator species. In during 2015-2016. was realized a survey of epiphytic lichen flora of the western mountains in environment of Vranje. Sampling was carried out at 4 locations: Borino brdo, Krstilovica, Markovo Kale and Pljačkovica. Based on the collected and determined samples can be concluded that the study implemented of the area of 25 species of lichens of which: 8 as crust, leafy 12 and 5 shrub. The research results indicate that the lichen flora of the western mountains environments Vranje of a rich and diverse as a result of favorable geographic position, geological and soil composition, climate and plant cover that provide opportunities for the development and survival of lichens.

  17. Stimulation of bacterial DNA synthesis by algal exudates in attached algal-bacterial consortia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.E.; Cooksey, K.E.; Priscu, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Algal-bacterial consortia attached to polystyrene surfaces were prepared in the laboratory by using the marine diatom Amphora coffeaeformis and the marine bacterium Vibrio proteolytica (the approved name of this bacterium is Vibrio proteolyticus. The organisms were attached to the surfaces at cell densities of approximately 5 x 10 4 cells cm -2 (diatoms) and 5 x 10 6 cells cm -2 (bacteria). The algal-bacterial consortia consistently exhibited higher rates of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation than did biofilms composed solely of bacteria. The rates of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation by the algal-bacterial consortia were fourfold greater than the rates of incorporation by monobacterial biofilms 16 h after biofilm formation and were 16-fold greater 70 h after biofilm formation. Extracellular material released from the attached Amphora cells supported rates of bacterial activity (0.8 x 10 -21 mol to 17.9 x 10 -21 mol of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporated cell -1 h -1 ) and growth (doubling time, 29.5 to 1.4 days) comparable to values reported for a wide variety of marine and freshwater ecosystems. In the presence of sessile diatom populations, DNA synthesis by attached V. proteolytica cells was light dependent and increased with increasing algal abundance. The metabolic activity of diatoms thus appears to be the rate-limiting process in biofilm development on illuminated surfaces under conditions of low bulk-water dissolved organic carbon

  18. Fungal flora and deoxynivalenol (DON) level in wheat from Jeddah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to explore the fungal flora along with the DON concentration in the collected wheat samples from Jeddah market to correlate between this flora and the detected DON. Whole grain wheat samples were collected from Jeddah market and this represents imported and locally produced wheat. The results ...

  19. The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. http://www.hewlett.org/. Think Tank Initiative. This initiative is creating high-quality independent research and policy institutions throughout the developing world. View more. Think Tank Initiative. Growth and Economic Opportunities for ...

  20. Flora of St Katherine Protectorate: key to families and genera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An illustrated key to families and genera of the flora of the St Katherine Protectorate is provided to facilitate the identification of the unique flora of the area, based on five years of collecting mainly in the mountains and wadis surrounding the town of St Katherine. The key includes 43 families and 141 genera, the families ...

  1. Studies on bacterial flora and biological control agent of Cydia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, in order to find a more effective and safe biological control agent against Cydia pomonella, we investigated the bacterial flora and tested them for insecticidal effects on this insect. According to morphological, physiological and biochemical tests, bacterial flora were identified as Proteus rettgeri (Cp1), ...

  2. Regional floras, a significant modern trend in plant taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1959-01-01

    Besides through monographic work plant taxonomy has a second way of framing synthetic attempts and that is by compiling Florulas and Floras, containing a complete account of the flora of parts of the globe, of cities, islets, islands, states, countries, or continents. Irrespective of their style,

  3. Regional Floras: the target groups, usage and feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, F.S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The target groups for regional floras may be generalized for the purpose of this discussion, into four main groups. Firstly, in the Flora Malesiana region – a major producer of tropical hardwoods and other commercial forest products – one large target is the forest industry, consisting of foresters,

  4. New records of Petunia (Solanaceae) for the Argentinean flora

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Toshio; Soto, Silvina; Suárez, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    Petunia interior and P. guarapuavensis are reported for the first time for the Argentinean flora, and their geographical distributions are updated. Petunia interior y P. guarapuavensis son citadas por pimera vez para la Flora Argentina, con una actualización de su distribución geográfica.

  5. Luminescent Solar Concentrators in the Algal Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Katie; Corrado, Carley; Carter, Sue; Detweiler, Angela; Bebout, Leslie

    2013-03-01

    Today's industry for renewable energy sources and highly efficient energy management systems is rapidly increasing. Development of increased efficiency Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) has brought about new applications for commercial interests, including greenhouses for agricultural crops. This project is taking first steps to explore the potential of LSCs to enhance production and reduce costs for algae and cyanobacteria used in biofuels and nutraceuticals. This pilot phase uses LSC filtered light for algal growth trials in greenhouses and laboratory experiments, creating specific wavelength combinations to determine effects of discrete solar light regimes on algal growth and the reduction of heating and water loss in the system. Enhancing the optimal spectra for specific algae will not only increase production, but has the potential to lessen contamination of large scale production due to competition from other algae and bacteria. Providing LSC filtered light will reduce evaporation and heating in regions with limited water supply, while the increased energy output from photovoltaic cells will reduce costs of heating and mixing cultures, thus creating a more efficient and cost effective production system.

  6. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  7. Algal-Based Renewable Energy for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsen, Christian [Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    To help in the overall evaluation of the potential for growing algal biomass in high productivity systems, we conducted a study that evaluated water from geothermal sources and cultivated mixed consortia from hot springs in Nevada, we evaluated their growth at moderately high varying temperatures and then evaluated potential manipulations that could possibly increase their biomass and oleaginous production. Studies were conducted at scales ranging from the laboratory benchtop to raceways in field settings. Mixed consortia were readily grown at all scales and growth could be maintained in Nevada year round. Moderate productivities were attained even during the shoulder seasons- where temperature control was maintained by hot water and seasonally cold temperatures when there was still plentiful solar radiation. The results enhance the prospects for economic feasibility of developing algal based industries in areas with geothermal energy or even other large alternative sources of heat that are not being used for other purposes. The public may benefit from such development as a means for economic development as well as development of industries for alternative energy and products that do not rely on fossil fuels.

  8. The scientific study of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea up to the beginning of the Ethiopian Flora Project (1980)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An account of the history of the scientific exploration of the flora in Ethiopia and Eritrea, mainly based on experience from the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, but with conclusions from the newest literature also taken into account....

  9. The herb flora of Taiwan or How to master a Flora without types and with only a few books

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1967-01-01

    My visit to and trips in Taiwan, in 1966, brought me into close contact with the wonderfully rich and varied flora of this large island which is fairly easily accessible if one speaks Chinese or is accompanied by Chinese companions, as was my privilege. As is well known the woody flora of Taiwan is

  10. Ceramic Ultrafiltration of Marine Algal Solutions: A Comprehensive Study

    KAUST Repository

    Dramas, Laure

    2014-01-01

    understanding of UF membrane fouling caused by algal organic matter (AOM) is needed, in order to adjust the filtration conditions during algal bloom events. Polymeric MF/UF membranes are already widely used for RO pretreatment, but ceramic UF membranes can also

  11. Dynamic metabolic exchange governs a marine algal-bacterial interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Einat; Wyche, Thomas P; Kim, Ki Hyun; Petersen, Jörn; Ellebrandt, Claire; Vlamakis, Hera; Barteneva, Natasha; Paulson, Joseph N; Chai, Liraz; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto

    2016-11-18

    Emiliania huxleyi is a model coccolithophore micro-alga that generates vast blooms in the ocean. Bacteria are not considered among the major factors influencing coccolithophore physiology. Here we show through a laboratory model system that the bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens , a well-studied member of the Roseobacter group, intimately interacts with E. huxleyi. While attached to the algal cell, bacteria initially promote algal growth but ultimately kill their algal host. Both algal growth enhancement and algal death are driven by the bacterially-produced phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. Bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid and attachment to algae are significantly increased by tryptophan, which is exuded from the algal cell. Algal death triggered by bacteria involves activation of pathways unique to oxidative stress response and programmed cell death. Our observations suggest that bacteria greatly influence the physiology and metabolism of E. huxleyi. Coccolithophore-bacteria interactions should be further studied in the environment to determine whether they impact micro-algal population dynamics on a global scale.

  12. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  13. Changes in algal composition and environmental variables in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly sampling in 2003 and 2006 indicated that dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations decreased, while dissolved inorganic phosphorus concentration increased 12-fold, resulting in increases in algal concentration and a shift from green algal dominance in 2003 to cyanobacterial dominance in 2006. Multivariate ...

  14. COMPARISON OF LARGE RIVER SAMPLING METHODS ON ALGAL METRICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared the results of four methods used to assess the algal communities at 60 sites distributed among four rivers. Based on Principle Component Analysis of physical habitat data collected concomitantly with the algal data, sites were separated into those with a mean thalweg...

  15. Algal diversity of Adada River, Nigeria. I. Chlorophyta (green algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial water tankers collect water and sell to indigenes and towns around the river, hence the need to investigate the algal biodiversity in other to access its suitability for human consumption using known algal indicators of water quality and add to the pool of data useful for long term trends in floral composition in ...

  16. Increasing the extraction efficiency of algal lipid for biodiesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various studies have been conducted recently using microalgal system for the production of algal lipid for biodiesel production. This study aimed at increasing the extraction efficiency of algal lipid from Chlorella sp. by the application of Chlorella viruses. The calorific value of lipid from Chlorella sp. has been reported to be ...

  17. Fifty years of mapping the Balkan flora for Atlas Florae Europaeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uotila Pertti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atlas Florae Europaeae (AFE, a programme for mapping the distribution of vascular plants in Europe, was launched in 1965 as a collaborative effort between European botanists. A historical review of the mapping for AFE in the Balkan countries, cited in the last volume (16 from 2013 as Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic (F. Y. R. of Macedonia, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, and Turkey (European part, is presented and achievements and problems discussed. The special challenges facing mapping of the Balkan area during the past 50 years include the extremely rich flora, diverse and mountainous relief, political and economic difficulties, inaccessibility of available data, and scarcity of botanists contributing and collecting data for mapping.

  18. THE FLORA OF HEKIMDAG (BOZDAG, ESKISEHIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ARDIÇ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the flora of Eskişehir Hekimdağ (Bozdağ were investigated. According to Davis's grid system, the research area lies in B3 square. The plant samples collected in this region and determined that there are 59 families, as well as 467 species and subspecies taxa belonging to 219 genera. The phytogeographical distribution is as follows: 49 Mediterranean, 31 Euro-Siberian, 19 Irano-Turanian, 6 Euxin and 362 unknown or other-regional elements. The largest families are Asteraceae (50, Fabaceae (38, Lamiaceae (24, Poaceae (21 and Liliaceae (18 in terms of the number of species and subspecies included. Genera represented by the highest number of species are Centaurea (7, Alyssum (6, Silene, Astragalus, Trifolium, Lathyrus ve Campanula (5 . The number of endemic taxa within the study area is 41 (10.86%. 13 taxa are new records for the B3 square.

  19. Alien species in the Finnish weed flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. HYVÖNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing the invasion of alien weed species in Finland based on a review of their occurrence in the Finnish weed flora. The evaluation was conducted for the three phases of the invasion process, i.e. introduction, naturalization and invasion. The literature review revealed that 815 alien weed species occur in Finland of which 314 are regarded as naturalized. Based on their occurrence in different climate zones, the risk of naturalization of new harmful alien weed species was deemed low for those species not currently found in Finland, but higher for species occurring as casual aliens in Finland. In the latter group, 10 species of concern were detected. Exploration of the distribution patterns of naturalized species within Finland revealed species occupancy to be dependent on the residence time of the species. Established neophytes can be expected to extend their ranges and to increase occupation of agricultural habitats in the future.;

  20. Flora da Paraíba, Brasil: Loganiaceae Flora of Paraíba, Brazil: Loganiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiriaki Nurit

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se o tratamento taxonômico da família Loganiaceae, como parte do projeto "Flora da Paraíba", que vem sendo realizado com o objetivo de identificar e catalogar as espécies da flora local. Realizouse coletas e observações de campo para as identificações, descrições e ilustrações botânicas que foram efetuadas após estudos morfológicos, com o auxílio da bibliografia especializada, complementados pela análise de fotos de tipos, espécimes dos herbários EAN, JPB e IPA, e comparação com material identificado por especialistas. Registrou-se para a Paraíba quatro espécies: Spigelia anthelmia L., com ampla distribuição, e três espécies de Strychnos, somente coletadas em remanescentes de Mata Atlântica, S. atlantica Krukoff & Barneby, S. parvifolia A. DC. e S. trinervis (Vell. Mart.This work constitutes a taxonomic treatment of the Loganiaceae family as part of the project "Flora da Paraíba", which have been carried out with the objective to identify and catalogue the species of the local flora. The botanical identifications and illustrations were made by morphological studies supported by bibliography, analysis of the types, specimens from herbaria EAN, JPB and IPA, and comparison with samples previously identified by specialists, complemented by field observations. Four species of Loganiaceae belonging two genera were found in State of Paraíba: Spigelia anthelmia L. that has wide distribution and three species of Strychnos, found on remains of Atlantic forest, which are S. atlantica Krukoff & Barneby, S. parvifolia A. DC. and S. trinervis (Vell. Mart.

  1. Deep-Learning-Based Approach for Prediction of Algal Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Algal blooms have recently become a critical global environmental concern which might put economic development and sustainability at risk. However, the accurate prediction of algal blooms remains a challenging scientific problem. In this study, a novel prediction approach for algal blooms based on deep learning is presented—a powerful tool to represent and predict highly dynamic and complex phenomena. The proposed approach constructs a five-layered model to extract detailed relationships between the density of phytoplankton cells and various environmental parameters. The algal blooms can be predicted by the phytoplankton density obtained from the output layer. A case study is conducted in coastal waters of East China using both our model and a traditional back-propagation neural network for comparison. The results show that the deep-learning-based model yields better generalization and greater accuracy in predicting algal blooms than a traditional shallow neural network does.

  2. Consequences of forest energy for flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruuse, A.

    1992-01-01

    The report examines the effects of forest energy on the field layer vegetation, and includes whole-tree harvesting, liming, fertilization, wood ash distribution and the importance of broadleaved trees. Whole-tree harvesting is negative for some of the vascular plant species, and positive for others, and can have a drastically negative effect on lichens, mosses and decomposing fungi. Whole-tree harvesting can be accepted from the viewpoint of the flora if: - between 10 and 30 % of the slash is left on the clearcut area, - hardwood stands or mixed stands with hardwood are excepted from whole-tree harvesting, - dead lying or standing trees, a few broadleaved trees and old trees, are left on the clearcut area. Liming has some effects on the flora, especially a very negative effect on lichens and mosses. Liming can be accepted if; - it only takes place where whole-tree harvesting has been used or where acidification caused by air pollution has been observed, - the amounts are moderate, 2 to 4 tonnes/ha, and the liming material has a rather large grain size, - it is unevenly distributed, and - it is avoided in naturally acid stands with a special vegetation. Fertilization has negative effects on all the considered vegetation groups. It can only be accepted as compensation for whole-tree harvesting, and no more nitrogen must be added than is taken away in the harvest. In southern Sweden even the compensatory fertilization should be avoided. The consequences of wood ash distribution are little known. Until more facts are presented, only enough wood ash as to compensate for the loss through whole-tree harvesting should be distributed. If the use of forest energy would lead to an increase of the broadleaved tree ratio it would be positive. (54 refs.)

  3. Detection of surface algal blooms using the newly developed algorithm surface algal bloom index SABI)

    OpenAIRE

    Alawadi, Fahad

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying ocean colour properties has evolved over the past two decades from being able to merely detect their biological activity to the ability to estimate chlorophyll concentration using optical satellite sensors like MODIS and MERIS. The production of chlorophyll spatial distribution maps is a good indicator of plankton biomass (primary production) and is useful for the tracing of oceanographic currents, jets and blooms, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). Depending on the type of HA...

  4. The Uruguayan Per mic mega flora. A synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornaglia, L.; Ruiz, F.; Introcaso, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Permian mega floras of Uruguay. A synthesis. An analysis of the impression and fossil wood floras from the Permian of Uruguay is given through a series of Tables. These show : (1) the list of taxa, (2) anatomical characters of the woods, (3) data on the micro floral associations, (4) paleoenvironmental information and (5) comparisons with contemporaneous Gondwana floras. The evolutionary degree of the woods is briefly analyzed where they correspond to the so-called transition xilotaphofloras as they present typical Paleozoic anatomical characters but with secondary xylem of more advanced characteristics. (author)

  5. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  6. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  7. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-07

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  8. Fungal farmers or algal escorts: lichen adaptation from the algal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Deduke, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Domestication of algae by lichen-forming fungi describes the symbiotic relationship between the photosynthetic (green alga or cyanobacterium; photobiont) and fungal (mycobiont) partnership in lichen associations (Goward 1992). The algal domestication implies that the mycobiont cultivates the alga as a monoculture within its thallus, analogous to a farmer cultivating a food crop. However, the initial photobiont 'selection' by the mycobiont may be predetermined by the habitat rather than by the farmer. When the mycobiont selects a photobiont from the available photobionts within a habitat, the mycobiont may influence photobiont growth and reproduction (Ahmadjian & Jacobs 1981) only after the interaction has been initiated. The theory of ecological guilds (Rikkinen et al. 2002) proposes that habitat limits the variety of photobionts available to the fungal partner. While some studies provide evidence to support the theory of ecological guilds in cyanobacterial lichens (Rikkinen et al. 2002), other studies propose models to explain variation in symbiont combinations in green algal lichens (Ohmura et al. 2006; Piercey-Normore 2006; Yahr et al. 2006) hypothesizing the existence of such guilds. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Peksa & Škaloud (2011) test the theory of ecological guilds and suggest a relationship between algal habitat requirements and lichen adaptation in green algal lichens of the genus Lepraria. The environmental parameters examined in this study, exposure to rainfall, altitude and substratum type, are integral to lichen biology. Lichens have a poikilohydric nature, relying on the availability of atmospheric moisture for metabolic processes. Having no known active mechanism to preserve metabolic thallus moisture in times of drought, one would expect a strong influence of the environment on symbiont adaptation to specific habitats. Adaptation to changes in substrata and its properties would be expected with the intimate contact between crustose

  9. Lichen flora and ecology of the roadside trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydzak, J

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lichen flora of roadside trees were carried out at 69 sites in eastern Poland in 1966-1969. Conclusive relationships between lichen distributions and air pollution from automobile exhaust gases could not be inferred from the data.

  10. Met flora meer fauna de stad in trekken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffman, M.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Meer flora en fauna in de stedelijke omgeving begint met de aanplant van gevarieerd groen. Plant Publicity Holland geeft in een overzicht aan welke bomen, heesters en vaste planten daarvoor geschikt zijn.

  11. Analysis of biological spectrum of Divčibare flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential analyses which is performed during the floristic study of a region is the analysis of the biological spectrum. The analysis of the biological spectrum of the flora includes the determination of the type of life form for each taxon described in the flora of the study region. If it is considered that life form is a specific structural-functional response to the environmental effects and the result of the adaptation during the species evolution, it is clear that the basic characteristics of the site are more or less reflected in any life form. This fact is confirmed by the analysis of the biological spectrum of Divčibare flora. The study results are in correlation with the results of the analysis of the biological spectrum of the flora of Serbia and the Balkan Peninsula.

  12. Emerging antibiotic resistant enteric bacterial flora among food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emerging antibiotic resistant enteric bacterial flora among food animals in Abeokuta, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Bacterial resistance to antibiotic in food animals is an emerging public health concern as a result of ...

  13. study of oral and gingival microbial flora in institutionalized mentally

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    from the mouth and gingiva of 138 institutionalized mentally retarded patients of Sari to culture in specific media to ... Key words: Oral and gingival microbial flora, Mental retardation, D%, Sari ... staphylococcus aureus and, in case of negative.

  14. Nutrients, phytochemicals, fungal flora and aflatoxin in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ob

    In this study, the effect of salting on the pH, phytochemicals, fungal flora and nutrient composition of. Vernonia .... Vitamin C, β-carotene, carbohydrates, protein and moisture: ..... on rats fed a high cholesterol diet. ... male New Zealand rabbits.

  15. The isolation and antibiogram of aerobic nasal bacterial flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following microorganisms were identified from the normal flora of the grasscutters, they are; Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus sp, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus cerus , E. coli, Serratia sp, Streptococcus sp, Pasteurella multocida, Streptacoccus, sp., Mannheimia heamolytica, Klebsiella sp., ...

  16. Hamiguitan Range: A sanctuary for native flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Victor B; Aspiras, Reyno A

    2011-01-01

    Hamiguitan Range is one of the wildlife sanctuaries in the Philippines having unique biodiversity resources that are at risk due to forest degradation and conversion of forested land to agriculture, shifting cultivation, and over-collection. Thus, it is the main concern of this research to identify and assess the endemic and endangered flora of Hamiguitan Range. Field reconnaissance and transect walk showed five vegetation types namely: agro-ecosystem, dipterocarp, montane, typical mossy and mossy-pygmy forests. Inventory of plant species revealed 163 endemic species, 35 threatened species, and 33 rare species. Assessment of plants also showed seven species as new record in Mindanao and one species as new record in the Philippines. Noteworthy is the discovery of Nepenthes micramphora, a new species of pitcher plant found in the high altitudes of Hamiguitan Range. This species is also considered site endemic, rare, and threatened. The result of the study also showed that the five vegetation types of Mt. Hamiguitan harbor a number of endangered, endemic, and rare species of plants. Thus, the result of this study would serve as basis for the formulation of policies for the protection and conservation of these species and their habitats before these plants become extinct.

  17. Flora of the Holy Bible part I - fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, G V R

    2002-01-01

    Holy Bible described several plants and the authentication of certain Biblical flora is still in debate. In this present paper, attempts are being made to workout the correct botanical identity of certain plants based on the description mentioned in the Bible. Bible is a genuinely documented book everything mentioned in the Bible has a great significance. Present study is undertaken with a view to evaluate the biblical flora in correlation with the present day knowledge especially with the Ayurvedic system of medicine.

  18. Orchidaceous Additions to the Flora of China and Vietnam (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ormerod

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuing literature and herbarium studies of Chinese and Vietnamese orchids have revealed a variety of new and noteworthy floristic information. One species is newly recorded for the flora of China, one for Yunnan Province, China and one is newly recorded for the flora of Vietnam. One new synonym is proposed in the genus Oberonia. Five new species are proposed, viz. Epigeneium forrestii, Liparis brunnea, L. rockii, L. superposita and L. yuana.

  19. Cyanobacteria of the 2016 Lake Okeechobee and Okeechobee Waterway harmful algal bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Barry H.; Davis, Timothy W.; Gobler, Christopher J.; Kramer, Benjamin J.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2017-05-31

    The Lake Okeechobee and the Okeechobee Waterway (Lake Okeechobee, the St. Lucie Canal and River, and the Caloosahatchee River) experienced an extensive harmful algal bloom within Lake Okeechobee, the St. Lucie Canal and River and the Caloosahatchee River in 2016. In addition to the very visible bloom of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, several other cyanobacteria were present. These other species were less conspicuous; however, they have the potential to produce a variety of cyanotoxins, including anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins, in addition to the microcystins commonly associated with Microcystis. Some of these species were found before, during, and 2 weeks after the large Microcystis bloom and could provide a better understanding of bloom dynamics and succession. This report provides photographic documentation and taxonomic assessment of the cyanobacteria present from Lake Okeechobee and the Caloosahatchee River and St. Lucie Canal, with samples collected June 1st from the Caloosahatchee River and Lake Okeechobee and in July from the St. Lucie Canal. The majority of the images were of live organisms, allowing their natural complement of pigmentation to be captured. The report provides a digital image-based taxonomic record of the Lake Okeechobee and the Okeechobee Waterway microscopic flora. It is anticipated that these images will facilitate current and future studies on this system, such as understanding the timing of cyanobacteria blooms and their potential toxin production.

  20. Algal biodiesel economy and competition among bio-fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the possible results of policy support in developed and developing economies for developing algal biodiesel through to 2040. This investigation adopts the Taiwan General Equilibrium Model-Energy for Bio-fuels (TAIGEM-EB) to predict competition among the development of algal biodiesel, bioethanol and conventional crop-based biodiesel. Analytical results show that algal biodiesel will not be the major energy source in 2040 without strong support in developed economies. In contrast, bioethanol enjoys a development advantage relative to both forms of biodiesel. Finally, algal biodiesel will almost completely replace conventional biodiesel. CO(2) reduction benefits the development of the bio-fuels industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Structure of Algal Population in the Presence of Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipatova, Valentina; Prokhotskaya, Valeria; Dmitrieva, Aida

    Algal bioassays are routinely employed as part of a battery of toxicity tests to assess the environmental impacts of contaminants on aquatic ecosystems. This estimation is an essential component of the ecological risk assessment.

  2. Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  3. In situ Transesterification of Microalgal Oil to Produce Algal Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This research was to process whole microalgae cells for biodiesel production without first extracting lipids. The ultimate : goal is develop a novel process for algal biodiesel production directly from microalgae cells in a single step, i.e., in situ...

  4. Rotating Algal Biofilm Reactors: Mathematical Modeling and Lipid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Woolsey, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Harvesting of algal biomass presents a large barrier to the success of biofuels made from algae feedstock. Small cell sizes coupled with dilute concentrations of biomass in lagoon systems make separation an expensive and energy intense-process. The rotating algal biofilm reactor (RABR) has been developed at USU to provide a sustainable technology solution to this issue. Algae cells grown as a biofilm are concentrated in one location for ease of harvesting of high density biomass. A mathematic...

  5. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  6. Observaciones sobre la flora del “Norte Chico” de Chile./ Notes on the flora of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Ulriksen Becker [1952

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde un profundo conocimiento adquirido en sus estudios teóricos y prácticos, Guillermo Ulriksen da una mirada a la flora y fauna encontrada en sus exhaustivos recorridos por el Norte Chico de Chile, y a sus experiencias con ellas en circunstancias de su trabajo −conjunto con Oscar Prager− para efectos del proyecto del llamado “Plan Serena” desde 1947, y de su tesis de título de Arquitecto en 1952-53. En esta última, intenta aportar bases para la planeación regional del Norte Chico, a partir de las carencias que él estima existieron en el mandato del “Plan Serena”. Corresponde el presente escrito a un anexo con observaciones complementarias en la citada tesis./ Guillermo Ulriksen presents a deep study of the flora and fauna of the Norte Chico, as a part of his study for the Plan Serena and for his Graduation Proyect. He also tries to propose the basis for the development plan for the Norte Chico.

  7. Discovery of a diverse cave flora in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fang

    2018-01-01

    Few studies document plants in caves. Our field observations of a widespread and seemingly angiosperm-rich cave flora in SW China lead us to test the following hypotheses, 1) SW China caves contain a diverse vascular plant flora, 2) that this is a relic of a largely absent forest type lacking endemic species, and 3) that the light environment plants occupy in caves is not distinct from non-cave habitats. To do so we surveyed 61 caves and used species accumulation curves (SAC) to estimate the total diversity of this flora and used a subsample of 14 caves to characterise the light environment. We used regional floras and existing conservation assessments to evaluate the conservation value of this flora. We used observations on human disturbance within caves to evaluate anthropogenic activities. Four-hundred-and-eighteen vascular plant species were documented with SACs predicting a total diversity of 529–846. Ninety-three percent of the species documented are known karst forest species, 7% are endemic to caves and 81% of the species are angiosperms. We demonstrate that the light environment in caves is distinct to that of terrestrial habitats and that a subset of the flora likely grow in the lowest light levels documented for vascularised plants. Our results suggest that the proportion of species threatened with extinction is like that for the terrestrial habitat and that almost half of the entrance caverns sampled showed signs of human disturbance. We believe that this is the first time that such an extensive sample of cave flora has been undertaken and that such a diverse vascular plant flora has been observed in caves which we predict occurs elsewhere in SE Asia. We argue that the cave flora is an extension of the karst forest understory present prior to catastrophic deforestation in the 20thC. We suggest that within SW China caves serve as both refuges and a valuable source of germplasm for the restoration of karst forest. We also propose that caves represent a

  8. Discovery of a diverse cave flora in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Alexandre K; Bystriakova, Nadia; Fu, Longfei; Wen, Fang; Wei, Yigang

    2018-01-01

    Few studies document plants in caves. Our field observations of a widespread and seemingly angiosperm-rich cave flora in SW China lead us to test the following hypotheses, 1) SW China caves contain a diverse vascular plant flora, 2) that this is a relic of a largely absent forest type lacking endemic species, and 3) that the light environment plants occupy in caves is not distinct from non-cave habitats. To do so we surveyed 61 caves and used species accumulation curves (SAC) to estimate the total diversity of this flora and used a subsample of 14 caves to characterise the light environment. We used regional floras and existing conservation assessments to evaluate the conservation value of this flora. We used observations on human disturbance within caves to evaluate anthropogenic activities. Four-hundred-and-eighteen vascular plant species were documented with SACs predicting a total diversity of 529-846. Ninety-three percent of the species documented are known karst forest species, 7% are endemic to caves and 81% of the species are angiosperms. We demonstrate that the light environment in caves is distinct to that of terrestrial habitats and that a subset of the flora likely grow in the lowest light levels documented for vascularised plants. Our results suggest that the proportion of species threatened with extinction is like that for the terrestrial habitat and that almost half of the entrance caverns sampled showed signs of human disturbance. We believe that this is the first time that such an extensive sample of cave flora has been undertaken and that such a diverse vascular plant flora has been observed in caves which we predict occurs elsewhere in SE Asia. We argue that the cave flora is an extension of the karst forest understory present prior to catastrophic deforestation in the 20thC. We suggest that within SW China caves serve as both refuges and a valuable source of germplasm for the restoration of karst forest. We also propose that caves represent a

  9. Algal Turf Scrubbers: Cleaning Water While Capturing Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adey, W.

    2009-01-01

    Algal Turfs and Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) Algal Turfs are bio diverse communities of unicellular to filamentous algae of all major algal phyla. Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) are bioengineered ecosystems dominated by algal turfs. They clean water to very high quality, and remove CO 2 from the atmosphere by capturing solar energy at rates 10 times that of agriculture and 50 times that of forestry. ATS was invented at the Smithsonian Institution, by scientist, Walter Adey in the 1980s as a tool for controlling water quality in highly diverse model ecosystems. The technology received extensive R and D for aqua cultural, municipal, and industrial water cleaning by Dr. Adey, using venture capital, through the 1990s. Later, Hydro Mentia, Inc., of Ocala, Florida, engineered ATS to landscape scale of 20-50 Mgpd (it is important to note that this is a modular system, capable of expanding to any size.) A 2005 independent study of ATS, by the South Florida Water Management District and the IFAS Institute of the University of Florida, certified ATS as 5-100 times more cost efficient at removing nutrients from Everglades canal waters than the next competitor, the STA, a managed marsh system. ATS and STA were the final contestants in a 15-year study of nine technologies, and ATS was the only technology that created a use able byproduct.

  10. Bacterial flora of conjunctiva after death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagili Chandrasekhara Reddy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the frequency of bacterial flora of conjunctiva after death (cadaver eyes which will give information about the bacterial contamination of donor eyes, and the in-vitro sensitivity of isolated bacteria to the commonly used antibiotics in ophthalmic practice.METHODS: Conjunctival swabs were taken from the cadavers (motor vehicle accident deaths and patients who died in the hospital, within 6h after death, and sent for culture and sensitivity test. Conjunctival swabs, taken from the healthy conjunctiva of patients admitted for cataract surgery, were sent for culture and sensitivity as controls (eyes in those of living status. The bacterial isolates were tested against the commonly used antibiotics (chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin in ophthalmology practice.RESULTS: Bacteria were isolated in 41 out of 100 conjunctival swabs (41%, taken from 50 cadavers (study group. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most common bacteria isolated (15%, followed by pseudomonas aeruginosa (5%. Gentamicin was effective against majority of the bacterial isolates (82%. Bacteria were isolated from 7 out of 100 conjunctival swabs taken as control group (eyes in living state. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most common organism (5% isolated in control group; the others were staphylococcus aureus (1% and beta hemolyticus streptococci (1%.CONCLUSION: Bacteria were isolated from 41% of the cadaver eyes. High percentage sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to gentamicin (82% supports the practice of thorough irrigation of the eyes with gentamicin solution before starting the procedure of enucleation followed by immersion of the enucleated eyeballs in gentamycin solution, to prevent the bacterial contamination.

  11. Flora y fauna crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Chávez-Silverman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available “Flora & Fauna Crónica” is from the book, Killer Crónicas, which will be published by the University of Wisconsin Press in 2004. This collection of chronicles began in 2000, after Susana was awarded a fellowship by the US National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH for a project on contemporary Argentine women's poetry. She spent thirteen months in Buenos Aires where, in addition to research and writing on her official (academic book, she began to send bilingual, punning “letters from the southern [cone] front” to colleagues and friends by email. Susana says: “Living in Buenos Aires, that gorgeous, turn of the century city in a country on the brink of (economic collapse—home to many of the authors and artists I had long admired (Borges, Cortázar, Alfonsina Storni, Alejandra Pizarnik, and before them the foundational Romantics, Sarmiento and Echeverría—brought out a sense of self, dis/placed yet oddly at home, in a cultural, linguistic and even tangible way. In Buenos Aires, the fragmented parts of me, the voices, cultures, and places inside of me, rubbed up against each other and struck fire. I called my email missives “Crónicas,” inspired by the somewhat rough-hewn, journalistic, often fantastic first-hand accounts sent “home” by the early conquistadores, and refashioned by modern-day counterparts such as Carlos Monsiváis, Elena Poniatowska, and Cristina Pacheco.” One of Susana’s crónicas, “Anniversary Crónica,” inspired by the wedding anniversary of Susana’s parents and by the so-called “Soweto Riots” in South Africa, was recently awarded First prize in Personal Memoir in the Chicano Literary Excellence Contest sponsored by the U.S. national literary magazine el Andar.

  12. Evaluation of Harmful Algal Bloom Outreach Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Weisman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available With an apparent increase of harmful algal blooms (HABs worldwide,healthcare providers, public health personnel and coastal managers are struggling toprovide scientifically-based appropriately-targeted HAB outreach and education. Since1998, the Florida Poison Information Center-Miami, with its 24 hour/365 day/year freeAquatic Toxins Hotline (1-888-232-8635 available in several languages, has received over 25,000 HAB-related calls. As part of HAB surveillance, all possible cases of HAB-relatedillness among callers are reported to the Florida Health Department. This pilot studyevaluated an automated call processing menu system that allows callers to access bilingualHAB information, and to speak directly with a trained Poison Information Specialist. Themajority (68% of callers reported satisfaction with the information, and many provided specific suggestions for improvement. This pilot study, the first known evaluation of use and satisfaction with HAB educational outreach materials, demonstrated that the automated system provided useful HAB-related information for the majority of callers, and decreased the routine informational call workload for the Poison Information Specialists, allowing them to focus on callers needing immediate assistance and their healthcare providers. These results will lead to improvement of this valuable HAB outreach, education and surveillance tool. Formal evaluation is recommended for future HAB outreach and educational materials.

  13. Benthic algal vegetation in Isfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Fredriksen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic algal vegetation was investigated at 10 sites in Isfjorden, Svalbard. Five sites were visited during summer 2010 and five during summer 2012. Both the littoral and sublittoral vegetation were sampled, the littoral by hand-picking and use of a throwable rake and the sublittoral using a triangular dredge. A total of 88 different taxa were registered, comprising 17 Chlorophyta, 40 Ochrophyta, 30 Rhodophyta and the Xantophyceae Vaucheria sp. The green algae Ulvaria splendens (Ruprecht Vinogradova was recorded in Svalbard for the first time. Most of the sites consisted of hard bottom substrate, but one site, Kapp Wijk, consisted of loose-lying calcareous red algae (rhodoliths and had species not recorded elsewhere. The sublittoral at the other sites was dominated by kelp. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of the red alga Ceramium virgatum and a dwarf form of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. This study provides a baseline for future studies investigating changes in the vegetation due to environmental changes.

  14. Adsorption of Nanoplastics on Algal Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Lin, Sijie; Ke, Pu Chun

    2010-03-01

    The rapid accumulation of disposed plastics in the environment, especially in the Pacific Ocean, has become a global concern in recent years. Photo, chemical and physical degradations constantly fragment these plastics into a wide array of macroscopic to microscopic particles. As a result, marine organisms such as algae may be exposed to plastic particles through ingestion, adsorption and other forms of uptake. Such interactions, currently little understood, could potentially impact on the health state of the entire food chain. Here we report on polystyrene-algae interaction and its impact on algal photosynthesis. We first investigated the adsorption of polystyrene beads (20 nm) on a cellulose film coated on a 96-well plate. We derived a supralinear increase of the adsorption with the beads concentration for both positively and negatively charged polystyrene beads, with a saturation observed for the negatively charged polystyrene beads of concentration above 1.6 mg/mL. Using a bicarbonate indicator we discovered decreased carbon dioxide depletion due to polystyrene-algae binding. Since polystyrene beads also mediated algae aggregation, nanoplastics may alternatively be harnessed for waste water treatment.

  15. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and fish kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins in both recreational waters and drinking source waters. Successful cyanoHAB assessment by satellites may provide a first-line of defense indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, assessment methods were developed to determine the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB occurrence frequency at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imager (OLCI) launched in 2016. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, there were 275,897 lakes and reservoirs greater than 1 hectare in the 48 U.S. states. Results from this evaluation show that 5.6 % of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single pixel resolution and 0.7 % of waterbodies were resolvable when a 3x3 pixel array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data was also spatially joined to US public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single pixel resolution resolved 57% of PWSI and a 3x3 pixel array resolved 33% of

  16. Linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Mayer, Philipp

    Unitless chemical activity, expressing the energetic level of a compound relative to its energetic level in pure liquid [0-1], has proven useful to quantify the effective exposure to hydrophobic organic compounds through both aerial and aqueous media. Several studies have linked toxicity to chemi......Unitless chemical activity, expressing the energetic level of a compound relative to its energetic level in pure liquid [0-1], has proven useful to quantify the effective exposure to hydrophobic organic compounds through both aerial and aqueous media. Several studies have linked toxicity...... to chemical activity, as opposed to e.g. the total concentration. Baseline toxicity (narcosis) for neutral hydrophobic organic compounds has been shown to initiate in the narrow chemical activity range of 0.01 to 0.1. This presentation focuses on linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity......-polar liquids were applied to challenge the chemical activity range for baseline toxicity. For each compound, the effective activity (Ea50) was estimated as the ratio of the effective concentration (EC50) and water solubility. Of these ratios, 90% were within the expected chemical activity range of 0.01 to 0...

  17. Do Mixed-Flora Preoperative Urine Cultures Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, Michael R; Kawasaki, Amie; Amundsen, Cindy L; Weidner, Alison C; Siddiqui, Nazema Y

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether mixed-flora preoperative urine cultures, as compared with no-growth preoperative urine cultures, are associated with a higher prevalence of postoperative urinary tract infections (UTIs). This was a retrospective cohort study. Women who underwent urogynecologic surgery were included if their preoperative clean-catch urine culture result was mixed flora or no growth. Women were excluded if they received postoperative antibiotics for reasons other than treatment of a UTI. Women were divided into two cohorts based on preoperative urine culture results-mixed flora or no growth; the prevalence of postoperative UTI was compared between cohorts. Baseline characteristics were compared using χ 2 or Student t tests. A logistic regression analysis then was performed. We included 282 women who were predominantly postmenopausal, white, and overweight. There were many concomitant procedures; 46% underwent a midurethral sling procedure and 68% underwent pelvic organ prolapse surgery. Preoperative urine cultures resulted as mixed flora in 192 (68%) and no growth in 90 (32%) patients. Overall, 14% were treated for a UTI postoperatively. There was no difference in the proportion of patients treated for a postoperative UTI between the two cohorts (25 mixed flora vs 13 no growth, P = 0.77). These results remained when controlling for potentially confounding variables in a logistic regression model (adjusted odds ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.43-1.96). In women with mixed-flora compared with no-growth preoperative urine cultures, there were no differences in the prevalence of postoperative UTI. The clinical practice of interpreting mixed-flora cultures as negative is appropriate.

  18. Microbial flora analysis for the degradation of beta-cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhang; Wei, Zhang

    2017-03-01

    In the Xinjiang region of Eurasia, sustained long-term and continuous cropping of cotton over a wide expanse of land is practiced, which requires application of high levels of pyrethroid and other classes of pesticides-resulting in high levels of pesticide residues in the soil. In this study, soil samples were collected from areas of long-term continuous cotton crops with the aim of obtaining microbial resources applicable for remediation of pyrethroid pesticide contamination suitable for the soil type and climate of that area. Soil samples were first used to culture microbial flora capable of degrading beta-cypermethrin using an enrichment culture method. Structural changes and ultimate microbial floral composition during enrichment were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Four strains capable of degrading beta-cypermethrin were isolated and preliminarily classified. Finally, comparative rates and speeds of degradation of beta-cypermethrin between relevant microbial flora and single strains were determined. After continuous subculture for 3 weeks, soil sample microbial flora formed a new type of microbial flora by rapid succession, which showed stable growth by utilizing beta-cypermethrin as the sole carbon source (GXzq). This microbial flora mainly consisted of Pseudomonas, Hyphomicrobium, Dokdonella, and Methyloversatilis. Analysis of the microbial flora also permitted separation of four additional strains; i.e., GXZQ4, GXZQ6, GXZQ7, and GXZQ13 that, respectively, belonged to Streptomyces, Enterobacter, Streptomyces, and Pseudomonas. Under culture conditions of 37 °C and 180 rpm, the degradation rate of beta-cypermethrin by GXzq was as high as 89.84% within 96 h, which exceeded that achieved by the single strains GXZQ4, GXZQ6, GXZQ7, and GXZQ13 and their derived microbial flora GXh.

  19. Energetic potential of algal biomass from high-rate algal ponds for the production of solid biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Taynan de Oliveira; Calijuri, Maria Lúcia; Avelar, Nayara Vilela; Carneiro, Angélica de Cássia de Oliveira; de Assis, Letícia Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    In this investigation, chemical characteristics, higher, lower and net heating value, bulk and energy density, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to study the thermal characteristics of three algal biomasses. These biomasses, grown as by-products of wastewater treatment in high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs), were: (i) biomass produced in domestic effluent and collected directly from an HRAP (PO); (ii) biomass produced in domestic effluent in a mixed pond-panel system and collected from the panels (PA); and (iii) biomass originating from the treatment effluent from the meat processing industry and collected directly from an HRAP (IN). The biomass IN was the best alternative for thermal power generation. Subsequently, a mixture of the algal biomasses and Jatropha epicarp was used to produce briquettes containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of algal biomass, and their properties were evaluated. In general, the addition of algal biomass to briquettes decreased both the hygroscopicity and fixed carbon content and increased the bulk density, ash content, and energy density. A 50% proportion of biomass IN was found to be the best raw material for producing briquettes. Therefore, the production of briquettes consisting of algal biomass and Jatropha epicarp at a laboratory scale was shown to be technically feasible.

  20. Ceramic Ultrafiltration of Marine Algal Solutions: A Comprehensive Study

    KAUST Repository

    Dramas, Laure

    2014-09-01

    Algal bloom can significantly impact reverse osmosis desalination process and reduce the drinking water production. In 2008, a major bloom event forced several UAE reverse osmosis plants to stop their production, and in this context, a better understanding of UF membrane fouling caused by algal organic matter (AOM) is needed, in order to adjust the filtration conditions during algal bloom events. Polymeric MF/UF membranes are already widely used for RO pretreatment, but ceramic UF membranes can also be an alternative for the filtration of marine algal solutions. The fouling potential of the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea, sampled at different seasons, along with four algal monocultures grown in laboratory, and one mesocosm experiment in the Red Sea was investigated. Algal solutions induce a stronger and more irreversible fouling than terrestrial humic solution, toward ceramic membrane. During algal bloom events, this fouling is enhanced and becomes even more problematic at the decline phase of the bloom, for a similar initial DOC. Three main mechanisms are involved: the formation of a cake layer at the membrane surface; the penetration of the algal organic matter (AOM) in the pore network of the membrane; the strong adhesion of AOM with the membrane surface. The last mechanism is species-specific and metal-oxide specific. In order to understand the stronger ceramic UF fouling at the decline phase, AOM quality was analyzed every two days. During growth, AOM is getting enriched in High Molecular Weight (HMW) structures (> 200 kDa), which are mainly composed by proteins and polysaccharides, and these compounds seem to be responsible for the stronger fouling at decline phase. In order to prevent the fouling of ceramic membrane, coagulation-flocculation (CF) using ferric chloride was implemented prior to filtration. It permits a high removal of HMW compounds and greatly reduces the fouling potential of the algal solution. During brief algal bloom events, CF should be

  1. Geographical analysis of the Uredinales flora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the Polish flora of the order Uredinales is based on a simultaneously published descriptive elaboration (M a j e w s k i 1977, ms. The information on the Uredinales flora of Poland has been compared as far as possible with the data obtained from the analysis of the flora of sever al other countries in Europe with a different type of vegetations. In a chapter devoted to the statistics of the flora of Polish rust fungi the number of genera and species of these fungi in Poland is discussed, as well as their life cycles and host plants. The distribution of Uredinales in Poland is analysed on the basis of the A r w i d s s o n - D u r r i e u classification modified by the author, and particular attention is paid to the depedence of the range of the fungus on its life cycle and the occurrence of the host. Changes in the flora a result of its synantropization are also considered. The Polish Uredinales are divided into several groups on the basis of range, and example of their distribution involving historical factors are discussed.

  2. A biogeographical study on tropical flora of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua

    2017-12-01

    The tropical climate in China exists in southeastern Xizang (Tibet), southwestern to southeastern Yunnan, southwestern Guangxi, southern Guangdon, southern Taiwan, and Hainan, and these southern Chinese areas contain tropical floras. I checked and synonymized native seed plants from these tropical areas in China and recognized 12,844 species of seed plants included in 2,181 genera and 227 families. In the tropical flora of southern China, the families are mainly distributed in tropical areas and extend into temperate zones and contribute to the majority of the taxa present. The genera with tropical distributions also make up the most of the total flora. In terms of geographical elements, the genera with tropical Asian distribution constitute the highest proportion, which implies tropical Asian or Indo-Malaysia affinity. Floristic composition and geographical elements are conspicuous from region to region due to different geological history and ecological environments, although floristic similarities from these regions are more than 90% and 64% at the family and generic levels, respectively, but lower than 50% at specific level. These differences in the regional floras could be influenced by historical events associated with the uplift of the Himalayas, such as the southeastward extrusion of the Indochina geoblock, clockwise rotation and southeastward movement of Lanping-Simao geoblock, and southeastward movement of Hainan Island. The similarity coefficients between the flora of southern China and those of Indochina countries are more than 96% and 80% at family and generic levels, indicating their close floristic affinity and inclusion in the same biogeographically floristic unit.

  3. [The microbial flora in the digestive tract and diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svačina, Štěpán

    2015-04-01

    The microbial flora in the digestive tract has been recently studied in relation to metabolic diseases. There are relations to both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. The intestinal flora is affected by diet, physical exercise and it significantly changes after bariatric surgeries. Giving birth by caesarean section affects the gut flora development and increases the risk of type 1 diabetes in further life of the child. Obese patients with type 2 diabetes may lack protective microbes which improve glucoregulation in the experiment or on the contrary their patogenous microbes may grow which have been proven to even be able to penetrate into abdominal adipose tissue and play a role, inter alia, in the hepatic impairment and systemic inflammation. Also vaccination against these microbes is under consideration. Microbiome can be also positively affected by metformin treatment. The transfer of intestinal flora by means of fecal transplantation can improve glucoregulation. The influencing of intestinal flora is likely to become a new mechanism of diabetes treatment.

  4. A Cretaceous origin for fire adaptations in the Cape flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tianhua; Lamont, Byron B; Manning, John

    2016-10-05

    Fire has had a profound effect on the evolution of worldwide biotas. The Cape Floristic Region is one of the world's most species-rich regions, yet it is highly prone to recurrent fires and fire-adapted species contribute strongly to the overall flora. It is hypothesized that the current fire regimes in the Cape could be as old as 6-8 million years (My), while indirect evidence indicates that the onset of fire could have reached 18 million years ago (Ma). Here, we trace the origin of fire-dependent traits in two monocot families that are significant elements in the fire-prone Cape flora. Our analysis shows that fire-stimulated flowering originated in the Cape Haemodoraceae 81 Ma, while fire-stimulated germination arose in the African Restionaceae at least 70 Ma, implying that wildfires have been a significant force in the evolution of the Cape flora at least 60 My earlier than previous estimates. Our results provide strong evidence for the presence of fire adaptations in the Cape from the Cretaceous, leading to the extraordinary persistence of a fire-adapted flora in this biodiversity hotspot, and giving support to the hypothesis that Cretaceous fire was a global phenomenon that shaped the evolution of terrestrial floras.

  5. Does circumcision alter the periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Ahmad Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised boys and to evaluate the effect of circumcision on alteration of periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora. Materials and Methods: Pattern of periurethral bacterial flora before and after circumcision was studied prospectively in 124 boys. The results were analysed to compare change in bacterial colonisation before and after circumcision. Results: The age range was 6 weeks to 96 months. Most (94.3% of the boys had religious indication and 5.7% had medical indication for circumcision. E. coli, Proteus and Klebsiella were most common periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised subjects. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus was most common periurethral bacterial flora in circumcised subjects. In 66.1% of circumcised subjects, no bacteria were grown from periurethral region. Conclusion: We conclude that presence of prepuce is associated with great quantity of periurethral bacteria, greater likelihood of the presence of high concentration of uropathogens and high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI. This study provides circumstantial evidence supporting the idea that early circumcision may be beneficial for prevention of UTI.

  6. Diatom flora in subterranean ecosystems: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Falasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora, mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges with the substratum, inducing the adsorption of cations and dissolved organic molecules from the cave formations (speleothems. Coupled with the metabolic activities of heterotrophic microorganisms colonising such layer (biofilm, this phenomenon may lead to the corrosion of the mineral surfaces. In this review, we investigate the formation of biofilms, especially of diatom-dominated ones, as a consequence of artificial lighting and its impacts on speleothems. Whenever light reaches the subterranean habitat (both artificially and naturally a relative high number of species of diatoms may indeed colonise it. Cave entrances, artificially illuminated walls and speleothems inside the cave are generally the preferred substrates. This review focuses on the diatom flora colonising subterranean habitats, summarizing the information contained in all the scientific papers published from 1900 up to date. In this review we provide a complete checklist of the diatom taxa recorded in subterranean habitats, including a total of 363 taxa, belonging to 82 genera. The most frequent and abundant species recorded in caves and other low light subterranean habitats are generally aerophilic and

  7. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIOCÂRLAN VASILE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are present and discussed the fact that the legitimate name is Cirsium heterophyllum (L. Hill and the synonime name is Cirsium helenioides auct., non (L. Hill.In the flora of Romania, as well as in Europe, is growing Cirsium heterophyllum (L. Hill; Cirsium helenioides (L. Hill is growing in Central Asia and in Siberie.Follow, it is showed that the taxa Juncus trifidus L. ssp. monanthos (Jacq. Asch. & Graebn. is not growing in the flora of Romania. There is presented an infraspecific taxa, new for the science, namely: Juncus trifidus L. ssp. trifidus var. brevifolia Ciocârlan var. nova., discovered in the Mountains of Cozia (Vâlcea county.Also, in this paper is presented two rare plants in the flora of Romania: Dianthus kladovanus Degen and Thymus longicaulis C. Presl, species listed in the “Red Lists”, discovered by the author in new localities.

  8. Characteristic Flora and Fauna of the Kachin State, Northern Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Yi Win; Cilia Linburt; Yin Yin May

    2005-10-01

    Three biological expeditions was made from June 2003 to June 2004. Altitude is a major factor among the differences of flora and fauna distribution. Hkakaborazi (19296') is a reservoir of glaciers with permanent ice and snow from which rivers. Melikha and Maekha emanate. Ayeyarwaddy river formed from those two rivers and flow beside Myirkyina. Therefore, water quality of each river and their tributaries are cool and fresh. This quality can preserve endemic species. Unknown species of jellyfishes of Ayeyarwaddy river was collected from Myitkyina environ. Also, three different terrestrial habitats namely icy-mountain range, cool temperature and subtropical forest can conserve their characteristic flora and fauna. Flora and fauna distribution is always related to their habitat or environs. Diagnostic features of each species were recorded by photographs. The findings were discussed from conservation point of view.

  9. Androsace septentrionalis (Primulaceae), a new species for the Balkan flora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, V.; Vukojicic, S.; Tan, Kit

    2005-01-01

    Androsace septentrionalis L. (Primulaceae) is recorded as a new species for the Balkan flora on the basis of herbarium material collected several times from Mt. Prokletije, situated near the borders of Serbia (Metochia and Kosovo province), Montenegro and Albania. The locality marks the southernm......Androsace septentrionalis L. (Primulaceae) is recorded as a new species for the Balkan flora on the basis of herbarium material collected several times from Mt. Prokletije, situated near the borders of Serbia (Metochia and Kosovo province), Montenegro and Albania. The locality marks...... the southernmost limit of the species' range in Europe. The existence of A. septentrionalis in the Balkans may be the result of migration of the tundra-steppe flora from central and East Europe towards the mountains of the peninsula during the Ice Age....

  10. Comprehensive Evaluation of Algal Biofuel Production: Experimental and Target Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin M. Beal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, algal biofuel research and development efforts have focused on increasing the competitiveness of algal biofuels by increasing the energy and financial return on investments, reducing water intensity and resource requirements, and increasing algal productivity. In this study, analyses are presented in each of these areas—costs, resource needs, and productivity—for two cases: (1 an Experimental Case, using mostly measured data for a lab-scale system, and (2 a theorized Highly Productive Case that represents an optimized commercial-scale production system, albeit one that relies on full-price water, nutrients, and carbon dioxide. For both cases, the analysis described herein concludes that the energy and financial return on investments are less than 1, the water intensity is greater than that for conventional fuels, and the amounts of required resources at a meaningful scale of production amount to significant fractions of current consumption (e.g., nitrogen. The analysis and presentation of results highlight critical areas for advancement and innovation that must occur for sustainable and profitable algal biofuel production can occur at a scale that yields significant petroleum displacement. To this end, targets for energy consumption, production cost, water consumption, and nutrient consumption are presented that would promote sustainable algal biofuel production. Furthermore, this work demonstrates a procedure and method by which subsequent advances in technology and biotechnology can be framed to track progress.

  11. Evaluation of attached periphytical algal communities for biofuel feedstock generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandefur, H.N.; Matlock, M.D.; Costello, T.A. [Arkansas Univ., Division of Agriculture, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Center for Agricultural and Rural Sustainability

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that investigated the feasibility of using algal biomass as a feedstock for biofuel production. Algae has a high lipid content, and with its high rate of production, it can produce more oil on less land than traditional bioenergy crops. In addition, algal communities can remove nutrients from wastewater. Enclosed photobioreactors and open pond systems are among the many different algal growth systems that can be highly productive. However, they can also be difficult to maintain. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the ability of a pilot scale algal turf scrubber (ATS) to facilitate the growth of attached periphytic algal communities for the production of biomass feedstock and the removal of nutrients from a local stream in Springdale, Arizona. The ATS operated for a 9 month sampling period, during which time the system productivity averaged 26 g per m{sup 2} per day. The removal of total phosphorus and total nitrogen averaged 48 and 13 per cent, respectively.

  12. Four neophytes new for the flora of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđije Milanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During systematic field research carried out in the wider Posavina region, Livanjsko polje, and the environs of Zavidovići (Bosnia and Herzegovina, the following four neophytes new for the flora of the country were recorded: Hypericum majus, Juncus dudleyi, Symphyotrichum lanceolatum and Sisyrinchium montanum. While the last two species have been previously recorded from the region (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum from Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Slovenia; Sisyrinchium montanum from Croatia, Hypericum majus and Juncus dudleyi are here registered as new for the neophyte flora of the Balkan Peninsula

  13. Bacterial flora of soil after application of oily waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, V

    1975-01-01

    The influence of mineral oils and oily waste on the bacterial flora of soil was studied both in the field and in model experiments by plate counts followed by examination of the composition of the bacterial flora developing on the plates and by enrichment cultures followed by isolation of pure cultures. A strong increase in bacterial numbers after oil application was observed both in field and model experiments, and this increase occurred within all groups of bacteria, except spore formers and streptomycetes. The most important species of oil decomposing bacteria belonged to the genera Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas.

  14. New Records To The Vascular Flora Of Kazakhstan (Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel Aleksandr L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents distributional data for seven species new for the flora of Kazakhstan: Atriplex gardneri var. aptera (A. Nelson S. L. Welsh. & Crompton, Cardamine hirsuta L., Carduus acanthoides L., Galega orientalis Lam., Silene cserei Baumg., Didymophysa fedtschenkoana Regel and Acinos arvensis (Lam. Dandy. Didymophysa fedtschenkoana is a native element in the Kazakh flora; the other species should be treated as alien, expansively spreading or invasive in this part of Asia. A list of localities of the species in Kazakhstan and their habitat preferences are presented.

  15. The Permian mega floras of Uruguay.A synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisafulli, A.; Herbst, R.

    2007-01-01

    The Permian megafloras of Uruguay. A synthesis. An analysis of the impression and fossil wood floras from the Permian of Uruguay is given through a series of Tables. These show : (1) the list of taxa, (2) anatomical characters of the woods, (3) data on the microfloral associations, (4) paleoenvironmental information and (5) comparisons with contemporaneous Gondwana floras. The evolutionary degree of the woods is briefly analyzed where they correspond to the so-called ''transition xilotaphofloras'' as they present typical Paleozoic anatomical characters but with secondary xylem of more advanced characteristics. (author)

  16. Copper removal by algae Gelidium, agar extraction algal waste and granulated algal waste: kinetics and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-03-01

    Biosorption of copper ions by an industrial algal waste, from agar extraction industry has been studied in a batch system. This biosorbent was compared with the algae Gelidium itself, which is the raw material for agar extraction, and the industrial waste immobilized with polyacrylonitrile (composite material). The effects of contact time, pH, ionic strength (IS) and temperature on the biosorption process have been studied. Equilibrium data follow both Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The parameters of Langmuir equilibrium model were: q(max)=33.0mgg(-1), K(L)=0.015mgl(-1); q(max)=16.7mgg(-1), K(L)=0.028mgl(-1) and q(max)=10.3mgg(-1), K(L)=0.160mgl(-1) respectively for Gelidium, algal waste and composite material at pH=5.3, T=20 degrees C and IS=0.001M. Increasing the pH, the number of deprotonated active sites increases and so the uptake capacity of copper ions. In the case of high ionic strengths, the contribution of the electrostatic component to the overall binding decreases, and so the uptake capacity. The temperature has little influence on the uptake capacity principally for low equilibrium copper concentrations. Changes in standard enthalpy, Gibbs energy and entropy during biosorption were determined. Kinetic data at different solution pH (3, 4 and 5.3) were fitted to pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The adsorptive behaviour of biosorbent particles was modelled using a batch reactor mass transfer kinetic model, which successfully predicts Cu(II) concentration profiles.

  17. Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dolah, Frances M.

    2000-01-01

    Certain marine algae produce potent toxins that impact human health through the consumption of contaminated shellfish and finfish and through water or aerosol exposure. Over the past three decades, the frequency and global distribution of toxic algal incidents appear to have increased, and human intoxications from novel algal sources have occurred. This increase is of particular concern, since it parallels recent evidence of large-scale ecologic disturbances that coincide with trends in global warming. The extent to which human activities have contributed to their increase therefore comes into question. This review summarizes the origins and health effects of marine algal toxins, as well as changes in their current global distribution, and examines possible causes for the recent increase in their occurrence. (Author)

  18. Hydrogen from algal biomass: A review of production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archita Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multifariousness of biofuel sources has marked an edge to an imperative energy issue. Production of hydrogen from microalgae has been gathering much contemplation right away. But, mercantile production of microalgae biofuels considering bio-hydrogen is still not practicable because of low biomass concentration and costly down streaming processes. This review has taken up the hydrogen production by microalgae. Biofuels are the up and coming alternative to exhaustible, environmentally and unsafe fossil fuels. Algal biomass has been considered as an enticing raw material for biofuel production, these days photobioreactors and open-air systems are being used for hydrogen production from algal biomass. The formers allow the careful cultivation control whereas the latter ones are cheaper and simpler. A contemporary, encouraging optimization access has been included called algal cell immobilization on various matrixes which has resulted in marked increase in the productivity per volume of a reactor and addition of the hydrogen-production phase.

  19. Hydrogen production from algal biomass - Advances, challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Yan, Yuegen; Ling, Ming; Ye, Guoxiang; Li, Ting; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2018-06-01

    Extensive effort is being made to explore renewable energy in replacing fossil fuels. Biohydrogen is a promising future fuel because of its clean and high energy content. A challenging issue in establishing hydrogen economy is sustainability. Biohydrogen has the potential for renewable biofuel, and could replace current hydrogen production through fossil fuel thermo-chemical processes. A promising source of biohydrogen is conversion from algal biomass, which is abundant, clean and renewable. Unlike other well-developed biofuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel, production of hydrogen from algal biomass is still in the early stage of development. There are a variety of technologies for algal hydrogen production, and some laboratory- and pilot-scale systems have demonstrated a good potential for full-scale implementation. This work presents an elucidation on development in biohydrogen encompassing biological pathways, bioreactor designs and operation and techno-economic evaluation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Catalytic Processes for Utilizing Carbohydrates Derived from Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Yamaguchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The high productivity of oil biosynthesized by microalgae has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Due to the application of such oils in jet fuels, the algal biosynthetic pathway toward oil components has been extensively researched. However, the utilization of the residue from algal cells after oil extraction has been overlooked. This residue is mainly composed of carbohydrates (starch, and so we herein describe the novel processes available for the production of useful chemicals from algal biomass-derived sugars. In particular, this review highlights our latest research in generating lactic acid and levulinic acid derivatives from polysaccharides and monosaccharides using homogeneous catalysts. Furthermore, based on previous reports, we discuss the potential of heterogeneous catalysts for application in such processes.

  1. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2011-01-01

    wastewater. Algae capture CO2 from atmosphere and industrial flue gases and transform it in to organic biomass that can be used for the production of biofuels. Like other biomass, algal biomass is also a carbon neutral source for the production of bioenergy. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provides......In recent years research activities are intensively focused on renewable fuels in order to fulfill the increasing energy demand and to reduce the fossil fuels consumption and external oil dependency either in order to provide local energetic resources and or as a means for reducing greenhouse gases...... (GHG) emissions to reduce the climate change effects. Among the various renewable energy sources algal biofuels is a very promising source of biomass as algae sequester huge quantities of carbon from atmosphere and are very efficient in utilizing the nutrients from the industrial effluent and municipal...

  2. Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-COMM) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Stephen P. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-12-04

    The Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-Comm) was established in 2010 to conduct research to enable commercial viability of alternative liquid fuels produced from algal biomass. The main objective of CAB-Comm was to dramatically improve the viability of algae as a source of liquid fuels to meet US energy needs, by addressing several significant barriers to economic viability. To achieve this goal, CAB-Comm took a diverse set of approaches on three key aspects of the algal biofuels value chain: crop protection; nutrient utilization and recycling; and the development of genetic tools. These projects have been undertaken as collaboration between six academic institutions and two industrial partners: University of California, San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Rutgers University; University of California, Davis; Johns Hopkins University; Sapphire Energy; and Life Technologies.

  3. Early detection of protozoan grazers in algal biofuel cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John G; Thomas, Naomi J; Achilles-Day, Undine E M; Leakey, Raymond J G

    2012-06-01

    Future micro-algal biofuels will most likely be derived from open-pond production systems. These are by definition open to "invasion" by grazers, which could devastate micro-algal mass-cultures. There is an urgent requirement for methodologies capable of early detection and control of grazers in dense algal cultures. In this study a model system employing the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata was challenged by grazers including ciliates, amoebae and a heterotrophic dinoflagellate. A FlowCAM flow-cytometer was used to detect all grazers investigated (size range 80 μm in length) in the presence of algae. Detection limits were 1.4 × 10(8) cells ml(-1) (>0.5 g l(-1) dry wt.). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Algal blooms: an emerging threat to seawater reverse osmosis desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2014-08-04

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology has been rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity and global application over the last decade. An emerging threat to SWRO application is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational problems in SWRO plants due to clogging and poor effluent quality of the pre-treatment system which eventually forced the shutdown of various desalination plants to avoid irreversible fouling of downstream SWRO membranes. This article summarizes the current state of SWRO technology and the emerging threat of algal blooms to its application. It also highlights the importance of studying the algal bloom phenomena in the perspective of seawater desalination, so proper mitigation and preventive strategies can be developed in the near future. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  5. Algal blooms: an emerging threat to seawater reverse osmosis desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh; Dhakal, N.; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Kennedy, Maria Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology has been rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity and global application over the last decade. An emerging threat to SWRO application is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational problems in SWRO plants due to clogging and poor effluent quality of the pre-treatment system which eventually forced the shutdown of various desalination plants to avoid irreversible fouling of downstream SWRO membranes. This article summarizes the current state of SWRO technology and the emerging threat of algal blooms to its application. It also highlights the importance of studying the algal bloom phenomena in the perspective of seawater desalination, so proper mitigation and preventive strategies can be developed in the near future. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  6. Flora tugevdas jaotustegevuse ümberkorraldamisega kaubamärki / Rivo Sarapik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Avtomobili i transport 19. märts lk. 6. Flora logistikakogemus: oma autopargist ja laost loobumine aitas keemiafirmal Flora suurendada tootevalikut, kasvatada klientide arvu ning vähendada kulusid

  7. Association of sexually transmitted infections, Candida species, gram-positive flora and perianal flora with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Ali; Tuin, Hellen; Bliekendaal, Harry; Spaargaren, Joke

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterised by depletion of the normal Lactobacillus spp. and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. We investigated the composition of vaginal microbiota and their association with BV in women of reproductive age. Vaginal samples from 1197 women were analysed, whereby n=451 patients had normal flora and n=614 were diagnosed with BV, the remaining patients were diagnosed with having either intermediate flora (n=42) or dysbacteriosis (n=90). The reported results show that pathogens are associated with BV. This knowledge will further expand our understanding of events leading to BV, which may lead to more effective prevention and treatment strategies.

  8. Carbohydrate-degrading bacteria closely associated with Tetraselmis indica: Influence on algal growth

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Arora, M.; Anil, A.C.; Delany, J.; Rajarajan, N.; Emami, K.; Mesbahi, E.

    to promote growth of the algae. These experiments revealed that microbes associated with the alga differentially influence algal growth dynamics. Bacterial presence on the cast-off cell wall products of the alga suggested the likely utilisation of algal cell...

  9. Basic and Applied Algal Life Support System Research on Board the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, T.; Zea, L.; Anthony, J.; Stodieck, L.

    2018-02-01

    We study the effect of long-term preservation methods on DNA damage of algal cultures for BLSS applications. In a secondary step, the Deep Space Gateway serves as a technology demonstration platform for algal photobioreactors in intermittently occupied habitats.

  10. The dates of publication of Blume’s Flora Javae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1939-01-01

    The actual dates of publication of the greater part of BLUME’s Flora Javae (lit. 1) appear to be unknown among taxonomists. The title-page of the first volume is dated 1828, and we find the same year at the base of the preface. The volume containing the Orchideae (lit. 2) is dated 1858, but further

  11. A Synoptic Account of Flora of Solapur District, Maharashtra (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushnadeoray Garad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides the first systematic and comprehensive account of the flora of Solapur district of Maharashtra (India. The flora of this region demonstrates a wide range of species diversity and growth forms. The vegetation of the district mainly represents tropical dry deciduous forests, thorny open scrub and vast grasslands. During the present work, a total of 1441 taxa belonging to 699 genera and 125 families of flowering plants were recorded. A new species Crinum solapurense Gaikwad et al. is described. Fabaceae is the dominant family with 210 taxa, followed by Poaceae (157 taxa, Asteraceae (85 taxa, Malvaceae (68 taxa and Euphorbiaceae (48 taxa. Acacia is the largest genus with 25 taxa, followed by Euphorbia (23, Cyperus (22, Crotalaria (19 and Ipomoea (19. The herbaceous flora of the district is notable as it amounts to 56.21% of the whole of flora. The ratio of indigenous woody to herbaceous components is 1:1.28. The proportion of indigenous taxa (978 to the cultivated ones (460 is 1.35: 0.5 in the district.

  12. A synoptic account of flora of solapur district, maharashtra (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garad, Krushnadeoray U; Gore, Ramchandra D; Gaikwad, Sayajirao P

    2015-01-01

    The present paper provides the first systematic and comprehensive account of the flora of Solapur district of Maharashtra (India). The flora of this region demonstrates a wide range of species diversity and growth forms. The vegetation of the district mainly represents tropical dry deciduous forests, thorny open scrub and vast grasslands. During the present work, a total of 1441 taxa belonging to 699 genera and 125 families of flowering plants were recorded. A new species Crinumsolapurense Gaikwad et al. is described. Fabaceae is the dominant family with 210 taxa, followed by Poaceae (157 taxa), Asteraceae (85 taxa), Malvaceae (68 taxa) and Euphorbiaceae (48 taxa). Acacia is the largest genus with 25 taxa, followed by Euphorbia (23), Cyperus (22), Crotalaria (19) and Ipomoea (19). The herbaceous flora of the district is notable as it amounts to 56.21% of the whole of flora. The ratio of indigenous woody to herbaceous components is 1:1.28. The proportion of indigenous taxa (978) to the cultivated ones (460) is 1.35: 0.5 in the district.

  13. Alien flora of Turkey: checklist, taxonomic composition and ecological attributes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uludag, A.; Aksoy, N.; Yazlik, A.; Arslan, Z. F.; Yazmiş, E.; Üremiş, I.; Cossu, T. A.; Groom, Q.; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Brundu, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2017), s. 61-85 ISSN 1619-0033 Grant - others:COST(XE) TD1209; AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:FA; Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : alien flora * Turkey * invasions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation

  14. Vascular flora and macroscopic fauna on the Fernow Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlene M. Madarish; Jane L. Rodrigue; Mary Beth Adams

    2002-01-01

    This report is the first comprehensive inventory of the vascular flora and macroscopic fauna known to occur within the Fernow Experimental Forest in north-central West Virignia. The compendium is based on information obtained from previous surveys, current research, and the personal observations of USDA Forest Service personnel and independent scientists. More than 750...

  15. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Sipuncula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Edward B.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Key to Sipuncula (Peanut Worms); (3) Annotated Systematic List of Species;…

  16. Toothpaste formulation efficacy in reducing oral flora | Okpalugo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the microbial quality as well as the effectiveness of seven brands of toothpaste marketed in Abuja, Nigeria's capital city, for reducing oral bacterial flora. Methods: Seven brands of toothpaste were randomly purchased from the open market in Abuja. Two brands contained triclosan + sodium fluoride as ...

  17. Native flora rescue program: GASENE project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [Telsan, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jacomelli, Junior, Jose Almir [AGF Engenharia, Araucaria, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Concerning the surrounding flora, the implementation of pipelines may cause fragmentation and isolation of the remaining natural vegetation, possibly changing the forest structure; thus raising the border effect; modifying the ratio of species and life forms, decreasing the vegetal diversity and/or causing a lack of connectivity among the remaining indigenous forest resources. In the case of pipelines, the most important environmental measure intended to mitigate the damage caused to the flora is the adoption of Indigenous Flora Rescue Programs. This paper is aimed at analyzing the programs currently applied during the implementation of the GASENE project, by conducting a case study. The main targets of such program are obtaining seeds and fruits with a view to subsidize the potential production of sapling to be further employed in the recovery of areas impacted by the pipeline works; and then relocate the most significant samples of species rescued from the suppressed areas in order to comprise forest areas adjacent to the pipeline's right-of-way. The programs had little differences in their methodology while being implemented, however, we consider that up to the present moment the results obtained in the preservation of species of native flora have been satisfactory. (author)

  18. Enige diatomeeënsoorten, nieuw voor de Nederlandse flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Herman

    1974-01-01

    During an investigation of the epiphyton, growing on the culms of Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, and Glyceria maxima, in the nature-reserve “Het Naardermeer”, ten species of diatoms were discovered which are new for the Dutch flora. These are enumerated together with some notes on their

  19. Notulae to the Italian alien vascular flora: 4

    OpenAIRE

    Galasso,Gabriele; Domina,Gianniantonio; Bonari,Gianmaria; Buono,Sergio; Chianese,Giuseppina; Cortesi,Gloria; Cortesi,Gloria; Iamonico,Duilio; Olivieri,Nicola; Peruzzi,Lorenzo; Pierini,Brunello; Roma-Marzio,Francesco; Scoppola,Anna; Soldano,Adriano; Stinca,Adriano

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, new data concerning the Italian distribution of alien vascular flora are presented. It includes new records and exclusions for Italy or for Italian administrative regions of taxa in the genera Cedrus, Cenchrus, Citrus, Cyrtomium, Diospyros, Elaeagnus, Erigeron, Iris, Oenothera, Pavonia, Phytolacca, Styphnolobium, and Verbena. Furthermore, a new combination in the genus Amaranthus is proposed.

  20. Oral Hygiene and Oral Flora Evaluation in Psychiatric Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The oral hygiene of most patients was insufficient. The presence of Gram‑negative Bacilli growth in the oral flora can be explained by poor hand hygiene. These findings suggest that it is useful to educate individuals about oral hygiene and hand hygiene and to inform the staff and families about this issue.

  1. Distribution and diversity of flora and fauna in International Institute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution and diversity of flora and fauna in International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) forest and nature reserve, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. ... was also sighted in the study site and several other birds which normally winter around the lake. Key words: Ecology, Distribution, Diversity, Forest, Nature Reserve, IITA, ...

  2. Native flora rescue program: GASENE project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [Telsan, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jacomelli Junior, Jose Almir [AGF Engenharia, Araucaria, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Concerning the surrounding flora, the implementation of pipelines may cause fragmentation and isolation of the remaining natural vegetation, possibly changing the forest structure; thus raising the border effect; modifying the ratio of species and life forms, decreasing the vegetal diversity and/or causing a lack of connectivity among the remaining indigenous forest resources. In the case of pipelines, the most important environmental measure intended to mitigate the damage caused to the flora is the adoption of Indigenous Flora Rescue Programs. This paper is aimed at analyzing the programs currently applied during the implementation of the GASENE project, by conducting a case study. The main targets of such program are obtaining seeds and fruits with a view to subsidize the potential production of sapling to be further employed in the recovery of areas impacted by the pipeline works; and then relocate the most significant samples of species rescued from the suppressed areas in order to comprise forest areas adjacent to the pipeline's right-of-way. The programs had little differences in their methodology while being implemented, however, we consider that up to the present moment the results obtained in the preservation of species of native flora have been satisfactory. (author)

  3. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 2: This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant community...

  4. Investigations on ileal microbial flora in weaning piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klüss, J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Kwella, M.; Kuhla, S.; Souffrant, W.B.

    2003-01-01

    To characterize ileal microbial flora in weaning piglets a slaughter trial was conducted. 224 German Landrace piglets of both genders were allocated to four different feeding regimes (with or without avilamycin, 3 resp. 8 % crude fibre content). At predefined times pre- and postweaning piglets were

  5. Mushroom flora and associated insect fauna in Nsukka Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mushroom flora and associated insect pests of mushrooms in Nsukka urban was studied. The abundance of mushrooms from sampled communites is indicaed with the family, Agaricaceae predominating “out of home” environment yielded more mushrooms (4.62) than the homestead environment (3.26). Insect pests ...

  6. WEED FLORA OF CASSAVA IN WEST NILE ZONES OF UGANDA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Information on weeds of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in eastern Africa is limited. The objective of this study was to establish the status of weed flora in selected cassava growing regions of Uganda. This study was conducted in 2013 at Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute; (AbiZARDI) in Arua, ...

  7. Biological spectrum with some other ecological attributes of the flora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the current available information on the flora and vegetation of the Asir mountain of SW Saudi Arabia, spectra on life form and some other ecological attributes were analyzed and reviewed in different sub-ecosystem of the investigated area. The floristic list of Asir Mountain of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia consists ...

  8. Microbial flora of Clarias Gariepinus in the early stages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to establish the microbial flora in farmed Clarias gariepinus hatchery systems. Enumeration of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and fungi, total coliforms, Salmonella spp. Vibrio spp. and Aeromonas hydrophila from eggs (fertilized and unfertilized), larvae, fry, fry feed and tank water showed that ...

  9. A Prospective Comparative Study of the Bacterial Flora of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative comparative study of the bacterial flora of the vagina and cervix of 90 non-pregnant women of childbearing age (18-35 years) in Calabar was undertaken. The study revealed that both aerobic and microaerophilic organisms as well as the strictly anaerobic bacteria constituted the microflora of the lower genital of ...

  10. Flora of St Katherine Protectorate: key to families and genera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flora of St Katherine Protectorate: key to families and genera. Wafaa Kamel, Magda Gazar, Samy Zalat, Francis Gilbert. Abstract. Egyptian Journal of Natural History Vol.1 1999: 1-39. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. ( Allium sativum ) on Salmonella typhi infection, gastrointestinal flora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of garlic (Allium sativum) in treating Salmonella typhi infection and on the gastrointestinal flora and hematological parameters of rats was investigated. Crude garlic extract inhibited the growth of S. typhi on agar plate with a zone of inhibition averaging 23.8 mm in diameter using the agar diffusion ...

  12. Flora White (1860-1948): New Woman, Stark Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Linda C.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the life of education reformer Flora White, who both represented and deviated from the stereotypical new woman portrayed in popular literature of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. White's decision to reject marriage and children in favor of a career resulted in greater financial insecurity and an unmet desire…

  13. Inventory of Medicinal Flora from Thal Desert, Punjab, Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The whole area was surveyed for inventorying medicinal flora by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: The people of the study area are extremely knowledgeable, hence reported 120 plants which are being used in treating various human diseases. The detailed inventory including ...

  14. La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett. http://www.hewlett.org/ · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month. Subscribe · Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy ...

  15. Flora of Beyt Shankhodar in the Gul of Kuchchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Ambiye, V.

    Different types of flora of Beyt Shankhodar in the Gulf of Kuchchh have been studied with reference to the abiotic and biotic factors. Major floral groups were both of terrestrial and marine habitats. Most of the terrestrial plants are of xerophytic...

  16. Marine flora of Nicobar group of islands in Anadman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    The marine flora of 4 islands comprised 66 species of marine algae, 7 of seagrasses, and 10 of mangroves. Maximum number of marine algae (6) and mangroves (9) were reported from Great Nicobar Island, whereas more (7) species of seagrasses were...

  17. Microbiological flora and nail polish: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, G M; Flournoy, D J; Schlageter, P

    1994-11-01

    Removing nail polish and prosthetic nails from operating room (OR) personnel prior to scrubbing and from patients prior to hand surgery is recommended but not practiced in many hospitals. There is concern that nail polish can act as a vehicle for the transfer of infectious agents. This study was designed to determine the incidence of microbiological flora of nail polish in a clinical setting.

  18. Flora of Chihuahuan desertscrub on limestone in northeastern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; J. Jesus. Sanchez-Escalante

    2013-01-01

    Transects were done in desertscrub on limestone to characterize the flora of the westernmost Chihuahuan Desert. Most of the sites (15) were in the Municipios of Agua Prieta and Naco in northeastern Sonora, with single sites near Ascensión, northwestern Chihuahua and east of Douglas in southeastern Arizona. A total of 236 taxa were recorded on transects. Dicot perennial...

  19. Over flora en vegetatie van drie Noorddrentse bosjes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkman, J.J.

    1971-01-01

    This paper deals with the flora and vegetation of two small woods in the northern part of the prov. Drente. These woods are comparatively rich in species for the region in question, probably owing to the richer soil. Wood associations present are: Querco-Betuletum, Violo-Quercetum,

  20. Orchidaceous Additions to the Floras of China and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ormerod

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Literature and herbarium studies of Chinese and Taiwanese orchids has revealed a variety of new and noteworthy data pertinent to the floras of China and Taiwan. Three new combinations are proposed, viz. Anoectochilus baotingensis, Oberonia sinica and Odontochilus nanlingensis.

  1. Evaluation of flora diversity and abundance in Awba Dam Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated flora diversity and abundance in Awba Dam Tourism Centre, Ibadan, Nigeria. Complete enumeration of trees (>10cm diameter at breast height (dbh)), saplings, and small trees growing within 50m radius of the Awba dam was carried out. The percentage canopy cover of tree species (to the nearest 5%) ...

  2. The Paleocene and lower Eocene pollen flora of Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leidelmeyer, P.

    1966-01-01

    A description is given of a Paleocene and Lower Eocene pollen flora of two bore-holes in Guana. Some new species are described and some remarks are made on their stratigraphical significance. Pollen diagrams are presented, one probably representing the entire Paleocene and a part of the Eocene.

  3. Origin of the flora of the Malay Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridley, H.N.

    1937-01-01

    In my work on the Malay Peninsula, I included such plants as were known from the districts of North Kedah, Perlis and Setul. Botanically however, the Malayan flora ceases at a line running from a little north of Kedah peak Lat. 6.5, to Kota Bahru in North Kelantan Lat. 6.10. It is in fact

  4. Aanwinsten voor de Nederlandse adventief-flora, 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.; Reichgelt, Th.J.

    1963-01-01

    1. Navarretia squarrosa (Eschsch.) Hook. & Arn. is mentioned here in addition to our last paper on the Netherlands adventitious flora, published in Gorteria 1, no. 10, 1963, p. 113—117. The species was found in 1962 near Joure, prov. Friesland, and was most probably introduced with bird-seed. 2. All

  5. The alpine flora of Mount Wilhelm (New Guinea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1958-01-01

    The flora of the higher mountains of New Guinea has been the object of several extensive collecting trips in the past forty years. Until quite recently, however, a serious gap in our knowledge was the very scanty information available from the area between Mount Wilhelmina in the West and Mount

  6. Feminizing the Professional: The Government Reports of Flora Annie Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Rebecca J.

    1998-01-01

    Studies Flora Annie Steel, an uneducated woman who nonetheless became an Inspector of Female Schools in Punjab, India, in 1884. Focuses on her reports within the context of British imperialism and late 19th-century report conventions. Concludes that cultural expectations for women in imperialism influenced Steel's response to the genre; and the…

  7. Overview of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea: The long road to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to the initiation of the Ethiopian Flora Project (EFP), there were a number of attempts over the years to write the flora for a particular region/s or areas of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The modern Ethiopian Flora Project was initiated in 1980 as a bilateral agreement between the Ethiopian and Swedish governments through the ...

  8. Composition, Endemism and Phytogeographical Affinities of the Taiwan Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Fu Hsieh

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan vascular flora is exceptionally interesting not only because it is rich and diversified, but because it is of great phytogeographic significance owing to its geographic location. The flora of Taiwan, including naturalized plants, comprises 233 families and 1389 genera with 4216 species. In terms of major growth forms, there are 588 trees, 426 shrubs, 249 lianas, 177 vines, and 2776 herbs or ferns. Approximately 234 species are exotics typically associated with pastures, road clearings and other human disturbances. An extremely large percentage of these naturalized plants are of tropical New World origin. Among the native flora, the Orchidaceae (331 species, Gramineae (249, Compositae (194, Leguminosae (176, Cyperaceae (174, Rosaceae (105, Rubiaceae (93 and Euphorbiaceae (76 rank highest in numbers of species. Clearly, the greatest part of Taiwan's floristics richness comes from a wealth of species in primarily lowland (0–600 m asl. taxa. A total of 2571 species were recorded in the lowlands, whereas only about 251 species occur between 3100-3950 m. Endemic genera are extremely scarce in Taiwan, with only four, namely Sinopanax (Araliaceae, Hayatella (Rubiaceae, Kudoacanthus (Acanthaceae, and Haraella (Orchidaceae. In contrast to the low percentage of generic endemism, there is a remarkably higher specific endemism. About 1041 species (26.1% of indigenous plants are known only from Taiwan. A detailed examination of these species shows that there is a distinct trend of increasing endemism with increasing altitude (r² = 0.99. A survey of indigenous non-endemic species on the basis of their geographical distribution outside Taiwan shows that they can be classified into 6 major categories: 1. pantropical and palaeotropical species (1029 species; 2. species distributed in eastern Asia, from Himalayas through southern & eastern China to Taiwan, with some extending to the Ryukyus and Japan (1075 species; 3. widespread species extending

  9. Vascular flora of Kenya, based on the Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenya, an African country with major higher plant diversity, has a corresponding diversity of plant associations, because of the wide geographic distribution, diverse climatic conditions and soil types. In this article, all vascular plants of Kenya were counted based on the completed "Flora of Tropical East Africa (FTEA", and all families and genera were revised using recent molecular systematics research, forming a "Synoptic List of Families and Genera of Kenyan Vascular Plants (SLFGKVP". In total, there are 225 families, 1538 genera and 6293 indigenous species and and 62 families, 302 genera and 588 exotic species in Kenya. The Fabaceae with 98 genera and 576 Species is the largest family. Two of the seven plant distribution regions of Kenya, K4 and K7 are the most species-richest areas with regard to both total and endemic species, with 3375 and 3191 total species and 174 and 185 endemic species in K4 and K7 respectively. While, K3 and K5 have the highest density of both total and endemic species. K1 has the lowest density of total species, and K2 has the lowest density of endemic species.

  10. Summative Mass Analysis of Algal Biomass - Integration of Analytical Procedures: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure guides the integration of laboratory analytical procedures to measure algal biomass constituents in an unambiguous manner and ultimately achieve mass balance closure for algal biomass samples. Many of these methods build on years of research in algal biomass analysis.

  11. Physical processes contributing to harmful algal blooms in Saldanha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1994, disruption of harvesting as a result of the presence of harmful algal species has been a regular late-summer phenomenon. Toxic blooms that are ultimately advected into the bay develop on the continental shelf to the north between 32°S and St Helena Bay, a region characterized by favourable conditions for ...

  12. Environmental variables, algal pigments and phytoplankton in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytoplankton diversity, environmental variables and algal pigments of the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Badagry, Lagos were investigated for twelve months between May 2015 and April 2016. The water chemistry characteristics reflected sea water conditions. At the two stations, the range of values recorded for some ...

  13. Effects of fertilizers used in agricultural fields on algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2017-06-01

    The increasing occurrence of algal blooms and their negative ecological impacts have led to intensified monitoring activities. This needs the proper identification of the most responsible factor/factors for the bloom formation. However, in natural systems, algal blooms result from a combination of factors and from observation it is difficult to identify the most important one. In the present paper, using a mathematical model we compare the effects of three human induced factors (fertilizer input in agricultural field, eutrophication due to other sources than fertilizers, and overfishing) on the bloom dynamics and DO level. By applying a sophisticated sensitivity analysis technique, we found that the increasing use of fertilizers in agricultural field causes more rapid algal growth and decreases DO level much faster than eutrophication from other sources and overfishing. We also look at the mechanisms how fertilizer input rate affects the algal bloom dynamics and DO level. The model can be helpful for the policy makers in determining the influential factors responsible for the bloom formation.

  14. Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on tropical algal communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santas, R.

    1989-01-01

    This study assessed some of the effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation ion coral reef algal assemblages. The first part of the investigation was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions in the coral reef microcosm at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., while a field counterpart was completed at the Smithsonian Institution's marine station on Grand Turk, Turks and Caicos Islands, in the eastern Caribbean. The study attempted to separate the effects of UV-A from those of UV-B. In the laboratory, algal turf assemblages exposed to simulated solar UV radiation produced 55.1% less biomass than assemblages that were not exposed to UV. Assemblages not exposed to UV were dominated by Ectocarpus rhodochondroides, whereas in the assemblage developing under high UV radiation, Enteromorpha prolifera and eventually Schizothrix calcicola dominated. Lower UV-B irradiances caused a proportional reduction in biomass production and had less pronounced effects on species composition. UV-A did not have any significant effects on either algal turf productivity or community structure. In the field, assemblages exposed to naturally occurring solar UV supported a biomass 40% lower than that of assemblages protected from UV-B exposure. Once again, UV-A did not inhibit algal turf productivity

  15. Changes in density and composition of algal assemblages in certain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water purification plants at Virginia and Bothaville, South Africa, experience problems with cyanobacteria and other algae. Their algal assemblages were studied during 2010 and 2011 to determine the dominant species that may pose problems in purification. Cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were the dominant ...

  16. Seawater reverse osmosis desalination and (harmful) algal blooms

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh; Anderson, Donald M.; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Kennedy, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the occurrence of HABs in seawater, their effects on the operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants, the indicators for quantifying/predicting these effects, and the pretreatment strategies for mitigating operational issues during algal blooms. The potential issues in SWRO plants during HABs are particulate/organic fouling of pretreatment systems and biological fouling of RO membranes, mainly due to accumulation of algal organic matter (AOM). The presence of HAB toxins in desalinated water is also a potential concern but only at very low concentrations. Monitoring algal cell density, AOM concentrations and membrane fouling indices is a promising approach to assess the quality of SWRO feedwater and performance of the pretreatment system. When geological condition is favourable, subsurface intake can be a robust pretreatment for SWRO during HABs. Existing SWRO plants with open intake and are fitted with granular media filtration can improve performance in terms of capacity and product water quality, if preceded by dissolved air flotation or sedimentation. However, the application of advanced pretreatment using ultrafiltration membrane with in-line coagulation is often a better option as it is capable of maintaining stable operation and better RO feed water quality during algal bloom periods with significantly lower chemical consumption.

  17. Algal communities associated with aquatic macrophytes in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the algal communities of six ponds colonised by aquatic macrophytes in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Plankton samples were collected from the water column and epiphytic samples from macrophytes such as Azolla, Pistia, Nymphaea, Ipomoea and Ludwigia. Pond pH, temperature, conductivity, ...

  18. Harmful algal blooms of the Southern Benguela current: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harmful algal blooms of the Southern Benguela current: A review and appraisal of monitoring from 1989 to 1997. ... The Benguela upwelling system is subjected to blooms of harmful and toxic algae, the incidence and consequences of which are documented here. Red tides are common and usually attributed to members of ...

  19. Monitoring of harmful algal blooms along the Norwegian coast using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Norwegian monitoring system for harmful algal blooms, consisting of an Observer Network, the State Food Hygiene Control Agency, the Oceanographic Company of Norway, the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Fisheries, is reviewed. Potentially harmful algae on the Norwegian coast are found primarily ...

  20. Biological control of Microcystis dominated harmful algal blooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshwater resources are now threatened by the presence and increase of harmful algal blooms (HAB) all over the world. The HABs are sometimes a direct result of anthropogenic pollution entering water bodies, such as partially treated nutrient-rich effluents and the leaching of fertilisers and animal wastes. The impact of ...

  1. Increasing the extraction efficiency of algal lipid for biodiesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-09

    Apr 9, 2014 ... biodiesel production: Novel application of algal viruses ... Environmental Virology Cell, Council of Scientific and Industrial ... content, biomass productivity and are more sustainable ... rRNA of microalgae using outsourcing the sequencing services to .... efficiency is concerned, such as development of.

  2. Seawater reverse osmosis desalination and (harmful) algal blooms

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the occurrence of HABs in seawater, their effects on the operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants, the indicators for quantifying/predicting these effects, and the pretreatment strategies for mitigating operational issues during algal blooms. The potential issues in SWRO plants during HABs are particulate/organic fouling of pretreatment systems and biological fouling of RO membranes, mainly due to accumulation of algal organic matter (AOM). The presence of HAB toxins in desalinated water is also a potential concern but only at very low concentrations. Monitoring algal cell density, AOM concentrations and membrane fouling indices is a promising approach to assess the quality of SWRO feedwater and performance of the pretreatment system. When geological condition is favourable, subsurface intake can be a robust pretreatment for SWRO during HABs. Existing SWRO plants with open intake and are fitted with granular media filtration can improve performance in terms of capacity and product water quality, if preceded by dissolved air flotation or sedimentation. However, the application of advanced pretreatment using ultrafiltration membrane with in-line coagulation is often a better option as it is capable of maintaining stable operation and better RO feed water quality during algal bloom periods with significantly lower chemical consumption.

  3. Algal blooms: a perspective from the coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, M.S.; Anil, A.C.; Naik, R.K.; DeCosta, P.M.

    Algal blooms have been documented along the west and east coasts of India. A review of bloom occurrences in Indian waters from 1908 to 2009 points out that a total of 101 cases have been reported. A comparison of the bloom cases reported before...

  4. The extended Kalman filter for forecast of algal bloom dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J Q; Lee, Joseph H W; Choi, K W

    2009-09-01

    A deterministic ecosystem model is combined with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to produce short term forecasts of algal bloom and dissolved oxygen dynamics in a marine fish culture zone (FCZ). The weakly flushed FCZ is modelled as a well-mixed system; the tidal exchange with the outer bay is lumped into a flushing rate that is numerically determined from a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The ecosystem model incorporates phytoplankton growth kinetics, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic production, nutrient sources from organic fish farm loads, and nutrient exchange with a sediment bed layer. High frequency field observations of chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen (DO) and hydro-meteorological parameters (sampling interval Deltat=1 day, 2h, 1h, respectively) and bi-weekly nutrient data are assimilated into the model to produce the combined state estimate accounting for the uncertainties. In addition to the water quality state variables, the EKF incorporates dynamic estimation of algal growth rate and settling velocity. The effectiveness of the EKF data assimilation is studied for a wide range of sampling intervals and prediction lead-times. The chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen estimated by the EKF are compared with field data of seven algal bloom events observed at Lamma Island, Hong Kong. The results show that the EKF estimate well captures the nonlinear error evolution in time; the chlorophyll level can be satisfactorily predicted by the filtered model estimate with a mean absolute error of around 1-2 microg/L. Predictions with 1-2 day lead-time are highly correlated with the observations (r=0.7-0.9); the correlation stays at a high level for a lead-time of 3 days (r=0.6-0.7). Estimated algal growth and settling rates are in accord with field observations; the more frequent DO data can compensate for less frequent algal biomass measurements. The present study is the first time the EKF is successfully applied to forecast an entire algal bloom cycle, suggesting the

  5. The Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea project concluded with a fourth Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium held in Uppsala, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009.......En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009....

  6. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beachgoer’s activity at the start and end of their beach visit and the environmental factors: water and air temperature, wind speed and wave height at the study site each day. At the time, there was no notification of algal blooms; we retrospectively evaluated the presence of algal blooms using MERIS data from the Envisat-1 satellite. A total of 2840 people participated in the study over 16 study days. The majority (55%) were female, and 751 (26%) were < 18 years of age. An algal bloom was detected retrospectively by remotely sensed satellite imagery during August 16 – 24. This peak bloom period (PB) included 4 study days. During PB study days, more study participants 226/742 (31%) reported body contact with the water compared to contact 531/2098 (25%) on non-peak days. During the 4 PB days, of the environmental factors, only mean water temperature was significantly different, 250 C vs. 230 C (p<0.05) from other days.These results suggest that beachgoer body contact with water was not deterred by the presence of an algal bloom, and that interventions to actively discourage water contact during a bloom are needed to reduce exposure to blooms. This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and

  7. Effectiveness of an anti-algal compound in eliminating an aquatic unicellular harmful algal Phaeocystis globosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun eZhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phaeocystis globosa blooms can have negative effects on higher trophic levels in the marine ecosystem and consequently influence human activities. Strain KA22, identified as the bacterium Hahella, was isolated from coastal surface water and used to control P. globosa growth. A methanol extract from the bacteral cells showed strong algicidal activity. After purification, the compound showed a similar structure to prodigiosin when identified with Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The compound showed algicidal activity against P. globosa with a 50% Lethal Dose (LD50 of 2.24 μg/mL. The prodigiosin was stable under heat and acid environment, and it could be degraded under alkaline environment and natural light condition. The growth rates of strain KA22 was fast in 2216E medium and the content of prodigiosin in this medium was more than 70 μg/mL after 16 h incubation. The compound showed particularly strong algicidal activity against Prorocentrum donghaiense, P. globosa and Heterosigma akashiwo, but having little effect on three other phytoplankton species tested. The results of our research could increase our knowledge on harmful algal bloom control compound and lead to further study on the mechanisms of the lysis effect on harmful algae.

  8. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for classification of harmful algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern Kentucky University and the U.S. EPA Office of Research Development in Cincinnati Agency are collaborating to develop a harmful algal bloom detection algorithm that estimates the presence of cyanobacteria in freshwater systems by image analysis. Green and blue-green alg...

  9. Cervicovaginal cytokines, sialidase activity and bacterial load in reproductive-aged women with intermediate vaginal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Greatti, Mariana Morena de Vieira; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães; Ferreira, Carolina Sanitá Tafner; Marconi, Camila

    2016-11-01

    Studies have shown that not only bacterial vaginosis, but also intermediate vaginal flora has deleterious effects for women's reproductive health. However, literature still lacks information about microbiological and immunological aspects of intermediate flora. To characterize intermediate flora regarding levels of Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-10, sialidase; loads of Gardnerella vaginalis, total bacteria and to verify whether it is closer related to normal flora or bacterial vaginosis. This cross-sectional study enrolled 526 non-pregnant reproductive-aged women distributed in 3 groups according to pattern of vaginal flora using Nugent's system in normal, intermediate and bacterial vaginosis. Cervicovaginal levels of cytokines, sialidases, loads of G. vaginalis and total bacteria were assessed by ELISA, conversion of MUAN and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. A principal component analysis(PCA) using all measured parameters was performed to compare the three different types of flora. Results showed that intermediate flora is associated with increased cervicovaginal IL-1beta in relation to normal flora(Pbacterial vaginosis, intermediate flora has higher IL-8 and IL-10 levels(Pbacterial vaginosis(Pbacterial differed among all groups(Pbacterial vaginosis. PCA showed that normal and intermediate flora were closely scattered, while bacterial vaginosis were grouped separately. Although intermediate flora shows some differences in cytokines, sialidases and bacterial loads in relation to normal flora and bacterial vaginosis, when taken together, general microbiological and immunological pattern pattern of intermediate flora resembles the normal flora. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution, behavior, and condition of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs track algal resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootell, Jesse S; Steele, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Herbivore distribution can impact community structure and ecosystem function. On coral reefs, herbivores are thought to play an important role in promoting coral dominance, but how they are distributed relative to algae is not well known. Here, we evaluated whether the distribution, behavior, and condition of herbivorous fishes correlated with algal resource availability at six sites in the back reef environment of Moorea, French Polynesia. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that increased algal turf availability would coincide with (1) increased biomass, (2) altered foraging behavior, and (3) increased energy reserves of herbivorous fishes. Fish biomass and algal cover were visually estimated along underwater transects; behavior of herbivorous fishes was quantified by observations of focal individuals; fish were collected to assess their condition; and algal turf production rates were measured on standardized tiles. The best predictor of herbivorous fish biomass was algal turf production, with fish biomass increasing with algal production. Biomass of herbivorous fishes was also negatively related to sea urchin density, suggesting competition for limited resources. Regression models including both algal turf production and urchin density explained 94 % of the variation in herbivorous fish biomass among sites spread over ~20 km. Behavioral observations of the parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus revealed that foraging area increased as algal turf cover decreased. Additionally, energy reserves increased with algal turf production, but declined with herbivorous fish density, implying that algal turf is a limited resource for this species. Our findings support the hypothesis that herbivorous fishes can spatially track algal resources on coral reefs.

  11. Lichen flora of London: effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laundon, J R

    1967-01-01

    There is good, but not conclusive, evidence that sulfur dioxide is the pollutant which deleteriously affects lichens. The distribution of many lichens in London corresponds closely with the concentrations of sulfur dioxide. Low humidity is also a factor. Apart from actually killing lichens, increasing air pollution can render certain species incapable of colonizing new surfaces, although the old thalli themselves are able to survive as relicts. Until the early nineteenth century air pollution affected the lichen flora only in the small built-up area of London. The halting of building around London since 1938 has brought stability to the lichen vegetation of the area, and since then changes have been minor ones. Recent changes in pollution emissions have had little effect on the lichen flora between 1950 and 1967. This is to be expected as sulfur dioxide concentrations have remained fairly constant at ground level.

  12. Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, R

    2000-06-30

    Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and their effects on different small mammals. Information has been used here to gain an appreciation of the likely magnitude of the potential fire and explosion effects on flora and fauna. This is based on a number of broad assumptions and a variety of data sources including World War II bomb damage, experiments performed with animals 30-40 years ago, and more recent field trials on building break-up under explosive loading.

  13. Flora of the city of Podgorica, Montenegro: Taxonomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stešević Danijela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the taxonomic segment of a floristic study undertaken in the city of Podgorica in the period of 2002-2007. The check-list of spontaneously growing vascular plants includes 1227 species and subspecies belonging to 545 genera and 118 families. The dominant families are Poaceae (11.7%, asteraceae (11.2% and Fabaceae (9.2%. The most abundant genera are Trifolium (2.1%, Euphorbia (1.5%, Carex (1.5%, Bromus (1.3% and Vicia (1.2%. Analysis of the flora of Podgorica in comparison with some other european cities showed that the flora of Podgorica is most similar to that of Rome (Q/S= 0,7.

  14. New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae in the Flora of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.

  15. China: a rich flora needed of urgent conservation

    OpenAIRE

    López-Pujol, Jordi; Zhao, A-Man

    2004-01-01

    [EN] China is one of the richest countries in plant biodiversity in the world. Besides to a rich flora, which contains about 33 000 vascular plants (being 30 000 of these angiosperms, 250 gymnosperms, and 2 600 pteridophytes), there is a extraordinary ecosystem diversity. In addition, China also contains a large pool of both wild and cultivated germplasm; one of the eight original centers of crop plants in the world was located there. China is also considered one of the main ce...

  16. Evolutionary history of the angiosperm flora of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li-Min; Mao, Ling-Feng; Yang, Tuo; Ye, Jian-Fei; Liu, Bing; Li, Hong-Lei; Sun, Miao; Miller, Joseph T.; Mathews, Sarah; Hu, Hai-Hua; Niu, Yan-Ting; Peng, Dan-Xiao; Chen, You-Hua; Smith, Stephen A.; Chen, Min; Xiang, Kun-Li; Le, Chi-Toan; Dang, Viet-Cuong; Lu, An-Ming; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Li, Jian-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2018-02-01

    High species diversity may result from recent rapid speciation in a ‘cradle’ and/or the gradual accumulation and preservation of species over time in a ‘museum’. China harbours nearly 10% of angiosperm species worldwide and has long been considered as both a museum, owing to the presence of many species with hypothesized ancient origins, and a cradle, as many lineages have originated as recent topographic changes and climatic shifts—such as the formation of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the development of the monsoon—provided new habitats that promoted remarkable radiation. However, no detailed phylogenetic study has addressed when and how the major components of the Chinese angiosperm flora assembled to form the present-day vegetation. Here we investigate the spatio-temporal divergence patterns of the Chinese flora using a dated phylogeny of 92% of the angiosperm genera for the region, a nearly complete species-level tree comprising 26,978 species and detailed spatial distribution data. We found that 66% of the angiosperm genera in China did not originate until early in the Miocene epoch (23 million years ago (Mya)). The flora of eastern China bears a signature of older divergence (mean divergence times of 22.04-25.39 Mya), phylogenetic overdispersion (spatial co-occurrence of distant relatives) and higher phylogenetic diversity. In western China, the flora shows more recent divergence (mean divergence times of 15.29-18.86 Mya), pronounced phylogenetic clustering (co-occurrence of close relatives) and lower phylogenetic diversity. Analyses of species-level phylogenetic diversity using simulated branch lengths yielded results similar to genus-level patterns. Our analyses indicate that eastern China represents a floristic museum, and western China an evolutionary cradle, for herbaceous genera; eastern China has served as both a museum and a cradle for woody genera. These results identify areas of high species richness and phylogenetic diversity, and

  17. Noteworthy additions to the flora of Uttarakhand, western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwari D. Rai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent botanical explorations, we recorded three interesting plant species from the alpine regions (>3500m of the Uttarakhand State in the western Himalaya.  After a detailed scrutiny of the literature and herbarium specimens, we ascertain their identity and report them as additions to the flora of Uttarakhand.  In this paper descriptions of these species along with their phenology, distribution, photographs, ecology and phytogeographical notes have been presented.

  18. Cross-cultural comparison of medicinal floras used against snakebites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Marianne; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Jäger, Anna K; Rønsted, Nina

    2012-02-15

    Envenomation causes an estimated 1.8-2.5 million incidences per year with a mortality level of 100-125,000 persons annually and more than 100,000 individuals suffer from severe complications, which may end in amputation of the attacked limb. The use of plants is a major part of the traditional practitioners' treatment of snakebites. A database was created for plants used to treat snakebites worldwide. From this database, we selected five countries with a high number of entries and representing different cultures, geography and floristic zones: Brazil, Nicaragua, Nepal, China and South Africa. The datasets were analysed by regression and binominal analysis to see if any family or genus used against snakebites was overrepresented in the respective traditional medicinal systems relative to the abundance in the local flora. The families from the different geographical areas were compared to ascertain whether the same plant families are preferred by different peoples. Three 'hot' families (Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae) were recovered in at least two of the five compared countries in the regression analyses and one 'hot' family (Zingiberaceae) was recovered in two of the compared countries in the binomial analyses. Four out of five floras possess families identified as outliers in both regression and binomial analyses. Eight families were recovered by both the binomial and the regression analysis (40-62% of all highlighted families respectively). At the genus level, only Piper (Piperaceae) was recovered as a 'hot' genus in at least two floras. Seven genera were highlighted by both analyses (25-44% of the highlighted genera). Cross-cultural comparison of medicinal floras used against snakebites appears to be useful for highlighting candidate families and genera for further studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Allamanda schottii (Apocynaceae: nueva cita para la Flora Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Hurrell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo Allamanda schottii Pohl (Apocynaceae es documentada como nueva cita genérica y específica para la Flora Argentina. La especie fue hallada en la ribera del Paraná, en el norte de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina. Se incluye su sinonimia, descripción, comentarios sobre su distribución, hábitat, fenología, biología reproductiva, nombres vulgares, usos y observaciones.

  20. ABSTRACTS: HortFlora Res. Spectrum, Vol. 4, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Umrao, Dr. V.K.

    2017-01-01

    The HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS), Website: www.hortflorajournal.com, is an international-peer reviewed, open access journal that serves as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of R & D advances and innovations in all facets of Horticultural Science (Pomology, Olericulture, Floriculture, Post Harvest Technology, Plant Biotechnology, and Medicinal & Aromatic Plants etc.) and its allied branches on an international level. HRS is officially published quarterly (March, June, Septemb...

  1. HortFlora Research Spectrum; NAAS Rating 3.78

    OpenAIRE

    Umrao, Dr. V.K.

    2017-01-01

    The journal HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS) having International Impact (NAAS Rating: 3.78; ICV: 27.39, GIF: 0.471; IBI Factor: 2.8; NJIF: 2.14; GSCIF: 0.364; OAJI Impact Factor: 0.201), publishes high quality peer reviewed/refereed original research papers, review articles and research notes on all aspects of Horticultural plants' research including agronomic management, plant nutrition, biotechnology, crop improvement, plant protection, plant physiology, cell & molecular biology, medicina...

  2. Nutrients, phytochemicals, fungal flora and aflatoxin in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of salting on the pH, phytochemicals, fungal flora and nutrient composition of Vernonia amygdalina leaves was investigated. There was a decrease in pH from 5.88 for the fresh, to 5.80, 5.73, 5.24, and 5.02 for the light brined, light salted, heavy salted and light brine + vinegar treated leaves, ...

  3. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Francesca; Barsotti, Giovanni; Attili, Anna Rita; Mugnaini, Linda; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Preziuso, Silvia; Corazza, Michele; Preziuso, Giovanna; Sgorbini, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to identify conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep. Prospective study. Tuscany. 100 eyes from 50 adult Massese female sheep were examined. The sheep included in the study were considered free of anterior ophthalmic abnormalities. Bacteria were identified by morphological assessment, Gram staining, biochemical tests. Identification of filamentous fungi was achieved at the genus level, and Aspergillus species were identified based on keys provided by other authors. Yeast colonies were highlighted, but not identified. Positive cultures were obtained from 100/100 eyes for bacteria, and from 86/100 eyes for fungi. A total of 14 types of bacteria and 5 types of fungi were isolated. Yeasts were isolated from 13/100 eyes. The most frequent fungal isolates were saprophytic fungi. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora of clinically normal eyes were reported in sheep. The positivity obtained for conjunctival bacteria was higher compared to findings in the literature by other authors in the same species (100 per cent v 40 per cent), while our results were in line with a recent work performed on mouflons (Ovis Musimon) with a 100 per cent positivity for bacterial conjunctival fornix. In our survey, Gram-positive species were prevalent, as reported by other authors in different species. Few data are available in the literature regarding conjunctival fungal flora in healthy small ruminants. The prevalence of conjunctival fungal flora in this study was higher than findings reported in mouflons (86 per cent v 45 per cent). Differences in fungal prevalence may be due to different methods of managing herds, though further studies are required to verify this hypothesis. The similarities in bacterial and fungal isolates between sheep and mouflons suggest a genera pattern of conjunctival colonisation by bacteria and fungi.

  4. La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett. http://www.hewlett.org/. Initiative Think tank. Cette initiative permet d'établir des organismes indépendants qui se consacrent à la recherche et à l'élaboration de politiques dans des pays en développement. Voir davantage. Initiative Think tank. Croissance de l'économie et débouchés ...

  5. Cape plants: corrections and additions to the flora. 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Comprising an area of ± 90 000 km:, less than 5% of the land surface of the southern African subcontinent, the Cape Floristic Region (CFR is one of the world’s richest areas for plant species diversity. A recent synoptic flora for the Region has established a new base line for an accurate assessment of the flora. Here we document corrections and additions to the flora at family, genus and species ranks. As treated in Cape plants, which was completed in 1999. the flora comprised 173 families (five endemic, 988 genera (160 endemic: 16.2%, and 9 004 species (6 192 endemic: 68.8%. Just four years later, a revised count resulting from changes in the circumscriptions of families and genera, and the discovery of new species or range extensions of species, yields an estimate of 172 families (four endemic, 992 genera (162 endemic: 16.3% and 9 086 species (6 226: 68.5% endemic. Of these, 948 genera and 8 971 species are seed plants. The number of species packed into so small an area is remarkable for the temperate zone and compares favourably with species richness for areas of compa­rable size in the wet tropics. The degree of endemism is also remarkable for a continental area. An unusual family compo­sition includes, in descending order of size, based on species number. Asteraceae. Fabaceae. Iridaceae. Ericaceae. Aizoaceae, Scrophulariaceae. Proteaceae. Restionaceae, Rutaceae. and Orchidaceae. Disproportionate radiation has resulted in 59.1% of the species falling in the 10 largest families and 74.6% in the largest 20 families. Thirteen genera have more than 100 species and the 20 largest genera contribute some 31.5% of the total species number.

  6. State of the knowledge of flora of hepaticas of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe M, Jaime; Gradstein, S Rob

    1999-01-01

    The Colombian hepatic flora is a very rich one. About 60% of all the species of tropical America and one sixth of the world's hepaticas occur in Colombia. The country has more species than the whole of Africa south of the Sahara and almost twice as many as Europe. The new catalogue of the hepaticas of Colombia accepts 840 species (in 36 families and 136 genera): 832 species of Hepaticae and 8 species of Anthocerotae

  7. Relationship of cyanobacterial and algal assemblages with vegetation in the high Arctic tundra (West Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of cyanobacteria and green algae assemblages occurring in various tundra types determined on the basis of mosses and vascular plants and habitat conditions. The research was carried out during summer in the years 2009-2013 on the north sea-coast of Hornsund fjord (West Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago. 58 sites were studied in various tundra types differing in composition of vascular plants, mosses and in trophy and humidity. 141 cyanobacteria and green algae were noted in the research area in total. Cyanobacteria and green algae flora is a significant element of many tundra types and sometimes even dominate there. Despite its importance, it has not been hitherto taken into account in the description and classification of tundra. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the legitimacy of using phycoflora in supplementing the descriptions of hitherto described tundra and distinguishing new tundra types. Numeric hierarchical-accumulative classification (MVSP 3.1 software methods were used to analyze the cyanobacterial and algal assemblages and their co-relations with particular tundra types. The analysis determined dominant and distinctive species in the communities in concordance with ecologically diverse types of tundra. The results show the importance of these organisms in the composition of the vegetation of tundra types and their role in the ecosystems of this part of the Arctic.

  8. Microbial flora variations in the respiratory tract of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cangemi de Gutierrez

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A stable microbial system in the respiratory tract acts as an important defense mechanism against pathogenic microorganisms. Perturbations in this system may allow pathogens to establish. In an ecological environment such as the respiratory tract, there are many diverse factors that play a role in the establishment of the indigenous flora. In the present work we studied the normal microbial flora of different areas of the respiratory tract of mice and their evolution from the time the mice were born. Our interest was to know which were the dominant groups of microorganisms in each area, which were the first capable of colonizing and which dominated over time to be used as probiotic microorganisms. Our results show that Gram negative facultatively anaerobic bacilli and strict anaerobic microorganisms were the last ones to appear in the bronchia, while aerobic and Gram positive cocci were present in all the areas of the respiratory tract. The number of facultative aerobes and strict anaerobes were similar in the nasal passage, pharynx instilled and trachea, but lower in bronchia. The dominant species were Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus saprophyticcus, followed by S. epidermidis, Lactobacilli and S. cohnii I which were present on every studied days but at different proportions. This paper is the first part of a research topic investigating the protective effect of the indigenous flora against pathogens using the mice as an experimental model.

  9. La flora vascular de la Sierra de Chiribiquete, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés B. Rocio

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary checklist of Chiribiquete flora has 549 species of vascular plants, which belong to 315 genera and 107 families. The families with the highest species number were: Rubiaceae (32, Melastomataceae (31, Orchidaceae (25 and Bromeliaceae (24; there were 30% of the families represented by one species. The majar tloristic affinities of the Chiribiquete flora are with the Amazonregion and the Guayana central province. Eleven species (including ten new are endemic to Chiribiquete and 167 are endemic to the Guayana region.El catálogo preliminar de la flora de Chiribiquete incluye 549 especies de plantas vasculares, pertenecientes a 315 géneros y a 107 familias. Las familias con mayor número de especies son Rubiaceae (32 Melastomataceae (31, Orchidaceae (25 y Bromeliaceae (24; el 30% de las familias están representadas por una especie. Las afinidades florísticas son mayores con la región amazónica y con la provincia Guayana central. Once especies (incluyendo diez novedades  taxonómicas tienen área de distribución endémica de Chiribiquete y 167 están restringidas a la región Guayana.

  10. Flora of the Kap River Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Cloete

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis ot the flora of the newly proclaimed Kap River Reserve (600 ha is given. The reserve is adjacent to the Fish River and some 5 km from the Fish River Mouth It consists of a coastal plateau up to 100 m a.s.I. which is steeply dissected by the two rivers that partially form the boundary of the reserve. The flora of the reserve was sampled over a period o f three years and plants were collected in all the vegetation types of grassland, thicket and forest. 488 species were collected with a species to family ratio of 4:4. The majority of the taxa recorded represent the major phytochoria of the region. Nineteen species are endemic to the Eastern Cape, two are classed as vulnerable, five are rare, six are protected and a further seventeen are of uncertain status. The flora of the Kap River has closest affinities to that of the Alexandria Forest.

  11. Analysis of weed flora in conventional and organic potato production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić, Lj.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Composition of weed flora is highly dynamic and depends upon great number of factors, of which cultural practices that are applied by humans in certain crops are the most important. One of the most frequently grown plants in the world and in our country is potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanaceae, due to its high biological and nutritive value. Therefore, in the paper was presented taxonomic analysis of weed flora in potato grown conventionally and according to the principles of organic agricultural production, with the intention to point out to eventual differences between present weeds. Of the total number of identified species, from phylum Equisetophyta and class Equisetopsida, in organic potato crop, was determined only one, Equisetum arvense. Of remaining 38 weeds from phylum Magnoliophyta., classified into two classes, Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida. On both of potato growing systems, 39 weed species were found, classified into 16 families and 32 genus. Of the total number, 31 species was identified in conventional potato crop, and only 23 species in potato crop grown according to organic principles, which is for about quarter less. Biological spectrum of weed flora in both potato growing systems is pronouncedly of terrophytic – geophytic type. In the spectrum of area types were recorded differences, i.e. in the conventional potato crop represented are only widely distributed species, while in the organic crop, beside species of wide distribution are also present elements of Pontic group.

  12. Accuracy of the cytopathology, bacterioscopy, and vaginal flora culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, P Q; Pereira, M A P; Palomo, F S; Okazaki, C; Schimidt, M A; Speck, N M G; Ribalta, J C L

    2013-01-01

    An over-population of vaginal microorganisms causing inflammatory processes renders it difficult to properly assess the cytopathological exam that aims to screen precedent cervical lesions. On the contrary, the occurrence of the microbial flora saprophyte does not influence correct cythodiagnosis. To assess the composition of vaginal tract aerobic microorganisms of asymptomatic women in menacme and post-menopause, and to analyze the accuracy of cytopathologic, bacterioscopic exams, and culturing of the flora. The women were first submitted to a focused anamnestic interrogatory and then submitted to gynecological exam. A sample of the vaginal fluid was collected with a culture swab and a smear was made on two glass slides for stained bacterioscopic exam (GRAM). The collection of material was then compiled in a cytopathologic smear analysis. All women signed the free and informed consent letter and the project was approved by the Ethics Research Board of Hospital São Paulo - UNIFESP. Bacterioscopy and culture proved to be better than the cytopathologic exam in featuring the bacilli and cocci. The bacterioscopy provided a better detection of the presence of bacilli (p < 0.001); no statistical difference was seen between both exams with respect to the detected cocci. The beta-hemolytic Streptococcus group was of significance in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). In this study, the bacterioscopic and culture exams of the vaginal fluid were more effective in assessing the vaginal flora and in the detection of bacilli, compared to the cytopathological exam.

  13. Flora of the city of Podgorica, Montenegro: Chorologic structure and comparison with the floras of Rome, Patras, and Salonika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stešević Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the geographical structure of the flora of Podgorica revealed that 85.9% of the species are native, while 14.1% are non-native. This ratio is typical of Mediterranean settlements, where even the most urbanized region reflects the overall character of the surrounding flora. In terms of chorologic groups, the three largest are: eury-Mediterranean (18.2%, cosmopolitan (12.6%, and steno-Mediterranean (8.3%. The percentage of endemic and subendemic plants is also significant (6.8%. Within the group of aliens, species of Asian origin prevail. Comparative analysis of the chorologic spectra of Podgorica, Rome, Patras, and Salonika revealed some similarities.

  14. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  15. Fish Kill Incidents and Harmful Algal Blooms in Omani Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mohammed Al Gheilani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Red tide, one of the harmful algal blooms (HABs is a natural ecological phenomenon and often this event is accompanied by severe impacts on coastal resources, local economies, and public health. The occurrence of red tides has become more frequent in Omani waters in recent years. Some of them caused fish kill, damaged fishery resources and mariculture, threatened the marine environment and the osmosis membranes of desalination plants. However, a number of them have been harmless. The most common dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans is associated with the red tide events in Omani waters. Toxic species like Karenia selliformis, Prorocentrum arabianum, and Trichodesmium erythraeum have also been reported recently. Although red tides in Oman have been considered a consequence of upwelling in the summer season (May to September, recent phytoplankton outbreaks in Oman are not restricted to summer. Frequent algal blooms have been reported during winter (December to March. HABs may have contributed to hypoxia and/or other negative ecological impacts.

  16. Effects of fertilizers used in agricultural fields on algal blooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    of factors and from observation it is difficult to identify the most important one. In the present paper, using a mathematical model we compare the effects of three human induced factors (fertilizer input in agricultural field, eutrophication due to other sources than fertilizers, and overfishing......) on the bloom dynamics and DO level. By applying a sophisticated sensitivity analysis technique, we found that the increasing use of fertilizers in agricultural field causes more rapid algal growth and decreases DO level much faster than eutrophication from other sources and overfishing. We also look...... at the mechanisms how fertilizer input rate affects the algal bloom dynamics and DO level. The model can be helpful for the policy makers in determining the influential factors responsible for the bloom formation....

  17. Didymosphenia geminata: Algal blooms in oligotrophic streams and rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundareshwar, P. V.; Upadhayay, S.; Abessa, M.; Honomichl, S.; Berdanier, B.; Spaulding, S. A.; Sandvik, C.; Trennepohl, A.

    2011-05-01

    In recent decades, the diatom Didymosphenia geminata has emerged as nuisance species in river systems around the world. This periphytic alga forms large “blooms” in temperate streams, presenting a counterintuitive result: the blooms occur primarily in oligotrophic streams and rivers, where phosphorus (P) availability typically limits primary production. The goal of this study is to examine how high algal biomass is formed under low P conditions. We reveal a biogeochemical process by which D. geminata mats concentrate P from flowing waters. First, the mucopolysaccaride stalks of D. geminata adsorb both iron (Fe) and P. Second, enzymatic and bacterial processes interact with Fe to increase the biological availability of P. We propose that a positive feedback between total stalk biomass and high growth rate is created, which results in abundant P for cell division. The affinity of stalks for Fe in association with iron-phosphorus biogeochemistry suggest a resolution to the paradox of algal blooms in oliogotrophic streams and rivers.

  18. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Algal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Machu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis. HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g−1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g−1, respectively. A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99. Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  19. The attached algal community near Pickering GS: (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental parameters correlated with attached algal standing crop are investigated in this report. Three groups were recognized on the basis of standing crop levels and seasonal standing crop patterns. Factors which appeared to influence the separation among the three groups were substrate size and water temperature. Standing crop levels among the discharge transects, intake and areas outside the station were found to be correlated with a combination of parameters. Standing crop levels outside the station were inversely correlated with wind speed but positively correlated with substrate particle size and depth. Algal standing crop at the intake also was inversely correlated with wind speed. Differences in standing crop levels between the intake and areas outside the station may have been attributed to substrate particle size. Low standing crop level among the discharge transects may have been attributed to higher current velocities and periodically to high water temperature

  20. A Taste of Algal Genomes from the Joint Genome Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-06-17

    Algae play profound roles in aquatic food chains and the carbon cycle, can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms, provide models for the study of symbiosis, photosynthesis, and eukaryotic evolution, and are candidate sources for bio-fuels; all of these research areas are part of the mission of DOE's Joint Genome Institute (JGI). To date JGI has sequenced, assembled, annotated, and released to the public the genomes of 18 species and strains of algae, sampling almost all of the major clades of photosynthetic eukaryotes. With more algal genomes currently undergoing analysis, JGI continues its commitment to driving forward basic and applied algal science. Among these ongoing projects are the pan-genome of the dominant coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, the interrelationships between the 4 genomes in the nucleomorph-containing Bigelowiella natans and Guillardia theta, and the search for symbiosis genes of lichens.

  1. Selective algicidal action of peptides against harmful algal bloom species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Cheol Park

    Full Text Available Recently, harmful algal bloom (HAB, also termed "red tide", has been recognized as a serious problem in marine environments according to climate changes worldwide. Many novel materials or methods to prevent HAB have not yet been employed except for clay dispersion, in which can the resulting sedimentation on the seafloor can also cause alteration in marine ecology or secondary environmental pollution. In the current study, we investigated that antimicrobial peptide have a potential in controlling HAB without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Here, antimicrobial peptides are proposed as new algicidal compounds in combating HAB cells. HPA3 and HPA3NT3 peptides which exert potent antimicrobial activity via pore forming action in plasma membrane showed that HPA3NT3 reduced the motility of algal cells, disrupted their plasma membrane, and induced the efflux of intracellular components. Against raphidoflagellate such as Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella sp., and C. marina, it displayed a rapid lysing action in cell membranes at 1~4 µM within 2 min. Comparatively, its lysing effects occurred at 8 µM within 1 h in dinoflagellate such as Cochlodium polykrikoides, Prorocentrum micans, and P. minimum. Moreover, its lysing action induced the lysis of chloroplasts and loss of chlorophyll a. In the contrary, this peptide was not effective against Skeletonema costatum, harmless algal cell, even at 256 µM, moreover, it killed only H. akashiwo or C. marina in co-cultivation with S. costatum, indicating to its selective algicidal activity between harmful and harmless algal cells. The peptide was non-hemolytic against red blood cells of Sebastes schlegeli, the black rockfish, at 120 µM. HAB cells were quickly and selectively lysed following treatment of antimicrobial peptides without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Thus, the antibiotic peptides examined in our study appear to have much potential in effectively controlling HAB with minimal

  2. Marine harmful algal blooms, human health and wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berdalet, Elisa; Fleming, Lora E.; Gowen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    cause harm to humans and other organisms. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) have direct impacts on human health and negative influences on human wellbeing, mainly through their consequences to coastal ecosystem services (fisheries, tourism and recreation) and other marine organisms and environments...... maintaining intensive, multidisciplinary and collaborative scientific research, and strengthening the coordination with stakeholders, policymakers and the general public. Here we provide an overview of different aspects of the HABs phenomena, an important element of the intrinsic links between oceans...

  3. Conversion of Small Algal Oil Sample to JP-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    cracking of Algal Oil to SPK Hydroprocessing Lab Plant uop Nitrogen Hydrogen Product ., __ Small Scale Lab Hydprocessing plant - Down flow trickle ... bed configuration - Capable of retaining 25 cc of catalyst bed Meter UOP ·CONFIDENTIAL File Number The catalytic deoxygenation stage of the...content which combined with the samples acidity, is a challenge to reactor metallurgy. None the less, an attempt was made to convert this sample to

  4. Are all red algal parasites cut from the same cloth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Salomaki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is a common life strategy throughout the eukaryotic tree of life. Many devastating human pathogens, including the causative agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, have evolved from a photosynthetic ancestor. However, how an organism transitions from a photosynthetic to a parasitic life history strategy remains mostly unknown. This is largely because few systems present the opportunity to make meaningful comparisons between a parasite and a close free-living relative. Parasites have independently evolved dozens of times throughout the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta, and often infect close relatives. The accepted evolutionary paradigm proposes that red algal parasites arise by first infecting a close relative and over time diversify and infect more distantly related species. This provides a natural evolutionary gradient of relationships between hosts and parasites that share a photosynthetic common ancestor. Elegant microscopic work in the late 20th century provided detailed insight into the infection cycle of red algal parasites and the cellular interactions between parasites and their hosts. Those studies led to the use of molecular work to further investigate the origins of the parasite organelles and reveal the evolutionary relationships between hosts and their parasites. Here we synthesize the research detailing the infection methods and cellular interactions between red algal parasites and their hosts. We offer an alternative hypothesis to the current dogma of red algal parasite evolution and propose that red algae can adopt a parasitic life strategy through multiple evolutionary pathways, including direct infection of distant relatives. Furthermore, we highlight potential directions for future research to further evaluate parasite evolution in red algae.

  5. The paradox of algal blooms in oligotrophic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundareshwar, P. V.; Upadhyay, S.; Abessa, M. B.; Honomichl, S.; Berdanier, B.; Spaulding, S.; Sandvik, C.; Trennepohl, A.

    2010-12-01

    Nutrient inputs to streams and lakes, primarily from anthropogenic sources, lead to eutrophic conditions that favor algal blooms with undesirable consequences. In contrast, low nutrient or oligotrophic waters rarely support algal blooms; such ecosystems are typically lower in productivity. Since the mid-1980’s however, the diatom Didymosphenia geminata has dramatically expanded its range colonizing oligotrophic rivers worldwide with blooms appearing as thick benthic mats. This recent global occurrence of Didymosphenia geminata blooms in temperate rivers has been perplexing in its pace of spread and the paradoxical nature of the nuisance growths. The blooms occur primarily in oligotrophic flowing waters, where phosphorus (P) availability often limits primary production. We present a biogeochemical process by which D. geminata mats adsorb both P and iron (Fe) from flowing waters and make P available for cellular uptake. The adsorbed P becomes bioavailable through biogeochemical processes that occur within the mat. The biogeochemical processes observed here while well accepted in benthic systems are novel for algal blooms in lotic habits. Enzymatic and bacterial processes such as Fe and sulfate reduction can release the adsorbed P and increase its bioavailability, creating a positive feedback between total stalk biomass and nutrient availability. Stalk affinity for Fe, Fe-P biogeochemistry, and interaction between watershed processes and climatic setting explain the paradoxical blooms, and the recent global spread of this invasive aquatic species. At a broader scale the study also implies that such algal blooms in oligotrophic environments can fundamentally alter the retention and longitudinal transfer of important nutrients such as P in streams and rivers.

  6. Efficient algal bioassay based on short-term photosynthetic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, J.M.; Stewart, A.J.; O'Neill, R.V.; Gardner, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure is described for measuring the effects of toxicants on algal photosynthesis (carbon-14 bicarbonate (H 14 CO 3 )uptake) in 4-h experiments. The results for individual aromatic compounds and the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a synthetic oil are presented as examples of applications of the bioassay. The toxicity of the WSF varied among the seven algal species tested, and the responses of some species were pH-dependent. With Selenastrum capricornutum as the test organism, the bioassay results were unaffected by variations in pH from 7.0 to 9.0, light intensity from 40 to 200 μeinsteins m -2 s -1 , culture density up to 0.5 mg chlorophyll a per litre, and agitation up to 100 rpm. The photosynthesis bioassay is simpler and faster (4 h versus 4 to 14 days), uses smaller culture volumes, and requires less space than static culture-growth tests. One person can conveniently test four materials per day, and the entire procedure, including preparation, exposure, and analysis, takes less than two days. The short incubation time reduces bottle effects such as pH changes, accumulation of metabolic products, nutrient depletion, and bacterial growth. Processes that remove or alter the test materials are also minimized. The data presented here indicate that algal photosynthesis is inhibited at toxicant concentrations similar to those that cause acute effects in aquatic animals. A model of a pelagic ecosystem is used to demonstrate that even temporary (seven-day) inhibition of algal photosynthesis can have a measurable impact on other trophic levels, particularly if the other trophic levels are also experiencing toxic effects. 25 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  7. Ultrasound pretreatment of filamentous algal biomass for enhanced biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwanyong; Chantrasakdakul, Phrompol; Kim, Daegi; Kong, Mingeun; Park, Ki Young

    2014-06-01

    The filamentous alga Hydrodictyon reticulatum harvested from a bench-scale wastewater treatment pond was used to evaluate biogas production after ultrasound pretreatment. The effects of ultrasound pretreatment at a range of 10-5000 J/mL were tested with harvested H. reticulatum. Cell disruption by ultrasound was successful and showed a higher degree of disintegration at a higher applied energy. The range of 10-5000 J/mL ultrasound was able to disintegrated H. reticulatum and the soluble COD was increased from 250 mg/L to 1000 mg/L at 2500 J/mL. The disintegrated algal biomass was digested for biogas production in batch experiments. Both cumulative gas generation and volatile solids reduction data were obtained during the digestion. Cell disintegration due to ultrasound pretreatment increased the specific biogas production and degradation rates. Using the ultrasound approach, the specific methane production at a dose of 40 J/mL increased up to 384 mL/g-VS fed that was 2.3 times higher than the untreated sample. For disintegrated samples, the volatile solids reduction was greater with increased energy input, and the degradation increased slightly to 67% at a dose of 50 J/mL. The results also indicate that disintegration of the algal cells is the essential step for efficient anaerobic digestion of algal biomass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of cnidarian-algal symbiosis in the "omics" age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eli; Weis, Virginia M

    2012-08-01

    The symbiotic associations between cnidarians and dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium) support productive and diverse ecosystems in coral reefs. Many aspects of this association, including the mechanistic basis of host-symbiont recognition and metabolic interaction, remain poorly understood. The first completed genome sequence for a symbiotic anthozoan is now available (the coral Acropora digitifera), and extensive expressed sequence tag resources are available for a variety of other symbiotic corals and anemones. These resources make it possible to profile gene expression, protein abundance, and protein localization associated with the symbiotic state. Here we review the history of "omics" studies of cnidarian-algal symbiosis and the current availability of sequence resources for corals and anemones, identifying genes putatively involved in symbiosis across 10 anthozoan species. The public availability of candidate symbiosis-associated genes leaves the field of cnidarian-algal symbiosis poised for in-depth comparative studies of sequence diversity and gene expression and for targeted functional studies of genes associated with symbiosis. Reviewing the progress to date suggests directions for future investigations of cnidarian-algal symbiosis that include (i) sequencing of Symbiodinium, (ii) proteomic analysis of the symbiosome membrane complex, (iii) glycomic analysis of Symbiodinium cell surfaces, and (iv) expression profiling of the gastrodermal cells hosting Symbiodinium.

  9. Interrelations between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Korniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents differences and similarities between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District. The investigation was conducted in rural areas and in areas of small towns. 415 taxa of vascular plants were noted altogether in the flora examined. The segetal flora includes 259 species, and the ruderal flora - 334 ones. A comparison between species of those two florae (table l, figure l, 81 species appear in segetal habitats, and 156 in ruderal habitats. Common species, for those two comparsing florae (segetal and ruderal were 178. The following plants were classified as frequent or common in ruderal habitats of the Olsztyn Lake District, having (under certain conditions a significant influence on the weed infestation of cultivated fields: Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Atriplex patula, Chamomilla suaveolens, Cirsium arvense, Conyza canadensis, Descurainia sophia, Galinsoga ciliata, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Lapsana communis, Melandrium album, Poa annua, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus, Sisymbrium officinale, Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Tussil farfara.

  10. Evaluating algal growth performance and water use efficiency of pilot-scale revolving algal biofilm (RAB) culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Mascarenhas, Vernon; Wen, Zhiyou

    2015-10-01

    A Revolving Algal Biofilm (RAB) growth system in which algal cells are attached to a flexible material rotating between liquid and gas phases has been developed. In this work, different configurations of RAB systems were developed at pilot-scale by retrofitting the attachment materials to a raceway pond (2000-L with 8.5 m(2) footprint area) and a trough reservoir (150 L with 3.5 m(2) footprint area). The algal growth performance and chemical composition, as well as the water evaporative loss and specific water consumption were evaluated over a period of nine months in a greenhouse environment near Boone, Iowa USA. Additionally a raceway pond was run in parallel, which served as a control. On average the raceway-based RAB and the trough-based RAB outperformed the control pond by 309% and 697%, respectively. A maximum productivity of 46.8 g m(-2) day(-1) was achieved on the trough-based RAB system. The evaporative water loss of the RAB system was modeled based on an energy balance analysis and was experimentally validated. While the RAB system, particularly the trough-based RAB, had higher water evaporative loss, the specific water consumption per unit of biomass produced was only 26% (raceway-based RAB) and 7% (trough-based RAB) of that of the control pond. Collectively, this research shows that the RAB system is an efficient algal culture system and has great potential to commercially produce microalgae with high productivity and efficient water use. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Algal remediation of CO₂ and nutrient discharges: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Simon; van den Broeke, Leo J P; Shurair, Mohamed; Kuti, Yussuf; Znad, Hussein

    2015-12-15

    The recent literature pertaining to the application of algal photobioreactors (PBRs) to both carbon dioxide mitigation and nutrient abatement is reviewed and the reported data analysed. The review appraises the influence of key system parameters on performance with reference to (a) the absorption and biological fixation of CO2 from gaseous effluent streams, and (b) the removal of nutrients from wastewaters. Key parameters appraised individually with reference to CO2 removal comprise algal speciation, light intensity, mass transfer, gas and hydraulic residence time, pollutant (CO2 and nutrient) loading, biochemical and chemical stoichiometry (including pH), and temperature. Nutrient removal has been assessed with reference to hydraulic residence time and reactor configuration, along with C:nutrient ratios and other factors affecting carbon fixation, and outcomes compared with those reported for classical biological nutrient removal (BNR). Outcomes of the review indicate there has been a disproportionate increase in algal PBR research outputs over the past 5-8 years, with a significant number of studies based on small, bench-scale systems. The quantitative impacts of light intensity and loading on CO2 uptake are highly dependent on the algal species, and also affected by solution chemical conditions such as temperature and pH. Calculations based on available data for biomass growth rates indicate that a reactor CO2 residence time of around 4 h is required for significant CO2 removal. Nutrient removal data indicate residence times of 2-5 days are required for significant nutrient removal, compared with PBR configuration (the high rate algal pond, HRAP) means that its footprint is at least two orders of magnitude greater than a classical BNR plant. It is concluded that the combined carbon capture/nutrient removal process relies on optimisation of a number of process parameters acting synergistically, principally microalgal strain, C:N:P load and balance, CO2 and liquid

  12. Learning to Identify Local Flora with Human Feedback (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-23

    cally tag images with species names of flora or fauna to sup- port content-based retrieval [10]. Detecting and identifying species could help to infer...Learning to Identify Local Flora with Human Feedback Stefan Lee and David Crandall School of Informatics and Computing Indiana University {steflee...applications that use consumer pho- tos to track the distribution of natural phenomena [8]. But flora identification is a very difficult problem, both

  13. CHARLES DARWIN: INMORTALIZADO EN EPÓNIMOS DE GEA, FLORA Y FAUNA RECIENTES DE CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    Se presentan epónimos de gea, flora y fauna de Chile, erigidos en honor de Charles Darwin, naturalista a bordo del H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836), para denominar accidentes geográficos de territorio chileno y nuevas especies de flora y fauna descritas de ejemplares recolectados en Chile por él. Eponyms of gea, flora and fauna, erected in honour of Charles Darwin, naturalist on board of the H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836), for desígnate geographic accidents and new species of flora and fauna described...

  14. [Effect of rat intestinal flora on in vitro metabolic transformation of pumiloside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui; Li, Meng-Xuan; Li, Hai-Bo; Liu, Wen-Jun; Meng, Zhao-Qing; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2016-05-01

    To study the metabolic transformation of pumiloside by rat intestinal flora in vitro and identify its metabolites. Pumiloside was incubated in the rat intestinal flora in vitro. HPLC was used to monitor the metabolic process, and HPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to identify the structures of biotransformation products. In vitro, pumiloside was easily metabolized by rat intestinal flora, and with the prolongation of metabolic time, pumiloside was transformed into several metabolites. Three metabolites were initially identified in this experiment. The study indicated that pumiloside could be extensively metabolized in the rat intestinal flora in vitro. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Floristic richness and endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa.......An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa....

  16. Vaginal flora alterations and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Fausto; da Silva, Márcia G; Polettini, Jossimara; Tristao, Andréa da R; Peracoli, José C; Witkin, Steven S; Rudge, Marilza V C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate associations between alterations in vaginal flora and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women. Vaginal specimens from 245 pregnant women were analyzed by microscopy for vaginal flora. Signs and symptoms of vaginal infection were determined by patient interviews and gynecologic examinations. Abnormal vaginal flora was identified in 45.7% of the subjects. The final clinical diagnoses were bacterial vaginosis (21.6%), vaginal candidosis (10.2%), intermediate vaginal flora (5.2%), aerobic vaginitis (2.9%), mixed flora (2.9%) and other abnormal findings (2.9%). The percentage of women with or without clinical signs or symptoms was not significantly different between these categories. The presence of vaginal odor or vaginal discharge characteristics was not diagnostic of any specific flora alteration; pruritus was highly associated with candidosis (p vaginal odor was associated with bacterial vaginosis (p = 0.0026). The prevalence of atypical vaginal flora is common in our low-risk pregnant population and is not always associated with pathology. The occurrence of specific signs or symptoms does not always discriminate between women with different types of atypical vaginal flora or between those with abnormal and normal vaginal flora. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Flora of fieId plantings and parks and its origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Hołdyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the studies presented in this paper was the flora of field plantings of different origin. The vascular flora ofthe plantings examined comprises 254 taxons, including 53 trees and shrubs, and 201 herbaceous vascular plants. The flora is rich and diverse. In 26,8% of taxons it is presents in all types of plantings. More than half of the registered species occurs once or twice only in all 23 planting groups studied. A detailed analysis of the flora examined shows that field plantings in agricultural landscapes may, in a small number of cases, constitute a source of weeds diaspores propagating in fields.

  18. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Sudhir Chitale

    Full Text Available India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single

  19. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  20. China : a rich flora needed of urgent conservation

    OpenAIRE

    López-Pujol, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    China is one of the richest countries in plant biodiversity in the world. Besides to a rich flora, which contains about 33.000 vascular plants (being 30.000 of these angiosperms, 250 gymnosperms, and 2.600 pteridophytes), there is a extraordinary ecosystem diversity. In addition, China also contains a large pool of both wild and cultivated germplasm; one of the eight original centers of crop plants in the world was located there. China is also considered one of the main centers of origin and ...

  1. Usos populares de la flora tipica del oeste de Cartagena

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Madrid, María José; Martínez Madrid, Isabel María

    2011-01-01

    Se recopilan los usos que popularmente se llevan o llevaban a cabo con la flora local del Oeste de Cartagena, para as´ı estudiar los conocimientos que a ´un conserva la poblaci´on y realizar un peque ˜ no sondeo de las plantas m´as utilizadas, atendiendo a su ubicaci´on y uso. Esta recopilaci´on de datos la he realizado mediante una serie de entrevistas abiertas a diversas personas de distintas edades en las que les preguntaba por plantas medicinales, enfermedades q...

  2. [The influence of electromagnetic fields on flora and fauna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochalska, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of natural and artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF) on fauna and flora. The mechanisms of Earth's magnetic field detection and the use of this skill by migratory animals to faultlessly reach the destination of their travel are discussed, as well as the positive effects of electric and magnetic fields on plants relative to their physiology, yielding and health. EMF influence on social insects and animal organisms, including possible DNA damages and DNA repair systems, is presented. The influence of high frequency electromagnetic fields on birds nesting is also discussed.

  3. Pregnancy in HIV-Positive Patients: Effects on Vaginal Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vallone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high proportion of HIV-infected pregnant women present pathogenic organisms in their lower genital tract. This has been associated with the development of postpartum morbility, HIV transmission to the partner and offspring, and other gynaecological conditions, such as cervical dysplasia or cancer. Vaginal flora alterations can range from 47% in Western countries to 89% in Africa in pregnant HIV-positive patients, much higher than about 20% of the general population. Pathogen organism retrieval is high. As peripartum complications due to vaginal infections seem higher in HIV-positive patients, accurate investigation and treatment of such infections are strongly mandatory.

  4. Sertula Florae Colombiae – XV: Nuevas Melastomatáceas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Uribe Lorenzo

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available El notable aumento de las colecciones del Herbario Nacional Colombiano muestran la riqueza de la flora melastomatácea de Colombia. Uno de los géneros más ricos y más bien caracterizados es Blakea. En este artículo describo dos nuevas especies muy interesantes. Dejo consignada mi gratitud para elnotable dibujante, don Silvio Fernández Valencia, a quien se deben las magníficas ilustraciones y muchos datos y mediciones de órganos pequeñísimos, que facilitaron  las descripciones exactas de las plantas.

  5. Phytogeography of the vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal (Andes, Venezuela) and its ties to other páramo floras

    OpenAIRE

    Cuello, N.L.; Cleef, A.M.; Aymard, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ramal de Guaramacal is an outlier and lower elevation mountain range located at the northeastern end of the Venezuelan Andes. Phytogeographical patterns and affinities of the low altitude and wet vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal, have been studied with emphasis in to the analysis of the floristic connections of the Guaramacal páramo flora with the neighboring dry páramos of the Sierra Nevada de Mérida and other páramo floras of the northern Andes and Central America. A total of 25...

  6. Advancing Commercialization of Algal Biofuel through Increased Biomass Productivity and Technical Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, David [Cellana, LLC, Kailua-Kona, HI (United States)

    2016-12-31

    The proposed project built on the foundation of over several years years of intensive and ground-breaking R&D work at Cellana's Kona Demonstration Facility (KDF). Phycological and engineering solutions were provided to tackle key cultivation issues and technical barriers limiting algal biomass productivity identified through work conducted outdoors at industrial (1 acre) scale. The objectives of this project were to significantly improve algal biomass productivity and reduce operational cost in a seawater-based system, using results obtained from two top-performing algal strains as the baseline while technically advancing and more importantly, integrating the various unit operations involved in algal biomass production, processing, and refining.

  7. Flora Normal, Probióticos y Salud Humana Flora Normal, Probióticos y Salud Humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Anaya-Velázquez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La microbiota es el conjunto de microorganismos que se localizan de manera normal en distintos sitios del cuerpo humano. Varios factores permiten que se mantenga el equilibrio necesario para conservar la salud. Se ha descrito que una de las funciones más importantes de la flora normal es la resistencia que confi ere a la invasión por agentes patógenos a través de diversos mecanismos como es la producción de bacteriocinas, ácido láctico o peróxido de hidrógeno entre otros. Destacan los lactobacilos (Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus y L. bifidus, habitantes del tracto gastrointestinal y vaginal, que inhiben el crecimiento de bacterias y virus como Salmonella y el VIH respectivamente. Los probióticos son microorganismos vivos, no patógenos, los cuales administrados en cantidades adecuadas confieren un beneficio sobre la salud del huésped. La investigación de diversas bacterias resulta alentadora debido a su uso potencial para mantener y restaurar la flora normal lo cual puede ser benéfico para la nutrición, la prevención de enfermedades y en un futuro ser parte de un tratamiento integral. The microbiota is the group of microorganisms that live normally in different parts of the human body. Several factors allow the maintenance of the required equilibrium to preserve health. It has been described that one of the most important functions of the normal flora is the resistance they confer to humans against invasion by pathogenic agents by different mechanisms such as production of bacteriocins, lactic acid or hydrogen peroxide. Among the most noticeable microorganisms are lactobacilli (Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus and L. bifidus, inhabitants of gastrointestinal and genital tract which inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and viruses such as Salmonella and VIH, respectively. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Research conducted with several

  8. Expanded algal cultivation can reverse key planetary boundary transgressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Calahan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Humanity is degrading multiple ecosystem services, potentially irreversibly. Two of the most important human impacts are excess agricultural nutrient loading in our fresh and estuarine waters and excess carbon dioxide in our oceans and atmosphere. Large-scale global intervention is required to slow, halt, and eventually reverse these stresses. Cultivating attached polyculture algae within controlled open-field photobioreactors is a practical technique for exploiting the ubiquity and high primary productivity of algae to capture and recycle the pollutants driving humanity into unsafe regimes of biogeochemical cycling, ocean acidification, and global warming. Expanded globally and appropriately distributed, algal cultivation is capable of removing excess nutrients from global environments, while additionally sequestering appreciable excess carbon. While obviously a major capital and operational investment, such a project is comparable in magnitude to the construction and maintenance of the global road transportation network. Beyond direct amelioration of critical threats, expanded algal cultivation would produce a major new commodity flow of biomass, potentially useful either as a valuable organic commodity itself, or used to reduce the scale of the problem by improving soils, slowing or reversing the loss of arable land. A 100 year project to expand algal cultivation to completely recycle excess global agricultural N and P would, when fully operational, require gross global expenses no greater than $2.3 × 1012 yr−1, (3.0% of the 2016 global domestic product and less than 1.9 × 107 ha (4.7 × 107 ac, 0.38% of the land area used globally to grow food. The biomass generated embodies renewable energy equivalent to 2.8% of global primary energy production.

  9. Copper removal by algal biomass: biosorbents characterization and equilibrium modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Pinheiro, José P S; Domingos, Rute F; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2009-04-30

    The general principles of Cu(II) binding to algal waste from agar extraction, composite material and algae Gelidium, and different modelling approaches, are discussed. FTIR analyses provided a detailed description of the possible binding groups present in the biosorbents, as carboxylic groups (D-glucuronic and pyruvic acids), hydroxyl groups (cellulose, agar and floridean starch) and sulfonate groups (sulphated galactans). Potentiometric acid-base titrations showed a heterogeneous distribution of two major binding groups, carboxyl and hydroxyl, following the quasi-Gaussian affinity constant distribution suggested by Sips, which permitted to estimate the maximum amount of acid functional groups (0.36, 0.25 and 0.1 mmol g(-1)) and proton binding parameters (pK(H)=5.0, 5.3 and 4.4; m(H)=0.43, 0.37, 0.33), respectively for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. A non-ideal, semi-empirical, thermodynamically consistent (NICCA) isotherm fitted better the experimental ion binding data for different pH values and copper concentrations, considering only the acid functional groups, than the discrete model. Values of pK(M) (3.2; 3.6 and 3.3), n(M) (0.98, 0.91, 1.0) and p (0.67, 0.53 and 0.43) were obtained, respectively for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. NICCA model reflects the complex macromolecular systems that take part in biosorption considering the heterogeneity of the biosorbent, the competition between protons and metals ions to the binding sites and the stoichiometry for different ions.

  10. Copper removal by algal biomass: Biosorbents characterization and equilibrium modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, Vitor J.P. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: vilar@fe.up.pt; Botelho, Cidalia M.S. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: cbotelho@fe.up.pt; Pinheiro, Jose P.S.; Domingos, Rute F. [Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Boaventura, Rui A.R. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: bventura@fe.up.pt

    2009-04-30

    The general principles of Cu(II) binding to algal waste from agar extraction, composite material and algae Gelidium, and different modelling approaches, are discussed. FTIR analyses provided a detailed description of the possible binding groups present in the biosorbents, as carboxylic groups (D-glucuronic and pyruvic acids), hydroxyl groups (cellulose, agar and floridean starch) and sulfonate groups (sulphated galactans). Potentiometric acid-base titrations showed a heterogeneous distribution of two major binding groups, carboxyl and hydroxyl, following the quasi-Gaussian affinity constant distribution suggested by Sips, which permitted to estimate the maximum amount of acid functional groups (0.36, 0.25 and 0.1 mmol g{sup -1}) and proton binding parameters (pK{sup '}{sub H}=5.0,5.3and4.4;m{sub H} = 0.43, 0.37, 0.33), respectively for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. A non-ideal, semi-empirical, thermodynamically consistent (NICCA) isotherm fitted better the experimental ion binding data for different pH values and copper concentrations, considering only the acid functional groups, than the discrete model. Values of pK{sup '}{sub M} (3.2; 3.6 and 3.3), n{sub M} (0.98, 0.91, 1.0) and p (0.67, 0.53 and 0.43) were obtained, respectively for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. NICCA model reflects the complex macromolecular systems that take part in biosorption considering the heterogeneity of the biosorbent, the competition between protons and metals ions to the binding sites and the stoichiometry for different ions.

  11. Copper removal by algal biomass: Biosorbents characterization and equilibrium modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilar, Vitor J.P.; Botelho, Cidalia M.S.; Pinheiro, Jose P.S.; Domingos, Rute F.; Boaventura, Rui A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The general principles of Cu(II) binding to algal waste from agar extraction, composite material and algae Gelidium, and different modelling approaches, are discussed. FTIR analyses provided a detailed description of the possible binding groups present in the biosorbents, as carboxylic groups (D-glucuronic and pyruvic acids), hydroxyl groups (cellulose, agar and floridean starch) and sulfonate groups (sulphated galactans). Potentiometric acid-base titrations showed a heterogeneous distribution of two major binding groups, carboxyl and hydroxyl, following the quasi-Gaussian affinity constant distribution suggested by Sips, which permitted to estimate the maximum amount of acid functional groups (0.36, 0.25 and 0.1 mmol g -1 ) and proton binding parameters (pK ' H =5.0,5.3and4.4;m H = 0.43, 0.37, 0.33), respectively for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. A non-ideal, semi-empirical, thermodynamically consistent (NICCA) isotherm fitted better the experimental ion binding data for different pH values and copper concentrations, considering only the acid functional groups, than the discrete model. Values of pK ' M (3.2; 3.6 and 3.3), n M (0.98, 0.91, 1.0) and p (0.67, 0.53 and 0.43) were obtained, respectively for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. NICCA model reflects the complex macromolecular systems that take part in biosorption considering the heterogeneity of the biosorbent, the competition between protons and metals ions to the binding sites and the stoichiometry for different ions

  12. Assessment of Algal Farm Designs Using a Dynamic Modular Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abodeely, Jared [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Coleman, Andre M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Technical Group; Stevens, Daniel M. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Ray, Allison E. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Cafferty, Kara G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Newby, Deborah T. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology

    2014-07-01

    The notion of renewable energy provides an important mechanism for diversifying an energy portfolio, which ultimately would have numerous benefits including increased energy resilience, reduction of foreign energy supplies, reduced GHG emissions, development of a green energy sector that contributes to economic growth, and providing a sustainable energy supply. The conversion of autotrophic algae to liquid transportation fuels is the basis of several decades of research to competitively bring energy-scale production into reality; however, many challenges still remain for making algal biofuels economically viable. Addressing current challenges associated with algal production systems, in part, requires the ability to assess spatial and temporal variability, rapidly evaluate alternative algal production system designs, and perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. We introduce the Algae Logistics Model (ALM) which helps to address these challenges. The flexible nature of the ALM architecture allows the model to: 1) interface with external biomass production and resource assessment models, as well as other relevant datasets including those with spatiotemporal granularity; 2) interchange design processes to enable operational and economic assessments of multiple design configurations, including the integration of current and new innovative technologies; and 3) conduct trade-off analysis to help understand the site-specific techno-economic trade-offs and inform technology decisions. This study uses the ALM to investigate a baseline open-pond production system determined by model harmonization efforts conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Six sites in the U.S. southern-tier were sub-selected and assessed using daily site-specific algae biomass productivity data to determine the economic viability of large-scale open-pond systems. Results show that costs can vary significantly depending on location and biomass

  13. Ocular fungal flora from healthy horses in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, A R; Nikaein, D; Sharifzadeh, A; Gharagozlou, F

    2014-03-01

    This study was carried out in order to isolate and identify the normal conjunctival fungal flora from Caspian miniature, Thoroughbred, Turkmen and Persian Arab breeds in Tehran, Iran. A total of seventy-two adult healthy horses were studied. Ocular samples were collected from right and left eyes by using sterile cotton swabs; samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated at 30°C for 7-10 days. Molds and yeasts were identified using macro and micro-morphological and physiological characteristics. Number of fungal colonies per eye varied between 0 and 123 colony forming units (CFUs). The most predominant fungal isolates were Aspergillus (19.9%), Rhizopus (15.9%) and Penicillium (15.1%). No significant differences were observed between types of eye fungal floras in different breeds. Caspian miniature horses had significantly the highest number of fungal isolates in compare with other breeds (P<0.001), however no significant difference was observed among other breeds under study. The fungal isolates were almost the same as with studies performed in other countries, although differences in species isolated could be related to geographic and climate difference. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Interrelationships Within the Bacterial Flora of the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Carson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 240 consecutive vaginal swabs using the compatibility profile technique revealed that only 2 bacteria have the ability to be a sole isolate and as such a candidate to be a major aerobic regulator of the bacterial flora of the female genital tract (BFFGT. Compatibility profiles of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis have shown that these organisms shared compatibility profiling for the majority of the normal bacterial constituents of the female genital tract. Dominance disruption appears to come from the addition of compatible co-isolates and presumed loss of numerical superiority. These phenomena appear to be the keys to reregulation of BFFGT. Lactobacillus appears to be the major regulator of both G. vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria. When additional organisms are added to the bacterial flora, they may add to or partially negate the inhibitory influence of Lactobacillus on the BFFGT. Inhibitor interrelationships appear to exist between coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus and the group B streptococci (GBS and other beta hemolytic streptococci. Facilitating interrelationships appear to exist between S. aureus and the GBS and selected Enterobacteriaceae.

  15. Medicinal Plants in the Flora of Luhansk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Naumov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To establish a resource base of medicinal plants of Donbass, and to develop methods for their balanced use, it is necessary to conduct an inventory and analysis of the spread of wild species, that recently was not carried out in Luhansk and Donetsk region. These circumstances have served as an incentive to carry out special investigations. Test species belong to 403 genus and 108 families. List of vascular plants of Luhansk region has more than 1,200 species. We have established that in the study area, there are 718 species of medicinal plants, representing 60 % of the total flora of the region, covering so much of the taxonomic diversity of Donbass flora. The family of the Asteraceae (105 species, 50 genuses is different in terms of the greatest number of species of medicinal plants and genus family. The families of Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae contain more than 40 species, the families of Apiaceae и Rosaceae — over 30 species, Caryophylaceae и Polygonaceae — more than 20 species, a total of 301 species. The remaining 99 families presented a small number of basic taxonomic units. The species Viscum album, Ajuga chia, Salvia nemorosa were found during expeditions. These species have not been previously described for the region.

  16. Normal bacterial flora from vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Nava, Sunny; Boscán-Ocando, Julio; Nava, Jexenia

    2011-02-01

    In order to describe the normal bacterial flora in vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows, 51 healthy multiparous cows, at least 90-day postpartum, were selected. Duplicated swabs (N = 102) were taken from the vaginal fornix of cows to perform aerobic and anaerobic cultures as well as conventional biochemical tests. Out of 102 swabs, bacterial growth was obtained in 55 (53.9%) while the remaining 47 (46.1%) did not exhibited any bacterial growth. Of the 55 bacterial growths, 23 (41.8%) were aerobic whereas 32 (58.1%) were anaerobic. Likewise, 29 (52.72%) of bacterial growths were pure and 26 (47.27%) were mixed. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, Gram positive bacteria were predominant (81.82% and 73.08%, respectively) over Gram negative bacteria (18.18% and 26.92%, respectively). Isolated bacteria were Arcanobacterium pyogenes (22.92%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.63%), Staphylococcus coagulase negative (17.71%), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (6.25%), Bacteroides spp. (13.54%), and Peptostreptococcus spp. (7.29%). In conclusion, normal vaginal bacterial flora of Criollo Limonero cows was predominantly Gram positive and included A. pyogenes, S. aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. rhusiopathiae, Bacteroides spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. In Criollo Limonero cattle, adaptive aspects such as development of humoral and physical mechanisms for defense, and bacterial adaptation to host deserve research attention.

  17. Decontamination Efficiency of Fish Bacterial Flora from Processing Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birna Guðbjörnsdóttir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous parameters that can influence bacterial decontamination during washing of machinery and equipment in a food processing establishment. Incomplete decontamination of bacteria will increase the risk of biofilm formation and consequently increase the risk of pathogen contamination or prevalence of other undesirable microorganisms such as spoilage bacteria in the processing line. The efficiency of a typical washing protocol has been determined by testing three critical parameters and their effects on bacterial decontamination. Two surface materials (plastic and stainless steel, water temperatures (7 and 25 °C and detergent concentrations (2 and 4 % were used for this purpose in combination with two types of detergents. Biofilm was prepared on the surfaces with undefined bacterial flora obtained from minced cod fillets. The bacterial flora of the biofilm was characterised by cultivation and molecular analysis of 16S rRNA genes. All different combinations of washing protocols tested were able to remove more than 99.9 % of the bacteria in the biofilm and reduce the cell number from 7 to 0 or 2 log units of bacteria/cm2. The results show that it is possible to use less diluted detergents than recommended with comparable success, and it is easier to clean surface material made of stainless steel compared to polyethylene plastic.

  18. Spatial phylogenetics of the vascular flora of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherson, Rosa A; Thornhill, Andrew H; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael; Freyman, William A; Pliscoff, Patricio A; Mishler, Brent D

    2017-07-01

    Current geographic patterns of biodiversity are a consequence of the evolutionary history of the lineages that comprise them. This study was aimed at exploring how evolutionary features of the vascular flora of Chile are distributed across the landscape. Using a phylogeny at the genus level for 87% of the Chilean vascular flora, and a geographic database of sample localities, we calculated phylogenetic diversity (PD), phylogenetic endemism (PE), relative PD (RPD), and relative PE (RPE). Categorical Analyses of Neo- and Paleo-Endemism (CANAPE) were also performed, using a spatial randomization to assess statistical significance. A cluster analysis using range-weighted phylogenetic turnover was used to compare among grid cells, and with known Chilean bioclimates. PD patterns were concordant with known centers of high taxon richness and the Chilean biodiversity hotspot. In addition, several other interesting areas of concentration of evolutionary history were revealed as potential conservation targets. The south of the country shows areas of significantly high RPD and a concentration of paleo-endemism, and the north shows areas of significantly low PD and RPD, and a concentration of neo-endemism. Range-weighted phylogenetic turnover shows high congruence with the main macrobioclimates of Chile. Even though the study was done at the genus level, the outcome provides an accurate outline of phylogenetic patterns that can be filled in as more fine-scaled information becomes available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  20. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-11-01

    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify

  1. Bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas and algal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevaswamy, M.; Venkataraman, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated system for the bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas production and utilization of the effluent for the production of the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis was studied. Poultry droppings produced 0.54 cubic m of biogas per kilogran of Total Solids (TS). The 2% TS biogas plant effluent as sole nutrient medium for Spirulina yielded 7-8 g dry algae a day. The biomass was harvested by filtration. The sundried algal biomass has been used as a poultry feed component. In economic terms the system appears promising. 18 references.

  2. A Collection of Algal Genomes from the JGI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Algae, defined as photosynthetic eukaryotes other than plants, constitute a major component of fundamental eukaryotic diversity. Acquisition of the ability to conduct oxygenic photosynthesis through endosymbiotic events has been a principal driver of eukaryotic evolution, and today algae continue to underpin aquatic food chains as primary producers. Algae play profound roles in the carbon cycle, can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms, and are candidate sources for bio-fuels; all of these research areas are part of the mission of DOE?s Joint Genome Institute (JGI). A collection of algal projects ongoing at JGI contributes to each of these areas and illustrates analyses employed in their genome exploration.

  3. A trait-based framework for stream algal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Katharina; Townsend, Colin Richard; Matthaei, Christoph David

    2016-01-01

    The use of trait-based approaches to detect effects of land use and climate change on terrestrial plant and aquatic phytoplankton communities is increasing, but such a framework is still needed for benthic stream algae. Here we present a conceptual framework of morphological, physiological, behavioural and life-history traits relating to resource acquisition and resistance to disturbance. We tested this approach by assessing the relationships between multiple anthropogenic stressors and algal traits at 43 stream sites. Our "natural experiment" was conducted along gradients of agricultural land-use intensity (0-95% of the catchment in high-producing pasture) and hydrological alteration (0-92% streamflow reduction resulting from water abstraction for irrigation) as well as related physicochemical variables (total nitrogen concentration and deposited fine sediment). Strategic choice of study sites meant that agricultural intensity and hydrological alteration were uncorrelated. We studied the relationships of seven traits (with 23 trait categories) to our environmental predictor variables using general linear models and an information-theoretic model-selection approach. Life form, nitrogen fixation and spore formation were key traits that showed the strongest relationships with environmental stressors. Overall, FI (farming intensity) exerted stronger effects on algal communities than hydrological alteration. The large-bodied, non-attached, filamentous algae that dominated under high farming intensities have limited dispersal abilities but may cope with unfavourable conditions through the formation of spores. Antagonistic interactions between FI and flow reduction were observed for some trait variables, whereas no interactions occurred for nitrogen concentration and fine sediment. Our conceptual framework was well supported by tests of ten specific hypotheses predicting effects of resource supply and disturbance on algal traits. Our study also shows that investigating a

  4. Flora sampling in the vicinity of gamma greenhouse: As a flora sampling model for supporting the national nuclear power program (NPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Shakinah Salleh; Norazlina Noordin; Salmah Moosa; Sakinah Ariffin; Salahbiah Abdul Majid; Nur Humaira Lau Abdullah; Mohd Zaidan Kandar; Abdul Rahim Harun

    2012-01-01

    Gamma Green House was used as a model to study radiation effects on flora and ecosystems in supporting the National Nuclear Power Programme (NPP). A task force was formed in BAB which consists of 3 main groups of flora, fauna and microorganisms. For the flora group, two sampling expeditions have been carried out on July 7, 2011 and March 2, 2012 with the assistant of experts from University Putra Malaysia. From these expeditions, a preliminary data on the types and distribution of plants in selected quadrants close to the Gamma Greenhouse has been successfully observed and the collected plant samples have been preserved as part of the herbarium collection. This paper will describe on the sampling activities and sample preservation. Knowledge gained from this study will be very useful as model for flora distribution baseline data at plant site(author)

  5. Distribution of metals in fauna, flora and sediments of wet detention ponds and natural shallow lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, D.A.; Nielsen, A.H.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Fauna, flora, and sediment were collected from 9 wet detention ponds receiving stormwater runoff and 11 small natural shallow lakes. The fauna and flora samples were sorted into species or groups of species and, together with sediments, analyzed for aluminum, copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, cadmium,...

  6. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak project – progress and future activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.S.; Nadiah, I.; Eryani, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Tropical forests in Borneo (Brunei Darussalam, Kalimantan, Sabah and Sarawak) are considered as one of the twelve mega biodiversity centres in the world. However, until now, there is no up-to-date or complete documentation on the flora of the island. The Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak Project,

  7. Proton pump inhibitor medication is associated with colonisation of gut flora in the oropharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, A; Thorarinsdottir, H R; Holmberg, A; Schött, U; Klarin, B

    2018-03-08

    The normal body exists in mutualistic balance with a large range of microbiota. The primary goal of this study was to establish whether there is an imbalance in the oropharyngeal flora early after hospital or ICU admittance, and whether flora differs between control, ward and critically ill patients. The secondary goal was to explore whether there are patient characteristics that can be associated with a disturbed oropharyngeal flora. Oropharyngeal cultures were obtained from three different study groups: (1) controls from the community, (2) ward patients and (3) critically ill patients, the two latter within 24 h after admittance. Cultures were obtained from 487 individuals: 77 controls, 193 ward patients and 217 critically ill patients. Abnormal pharyngeal flora was more frequent in critically ill and ward patients compared with controls (62.2% and 10.4% vs. 1.3%, P flora in the oropharynx was more frequent in critically ill patients compared with ward patients or controls (26.3% vs. 4.7% and 1.3%, P flora in the oropharynx in both ward and critically ill patients (P = 0.030 and P = 0.044, respectively). This study indicates that abnormal oropharyngeal flora is an early and frequent event in hospitalised patients and more so in the critically ill, compared to controls. Proton pump inhibitor medication is associated with colonisation of gut flora in the oropharynx. © 2018 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Rijksherbarium and its contribution to the research on the Netherlands and European flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennema, J.

    1979-01-01

    In the first decades of its existence the interest of the Rijksherbarium was certainly not directed towards the study of the Dutch and European flora. The initiative to embark on research of the flora of the Netherlands was born outside the walls of the institute. In 1845, R. B. van den Bosch

  9. Bacterial skin flora of diabetic patients in the Jos University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetics frequently are afflicted with bacterial skin infections because of the high circulating blood sugar. The frequent skin infections in these patients may be a result of change in normal skin flora. This study was carried out to find out the normal skin flora of these patients. Ninety four (50 study and 44 control) consecutive ...

  10. Impact of marine influence and cultivation on the diatom flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a limnological and palaeolimnological study of the western part of the Great Coast of Senegal, an analysis of diatoms was carried out in Thiaroye Pond in the suburbs of Dakar. Current diatom flora in the water and on floating plants, and subfossil flora in two cores were sampled in 1996 and 2003. A total of 104 ...

  11. Fish losses due to bacterial flora and infections of fishes in Kainji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses the losses incurred as a result of bacterial flora and infection in captured and cultured fish. The role played by these bacterial flora on the overall quality and health of fish is discussed. Bacteria have been reported to cause diseases in ponds and increase in the spoilage rate of raw and preserved fish in ...

  12. A precursor to the treatment of Dorstenia for the floras of Cameroun and Gabon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.; Hijman, M.E.E.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper is the result of a study of Dorstenia mainly made on behalf of the Floras of Cameroun and Gabon. It presents, as a precursor to the treatment in those Floras, some general remarks on the genus Dorstenia, a key to the species, a survey of the taxa distinguished, new combinations and

  13. Supplementary Material for: The flora phenotype ontology (FLOPO): tool for integrating morphological traits and phenotypes of vascular plants

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert; AlShahrani, Mona; Gkoutos, Georgios; Gosline, George; Groom, Quentin; Hamann, Thomas; Kattge, Jens; Oliveira, Sylvia de; Schmidt, Marco; Sierra, Soraya; Smets, Erik; Vos, Rutger; Weiland, Claus

    2016-01-01

    traits of plant species found in Floras. We used the Plant Ontology (PO) and the Phenotype And Trait Ontology (PATO) to extract entity-quality relationships from digitized taxon descriptions in Floras, and used a formal ontological approach based

  14. Flora og insekter i hegn på økologiske og konventionelle bedrifter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marianne Bruus; Aude, E.; Tybirk, K.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the project was to compare flora and insect fauna of organic and conventional hedgerows, and to study whether the drift of herbicides into hedgerows alone or in combination with differences in fertiliser application may explain any differences. The project consequently consisted of two...... of the most important agricultural conditions having an effect on flora and insect fauna in different agricultural systems. In the experiment flora and insect fauna were studied for three years. In the hedgerows clear differences in the floral composition were found, with more plant species in hedgerows...... at organically grown fields that at conventionally grown fields, on both sandy and loamy soils. The insect fauna was correlated with the flora, but no clear differences were found between the two agricultural systems. Apart from the hedgerow flora, also the type of crop grown on the adjacent fields affected...

  15. [Changes of fecal flora and its correlation with inflammatory indicators in patients with inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Ye; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhou, Youlian; Zhang, Shaoheng; Wang, Pu; Xie, Shan; Jiang, Bo

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the changes in fecal flora and its correlation with the occurrence and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We collected fresh fecal specimens from 167 IBD patients (including 113 with ulcerative colitis and 54 with Crohn's disease) and 54 healthy volunteers. The fecal flora was analyzed by gradient dilution method and the data of inflammatory markers including WBC, PLT, CRP and ESR were collected to assess the association between the fecal flora and the inflammatory markers. The species Enterrococcus (6.60∓0.23, Pflora. The changes in fecal flora did not show a significant correlation with these inflammatory markers. IBD patients have fecal flora imbalance compared with the healthy controls, and this imbalance may contribute to the occurrence and progression of IBD. The decline of Eubacterium contributes to the occurrence and development of IBD.

  16. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for early classification of harmful algal blooms (SETAC presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacterial blooms, also known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABS) have increased drastically in recent years. HABS impact human health from causing mild allergies to liver damage and death. The Ecological Stewardship Institute (ESI) at Northern Kentucky Universi...

  17. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  18. Compatibility of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with algal toxicity bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair; Reid, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous reports have indicated that hydrophobic organic compound bioaccessibility in sediment and soil can be determined by extraction using aqueous hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solutions. This study establishes the compatibility of HPCD with Selenastrum capricornutum and assesses whether its presence influences the toxicity of reference toxicants. Algal growth inhibition (72 h) showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference at HPCD concentrations up to and including 20 mM. HPCD presence did not influence the toxicity of the inorganic reference toxicant (ZnSO 4 ), with IC50 values of 0.82 μM and 0.85 μM, in the presence and absence of HPCD (20 mM), respectively. However, HPCD presence (20 mM) reduced the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol and the herbicides diuron and isoproturon. These reductions were attributed to inclusion complex formation between the toxicants and the HPCD cavity. Liberation of complexed toxicants, by sample manipulation prior to toxicity assessment, is proposed to provide a sensitive, high throughput, bioassay that reflects compound bioaccessibility. - Compatibility of the biomimetic HPCD extraction method with algal cell growth inhibition bioassays to assess toxicity of reference toxicants and environmental relevant herbicides

  19. Algal and microbial exopolysaccharides: new insights as biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua-Michel, José de Jesús; Olmos-Soto, Jorge; Morales-Guerrero, Eduardo Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Currently, efforts are being made to utilize more natural biological systems as alternatives as a way to replace fossil forms of carbon. There is a growing concern at global level to have nontoxic, nonhazardous surface-active agents; contrary to synthetic surfactants, their biological counterparts or biosurfactants play a primary function, facilitating microbial presence in environments dominated by hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. Algal and microbial biosurfactants/bioemulsifiers from marine and deep-sea environments are attracting major interest due to their structural and functional diversity as molecules actives of surface and an alternative biomass to replace fossil forms of carbon. Algal and microbial surfactants are lipid in nature and classified as glycolipids, phospholipids, lipopeptides, natural lipids, fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolic bioactive products are applicable in a number of industries and processes, viz., food processing, pharmacology, and bioremediation of oil-polluted environments. This chapter presents an update of the progress and potentialities of the principal producers of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-type biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers, viz., macro- and microalgae (cyanobacteria and diatoms) and bacteria from marine and extreme environments. Particular interest is centered into new sources and applications, viz., marine and deep-sea environments and promissory uses of these EPSs as biosurfactants/emulsifiers and other polymeric roles. The enormous benefits of these molecules encourage their discovery, exploitation, and development of new microbial EPSs that could possess novel industrial importance and corresponding innovations. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Algal Blooms and Cyanotoxins in Jordan Lake, North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wiltsie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The eutrophication of waterways has led to a rise in cyanobacterial, harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs worldwide. The deterioration of water quality due to excess algal biomass in lakes has been well documented (e.g., water clarity, hypoxic conditions, but health risks associated with cyanotoxins remain largely unexplored in the absence of toxin information. This study is the first to document the presence of dissolved microcystin, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, and β-N-methylamino-l-alanine in Jordan Lake, a major drinking water reservoir in North Carolina. Saxitoxin presence was not confirmed. Multiple toxins were detected at 86% of the tested sites and during 44% of the sampling events between 2014 and 2016. Although concentrations were low, continued exposure of organisms to multiple toxins raises some concerns. A combination of discrete sampling and in-situ tracking (Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking [SPATT] revealed that microcystin and anatoxin were the most pervasive year-round. Between 2011 and 2016, summer and fall blooms were dominated by the same cyanobacterial genera, all of which are suggested producers of single or multiple cyanotoxins. The study’s findings provide further evidence of the ubiquitous nature of cyanotoxins, and the challenges involved in linking CyanoHAB dynamics to specific environmental forcing factors are discussed.

  1. Algal Blooms and Cyanotoxins in Jordan Lake, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltsie, Daniel; Schnetzer, Astrid; Green, Jason; Vander Borgh, Mark; Fensin, Elizabeth

    2018-02-24

    The eutrophication of waterways has led to a rise in cyanobacterial, harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) worldwide. The deterioration of water quality due to excess algal biomass in lakes has been well documented (e.g., water clarity, hypoxic conditions), but health risks associated with cyanotoxins remain largely unexplored in the absence of toxin information. This study is the first to document the presence of dissolved microcystin, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, and β- N -methylamino-l-alanine in Jordan Lake, a major drinking water reservoir in North Carolina. Saxitoxin presence was not confirmed. Multiple toxins were detected at 86% of the tested sites and during 44% of the sampling events between 2014 and 2016. Although concentrations were low, continued exposure of organisms to multiple toxins raises some concerns. A combination of discrete sampling and in-situ tracking (Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking [SPATT]) revealed that microcystin and anatoxin were the most pervasive year-round. Between 2011 and 2016, summer and fall blooms were dominated by the same cyanobacterial genera, all of which are suggested producers of single or multiple cyanotoxins. The study's findings provide further evidence of the ubiquitous nature of cyanotoxins, and the challenges involved in linking CyanoHAB dynamics to specific environmental forcing factors are discussed.

  2. Marine mimivirus relatives are probably large algal viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus is the largest known ds-DNA virus and its 1.2 Mb-genome sequence has revealed many unique features. Mimivirus occupies an independent lineage among eukaryotic viruses and its known hosts include only species from the Acanthamoeba genus. The existence of mimivirus relatives was first suggested by the analysis of the Sargasso Sea metagenomic data. Results We now further demonstrate the presence of numerous "mimivirus-like" sequences using a larger marine metagenomic data set. We also show that the DNA polymerase sequences from three algal viruses (CeV01, PpV01, PoV01 infecting different marine algal species (Chrysochromulina ericina, Phaeocystis pouchetii, Pyramimonas orientalis are very closely related to their homolog in mimivirus. Conclusion Our results suggest that the numerous mimivirus-related sequences identified in marine environments are likely to originate from diverse large DNA viruses infecting phytoplankton. Micro-algae thus constitute a new category of potential hosts in which to look for new species of Mimiviridae.

  3. Algal Blooms and Cyanotoxins in Jordan Lake, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltsie, Daniel; Schnetzer, Astrid; Green, Jason; Vander Borgh, Mark; Fensin, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    The eutrophication of waterways has led to a rise in cyanobacterial, harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) worldwide. The deterioration of water quality due to excess algal biomass in lakes has been well documented (e.g., water clarity, hypoxic conditions), but health risks associated with cyanotoxins remain largely unexplored in the absence of toxin information. This study is the first to document the presence of dissolved microcystin, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, and β-N-methylamino-l-alanine in Jordan Lake, a major drinking water reservoir in North Carolina. Saxitoxin presence was not confirmed. Multiple toxins were detected at 86% of the tested sites and during 44% of the sampling events between 2014 and 2016. Although concentrations were low, continued exposure of organisms to multiple toxins raises some concerns. A combination of discrete sampling and in-situ tracking (Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking [SPATT]) revealed that microcystin and anatoxin were the most pervasive year-round. Between 2011 and 2016, summer and fall blooms were dominated by the same cyanobacterial genera, all of which are suggested producers of single or multiple cyanotoxins. The study’s findings provide further evidence of the ubiquitous nature of cyanotoxins, and the challenges involved in linking CyanoHAB dynamics to specific environmental forcing factors are discussed. PMID:29495289

  4. Compatibility of hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin with algal toxicity bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: b.reid@uea.ac.uk

    2009-01-15

    Numerous reports have indicated that hydrophobic organic compound bioaccessibility in sediment and soil can be determined by extraction using aqueous hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solutions. This study establishes the compatibility of HPCD with Selenastrum capricornutum and assesses whether its presence influences the toxicity of reference toxicants. Algal growth inhibition (72 h) showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference at HPCD concentrations up to and including 20 mM. HPCD presence did not influence the toxicity of the inorganic reference toxicant (ZnSO{sub 4}), with IC50 values of 0.82 {mu}M and 0.85 {mu}M, in the presence and absence of HPCD (20 mM), respectively. However, HPCD presence (20 mM) reduced the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol and the herbicides diuron and isoproturon. These reductions were attributed to inclusion complex formation between the toxicants and the HPCD cavity. Liberation of complexed toxicants, by sample manipulation prior to toxicity assessment, is proposed to provide a sensitive, high throughput, bioassay that reflects compound bioaccessibility. - Compatibility of the biomimetic HPCD extraction method with algal cell growth inhibition bioassays to assess toxicity of reference toxicants and environmental relevant herbicides.

  5. Microencapsulation of Algal Oil Using Spray Drying Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshan Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at developing a process of microencapsulation of algal oil containing ≥40 % docosahexaenoic acid (DHA using spray drying technology. Purity Gum® 2000 and Capsul®, both obtained from waxy corn starch, were chosen as the encapsulation materials. The effects of emulsification conditions on the droplet size, stability, viscosity and surface tension, and the effects of spraying conditions on the particle size, moisture content and surface oil content were investigated successively. The morphology of emulsion droplets and the microcapsules was observed by optical microscope and scanning electron micro scopy. The results showed that the produced spherical microcapsules were smooth and free of pores, cracks, and surface indentation when shear velocity was 8.63 m/s in the first step of emulsification, homogenization pressure was 1.75·10˄8 Pa and number of passes through homogenization unit was six for fine emulsification, rotational speed of spray disk was 400 s-1, and air inlet temperature was 170 °C. Therefore, it was concluded that the emulsification and encapsulation of algal oil containing DHA with above process was feasible.

  6. Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Justin N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09

    Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

  7. Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations on wastewater nutrient removal. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The bioreactor containing algal beads (4 mm diameter) with 1.5 x 106 cells bead-1 (cell stocking) at concentration of 10.66 beads ml-1 wastewater (1:3 bead: wastewater, v/v) achieved ...

  8. Biofouling in capillary and spiral wound membranes facilitated by marine algal bloom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villacorte, L.O.; Ekowati, Y.; Calix-Ponce, H.N.; Kisielius, V.; Kleijn, J.M.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.; Schippers, J.C.; Kennedy, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Algal-derived organic matter (AOM), particularly transparent exopolymer particles, has been suspected to facilitate biofilm development in membrane systems (e.g., seawater reverse osmosis). This study demonstrates the possible role of AOM on biofouling in membrane systems affected by marine algal

  9. Releasing Stored Solar Energy within Pond Scum: Biodiesel from Algal Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatti, Jillian L.; Burkart, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae have emerged as an attractive feedstock for the mass production of renewable transportation fuels due to their fast growth rate, flexible habitat preferences, and substantial oil yields. As an educational tool, a laboratory was developed that mimics emerging algal biofuel technology, including the extraction of algal lipids and…

  10. Algal assay research in programs for Euthrophic Lake management: laboratory and field studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, G

    1979-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to clarify whether relations between viruses (cyanophages) and their algal hosts can be affected by manipulations in the environment. Is is possible to activate cyanophages and accelerate lysis of blue-green algal populations or to enhance the resistance of blue-green algae to attack from cynaophages. The experiments presented here were performed under laboratory conditions with a well-known algal - canophage system, Plectonema boryanum and cyanophage LPP-1 (attacking strains of Lyngbya, Phormidium and Plectonema). The work was done in close connection with field experiments on natural blue-green algal communities, however, because the nature of the induced blue-green algal collapse in plastic enclosures suggested lysis of the algal cells. The rate of LPP-1 cyanophage replication and lysis of plectonema was studied in relation to: (a) pH alterations by CO/sub 2//air additions, (b) algal host culture age and density, (c) nutrient concentrations and (d) presence of additional algal species.

  11. Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, G.; Rizzo, V.; Bella, A.; Picci, M.; Giordano, P.

    1996-08-01

    The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality

  12. Data from: Evidence for water-mediated mechanisms in coral–algal interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, Hendrikje; Skinner, Christina; Osinga, R.; Beer, De Dirk; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2016-01-01

    Although many coral reefs have shifted from coral-to-algal dominance, the consequence of such a transition for coral–algal interactions and their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. At the microscale, it is unclear how diffusive boundary layers (DBLs) and surface oxygen concentrations at

  13. Evidence for water-mediated mechanisms in coral–algal interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, Hendrikje; Skinner, Christina; Osinga, Ronald; Beer, De Dirk; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2016-01-01

    Although many coral reefs have shifted from coral-to-algal dominance, the consequence of such a transition for coral–algal interactions and their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. At the microscale, it is unclear how diffusive boundary layers (DBLs) and surface oxygen concentrations

  14. HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA: EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Ferrante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A harmful algal bloom (HAB is defined as a bloom that has deleterious effects on plants, animals or humans. Marine algal toxins are responsible for an array of human illnesses associated with consumption of seafood or exposure to aerosolized toxins. The effects of algal toxins are generally observed as acute intoxications, whereas the environmental health effects of chronic exposure to low levels of algal toxins are, to date, only poorly documented and an emerging issue. Consumption of seafood contaminated with algal toxins can result in five types of seafood poisoning syndromes: paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, amnesic shellfish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning and ciguatera fish poisoning. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on HAB-related issues in the Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Short communication: Algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae on Nephelium lappaceum in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANURAG SUNPAPAO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Sunpapao A, Pitaloka MK, Arikit S. 2015. Algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae on Nephelium lappaceum in Thailand. Biodiversitas 17: 31-35. Algal leaf spot disease of Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan was observed in southern Thailand. The algae were isolated on Bold’s basal medium (BBM and identified based on appearance of the lesions, algal morphology and molecular properties. Characteristics of the filamentous thallus cells, sporangiophores, sporangia, gametes and zoospores were clarified. A portion of the 18S small subunit rRNA was amplified to validate the morphological identification by sequence similarity. To summarize the main results, the plant parasite causing algal leaf spot was identified as Cephaleuros virescens, and in sequencing-based phylogenetic analysis the Cephaleuros PSU-R5.1 isolate from rambutan grouped with the algae in genus Cephaleuros. This confirms C. virescens as a causal organism of algal leaf spot disease on rambutan in southern Thailand.

  16. Wildlife and flora and the perceived attractiveness of green places: A comparison between local and national green places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Akke; Haartsen, Tialda; Buijs, A.E.; Huigen, Paulus P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a growing interest in experiencing wildlife and flora in nature-based tourism destinations, while at the same time it is far less clear whether wildlife and flora also matter in green places near home. This paper examines whether wildlife and flora affect the perceived

  17. Wildlife and flora and the perceived attractiveness of green places : A comparison between local and national green places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Akke; Haartsen, Tialda; Buijs, Arjen; Huigen, Paulus P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a growing interest in experiencing wildlife and flora in nature-based tourism destinations, while at the same time it is far less clear whether wildlife and flora also matter in green places near home. This paper examines whether wildlife and flora affect the perceived

  18. Rare, threatened and relict species in flora of SNR Zasavica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In group of biodiversity important plant species there are 23 taxa. 20 taxa are mentioned in „Preliminary Red List of flora of Serbia and Montenegro with IUCN 2001 Conservation Statuses“ in following categories: two as critically endangered (Aldrovanda vesiculosa L. and Hottonia palustris L., four as endangered (Hippuris vulgaris L., Lindernia palustris Hartm., Ranunculus lingua L. and Urtica kioviensis Rogow., five as vulnerable (Achillea aspleniifolia Vent., Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill. H. P. Fuchs, Leucojum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum, Stratiotes aloides L. and Thelypteris palustris (Schott subsp.palustris, while 9 are with indefinite categories (CR-VU, due to data deficient (DD. Special Nature Reserve „Zasavica“ is the only habitat in Serbia for Aldrovanda vesiculosa L., which was until 2005. considered as extinct from Serbia.

  19. Brasilien Vervain (Verbena brasiliensis Vell. in Colkheti flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sh. Mikeladze

    2017-06-01

    In this work the current condition, invasive indicators, bio morphological characteristics and growth-development properties of new invasive species, South American origin Verbena Brasiliensis spread in Colkheti flora (Western Georgia's seaside part is given. In Colkheti it is mainly spread in the seaside, along the roads, along the railroad, on the ruderal places, near channels and rivers, deserted building sites, landfills, non-agricultural lands. Verbena Brasiliensis is a perennial, erect, branched, 50–210 cm height. The plant starts flowering in April–May and lasts till November. It is distinguished with high reproductivity. Fully grown plant in the second year develops about 90000–100000 seeds. Consequently the area of plant spread is gradually growing.

  20. Bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora and fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen-Fang; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2012-09-01

    In recent decades, the pharmaceutical application potential of marine natural products has attracted much interest from both natural product chemists and pharmacologists. Our group has long been engaged in the search for bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora (such as mangroves and algae) and fauna (including sponges, soft corals, and mollusks), resulting in the isolation and characterization of numerous novel secondary metabolites spanning a wide range of structural classes and various biosynthetic origins. Of particular interest is the fact that many of these compounds show promising biological activities, including cytotoxic, antibacterial, and enzyme inhibitory effects. By describing representative studies, this review presents a comprehensive summary regarding the achievements and progress made by our group in the past decade. Several interesting examples are discussed in detail.

  1. Bacterial and fungal flora of seagull droppings in Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, John; Clayton, Yvonne M.

    1971-01-01

    In Jersey 166 fresh and 122 dried seagull droppings were obtained and studied locally and in London for the presence of bacteria and fungi of potentially pathogenic nature. There were no salmonella or shigella bacteria isolated from the two groups but there was a high proportion of Candida albicans obtained from the fresh material (21·7%) and only 1·6% from the dry faeces. Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum were not found in either the dry or fresh droppings. The normal bacterial and fungal flora of the seagull was established and it is considered that the C. albicans in fresh gull droppings would not materially increase albicans infections in man. PMID:5104846

  2. Notes on the Orchid Flora of Thailand (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Æ. Pedersen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three orchid species are newly recorded for the flora of Thailand. The discovery of Macodes petola in the southern part of Peninsular Thailand, adjacent to known occurrences across the Malaysian border, was expected. On the other hand, the find of Cheirostylis octodactyla in Thailand considerably extended the known range of this species to the west, as it was previously known only from the northern part of the Philippines, Taiwan and (through a single collection from northern Vietnam. The recent discovery of populations of Zeuxine bidupensis in Thailand suggests that this species, hitherto considered endemic to Vietnam, does not only have morphological, but also geographic affintities to the little known Z. pantlingii from West Bengal.

  3. Time series analysis of aerobic bacterial flora during Miso fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, T; Yanagida, F; Tsuji, M; Shinohara, T; Yokotsuka, K

    2003-01-01

    This article reports a microbiological study of aerobic mesophilic bacteria that are present during the fermentation process of Miso. Aerobic bacteria were enumerated and isolated from Miso during fermentation and divided into nine groups using traditional phenotypic tests. The strains were identified by biochemical analysis and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, Kocuria kristinae, Staphylococcus gallinarum and S. kloosii. All strains were sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by the lactic acid bacteria isolated from Miso. The dominant species among the undesirable species throughout the fermentation process were B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. It is suggested that bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria are effective in the growth prevention of aerobic bacteria in Miso. This study has provided useful information for controlling of bacterial flora during Miso fermentation.

  4. Genus Sisymbrium L. (Rockets In The Flora Of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūrāne Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest genera in the Cruciferae family in Latvia is Sisymbrium L. The genus includes not only native, but also some alien species. The distributions of the Sisymbrium species were reviewed for the first time in the last 50th years in Latvia. The distribution data were compiled from herbarium material, literature and field surveys. An identification key for the Sisymbrium species in Latvia and detailed scientific nomenclature are presented in the current study. In total, seven species of Sisymbrium were found in Latvia — S. supinum L., S. loeselii L., S. polymorphum (Murray Roth, S. volgense M. Bieb. ex E. Fourn., S. altissimum L., S. orientale L. and S. officinale (L. Scop. The mainly were recorded in railway verges, roadsides, waste dumps and wasteland. Five species of the genus are alien to the flora of Latvia — S. loeselii, S. altissimum, S. polymorphum, S. orientale, and S. volgense; two are native — S. supinum and S. officinale.

  5. NOTES FOR FLORA OF MATO GROSSO STATE: THE ASTERACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cavalheiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed work aimed to survey the Asteraceae species contained in the collection of the Herbarium UFMT for purposes of performing the preliminary version to compose the Flora of Mato Grosso State. Allied to this was held to update the number of species as well as the nomenclatural verification of all scientific names. Were found 150 species in 82 genera of which 33 are new records for the state and 16 are framed in IUCN categories. The species are distributed over all biomes: Cerrado, Pantanal and the Amazon forest, but the forest environment showed low number of samples, probably due to the difficulties of access by researchers. Finally, when we combine the analysis of the collection of UFMT to other herbaria that have herbarium collections in the state, we actually have a very real composition survey of Asteraceae for Mato Grosso State.

  6. Oral flora of Python regius kept as pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, L; Russo, T P; Calabria, M; De Rosa, L; Capasso, M; Menna, L F; Borrelli, L; Fioretti, A

    2014-05-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the oral bacterial flora of 60 Python regius kept as pets by culture and biochemical methods. All isolates were also submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion method. The oral cavity of snakes sampled harboured a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria mainly constituted by Pseudomonas spp., Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, but also by Salmonella spp. Staphylococcus spp. was the commonest Gram-positive isolates, and various anaerobic Clostridium species were also found. The most effective antimicrobial agents were enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, followed by doxycycline and gentamicin. The oral cavity of snakes sampled harboured a wide range of bacteria. Our results suggest that people who come in contact with snakes could be at risk of infection and should follow proper hygiene practices when handling these reptiles. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain.- Recent fieldwork in Tenerife, especially in September 2010, yielded several interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, “Asian” Cardamine flexuosa, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla and Solanum abutiloides are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, while Eragrostis barrelieri var. pygmaea, Ficus microcarpa, Ipomoea purpurea, Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata, Sechium edule, Tradescantia zebrina and Turnera ulmifolia are new to the flora of the island of Tenerife. New records of Acacia cyclops, Atriplex suberecta, Heliotropium curassavicum, Paspalum dilatatum, P. notatum, Pluchea ovalis, Pulicaria paludosa, Sclerophylax spinescens and Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum confirm their recent expansion on the island of Tenerife. New records are provided for the recently described Sporobolus copei . Finally, Paspalum vaginatum (hitherto possibly confused with P. distichum and Potentilla indica are confirmed from the island of Tenerife.

    Adiciones para la flora de Tenerife (Islas Canarias, España.- Algunos recientes trabajos de campo en Tenerife, especialmente en Septiembre de 2010, trajeron consigo varias nuevas e interesantes adiciones de plantas vasculares no autóctonas. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa “Asiática”, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla y

  8. NEW CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ALIEN FLORA IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÎRBU CULIŢĂ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a number of seventeen alien plant species are presented, one of them being now for the first time reported in Romania (Sedum sarmentosum Bunge. Some species are mentioned for the first time in the flora of Moldavia (Aster novae-angliae L., Cenchrus incertus M. A. Curtis, Chenopodium pumilio R. Br., Fraxinus americana L., Lindernia dubia (L. Pennell, Petunia × atkinsiana D. Don, Solidago gigantea Aiton, Tagetes erecta L. or Transylvania (Kochia sieversiana (Pallas C. A. Mey., and some are reported from new localities (seven species. For each species, there are presented general data on the geographical origin, its distribution in Europe and worldwide, as well as its invasion history and current distribution in Romania. Some of these species manifest a remarkable spreading tendency, expanding their invasion area in Romania. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi (IASI.

  9. Mold Flora of Traditional Cheeses Produced in Turkey

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    Musa Yalman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In our country, there are many cheese types that are produced traditionally. Cheeses which produced from cows, sheep and goat milk that matured with spontaneous growth of molds present in livestock skins, pots and similar environments are among them. They are produced traditionally in Mediterrian, Central and Eastern Anatolia regions. Molds that grow spontaneously in cheeses could create public health risk because of their secondary metabolites. Penicillium spp. are the most isolated mold from these cheeses and Penicillium roqueforti is determined as the dominant species. Furthermore, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Mucor, Geotrichum, Cladosporium species have been isolated. It is very important to control the ripening conditions and starter strain selection since some strains were reported as mycotoxin producers. In this review, it has been tried to give general information about traditional production of mold-ripened cheese in Turkey and the mold flora found in traditional cheeses. In addition, public health risk of these cheeses is reported.

  10. Flora of vascular plants in the Chilgapsan Provincial Park, Korea

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    Ro-Young Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The flora of Chilgapsan Provincial Park in Cheongyang-gun (Chungcheongnam-do, Korea was surveyed from 2000 to 2014. In 19 field surveys, vascular plants were revealed 490 taxa belonging to 97 families, 309 genera, 433 species, four subspecies, 48 varieties, and five forms. Plants of various categories were discovered in this study. For the Korean endemic plants 15 taxa were recorded, and 11 taxa designated by the Korean Forest Service as rare plants were investigated in this region. The plants above the third degree among the floristic regional indicator plants designated by the Korean Ministry of Environment were 10 taxa. In addition, 33 taxa of naturalized and 73 taxa of cultivated plants were recorded.

  11. Aportes a la Flora de Colombia: Estudios en Compuestas - VI

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    Díaz Piedrahíta Santiago

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Bajo este título se han publicado varios artículos en los cuales se han propuesto nuevas especies de asteráceas de los géneros Espeletia, Paragynoxys, Senecio y Verbesina; en esta ocasión se describe una especie de Senecio, novedad surgida en desarrollo de la revisión del material de herbario y preparación de los textos del tratamiento de las Cornpositae de la Flora de la Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada.  Se trata de una interesante especie sobresaliente por el color blanco de las flores femeninas y de la cual se conservan en los archivos del Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, una bella lámina iluminada en color y una diagnosis.

  12. PRIMER REGISTRO DE DENNSTAEDTIA DISSECTA (DENNSTAEDTIACEAE PARA LA FLORA ARGENTINA

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    Agustina Yañez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para la flora argentina a Dennstaedtia dissecta, hallada en la provincia de Misiones. Este nuevo registro surgió del estudio de ejemplares de los herbarios BA y LP, y luego se corroboró con colecciones realizadas en los Parques Provinciales Cruce Caballero y Urugua-í. Además de las características del rizoma y la lámina, las esporas resultaron una importante fuente de información en la identificación de esta especie. Se describen e ilustran los caracteres diagnósticos, y se incluye una clave para identificar a las especies de Dennstaedtia presentes en Misiones.

  13. A Prebiotic Formula Improves the Gastrointestinal Bacterial Flora in Toddlers

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    Ya-Ling Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effect of enriched 3-prebiotic formula (including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and galactooligosaccharides on toddler gut health by measuring fecal microbiota. Our results revealed that the consumption of 3-prebiotic formula three times per day giving total intake of 1.8 g prebiotic ingredients significantly showed the increased number of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. colonies and the reduced populations of both C. perfringens and total anaerobic bacteria on the fecal bacterial flora in toddlers at 18~36 months. In addition, total organic acids in the fecal samples significantly increased which improves the utilization of bifidus under acidic conditions after consumption of the 3-prebiotic formula. Therefore, using the formula enriched with prebiotic may maintain gut health in toddlers.

  14. [Terrestrial flora of Malpelo Island, Colombia, Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Román, Rubén D; López-Victoria, Mateo; Silverstone-Sopkin, Philip A

    2014-03-01

    Malpelo Island is located 380km off the mainland continental coast of Colombia, in the Pacific Ocean. Several geological, ecological, and zoological studies, both marine and terrestrial, have been conducted in this island. Despite some marginal comments on some publications, no single specific survey has been devoted to botany so far. In order to make a floristic inventory of the terrestrial flora of this island, three field trips were made in 2010 to collect vascular plants, mosses, and lichens, as well as data on their distribution within the island. We collected and identified 25 species of lichens, two species of vascular plants and one moss. Lichens were the most diverse group found, including records of four new genera (Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa and Verrucaria) and 13 new species for Colombia. The high lichen richness on Malpelo might be explained by their efficient form of asexual reproduction (soredia and isidia), that may have facilitated their transport to the island by migrating birds or wind. Once on the island, it is possible that lichens persist by being chemically protected against herbivores. The great number of new generic and species records for Colombia is explained by the low number of studies in saxicolous lichens conducted so far in the country, particularly on coastal areas and remote islands. Only two species of vascular plants were collected, a grass, Paspalum sp., and a fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, and both of them correspond to new determinations for Malpelo. A moss species previously reported but with no positive identification was collected and identified as Octoblepharum albidum. Other species previously reported, for example, some species of shrubs, were not observed. The low number of vascular plants is probably due to a combination of soil conditions and herbivory by land crabs. This study is the first complete inventory of the flora of Malpelo and is a starting and reference point for future comparisons among islands in

  15. Microbial flora associated with submerged mangrove leaf litter in India

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    Narayanasamy Rajendran

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the microbial flora in decomposing mangrove leaves in relation to changes in nitrogen and tannin levels, and in penaeid prawn assemblages. Senescent leaves of two mangrove species (Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina kept in nylon bags, were separately immersed for 80 days in five tanks full of mangrove water. A known amount of decomposing leaves was collected every ten days from each tank for microorganism counts, total nitrogen and tannin measurement, and juvenile penaeid prawn counts. Five genera of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB, three species of azotobacters and 19 species of fungi were identified. The azotobacters showed a significant peak around 40-50 days after the beginning of of decomposition, similar to the trend for total nitrogen and for prawn assemblages. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 393-400. Epub 2007 June, 29.Se estudió la flora microbiana en hojas en descomposición de mangles, considerando nitrógeno, taninos y camarones peneidos jóvenes. Colocamos hojas viejas de dos especies de mangle (Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina en bolsas de nylon y las sumergimos en agua de manglar durante 80 días usando cinco tanques separados. Cada diez días extrajimos una cantidad conocida de hojas en descomposición de cada tanque. Hallamos cinco géneros de bacterias heterotróficas totales (THB, tres especies de azotobacterias y 19 especies de hongos. Las azotobacterias presentaron un pico significativo de abundancia alrededor de los 40-50 días de descomposición, un patrón similar a los del nitrógeno total y los camarones.

  16. Fire-adapted Gondwanan Angiosperm floras evolved in the Cretaceous

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    Lamont Byron B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fires have been widespread over the last 250 million years, peaking 60−125 million years ago (Ma, and might therefore have played a key role in the evolution of Angiosperms. Yet it is commonly believed that fireprone communities existed only after the global climate became more arid and seasonal 15 Ma. Recent molecular-based studies point to much earlier origins of fireprone Angiosperm floras in Australia and South Africa (to 60 Ma, Paleocene but even these were constrained by the ages of the clades examined. Results Using a molecular-dated phylogeny for the great Gondwanan family Proteaceae, with a 113-million-year evolutionary history, we show that the ancestors of many of its characteristic sclerophyll genera, such as Protea, Conospermum, Leucadendron, Petrophile, Adenanthos and Leucospermum (all subfamily Proteoideae, occurred in fireprone habitats from 88 Ma (83−94, 95% HPD, Mid-Upper Cretaceous. This coincided with the highest atmospheric oxygen (combustibility levels experienced over the past 150 million years. Migration from non-fireprone (essentially rainforest-climate-type environments was accompanied by the evolution of highly speciose clades with a range of seed storage traits and fire-cued seed release or germination mechanisms that was diagnostic for each clade by 71 Ma, though the ant-dispersed lineage (as a soil seed-storage subclade was delayed until 45 Ma. Conclusions Focusing on the widespread 113-million-year-old family Proteaceae, fireproneness among Gondwanan Angiosperm floras can now be traced back almost 90 million years into the fiery Cretaceous. The associated evolution of on-plant (serotiny and soil seed storage, and later ant dispersal, affirms them as ancient adaptations to fire among flowering plants.

  17. The Effect of Chronic Alcoholism on the Conjunctival Flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Göksel; Gunduz, Abuzer; Polat, Nihat; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Yakupogulları, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of alcohol abuse on the conjunctival flora. The cases were evaluated as two groups. The study group consisted of 55 heavy-drinking males diagnosed with alcohol abuse, while the control group consisted of 55 males without a history of alcohol abuse. Samples were taken from the inferior fornix conjunctiva with sterile cotton-tipped swabs (Amies transport medium) for culture. The samples were inoculated into blood agar, chocolate agar, eosine methylene blue agar and Saboraud-Dextrose agar (Oxoid/UK) with the dilution method. The microorganisms that grew in study group subjects were Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CNS) in 30 (54.5%), Staphylococcus aureus in 14 (25.5%), Moraxella spp. in 3 (5.5%), Streptococcus spp. in 3 (5.5), Bacillus spp. in 3 (5.5%), Corynebacterium spp. in 3 (5.5%), Candida spp. in 3 (5.5%), Haemophilus spp. in 2 (3.6%), Acinetobacter spp. in 2 (3.6%), Neisseria spp. in 1 (1.8%) and Micrococcus spp. in 1 (1.8%). The results for control group were CNS in 31 (56.4%), Bacillus spp. in 7 (12.7%), S. aureus in 5 (9.1%), and Corynebacterium spp. in 2 (3.6%). Moraxella spp., Streptococcus spp., Candida spp., Haemophilus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Neisseria spp. and Micrococcus spp. microorganisms grew in the conjunctival flora samples of the study group but not in the control group. S. aureus colonization was significantly higher in the study group than the control group (p chronic alcoholism is different than the normal population.

  18. Possible importance of algal toxins in the Salton Sea, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifel, K.M.; McCoy, M.P.; Rocke, T.E.; Tiffany, M.A.; Hurlbert, S.H.; Faulkner, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In response to wildlife mortality including unexplained eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) die-off events in 1992 and 1994 and other mortality events including large fish kills, a survey was conducted for the presence of algal toxins in the Salton Sea. Goals of this survey were to determine if and when algal toxins are present in the Salton Sea and to describe the phytoplankton composition during those times. A total of 29 samples was collected for toxicity analysis from both nearshore and midlake sites visited biweekly from January to December 1999. Dinoflagellates and diatoms dominated most samples, but some were dominated by a prymnesiophyte (Pleurochrysis pseudoroscoffensis) or a raphidophyte (Chattonella marina). Several types of blooms were observed and sampled. The dinoflagellate Gyrodinium uncatenum formed an extensive, dense (up to 310 000 cells ml−1) and long-lasting bloom during the winter in 1999. A coccolithophorid, Pleurochrysis pseudoroscoffensis, occurred at high densities in surface films and nearshore areas during the spring and summer of 1999. These surface films also contained high densities of one or two other species (an unidentified scrippsielloid, Heterocapsa niei, Chattonella marina). Localized blooms were also observed in the Salton Sea. An unknown small dinoflagellate reached high densities (110 000 cells ml−1) inside Varner Harbor, and an unidentified species of Gymnodinium formed a dense (270 000 cells ml−1) band along part of the southern shoreline during the summer. Three species known to produce toxins in other systems were found. Protoceratium reticulatum (=Gonyaulax grindleyi) and Chattonella marina were found in several samples taken during summer months, and Prorocentrum minimum was found in low densities in several samples. Extracts of most samples, including those containing known toxic species, showed a low level (Salton Sea, no evidence gathered in this study suggests that algal toxins are present

  19. Geographical constraints are stronger than invasion patterns for European urban floras.

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    Carlo Ricotta

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that affect invasion success of alien species is an important prerequisite for the effective management of present and future aliens. To gain insight into this matter we asked the following questions: Are the geographical patterns of species distributions in urban floras different for native compared with alien plant species? Does the introduction of alien species contribute to the homogenization of urban floras? We used a Mantel test on Jaccard dissimilarity matrices of 30 urban floras across the British Isles, Italy and central Europe to compare the spatial distribution of native species with four classes of alien species: archaeophytes, all neophytes, non-invasive neophytes, and invasive neophytes. Archaeophytes and neophytes are species that were introduced into Europe before and after 1500 AD, respectively. To analyze the homogenizing effect of alien species on the native urban floras, we tested for differences in the average dissimilarity of individual cities from their group centroid in ordination space. Our results show that the compositional patterns of native and alien species seem to respond to the same environmental drivers, such that all four classes of alien species were significantly related to native species across urban floras. In this framework, alien species may have an impact on biogeographic patterns of urban floras in ways that reflect their history of introduction and expansion: archaeophytes and invasive neophytes tended to homogenize, while non-invasive neophytes tended to differentiate urban floras.

  20. Flora planctónica de laguna Lagartos, Quintana Roo Planktonic flora from Lagartos Lagoon, Quintana Roo

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    Viridiana Margarita Nava-Ruiz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de la flora planctónica de la laguna Lagartos, basada en la observación de muestras superficiales obtenidas entre noviembre de 2007 a septiembre de 2008. Las muestras se recolectaron con una botella Van Dorn de 2 litros en la parte central de la laguna; se registraron 67 taxa: 28 Bacillariophyta, 22 Cyanoprokaryota, 7 Chlorophyta, 6 Dinoflagellata, 2 Euglenophyta y 2 Cryptophyta. Las cianofitas dominaron durante todo el periodo de estudio, con una contribución mayor al 80% de la abundancia total del fitoplancton. Son nuevos registros para México 13 especies: Chroococcus pulcherrimus, Coelosphaerium confertum, Cyanodyction iac, Phormidium pachydermaticum, Planktolyngbya contorta, Rhodomonas minuta, Amphidinium massartii, Ensiculifera cf. loeblichii, Heterocapsa cf. pseudotriquetra, Prorocentrum cassubicum, Licmophora normaniana, Fistulifera saprophila y Amphora richardiana. Todos los taxa listados se ilustran con microfotografías.The planktonic flora from Lagartos Lagoon, Quintana Roo, was examined based on the observation of samples collected from November 2007 to September 2008. The superficial samples were collected with a Van Dorn bottle of 2 L, in the core part of the lagoon. A total of 67 taxa were identified: 28 Bacillariophyta, 22 Cyanoprokaryota, 7 Chlorophyta, 6 Dinoflagellata, 2 Euglenophyta and 2 Cryptophyta. Nevertheless, the blue green algae dominated during all study period, with more of 80% to the total abundance of the phytoplankton. The species Chroococcus pulcherrimus, Coelosphaerium confertum, Cyanodyction iac, Phormidium pachydermaticum, Planktolyngbya contorta, Rhodomonas minuta, Amphidinium massartii, Ensiculifera cf. loeblichii, Heterocapsa cf. pseudotriquetra, Prorocentrum cassubicum, Licmophora normaniana, Fistulifera saprophila and Amphora richardiana were recorded for the first time in Mexico. All the taxa are illustrated with microphotographs.

  1. Spatial distribution and environmental analysis of the alpine flora in the Pyrenees

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    D. Gómez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the digital edition of the “Atlas of the vascular flora of the Pyrenees” (www.florapyrenaea. org, the alpine flora of this mountain range is delimited in order to know its diversity and the different patterns of its spatial distribution, along with some other environmental characteristics. The Pyrenean alpine flora is made up of 645 taxa (630 species and 15 subspecies. All the administrative regions harbour more than 60% of the alpine plants, with Catalonia and Aragon reaching the highest values (around 90%. Along the altitudinal gradient, the highest plant diversity is found between 2300 and 2600 m. a. s. l., although 25% of the total alpine flora goes beyond 3000 m. On the other hand, a remarkable number of alpine plants live in the lowlands, and thus more than 300 alpine plants can be found below 1500 m. The average altitude range of the alpine plants is 1369 m, 300 m wider than that observed for the whole Pyrenean flora. Life-forms, habitat distribution and habitat naturalness of alpine plants are significantly different from those of the whole Pyrenean flora. Distribution of abundance categories also shows values of rarity significantly lower among alpine plants than for the whole flora. More than half the Pyrenean endemic plants are present in the alpine flora. High diversity and wide ecological amplitude of the alpine flora must be taken into account either when considering vulnerability of alpine plants facing “global change” or when addressing conservation policies for the whole Pyrenees from a common perspective.

  2. Effect of septoplasty and per-operative antibiotic prophylaxis on nasal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, E; Alimoglu, Y; Aygun, G; Kilic, E; Yagiz, C

    2012-01-01

    Septoplasty is one of the most commonly performed procedures in otolaryngology practice. Prophylactic use of antibiotics is controversial. Disruption of nasal flora may predispose individuals to infection. We investigated the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis and septoplasty on nasal flora. We included 115 consecutive patients who underwent septoplasty because of symptomatic nasal septal deviation. Patients were divided into study and control groups. Study patients received prophylactic parenteral sodium cefazoline twice a day beginning intra-operatively and while the nasal packing remained in the nose for 48 h, and expandable polyvinyl acetate (Merocel) packing covered with antibiotic ointment containing 0.2% nitrofurazone was inserted into each nostril at the end of the operation. Control patients received neither parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis nor antibiotic ointment around the Merocel packs. Both groups received oral prophylactic cefuroxime axetil for 5 d after nasal packing was removed. Nasal flora was determined pre-operatively, post-operatively when nasal packing was removed, and 3 mo after surgery. Study patients were compared to control patients at pack removal and 1 mo after surgery The effect of antibiotic use in septoplasty on nasal flora was as follows: Increased isolation rate of gram-positive rods (p = 0.007), decreased methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci (p = 0.002). Pre-operative and post-operative culture results at 3 mo were compared. The effect of septoplasty on nasal flora was as follows: Decreased coagulase-negative staphylococci (p = 0.05), decreased Klebsiella (p flora. Antibiotics do not protect against S. aureus colonization and contribute to a decrease in normal flora. Antibiotics do not seem to confer benefit in terms of flora changes. Studies investigating flora changes with a longer follow-up should be conducted.

  3. Changes in human gut flora with age: an Indian familial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Nachiket; Shetty, Sudarshan; Lanjekar, Vikram; Ranade, Dilip; Shouche, Yogesh

    2012-09-26

    The gut micro flora plays vital role in health status of the host. The majority of microbes residing in the gut have a profound influence on human physiology and nutrition. Different human ethnic groups vary in genetic makeup as well as the environmental conditions they live in. The gut flora changes with genetic makeup and environmental factors and hence it is necessary to understand the composition of gut flora of different ethnic groups. Indian population is different in physiology from western population (YY paradox) and thus the gut flora in Indian population is likely to differ from the extensively studied gut flora in western population. In this study we have investigated the gut flora of two Indian families, each with three individuals belonging to successive generations and living under the same roof. Denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed age-dependant variation in gut microflora amongst the individuals within a family. Different bacterial genera were dominant in the individual of varying age in clone library analysis. Obligate anaerobes isolated from individuals within a family showed age related differences in isolation pattern, with 27% (6 out of 22) of the isolates being potential novel species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. In qPCR a consistent decrease in Firmicutes number and increase in Bacteroidetes number with increasing age was observed in our subjects, this pattern of change in Firmicutes / Bacteroidetes ratio with age is different than previously reported in European population. There is change in gut flora with age amongst the individuals within a family. The isolation of high percent of novel bacterial species and the pattern of change in Firmicutes /Bacteroidetes ratio with age suggests that the composition of gut flora in Indian individuals may be different than the western population. Thus, further extensive study is needed to define the gut flora in Indian population.

  4. Floristic response to urbanization: Filtering of the bioregional flora in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Rebecca W; Aronson, Myla F J; Hipp, Andrew L

    2017-08-09

    Globally, urban plant populations are becoming increasingly important, as these plants play a vital role in ameliorating effects of ecosystem disturbance and climate change. Urban environments act as filters to bioregional flora, presenting survival challenges to spontaneous plants. Yet, because of the paucity of inventory data on plants in landscapes both before and after urbanization, few studies have directly investigated this effect of urbanization. We used historical, contemporary, and regional plant species inventories for Indianapolis, Indiana USA to evaluate how urbanization filters the bioregional flora based on species diversity, functional traits, and phylogenetic community structure. Approximately 60% of the current regional flora was represented in the Indianapolis flora, both historically and presently. Native species that survived over time were significantly different in growth form, life form, and dispersal and pollination modes than those that were extirpated. Phylogenetically, the historical flora represented a random sample of the regional flora, while the current urban flora represented a nonrandom sample. Both graminoid habit and abiotic pollination are significantly more phylogenetically conserved than expected. Our results likely reflect the shift from agricultural cover to built environment, coupled with the influence of human preference, in shaping the current urban flora of Indianapolis. Based on our analyses, the urban environment of Indianapolis does filter the bioregional species pool. To the extent that these filters are shared by other cities and operate similarly, we may see increasingly homogenized urban floras across regions, with concurrent loss of evolutionary information. © 2017 Dolan et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).

  5. Vegetation and flora of short-rotation willow stands from a conservation viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, L.

    1986-01-01

    The energy forests were studied using random 0.5 x 0.5 m quadrats in which cover for field- and bottom-layer species was recorded in a percentage scale. The data were analysed using various multivariate methods. The vegetation and flora of twelve coppices in southern Sweden were investigated. Also the succession during the establishment phase on a meadow on the west coast and on a peat bog in the east-central part of the country was studied. Moreover, the impact on fen vegetation downstream of an energy forest on a peat bog was investigated. The flora and vegetation of energy forests is dominated by common ruderal species like Cirsium arvense, Galeopsis tetrahit and Urtica dioica. Uncommon species from woodland and fen habitats are only occasionally found. The field layer of energy forests shows a clear seasonality with maximal cover in July. The species number and the composition of vegetation vary greatly between the coppices and is largely determined by the management system. Intense cultivation including fertilization and the use of herbicides depletes the flora. Long rotation times decrease both species diversity and the field-layer cover. Uncommon species are mostly found in old coppices, which also often have a rich spring flora. A change in flora and vegetation occurs when an energy forest is established. The change is great and the time needed for stabilization of the energy forest flora is long when the original flora is dissimilar to the coppice flora. Willow coppices can increase habitat diversity in regions dominated by coniferous forests or in large-scale agricultural areas. Structural heterogeneity of a stand promotes diversity of the flora. Such heterogeneity can be created if a stand is composed of a variety of willow clones, if it is harvested at intervals, contains gaps, open ditches and is surrounded by edge zones of various types.

  6. Algal growth inhibition test results of 425 organic chemical substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Christensen, Anne Munch; Nyholm, Niels

    2018-01-01

    The toxicity towards the algal species Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata of 425 organic chemical substances was tested in a growth inhibition test. Precautions were taken to prevent loss of the compounds from the water phase and the test system (closed test system, low biomass, shorter test duration......, silanized glass) and to keep pH constant by applying a higher alkalinity. Chemical phase distribution was modelled taking ionization, volatilisation, and adsorption to glass and biomass into consideration. If the modelled water concentration was below 90% of the nominal concentration the calculated EC...... values were corrected accordingly. The model helped to identify substances, where the calculated water concentration was too uncertain. Substances covering a wide range of physical-chemical properties and different modes of action were tested. Median effect concentrations (EC50) lower than 1000 mg/L were...

  7. Arrest of cytoplasmic streaming induces algal proliferation in green paramecia.

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    Toshiyuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.

  8. Heterologous expression of an algal hydrogenase in a heterocystous cyanobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsten Heidorn; Peter Lindblad [Dept. of Physiological Botany, Uppsala University, Villavogen 6, SE-752 36 Uppsala, (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    For the expression of an active algal [FeFe] hydrogenase in the heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydrogenase gene hydA1 and the accessory genes hydEF and hydG are to be introduced into the cyanobacteria cells. The genes were amplified by PCR from EST clones, cloned into the cloning vector pBluescript SK+ and sequenced. An expression vector for multi-cistronic cloning, based on pSCR202, was constructed and for a functional test GFP was inserted as a reporter gene. The GFP construct was transformed into Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 by electroporation and expression of GFP was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (authors)

  9. Heterologous expression of an algal hydrogenase in a heterocystous cyanobacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorsten Heidorn; Peter Lindblad

    2006-01-01

    For the expression of an active algal [FeFe] hydrogenase in the heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydrogenase gene hydA1 and the accessory genes hydEF and hydG are to be introduced into the cyanobacteria cells. The genes were amplified by PCR from EST clones, cloned into the cloning vector pBluescript SK+ and sequenced. An expression vector for multi-cistronic cloning, based on pSCR202, was constructed and for a functional test GFP was inserted as a reporter gene. The GFP construct was transformed into Nostoc punctiforme A TCC 29133 by electroporation and expression of GFP was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (authors)

  10. Oceans and Human Health: Microplastics and Harmful Algal Bloom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, Elvira Z.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally the focus of research and concern of environmental studies in the marine system is the impact of human activities in the ocean: the sources, distribution and fate of pollutants resulting from human activities. More recently, there has been recognition of the potential direct impact health can come from eating contaminated seafood, swimming in polluted water, and exposure to toxins from harmful algal blooms. This paper will present two areas of concern that illustrates the fact that the health of the oceans and the health of humans go hand in hand: chemical pollution from plastics in the ocean and harmful alga bloom. The nuclear methodologies than can be useful in these areas will also be introduced. It is hoped that through the recognition of the inter-dependence of the health of both humans and the oceans, efforts will be made to restore and preserve the oceans. (author)

  11. Animal behaviour and algal camouflage jointly structure predation and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Start, Denon

    2018-05-01

    Trait variation can structure interactions between individuals, thus shaping selection. Although antipredator strategies are an important component of many aquatic systems, how multiple antipredator traits interact to influence consumption and selection remains contentious. Here, I use a common larval dragonfly (Epitheca canis) and its predator (Anax junius) to test for the joint effects of activity rate and algal camouflage on predation and survival selection. I found that active and poorly camouflaged Epitheca were more likely to be consumed, and thus, survival selection favoured inactive and well-camouflaged individuals. Notably, camouflage dampened selection on activity rate, likely by reducing attack rates when Epitheca encountered a predator. Correlational selection is therefore conferred by the ecological interaction of traits, rather than by opposing selection acting on linked traits. I suggest that antipredator traits with different adaptive functions can jointly structure patterns of consumption and selection. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Biotreatment of industrial wastewater by selected algal-bacterial consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safonova, E.; Kvitko, K.V. [St. Petersburg State University, Biological Institute, Oranienbaum Chaussee 2, Old Peterhof, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Iankevitch, M.I.; Surgko, L.F.; Afti, I.A. [Ecoprom Ltd., Gruzovoi Proezd 13, Obukhovo, 192289 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Reisser, W. [Universitaet Leipzig, Botanisches Institut, Johannisallee 21-23, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    A new approach for remediation processes in highly polluted environments is presented. The efficiency of algal-bacterial associations for the remediation of industrial wastewater of a pond in Samara, Russia, was investigated. After screening of algae and bacteria for the resistance to the wastewater the following strains were selected: the algal strains Chlorella sp. ES-13, Chlorella sp. ES-30, Scenedesmus obliquus ES-55, several Stichococcus strains (ES-19, ES-85, ES-86, ES-87, ES-88), and Phormidium sp. ES-90 and the bacterial strains Rhodococcus sp. Ac-1267, Kibdelosporangium aridum 754 as well as two unidentified bacterial strains (St-1, St-2) isolated from the collector pond. All the strains listed above were immobilized onto various solid carriers (capron fibers for algae; ceramics, capron and wood for bacteria) and used for biotreatment in a pilot installation. The results showed that the selected algae and bacteria formed stable consortia during the degradation of the waste, which was demonstrated for the first time for the green alga Stichococcus. Stichococcus and Phormidium cells attached to capron fibers with the help of slime and formed a matrix. This matrix fixed the bacteria and eukaryotic algae and prevented them from being washed off. A significant decrease in the content of the pollutants was observed: phenols were removed up to 85 %, anionic surface active substances (anionic SAS) up to 73 %, oil spills up to 96 %, copper up to 62 %, nickel up to 62 %, zinc up to 90 %, manganese up to 70 %, and iron up to 64 %. The reduction of the biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 25}) and the chemical oxygen demand COD amounted to 97 % and 51 %, respectively. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Epilithic algal assemblages in the Forsmark Biotest basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeijs, P.

    1987-04-01

    The Forsmark Biotest Basin is an artificial offshore brackish lake, through which the cooling water is led from the Forsmark Nuclear Power Station on the Swedish east coast. The Biotest Basin differs from the Bothnian Sea surrounding it by a temperature elevation of up to 10 degrees C, no ice cover in winter, and an artificial, fast current. At 11 sites in- and outside the basin, benthic algal assemblages on stones in the hydrolittoral belt were sampled every third week during one year. Cover abundances were estimated for all algae occurring on the stones, but for diatoms only when they formed blooms. The results of the vegetation analyses are given. Diversity indices and dominance-diversity curves were computed for each site on the basis of pooled data for the cold season and for the rest of the year. The algae included both unicellular and multicellular forms. In total 88 taxa were distinguished in the species lists: 29 Cyanophyta, 7 Rhodophyta, 1 Chrysophyceae, 9 Fucophyceae, 17 Diatomophyceae and 25 Chlorophyta. In terms of percentage cover-abundance, blue-green and green algae increased with temperature, while red and brown algae and diatoms decreased with temperature in the interval between the minimum (0 degrees C) and the maximum (25.7 degrees C) water temperatures that were measured during the investigation period. Melosira spp. and Nitzschia filiformis proved to be the diatoms most favoured by the cooling water discharge. Lower diversity and greater dominance of one or a few species over the other was caused by thermal discharge at sites with fast-flowing water, but the opposite occurred at sites with quiescent water, mainly due to a greater number and higher abundances of blue-green algal species and thread-like green algae at the latter sites. This report also gives some notes on taxonomy of the encountered species.

  14. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  15. Interaction between local hydrodynamics and algal community in epilithic biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graba, Myriam; Sauvage, Sabine; Moulin, Frédéric Y; Urrea, Gemma; Sabater, Sergi; Sanchez-Pérez, José Miguel

    2013-05-01

    Interactions between epilithic biofilm and local hydrodynamics were investigated in an experimental flume. Epilithic biofilm from a natural river was grown over a 41-day period in three sections with different flow velocities (0.10, 0.25 and 0.40 m s(-1) noted LV, IV and HV respectively). Friction velocities u* and boundary layer parameters were inferred from PIV measurement in the three sections and related to the biofilm structure. The results show that there were no significant differences in Dry Mass and Ash-Free Dry Mass (g m(-2)) at the end of experiment, but velocity is a selective factor in algal composition and the biofilms' morphology differed according to differences in water velocity. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis distances) and an Indicator Species Analysis (IndVal) showed that the indicator taxa were Fragilaria capucina var. mesolepta in the low-velocity (u*. = 0.010-0.012 m s(-1)), Navicula atomus, Navicula capitatoradiata and Nitzschia frustulum in the intermediate-velocity (u*. = 0.023-0.030 m s(-1)) and Amphora pediculus, Cymbella proxima, Fragilaria capucina var. vaucheriae and Surirella angusta in the high-velocity (u*. = 0.033-0.050 m s(-1)) sections. A sloughing test was performed on 40-day-old biofilms in order to study the resistance of epilithic biofilms to higher hydrodynamic regimes. The results showed an inverse relationship between the proportion of detached biomass and the average value of friction velocity during growth. Therefore, water velocity during epilithic biofilm growth conditioned the structure and algal composition of biofilm, as well as its response (ability to resist) to higher shear stresses. This result should be considered in modelling epilithic biofilm dynamics in streams subject to a variable hydrodynamics regime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from

  17. Algal Growth and Waste Stabilization Ponds Performance Efficiency in a Sub-Tropical Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, A.; Khan, M. A.; Shaukat, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Both irrigation and potable water are in diminutive supply in most of the developing countries particularly those situated in tropical and subtropical regions where, often untreated wastewater is utilized for the purpose of irrigation. Treated wastewater has proved to be a potential asset serving as an alternate source for the expansion of irrigated agriculture. Waste stabilization ponds (WSP) are considered as less costly and effective substitute for the wastewater water treatment in tropics. The principle of wastewater treatment in waste stabilization pond is based on the symbiotic relationship between bacteria and various algal species. In this study, an attempt was made to relate algal growth and different extrinsic factors using multiple regression models. The predominant algal species found in WSP systems were Chlorella, Euglena, Oscillatoria and Scenedesmus. The growth of individual algal species and overall algal growth was principally governed by temperature, total sunshine hours and Total Kjeldhal Nitrogen (TKN). The study suggested that algal bacterial symbiotic relationship works well and the dissolved oxygen production through algal photosynthesis was optimum to decompose heavy organic load resulting in oxygen-rich effluent (liquid fertilizer) which could be successfully exploited for unrestricted irrigation. (author)

  18. Algal growth inhibition test in filled, closed bottles for volatile and sorptive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Nyholm, Niels; Verbruggen, Eric M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure concentrations of many hydrophobic substances are difficult to maintain in algal growth inhibition tests performed in open agitated flasks. This is partly because such compounds tend to volatilize from aqueous solution and partly because of sorption to the algal biomass as well as to the......Exposure concentrations of many hydrophobic substances are difficult to maintain in algal growth inhibition tests performed in open agitated flasks. This is partly because such compounds tend to volatilize from aqueous solution and partly because of sorption to the algal biomass as well......, and the resulting dissolved CO2 concentration supported maximum algal growth rates without pH drift for algal densities up to 4 mg dry weight/L. Two-day toxicity tests with kerosene were performed with this new test design and compared with an open bottle test and with a closed bottle test with headspace. Exposure...... concentrations of the volatile fraction of kerosene decreased by 99% in the open test, by 77% in the closed flask test with headspace, and by 16% in the filled closed bottle test. Algal growth inhibition was observed at much lower additions of kerosene in the new test design because of the improved maintenance...

  19. Algal Pretreatment Improves Biofuels Yield and Value; Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-15

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. This research has been highlighted in the Green Chemistry journal article mentioned above and a milestone report, and is based on the work the researchers are doing for the AOP projects Algal Biomass Conversion and Algal Biofuels Techno-economic Analysis. That work has demonstrated an advanced process for algal biofuel production that captures the value of both the algal lipids and carbohydrates for conversion to biofuels.  With this process, as much as 150 GGE/ton of biomass can be produced, 2-3X more than can be produced by terrestrial feedstocks.  This can also reduce the cost of biofuel production by as much as 40%. This also represents the first ever design case for the algal lipid upgrading pathway.

  20. Daphnia fed algal food grown at elevated temperature have reduced fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B. Sikora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake water temperature is negatively correlated with fatty acids content and P:C ratio in green algae. Hence, elevated temperature may indirectly reduce the fitness of Daphnia due to induced decrease in algal food quality. The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that quality of algal food decreases with increasing temperature of its culture and that large-bodied Daphnia are more vulnerable to the temperature-related deterioration of algal food quality than small-bodied ones. Laboratory life-table experiments were performed at 20°C with large-bodied D. pulicaria and small-bodied D. cucullata fed with the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, that had been grown at temperatures of 16, 24 or 32°C. The somatic growth rates of both species decreased significantly with increasing algal culture temperature and this effect was more pronounced in D. pulicaria than in D. cucullata. In the former species, age at first reproduction significantly increased and clutch size significantly decreased with increasing temperature of algae growth, while no significant changes in these two parameters were observed in the latter species. The proportion of egg-bearing females decreased with increasing algal culture temperature in both species. The results of this study support the notion that the quality of algal food decreases with increasing water temperature and also suggest that small-bodied Daphnia species might be less vulnerable to temperature-related decreases in algal food quality than large-bodied ones.

  1. Evidence for water-mediated mechanisms in coral–algal interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorissen, Hendrikje; Skinner, Christina; Osinga, Ronald; de Beer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Although many coral reefs have shifted from coral-to-algal dominance, the consequence of such a transition for coral–algal interactions and their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. At the microscale, it is unclear how diffusive boundary layers (DBLs) and surface oxygen concentrations at the coral–algal interface vary with algal competitors and competitiveness. Using field observations and microsensor measurements in a flow chamber, we show that coral (massive Porites) interfaces with thick turf algae, macroalgae, and cyanobacteria, which are successful competitors against coral in the field, are characterized by a thick DBL and hypoxia at night. In contrast, coral interfaces with crustose coralline algae, conspecifics, and thin turf algae, which are poorer competitors, have a thin DBL and low hypoxia at night. Furthermore, DBL thickness and hypoxia at the interface with turf decreased with increasing flow speed, but not when thick turf was upstream. Our results support the importance of water-mediated transport mechanisms in coral–algal interactions. Shifts towards algal dominance, particularly dense assemblages, may lead to thicker DBLs, higher hypoxia, and higher concentrations of harmful metabolites and pathogens along coral borders, which in turn may facilitate algal overgrowth of live corals. These effects may be mediated by flow speed and orientation. PMID:27512146

  2. Pathogenic Gut Flora in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Evasio; Aquilani, Roberto; Testa, Cristian; Baiardi, Paola; Angioletti, Stefania; Boschi, Federica; Verri, Manuela; Dioguardi, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to measure the presence of pathogenic gut flora and intestinal permeability (IP) and their correlations with disease severity, venous blood congestion, and inflammation in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Evidence suggests that translocation of gut flora and/or their toxins from the intestine to the bloodstream is a possible trigger of systemic CHF inflammation. However, the relation between pathogenic gut flora and CHF severity, as well as IP, venous blood congestion as right atrial pressure (RAP), and/or systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]), is still unknown. This study analyzed 60 well-nourished patients in stable condition with mild CHF (New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class I to II; n = 30) and moderate to severe CHF (NYHA functional class III to IV; n = 30) and matched healthy control subjects (n = 20). In all subjects, the presence and development in the feces of bacteria and fungi (Candida species) were measured; IP according to cellobiose sugar test results was documented. The study data were then correlated with RAP (echocardiography) and systemic inflammation. Compared with normal control subjects, the entire CHF population had massive quantities of pathogenic bacteria and Candida such as Campylobacter (85.3 ± 3.7 CFU/ml vs. 1.0 ± 0.3 CFU/ml; p < 0.001), Shigella (38.9 ± 12.3 CFU/ml vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 CFU/ml; p < 0.001), Salmonella (31.3 ± 9.1 CFU/ml vs 0 CFU/ml; p < 0.001), Yersinia enterocolitica (22.9 ± 6.3 CFU/ml vs. 0 CFU/ml; p < 0.0001), and Candida species (21.3 ± 1.6 CFU/ml vs. 0.8 ± 0.4 CFU/ml; p < 0.001); altered IP (10.2 ± 1.2 mg vs. 1.5 ± 0.8 mg; p < 0.001); and increased RAP (12.6 ± 0.6 mm Hg) and inflammation (12.5 ± 0.6 mg/dl). These variables were more pronounced in patients with moderate to severe NYHA functional classes than in patients with the mild NYHA functional class. Notably, IP, RAP, and CRP were mutually interrelated (IP vs. RAP, r = 0.55; p < 0.0001; IP vs

  3. An integrated renewable energy park approach for algal biofuel production in United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhadra, Bobban [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Edwards, Mark [Marketing and Sustainability, W.P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Algal biomass provides viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel that does not compete with food crops for cropland. However, fossil energy inputs and intensive water usage diminishes the positive aspects of algal energy production. An integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for aligning renewable energy industries in resource-specific regions in United States for synergistic electricity and liquid biofuel production from algal biomass with net zero carbon emissions. The benefits, challenges and policy needs of this approach are discussed. (author)

  4. Algal Biomass Analysis by Laser-Based Analytical Techniques—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pořízka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Algal biomass that is represented mainly by commercially grown algal strains has recently found many potential applications in various fields of interest. Its utilization has been found advantageous in the fields of bioremediation, biofuel production and the food industry. This paper reviews recent developments in the analysis of algal biomass with the main focus on the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and partly Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma techniques. The advantages of the selected laser-based analytical techniques are revealed and their fields of use are discussed in detail.

  5. An integrated renewable energy park approach for algal biofuel production in United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhadra, Bobban; Edwards, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Algal biomass provides viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel that does not compete with food crops for cropland. However, fossil energy inputs and intensive water usage diminishes the positive aspects of algal energy production. An integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for aligning renewable energy industries in resource-specific regions in United States for synergistic electricity and liquid biofuel production from algal biomass with net zero carbon emissions. The benefits, challenges and policy needs of this approach are discussed.

  6. Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suto C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikako Suto1,2, Masahiro Morinaga1,2, Tomoko Yagi1,2, Chieko Tsuji3, Hiroshi Toshida41Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, JapanObjective: To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery.Subjects and methods: The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis.Results: The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%, among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%, followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%. All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7% were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%, the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%. The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or

  7. Alien flora of Turkey: checklist, taxonomic composition and ecological attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Uludag

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an updated checklist of the alien flora of Turkey with information on its structure. The alien flora of Turkey comprises 340 taxa, among which there are 321 angiosperms, 17 gymnosperms and two ferns. Of the total number of taxa, 228 (68% are naturalized and 112 (32% are casual. There are 275 neophytes (172 naturalized and 103 casual and 61 archaeophytes (52 naturalized and 9 casual; four species could not be classified with respect to the residence time. In addition, 47 frequently planted taxa with a potential to escape are also listed. The richest families are Asteraceae (38 taxa, Poaceae (30, Fabaceae (23 and Solanaceae (22. As for the naturalized alien plants, the highest species richness is found in Asteraceae (31 taxa, Poaceae (22, Amaranthaceae (18 and Solanaceae (15. The majority of alien taxa are perennial (63.8% of the total number of taxa with this life history assigned, including those with multiple life histories, annuals contribute 33.8% and 2.4% are biennial aliens. Among perennials the most common life forms are phanerophytes, of which 20.3% are trees and 12.6% shrubs; woody vines, stem succulents, and aquatic plants are comparatively less represented. Most of the 340 alien taxa introduced to Turkey have their native ranges in Americas (44.7% and Asia (27.6%. Of other regions, 9.1% originated in Africa, 4.4% in Eurasia, 3.8% in Australia and Oceania and 3.5% in the Mediterranean. The majority of taxa (71.9% were introduced intentionally, whereas the remaining (28.1% were introduced accidentally. Among the taxa introduced intentionally, the vast majority are ornamental plants (55.2%, 10.0% taxa were introduced for forestry and 6.7% as crops. Casual alien plants are most commonly found in urban and ruderal habitats (40.1% where naturalized taxa are also often recorded (27.3%. Plants that occur as agricultural weeds are typically naturalized rather than casual (16.0% vs 7.1%, respectively. However, (seminatural

  8. Flora and fauna of Thummalapalle uranium mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullaiah, T.

    2012-01-01

    Thummalapalle Uranium Mining site is located near Thummalapalle village in Vemula mandal, Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh. Flora and faunal study was carried out in the area 30 km radius from the mining site, covering an area of 2828 Km 2 , during 2009-2012. The geographical coordinates of the centre point are NL 14° 19 min 59.3 sec and EL 78° 15 min 18.2 sec. Altitude of the study area ranges from 198 to 875 m above MSL. Scrub type of forest is dominant in the core zone followed by waste lands and agriculture lands. Buffer zone I and II also are dominated by scrub forest except a small patch at the North West corner where degraded dry deciduous forest is seen. A total of 859 plant taxa comprising 474 genera and 120 families were identified. Of the 859 taxa, 768 are Angiosperms, 9 Pteridophytes, 25 Bryophytes, 44 Algae and 14 Lichens. A total of 49 endemic taxa (2 strictly Andhra Pradesh, 5 to Eastern Ghats and 43 from Peninsular India) have been recorded. Albizia thompsonii and Ceropegia spiralis, rare taxa, have been recorded in the study area and these two species are distributed throughout peninsular India. Quadrat analysis revealed that Heteropogon contortus, Catunaregum spinosa, Asparagus racemosus and Croton scabiosus are the dominant in herbs, shrubs, climbers and trees respectively. A total of 419 animal species belonging to 358 genera and 178 families have been recorded in the Thummalapalle Uranium Mining Area. A total of nine endemic animal species have been recorded. Golden Gecko (Calodactylodes aureus) which is endemic to Eastern Ghats is recorded in Buffer zone 1. Fejervarya caperata is a new record to Andhra Pradesh, which was earlier reported from Western Ghats. An analysis of the flora reveals interesting features. Orchidaceae which is the second largest family in India is only one species represented in Thummalapalle Uranium Mining Area as it is evident that the growth and development of Orchids in open dry deciduous and scrub forests are

  9. Artículos humanísticos en Flora Montiberica (1-50 [Humanistic articles in Flora Montiberica (1-50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María de Jaime Lorén

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Realizamos un breve estudio de los artículos de carácter histórico y humanístico publicados en los cincuenta primeros números de la revista Flora Montiberica, que demuestra notable el interés de la misma por estos temas. También la especialización de ciertos colaboradores, así como el atractivo que para muchos botánicos tienen los aspectos históricos relacionados con la ciencia que estudian. Summary: Humanistic articles in Flora Montiberica (1-50. We´ve carried out a brief study about the articles of historical and humanistic nature published in the first fifty numbers of the journal Flora Montiberica, this one demonstrates significant interest on these issues. Also the specialization of certain contributors, as well as the charm it have for many botanists the historical aspects related to the science they study.

  10. Geographical constraints are stronger than invasion patterns for European urban floras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricotta, C.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Kühn, I.; Rapson, G.; Pyšek, Petr; La Sorte, F. A.; Thompson, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-6, e85661 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : urban floras * plant invasions * Europe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  11. [An analysis of the DNA fingerprinting of intestinal flora in inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-mei; Han, Ying; Wang, Ji-heng; Wang, Zhi-hong

    2007-02-01

    DNA fingerprinting for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and healthy subjects was carried out to compare the difference of intestinal flora between the two groups. DNA fingerprinting for IBD patients and healthy persons was set up with enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR) technology and the difference of intestinal flora between the two groups compared. DNA fingerprinting of the IBD patients and healthy subjects was identified and a significant difference was noticed between them. There were lots of bands in the DNA fingerprinting of the healthy subjects but few in that of the IBD patients. Strikingly, same distribution of the principal band of DNA fingerprinting was noticed in IBD patients. The variety of intestinal flora in healthy subjects is more apparent than that in IBD patients. An unique principal band might be the sequence of the presence of specific etiopathogenetic bacterium, or it might be the combined sequence of mixed bacterial flora.

  12. Composition and palaeogeographic position of the Early Permian Jambi flora from Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waveren, van I.M.; Iskandar, E.A.P.; Booi, M.; Konijnenburg-van Cittert, van J.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary taxonomic revision of the Early Permian Jambi flora results in a lower number of taxa, a number of new determinations and several new combinations (Dicranophyllum molle (Jongmans & Gothan) comb. nov., Oligocarpia posthumii (Jongmans & Gothan) nov. comb., Callipteridium strictinervis

  13. THE ANALYSIS OF THE VASCULAR FLORA FROM THE NATURAL PARK VÂNATORI – NEAMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARABAN MIHAELA

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the flora from The Natural Park Vânatori – Neamt, in the aspect of the participation of different life - form categoriers, floristic elements and ecological indices.

  14. Microprocessor system for data acquisition and processing for the Flora device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    ''VEhFORMIKA'' microprocessor system for data collection and processing when conducting experiments at the ''Flora'' device is described, its application is grounded. The complex allows one to conduct investigations using multichannel methods and exercise the device electrophysical control

  15. Analysis of the biological spectrum of vascular flora of Ravni Srem flood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurišić Branislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential analyses performed during the floristic study of a region is the analysis of the biological spectrum. The analysis of the biological spectrum of the flora includes the determination of the type of life form for each taxon described in the flora of the study region. If it is considered that life form is a specific structural-functional response to the environmental effects and the result of the adaptation during the species evolution, it is clear that the basic characteristics of the site are more or less reflected in any life form. This fact is confirmed by the analysis of the biological spectrum of the flora of Ravni Srem. The analysis of the Ravni Srem flora shows the domination of the hemicryptophytes and the subdomination of the phanerophytes with a considerable participation of the therophytes.

  16. Atoll mangroves and associated flora from Republic of Maldives, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    of the north atolls. Male' atoll was totally devoid of mangroves due to their large scale reclamation mainly for urbanisation and tourism. Mangrove flora comprised of 12 species and was dominated by Bruguiera cylindrica followed by Lumnitzera racemosa, Ceriops...

  17. Flora and vegetation of walls in the town of Krosno Odrzanskie (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratynskji, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The flora and vegctation of walls in Krosno Odrzanskie (West Poland is described based on field research conducted in 1999 and 2000. The vascular flora consists of 96 species from 35 families. Predomination of apophytes and plants capable of vegetation propagation was obscrved. i> Asplenietum trichomano-rutae-murariae and Cymbalarietum murales are reported for the first time from this region of Poland.

    A partir del trabajo de campo realizado entre 1999 y el 2000 se describe la flora y la vegetación de las paredes en Krosno Odazanskie (Polonia Occidental. 96 especies de 35 familias constituyen la flora vascular. Predominan los apófilos y plantas capaces de reproducirse vegetativamente. Las asociaciones Asplenietum trichomano-rutae-murariae y Cymbalarietum murales se citan por vez primera para esta región de Polonia.

  18. Studies on mangrove swamps of Goa 1. Heterotrophic bacterial flora from mangrove swamps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P; Mathani, S; Mavinkurve, S

    Heterotrophic bacterial flora from the mangrove swamps of Goa consisted of physiologically active organisms exhibiting cellulolytic, pectinolytic, amylolytic, proteolytic and H2S forming activities, throughout the year. Coryneform and Bacillus were...

  19. Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

  20. Preslia: hundred years of exploring central-European flora and vegetation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Kaplan, Zdeněk; Chytrý, M.; Hrouda, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-11 ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : central Europe * botanical research * flora and vegetation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.104, year: 2014

  1. Preserving the evolutionary potential of floras in biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Félix; Grenyer, Richard; Rouget, Mathieu; Davies, T Jonathan; Cowling, Richard M; Faith, Daniel P; Balmford, Andrew; Manning, John C; Procheş, Serban; van der Bank, Michelle; Reeves, Gail; Hedderson, Terry A J; Savolainen, Vincent

    2007-02-15

    One of the biggest challenges for conservation biology is to provide conservation planners with ways to prioritize effort. Much attention has been focused on biodiversity hotspots. However, the conservation of evolutionary process is now also acknowledged as a priority in the face of global change. Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a biodiversity index that measures the length of evolutionary pathways that connect a given set of taxa. PD therefore identifies sets of taxa that maximize the accumulation of 'feature diversity'. Recent studies, however, concluded that taxon richness is a good surrogate for PD. Here we show taxon richness to be decoupled from PD, using a biome-wide phylogenetic analysis of the flora of an undisputed biodiversity hotspot--the Cape of South Africa. We demonstrate that this decoupling has real-world importance for conservation planning. Finally, using a database of medicinal and economic plant use, we demonstrate that PD protection is the best strategy for preserving feature diversity in the Cape. We should be able to use PD to identify those key regions that maximize future options, both for the continuing evolution of life on Earth and for the benefit of society.

  2. Changes in the lichen flora following air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skye, E; Hallberg, I

    1969-01-01

    The lichen flora on tree trunks around a shale oil works in southern Sweden has been analyzed with regard to composition and distribution on two different occasions, in 1951/1953 and in 1967/1969. Changes in the distribution have been observed and are regarded as being due to the increase of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere which took place in the area up to 1966, and which resulted in the substrate becoming more and more acid. The changes consist partly of the continued disappearance from the investigated area of lichens which normally grow on moderately acid to nearly neutral substrate and partly in the new colonization of the investigated area by a group of species which normally grow on acid bark. After 1966 the biggest source of pollution was removed from the area and in the summer of 1967 some signs of recovery could be already observed with regard to certain species. This recovery took the form of strong lobe growth leading to a definite difference in appearance between the central and the peripheral parts of single lichens.

  3. High-performance functional ecopolymers based on flora and fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Liquid crystalline (LC) polymers of rigid monomers based on flora and fauna were prepared by in-bulk polymerization. Para-coumaric (p-coumaric) acid [4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4HCA)] and its derivatives were selected as phytomonomers and bile acids were selected as biomonomers. The 4HCA homopolymer showed a thermotropic LC phase only in a state of low molecular weight. The copolymers of 4HCA with bile acids such as lithocholic acid (LCA) and cholic acid (CA) showed excellent cell compatibilities but low molecular weights. However, P(4HCA-co-CA)s allowed LC spinning to create molecularly oriented biofibers, presumably due to the chain entanglement that occurs during in-bulk chain propagation into hyperbranching architecture. P[4HCA-co-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA)]s showed high molecular weight, high mechanical strength, high Young's modulus, and high softening temperature, which may be achieved through the entanglement by in-bulk formation of hyperbranching, rigid structures. P(4HCA-co-DHCA)s showed a smooth hydrolysis, in-soil degradation, and photo-tunable hydrolysis. Thus, P(4HCA-co-DHCA)s might be applied as an environmentally degradable plastic with extremely high performance.

  4. Bio-Park Pereira [Colombia]: Flora and Fauna Parkland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos de León Naranjo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The project aims to build a parkland in the sub-urban area of Pereira, (Cerritos sector in the center of the Coffee Region of Colombia, which in addition to its tourism and recreation, contributes to the conservation of wildlife through education, research, and ecologically viable actions, economically viable and socially equitable. This project is considered a major project for the city of Pereira, as it strives to be a tourist attraction level not just regionally but nationally and internationally, which will close and friendly interaction with native flora and fauna and exotic providing healthy recreation while promoting the preservation of biodiversity. In Bio-parque be plotted four bio-regions: African Savanna, African Rainforest, Asian mangroves, South American Cliffs, and three bio-regions of Colombia: Andean Forest, Arid Caribbean and Amazon. Human cultures of each of these regions are also highlighted as examples of the wide adaptability of human beings. The main objective of the educational message in Bioparque is to show how the survival and welfare of living beings, both human and of animal and plant species depend on the knowledge and awareness of natural history, dynamics and accurate management of their different living conditions interaction.

  5. Repairing effects of Iran flora on wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Afshar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The skin is the largest and the heaviest organ in the human body which, in addition to its important roles in the protection, waste removal, and contribution to vitamin D synthesis. As an important sensory organ, it can play a major role in the maintenance of homeostasis in the body. Total loss of of the skin integrity can cause harms and diseases that lead to physical disability and even death. Therefore, one of the main problem faced by medical science so far, is the question of .wound healing in the shortest possible time and with minimal side effects. Increasing the wound healing rate leads to positive financial and health results. Thus, several studies on new therapeutic techniques such as use of chemical drugs, herbal medication and homeopathy have been done. Moreover, physical methods such as laser therapy and other treatmentshave been constantly improving. In recent decades, the use of herbal medicine, as an effective method, has been progressing in most countries including Iran. In the traditional medicine of Iran various methods of using plants for the treatment of diseases are common. This is actually justifiable due to the geographic diversity of the flora in Iran. In the present paper the effectivity of the cut healing properties of some medicinal herbs in Iran is discussed.

  6. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak PA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prathibha Anand Nayak,1 Ullal Anand Nayak,2 Vishal Khandelwal3 1Department of Periodontics, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Index Dental College and Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. Keywords: xylitol, caries preventive effect, oral flora 

  7. Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Youssef, Y.A.; Awny, N.M.; Hussein, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated. (author)

  8. Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zawahry, Y A; Youssef, Y A; Awny, N M; Hussein, H A

    1985-01-01

    The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated.

  9. Natural flora and anticancer regime: milestones and roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Ira; Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Cancer has long been an area of extensive research both at the molecular as well as pharmaceutical level. However, lack of understanding of the underlying molecular signalling and the probable targets of therapeutics is a major concern in successful treatment of cancer. The situation becomes even worse, with the increasing side effects of the existing synthetic commercial drugs. Natural compounds especially those derived from plants have been best explored for their anticancer properties and most of them have been efficient against the known molecular targets of cancer. However, advent of biotechnology and resulting advances in medical arena have let to the increasing knowledge of newer carcinogenic signaling agents which has made the anticancer drug discovery even more demanding. The present review aims to bring forward the molecular mediators of cancer and compiles the plant derived anticancer agents with special emphasis on their clinical status. Since marine arena has proved to be a tremendous source of pharmaceutical agents, this review also focuses on the anticancer potential of marine plants especially algae. This is a comprehensive review covering major aspects of cancer mediation and utilization of marine flora for remediation of this deadly disease.

  10. The antibacterial activity of honey derived from Australian flora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Irish

    Full Text Available Chronic wound infections and antibiotic resistance are driving interest in antimicrobial treatments that have generally been considered complementary, including antimicrobially active honey. Australia has unique native flora and produces honey with a wide range of different physicochemical properties. In this study we surveyed 477 honey samples, derived from native and exotic plants from various regions of Australia, for their antibacterial activity using an established screening protocol. A level of activity considered potentially therapeutically useful was found in 274 (57% of the honey samples, with exceptional activity seen in samples derived from marri (Corymbia calophylla, jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata and jellybush (Leptospermum polygalifolium. In most cases the antibacterial activity was attributable to hydrogen peroxide produced by the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase. Non-hydrogen peroxide activity was detected in 80 (16.8% samples, and was most consistently seen in honey produced from Leptospermum spp. Testing over time found the hydrogen peroxide-dependent activity in honey decreased, in some cases by 100%, and this activity was more stable at 4 °C than at 25 °C. In contrast, the non-hydrogen peroxide activity of Leptospermum honey samples increased, and this was greatest in samples stored at 25 °C. The stability of non-peroxide activity from other honeys was more variable, suggesting this activity may have a different cause. We conclude that many Australian honeys have clinical potential, and that further studies into the composition and stability of their active constituents are warranted.

  11. Effect of opium smoking cessation on the nasopharyngeal microbial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshiri, Ali; Shabani, Ziba; Mokhtaree, Mohammad R; Sayadi, Ahmad R; Faezi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. This cross-sectional study was performed in the Psychiatry, and Ear, Nose, and Throat Departments, Moradi Hospital, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran from June to November 2008. Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before, and 2-3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Patients were not advised to change their number of cigarettes, and we used methadone for the substitution of opium. Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (p=0.03). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus alpha hemolytic, and Staphylococcus aureus were not found in the second culture. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was for ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%), and cloxacillin (72%), and the most resistance for amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance for chloramphenicol. Some potential pathogens decrease or are even absent after opium cessation. Opium smoking affects the nasopharyngeal flora.

  12. Maternal risk factors for abnormal vaginal flora during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, Cecilia; Cappello, Nazario; Latino, Maria A; Polarolo, Giulia; Masuelli, Giulia; Cavallo, Franco; Benedetto, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora during pregnancy and associated maternal risk factors. A retrospective study was undertaken of cervicovaginal smears performed on pregnant women at a center in Turin, Italy, between 2000 and 2010. Patients were divided into three groups: women with symptoms of genital infections (G1), asymptomatic women at risk of preterm birth (G2), and asymptomatic women with no risk (G3). Logistic regression models identified variables associated with microorganisms. Among 11 219 samples, 4913 (43.8%) were positive, of which 3783 (77.0%) were positive for a single microorganism. Multivariate analysis for G1 showed positive associations between multiple sexual partners and bacterial vaginosis/Ureaplasma urealyticum, and multiparity with preterm birth and U. urealyticum (Paerobic vaginitis, and North African origin and bacterial vaginosis/U. urealyticum (P<0.05 for all). In G3, there were associations between little education (<8 years) and bacterial vaginosis/U. urealyticum, multiple sexual partners and bacterial vaginosis/U. urealyticum, and bacterial vaginosis and Eastern European origin and not being married (P<0.05 for all). Positive cervicovaginal smears were associated with a particular profile. Testing could be advisable for symptomatic women at any stage of pregnancy, during the first trimester for asymptomatic women at risk of preterm birth, and for some asymptomatic women. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Weed flora in organically grown spring cereals in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SALONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The weed flora in organically grown spring cereals was investigated in southern and central Finland in 1997-1999 with the primary purpose of determining the species composition and the level of weed infestation. Altogether 165 fields were surveyed in the middle of the growing season. A total of 126 weed species were found, of which 42 exceeded the frequency level of 10%. The most frequent weed species were Chenopodium album, Stellaria media, Galeopsis spp. and Viola arvensis. Elymus repens was the most frequent grass species. The average density of weeds was 469 plants m-2 (median 395, and the air-dry biomass was 678 kg ha-1 (median 567 which accounted for 17% of the total biomass of the crop stand. Infestation by Chenopodium album and the perennial species Elymus repens, Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis is of major concern. Weed control strategies should include direct control measures to overcome weed problems related to the conversion period from conventional to organic growing.

  14. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Jesús Pérez-Luque; Cristina Patricia Sánchez-Rojas; Regino Zamora; Ramón Pérez-Pérez; Francisco Javier Bonet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems...

  15. Ethnobotanical Investigation of Medicinal Flora used by Indigenous People in District Attock, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Irum Naz

    2014-01-01

    The Present Survey deals with ethno taxonomical observation of medicinal plants of district Attock. The study was designed to disseminate the dynamic of local knowledge, explore, conserve and document medicinal flora. During survey, traditional folk uses of medicinal flora were gathered via questionnaire, plant specimens were collected and photography was done for identification. Eighty medicinal plant species belonging to 64 genera reported to be used by local inhabitants for different disea...

  16. Flora robotica -- An Architectural System Combining Living Natural Plants and Distributed Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Heiko; Divband Soorati, Mohammad; Heinrich, Mary Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Key to our project flora robotica is the idea of creating a bio-hybrid system of tightly coupled natural plants and distributed robots to grow architectural artifacts and spaces. Our motivation with this ground research project is to lay a principled foundation towards the design and implementation...... of flora robotica, such as the continuous growth process of architectural artifacts and self-repair of living architecture....

  17. Comparative analysis of the intestinal flora in type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Miura, Takamasa; Hirakata, Satomi; Hosoyama, Akira; Sugino, Sakiko; Umeno, Aya; Murotomi, Kazutoshi; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Koike, Taisuke

    2017-10-30

    A relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and intestinal flora has been suggested since development of analysis technology for intestinal flora. An animal model of T2DM is important for investigation of T2DM. Although there are some animal models of T2DM, a comparison of the intestinal flora of healthy animals with that of T2DM animals has not yet been reported. The intestinal flora of Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice was compared with that of Tsumura, Suzuki, Non Obesity (TSNO) mice in the present study. The TSOD mice showed typical type 2 diabetes symptoms, which were high-fat diet-independent. The TSOD and the TSNO mouse models were derived from the same strain, ddY. In this study, we compared the intestinal flora of TSOD mice with that if TSNO mice at 5 and 12 weeks of age. We determined that that the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was significantly higher in the cecum of TSOD mice than in that of TSNO mice. The intestinal flora of the cecum and that of the feces were similar between the TSNO and the TSOD strains. The dominant bacteria in the cecum and feces were of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. However, the content of some bacterial species varied between the two strains. The percentage of Lactobacillus spp. within the general intestinal flora was higher in TSOD mice than in TSNO mice. In contrast, the percentages of order Bacteroidales and family Lachnospiraceae were higher in TSNO mice than in TSOD mice. Some species were observed only in TSOD mice, such as genera Turicibacter and SMB53 (family Clostridiaceae), the percentage of which were 3.8% and 2.0%, respectively. Although further analysis of the metabolism of the individual bacteria in the intestinal flora is essential, genera Turicibacter and SMB53 may be important for the abnormal metabolism of type 2 diabetes.

  18. Evaluation of nasal and oropharyngeal flora in patients with acne vulgaris according to treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuguz, Pınar; Callioglu, Elif E; Tulaci, Kamil G; Kacar, Seval D; Balta, Ilknur; Asik, Gulsah; Karatas, Serap; Karaca, Semsettin

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in nasal and oropharyngeal flora in patients with acne during treatments with tetracycline and isotretinoin. Swab specimens were taken from the right and left nasal cavities and oropharynx of 55 patients with acne and 20 healthy volunteers who were admitted to the dermatology department (Etlik Educational and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey) before the administration of treatment and in the third month of treatment. Study participants were divided into four groups as follows: patients with acne on topical treatment only, systemic isotretinoin, and systemic tetracycline, and the control group. Of 55 patients with acne, 18 were male and 37 were female. The mean age of the patients and the control group was 22.21 ± 4.22 and 21.95 ± 7.64, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the nasal flora of five patients, normal flora was suppressed in the oropharyngeal cultures of seven patients, and normal flora grew in the cultures of the other 20 patients who were on tetracycline treatment. On the other hand, normal flora grew in the nasal and oropharyngeal cultures of all the patients who were on isotretinoin treatment. Treatment options and follow-up procedures for acne vulgaris may lead to the development of bacterial resistance and damage to flora. In particular, systemic tetracycline treatment leads to changes in flora of the nose and throat in patients with acne with an increased carriage of S. aureus. Therefore, careful attention should be paid to the duration of tetracycline treatment in order to not increase the risk of disturbance of microbial flora. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannuzzi, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

  20. Lista anotada de nuevas adiciones para la flora andina de Moquegua, Perú

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Se presentan nuevos registros de 103 especies reunidas en 79 géneros y 33 familias para la flora del norte de la cuenca alta del Río Tambo-Ichuña, en la Provincia General Sánchez Cerro en el Departamento de Moque-gua. Con esto la flora de la región andina del norte de Moquegua se eleva a 507

  1. Composition and structure of the flora in intra-urban railway areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzta Wrzesień

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Railway areas are considered as large greenspaces and are recognized important in improving the biodiversity and dynamic of urban flora. In this study, we examined the flora composition and diversity along intra-city railway lines in Lublin, SE Poland and Lviv, W Ukraine. The flora has been analyzed in terms of species composition (multivariate ordination techniques, life span, life form, type of pollination mode, seed dispersal, life strategy sensu Grime, hemerophoby, urbanity degree, and in terms of habitat preferences using ecological indicator values. The multivariate analysis (CCA clearly revealed that abiotic factors (topographical, weather elements (annual precipitation and air temperature, and soil attributes (moisture, trophy, pH, salinity differed between two cities and impacted on the differences in railway flora composition. Plants growing on the intra-urban railway areas are mainly hemicryptophytes/perennials, C, CR, CRS-strategists, insect-, self-, or wind-pollinated, reproducing by seeds and mainly dispersed by wind. Intra-urban railway areas are predominated by native species, however the participation of invasive alien species is higher than their proportion in domestic floras. The share of invasive species is greater in railway areas of Lviv, ca. 12% (45 species compared to 8% in Lublin (36 species. Spontaneous flora in intra-urban railway areas represent distinct adaptations to unique urban-industrial ecosystems with different degree of anthropogenic disturbance.

  2. Optimise the microbial flora with milk and yoghurt to prevent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James A

    2018-05-01

    Pathogenic bacteria, which are temporary or permanent members of our microbial flora, cause or contribute to a wide range of human disease at all ages. Conditions include Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer, autoimmunity and psychosis, amongst others. The mechanism of damage is inflammation which can be chronic or acute. An optimal microbial flora includes a wide range of pathogenic bacteria in low dose. This allows specific immunity to be developed and maintained with minimal inflammatory damage. Human milk has evolved to deliver an optimal microbial flora to the infant. Cow's milk has the potential, following appropriate fortification, to maintain an optimal human microbial flora throughout life. Yoghurt is a fermented milk product in which bacteria normally present in milk convert sugars to lactic acid. The acid suppresses the growth of pathogens in the oral cavity, oropharynx and oesophagus. Thus yoghurt can restore an optimal flora in these regions in the short term. Since bacteria are transported between epithelial surfaces, yoghurt will also optimise the flora elsewhere. The judicious use of milk and yogurt could prevent a high proportion of human disease. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Vaginal lactobacilli profile in pregnant women with normal & abnormal vaginal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Thirupathaiah; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Donugama, Vasundhara

    2017-10-01

    Lactobacilli species that are better adapted to vaginal environment of women may colonize better and offer protection against vaginal pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the distribution of common Lactobacillus species was investigated in pregnant women. Sixty seven pregnant women were included in the study and vaginal samples were collected for Gram staining. Women were classified as normal vaginal flora, intermediate flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV) based on Nugent's score. Vaginal samples were also collected for the identification of Lactobacillus spp. by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) profiling of 16S rDNA amplification method. Lactobacillus crispatus (100%) was the most predominant Lactobacillus spp. present in pregnant women with normal flora, followed by L. iners (77%), L. jensenii (74%) and L. helveticus (60%). While, L. iners was commonly present across groups in women with normal, intermediate or BV flora, L. crispatus, L. jensenii and L. helveticus decreased significantly as the vaginal flora changed to intermediate and BV. In women with BV, except L. iners other species of lactobacilli was less frequently prevalent. Species such as L. rhamnosus, L. fermentum, L. paracasei and L. casei were not detected in any vaginal sample. L. crispatus, L. jensinii and L. helveticus were predominant species in women with normal flora. L. crispatus alone or in combination with L. jensinii and L. helveticus may be evaluated for probiotic properties for the prevention and treatment of BV.

  4. Effects of Erythropoiesis-stimulating Agents on Intestinal Flora in Peritoneal Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilici, Muammer; Oz, Ibrahim Ilker; Uygun Ilikhan, Sevil; Borazan, Ali

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) on intestinal flora in peritoneal fibrosis. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups as the control group, which received 0.9% saline (3 mL/d) intraperitoneally; the chlorhexidine gluconate (CH) group, which received 3 mL/d injections of 0.1% CH intraperitoneally, and the ESA group, which received 3 mL/d injections of 0.1% CH intraperitoneally and epoetin beta (3 doses of 20 IU/kg/wk) subcutaneously. On the 21st day, the rats were sacrificed and the visceral peritoneum samples were obtained from left liver bowel. Blood samples were obtained from abdominal aorta and intestinal flora samples were obtained from transverse colon. Histopathologically, the CH, ESA, and control groups had peritoneal thickness of 135.4 ± 22.2 µm, 48.6 ± 12.8 µm, and 6.0 ± 2.3 µm, respectively. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacterium in the intestinal flora in the control group. Significant changes in microbial composition of intestinal flora towards Proteus species and Enterobacter species was seen among the groups (P flora among these groups were significantly different (P flora by a clinically significant amount in experimental peritoneal fibrosis. We consider that ESAs achieve this via regulating intestinal peristaltism.

  5. Eupatorium capilifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae, REKAMAN BARU UNTUK FLORA JAWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Surya Dwipa Irsyam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Sebanyak 227 jenis tumbuhan Asteraceae terdapat di Pulau Jawa berdasarkan Flora of Java. Namun, suku Asteraceae di Pulau Jawa belum banyak ditinjau kembali sejak buku tersebut terbit 51 tahun yang lalu, sehingga memungkinkan adanya jenis-jenis tambahan yang belum terekam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi adanya jenis tambahan yang terdapat di Pulau Jawa. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode jelajah di Labuan (Banten, Bogor (Jawa Barat, Malang, dan Situbondo (Jawa Timur. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton merupakan rekaman baru yang dapat melengkapi flora Jawa. Jenis tersebut dikelompokkan ke dalam puak Eupatorieae. Abstract There are 227 species of Asteraceae in Java Island recorded in the Flora of Java. However, only few review of this family for Java since Flora of Java has published 51 years ago. Some possibilities of unrecorded species may occur after this Flora of Java published. This research was conducted to provide information on additional species in Java Island. This research was carried out using exploration method in Labuan (Banten, Bogor (West Java, Malang and Situbondo (East Java. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton is a new record for completing the flora of Java Island. This species belongs to Eupatorieae tribe.   

  6. Determination of Total Carbohydrates in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, Stefanie; Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure uses two-step sulfuric acid hydrolysis to hydrolyze the polymeric forms of carbohydrates in algal biomass into monomeric subunits. The monomers are then quantified by either HPLC or a suitable spectrophotometric method.

  7. COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF ALGAL OIL METHYL ESTER IN A DIRECT INJECTION COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARIRAM V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Algal oil methyl ester was derived from microalgae (Spirulina sp. The microalga was cultivated in BG 11 media composition in a photobioreactor. Upon harvesting, the biomass was filtered and dried. The algal oil was obtained by a two step solvent extraction method using hexane and ether solvent. Cyclohexane was added to biomass to expel the remaining algal oil. By this method 92% of algal oil is obtained. Transesterification process was carried out to produce AOME by adding sodium hydroxide and methanol. The AOME was blended with straight diesel in 5%, 10% and 15% blend ratio. Combustion parameters were analyzed on a Kirloskar single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine. The cylinder pressure characteristics, the rate of pressure rise, heat release analysis, performance and emissions were studied for straight diesel and the blends of AOME’s. AOME 15% blend exhibits significant variation in cylinder pressure and rate of heat release.

  8. THE TRPV1 RECEPTOR: THE INTERAGENCY, INTERNATION SYMPOSIUM ON CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Significance Evidence indicates that the frequency of occurrence of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs) is increasing in spatial and temporal extent in the US and worldwide. Cyanotoxins are among the most potent toxins known, causing death through ...

  9. Cyanobacterial-algal cenoses in ordinary chernozems under the impact of different phytoameliorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovik, I. E.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Khasanova, R. F.; Shalygina, R. R.

    2016-04-01

    General ecological and taxonomic characteristics of cyanobacterial-algal cenoses in ordinary chernozems under different ameliorative plants (phytoameliorants) were studied in the Trans-Ural region of the Republic of Bashkortostan. A comparative analysis of the taxa of studied cenoses in the soils under leguminous herbs and grasses was performed. The phytoameliorative effect of different herbs and their relationships with cyanobacterial-algal cenoses were examined. Overall, 134 cyanoprokaryotic and algal species belonging to 70 genera, 36 families, 15 orders, and 9 classes were identified. Cyanobacterial-algal cenoses included the divisions of Chlorophyta, Cyanoprokaryota, Xanthophyta, Bacillariophyta, and Euglenophyta. Representatives of Ch-, X-, CF-, and P-forms were the leading ecobiomorphs in the studied cenoses.

  10. The effect of algal and bacterial filters on sea water quality during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality changes in bacterial and algal filtration systems over a two month period. Juvenile ..... of the algae, prawns and micro-organisms (decomposition of excess food and .... Cultivation of marine organisms: Water quality management and ...

  11. effect of natural blue-green algal cells lysis on freshwater quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compaq

    released into water due to algal cells lysis was performed by placing samples in two ... Keywords; Algae, cells lysis, Fatty acids, gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry, water quality ... Factors such as municipal and industrial.

  12. Characterisation of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) produced during algal bloom: A membrane treatment perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Ekowati, Yuli; Winters, Harvey; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Kennedy, D.

    2013-01-01

    Algal blooms are currently a major concern of the membrane industry as it generates massive concentrations of organic matter (e.g. transparent exopolymer particles [TEP]), which can adversely affect the operation of membrane filtration systems

  13. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS, 1. Algal proteins: Characterization and process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine make algal protein isolate a high quality component of closed ecological life support system diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical carbon dioxide resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  14. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS. I - Algal proteins: Characterization and process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine makes algal protein isolate a high quality component of CELSS diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical CO2 resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  15. Free ammonia offers algal crop protection from predators in dairy wastewater and ammonium-rich media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patrick K; Dunn, Gary P; Passero, Maxine; Feris, Kevin P

    2017-11-01

    Cost-effective methods for protecting crops from grazing organisms like rotifers are needed to reduce the risk of pond crashes in mass algal cultures. We present a novel strategy to optimize the exposure time to free ammonia, via control of media pH, in both defined media and dairy anaerobic digester effluent to suppress rotifers and maintain algal productivity. We tested five different free ammonia exposure times (0, 1, 2, 6, and 12h) and found a significant nonlinear effect of exposure time (p0.9) on rotifer survival. In both media types, 6-12h of elevated free ammonia significantly reduced Brachionus plicatilis rotifer survival with no negative effects on Nannochloropsis oculata, while shorter exposure times were insufficient to inhibit rotifers, leading to severe algal culture crashes. These results suggest that algal crops can be protected from rotifers, without productivity loss, by elevating free ammonia for 6 or more hours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bio prospecting for High Lipid-producing Indigenous Algal in 8 South African provinces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this project covers the screening and characterisation of selected indigenous algal strains and screening them for lipid production potential. The algae were isolated from salt- and freshwater bodies, along the Western Cape coastline...

  17. Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shengbing; Xue Gang

    2010-01-01

    Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state.

  18. A Molecular Genetic Classification of Zooxanthellae and the Evolution of Animal-Algal Symbioses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Rob; Powers, Dennis A.

    1991-03-01

    Zooxanthellae are unicellular algae that occur as endosymbionts in many hundreds of marine invertebrate species. Because zooxanthellae have traditionally been difficult to classify, little is known about the natural history of these symbioses. Zooxanthellae were isolated from 131 individuals in 22 host taxa and characterized by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in nuclear genes that encode small ribosomal subunit RNA (ssRNA). Six algal RFLPs, distributed host species specifically, were detected. Individual hosts contained one algal RFLP. Zooxanthella phylogenetic relationships were estimated from 22 algal ssRNA sequences-one from each host species. Closely related algae were found in dissimilar hosts, suggesting that animal and algal lineages have maintained a flexible evolutionary relation with each other.

  19. Harmful algal blooms discovered during the Mote Monthly transect cruises, 1998 and 1999 (NODC Accession 0000532)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Harmful algal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, have caused massive fish kills in the Gulf of Mexico since the 1500's, with most occurrences on the...

  20. Coeloseira compressa Hollenb. (Champiaceae, Rhodophyta) - a new marine algal species from Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Untawale, A.G.

    Occurrence of a red algal species Coeloseira is recorded from Bambolim coast, Goa along the central west coast of India. The genus is characterised by the presence of polysporangia, stoloniferous pattern branching, separate secondary branches and a...

  1. Raman Microspectroscopy of Individual Algal Cells: Sensing Unsaturation of Storage Lipids in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Nedbal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Algae are becoming a strategic source of fuels, food, feedstocks, and biologically active compounds. This potential has stimulated the development of innovative analytical methods focused on these microorganisms. Algal lipids are among the most promising potential products for fuels as well as for nutrition. The crucial parameter characterizing the algal lipids is the degree of unsaturation of the constituent fatty acids quantified by the iodine value. Here we demonstrate the capacity of the spatially resolved Raman microspectroscopy to determine the effective iodine value in lipid storage bodies of individual living algal cells. The Raman spectra were collected from three selected algal species immobilized in an agarose gel. Prior to immobilization, the algae were cultivated in the stationary phase inducing an overproduction of lipids. We employed the characteristic peaks in the Raman scattering spectra at 1,656 cm−1 (cis C=C stretching mode and 1,445 cm−1 (CH2 scissoring mode as the markers defining the ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated carbon-carbon bonds of the fatty acids in the algal lipids. These spectral features were first quantified for pure fatty acids of known iodine value. The resultant calibration curve was then used to calculate the effective iodine value of storage lipids in the living algal cells from their Raman spectra. We demonstrated that the iodine value differs significantly for the three studied algal species. Our spectroscopic estimations of the iodine value were validated using GC-MS measurements and an excellent agreement was found for the Trachydiscus minutus species. A good agreement was also found with the earlier published data on Botryococcus braunii. Thus, we propose that Raman microspectroscopy can become technique of choice in the rapidly expanding field of algal biotechnology.

  2. Algal Biofuels Strategy. Proceedings from the March 26-27, 2014, Workshop, Charleston, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-06-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s Algal Biofuel Strategy Workshop on March 26-27, 2014, in Charleston, South Carolina. The workshop objective was to convene stakeholders to engage in discussion on strategies over the next 5 to 10 years to achieve affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  3. Stressor-Response Models Relating Nutrient Enrichment to Algal Communities in Pacific Northwest Streams and Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, D. J.; Hubler, S.; Paul, M. J.; Labiosa, R.

    2015-12-01

    Excessive algal growth in streams and rivers from nutrient enrichment can cause costly human health and environmental problems. As part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Nutrient Scientific Technical Exchange Partnership and Support (N-STEPS) program, we have been developing stressor-response (S-R) models relating nutrients to attached algal (periphyton) communities to help prioritize monitoring for water quality impairments in Oregon (Pacific Northwest, USA) streams and rivers. Existing data from the state and neighboring states were compiled and standardized from the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Geological Survey. To develop S-R models, algal community and biomass metrics were compared with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentration data, including total, dissolved, and inorganic forms of these nutrients. In total, 928 paired algal-nutrient samples were compiled from the 8 Level-III Ecoregions occurring in Oregon. Relationships between algal biomass metrics and nutrient concentrations were weak, with only ash-free dry mass and standing stock of chlorophyll a showing slight positive relationships across gradients of total N and soluble reactive P concentrations, respectively. In contrast, metrics describing algal community composition, including percent diatoms and abundance of nutrient-sensitive species, showed very strong nonlinear relationships with total N or P concentrations. This suggests that data describing algal community composition can help identify specific nutrient stressors across environmentally-diverse streams and rivers in the Pacific Northwest. Future analyses will examine if nutrient-algal S-R models vary across different hydrological, physiographical, and ecological settings in the region.

  4. Investigation and Control of Algal Grwoths in Water Resources Using Zn Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Eskandary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates in water resources lead to the growth of various algal species, causing undesirable odors and taste in the water. This study investigated the identification and removal of harmful algal growths by Zinc oxide nanoparticles (using Ardabil Yamichi Dam reservoir as a case study. Samples were initially collected from the Yamichi Dam reservoir and the algae in the water samples were cultivated. Enough time was allowed for the algae to grow before they were identified under the microscope. The results showed that most of the algal species grown in the culture medium belonged to the species Cladophora and Euglena. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were then synthesized to be used in the removal and/or inhibition of algal growths. ZnO nanoparticles were subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD methods which revealed that the size of the ZnO nanoparticles was in the range of 10‒30 nanometers and further that the nanoparticles were pure and of a  hexagonal phase. In continuation, the capability of ZnO nanoparticles with concentrations in the range of 0-3 ppm to inhibit algal growth was investigated. Results showed that no reduction was observed in algal growth for Zinc oxide nanoparticle concentrations below 1 mg/lit. At concentrations between 1 to 2 mg/lit, however, a significant reduction was observed in algal growth. Finally, it was found that algal growths completely stopped at ZnO concentrations beyond 2 mg/lit

  5. Whole-lake algal responses to a century of acidic industrial deposition on the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinebrooke, R.D.; Dixit, S.S.; Graham, M.D.; Gunn, J.M.; Chen, Y.-W.; Belzile, N.

    2002-01-01

    A century of cultural acidification is hypothesized to have altered algal community structure in boreal lakes. To date, this hypothesis has remained untested because of both the lack of data predating the onset of industrial pollution and incomplete estimates of whole-lake algal community structure. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of sedimentary pigments was used to quantify whole-lake algal responses to acid deposition in six boreal lakes located in Killarney Park, Ontario, Canada. Concomitant significant increases in chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, diatom-inferred lake acidity, and metal levels since 1900 suggested that algal abundances in four acidified lakes and one small, circumneutral lake were enhanced by aerial pollution. An alternate explanation is that increased acidity and underwater light availability in the acidified lakes shifted algal abundance towards phytobenthos and deepwater phytoplankton, whose pigment signatures were better preserved in the sediments. Taxonomically diagnostic pigment stratigraphies were consistent with shifts in algal community structure towards filamentous green phytobenthos and deepwater phytoflagellates in the acidified lakes. Our findings suggest that decades of aerial pollution have altered the base of foodwebs in boreal lakes, potentially rendering them less resilient to other environmental stressors. (author)

  6. Enhanced production of green tide algal biomass through additional carbon supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Silva, Pedro H; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Mata, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci) to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3 (-) affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7-9.9), and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3 (-) utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%), Chaetomorpha linum (24%) and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%), compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3 (-).

  7. Enhanced production of green tide algal biomass through additional carbon supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H de Paula Silva

    Full Text Available Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2 enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3 (- as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3 (- affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7-9.9, and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3 (- utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%, Chaetomorpha linum (24% and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%, compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3 (-.

  8. Review of the algal biology program within the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Clifford J.; Sayre, Richard T.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Anderson, Daniel B.; Baxter, Ivan; Blaby, Ian K.; Brown, Judith K.; Carleton, Michael; Cattolico, Rose Ann; Dale, Taraka; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Downes, C. Meghan; Dutcher, Susan K.; Fox, David T.; Goodenough, Ursula; Jaworski, Jan; Holladay, Jonathan E.; Kramer, David M.; Koppisch, Andrew T.; Lipton, Mary S.; Marrone, Babetta L.; McCormick, Margaret; Molnár, István; Mott, John B.; Ogden, Kimberly L.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Polle, Juergen; Richardson, James W.; Sabarsky, Martin; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Stormo, Gary D.; Teshima, Munehiro; Twary, Scott N.; Unkefer, Pat J.; Yuan, Joshua S.; Olivares, José A.

    2017-03-01

    In 2010,when the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB) consortiumbegan, littlewas known about themolecular basis of algal biomass or oil production. Very fewalgal genome sequenceswere available and efforts to identify the best-producing wild species through bioprospecting approaches had largely stalled after the U.S. Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program. This lack of knowledge included how reduced carbon was partitioned into storage products like triglycerides or starch and the role played bymetabolite remodeling in the accumulation of energy-dense storage products. Furthermore, genetic transformation and metabolic engineering approaches to improve algal biomass and oil yields were in their infancy. Genome sequencing and transcriptional profiling were becoming less expensive, however; and the tools to annotate gene expression profiles under various growth and engineered conditions were just starting to be developed for algae. It was in this context that an integrated algal biology program was introduced in the NAABB to address the greatest constraints limiting algal biomass yield. This review describes the NAABB algal biology program, including hypotheses, research objectives, and strategies to move algal biology research into the twenty-first century and to realize the greatest potential of algae biomass systems to produce biofuels.

  9. Strategies for Optimizing Algal Biology for Enhanced Biomass Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Amanda N.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Sayre, Richard T., E-mail: rsayre@newmexicoconsortium.org [Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-02

    One of the most environmentally sustainable ways to produce high-energy density (oils) feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source) and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration has also been proposed in the intergovernmental panel on climate change report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass). To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity, it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. These strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to twofold increases in biomass productivity.

  10. [Algal control ability of allelopathically active submerged macrophytes: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xi; Lou, Li-ping; Li, Hua; Chen, Ying-xu

    2009-03-01

    The inhibitory effect of allelochemicals released by submerged macrophytes on phytoplankton is considered as one of the mechanisms that contribute to the stabilization of clear-water status in shallow lakes. This paper reviewed the research progress in the allelopathy of submerged macrophytes on algae from the aspects of the occurrence frequency and coverage of allelopathically active submerged macrophytes in lakes, and the kinds and allelopathical effects of the allelochemicals released from the macrophytes. The previous researches indicated that allelopathically active submerged macrophyte species such as Myriophyllum, Ceratophyllum, and Elodea were efficient to control phytoplankton, especially when their biomass was high enough, and the dominant algae were sensitive species. The allelochemicals such as hydroxybenzene released by the submerged macrophytes could inhibit the growth of algae. Different phytoplankton species exhibited different sensitivity against allelochemicals, e.g., cyanobacteria and diatom were more sensitive than green algae, while epiphytic species were less sensitive than phytoplankton. Environmental factors such as light, temperature, and nutrients could significantly affect the allelopathical effect of submerged macrophytes. The research of the allelopathy of submerged macrophytes is still at its beginning, and further researches are needed on the effects of environmental factors on the allelopathy, extraction and identification of allelochemicals, selective algal control mechanisms, and metabolism of the allelochmicals.

  11. Strategies for Optimizing Algal Biology for Enhanced Biomass Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, Amanda N.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Sayre, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most environmentally sustainable ways to produce high-energy density (oils) feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source) and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration has also been proposed in the intergovernmental panel on climate change report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass). To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity, it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. These strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to twofold increases in biomass productivity.

  12. Impact of iron porphyrin complexes when hydroprocessing algal HTL biocrude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Jacqueline M.; Sudasinghe, Nilusha M.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Anderson, Daniel B.; Billing, Justin M.; Schaub, Tanner M.

    2016-10-01

    We apply Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) for direct characterization of iron-porphyrins in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) biocrude oils derived from two algae: Tetraselmis sp. and cyanobacteria. The ironporphyrin compounds are shown to cause catalyst bed plugging during hydroprocessing due to iron deposition. Inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) was utilized for iron quantitation in the plugged catalyst beds formed through hydroprocessing of the two HTL biocrudes and identifies an enrichment of iron in the upper five centimeters of the catalyst bed for Tetraselmis sp. (Fe=100,728 ppm) and cyanobacteria (Fe=115,450 ppm). Direct infusion FT-ICR MS analysis of the two HTL biocrudes with optimized instrument conditions facilitates rapid screening and identification of iron-porphyrins without prior chromatographic separation. With FT-ICR MS we identify 138 unique iron-porphyrin compounds in the two HTL biocrudes that are structurally similar to metal-porphyrins (e.g. Ni and V) observed in petroleum. No ironporphyrins are observed in the cyanobacteria HTL biocrude after hydroprocessing, which indicates that iron-porphyrin structures in the HTL biocrude are degraded during hydroprocessing. Hydrodemetallization reactions that occur through hydroprocessing of HTL biocrudes could be responsible for the decomposition of iron-porphyrin structures leading to metal deposition in the catalyst bed that result in catalyst deactivation and bed plugging, and must be addressed for effective upgrading of algal HTL biocrudes.

  13. Inhibition of marine algal photosynthesis by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overnell, J.

    1976-12-03

    A total of ninety phytoplankton species was recorded from June 1972 to May 1973 in samples taken weekly at Seal Beach, California. The study area was located in the vicinity of the mouth of the San Gabriel River, which is used as a site of discharge for heated effluents by two electric power plants and as a flood control channel by Los Angeles County. On a yearly basis, the two dominant algal groups were diatoms (forty-six species) and dinoflagellates (thirty-six species), accounting respectively for 64 percent and 30 percent of the total cell number, and for 20 percent and 79 percent of the total cell volume. The average phytoplankton concentration throughout the year was 180,000 cells l/sup -1/. A dinoflagellate bloom was observed in August between the two major peaks of diatoms which occurred during June--July and in late September. The five most common species (in order), Rhizosolenia delicatula, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Prorocentrum micans, Ceratium furca and Gymnodinium simplex, were present in more than 50 percent of the samples. The species diversity index (H') remained relatively stable during the year, showing no distinct seasonal pattern. Three interconnected associations of species were distinguished by x/sup 2/ analysis. The major group, composed mainly of dinoflagellates, was correlated with warm water conditions at Seal Beach. The other groups occurred at various times during the year, irrespective of seasonal variations, suggesting a possible mutualistic relationship between the species involved.

  14. Hydrogen production from algal biomass via steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Gozde; Uddin, Md Azhar; Yanik, Jale

    2014-08-01

    Algal biomasses were tested as feedstock for steam gasification in a dual-bed microreactor in a two-stage process. Gasification experiments were carried out in absence and presence of catalyst. The catalysts used were 10% Fe₂O₃-90% CeO₂ and red mud (activated and natural forms). Effects of catalysts on tar formation and gasification efficiencies were comparatively investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of algae gasification was dependent on its components and the catalysts used. The main role of the catalyst was reforming of the tar derived from algae pyrolysis, besides enhancing water gas shift reaction. The tar reduction levels were in the range of 80-100% for seaweeds and of 53-70% for microalgae. Fe₂O₃-CeO₂ was found to be the most effective catalyst. The maximum hydrogen yields obtained were 1036 cc/g algae for Fucus serratus, 937 cc/g algae for Laminaria digitata and 413 cc/g algae for Nannochloropsis oculata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aerosol Emissions from Great Lakes Harmful Algal Blooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Nathaniel W. [Department; Olson, Nicole E. [Department; Panas, Mark [Department; Axson, Jessica L. [Department; Tirella, Peter S. [Department; Kirpes, Rachel M. [Department; Craig, Rebecca L. [Department; Gunsch, Matthew J. [Department; China, Swarup [William; Laskin, Alexander [William; Ault, Andrew P. [Department; Department; Pratt, Kerri A. [Department; Department

    2017-12-20

    In freshwater lakes, harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that impact human health. However, little is known about the chemical species present in lake spray aerosol (LSA) produced from wave-breaking in freshwater HABs. In this study, a laboratory LSA generator produced aerosols from freshwater samples collected from Lake Michigan and Lake Erie during HAB and non-bloom conditions. Particles were analyzed for size and chemical composition by single particle mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy, with three distinct types of LSA identified with varying levels of organic carbon and biological material associated with calcium salts. LSA autofluorescence increases with blue-green algae concentration, showing that organic molecules of biological origin are incorporated in LSA from HABs. The number fraction of LSA with biological mass spectral markers also increases with particle diameter (greater than 0.5 μm), showing that HABs have size-dependent impacts on aerosol composition. The highest number fraction of LSA enriched in organic carbon were observed in particles less than 0.5 μm in diameter. Understanding the transfer of organic and biogenic material from freshwater to the atmosphere via LSA particles is crucial for determining health and climate effects due to HABs.

  16. Algal ancestor of land plants was preadapted for symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Radhakrishnan, Guru V; Jayaraman, Dhileepkumar; Cheema, Jitender; Malbreil, Mathilde; Volkening, Jeremy D; Sekimoto, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Melkonian, Michael; Pokorny, Lisa; Rothfels, Carl J; Sederoff, Heike Winter; Stevenson, Dennis W; Surek, Barbara; Zhang, Yong; Sussman, Michael R; Dunand, Christophe; Morris, Richard J; Roux, Christophe; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Ané, Jean-Michel

    2015-10-27

    Colonization of land by plants was a major transition on Earth, but the developmental and genetic innovations required for this transition remain unknown. Physiological studies and the fossil record strongly suggest that the ability of the first land plants to form symbiotic associations with beneficial fungi was one of these critical innovations. In angiosperms, genes required for the perception and transduction of diffusible fungal signals for root colonization and for nutrient exchange have been characterized. However, the origin of these genes and their potential correlation with land colonization remain elusive. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of 259 transcriptomes and 10 green algal and basal land plant genomes, coupled with the characterization of the evolutionary path leading to the appearance of a key regulator, a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, showed that the symbiotic signaling pathway predated the first land plants. In contrast, downstream genes required for root colonization and their specific expression pattern probably appeared subsequent to the colonization of land. We conclude that the most recent common ancestor of extant land plants and green algae was preadapted for symbiotic associations. Subsequent improvement of this precursor stage in early land plants through rounds of gene duplication led to the acquisition of additional pathways and the ability to form a fully functional arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  17. Pleistocene changes in the fauna and flora of South america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, B S

    1971-08-27

    In recent years, the view that Pleistocene climatic events played a major role in the evolution of the biotas of southern, primarily tropical continents has begun to displace the previously held conviction that these areas remained relatively stable during the Quaternary. Studies of speciation patterns of high Andean plant and avian taxa (7-14) have led to the conclusion that Pleistocene climatic events were the factors that ultimately shaped the patterns now observed in the paramo-puna and the related Patagonian flora and fauna. The final uplift of the Andes at the end of the Tertiary automatically limits the age of the high Andean habitats and their biotas to the Quaternary. Within this period, the number of ecological fluctuations caused by the glaciations could easily have provided the mechanism behind the patterns now present in these habitats (Appendix, 1; Figs. 1 and 2; Table 1). In glacial periods, when vegetation belts, were lowered, organisms in the paramo-puna habitat were allowed to expand their ranges. In interglacial periods, these taxa were isolated on disjunct peaks, where differentiation could occur. At times of ice expansion, glacial tongues and lakes provided local barriers to gene exchange, whereas in warm, interglacial times, dry river valleys were a major deterrent to the interbreeding of populations on different mountains (Fig. 2; Table 2). A preliminary analysis of about 10 to 12 percent of the total South American avifauna (14), subsequent to the study of the high Andean biota, suggested that the birds of all the major habitats of the continent possess, with about equal frequency, similar stages of speciation. This correspondence in levels of evolution indicated that the avifauna of vegetation zones which were thought to have been more stable (for example, tropical rainforests) are as actively speciating as are those of the more recent paramo-puna habitats. More intensive work on lowland tropical taxa (16, 19-21) and recent work on montane

  18. Phytogeography of the vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal (Andes, Venezuela) and its ties to other páramo floras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuello, N.L.; Cleef, A.M.; Aymard, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ramal de Guaramacal is an outlier and lower elevation mountain range located at the northeastern end of the Venezuelan Andes. Phytogeographical patterns and affinities of the low altitude and wet vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal, have been studied with emphasis in to the analysis of the

  19. Late Carboniferous and Early Permian algal microflora (Liuzhou, South China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chun (Nanjing Inst. of Geology and Paleontology, Nanjing (China)); Mamet, B. (Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada))

    1993-03-01

    Paleozoic algae are important contributors to the formation of carbonate sediments. A study was conducted to compare an Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian carbonate succession of South China with what is generally observed in the Tethys Sea and North America. The sequence studied was in the Maping Limestone at the Loutishan section in Liuzhou, with some additional information derived from the Maping Limestone at Shangxinping and from the Chuanshan Limestone at Yuhuangshan and in the Nanjing Hills. In the Late Carboniferous, the beresellid algae are important builders and the Tubiphytes-Archaeolithophyllum community is locally replaced by a Tubiphytes-Ungdarella association. Early Permian oncolites were formed by complex Osagia, then by Esmerella. The Asselian Sphaeroschwagerina fauna is underlined by the outburst of epimastoporid dasycladales and phylloid Anchicodiaceae. Microcodium is observed at the contact of the Sphaeroschwagerina moelleri/sphaerica Zones. The overlying and paraconformable Chihsia Limestone is characterized by a Gymnocodium-Gyroporella-Mizzia flora. In most cases, the base of the fusulinid zones, therefore, coincides with an important local floristic change. 72 refs., 4 figs.

  20. NOTES ON THE PALM FLORA OF CENTRAL SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dransfield

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In July and August 1972, I spent five weeks on an expedition to study rattans and other palms in the provinces of Jambi and West Sumatra. This central area of Sumatra was chosen because expeditions have already been made to South Sumatra in February 1971 and March 1972 and to North Sumatra and Aceh with the Kyoto University Expedition in August 1971, and therefore collections made in this central area would link up collections from the south and north and would hence add considerably to our knowledge of the palm flora of this rich island. After advice from the Department of Nature Conservation in Jambi and from Dr. M. Jacobs in Rijksherbarium (Leiden had been considered, it was decided to work westwards from Berbak Nature Reserve on the east coast near Nipah Panjang, to the Bukit Barisan, the main range of Sumatra, to Gunung Kerinci Nature Reserve and G. Tujuh near Sungai Penuh and from there, across the western part of the Bukit Barisan to Padang and Bukittinggi. From Bukittinggi it was planned to visit the Kafflesia arnoldii Nature Reserve at Batang Palupuh, and then return to Jambi by way of Muara Tebo and Muara Tembesi, where reputedly there still exists lowland forest. By more or less confining our collecting activities to the normally neglected Palmae it was hoped that within the time available a large area could be covered reasonably, and a palm transect for central Sumatra made. Two assistants from Bogor accompanied me to help in the difficult task of collecting rattans: Dedy Darnaedi (Herbarium Bogoriense and Abdul Hanan (Kebun Raya. These assistants were also given individual collecting assignments as part of a scheme for training assistants in field botany. Dedy was to collect Pteridophyta and Hanan to collect material for growing in the Kebun Raya. Soetrisno Soewoko, head of Nature Conservation in Jambi accompanied us throughout tha expedition.